Sample records for ethanolic seed extract

  1. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    PubMed

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction of sunflower seed oil with CO 2 -ethanol mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María José Cocero; Lourdes Calvo

    1996-01-01

    The effect of ethanol addition to supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), up to 20%, on sunflower seed oil extraction over the range of 150 to 350 bars and 42 to 80C was studied. A nonrecirculating\\u000a home-made bench-scale system was used as extraction equipment. The oil-SC-CO2-ethanol mixture was reduced to atmospheric pressure in a test tube, where two phases, oil and ethanol,

  3. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. PMID:25151455

  4. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

  5. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

  6. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

  7. Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2013-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. ?-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes. PMID:23742045

  8. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

  9. Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

  10. Reproductive toxicity of Momordica charantia ethanol seed extracts in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Ploypattarapinyo, Ravicha; Pongchairerk, Urai; Thong-asa, Wachiryah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Momordica charantia (M. charantia) seed has been supposed to have an antifertility property but mechanisms underlying the infertility effect have not been investigated. Objective: We investigated the antifertility effect of M. charantia ethanol seed extracts on reproductive toxicology and seminal and plasma testosterone in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The control group (I) was provided daily 1 ml dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the experimental groups II and III were given daily 400 and 800 mg dry matter/kg body weight of the extracts dissolved in 1 ml DMSO via the esophageal route. All groups were administered for 42 days (day 42). Changes in body weight, fertility, reproductive characteristics, testicular histopathology and levels of seminal and plasma testosterone among three groups were compared. Results: On day 42, the extracts caused antifertility (p=0.001). The extracts demonstrated significant reductions in diameters of seminiferous tubules and epididymides, spermatid density, daily sperm production and caudal epididymal spermatozoa, sperm motility and viability (p=0.046). Pathological changes in seminiferous tubules revealed atrophy, desquamation, pyknosis nucleus and multinucleated giant cell. Plasma cells were evident in three parts of epididymides of rats treated with high dose of the extract. Furthermore, the high dose of the extract suppressed seminal testosterone level (p=0.001) and plasma testosterone level (p=0.002). Conclusion: Our data showed that high dose of M. Charantia seed extracts caused infertility in male rats. The interruption in their fertility was probably attributed to the direct toxic to seminiferous tubules, epididymis and the lowered testosterone level which might impact on sperm parameters. PMID:25469128

  11. Crude ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola seeds Heckel (Guttiferae) prolong the lag phase of Helicobacter pylori: inhibitory and bactericidal potential.

    PubMed

    Njume, Collise; Afolayan, Anthony J; Clarke, Anna M; Ndip, Roland N

    2011-01-01

    Problems associated with current treatment regimens have generated a considerable interest in alternative approaches for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infections using phytochemical compounds. In an attempt to identify potential sources of such compounds, the antimicrobial activity of five solvent extracts of Garcinia kola seeds were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori and a standard control strain, NCTC 11638, using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the extracts tested exhibited anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 25 mm. The ethanol extract demonstrated considerable anti-H. pylori activity with a percentage susceptibility of 53.3% and minimum inhibitory concentration for 50% susceptibility (MIC??) values ranging from 0.63 to 5.0 mg/mL. Ranges of MIC?? values for amoxicillin and metronidazole were 0.01-0.63 mg/mL and 0.04-5.0 mg/mL, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract was similar to that of metronidazole (P?>?.05) as opposed to amoxicillin (P?extract caused a 12-hour extension of the lag phase of H. pylori at 1.25 mg/mL. The same observations were recorded when this concentration was doubled and quadrupled alongside a killing rate of 80.1% and 93.7%, respectively, after 24 hours and of 100% after 30 hours. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extract of G. kola may contain therapeutically useful compounds against H. pylori. PMID:21476930

  12. Vitis vinifera (Muscat Variety) Seed Ethanolic Extract Preserves Activity Levels of Enzymes and Histology of the Liver in Adult Male Rats with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eswar Kumar, Kilari; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500?mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600??g/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes.

  13. Co-administration of sodium arsenite and ethanol: Protection by aqueous extract of Aframomum longiscapum seeds

    PubMed Central

    Owumi, Solomon E.; Odunola, Oyeronke A.; Aliyu, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human exposure to arsenicals, its toxicity, subsequent adverse effects on health has been widely reported and implicated in the etiology of several cancers. Objectives: We investigated the effect of Aframomum longiscapum (AL) extracts on sodium arsenite (SA) and ethanol (EtOH)-induced toxicities in rats. Materials and Methods: Male rats were fed SA, EtOH, and SA + EtOH, with or without AL for 5 weeks. Hepatic transaminases were assessed in serum, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCEs) from bone marrow, liver histopathology, and semen quality from caudal epididymis were assessed, respectively, and data were represented as mean ± SD, analyzed by ANOVA. Results: SA, SA + EtOH, and AL alone induced mPCEs formation in rat bone marrow (P < 0.05). A decrease (P < 0.05) in mPCEs in AL + SA + EtOH-treated rats compared with SA, and SA + EtOH was observed. SA and EtOH treatment increased serum hepatic transaminases (P < 0.05) relative to control, while AL treatment resulted in a decrease (P < 0.05). AL, SA, and SA + EtOH treatment decreased sperm count and motility (P < 0.05) with no effect on viability compared with control. Semen morphological abnormalities showed no difference (P > 0.05) across the treated groups. Hepatic histopathology indicated mild mononuclear cellular infiltration in the control group. Necrotic hepatocyte were observed in SA, SA + EtOH treated groups, with no visible lesions seen in the AL treated group. Mild hepatocyte congestion of the portal vessels was observed in AL + SA + EtOH-treated groups. Conclusion: The AL extract exhibited anticlastogenic and hepatoprotective potentials, reduced sperm count, motility, with no effect on viability and morphology. Our findings suggest that AL may mitigate the effect of arsenicals-induced clastogenicity implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:22923953

  14. Ethanol Extract of Lepidium apetalum Seed Elicits Contractile Response and Attenuates Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Secretion in Beating Rabbit Atria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Hye Yoom; Lee, Yun Jung; Cui, Hao Zhen; Jang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Ho Sub

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Lepidium apetalum Willdenow (called “Tinglizi” in China and “Jungryukza” in Korea) have been used to discharge phlegm and improve dropsy in Oriental medicine. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract of the seeds of Lepidium apetalum (ELA) on atrial dynamics and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion in beating rabbit atria. ELA increased atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, and cAMP efflux, concomitantly attenuating ANP secretion in a dose-dependent manner. ELA-induced increases in atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, and cAMP levels and decrease in ANP secretion were not inhibited by pretreatment with staurosporine, a nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor, or diltiazem and verapamil, the L-type Ca2+ channel blockers, respectively. Helveticoside, a well-known digitalis-like cardiac glycosidic constituent of ELA, also increased atrial dynamics, including stroke volume and pulse pressure, without changing cAMP efflux and ANP secretion, and the effects of helveticoside were not inhibited by pretreatment with staurosporine, diltiazem, and verapamil. These results suggest that the ELA-induced positive inotropic activity in beating rabbit atria might, at least partly, be due to the digitalis-like activity of helveticoside rather than an increase in cAMP efflux. PMID:24288558

  15. Anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract of Bryonia laciniosa seeds and its saponins rich fraction in neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sandip B.; Santani, Devdas; Patel, Veena; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. Aim: This study evaluated the anti-diabetic action of the ethanol extract of B. laciniosa seeds and saponin fraction of it through its effect on hyperglycemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in neonatally streptozotocin (n-STZ)-induced diabetic rats (n-STZ diabetic rats). Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.), saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.) and standard drug glibenclamide (3 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats when the rats were 6 weeks old and continued for 10 consecutive weeks. Effects of ethanol extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Results: The treatment with ethanol extract and saponin fraction for 10 weeks decrease in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, serum urea, serum creatinine and diminished activities of aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. The anti-hyperglycemic nature of B. laciniosa is probably brought about by the extra- the pancreatic mechanism as evidenced from unchanged levels of plasma insulin. B. laciniosa modulated effect of diabetes on the liver malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity. Administration of ethanol extract and saponin fraction to diabetic rats showed a significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status. Significant increase in SOD, CAT, and levels of GSH was observed in treated n-STZ diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of n-STZ diabetic rats. PMID:25598641

  16. EXTRACTION OF LIPID COMPONENTS FROM HIBISCUS SEEDS BY SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE AND ETHANOL MIXTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extr...

  17. Evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Ammi majus seeds in albino rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Asaad, Gihan F; Megahed, Hoda A; Zahran, Hanan; Arbid, Mahmoud S

    2012-06-01

    Pharmacological and biochemical studies on the Ammi majus seeds L. (family Umbelliferae) grown in Egypt are limited. Furocoumarins are the major constituents in the plant seeds. In the present study, the evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities on albino rats and mice was done. After 2 months of administration, both the doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight [bwt], respectively) of the alcoholic extract of the A. majus seed result in a significant decrease in the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein and increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein. The extract was found to inhibit the rat paw edema at both the doses, which means that it exerts a significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with control-untreated groups at the intervals of 30 and 60 minutes posttreatment. The antipyretic effect of the extract was quite obvious; it showed that 100 mg/kg bwt was more potent in lowering body temperature starting after 1 hour of treatment than the lower dose (50 mg/kg bwt). It is worth to mention that the A. majus extract with its coumarin contents as well as the tested biological activities of the plant was investigated for the first time in the current study. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of the A. majus seeds had antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities that are dose dependant. PMID:22550046

  18. Antidepressant effect and categorization of inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase type A and B of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Raheela; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Ahmed, Maryam; Kamil, Arfa

    2014-09-01

    Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn (Fabaceae) is an annual aromatic herb and no wit is cultivated globally like in Pakistan, Egypt, India, Middle East etc. Traditionally it was used in anorexia, as febrifuge, to soothe gastritis and gastric ulcers, as a galactagogue and as condiment, hypoglycemic agent and employed in various as nervous disorders. The study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum and underlying mechanism of action. For assessment of antidepressant activity Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), Monoamine (MAO) Assay and Locomotor Activity Test were studied. Acute toxicity, Rota Rod and Grip Strength Tests were also performed. The significant declining in immobility time as compared to control was shown in Forced swimming test as compared to tail suspension test. Considerable change was not found in open field test (OFT). EtOH extract of seeds of fenugreek represent maximum significant reduction which was 30 and 24.65% in MAO- A and B activity respectively in the rat's whole brain as compared to control animals in Monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay. All tested doses were found ineffective in impairment of muscle coordination in Rota rod and in grip strength related to muscle relaxant property. According to experimental findings it is revealed that ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum showed antidepressant effect by inhibiting the activity of MAO-A and B. PMID:25176235

  19. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Extract Common Name: grape seed extract Latin Name: Vitis vinifera grapes.jpg © Steven Foster On this page: What ... naturaldatabase.com on June 25, 2009. Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed ...

  20. Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Nwozo, S.O.; Amah, G.H.; Awoyinka, A.O.; Ojo, O.A; Ajiboye, B.O.; Tijani, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is vulnerable to alcohol-related injury because it is the primary site of alcohol metabolism. Additionally, a number of potentially dangerous by-products are generated as alcohol is broken down in the liver. However, dietary supplements may prevent or relieve some of alcohol's deleterious effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ethanol, pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Sesamum indicum, (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 28 days; two hours before, simultaneously with or two hours after ethanol exposure. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg bw) by oral gavage. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were then determined in the liver, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. The results revealed that ethanol administration led to significant elevation of TBARS level while depleting in the level of GSH as well as CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities. Similarly, TG level and ALT and AST activities were elevated. The SI pre-treated group significantly inhibited TBARS, restored GSH level, enhanced CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities and significantly decreased the elevated level of serum TG, ALT and AST activities. SI treatment (simultaneously with ethanol) exhibited similar effects to those of the SI pre-treated groups, while the SI post-treated group did not show the same protection as the Pre-treated group. S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites of ethanol. PMID:24611106

  1. Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties of ethanolic extracts of defatted borage ( Borago officinalis L.) seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahinda Wettasinghe; Fereidoon Shahidi

    1999-01-01

    Borage meal exerted a concentration-dependent antioxidant activity in a meat model system. At 2% (w\\/w), it inhibited (p?0.05) 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), hexanal and total volatile formation in meat by 26.5, 30.5 and 18.6%, respectively. Antioxidant compounds in the meal were concentrated at optimum extraction conditions (in 52% ethanol at 74°C for 62 min) predicted by response surface methodology (RSM).

  2. Diffusion extraction of rapeseed glucosinolates with ethanolic sodium hydroxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Bhatty; F. W. Sosulski

    1972-01-01

    Glucosinolates are readily diffused from whole rapeseed by repeated extractions with ethanolic sodium hydroxide. Four 2 hr\\u000a extractions or six 1 hr extractions were most efficient for the diffusion of glucosinolates with minimum losses of other seed\\u000a constituents. The ethanolic sodium hydroxide treatment inhibited myrosinase activity and lowered sulfur concentration in the\\u000a oil. The oil from treated seed gave a

  3. Anticancer Potential of Aqueous Ethanol Seed Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Cancer Cell Lines and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Tulika; Khullar, Madhu; Bhatia, Aruna

    2011-01-01

    Ziziphus mauritiana (Lamk.) is a fruit tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases. In the present study, anticancer potential of seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana in vitro against different cell lines (HL-60, Molt-4, HeLa, and normal cell line HGF) by MTT assay as well as in vivo against Ehrich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice was investigated. The extract was found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells. Annexin and PI binding of treated HL-60 cells indicated apoptosis induction by extract in a dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis revealed a prominent increase in sub Go population at concentration of 20??g/ml and above. Agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells after 3 h incubation with extract. The extract also exhibited potent anticancer potential in vivo. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice with varied doses (100-800?mg/kg b.wt.) of plant extract significantly reduced tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and improved haemoglobin content, RBC count, mean survival time, tumor inhibition, and percentage life span. The enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals was evident from decline in levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. PMID:20953391

  4. Grapefruit-seed extract attenuates ethanol-and stress-induced gastric lesions via activation of prostaglandin, nitric oxide and sensory nerve pathways

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Zayachivska, Oxana; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) containing flavonoids, possesses antibacterial and antioxidative properties but whether it influences the gastric defense mechanism and gastroprotection against ethanol- and stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. METHODS: We compared the effects of GSE on gastric mucosal lesions induced in rats by topical application of 100% ethanol or 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) with or without (A) inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity by indomethacin and rofecoxib, the selective COX-2 inhibitor, (B) suppression of NO-synthase with L-NNA (20 mg/kg ip), and (C) inactivation by capsaicin (125 mg/kg sc) of sensory nerves with or without intragastric (ig) pretreatment with GSE applied 30 min prior to ethanol or WRS. One hour after ethanol and 3.5 h after the end of WRS, the number and area of gastric lesions were measured by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance technique and plasma gastrin levels and the gastric mucosal generation of PGE2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as an index of lipid peroxidation were determined. RESULTS: Ethanol and WRS caused gastric lesions accompanied by the significant fall in the GBF and SOD activity and the rise in the mucosal MDA content. Pretreatment with GSE (8-64 mg/kg i g) dose-dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol and WRS; the dose reducing these lesions by 50% (ID50) was 25 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, and this protective effect was similar to that obtained with methyl PGE2 analog (5 ?g/kg i g). GSE significantly raised the GBF, mucosal generation of PGE2, SOD activity and plasma gastrin levels while attenuating MDA content. Inhibition of PGE2 generation with indomethacin or rofecoxib and suppression of NO synthase by L-NNA or capsaicin denervation reversed the GSE-induced protection and the accompanying hyperemia. Co-treatment of exogenous calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) with GSE restored the protection and accompanying hyperemic effects of GSE in rats with capsaicin denervation. CONCLUSION: GSE exerts a potent gastroprotective activity against ethanol and WRS-induced gastric lesions via an increase in endogenous PG generation, suppression of lipid peroxidation and hyperemia possibly mediated by NO and CGRP released from sensory nerves. PMID:16425415

  5. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Minier; G. Goma

    1982-01-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

  6. Alcoholic extraction of vegetable oils. III. Solubilities of babassu, coconut, olive, palm, rapeseed, and sunflower seed oils in aqueous ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rama Kanth Rao; Lionel K. Arnold

    1956-01-01

    Summary  Solubilities of babassu, coconut, olive, palm, rapeseed, and sunflower seed oils in aqueous alcoholic solutions at various\\u000a temperatures were determined by a direct and simple method. Solubility curves for the six oils are presented.\\u000a \\u000a The critical solution temperatures increase with the water content of the alcohol, and in each case the relationship is linear.\\u000a The pressure in the system also

  7. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Minier, M.; Goma, G.

    1982-07-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dedecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used-a pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to 1) increase the interfacial area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, 2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35 degrees C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot-in classical processes-completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion. (Refs. 21).

  8. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Minier, M.; Goma, G.

    1982-07-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory effect of primary aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths shows that no growth is observed in the presence of alcohols which have between 2 and 12 carbons. This effect is suppressed when the carbon number is 12 or higher. A new reactor has been used--a pulsed packed column. Pulsation is performed pneumatically. Porous material used as a package adsorbs the cells. The fermentation broth is pulsed in order to 1) increase the interfacia area between the aqueous phase and the dodecanol, 2) decrease gas holdup. Alcoholic fermentation, performed at 35/sup 0/C on glucose syrup, permits the total utilization of glucose solution of 409 g/L with a yeast which cannot--in classical processes--completely use solutions with 200 g/L of glucose. The feasibility of a new method of fermentation coupling both liquid-liquid extraction and fermentation is demonstrated. Extension of this method is possible to any microbial production inhibited by its metabolite excretion.

  9. Hepatoprotective Activity of Bi-Herbal Ethanolic Extract on CCl4 Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Samudram; Rajeshwari Hari; R. Vasuki; A. Geetha; P. Sathiya Moorthi

    2008-01-01

    The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi- herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE) was evaluated against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Eclipta alba and seeds of Piper longum at a dose level of 50 mg\\/kg body weight was administered orally daily once for 14 days. The substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as

  10. Safflower seed extract lowers plasma and hepatic lipids in rats fed high-cholesterol diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwang-Deog Moon; Seoung-Sook Back; Jun-Han Kim; Seon-Min Jeon; Mi-Kyung Lee; Myung-Sook Choi

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary studies showed that powdered safflower seed lowered the plasma cholesterol concentration in high-fat and high-cholesterol fed rats. These studies were designed to test the hypolipidemic activity of safflower seed extracts prepared with ethanol or hot water. Male rats were fed a high-cholesterol (1%, wt\\/wt) or high-cholesterol diet supplemented with safflower seed powder (5%, wt\\/wt; SSP), safflower seed ethanol extract

  11. Complementary and Comparative Study on Hypoglycemic and Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Extracts of Eugenia jambolana Seed, Momordica charantia Fruits, Gymnema sylvestre , and Trigonella foenum graecum Seeds in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukesh Yadav; Amita Lavania; Radha Tomar; G. B. K. S. Prasad; Shalini Jain; Hariom Yadav

    2010-01-01

    In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol,\\u000a hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and\\/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract

  12. Evaluation of the gastroprotective effect of Laurus nobilis seeds on ethanol induced gastric ulcer in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. U Afifi; E Khalil; S. O Tamimi; A Disi

    1997-01-01

    The possible antiulcerogenic activity of Laurus nobilis seeds was tested on experimentally (ethanol) induced gastric ulcer in rats. The results indicated antiulcerogenic activity for 20 and 40% aqueous extracts as well as for the oily fraction of these seeds. In acute toxicity studies, the aqueous extract was found safe with LD50 compared to oil LD50 0.33 ml\\/kg body weight.

  13. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBP? and PPAR?. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis. PMID:23179316

  14. Screening of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of anise ( Pimpinella anisum L.) seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Münir Oktay; Ekrem K?reçc?; Ö. ?rfan Küfrev?o?lu

    2003-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of water and ethanol extracts of anise (Pimpinella anisum L.) seed (PAS) were investigated. The antioxidant properties of both extracts of PAS were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Twenty ?g\\/ml of water and ethanol extracts exhibited

  15. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  16. Antioxidative activities of water extract and ethanol extract from field horsetail ( tsukushi) Equisetum arvense L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Nagai; Takao Myoda; Toshio Nagashima

    2005-01-01

    Water extract and ethanol extract from top and body portions of field horsetail (tsukushi) were prepared, and the antioxidative activity was investigated using four different methods. The contents of total phenolic components were richer in the ethanol extract fractions of each portion than in the water extracts. On the other hand, protein contents were much lower in ethanol extract fractions

  17. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activity and functional components of the ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) from various growing regions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The variations in antioxidant activity and concentration of functional components in the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes based on the growing region and dryness were investigated. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and concentration of several specific flavonoids and alkaloids in the ethanol extracts of lotus were measured. Antioxidant activity and its correlative total phenolic content varied characteristically depending on the growing region and dryness. High-perfomance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds from Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City), raw rhizomes from Korea (Siheung), and dried rhizomes from Japan (Nigata) had the greatest specific flavonoid content. The ethanol extracts of seeds from China (Hubei), raw rhizomes from Japan (Nigata), and dried rhizomes from Korea (Siheung) had the greatest specific alkaloid content. Astragaline, rutin, isoquercetin, nuciferine, dauricine, isoliensinine, and neferine were identified in lotus rhizomes for the first time in this study. PMID:24932940

  18. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

  19. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by ethanolic mango seed extract in cultured estrogen receptor positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 ?g/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX), p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9) in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione) as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent. PMID:25664859

  20. Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Ethanolic Mango Seed Extract in Cultured Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 ?g/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX), p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9) in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione) as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent. PMID:25664859

  1. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  2. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

    1984-01-01

    The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

  4. Recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds: effect of extraction time and solid–liquid ratio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro A. Casazza; Bahar Aliakbarian; Patrizia Perego

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds, by-products from winemaking industries, using ethanolic solid–liquid extraction. For such a purpose, the combined effects of the extraction time (9, 19 and 29?h) and the solid–liquid ratio (0.10, 0.20 and 0.30?gdw?mL), were investigated (where dw?=?dry waste). Results demonstrated that Pinot Noir seeds had high

  5. Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

    1980-01-01

    Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells. PMID:7378060

  6. Efficacy of Piper guineense (Schum & Thonn) seed extract against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) as influenced by different extraction solvents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elechi F. Asawalam; Steve O. Emosairue; Friday Ekeleme; Roland Wokocha

    2007-01-01

    The seed extract of black pepper Piper guineense Schum & Thonn was evaluated for its biological activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky at 30°C, 65 ± 2% R.H and 12:12-h light:dark regimes in the laboratory. The different solvents used for the extraction were acetone, ethanol, n-hexane, petroleum ether (60:80) and distilled water at 0.3% dosage level. The acetone extract had

  7. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  8. Effect of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) extracts on blood glucose level of normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fathy K. El-Fiky; Mohamed A. Abou-Karam; Elham A. Afify

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic extracts of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) on blood glucose levels both in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Treatment with both extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose level in STZ diabetic rats during the first three hours of treatment. L. aegyptiaca extract decreased blood glucose

  9. Toxicity of neem (Azadirachta Indica) seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents, on the spider chiracanthium mildei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Mansour; K. R. S. Ascher; N. Omari

    1986-01-01

    The toxicity of neem seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents against the predatory spider,Chiracanthium mildei L. Koch, was investigated. The order of toxicity of the 4% extracts was pentane < acetone < ethanol << methanol = water (nontoxic).\\u000a All extracts were nontoxic at 2.5%.

  10. Prevention of Action of Far-Red-Absorbing Phytochrome in Rumex crispus L. Seeds by Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Taylorson, Ray B.

    1984-01-01

    Phytochrome-enhanced germination of curled dock (Rumex crispus L.) seeds is further stimulated by pretreatments in solutions of 0.5 to 2 molar methanol and 0.03 to ? 0.3 molar 2-propanol during a 2-day 20°C imbibition. Similar pretreatments in 0.1 molar ethanol, acetaldehyde, and n-propanol inhibit phytochrome-enhanced germination. If exposure to ethanol is delayed until 16 hours after a red irradiation, seeds escape the ethanol inhibition indicating a mechanism other than toxicity. The rate of escape from ethanol inhibition roughly parallels the escape from phytochrome control in seeds held in water only, indicating possible ethanol effects on phytochrome. It was found that ethanol pretreatment prevents the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome (Pfr) from acting but does not accelerate dark decay or prevent transformation. Ethanol inhibition may be prevented if ethanol pretreatment is at 10°C instead of 20°C, or may be overcome by transferring ethanol-pretreated seeds to 10°C in water. Similarly, ethanol inhibition can be overcome by a 2-hour 40°C temperature shift concluding the pretreatment. It is proposed that the ethanol causes perturbations at a membrane which prevent Pfr from acting. PMID:16663401

  11. Phenolic compounds from the edible seeds extract of Chinese Mei ( Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc) and their antimicrobial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daozong Xia; Xiaoqin Wu; Jiayi Shi; Qing Yang; Ying Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Prunus mume seeds have been used as a healthy food and traditional drug in China. The present study investigated the phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract from seeds of P. mume. Total phenolic content was determined as gallic acid equivalents by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The antibacterial activity was measured by a filter paper disc method. Three chlorogenic acid

  12. Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2010-04-01

    In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs. PMID:19904502

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

  14. Antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. ethanolic extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris C. Zampini; Marta A. Vattuone; Maria I. Isla

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata ethanolic extract against 47 strains of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and to identify bioactive compounds. Inhibition of bacterial growth was investigated using agar diffusion, agar macrodilution, broth microdilution and bioautographic methods. Zuccagnia punctata extract was active against all assayed bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia

  15. Antiangiogenesis and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of Pithecellobium jiringa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis plays a critical role in embryonic development and various physiological processes. However, excessive angiogenesis is associated with several pathological conditions including cancer. Pithecellobium jiringa (Jack) Prain is a traditional medicinal plant from the family Leguminosae. It is native to the Southeast Asia, where it has been used traditionally for treatment of various ailments such as hypertension and diabetes. The present work is aimed to study antioxidant and antiangiogenesis activities of P. jiringa ethanol extracts. Methods P. jiringa fruit rinds were extracted with ethanol and 50% ethanol. The antioxidant property was analysed using, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical analysis was performed using thin layer chromatography and colorimetric methods. Then, cell growth inhibition was studied against a panel of human cell lines by MTT test. In vitro inhibition of angiogenesis was studied by the following assays: isolated rat aortic rings cell viability, colony formation, endothelial cell migration, endothelial tube formation on matrigel, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by endothelial cells. In vivo antiangiogenesis effect was studied by utilising fertilised chick embryos assay. The results were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. Results Ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts showed relatively high concentration of total phenolics associated with potent antioxidant activity. The rat aortic rings study conducted showed potent inhibition of the microvessels outgrowth with IC50s 5.27 ± 0.81 ?g/ml (ethanolic) and 4.45 ± 0.63 ?g/ml (50% hydro-ethanolic). Both extracts arrested the growth of human endothelial cells via down-regulation of VEGF expression, leading to inhibition of other angiogenesis cascades including migration of endothelial cells, and formation of capillary network on matrigel matrix. The extracts also inhibited the neovascularisation of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Conclusions P. jiringa extracts inhibit angiogenesis by blocking the VEGF expression thus inhibiting endothelial cells proliferation, migration and differentiation most likely due to presence of the antioxidant phenolics. PMID:23126282

  16. The effect of an ethanol extract derived from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) on bile acid absorption and cholesterol levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Stark, A; Madar, Z

    1993-01-01

    The hypocholesterolaemic properties of an ethanol extract from defatted fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds were investigated. Purification of the crude extract by dialysis produced an isolated component with haemolytic properties. The dialysate was also found to contain saponins demonstrated by thin-layer chromatography. Experiments in vitro employing the everted-sac technique showed that the ethanol extract had the ability to inhibit taurocholate and deoxycholate absorption in a dose-dependent manner. In two separate feeding experiments, hypercholesterolaemic rats were fed on 30 or 50 g ethanol extract/kg for a 4-week period. Reductions in plasma cholesterol levels ranged from 18 to 26% and a tendency for lower concentrations of liver cholesterol was observed. These results indicate that the ethanol extract from fenugreek seeds contained hypocholesterolaemic components which appear to be saponins that interact with bile salts in the digestive tract. PMID:8457534

  17. Cutaneous seeding after ultrasound-guided percutaneous ethanol injection for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Casella, G; Cacopardo, E; Rovere, G; Buda, C A; Cascinu, S; Baldini, V

    2001-01-01

    Cutaneous seeding is a rare complication of interventional ultrasound procedures. We describe a case of needle-track cutaneous seeding of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after sonographically guided percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI). In our case, the seeding might have been related to the type of needle used and the multiple passes required to treat the liver lesion. Despite the risk of needle-track seeding, PEI remains useful in the treatment of HCC. PMID:11424102

  18. Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

    Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

  19. Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa leaf ethanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Marslin; Divya, B.; Mary, Revina Ann; Viji, M. M. Hipolith; Kalaichelvan, V. K.; Palanivel, V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity and acute toxicity of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) leaf ethanolic extract in animal models. Methods Anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was studied on stress induced ulcer animal models. Ranitidine was used as standard. The anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa was evaluated with the help of ulcer area and histopatholgical examination. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and acute toxicity studies of F. religiosa also carried out. Results Results showed that the extract treatments prevented ulcer area and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of 2?000 mg/kg extract did not show any acute toxicity in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis identified the presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of F. religiosa. Conclusions The extract is non-toxic even at relatively high concentrations. The anti-ulcer activity is probably due to the presence of flavanoids. PMID:23836366

  20. Alcoholic extraction of vegetable oils. V. Pilot plant extraction of cottonseed by aqueous ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rama Kanth Rao; Lionel K. Arnold

    1958-01-01

    Summary  Cottonseed flakes were extracted by aqueous ethanol in a countercurrent pilot plant unit to determine the effect of operating\\u000a variables and the optimum operating conditions.\\u000a \\u000a This investigation has shown that direct extraction of cottonseed, using aqueous ethanol as a solvent, is a feasible process\\u000a in the type of equipment developed previously in this laboratory. The optimum operating conditions for the

  1. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of Monechma ciliatum (black mahlab) seed extracts as antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Oshi, Murtada; Mohmmed Abdelkarim, Abdelkarim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Tribes in Nubia Mountains regions of Sudan used Monechma ciliatum seeds for common cold and other chest allergic conditions as a traditional medicine. The aim of this paper is to validate this traditional practice scientifically. Materials and Methods: Monechma ciliatum seeds were screened for major phytochemical groups using standard methods. Different extracts were bioassayed in- vitro for their bioactivity to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Results: Phytochemical screening results showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpens, and anthraquinones. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be sensitive to both water extract with zones of inhibition 22 – 26 mm at concentrations of 50 and 100mg/ml and ethanol extract 17 mm at concentration of 100 mg/ml. The growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae was inhibited by ethanol extract with zones of inhibition equal to 16, 26, and 33 mm at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/ml, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was insensitive to all extracts used. Similarly, all used fungi were found to be insensitive to extracts used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts against microorganisms were ranged from 12.5 to 25 mg/ml. Conclusion: The findings of the current study support the traditional uses of the plant's seed in the therapy of respiratory tract infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:25050266

  2. Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-15

    Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700 ?mol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. PMID:25577085

  3. Comparison of the antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from chaga ( Inonotus obliquus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Sysoeva; L. R. Yumaeva; V. S. Gamayurova; G. K. Ziyatdinova; G. K. Budnikov; F. G. Khalitov

    2010-01-01

    Additional extraction of biologically active compounds from a chaga shred has been carried out after completion of the aqueous\\u000a extraction. The extraction was carried out using ethanol. We have shown that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts\\u000a and their components is higher than that of the aqueous extracts.

  4. In vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Chisté, Renan Campos; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Gomes, Ana; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, José Luís Fontes da Costa; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2011-07-15

    Bixa orellana L. (annatto), from Bixaceae family, is a native plant of tropical America, which accumulates several carotenoids (including bixin and norbixin), terpenoids, tocotrienols and flavonoids with potential antioxidant activity. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated and compared to the bixin standard. Annatto extracts were obtained using solvents with different polarities and their phenolic compounds and bixin levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector. All annatto extracts were able to scavenge all the reactive species tested at the low ?g/mL range, with the exception of superoxide radical. The ethanol:ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate extracts of annatto seeds, which presented the highest levels of hypolaetin and bixin, respectively, were the extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity, although bixin standard presented the lowest IC(50) values. PMID:23140681

  5. Anthocyanins profile, total phenolics and antioxidant activity of black currant ethanolic extracts as influenced by genotype and ethanol concentration.

    PubMed

    Nour, Violeta; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Jakopic, Jerneja

    2013-11-15

    Ethanolic extracts prepared from the fruits of three cultivars of black currant ('Record', 'Blackdown' and 'Ronix') macerated in three concentrations (40%, 60% and 96%) of aqueous ethanol were investigated for their anthocyanins profile, total phenolics and antioxidant activity. Nine individual anthocyanins were detected and quantified by using HPLC-MS in ethanolic extracts of black currants, i.e. delphinidin 3-glucoside, delphinidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, petunidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, peonidin 3-rutinoside, petunidin 3-(6-coumaroyl)-glucoside and cyanidin 3-(6-coumaroyl)-glucoside. The antioxidant activity of the alcoholic extracts was investigated by the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method while the total phenolic content was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The highest anthocyanins content was found in the extracts made in 60% ethanol while total phenolics content was highest at 96% ethanol concentration. The extraction yield of individual anthocyanins was differently influenced by the rise of the ethanolic concentration. Maximum extraction yield of most individual anthocyanins was reached at 60% ethanol concentration except the 3-(6-coumaroyl)-glucoside of cyanidin and petunidin whose maximum extraction occurred at 96% ethanol concentration. PMID:23790874

  6. Antioxidant and Antilipid Peroxidation Potential of Supercritical Fluid Extract and Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Vitex Negundo Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extract and ethanol extract of Vitex negundo Linn. were subjected to the chromatographic evaluation for identification of their constituents. Free radical scavenging activity of both extracts was studied by subjecting them to DPPH assay. IC50 values of ethanol and supercritical fluid extract of Vitex negundo indicate that ethanol extract has stronger reducing potential and ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to the supercritical fluid extract. The in vivo effect of extracts on lipid peroxidation was studied using ethanol induced oxidative stress model in rat. Ingestion of extracts for 14 days exhibited significant reduction in plasma MDA level of stressed animals. Ethanol extract exhibited higher in vivo antilipid peroxidation potential as compared to supercritical fluid extract which correlated well with radical scavenging potential of extract. PMID:22707827

  7. Prevention of aortic lesions and hyperlipidaemia by alfalfa seed extract in cholesterol fed rabbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Dixit; S. C. Joshi; Prabha Jain

    1986-01-01

    Extract of alfalfa seed (ethanolic 50 % v\\/v) prevents the development of plaque formation and hyperlipidaemia in cholesterol\\u000a fed rabbits. It inhibits the elevation of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL-cholesterol and total\\u000a cholesterol\\/phospholipid ratio, while HDL-cholesterol\\/total cholesterol ratio increases, which is associated with a reduced\\u000a incidence of atherosclerosis. Further reduction in total cholesterol and phospholipid contents of liver and

  8. Cellulosic Ethanol Fermentation Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Seeds Cultured by Pretreated Corn Stover Material.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Utilization of lignocellulose materials to replace the pure glucose for preparation of the fermenting yeast seeds could reduce the cost of ethanol fermentation, because a large quantity of glucose is saved in the large-scale seed fermentor series. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1 was cultured using the freshly pretreated corn stover material as the carbon source, and then the culture broth was used as the inoculation seeds after a series of seed transfer and inoculated into the ethanol production fermentor. The results show that the yeast cell growth and ethanol fermentation performance have essentially no difference when the yeast seeds were cultured by glucose, the corn stover hydrolysate liquid, and the pretreated corn stover solids as carbon sources, respectively. Approximately 22 % of the yeast cell culture cost was saved, and the process flow sheet in industrial scale plants was simplified by using the pretreated corn stover for seed culture. The results provided a practical method for materials and operational cost reduction for cellulosic ethanol production. PMID:25604953

  9. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    PubMed Central

    Kamkar Asl, Mina; Nazariborun, Ashraf; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1) Saline, (2-4) Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7) Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9) Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE) in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s). PMID:25050273

  10. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ?-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  11. Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Judith H.; Wernet, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. The technique is not limited to alumina/ethanol and is also demonstrated with an alumina/H2O system. Other ceramic powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(sub pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined.

  12. Antifungal activity in seed coat extracts of woodland plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Warr; Ken Thompson; Martin Kent

    1992-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of four woodland ground flora species (Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Allium ursinum, Digitalis purpurea and Hypericum pulchrum) were tested for antifungal activity using a petriplate technique. Four species of fungi were investigated. The growth of three of these (Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) was not affected by any of the seed coat extracts. The growth of

  13. A high-throughput DNA extraction method for barley seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecka von Post; Lars von Post; Christophe Dayteg; Marie Nilsson; Brian P. Forster; Stine Tuvesson

    2003-01-01

    A non-destructive, quick DNA extraction method for barley seed is described. The method is simple and consists of drilling\\u000a out a sample from the seed, adding sodium hydroxide, heating in a microwave oven and neutralizing with Tris-HCl. The seed\\u000a DNA extract can be used directly for PCR with extra cycles added to the PCR programme compared to PCR programmes used

  14. Production of 16.5% v/v ethanol from seagrass seeds.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Motoharu; Miyoshi, Tatsuo; Kaneniwa, Masaki; Ishihara, Kenji; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Urano, Naoto

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol fermentation on seeds of seagrass Zostera marina was studied. The seeds were collected from the annual plant colony of Z. marina at Hinase Bay, Okayama. The seeds contained 83.5% carbohydrates including 48.1% crude starch on a dry weight basis, which is comparable to cereals such as wheat flour and corns. The seeds were saccharified with glucoamylase (50°C, 96 h) and 103.4 g/l concentration of glucose juice was obtained. The glucose juice was further fermented (23°C-35°C, 15 days) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains NBRC10217(T) and Kyokai 7-go, and ethanol was obtained at a 65.0 g/l (82.3 ml/l) level by monographic double-fermentation and at a 130.4 g/l (165.1 ml/l) level by parallel double-fermentation. Fermented products of seagrass seeds containing such a high ethanol concentration as the present study have potential to be utilized not only for biofuel but also for foods and beverages in the future. Culturing of seagrass seeds as a crop may enable development of a new marine fermentation industry. PMID:24969514

  15. Antioxidant activity of combined ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba and Piper longum Linn.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Vasuki; Hari, Rajeswary; Pandian, Samudram; Arumugam, Geetha

    2011-01-01

    The in-vitro free radical scavenging efficacy of the combined ethanolic Biherbal extract (BHE) from equal quantities of the leaves of Eclipta alba and seeds of Piper longum was investigated. This was compared with its individual preparation of ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba (EAE) and ethanolic extract of Piper longum (PLE). The 1, 1, diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power from BHE, EAE, and PLE were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were also determined. The results revealed that BHE has notable activity in quenching of DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals when compared to its individual preparation of EAE and PLE. The BHE at 1000?g/ml showed maximum scavenging of DPPH (88.75%) super oxide (84.78%) nitric oxide (89.02%) and hydroxyl (82.82%) against the scavenging of EAE and PLE which showed DPPH (81.77%,83.54%) super oxide (79.88 ± 1.84, 80.88 ± 1.44%) nitric-oxide (76.14 ± 1.80, 77.2 ± 1.18%) and hydroxyl (79.86%, 74.64%) radicals respectively at the same concentration. A linear correlation between BHE and reducing power was also observed. The quantitative estimation of the extract revealed the considerable amount of phenols and flavonoids. The results of this study strongly indicate that the BHE has more potent antioxidant potential action than its individual preparation EAE or PLE. PMID:22718673

  16. Microwave-assisted extraction kinetics of terpenes from caraway seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smain Chemat; Hamid Aït-Amar; Ahcène Lagha; D. C. Esveld

    2005-01-01

    The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with microwave-assisted extraction have been studied with respect to microwave power, radiation dose and extraction time in order to obtain the secondary metabolites selectively. Using classical solid–liquid extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were

  17. Immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract of Shirishadi compound

    PubMed Central

    Kajaria, Divya; Tripathi, Jyoti Shankar; Tiwari, Shri Kant; Pandey, Bajrangi Lal

    2013-01-01

    Immunomodulators are substances that helps to regulate the immune system. The basic mechanisms by which the herbs defend the body against infection have two probable ways- one by destroying pathogens and other by enhancing the body immunity. Shirishadi compound is a polyherbal drug used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for the management of allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma etc., The present study was carried out to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of polyherbal compound “Shirishadi” on Swiss albino mice. Cyclophosphamide (CP) induced immunosuppression model was used to assess the activity of drug. CP was given in the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight through i.p route. 500 mg/kg body weight of Shirishadi polyherbal drug was given through oral route. The extent of protection against immunosuppression caused by CP was evaluated after 14 days of drug administration, by estimating hematological parameters and neutrophil adhesion test. Ethanolic extracts of Shirishadi compound showed pronounced immunoprotective activity by increasing the depleted levels of total WBC count and RBC, % Hb, and % neutrophils adhesion. The extract was found to be an effective immunomodulatory agent. PMID:24501532

  18. ALTERATION OF WHEAT FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES BY EXTRACTIVE AND NON-EXTRACTIVE CONTACT WITH ETHANOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of low temperature ethanol to the technical separation of wheat protein and starch alters the functionality of the protein. These changes may arise by extraction or redistribution of soluble components within the flour/batter matrix. This study was conducted to describe changes to ...

  19. Ethanolic extract of Ferula gummosa is cytotoxic against cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

    PubMed

    Gudarzi, Hoda; Salimi, Mona; Irian, Saeed; Amanzadeh, Amir; Mostafapour Kandelous, Hirsa; Azadmanesh, Keyhan; Salimi, Misha

    2015-03-01

    Ferula gummosa Boiss. has medicinal applications in treating a wide range of diseases including cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activities of the seed and gum extracts of F. gummosa as well as to study the effect of the potent extract on the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Our results demonstrated that the ethanolic extract had the lowest IC50 value at 72 h (0.001 ± 1.2 mg/mL) in BHY cells. Moreover, flowcytometry and annexin-V analysis revealed that the ethanolic extract induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in BHY cells at G1/S phase. In addition, colorimetric methods exhibited the highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids in the aqueous and gum extracts (0.12 ± 0.037, 0.01 ± 2.51 mg/g of dry powder). Generally, the results obtained indicate that F. gummosa ethanol extract may contain effective compounds which can be used as a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:25142312

  20. Antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinenesis Linn.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Leena; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Zahid, Hina; Khursheed, Raheela; Shareef, Huma

    2014-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the antidepressant effect of crude ethanolic extract of floral part of Hibiscusrosa sinensis (HRS) at doses 100mg/kg, 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg using three parameters which are forced induced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test(OFT). Flouxetine (15mg/kg, body weight) was used as standard. Significant dose dependent decline in immobility time was observed in all the three doses in FST and TST while in case of OFT none of the dose of HRS exhibited effectual results. To determine MAO"A" and MAO"B" activity HRS extract was used and the results revealed that each dose of this plant exhibited marked effect on MAO"A", while on MAO"B" only 250mg/kg dose was found significant. PMID:25176367

  1. Demonstration of a stabilized alumina/ethanol colloidal dispersion technique for seeding high temperature air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.

    1995-01-01

    Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.

  2. Bioactivity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 ?g/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 ?g/mL) and TH (165.44 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 ?g/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 ?g/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation. PMID:24471075

  3. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Stachys glutinosa L. ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Leporini, Lidia; Menghini, Luigi; Foddai, Marzia; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Chessa, Mario; Tirillini, Bruno; Pintore, Giorgio

    2015-05-01

    Ethanol extracts of Stachys glutinosa L. (Lamiaceae) were investigated for antioxidative properties, as well as antiproliferative action on various cell lines. The antioxidant activities were investigated by ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, ?-carotene/linoleic acid assay, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide (horseradish peroxidase test), superoxide anion scavenging, and hypochlorous acid scavenging (taurine test). The antioxidant activity was reported as IC50 and reveals antioxidant effects. Antiproliferative effects were measured in vitro on three cell lines: HepG2 (human hepatocarcinoma), MCF7 (breast human adenocarcinoma) and C2C12 (mouse myoblast) cell lines by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The ethanol extract induced variations in cell viability on all cell lines tested. At 200 ?g/mL, the effects on cell viability were - 23%, - 27% and - 37%, respectively, for C2C12, MCF7 and HepG2. PMID:25205114

  4. Characterisation of mediterranean grape pomace seed and skin extracts: polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes. PMID:25642834

  5. Extractives of seeds of the meliaceae: Effects on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), Acalymma vittatum (F.), and Artemia salina Leach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Mikolajczak; D. K. Reed

    1987-01-01

    Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds from 22 species of plants of the family Meliaceae from a number of countries were prepared. The extracts were submitted to antifeedant and toxicity bioassays utilizing fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae and striped cucumber beetle [Acalymma vittatum (F.)] (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults. Toxicity tests were also performed with brine shrimp,Anemia salina

  6. Antinociceptive effect of ethanolic extract of Selaginella convoluta in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Selaginella convoluta (Arn.) Spring (Selaginellaceae), commonly known as “jericó”, is a medicinal plant found in northeastern Brazil. S. convoluta is used in folk medicine as an antidepressant, aphrodisiac, diuretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and it is used to combat amenorrhea, coughing and bleeding. This study was performed to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of ethanolic extract from S. convoluta in mice exposed to chemical and thermal models of nociception. Methods Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract was performed. The ethanolic extract from Selaginella convoluta (Sc-EtOH) was examined for its intraperitoneal (i.p.) antinociceptive activity at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight. Acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin injection and hot plate tests were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of Sc-EtOH extract. The rota-rod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Results A preliminary analysis of Sc-EtOH revealed that it contained phenols, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, mice treated with Sc-EtOH (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited reduced writhing (58.46, 75.63 and 82.23%, respectively). Secondly, Sc-EtOH treatment (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the paw licking time in mice during the first phase of the formalin test (by 44.90, 33.33 and 34.16%, respectively), as well as during the second phase of the test (by 86.44, 56.20 and 94.95%, respectively). Additionally, Sc-EtOH treatment at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg increased the latency time in the hot plate test after 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. In addition, Sc-EtOH did not impair motor coordination. Conclusion Overall, these results indicate that Sc-EtOH is effective as an analgesic agent in various pain models. The activity of Sc-EtOH is most likely mediated via the inhibition of peripheral mediators and central inhibitory mechanisms. This study supports previous claims of traditional uses for S. convoluta. PMID:23082856

  7. Antihyperglycemic effect of the alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla on streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kalaivanan, Kalpana; Pugalendi, Kodukkur Vishwanthan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Streptozotocin (STZ) selectively destroys the pancreatic insulin secreting cells, leaving less active cells and resulting in a diabetic state. The present study was designed to investigate the antihyperglycemic effect of the ethanolic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla (SME) in normal and STZ-diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of STZ (40 mg/kg body weight [BW]). Rats with glucose levels > 200 mg/dL were considered diabetic and were divided into 5 groups. Three groups of diabetic animals were orally administered, daily with seed extract at a dosage of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW. One group of STZ rats was treated as diabetic control and the other group was orally administered 600 ?g/kg BW glibenclamide daily. Results: Graded doses of seed extract and glibenclamide showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels and improvement in serum insulin levels. The extract also improved body weight and promoted liver glycogen content. After treatment, hemoglobin (Hb) level increased and glycosylated Hb level significantly decreased in diabetic rats. The activities of the carbohydrate metabolic enzymes showed significant changes in the rats. Of the 3 doses, 100 mg dose showed maximum activity. Histological investigations of pancreas also supported the biochemical findings. Conclusions: Thus, our findings indicate the folklore use of the seed for diabetes and the mechanism seems to be insulin secretion. PMID:21731399

  8. Multimembrane bioreactor for extractive fermentation: ethanol from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, T.

    1987-01-01

    Low product concentration, low volumetric productivity and feedback inhibition have been problems in traditional biological production of fuels and chemicals. Solvent extraction and immobilized cells have been suggested as techniques to solve these problems. However, with solvent extraction, the best solvents are often toxic to cells. The slow diffusion of product and nutrient and disruption of immobilization matrix due to cell growth and/or gas production have been problems with traditional cell immobilization. A multimembrane bioreactor is proposed to circumvent the aforementioned problems. Four layers of its basic unit are separated by membranes. This structure prevents solvent emulsification in the fermentation broth. The system was tested for ethanol production from glucose using yeast. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) was chosen as the extractant. Experiments demonstrate for the first time a successful extractive fermentation with a practical solvent. Prevention of emulsification by immobilizing the solvent inside the pores of a hydrophobic membrane removes the toxic effect of TBP. These experiments also demonstrated that TBP exhibits phase toxicity but not chemical toxicity.

  9. Evaluation of a ruminally dosed tall fescue seed extract as a model for fescue toxicosis in steers.

    PubMed

    Koontz, A F; Bush, L P; Klotz, J L; McLeod, K R; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

    2012-03-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) toxicosis research is often complicated by a reduction in intake of infected forage or seed, making treatment comparisons difficult. This study was conducted to develop a fescue toxicosis model that would allow for variations in DMI without altering the quantity of alkaloids consumed over the course of the experiment. Ground tall fescue seed and a tall fescue seed extract were used in two 2-period crossover experiments to determine the effectiveness of ruminal dosing of a tall fescue seed extract to induce fescue toxicosis. This experiment used 4 growing Holstein steers (BW = 337 ± 24 kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Steers were maintained on a diet of endophyte-free fescue hay fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Endophyte-infected (E+; 4.1 mg/kg of ergovaline) and uninfected (E-; 0.0 mg/kg of ergovaline) KY-31 tall fescue seed was ground and dosed or extracted with ethanol, concentrated, and lyophilized before ruminal dosing. Ergovaline concentration of the final extract was 102 mg/kg. Animals were given a minimum of a 3-wk washout period between treatments. Physiological indicators were measured over 7 d at 22°C (d 1 to 3) and 32°C (d 4 to 7) during both seed and extract dosing. Seed and extract E+ dosing reduced serum prolactin concentrations such that they were not different from zero (P < 0.10). Treatment with E+ reduced feed intake (P < 0.05) and heart rate (P < 0.001), and increased respiration rate (P < 0.01) and core temperature (P < 0.05) during both seed and extract dosing. Increasing environmental temperature from 22 to 32°C reduced total intake (P < 0.05) and increased core temperature (P < 0.001) and respiration rate (P < 0.001) during both seed and extract dosing. Diastolic blood pressure tended (P < 0.09) to be increased during E+ extract dosing and reduced during heat stress. These physiological alterations are consistent with those reported for cattle grazing or consuming seed from endophyte-infected tall fescue. These data indicate that a ruminally dosed ethanol extract of tall fescue seed is efficacious in inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. PMID:22064740

  10. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume.

    PubMed

    Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Tze, Liong Min; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays. In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and tannin contents were also determined. Overall, the methanol extracts of the pod contained high concentration of phenolics and showed high antioxidant capacities compared to seed extracts. In addition, a positive correlation was found between total phenol and tannin versus antioxidant capacity. Results of the present study indicate pods and seeds of C. fairchildiana to possess rich amount of natural antioxidants, and can be further explored for their possible use as a natural additive in food or in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24425949

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES OF MORINGA OLEIFERA ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT

    E-print Network

    Pharm Res; Ugwu Okechukwu Et Al; Ugwu Okechukwu P C; Nwodo Okwesili F C; Joshua Parker E; Bawa Abubakar; Ossai Emmanuel C; Odo Christian E

    Acute toxicity and phytochemical studies of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera were analysed. The phytochemical analyses of the ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaf showed the presence of tannins, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, reducing sugars, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids and alkaloids. Phytochemicals such as resins, proteins and fat oils were not detected. The LD

  12. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  13. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera) seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Jayaprakasha; Tamil Selvi; K. K. Sakariah

    2003-01-01

    Grape seeds were powdered and the fatty material was extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether (60–80 °C) for 6 h. The defatted powder was extracted with acetone:water:acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) and methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) for 8 h each separately. The extracts were concentrated under vacuum to obtain crude extracts, which were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection

  14. Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-hyperlipidemic Effects of Bryonia Laciniosa Seed Extract and its Saponin Fraction in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, SB; Santani, D; Shah, MB; Patel, VS

    2012-01-01

    Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. This investigation was carried out to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract of seeds of B. laciniosa Linn. and its saponin fraction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.) and saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats and standard drug insulin (5 IU/kg; i.p.) to the group serving as a positive control. Effects of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's t-test. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction for 28 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of blood glucose and improved the levels of plasma insulin. The levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, urea, and creatinine were markedly altered in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction restored all these biochemical parameters to near control levels. This study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of diabetes and its associated complications. PMID:23112536

  15. Membrane solvent extraction with hydrophobic microporous hollow fibers and extractive bioreactor development for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, G.T.

    1986-01-01

    A novel tubular fermentor-extractor has been developed which incorporates hydrophobic microporous hollow fiber membranes (HMHF). The hydrophobic nature of the HMHF membranes has been used to carry out two distinct functions: in situ dispersion-free solvent extraction and gas exchange. The HMHF membranes can provide oxygen or locally integrated product recovery throughout the entire reactor volume. In both modes of operation carbon dioxide is continuously removed as it is formed by the fermentation. This novel bioconversion reactor has been utilized to conduct continuous ethanol fermentations utilizing S. cerevisiae (NRRL Y-132) for upwards of 483 hours. Dibutyl phthalate was used as the solvent. No problems related to cell disruption of the membranes were observed. These studies established that it is possible to enhance ethanol productivity by maintaining lower ethanol concentration throughout the reactor, reducing end-product inhibition. Key to the development of the extractive bioconversion reactor was the characterization of the transport processes involved by using a single HMHF membrane to conduct studies of dispersion-free solvent extraction. This enabled a rational preliminary design of the fermentor-extractor to be completed. In addition, an unexpected fiber-fiber interaction has been identified through these studies.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE IN COMMERCIAL GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS), and element...

  17. Cardiovascular effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Pimenta dioica in Sprague-Dawley rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Suárez; Guido Ulate; José F. Ciccio

    1997-01-01

    The hypotensive activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Pimenta dioica and several fractions of the aqueous extract was observed in anaesthetized normotensive rats. General effects of the extracts and fractions were assessed through Hippocratic screening showing a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of the aqueous extract of Pimenta dioica (30, 70, 100 mg\\/kg) produced

  18. Effect of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uma Bhandari; Raman kanojia; K. K. Pillai

    2005-01-01

    The lipid lowering and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (family, Zingiberaceae) was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (200mg\\/kg) fed orally for 20 days produced, significant antihyperglycaemic effect (P<0.01) in diabetic rats. Further, the extract treatment also lowered serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and increased the HDL-cholesterol levels when compared with

  19. Determination of isocytisoside and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract from Aquilegia vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Bylka, W; Go?li?ska, L

    2001-01-01

    The leaves and stems of Aquilegia vulgaris L. yielded an ethanolic extract in which the content of isocytisoside, its main component, was determined by authors' method. The method consisted in chromatographic separation of the extract, elution of the isocytisoside spot and measurement of its absorbance using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The isocytisoside content was 3.00%. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract was also determined. PMID:11693726

  20. Extraction of borage seed oil by compressed CO 2: Effect of extraction parameters and modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiejun Lu; Filipe Gaspar; Ray Marriott; Steve Mellor; Colin Watkinson; Bushra Al-Duri; Jonathan Seville; Regina Santos

    2007-01-01

    The extraction of borage seed oil using compressed CO2 was studied on a pilot plant apparatus with the aim of optimise plant performance and collect data for scale-up purposes. The seeds were pre-treated by flaking them into 0.3mm flake prior to the extraction tests for achieving quantitative recovery of the oil. Effects of extraction pressure (200–300bar) and temperature (10–55°C), solvent

  1. Extraction optimization of a hydrocolloid extract from cress seed ( Lepidium sativum) using response surface methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hojjat Karazhiyan; Seyed M. A. Razavi; Glyn O. Phillips

    2011-01-01

    Extraction conditions for maximum values of yield, viscosity and minimum protein content of hydrocolloid extract from Lepidium sativum seed were investigated using response surface methodology. A Central Composite Face Design (CCFD) with four independent variables: temperature (25–85 °C); pH (3–10); extraction time (10–25 min) and water to seed ratio (10:1–80:1) was used to study the response variables (yield, viscosity and protein content). Data

  2. Protection from antimycin A-induced mitochondrial dysfunction by Nelumbo nucifera seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Im, A-Rang; Kim, Young-Hwa; Uddin, Md Romij; Chae, Seong Wook; Lee, Hye Won; Jung, Woo Suk; Kim, Yun Hee; Kang, Bong Ju; Kim, Yeong Shik; Lee, Mi-Young

    2013-07-01

    Antimycin A (AMA) damages the mitochondria through inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport. In this study, exposure of L6 rat skeletal muscle cells to AMA induced a decrease in ATP content, followed by a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis. We evaluated the protective effects of water and ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds on L6 cells with AMA-induced oxidative stress. We found that the extracts reduced cellular apoptosis; preserved the mitochondrial membrane potential; protected mitochondrial ATP production; inhibited p53, Bax, and caspase 3 activities; and induced Bcl-2 production. Our results suggested that AMA induced apoptosis in L6 cells via impairment of mitochondrial function. N. nucifera extracts protected the cells from this mitochondria-mediated cell death. PMID:23542413

  3. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (?) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32?mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15?mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73??g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51??g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9?µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  4. Insecticidal effects of acetogenins from Rollinia occidentalis seed extract.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, Diego; Alvarez, Colom Olga; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2012-12-01

    From the methanol seed extract of Rollinia occidentalis five acetogenins were isolated, sylvaticin (1), rolliniastatin-1 (2), rolliniastatin-2 (3), motrilin (4) and desacetyluvaricin (5), and evaluated for their toxicity and nutritional alterations on Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). All but one of the compounds produced more than 90% mortality on early larval instars at 50 and 100 microg per g of diet. Sylvaticin caused 15 and 60% mortality at 50 and 100 microg/g, respectively, while the methanol seed extract reached 35 and 50% at 100 and 250 microg/g, respectively. The addition of R. occidentalis methanolic seed extract (100 and 250 microg/g) and sylvaticin (100 microg/g) to the larval diet brought about significant changes to the nutritional indices in connection with larvae fed the control diet. This is the first report on the isolation of acetogenins from R. occidentalis and their insecticidal effects on S. frugiperda. PMID:23413573

  5. Mutagenicity and safety evaluation of ethanolic extract of Prunus mume.

    PubMed

    Lu, Baiyi; Wu, Xiaoqin; Dong, Yuejie; Gong, Jinyan; Zhang, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Prunus mume (EPM) is a novel polyphenol preparation derived from branches (with leaves) of Prunus mume, which could be used as a functional ingredient for antioxidant and antiobesity therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of EPM. An EPM was prepared and evaluated for oral acute and subacute toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats, while its mutagenic potential was assessed by a reverse mutation test using Salmonella typhimurium, by a bone marrow cell micronucleus test using ICR mice, and by a sperm abnormality test using ICR mice. The results showed no acute lethal effects at the maximal tested EPM dose of 20 g/kg bw in either rats or mice, suggesting that EPM can be regarded as virtually nontoxic. Administration at levels of 0.84, 1.67, and 3.33 g/kg bw to rats for 30 d did not induce any significant hematological, clinical, chemical, or histopathological changes. No mutagenicity evidence was detected in any of the 3 mutagenic tests. The level of "no observed adverse effect" (NOAEL) for EPM was above 3.33 g/kg bw for the subacute toxicity study. PMID:20492134

  6. Anti-allergic activity of a platycodon root ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Oh, You-Chang; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Choi, Jang-Gi; Lee, Young-Seob; Brice, Obiang-Obounou; Jung, Hyun Ju; Hong, Seung-Heon; Lee, Young-Mi; Shin, Dong-Won; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

    2010-01-01

    Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae) is used as traditional medicine in Asian countries. In Korean traditional medicine, Platycodon root has been widely used since ancient times as a traditional drug to treat cold, cough and asthma. However, its effects on bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC)-mediated allergy and inflammation mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the biological effect of Platycodon root ethanol extract (PE) was evaluated in BMMC after induction of allergic mediators by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulation. The effect of PE on the production of several allergic mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)), beta-Hexosaminidase (beta-Hex) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, was investigated. The results demonstrate that PE inhibits PMA + A23187 induced production of IL-6, PGD(2), LTC(4), beta-Hexosaminidase and COX-2 protein. Taken together, these results indicate that PE has the potential for use in the treatment of allergy. PMID:20717534

  7. Genotoxic, antigenotoxic and phytochemical assessment of Terminalia actinophylla ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Pádua, P F M R; Dihl, R R; Lehmann, M; de Abreu, B R R; Richter, M F; de Andrade, H H R

    2013-12-01

    Terminalia actinophylla has been used for anti-diarrheic and haemostatic purposes in Brazil. The fly spot data obtained after exposure of marker-heterozygous Drosophila melanogaster larvae to T. actinophylla ethanolic extract (TAE) in the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses revealed that TAE did not induce any statistically significant increment in any spot categories. Differences between the two crosses are related to cytochrome P450 (CYPs) levels. In this sense, our data pointed out the absence of TAE-direct and indirect mutagenic and recombinagenic action in the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART). When the anti-genotoxicity of TAE was analyzed, neither mitomycin C (MMC) nor ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) genotoxicity was modified by the post-exposure to TAE, which suggests that TAE has no effect on the mechanisms involved in the processing of the lesions induced by both genotoxins. In the mwh/flr(3) genotype, co-treatment with TAE may lead to a significant protection against the genotoxicity of MMC and a weak but significant effect in the toxic genetic action of EMS. The overall findings suggested that the favorable modulations by TAE could be, at least in part, due to its antioxidative potential. PMID:24071477

  8. Research Article Pharmaceutical Sciences PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSES OF ETHANOL AND WATER EXTRACTS OF MILLETTIA ABOENSIS,

    E-print Network

    Cuscuta Reflexa; Daniella Oliveri; Synclisia Scabrida; Adonu Cyril C; Ugwueze Mercy E; Ozioko Chizoba A; Key Words

    Phytochemical constituents are responsible for medicinal effects produced by plants. The aim of this study is to evaluate the phytochemical components in ethanol and water extracts of Millettia aboensis, Cuscuta reflexa, Daniella oliveri and Synclisia scabrida. The roots of Millettia aboensis and Synclisia scabrida,aerial parts of Cuscuta reflexa, and leaves of Daniella oliveri were shade dried, pulverized and extracted with alcohol (90 % v/v) and sterile distilled water. The phytochemical analyses of these extracts were carried out using standard procedures. The results of phytochemical analysis of both extracts of Millettia aboensis root show that the aqueous extract contained high amount of saponnins, resins, proteins and amino acid and carbohydrate while ethanolic extract has high amount of flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, and terpenoids. The ethanolic extracts of Cuscuta reflexa, Daniella oliveri and Synclisia scabrida contain copious amount of flavonoids,alkaloids and steroids.

  9. Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts of Propolis on Alpha-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcheng; Wang, Guangxin; Beta, Trust; Dong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of various extracts of propolis on alpha-glucosidase from baker's yeast and mammalian intestine. Inhibitory activities of aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis were determined by using 4-nitrophenyl-D-glucopyranoside, sucrose and maltose as substrates, and acarbose as a positive reference. All extracts were significantly effective in inhibiting ?-glucosidase from baker's yeast and rat intestinal sucrase in comparison with acarbose (P < 0.05). The 75% ethanol extracts of propolis (75% EEP) showed the highest inhibitory effect on ?-glucosidase and sucrase and were a noncompetitive inhibition mode. 50% EEP, 95%, EEP and 100% EEP exhibited a mixed inhibition mode, while water extracts of propolis (WEP) and 25% EEP demonstrated a competitive inhibition mode. Furthermore, WEP presented the highest inhibitory activity against maltase. These results suggest that aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis may be used as nutraceuticals for the regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25767553

  10. Protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by Curcuma comosa Roxb. ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Jariyawat, Surawat; Kigpituck, Pranida; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Chuncharunee, Aporn; Chaovanalikit, Arusa; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

    2009-10-01

    The protective effect of an ethanol extract of Curcuma comosa against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in mice was studied. Adult male mice were pretreated for 4 days with the ethanol extract of C. comosa [100-200 mg/kg body weight (BW), orally (p.o.)] before injection of cisplatin (12.5 mg/kg BW, intraperitoneally (i.p.)). Five days later the mice were killed, and blood samples were collected to determine blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma creatinine levels. Kidneys were examined histopathologically and levels of lipid peroxidation, gluthathione (GSH) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), gluthathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined. Histological examinations revealed degenerative changes and tubular necrosis in mice treated with cisplatin, which were improved by pretreatment with C. comosa ethanol extract. Cisplatin raised BUN, creatinine, and kidney lipid peroxidation levels, and lowered kidney GSH content and levels of GPx, SOD, and CAT activities, all of which (except SOD and CAT) could be restored to normal values by pretreatment with 200 mg/kg BW of C. comosa ethanol extract. In addition, the ethanol extract of C. comosa and its isolated diarylheptanoid compound also exhibited radical scavenging activities. The results suggest that the ethanol extract of C. comosa exhibits effective protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity mediated through its antioxidant activity. PMID:19536611

  11. Mathematical modeling of sunflower seed extraction by supercritical COâ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Perrut; J. Y. Clavier; M. Poletto; E. Reverchon

    1997-01-01

    Extraction of oil from crushed sunflower seeds with supercritical COâ was performed at 280 bar and 40 C on a laboratory apparatus of 0.15 à 10⁻³ m³ volume and on a pilot plant of 1.5 à 10⁻³ m³ volume. COâ flow rate ranged between 5 and 45 kg\\/h. To study the influence of the vegetable matrix on the extraction rate,

  12. Effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Cassia auriculata L. flowers on diabetes using alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Lukmanul Hakkim; S Girija; R Senthil Kumar

    2007-01-01

    In the present study the antidiabetic potential of aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia auriculata L. flowers was assessed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity were made in these extracts. Antidiabetic agents (Flavonoids and phenolic acids) and free radical scavenging activity in water-soluble fraction of the ethanol extract was higher compared to that of aqueous extract.

  13. Extraction and utilization of breadfruit seed oil ( Treculia africana)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. E. Ajiwe; C. A. Okeke; H. U. Agbo

    1995-01-01

    Oil was extracted from crushed breadfruit (Treculia africana) seeds by Soxhlet. The yield of the oil was 20·83 ± 0·57%. Tests showed the oil to be a semi-drying oil which is unsaturated, with a high saponification value, acidic and requires purification. The oil could be used for making soap, hair shampoo and alkyd resin.

  14. Extraction of proteins from pennycress seeds and press cake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to more fully utilize pennycress, a potentially viable bio-diesel source, the proteinaceous components were extracted from pennycress seed and press cake. The amino acid composition of the proteins present in pennycress was typical for proteins derived from plants, with glycine, glutamic ac...

  15. Fatty acid composition of oils extracted from Canadian weed seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Daun; R. Tkachuk

    1976-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of the diethyl ether extract from nine varieties of Canadian weed seeds is reported. Fatty acid\\u000a compositions forRumex pseudonatronatus L. Borbus,Setaria viridis L. Beauv., andChenopodium album L. have not been previously reported.

  16. Separation and purification of both tea seed polysaccharide and saponin from camellia cake extract using macroporous resin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pengjie; Zhou, Mingda; Zhou, Chengyun; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Fangfang; Chen, Jian

    2015-02-01

    A novel method to separate and purify tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake extract by macroporous resin was developed. Among four kinds of resins (AB-8, NKA-9, XDA-6, and D4020) tested, AB-8 macroporous resin possessed optimal separating capacity for the two substances and thus was selected for the separation, in which deionized water was used to elute tea seed polysaccharide, 0.25% NaOH solution to remove the undesired pigments, and 90% ethanol to elute tea seed saponin. Further dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments on AB-8 resin-based column chromatography were conducted to obtain the optimal parameters. Under optimal dynamic adsorption and desorption conditions, 18.7 and 11.8% yield of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin were obtained with purities of 89.2 and 96.0%, respectively. The developed method provides a potential approach for the large-scale production of tea seed polysaccharide and tea seed saponin from camellia cake. PMID:25491912

  17. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents. PMID:25183127

  18. APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN METHOD FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION OF SUNFLOWER SEED HULL HYDROLYSATE USING PICHIA STIPITIS NRRL-124

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odonchimeg Jargalsaikhan; Nurdan Saraço?lu

    2008-01-01

    The lignocellulosic hydrolysates provide a rich medium for fermentation of sugars into ethanol. The potential use of sunflower seed hull hemicellulose hydrolysate in ethanol fermentation was evaluated by using the Experimental Design method in this study. A 2 Box-Wilson experimental design was used to develop a statistical model. The effects of shaking rate (55–145 rpm) and initial pH (4.6–7.4) on the

  19. Optimization of the Ethanol Recycling Reflux Extraction Process for Saponins Using a Design Space Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79–82%, extraction time of 6.1–7.1 h, and RES of 0.039–0.040 min?1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met. PMID:25470598

  20. Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous extraction process: Feasibility

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous the feasibility of an aqueous process to extract sunflower seed oil using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder rates of sunflower seeds and water. Liquid/solid separation required the addition of a lignocellulosic

  1. The protective action of ethanolic ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in cholesterol fed rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, U; Sharma, J N; Zafar, R

    1998-06-01

    The effects of ethanolic extract of ginger (200 mg/kg, p.o.) were studied in cholesterol fed rabbits. The marked rise in serum and tissue cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum lipoproteins and phospholipids that followed 10 weeks of cholesterol feeding, was significantly reduced by the ethanolic ginger extract and results were compared with gemfibrozil, a standard orally effective hypolipidaemic drug. The severity of aortic atherosclerosis as judged by gross grading was more marked in pathogenic, i.e. the hypercholesterolemic group, while animals receiving ginger extract along with cholesterol showed a lower degree of atherosclerosis. The results indicate that ginger is definitely an antihyperlipidaemic agent. PMID:9683348

  2. Nutrional value and antinutritional components of whole and ethanol extracted Moringa oleifera leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. S. Makkar; K. Becker

    1996-01-01

    Chemical constituents, organic matter digestibility, gross and metabolizable energy, rumen degradable and undegradable nitrogen, amino acid composition, digestion kinetics (leaves, their neutral-detergent fiber and cell solubles), and antinutritional factors were determined in extracted (80% aqueous ethanol; the extract is used as a source of growth promoting factors) and unextracted Moringa oleifera leaves. The metabolizable energy and organic matter digestibility predicted

  3. Wheat proteins extracted from flour and batter with aqueous ethanol at subambient temperatures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contact of wheat flour proteins with aqueous ethanol may enrich protein by starch displacement and/or deplete protein by extraction depending (1) on the concentration and temperature of the applied solvent and (2) the form of the contacted substrate. Generally, extraction at sub-ambient temperatures...

  4. Gastroprotective and antioxidant activities of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on absolute ethanol- induced ulcer in albino rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Shokunbi; A. A. Odetola

    This study was designed to evaluate the gastroprotective and antioxidant effects of aqueous and acetone extracts of Phyllanthus amarus leaves in albino rats. P. amarus extracts (500 and 1000 mg\\/Kg) as well as cimetidine (100 mg\\/Kg) was administered orally once a day for two weeks before challenge with absolute ethanol (1 ml\\/ 200 g body wt). Pretreatment with P. amarus

  5. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agbafor KN; Akubugwo EI

    Hypocholesterolaemic effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) was investigated using albino rats. Hypercholesterolaemia was induced in the animals by feeding with egg yolk fortified diet for 14 days. The plant extract was administered orally to two groups, doses of 200 and 100 mg\\/kg body weight respectively for 7 days. Physical activities, food and water intake

  6. Sorghum Protein Extraction by Sonication and Its Relationship to Ethanol Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research were to develop a rapid method for extracting proteins from mashed and non-mashed sorghum meal using sonication (ultrasound), and to determine the relationships between the levels of extractable proteins and ethanol fermentation. Nine grain sorghum samples with a bro...

  7. Evaluation of extractive contact units for oil extraction from dehulled sunflower seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Tranchino; F. Melle

    1984-01-01

    The efficiency of an extractive system generally depends on kinetic, thermodynamic and technological parameters. Each of these\\u000a factors affects the extractive effectiveness, although the overall result depends on their interaction. In the present work\\u000a this interaction is analyzed for oil extraction from dehulled sunflower seed. Experiments on laboratory scale were made to\\u000a calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the

  8. In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 ?g/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal. PMID:21031260

  9. Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96%?v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Results Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30?days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Conclusions Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue. PMID:24761774

  10. Biocide activity of Annona coriacea seeds extract on Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Carneirol, Angela Pinheiro; Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa; Galbiati, Carla

    2013-03-01

    The use of synthetic insecticides for insect control may lead to different kind of problems, such as vector resistance to insecticides. To avoid these problems, a new research area to study botanical products as possible disease vectors controls, has become a feasible alternative. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biocide activity of the ethanol extract of seeds of Annona coriacea on Rhodnius neglectus (Chagas disease vector) nymphs and adults. For this, different concentrations extracts were evaluated: 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/ mL, and water in DMSO (20%) was used as control. The experimental design was completely randomized and we conducted the bioassay with nymphs and adults, with 10 nymphs and 10 adults (five males and five females) per treatment. Extract action was evaluated in both bioassays, in order to identify possible effects of mortality and life cycle interruption of nymphs and adults during a 28-day-period. The results obtained showed that the extract of A. coriacea was able to disrupt the development of nymphs and adults of R. neglectus, with a mortality rate of more than 90%, 36% and 100%, at the highest concentrations, respectively. There was also molting inhibition in nymphs, lower reproductive capacity in females, feeding deterrence and morphological changes in nymphs and adults. We concluded that the extract of A. coriacea has insecticide action on nymphs and adults of R. neglectus. PMID:23894992

  11. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  12. Fermentation of Aqueous Plant Seed Extracts by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Schaffner, Donald W.; Beuchat, Larry R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72-h period at 37°C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. PMID:16347053

  13. Feasibility of incorporating cotton seed extract in Clostridium strain P11 fermentation medium during synthesis gas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kundiyana, Dimple K; Huhnke, Raymond L; Maddipati, Prasanth; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R

    2010-12-01

    Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. To make this process more economical, the complexity of media should be reduced while using less costly components. In this study, the feasibility of incorporating cotton seed extract (CSE) as a media component for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was evaluated. A factorial experiment was conducted to screen and evaluate the effect of different media components, in relation to CSE, on ethanol production. Also, different CSE concentrations as well as the presence of MES buffer were tested to determine their effect on ethanol production. Bottle fermentations with media containing only 1.0 gL(-1) CSE produced more ethanol after 15 d (1.17 gL(-1)) than fermentation using any other media. Further bottle experiments showed that media containing only 0.5 gL(-1) CSE produced more ethanol after 15 days (2.67 gL(-1)) than a control media (0.6 gL(-1)) and media containing only 1.0 gL(-1) CSE (2.16 gL(-1)). Fermentations in 5- and 7.5-L stirred fermentors with 0.5 gL(-1) CSE media achieved ethanol concentrations similar to those observed in bottle studies. These results indicate that CSE can replace all the vitamin and mineral media components generally used for fermentation of syngas to ethanol by Clostridium strain P11, thereby improving the process economics. PMID:20696571

  14. Enhanced germination of artificial seeds by marine cynobacterial extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hitoshi Wake; Akinobu Akasaka; Hironori Umetsu; Yoshihiro Ozeki; Koichiro Shimomura; Tadashi Matsunaga

    1992-01-01

    We have developed an improved artificial seed system by using a hot-water extract from a marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. NKBG 042902. Carrot somatic embryos (Daucus carota L.) were divided into two size categories (> 800 µm and 425–800 µm). High frequency germination (91%) was obtained using the large somatic embryos encapsulated in calcium alginate gel containing 400 mg 1-1 of

  15. Modeling of Supercritical Fluid Extraction from Hippophae rhamnoides L. seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianzhong Yin; Xianwen Sun; Xinwei Ding; Hanhua Liang

    2003-01-01

    Modeling of supercritical CO2 extraction of Hippophae rhamnoides L. seed oil was studied at 15 to 30 MPa and 30 to 45°C. Four mean Hippophae rhamnoides L. particle sizes raging from 0.4 to 1.0 mm were tested. CO2 flow rate ranged between 0.05 and 0.2 m h. A new method that can be used for the simulation of SCFE process

  16. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  17. In Vivo Antioxidant and Antiulcer Activity of Parkia speciosa Ethanolic Leaf Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mazen M.; Abdualkader, Abdualrahman Mohammed; Hadi, Hamid A.; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study was carried out to examine the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Sprague Dawley rats were separated into 7 groups. Groups 1–2 were orally challenged with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC); group 3 received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and groups 4–7 received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract, respectively. After 1 h, CMC or absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2–7. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Then, the injuries to the gastric mucosa were estimated through assessment of the gastric wall mucus, the gross appearance of ulcer areas, histology, immunohistochemistry and enzymatic assays. Group 2 exhibited significant mucosal injuries, with reduced gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa, whereas reductions in mucosal injury were observed for groups 4–7. Groups 3–7 demonstrated a reversal in the decrease in Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining induced by ethanol. No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. Conclusion Treatment with the extract led to the upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Significant increases in the levels of the antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the gastric mucosal homogenate were observed, whereas that of a lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) was significantly decreased. Significance was defined as p<0.05 compared to the ulcer control group (Group 2). PMID:23724090

  18. Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Ao, Mingzhang; Jin, Wenwen

    2006-04-21

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) is a cruciferous plant from the Andes of Peru. The root of Maca is traditionally employed for its supposed properties in aphrodisiacs and improving fertility, it also has been widely used to help alleviate the symptoms of menopause. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Maca on postmenopausal osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Sham-operated and ovariectomized groups were fed with equivolume of distilled water, and the remaining ovariectomized groups were orally administrated with ethanol extract of Maca at 0.096 and 0.24 g/kg for 28 weeks. The findings derived from the basis of bone mineral density, biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters indicated that higher dose of ethanol extract of Maca was effective in the prevention of estrogen deficient bone loss. PMID:16466876

  19. Antiosteoporotic effect of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomized rat.

    PubMed

    Shirwaikar, Annie; Khan, Saleemulla; Malini, S

    2003-12-01

    Ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis was evaluated for its anti-osteoporotic activity in ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis at two different dose levels of 500 and 750 mg/kg per day. Healthy female albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. First group was sham operated and served as control. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control. Groups 3-5 were orally treated with Raloxifen (5.4 mg/kg) and ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 and 750 mg/kg), respectively. The findings assessed on the basis of biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters showed that the ethanol extract of the plant had a definite antiosteoporotic effect. PMID:14611887

  20. Analysis of the operation conditions for supercritical fluid extraction of seed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-Zhong Yin; Ai-Qin Wang; Wei Wei; Yi Liu; Wen-Hua Shi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a SCFE set-up with an extraction volume of 1L was established, with which Hippophae rhamnoides L. seed oil was extracted using supercritical CO2. The experiments show that many factors have impacts on the oil yield, such as extraction pressure, temperature, and fluid flow rate, as well as seed particle size and filling quantity. For the extraction process

  1. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Fluid Extraction of Seed Oil For Hippophae Rhamnoides L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianzhong Yin; Runjie Liu; Yuan Ma; Che Zhu

    In this paper, a SCFE set-up with an extraction volume of 1L was established, with which Hippophae Rhamnoides L. seed oil was extracted using supercritical CO2. The experiments show that many factors have impacts on the oil yield, such as extraction pressure, temperature, and fluid flow rate, as well as seed particle size and filling quantity. For the extraction process

  2. Biological activity of ethanolic extract fractions of Dracaena arborea against infestation of stored grains by two storage insect pests.

    PubMed

    Epidi, T T; Udo, I O

    2009-07-01

    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link (Dragon tree; Dracaenaceae) dissolved in distilled water and partitioned between equal volumes of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol was assessed in the laboratory against infestation by Sitophillus zeamais Motsch. and Callosobruchus maculatus Walp. in stored maize and cowpea, respectively. One hundred grams each of maize grains and cowpea seeds were treated with 400 mg kg(-1) of each extract fraction to evaluate contact toxicity, damage assessment, effect on eggs and immature stages and progeny production in both insect species. Contact toxicity by topical application, toxicity upon filter paper application and repellency using area preference method were carried out on the two insect species. Results showed that the extract fraction caused significant (p < or = 0.05) mortality of both insect pests with a high residual contact activity against S. zeamais. Grain damage was significantly (p < or = 0.01) reduced, while progeny production and development of eggs within grains were inhibited. The extract fractions evoked a strong repellent action against S. zeamais but moderate action against C. maculatus. The full potentials of using extract fractions of D. arborea as grain protectant against infestation by insect pests is discussed. PMID:19817125

  3. Effect of lipid extraction methods on total dietary fiber and nonstarch polysaccharide contents of selected nuts and seeds.

    PubMed

    Li, B W; Zhao, Z; Jekot, J J

    1997-01-01

    Three extraction methods were used to remove lipid materials from 8 edible nuts and seeds before analysis for their total dietary fiber (TDF) and nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) contents. Portions of ground materials were extracted by: n-hexane, followed by 80% methanol, n-hexane-acetic acid (95 + 5, v/v), and supercritical carbon dioxide. Defatted samples were gelatinized in water and incubated with amyloglucosidase; 95% ethanol was added to the hydrolyzates, and the residues were collected on tared glass crucibles. TDF was calculated according to a simplified enzymatic-gravimetric method developed in our laboratory, and NSP was determined as described by Englyst and coworkers. Dietary fiber values obtained with any of the extraction methods range from 3.47 g/100 g for cashews to 28.56 g/100 g for sunflower seeds. Nonstarch polysaccharide values range from 2.43 g/100 g for pecans to 5.56 g/100 g for peanuts. With the exception of sunflower seeds, samples extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide had lower TDF contents but similar amounts of NSP compared with samples extracted by the other 2 methods. PMID:9011063

  4. In vitro antioxidant studies of the ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea L.

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, G.P.

    2007-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of the root of Tephrosia purpurea was screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using standard procedures. The ethanolic extract exhibited IC50 values of 132.31±8.79 and 405.22±15.09 respectively in DPPH and nitric acid radical inhibition assay. These values were slightly more than those obtained for ascorbic acid and rutin used as standard. The findings justify the therapeutic application of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value. PMID:22557256

  5. Measurement of ethanol concentration using solvent extraction and dichromate oxidation and its application to bioethanol production process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun-Beom Seo; Hyun-Joo Kim; Oh-Kyu Lee; Ji-Hye Ha; Hyeon-Yong Lee; Kyung-Hwan Jung

    2009-01-01

    A method for measuring the ethanol concentration in a yeast culture broth was developed using both microtubes and a 96-deepwell\\u000a microplate. The strategy involved first the solvent extraction of ethanol from the yeast culture broth and measurements of\\u000a the ethanol concentration using the dichromate oxidation method. Particular focus was made on selecting the extraction solvent\\u000a as well as determining the

  6. Effects of ethanolic extract of Iris germanica on lipid profile of rats fed on a high-fat diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Iqbal Choudhary; S. Naheed; S. Jalil; J. M. Alam; Atta-ur-Rahman

    2005-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of Iris germanica rhizomes was investigated for hypolipidemic activity. Iris germanica belong to the family Iridaceae and has been used to treat liver and spleen ailments in traditional system of medicine. Two groups of Wistar rats were fed with high-fat diet and ethanolic extract of Iris germanica were administered orally in one group of rats, while other received

  7. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus Roxb. tubers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjay; Dixit, Vinod K; Malviya, Neelesh; Ambawatia, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels were significantly restored towards normalization by the extracts. Silymarin was used as a standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced haptotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanolic extract was found hepatoprotective more potent than the aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity was also screened and found positive for both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:19702175

  8. Comparison of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smain Chemat; Ahcène Lagha; Hamid AitAmar; Paul V. Bartels; Farid Chemat

    2004-01-01

    Extraction experiments with hexane were carried out at atmospheric pressure in Soxhlet, conventional and ultrasound extractions of flaked caraway seeds, and detailed results are given for two major plant extract components, carvone and limonene. The results indicate that carvone yield and plant extract quality are better in ultrasound extraction compared to those given by conventional methodology. Extraction rates of carvone

  9. Anticancer effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on prostate cancer cell line (PC3)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Kumar; P. K. Suresh; M. R. Vijayababu; A. Arunkumar; J. Arunakaran

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent cancer and the leading cause of male cancer death. Azadirachta indica (neem tree) has been used successfully centuries to reduce tumors by herbalists throughout Southeast Asia. Here the present study indicated that an ethanolic extract of neem has been shown to cause cell death of prostate cancer cells (PC-3) by inducing apoptosis as

  10. Androgenic action of Tinospora cordifolia ethanolic extract in prostate cancer cell line LNCaP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Kapur; B. M. J. Pereira; W. Wuttke; H. Jarry

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the studyRecently, Tinospora cordifolia (TC) was shown to affect prostate growth in rats. It is not known whether this is a direct effect of TC or whether it is induced by altered hormone release. To investigate the actions of TC on the prostate, human LNCaP cells were exposed to an ethanolic extract of TC.

  11. Challenges of cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corncobs are commonly used for xylose production at industrial scale, and the xylose-extracted corncob residue (X-ER), as a byproduct, is abundant and can serve as a potential energy resource. The X-ER is cellulose-rich and efforts to convert the cellulose fraction into ethanol have been attempted; ...

  12. Evaluation of the Wound-Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Shivananda Nayak; Steve Sandiford; Anderson Maxwell

    2009-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. The primary indigenous use of this plant appears to be of the leaves, as a topical treatment for wound healing. The ethanol extract of noni leaves (150 mg kg1 day1) was used to evaluate the wound-healing activity on rats, using excision and dead space wound models.

  13. Subacute oral toxicity study of ethanolic leaves extracts of Strobilanthes crispus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kean Tatt; Lim, Vuanghao; Chin, Jin Han

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the oral toxicity of repeated dosing of Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) ethanol leaves extract on the liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Young female rats aged between 8 and 12 week-old were randomly assigned into four groups with five animals each group (n=5). The first group served as control, while the second, third and fourth groups were orally treated with a single dose daily with 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract for 14 d consecutively. Cage-side observation was conducted for first 4 h after each dosing. The body weight changes, food consumptions and water intake were also recorded. Serum biochemical parameters, i.e., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea were determined at Day 15. All results were expressed as mean±SD and analysed using Dunnett's test. Results It was obtained that 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract did not cause any adverse effects or lethality to the female Sprague Dawley rats. No significant changes in serum biochemical parameters, relative organs weights, body weights, food intake and water consumptions were observed between the treatment groups and control. Conclusions In conclusion, 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract was safe to be consumed in female rats without affecting the liver and kidney functions. PMID:23593574

  14. Fructolysis effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) in seminal vesicles of rat.

    PubMed

    Mathur, R

    1991-01-01

    50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) has been found to reduce the fructose synthesis in seminal vesicles; as a result of which the viability of spermatozoa seems to be altered. Fertility testing revealed sterile matings till 30 days of last treatment. PMID:1844325

  15. Antibacterial activities and toxicological potentials of crude ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. Ogbulie; C. C. Ogueke; Ifeanyi C. Okoli; Beatrice N Anyanwu

    2007-01-01

    Leaves of Euphorbia hirta used in traditional medicine for the treatment of boils, wounds and control of diarrhoea and dysentery was extracted by maceration in ethanol. The agar diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, E coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis at different concentrations while it was tested for toxicity on albino

  16. Inhibition of neutrophils' chemiluminescence by ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) and its phenolic components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Krol; S. Scheller; Z. Czuba; T. Matsuno; G. Zydowicz; J. Shani; M. Mos

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol extract of propolis (EEP), a natural beehive product, has been known for centuries for a variety of beneficial traditional medical properties, among which an anti-inflammatory effect is a major one. Now that most of its components have been isolated and recently identified, we tested 19 of them (all phenolic compounds) for their degree of anti-inflammatory activity. This was performed

  17. Effect of mung bean ethanol extract on pro-inflammtory cytokines in LPS stimulated macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suk-Jun Lee; Ji Hye Lee; Han-Hyung Lee; Seul Lee; Sae Hun Kim; Taehoon Chun; Jee-Young Imm

    2011-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of mung bean ethanol extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages (J774) was evaluated.\\u000a The mung bean extract was separated into 5 fractions by normal phase silica gel column chromatography and the mRNA expressions\\u000a of pro-inflammatory cytokines were examined after incubation with each fraction in LPS stimulated macrophages. All pro-inflammatory\\u000a cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-12?, tumor necrosis

  18. Intrinsic anticarcinogenic effects of Piper sarmentosum ethanolic extract on a human hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Wan Omar, Wan Haifa Haryani; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah; Safian, Muhd Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

    2009-01-01

    Background Piper sarmentosum, locally known as kaduk is belonging to the family of Piperaceae. It is our interest to evaluate their effect on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) for the potential of anticarcinogenic activity. Results The anticarcinogenic activity of an ethanolic extract from Piper sarmentosum in HepG2 and non-malignant Chang's liver cell lines has been previously determined using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assays, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. The ethanolic extract that showed anticarcinogenic properties in HepG2 cells had an IC50 of 12.5 ?g mL-1, while IC50 values in the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line were greater than 30 ?g mL-1. Apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed using an inverted microscope and showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies following May-Grunwald-Giemsa's staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells in the overall population (apoptotic index) showed a continuously significant increase (p < 0.05) in 12.5 ?g mL-1 ethanolic extract-treated cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours compared to controls (untreated cells). Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with 10, 12 and 14 ?g mL-1 of ethanolic extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells. Molecular analysis of DNA fragmentation was used to examine intrinsic apoptosis induced by the ethanolic extracts. These results showed a typical intrinsic apoptotic characterisation, which included fragmentation of nuclear DNA in ethanolic extract-treated HepG2 cells. However, the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line produced no DNA fragmentation. In addition, the DNA genome was similarly intact for both the untreated non-malignant Chang's liver and HepG2 cell lines. Conclusion Therefore, our results suggest that the ethanolic extract from P. sarmentosum induced anticarcinogenic activity through an intrinsic apoptosis pathway in HepG2 cells in vitro. PMID:19257877

  19. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Satish E.; Kale, Ranjana S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. Objective: The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. Results: MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats. PMID:25878462

  20. Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janet P.-C.; Wijaya, Sumi; Ting, Kang-Nee; Wiart, Christophe; Mustafa, Kamarul'Ain; Shipton, Fiona; Khoo, Teng-Jin

    2014-01-01

    If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500??g/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223??g/mL of pravastatin (control) showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate?:?methanol (95?:?5), gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A). Fraction 7A at 150??g/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s), working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:24839451

  1. Lotus seed epicarp extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obesity additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong

    2013-02-01

    The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 ?g.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage. PMID:23010205

  2. Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Cassia tora seeds on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. After being fed a HFD for two weeks, rats were orally dosed with Cassia seed ethanol extract (CSEE) (100, 200, or 300mg/kg) once daily for 8weeks. CSEE induced dose-dependent reductions in plasma lipid levels, as well as decreased the over hepatic lipid accumulation. Furthermore, CSEE treatment improved HFD-induced hepatic histological lesions. CSEE enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in the livers of HFD-fed rats. AMPK inhibition by compound C retarded CSEE-induced reduction in triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells stimulated by insulin. Our findings suggest that CSEE may regulate hepatic lipid homeostasis related with an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation with CSEE may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:23026700

  3. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

  4. Flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract and evaluation of its neuroprotective effect.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Gómez, José de Jesús; Zamora-Natera, Juan Francisco; Bañuelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej; García-López, Pedro Macedonio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract (PE) and to evaluate its effect as a phytoestrogen on the morphometric parameters of CA3 hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rats (OVX). L. mexicanus seeds, germinated for 48 h, were homogenized and macerated using an 80% ethanol solution. The extract was analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. Thirty young Wistar strain female rats (200±10 g) were randomly distributed into four groups: sham operated (S) treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle); ovariectomized and treated with 1250 ?g of PE extract (OVX-PE); ovariectomized and treated with 5 ?g estradiol benzoate (OVX-EB); and ovariectomized and vehicle treated (OVX). All substances were injected subcutaneously daily for 28 days. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed, perfused, and fixed to obtain the brains for histological processing. Each brain was cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The thickness of the stratum oriens (SO), the nuclear diameter, and the neuronal density were measured in the hippocampus CA3 area. Nine different flavonoids and one non-identified compound were detected. The histological analysis demonstrated that the thickness of the SO was higher in the OVX-EB and S groups than in the OVX-PE and OVX groups (p?0.05); in addition, the nuclear diameters of the neurons in the OVX-EB and S groups were higher compared with the other groups (p?0.05). The OVX group had the highest cellular density among groups (p?0.05). Based on our results, the PE obtained did not have beneficial effects on CA3 hippocampal neurons. PMID:24723146

  5. Nigella sativa seed extract: 1. Enhancement of sheep macrophage immune functions in vitro.

    PubMed

    Elmowalid, Gamal; Amar, Ahmad M; Ahmad, Adel Attia M

    2013-10-01

    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed, Black cumin, immunomodulatory activity has been investigated in human and mice. Little is known about the immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed extract on animals' immune cells, specifically, antigen presenting cells such as macrophages. This study focused on the immunomodulatory effect of N. sativa seed extract on sheep macrophage functions in vitro. Sheep peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and derived to macrophages (MDM). The MDM were cultured with N. sativa seed extract and their morphological changes, phagocytic activity, nitric oxide production, and microbicidal activity were investigated. Marked morphological changes were observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract including cell size enlargement; increase in both cytoplasmic space and cytoplasmic granules. Significant increases in phagocytic activity to Candida albicans yeast and in number of yeast engulfed per individual MDM were observed in cells cultured with seed extract. MDM capacity to produce nitric oxide was higher in the culture media of the seed extract-cultured cells compared to the control. Interestingly, prominent enhancement in MDM microbicidal activity to yeast or bacteria was observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract confirming the potent immunostimulatory effect of the extract. From this study, it could be concluded that N. sativa seed extract can enhance macrophages' important innate immune functions that could control infectious diseases and regulate adaptive immunity. PMID:23664216

  6. Ethanolic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata bark and leaf attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Uma Mahesh, Bandari; Shrivastava, Shweta; Kuncha, Madhusudhana; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Swamy, Challa Veerabhadra; Pragada, Rajeswara Rao; Naidu, V G M; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential protective effect of ethanolic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata (BO) bark and leaf against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Ethanolic extracts of BO bark (400 mg/kg) and leaves (250 mg/kg) were given orally to mice for 9 consecutive days and DOX (15 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered on the seventh day. Extract protected against DOX-induced ECG changes. It significantly inhibited DOX-provoked glutathione depletion and accumulation of malondialdehyde. The decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase in cardiac tissue were significantly (p<0.05) mitigated after treatment with BO bark and leaf extracts. Pretreatment with BO significantly (p<0.05) restored the levels of DOX-induced rise of SGPT, SGOT, serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB levels. These findings suggest that ethanolic extract of BO has protective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:23981374

  7. Effects of Danshen Ethanol Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Furong; Zeng, Jin; Liu, Songcan; He, Min; Zhu, Leilei; Ye, Yujie; Miao, Ping; Shen, Shujiao; Jiang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. A sequential, open-label, two-period pharmacokinetic interaction design was used. 12 healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose of fexofenadine (60?mg) followed by danshen ethanol extract (1?g orally, three times a day) for 10 days, after which they received 1?g of the danshen extract with fexofenadine (60?mg) on the last day. The plasma concentrations of fexofenadine was measured by LC-MS/MS. After 10 days of the danshen extract administration, the mean AUC and Cmax? of the fexofenadine was decreased by 37.2% and 27.4% compared with the control, respectively. The mean clearance of fexofenadine was increased by 104.9%. The in vitro study showed that tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone could induce MDR1 mRNA. This study showed that multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract could increase oral clearance of fexofenadine. The increased oral clearance of fexofenadine is attributable to induction of intestinal P-glycoprotein. PMID:25538791

  8. Evaluation of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of Euphorbia hirta ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neelesh; Samarakoon, Kalpa W; Gyawali, Rajendra; Park, Yang-Ho; Lee, Sung-Jin; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of a Euphorbia hirta L. extract. The antioxidant activities of whole E. hirta ethanol extract were determined by electron spin resonance spectrophotometric analysis of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and alkyl radical levels and by using an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay. The E. hirta ethanol extract (0.5 mg/mL) exhibited DPPH-scavenging activity of 61.19% ± 0.22%, while the positive control (0.5 mg/mL ascorbic acid) had 100% ± 0.22% activity. The concentration of the extract required to trap 50% of DPPH (IC50) was 0.205 mg/mL. Online HPLC analysis of the extract also showed strong antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the E. hirta extract was assessed in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity was highest in the presence of 200 µg/mL E. hirta extract, and nitric oxide production was decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The extract also showed selective anticancer activity at a concentration of 100 µg/mL (p < 0.05). These results indicated that E. hirta may warrant further investigation for the development of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer herbal medications. PMID:25225720

  9. Cardiovascular effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Pimenta dioica in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Suárez, A; Ulate, G; Ciccio, J F

    1997-01-01

    The hypotensive activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Pimenta dioica and several fractions of the aqueous extract was observed in anaesthetized normotensive rats. General effects of the extracts and fractions were assessed through Hippocratic screening showing a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of the aqueous extract of Pimenta dioica (30, 70, 100 mg/kg) produced a dose-related significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). The ED50 was 53.94 mg/kg. The hypotensive effect of identical doses (100 mg/kg) of the aqueous extract (95% decrease) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than the effect of the ethanolic extract (67% decrease). The final aqueous fraction produced the greatest hypotensive activity compared to the other fractions of the total aqueous extract. There were no significant changes in the heart rate and no abnormalities were observed in the EKG. The mechanisms of action of the extracts have not been determined. Structural elucidation of the compounds responsible for this activity is under investigation. PMID:9173181

  10. Comparison of the chemical composition of extracts from Scutellaria lateriflora using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction versus standard hot water or 70% ethanol extraction.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Chantal; Gafner, Stefan; Clausen, Edgar; Carrier, Danielle J

    2005-04-20

    The aqueous extract of American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L. (S. lateriflora), Lamiaceae) has been traditionally used by North American Indians as a nerve tonic and for its sedative and diuretic properties. Recent reports stated that flavonoids and possibly amino acids are responsible for the anxiolytic activity. As a part of our search for environmentally friendly solvents to extract the active components from medicinal plants, we used S. lateriflora in a comparison of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using water, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 and 10% EtOH as modifier, at different temperatures. Flavonoids and amino acids were quantified by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS, respectively. The flavonoid content was compared with conventional extraction methods (hot water extraction and 70% ethanol). The use of ASE at 85 degrees C with water as solvent gave the best results for flavonoid glycosides and amino acids, whereas SFE gave higher yields of flavonoid aglycones. However, the results obtained for total flavonoids were not significatively superior to hot water extraction or 70% aqueous EtOH extract. PMID:15826062

  11. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-01-01

    Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this article: Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, Saujanya KP, Patil AK, Kakde DD. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):61-6 . PMID:24453446

  12. Pressurized hot ethanol extraction of carotenoids from carrot by-products.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Arwa; Trevino, Leire Mijangos; Turner, Charlotta

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids are known for their antioxidant activity and health promoting effects. One of the richest sources of carotenoids are carrots. However, about 25% of the annual production is regarded as by-products due to strict market policies. The aim of this study was to extract carotenoids from those by-products. Conventional carotenoid extraction methods require the use of organic solvents, which are costly, environmentally hazardous, and require expensive disposal procedures. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) utilizes conventional solvents at elevated temperatures and pressure, and it requires less solvent and shorter extraction times. The extraction solvent of choice in this study was ethanol, which is a solvent generally recognized as safe (GRAS). The extraction procedure was optimized by varying the extraction time (2-10 min) and the temperature (60-180 °C). ?-Carotene was used as an indicator for carotenoids content in the carrots. The results showed that time and temperatures of extraction have significant effect on the yield of carotenoids. Increasing the flush volume during extraction did not improve the extractability of carotenoids, indicating that the extrication method was mainly desorption/diffusion controlled. Use of a dispersing agent that absorbs the moisture content was important for the efficiency of extraction. Analysing the content of ?-carotene at the different length of extraction cycles showed that about 80% was recovered after around 20 min of extraction. PMID:22328079

  13. A comparative study of anti-gastric cancer activity between aqueous extract and ethanol extract of Folium Cordylines Fruticosae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaojun; Cao, Dongbo; Xiao, Zhiming; Liu, Fen; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Lian; Tian, Li; Shen, Shourong

    2013-01-01

    The active components in Folium Cordylines Fruticosae were extracted by heat reflux method. The solvents used were distilled water and ethanol. The effects of two types of extracts on gastric cancer cells were compared; dry extract yields were calculated, as well as the inhibition rates of gastric cancer MGC-803 cell proliferation and the colony cell counts. The micro-Kjeldahl method was used to measure the cell protein contents and to make a comprehensive comparison. The results showed that the MGC-803 cell inhibition rates of three different concentrations (32.5, 75 and 150 mg/ml) of ethanol extracts increased with the increase of concentration, which was 48.9% at a concentration of 150 mg/ml; aqueous extract of Folium Cordylines Fruticosae had very low inhibitory activity at a low concentration (32.5 mg/ml), which was remained at about 20%. After being affected by two types of extracts, cells had uneven sizes, with very low brightness, while the normal cells presented a uniform full form, with high definition. PMID:24146505

  14. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of tubers of Dioscorea alata in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Maithili, V.; Dhanabal, S.P.; Mahendran, S.; Vadivelan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Dioscorea alata in glucose loaded and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The authenticated tubers of D. alata (DA) (JSSCPDP/2008/157) were collected from Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu. The ethanol extract was tested for hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. In oral glucose tolerance test, glucose (3 g/kg, p.o.) was administered to non diabetic control, metformin (250 mg/kg, p.o.) and DA extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) to treat treated rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) in physiological saline after overnight fasting for 18 hours. DA extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard drug metformin (250 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose level and changes in body weight were measured on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. At the end of 21st day, serum lipid profile, total protein, albumin, and creatinine were assessed. Results: In glucose loaded normal rats, the treatment with the extract of DA had shown a highly significant reduction (P < 0.001) in blood glucose levels at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. The extract did not produce hypoglycemic activity at both the dose levels in normal, fasted rats. In alloxan induced diabetic rats, the body weight of the DA extract treated animals had shown a significant increase (P < 0.001) after 21 days treatment. The blood glucose level was reduced significantly by 47.48% and 52.09% after 21 days treatment at dose levels 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Serum lipid levels, total protein, albumin, and creatinine were reversed toward near normal in treated rats as compared to diabetic control. Conclusion: The results indicate that ethanol extract of DA tubers possesses significant antidiabetic activity. PMID:21845005

  15. A Rapid DNA Extraction Method for RFLP and PCR Analysis from a Single Dry Seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hee Wan Kang; Yong Gu Cho; Ung Han Yoon; Moo Young Eun

    1998-01-01

    A single-seed DNA extraction method was developed for rapid identification of plant genotype. The method was applied to 12 plant species, including the oil seeds sesame and soybean. The results were comparable to those obtained for oil-less seeds such as rice. This method will be useful for genotypic selection which requires rapid screening of large populations. It can also be

  16. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract protects neurons from apoptosis and mitigates brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebral malaria is a rapidly developing encephalopathy caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Drugs currently in use are associated with poor outcome in an increasing number of cases and new drugs are urgently needed. The potential of the medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria was evaluated in mice. Methods Experimental cerebral malaria was induced in mice by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Infected mice were administered with Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract at doses of 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) in experimental groups, or with the anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) or artemether (1.6 mg/kg, i.p.), in the positive control groups. Treatment was initiated at the onset of signs of brain involvement and pursued for five days on a daily basis. Mice brains were dissected out and processed for the study of the effects of the extract on pyramidal cells’ fate and on markers of neuroinflammation and apoptosis, in the medial temporal lobe. Results Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract mitigated neuroinflammation, decreased the severity of brain oedema, and protected pyramidal neurons from apoptosis, particularly at the highest dose used, comparable to chloroquine and artemether. Conclusions The present findings suggest that Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract has protective effects on neuronal populations in the inflamed central nervous system, and justify at least in part its use in African and Asian folk medicine and practices. PMID:23984986

  17. Ethanol production from nonsterilized carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using fed-batch culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Roukas

    1994-01-01

    The production of ethanol from carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in batch and fed-batch culture was investigated. Fed-batch culture proved to be a better fermentation system for the production of ethanol than batch culture. In fed-batch culture, both free and immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave the same maximum concentration of final ethanol at an initial

  18. Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Petchi, R Ramesh; Vijaya, C; Parasuraman, S

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anti-arthritic effect of whole plant ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats using the Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) model. Materials and Methods: The plant was collected from different regions of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, and the phytoconstituents were identified through chemical tests. Ethanol (95%) was used to obtain the whole plant extraction through Soxhlet extractor. Female SD rats were used for anti-arthritic screening. Arthritis was induced using FCA, and the anti-arthritic effect of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, the liver enzyme levels were determined and a radiological examination was carried out. Result: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the FCA-induced arthritis in the rats. This was manifested by as a decrease in the paw volume. The arthritic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals without arthritis. T. procumbens animals showed dose dependent reduction in decrees in body weight and arthritis. At the same time, T. procumbens significantly altered the biochemical and haematological changes induced by FCA (P < 0.05). The anti-arthritic effect of T. procumbens was comparable with that of indomethacin. Conclusion: The whole plant extract of T. procumbens showed significant anti-arthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female SD rats. PMID:23798886

  19. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  20. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  1. Differential neuroprotective activity of two different grape seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Narita, Keishi; Hisamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Tohru; Takeda, Sen

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major events that takes place during various neurotoxic injuries such as brain ischemia. We prepared grape seed extracts, from two different varieties, containing high amounts of polyphenols but little resveratrol. Their neuroprotective effects were investigated using primary culture of neonatal mouse hippocampal neurons treated with an excitotoxic concentration of glutamate. Koshu, a white, local variety of V. vinifera, alleviated the acute inactivation of Erk1/2 and dendrite retraction in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to a toxic concentration of glutamate (1.0 ng/ml). By contrast, Muscat Bailey A, a red, hybrid variety (Muscat Humburg × Bailey), failed to show any neuroprotective effect. Unlike brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other neuroprotective cytokines, Koshu extract did not induce Akt phosphorylation. Koshu extract also augmented neuron survival rate 24 hours after glutamate toxicity. The comparison of polyphenols between the two samples by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated that Koshu had higher amounts of low molecular weight polyphenols along with several Koshu-specific procyanidin oligomers. These data suggest the presence of high affinity molecular targets for polyphenols in hippocampal neurons, which induce neuroprotective effects in a manner different from BDNF, and the importance of low molecular weight polyphenols and/or procyanidin oligomers for neuroprotection. PMID:21283677

  2. Immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells and Rhizomucor miehei Lipase for the Production and Extractive Biocatalysis of Ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Oliveira; M. F. Rosa; J. M. S. Cabral; M. R. Aires-Barros

    1997-01-01

    The production of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized cells and its esterification with oleic acid, catalysed by a lipase from Rhizomucor miehei, was the biochemical process considered as model to illustrate the concept of extractive biocatalysis. The selection of the most suitable support for lipase immobilization was carried out. The best results for the ethanol\\/oleic acid esterification reaction were obtained

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF CLITORIA TERNATEA L.

    E-print Network

    R. Kavitha; V. Premalakshmi

    Medicinal plants are of great importance to the health of individuals and communities. A large number of plants are claimed to possess the anti-diabetic, anti-fertility, antihyperlipidaemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory activities in the traditional therapeutic systems. It is now believed that nature has given the cure of every disease in one way or another. Clitoria ternatea a valuable medicinal plant possess many bioactive principles which includes diabetes mellitus, chronic bronchitis, goitre, mucous disorders and leprosy. The ethanolic extract of leaves of C.ternatea was investigated for its phytochemical properties and analysis for its active chemical ingredients. For qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis the ethanol extract of C.ternatea acts as a source of therapeutic agent.

  4. Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

  5. Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Vaheed, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Galip, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    In this research, ethanol production from carob pod extract (extract) using Zymomonas mobilis with medium optimized by Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodologies (RSM) was studied. Z. mobilis was recognized as useful for ethanol production from carob pod extract. The effects of initial concentrations of sugar, peptone, and yeast extract as well as agitation rate (rpm), pH, and culture time in nonhydrolyzed carob pod extract were investigated. Significantly affecting variables (P = 0.05) in the model obtained from RSM studies were: weights of bacterial inoculum, initial sugar, peptone, and yeast extract. Acid hydrolysis was useful to complete conversion of sugars to glucose and fructose. Nonhydrolyzed extract showed higher ethanol yield and residual sugar compared with hydrolyzed extract. Ethanol produced (g g(-1) initial sugar, as the response) was not significantly different (P = 0.05) when Z. mobilis performance was compared in hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed extract. The maximum ethanol of 0.34 ± 0.02 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained at 30°C, initial pH 5.2, and 80 rpm, using concentrations (g per 50 mL culture media) of: inoculum bacterial dry weight, 0.017; initial sugar, 5.78; peptone, 0.43; yeast extract, 0.43; and culture time of 36 h. PMID:20820859

  6. Extraction rates of oil from high oleic sunflower seeds with supercritical carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. K Kiriamiti; E Rascol; A Marty; J. S Condoret

    2002-01-01

    Supercritical CO2 extraction of oleic sunflower seeds was shown to be effective and yielded a product very similar to pure refined oil. In our work extraction pressure was restricted to 250 bar, due to technical constraints, and for this pressure, a temperature increase (up to 60°C) was observed to be detrimental. Grinded seeds were used, segregated into average small particles

  7. Steroid saponins from fenugreek seeds: Extraction, purification, and pharmacological investigation on feeding behavior and plasma cholesterol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre R. Petit; Yves D. Sauvaire; Dominique M. Hillaire-Buys; Olivier M. Leconte; Yves G. Baissac; Gabriel R. Ponsin; Gérard R. Ribes

    1995-01-01

    The seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) are traditionally assumed to have restorative properties. We have recently shown that a fenugreek seed extract containing steroid saponins increased food consumption and induced hypocholesterolemia in rats. This study aims to investigate the specific role of purified steroid saponins in these properties. For this purpose, an original technique for extraction and purification

  8. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of flavonoids in single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) ethanolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Urbonavici?te, A; Jakstas, V; Kornysova, O; Janulis, V; Maruska, A

    2006-04-21

    Flavonoids are an important group of natural compounds, which can prevent coronary heart disease and have antioxidant properties. Hawthorn is a well known and widely used medicinal plant due to its cardiotonic activity. Previous studies refer mostly to the HPLC analysis of the flavonoids: vitexin, quercetin, hyperoside, oligomeric procyanidins, which appear to be primarily responsible for the cardiac action of the plant. Aqueous ethanolic extracts of single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., f.: Rosaceae Juss.) leaves and sprouts were analyzed by means of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Influence of vegetation period on the extract qualitative composition and flavonoids quantities was evaluated. Sample preparation by extraction using different concentration of aqueous ethanol (40-96%, v/v) and the influence of extractant composition on the recovery of flavonoids are discussed in detail. The results obtained using CZE are compared to the results of spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis of the extracts. The effect of storage conditions of extracts (solar irradiation, temperature and duration) on degradation of flavonoids was investigated. PMID:16443232

  9. Ocimum basilicum ethanolic extract decreases cholesterol synthesis and lipid accumulation in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Elena; Amrani, Souliman; Aziz, Mohammed; Harnafi, Hicham; Napolitano, Mariarosaria

    2008-12-01

    Macrophage lipid accumulation induced by low density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a pivotal role in atherosclerotic plaque development. Previous work showed that Ocimum basilicum extract, used as hypocholesterolemic agent by traditional medicine in Morocco, has hypolipidemic activity in rat acute hyperlipimidemia. This study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of O. basilicum on lipid accumulation in human macrophages. As modification of LDL increase atherogenicity of the particles we evaluated the effects of the extract on LDL oxidation. The extract caused a dose-related increase of LDL-resistance to Cu(2+)-induced oxidation. Furthermore, at the dose of 60 microg/ml, significantly decreases the accumulation of macrophage lipid droplets induced by modified LDL evaluated as by red-oil staining. Cholesterol esterification and triacylglycerol synthesis in the cells were not affected. Macrophage treatment with 60 microg/ml, but not 20 microg/ml, of the extract reduced newly synthesized unesterified cholesterol by about 60% and decreased scavenger receptors activity by about 20-30%, evaluated by the internalization of cholesterol carried by [(3)H]CE-aggregated-LDL. The results suggest that O. basilicum ethanolic extract has the capability to reduce foam cell formation through the reduction of cholesterol synthesis and the modulation of the activity of surface scavenger receptors. PMID:18620033

  10. Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Cancer Patients’ Serum on the Vulnerability of Lymphocytes to Cortisol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ami Klein; Barbara Bruser; Aaron Malkin

    1988-01-01

    We have shown prevoiusly that cortisol-sensitive lymphocytes (thymocytes) have a much lower capacity than cortisol-resistant cells to catabolize cortisol. We have also shown that sera of cancer patients (CPS) possess ethanol-extractable substance(s) which can inhibit the catabolism of cortisol by lymphocytes (CCL). Recently, we noted that unsaturated fatty acids can both inhibit CCL and modulate the sensitivity of lymphocytes to

  11. Ethanolic Extract of Propolis Augments TRAIL-Induced Apoptotic Death in Prostate Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ewelina Szliszka; Zenon P. Czuba; Joanna Bronikowska; Anna Mertas; Andrzej Paradysz; Wojciech Krol

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer in men. The ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and its phenolic compounds possess immunomodulatory, chemopreventive and antitu- mor effects. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL\\/APO2L) is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic to normal cells. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of

  12. Antioxidative effect of ethanol tea extracts on oxidation of canola oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Y. Chen; P. T. Chan; H. M. Ma; K. P. Fung; J. Wang

    1996-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the biological effects of natural antioxidants present in teas on formation ofin vivo free radicals, carcinogenesis, and atherogenesis. Teas are traditionally classified into six major groups, namely, green,\\u000a yellow, white, black, dark-green, and oolong teas. The present study examined the antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts\\u000a from these six major groups of teas against oxidation

  13. [Chemical constituents from petroleum ether fraction of ethanol extract of Acorus tatarinowii].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meiju; Tan, Ninghu; Ji, Changjiu; Xu, Junju; He, Wenjun; Zhang, Yumei

    2010-01-01

    The petroleum ether fraction of ethanol extract of Acorus tatarinowii were separated by column chromatography and recrystallization to afford seven compounds. On the spectroscopic analysis, they were identified as 1-hydroxy-7(11),9-guaiadien-8-one (1), calamenone(2), cis-asarone(3), chrysophanol (4), physcion (5), emodin (6), (+)-galbacin (7). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 4-7 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:20394287

  14. Apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from some Apiaceae on human leukaemia cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bogucka-Kocka; H. D. Smolarz; J. Kocki

    2008-01-01

    Apiaceae are a family of medicinal plants widely used in traditional medicine. The apoptotic activities of seven ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae, Eryngium planum, Archangelica officinalis, Pastinaca sativa, Heracleum sibiricum, Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Levisticum officinale against ML-1—human acute myeloblastic leukaemia, J-45.01—human acute T cell leukaemia, EOL—human eosinophilic leukaemia, HL-60—human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia, 1301—human T cell

  15. Beyond six scents: defining a seventh Thymus vulgaris chemotype new to southern France by ethanol extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Keefover-Ring; John D. Thompson; Yan B. Linhart

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant chemotype has long been useful to describe secondary chemical phenotypes; however, the idea has practical limitations, especially when applied to ecological questions. This work reports the discovery of a new 1,8-cineole chemotype of Thymus vulgaris from a well-studied area in southern France. Multivariate statistical analysis of ethanol-extracted plant terpenes was used to describe this new chemotype

  16. Hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Annona squamosa L. in experimental animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Kumar Gupta; Achyut Narayan Kesari; P. S. Murthy; R. Chandra; V. Tandon; Geeta Watal

    2005-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) leaves was administered orally at different doses to normal as well as streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The dose of 350mg\\/kg body weight (bw) reduced the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level by 6.0% within 1h, whereas, the peak blood glucose at 1h during glucose tolerance test (GTT) was reduced

  17. GC-MS analysis of phytocomponents in the ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L

    PubMed Central

    Ezhilan, Bagavathi Perumal; Neelamegam, Ramasamy

    2012-01-01

    Background: The presence of diverse secondary metabolites has been reported from species of the genus Polygonum. However, there has been not much information available on phytochemical components and biological activity in the whole plant ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L. Objective: This study was designed to determine the phytocomponents in the whole plant ethanol extract of P. chinense. Materials and Methods: GC-MS analysis of the whole plant ethanol extract of P. chinense was performed using a Perkin-Elmer GC Clarus 500 system comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and a gas chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Results: This investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from P. chinense by GC-MS. This analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of P. chinense (whole plant) contained mainly a triterpene compound–squalene (47.01%), and a plasticizer compound–1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono[2-ethylhexyl]ester (40.30%). All identified compounds were, generally, reported as having antimicrobial activity. In addition, the squalene compound also having anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, chemo-preventive, pesticidal and sun-screen properties, while the plasticizer compound –1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono[2-ethylhexyl] ester reported to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. No activity was reported in the alcoholic compound-4-hexene-1-ol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethanyl)-acetate-(R)-. Conclusions: From the results, it is evident that P. chinense contains various bioactive compounds and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. PMID:22224055

  18. The Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa Dried Calyx Ethanolic Extract Reduced Lipid Profile in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Stefan M. Waliszewski; Dulce Ma. Barradas-Dermitz; Zaida Orta-Flores; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipólito; Ofelia Angulo-Guerrero; Ramón Sánchez-Ricaño; Rosa M. Infanzón; Patricia R. L. Trujillo

    2005-01-01

    The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention\\u000a of chronic and degenerative diseases is continously advancing. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect\\u000a of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanolic extract on the serum lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed during 4

  19. Amelioration of nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity by the ethanol extract of the herb Euphorbia hirta

    PubMed Central

    Suganya, Subramanian; Sophia, Dominic; Raj, Chinthamony Arul; Rathi, Muthaiyan Ahalliya; Thirumoorthi, Lakshmanan; Meenakshi, Periyasamy; Kumar, Dugganaboyana Guru; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniyapan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Euphorbia hirta (L.) (Euphorbiaceae) is a very popular herb amongst practitioners of traditional medicine and used in the treatment of female disorders, respiratory ailments, tumors, jaundice, digestive problems, wounds, etc. We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of E. hirta against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The nephroprotective activity of the ethanol extract of E. hirta (400 mg/kg body weight) was studied in nitrobenzene-induced albino rats (1000 mg/kg body weight). The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiols and vitamin C in the kidney tissues were determined. Histopathologic investigation was performed in the kidney tissue samples. Results: Nitrobenzene administration significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced the lipid peroxidation and significantly (P < 0.05) depleted the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, total thiols and vitamin C. Treatment with the ethanol extract of E. hirta significantly normalized the antioxidant levels. The nephroprotective activity was also supported by histopathologic studies of kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results indicate that the ethanol extract of E. hirta ameliorates renal dysfunction and could be used as an effective protector against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity, primarily through its antioxidant capacity. PMID:22022170

  20. Ethanolic extract of Actaea racemosa (black cohosh) potentiates bone nodule formation in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Y. Chan; K. S. Lau; B. Jiang; E. J. Kennelly; F. Kronenberg; A. W. C. Kung

    2008-01-01

    Aceaea racemosa (formerly Cimicifuga racemosa, black cohosh, AR) extracts have been widely used as an alternative to hormonal replacement therapy for menopausal symptoms. Recent evidences suggest AR extracts are also effective in protecting against postmenopausal bone loss. To determine whether AR has any direct anabolic effect on osteoblasts, we investigated the ethanolic extract of AR on bone nodule formation in

  1. A Novel Extraction Method and Some Physicochemical Properties of Extractives of Irvingia Gabonensis seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ogaji, Ikoni J; Nan, Anjan; Hoag, Stephen W

    2012-01-01

    The plant Irvingia gabonensis contains lipids and polymer extractives that can be a good source of excipients for oral pharmaceutical formulations. These constituents are usually extracted from the seeds with the aid of either organic solvents or enzymes. The purpose of this paper was to describe a novel, simpler, cheaper, and safer method for the simultaneous extraction of lipids and gum from I. gabonensis. A 100.0 g of seeds of I. gabonensis in 200 mL deionized water was heated at 78°C in the presence of 2.0 g sodium chloride for 1 h, and the mixture was allowed to stand for the lipids to be separated and removed by filtration. The samples were air dried at 25–30°C. The liquid fraction was centrifuged at 3445 rpm for 30 min, and the supernatant portion containing the gum was freeze dried. The samples were investigated for their true, bulk, and tapped densities as well as particle size and particle size distributions. The rheological, and near infrared absorption spectra as well as thermal behavior of the samples were also studied. The lipid and the polymeric components of I. gabonensis seeds were successfully extracted simultaneously. The true densities of the fatty and gum components were, respectively, 1.000 and 1.544 g/cm3. The melting point of the fat was 40°C and Tg of the gum was 232°C. These values were similar to those described in the literature for the components using the traditional method, demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of this simple novel method. PMID:22754256

  2. Antibacterial activity of clove, gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448

    PubMed Central

    Mirpour, Mirsasan; Gholizadeh Siahmazgi, Zohreh; Sharifi Kiasaraie, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial compounds from herbal sources have good therapeutic potential. In this study, the antibacterial effects of clove and gall nut, methanolic and ethanolic extractions, were evaluated for their effect on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448, as both the two cause oral diseases. Method The clove and gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts were prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated for S. mutans and S. salivarius in the base of inhibition zone diameter using agar diffusion method. In this part minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed. Results These extracts showed effective antibacterial activity on bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of clove was more than that of ethanolic extract, and ethanolic extracts of gall nut had antibacterial activity more than that of methanolic extracts. MIC and MBC results for clove methanolic extract were 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml for S. mutans and 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for clove ethanolic extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. MIC and MBC results for gall nut methanolic extract were 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. mutans and 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for gall nut ethanolic extracts were 3.1 mg/ml and 6.2 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. Discussion The results showed effective antibacterial activity using clove and gall nut methanolic extracts. If other properties such as tolerance of tissue can also be studied, these extracts can be used as a mouthwash. PMID:25853041

  3. Evaluation of the in vivo antimalarial activity of ethanolic leaf and stembark extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis

    PubMed Central

    Bassey, Anita S.; Okokon, Jude E.; Etim, Emmanuel I.; Umoh, Francis U.; Bassey, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vivo antimalarial activities of ethanolic leaf and stembark extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis used traditionally as malarial remedy in Southern Nigeria in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei. Methods: The ethanolic extracts of the A. djalonensis leaf (1000 – 3000 mg/kg/day) and stembark (220 – 660 mg/kg/day) were screened for blood schizonticidal activity against chloroquine-sensitive P. berghei in mice. The schizonticidal effect during early and established infections was investigated. Results: The A. djalonensis leaf extract (1000 – 3000 mg/kg/day) exhibited a significant antiplasmodial activity both in the 4-day early infection test and in the established infection with a considerable mean survival time, which was incomparable to that of the standard drug, chloroquine (5 mg/kg/day). The stembark extract (220 – 660 mg/kg/day) also demonstrated a promising blood schizontocidal activity in early and established infections. Conclusion: These plant extracts possess considerable antiplasmodial activities, which justify their use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in malaria therapy. PMID:20407556

  4. Effect of microorganisms on rate of liquid extraction of ethanol from fermentation broths

    SciTech Connect

    Crabbe, P.G.; Tse, C.W.; Munro, P.A.

    1986-07-01

    Liquid extraction is one means of removing metabolic products continuously during a fermentation and so reducing product inhibition. It is known that microbial organisms are attracted to liquid-liquid interfaces, and it is important for the design of extraction systems to establish if this has a detrimental effect on the rate of extraction. The extraction of ethanol from aqueous suspensions of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using n-decanol is described in this paper. It was found that the presence of the yeast cells severely reduced the rate of ethanol extraction. The overall mass transfer coefficient was reduced from 5.0 x 10/sup -6/ to 0.7 x 10/sup -6/ m/s. This reduced overall mass transfer coefficient was unaffected by yeast concentration in the range of 0.1-20 kg/cubic m. The results are consistent with the yeast cells absorbing to the interface in closely packed layers and preventing mass transfer by simply reducing the available interfacial area. Optical microscope observations confirmed that a yeast layer several cell diameters thick rapidly built up at the interface when a small decanol droplet was added to a yeast suspension. 12 references.

  5. Effect of ethanolic extracts of Justicia neesii Ramam. against experimental models of pain and pyrexia

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Nimmakayala; Lakshmi, Duggirala Suguna; Goverdhan, Puchchakayala

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of ethanolic extracts of Justicia neesii Ramam. by different experimental models. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of plant extract was evaluated against thermal and chemical stimulus induced by Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid respectively in mice. Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity in rats and TAB vaccine induced pyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity in rabbits. Results: In the hot plate model 400 mg/kg p.o. dose of J. neesii has shown its maximal effect at 3 h. The results are significant (P < 0.05) and comparable to the values of standard drug pentazocine (30 mg/kg i.p.). In acetic acid induced writhing model 400 mg/kg p.o. of plant extracts have shown highly significant activity (P < 0.001) and better than standard drug indomethacin (10 mg/kg p.o.). The 400 mg/kg p.o. dose of plant extract has given significant results against both yeast induced pyrexia and TAB vaccine induced pyrexia (P< 0.01 and 0.05 respectively). These values are comparable to that of paracetamol 100 mg/kg p.o. standard dose. Conclusion: This study shows that the ethanol extract of J. neesii has significant analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:25878377

  6. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  7. Ethanol production from nonsterilized carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using fed-batch culture

    SciTech Connect

    Roukas, T. (Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Food Science and Technology)

    1994-02-05

    The production of ethanol from carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in batch and fed-batch culture was investigated. Fed-batch culture proved to be a better fermentation system for the production of ethanol than batch culture. In fed-batch culture, both free and immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave the same maximum concentration of final ethanol at an initial sugar concentration of 300 g/L and F = 167 mL/h. The maximum ethanol productivity was obtained with both free and immobilized cells at a substrate concentration of 300 g/L and F = 334 mL/h. In repeated fed-batch culture, immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave a higher overall ethanol concentration compared with the free cells. The immobilized S. cerevisiae cells in Ca-alginate beads retained their ability to produce ethanol for 10 days.

  8. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  9. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. and evaluation of the morphological and structural modifications of its compounds upon the cells of Candida spp

    PubMed Central

    Anibal, Paula Cristina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Foglio, Mary Ann; Höfling, José Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Ethanolic crude extracts prepared from the arils and seeds, pericarp, peels and from the whole fruit of Punica granatum, known as pomegranate, had their antifungal activity tested against Candida spp. The ethanolic crude extracts were analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and yielded many compounds such as punicalagin and galladydilacton. The extracts from the pericarp and peel showed activity against Candida spp., with MICs of 125 ?g/mL. The effect of pericarp and peel extracts upon the morphological and structure of C. albicans and C. krusei were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, with the visualization of an irregular membrane and hyphae, formation of vacuoles and thickening of the cell wall. The data obtained revealed potential antimicrobial activity against yeasts cells of the Candida genus, and the bioactive compounds could be responsible for changes in cell morphology and structure. The data obtained open new perspectives for future research in continuation to this study, where information such as determination of the site of action of the compounds could contribute to an alternative therapy against these organisms. PMID:24516425

  10. Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1?. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1? levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the immunosuppressive potential of the extract. PMID:24349164

  11. [Evaluation of non-host plant ethanol extracts against Plutella xylostella population].

    PubMed

    Wei, Hui; Hou, Youming; Yang, Guang; Fu, Jianwei; You, Minsheng

    2005-06-01

    Through establishing experimental and natural population life tables, and by using the index of population trend (1) and interference index of population control (IIPC), this paper evaluated 8 kinds of non-host plant ethanol extracts against experimental population of Plutella xylostella, and 3 kinds of these extracts and their mixture against Plutella xylostella natural population. The experimental population life table of DBM showed that the index of population trend (I) was 69. 8964 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.3702, 4.4842, 8.0945, 11.1382, 6.8937, 6.1609, 5.5199 and 9.8052, respectively in treatments of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Nicotiana tabacum, Broussonetia papyrifera, Bauhinia variegata, Duranta repens, Euphorbia hirta and Camellia oleifera ethanol extracts, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.0768, 0.0642, 0.1158, 0.1594, 0.0986, 0.0881, 0.0790 and 0. 1403, respectively. The natural population life tables of DBM showed that the index of population trend (I) was 21.6232 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.1997, 7.4160, 7. 3644 and 3.1399, respectively in treatments of the ethanol extracts of E. tereticornis, N. tabacum, C. oleifera and their mixture, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.2405, 0.3695, 0.3549 and 0.1608, respectively. All of these indicated that the test plant extracts could interfere the development of P. xylostella population significantly, and had the potential as an effective measure for controlling insect pest. PMID:16180759

  12. Hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves against garlic-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2005-01-01

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf is a darkish-green leafy vegetable popularly used in soup and in herbal preparations for the management of many diseases in Nigeria. In this study, the hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. occidentalis leaf (earlier confirmed to have a high level of antioxidant activity) against garlic induced-oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes was investigated. Oxidative stress was induced in Wistar strain albino rats by overdosing them with raw garlic (4%) for 14 days, and this caused a significant increase (P < .05) in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), while there was no significant change (P > .05) in serum bilirubin, albumin, globulin, and total proteins. However, intubation of some of the rats fed raw garlic with 5 mg or 10 mg/0.5 mL of T. occidentalis leaf extract (ethanolic or aqueous) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in serum ALP, GOT, and GPT when compared with rats fed raw garlic without intubation with the T. occidentalis leaf extract. Moreover, 10 mg/0.5 mL of extract was more effective than 5 mg/0.5 mL of extract, while the aqueous extracts appeared to be more effective than the ethanolic extracts in protecting hepatocytes. It could be inferred that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaf have hepatoprotective properties, although the aqueous extract is more effective than the ethanolic extract, which could be attributed to the higher antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract than the ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaves. PMID:16379574

  13. Preparation and characterization of nano liposomes of Orthosiphon stamineus ethanolic extract in soybean phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background O. stamineus is a medicinal herb with remarkable pharmacological properties. However, poor solubility of the active principles limits its medicinal value. This study sought to prepare nano liposomes of OS ethanolic extract in unpurified soybean phospholipids in order to improve its solubility and permeability. OS liposomes were prepared by the conventional film method, and were characterized for solubility, entrapment efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size and zeta potential, release, absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs, and DPPH scavenging effect. Results OS liposomes showed substantial enhancement of extract’s solubility from 956?±?34 to 3979?±?139 ?g/ml, with entrapment efficiency of 66.2?±?0.9%. FTIR study indicates interaction between soybean phospholipids and OS extract. TEM and dynamic light scattering showed presence of round anionic nano liposomes with particle size and zeta potential of 152.5?±?1.1 nm and ?49.8?±?1.0 mV, respectively. A study using the fluorescent probe pyrene showed the critical micellar concentration is 9.2?±?2.9 ?g/ml. Release studies showed 94?±?0.1% release in non-formulated extract and 62.4?±?0.1% in OS liposomes. Released extract from OS liposomes showed improvement in DPPH scavenging effect, IC50?=?23.5?±?1.1 ?g/ml compared to 32.4?±?0.5 ?g/ml in non-formulated extract. OS liposomes were stable at pH 5.5 and 7.4, but showed reversible agglomeration at pH 1.6. Absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs showed substantial improvement in permeability of 3?-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4?-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, eupatorin, and 3 other unknown compounds. Conclusions Enhanced solubility, absorption and antioxidant effect may improve the overall pharmacological effects and medicinal value of OS ethanolic extract. PMID:24674107

  14. PRESSURIZED FLUID EXTRACTION OF PUMPKIN SEED AND PUMPKIN SEED PRESSED CAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil is one of the top three nutritional oils (hemp seed oil, flax seed oil, pumpkin seed oil) that provide the highest essential fatty acids (Omega 3 and Omega 6) required for healthy mind/body functioning. It is known to prevent and alleviate bladder and prostate problems. The oil th...

  15. Optimization of the enzymatic treatment during aqueous oil extraction from sunflower seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Sineiro; H Dom??nguez; M. J Núñez; J. M Lema

    1998-01-01

    Partially dehulled sunflower seeds were subjected to a hydrolytic treatment with cellulases during aqueous processing for oil and protein extraction. Sub-optimal extraction conditions (particle size and separation technology) were established in order to appreciate the potential improvement caused by the enzymatic treatment and to select the best operational conditions. The effects of three operational variables (extraction–treatment time, water\\/seeds ratio and

  16. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Parveen, S; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Katoch, M; Khajuria, J K; Kaur, D; Ganai, A; Verma, P K; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, N K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum using the adult immersion test (AIT), egg hatchability test and larval packet test (LPT), respectively. Four concentrations of the extract (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in all the bioassays. In AIT, the mortality rates at 2.5, 5 and 10% were significantly different (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control group; however, at 20%, it was similar to the positive control group. Maximum mortality of 86.7% was recorded at 20%. The LC50 and LC95 values were calculated as 6.51 and 55.43%, respectively. The oviposition was reduced significantly by 36.8 and 59.1% at concentrations of 10 and 20%, respectively. Egg hatchability was reduced significantly at all concentrations (2.5-20%) in comparison to the control. In LPT, the extract caused 100% mortality of larvae at all the concentrations after 24 h. The results show that ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of A. absinthium has acaricidal properties and could be useful in controlling H. anatolicum. PMID:25039005

  17. Evaluation of the Wound-healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, Steve; Maxwell, Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. The primary indigenous use of this plant appears to be of the leaves, as a topical treatment for wound healing. The ethanol extract of noni leaves (150 mg kg?1 day?1) was used to evaluate the wound-healing activity on rats, using excision and dead space wound models. Animals were randomly divided into two groups of six for each model. Test group animals in each model were treated with the ethanol extract of noni orally by mixing in drinking water and the control group animals were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, time until complete epithelialization, granulation tissue weight and hydoxyproline content. On day 11, the extract-treated animals exhibited 71% reduction in the wound area when compared with controls which exhibited 57%. The granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content in the dead space wounds were also increased significantly in noni-treated animals compared with controls (P < 0.002). Enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content and histological characteristics suggest that noni leaf extract may have therapeutic benefits in wound healing. PMID:18955257

  18. Effect of ethanol on the chemical structure of the soot extractable material of an ethylene inverse diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Santamaria, Alexander; Mondragon, Fanor [Institute of Chemistry, University of Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Eddings, Eric G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The effect of fuel-side ethanol addition on the chemical structure of the soot extractable material generated in an ethylene inverse diffusion flame was evaluated by means of average structural parameters. The results indicate that the ethanol effect on the aromatic components was more pronounced, with an increase of about 40% in the average number of aromatic fused rings (R{sub a}) as compared to the results of a neat flame. This observation also helps explain the low percentage of chloroform-extractable material in the soot samples obtained from the flame with ethanol addition. In contrast, the aliphatic component of the extractable material did not demonstrate significant changes with ethanol addition. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Physiological Activities of the Citron (Citrus junos Sieb. ex TANAKA) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Citron seed extracts (CSEs) were made using distilled water (CSEW), ethanol (CSEE), and n-hexane (CSEH), to measure the total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The total polyphenol content was observed the highest in CSEE (188.71 ?g/mL), and occurred in the following order: CSEE>CSEW (141.11 ?g/mL)>CSEH (26.19 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL. CSEE (63.56%) and CSEW (56.61%) showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activities when compared with CSEH (28.57%). ABTS radical scavenging activities of CSEE (45.53%) and CSEW (40.02%) were also observed to be higher, whereas CSEH did not show ABTS radical scavenging activity. Anti-complementary activity of CSEE (26.85%) showed a greater activity than that of CSEW (7.84%) at 1,000 ?g/mL. Limonin and nomilin contents had the highest values (1.882% and 2.089%) in CSEE, and with 0.327% and 0.139% in CSEW; however, CSEH showed relatively very low values at 0.061% and 0.026%, respectively. Among the CSEs tested, CSEE as a by-product from citron may provide an important source of dietary antioxidant compounds with rich polyphenol and limonoid contents, and immunopotentiating activity, including the complement activation factor. PMID:24471132

  20. Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Shaheed, Ameer; Templeton, Michael R; Matthews, Robert L; Tripathi, Sabitri K; Bhattarai, Kiran

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and dose-dependent. The maximum coliform inactivation achieved in any trial was 86%. Fruit extracts were more successful at inactivating total coliforms than faecal coliforms. Seed extracts achieved higher coliform inactivation levels than fruit extracts generally. Overall, the antimicrobial potential of seeds and fruit from L. cylindrica was demonstrated; however the disinfection performance was less than would be required for these extracts to be considered reliable disinfectants for drinking water treatment. PMID:20088208

  1. Inhibition of ?-Amylase and ?-Glucosidase Activity by Tea and Grape Seed Extracts and their Constituent Catechins

    PubMed Central

    Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M.; Michels, Alexander J.; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, glucosidases required for starch digestion. The abundant flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) in these extracts were also tested for their inhibitory potential and evaluated against the pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. To evaluate relative potency of these extracts and catechins, the concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess an inhibitor’s relative efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. While tea extracts and individual catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of ?-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase. Our data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase, and suggest that procyanidins found in grape seed extract strongly inhibit ?-amylase activity. PMID:22697360

  2. ?-Sitosterol: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Li?ková, Ivana; Wimmerová, Martina; Sovová, Helena; Wimmer, Zden?k

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15–60 MPa and temperatures of 40–80 °C. Oil and ?-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of ?-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of ?-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 °C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 °C. Both ?-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide. PMID:20480045

  3. Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

    2014-01-01

    Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml?1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations. PMID:25400590

  4. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Enomfon J; Okokon, Jude E; Offong, Emem

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fraction of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods M. scandens leaf extract/fractions (37–111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of 7 hours for acute study and 14 days for prolonged study. Lipid profiles of the treated diabetic rats were determined after the period of treatment. Results Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting bloodglucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. The extract/fractions exerted a significant reduction in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL of extract with increases in HDL levels of the diabetic rats. Conclusions These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes. PMID:23569963

  5. Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Abatan, Mathew O.

    2013-01-01

    It is presumed that drugs sourced from herbs have lesser side effects than allopathic drugs. Enantia chlorantha is widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as jaundice, malaria, fever, infective hepatitis, etc. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. The effects of ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark on body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as histology of vital organs (heart, kidneys and liver) were assessed. Also, the phytochemical constituent of the plant was analysed. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups (A–E) of five rats each and the ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark extract was administered by oral gavage in a single dose. Group A rats were administered 500 mg/kg of the extract, group B; 1000 mg/kg, group C; 2000 mg/kg, group D; 3000 mg/kg and group E rats received distilled water (10 ml/kg) and served as control. The extract caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in a dose dependent manner. Further, significant alterations were not observed in the serum biochemical parameters analysed (AST, ALP, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubin). In addition, the extract at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg caused congestion in the heart and kidney of experimental rats. These results suggest that oral administration of E. chlorantha may produce severe toxic effects at relatively high doses, thus caution should be exercised in its use. PMID:24678252

  6. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract ameliorates monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Yun Ju; Joo, Young Bin; Jung, Young Ok; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Mi La; Oh, Hye Jwa; Jhun, Joo Youn; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Jin Sil; Kang, Chang Min; Sung, Mi Sook; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Ho Youn; Min, Jun Ki

    2011-10-31

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related joint disease that is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage and chronic pain. Oxidative stress is considered one of the pathophysiological factors in the progression of OA. We investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), which is an antioxidant, on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced arthritis of the knee joint of rat, which is an animal model of human OA. GSPE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) or saline was given orally three times per week for 4 weeks after the MIA injection. Pain was measured using the paw withdrawal latency (PWL), the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and the hind limb weight bearing ability. Joint damage was assessed using histological and microscopic analysis and microcomputerized tomography. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) and nitrotyrosine were detected using immunohistochemistry. Administration of GSPE to the MIA-treated rats significantly increased the PWL and PWT and this resulted in recovery of hind paw weight distribution (P < 0.05). GSPE reduced the loss of chondrocytes and proteoglycan, the production of MMP13, nitrotyrosine and IL-1? and the formation of osteophytes, and it reduced the number of subchondral bone fractures in the MIA-treated rats. These results indicate that GSPE is antinociceptive and it is protective against joint damage in the MIA-treated rat model of OA. GSPE could open up novel avenues for the treatment of OA. PMID:21795829

  7. Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

  8. Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ameer Shaheed; Michael R. Templeton; Robert L. Matthews; Sabitri K. Tripathi; Kiran Bhattarai

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and

  9. Ethanol Extract of Ulmus pumila Root Bark Inhibits Clinically Isolated Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    You, Yong-Ouk; Kim, Kang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    In this study, root bark of Ulmus pumila (U. pumila) was extracted with ethanol, and then the antimicrobial effects were tested on clinically isolated 12 MRSA strains and 1 standard MRSA strain. U. pumila showed antibacterial activities against all MRSA strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of U. pumila root bark against all MRSA strains revealed a range from 125 to 250??g/mL. These results may provide the scientific basis on which U. pumila root bark has traditionally been used against infectious diseases in Korea. In real-time PCR analysis, the sub-MIC (64–125??g/mL) concentrations of U. pumila root bark extract showed the inhibition of the genetic expressions of virulence factors such as mecA, sea, agrA, and sarA in standard MRSA. Phytochemical analyses of U. pumila root bark showed relatively strong presence of phenolics, steroids, and terpenoids. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of U. pumila root bark may have antibacterial activity against MRSA, which may be related to the phytochemicals such as phenolics, steroids, and terpenoids. Further studies are needed to determine the active constituents of U. pumila root bark responsible for such biomolecular activities. PMID:24228058

  10. Ethanol Extract of Ulmus pumila Root Bark Inhibits Clinically Isolated Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria.

    PubMed

    You, Yong-Ouk; Choi, Na-Young; Kim, Kang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    In this study, root bark of Ulmus pumila (U. pumila) was extracted with ethanol, and then the antimicrobial effects were tested on clinically isolated 12 MRSA strains and 1 standard MRSA strain. U. pumila showed antibacterial activities against all MRSA strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of U. pumila root bark against all MRSA strains revealed a range from 125 to 250? ? g/mL. These results may provide the scientific basis on which U. pumila root bark has traditionally been used against infectious diseases in Korea. In real-time PCR analysis, the sub-MIC (64-125? ? g/mL) concentrations of U. pumila root bark extract showed the inhibition of the genetic expressions of virulence factors such as mecA, sea, agrA, and sarA in standard MRSA. Phytochemical analyses of U. pumila root bark showed relatively strong presence of phenolics, steroids, and terpenoids. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of U. pumila root bark may have antibacterial activity against MRSA, which may be related to the phytochemicals such as phenolics, steroids, and terpenoids. Further studies are needed to determine the active constituents of U. pumila root bark responsible for such biomolecular activities. PMID:24228058

  11. Gastroprotective Effects of Glutinous Rice Extract against Ethanol-, Indomethacin-, and Stress-induced Ulcers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Dong Up; Jang, Mi Sun; Kim, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Hyun Joong; Chay, Kee Oh; Joo, Young Eun; Jung, Young Do; Yang, Sung Yeul; Ahn, Bong Whan

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of an orally administered aqueous extract of glutinous rice (GRE) to protect against acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by ethanol, indomethacin, and water immersion restraint stress in rats and to characterize the active substances responsible for the protection. GRE was shown to dose-dependently prevent the gastric lesions induced by the above ulcerogenic treatments at doses of 30 to 300 mg/kg. GRE treatment increased the gastric mucin content and partially blocked the ethanol-induced depletion of the gastric mucus layer. Also, it increased the nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration in the gastric mucosa. The gastroprotective action of GRE was markedly enhanced by co-treatment with 4-8 mg/kg tea extracts. The activity of GRE was completely lost by heat treatment at 80? for 3 min or treatment with 0.01% pepsin at 37? for 1 h. Protein extraction studies indicated that prolamins are involved in the gastroprotective activity of GRE. Our results suggest that glutinous rice proteins are useful for the prevention and treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer. PMID:24855601

  12. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Tadi?, Vanja M; Dobri?, Silva; Markovi?, Goran M; Dordevi?, Sofija M; Arsi?, Ivana A; Menkovi?, Nebojsa R; Stevi?, Tanja

    2008-09-10

    Hawthorn [Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus oxyacantha L.; sin. Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC., Rosaceae] leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. According to European Pharmacopoeia 6.0, hawthorn berries consist of the dried false fruits of these two species or their mixture. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. Phenolic compounds represented 3.54%, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Determination of total flavonoid aglycones content yielded 0.18%. The percentage of hyperoside, as the main flavonol component, was 0.14%. With respect to procyanidins content, the obtained value was 0.44%. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extract was concentration-dependent, with EC50 value of 52.04 microg/mL (calculation based on the total phenolic compounds content in the extract). Oral administration of investigated extract caused dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The obtained anti-inflammatory effect was 20.8, 23.0, and 36.3% for the extract doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to indomethacin, given in a dose producing 50% reduction of rat paw edema, the extract given in the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed 72.4% of its activity. Gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats with ranitidine as a reference drug. Hawthorn extract produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity (3.8 +/- 2.1, 1.9 +/- 1.7, and 0.7 +/- 0.5 for doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively), with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug. Antimicrobial testing of the extract revealed its moderate bactericidal activity, especially against gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus subtilis, and Lysteria monocytogenes, with no effect on Candida albicans. All active components identified in the extract might be responsible for activities observed. PMID:18698794

  13. [Antifeedant and antioviposition activities of Momordica charantia leaf ethanol extract against Liriomyza sativae].

    PubMed

    Ling, Bing; Xiang, Ya-Lin; Wang, Guo-Cai; Chen, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Mao-Xin

    2009-04-01

    Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is one of the important pests harming a wide variety of vegetables and ornamental plants throughout the world. The leaf ethanol extract of Momordica charantia at the concentration of 2000-4000 microg x ml(-1) displayed significant antifeedant and antioviposition activities against L. sativae adults. For further purifying the extract, four solvents, i. e., cyclohexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, were used to extract the ethanol extract, and the antifeedant and antioviposition activities of the extracts against L. sativae adults were tested. The results showed that after treated with the extracts at the concentration of 1000 microg x ml(-1) for 2 days, the antifeedant index (AFI) of cyclohexane-, ethyl acetate-, n-butanol- and water extracts against L. sativae adults was 11.08%, 34.89%, 22.99% and 0, and the antioviposition index (AOI) was 0, 30.91%, 6.45% and 0, respectively. Ethyl acetate extract had the highest bioactivity. At the concentration of 4000 microg x ml(-1), the AFI and AOI of ethyl acetate extract were 70.95% and 69.49%, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract was then isolated by silica gel column chromatography, and three compounds, i.e., (19S, 23E)-5beta,19-epoxy-19-methoxy-cucurbita-6,23-dien-3beta and 25-diol (compound 1), (19R, 23E)-5beta,19-epoxy-19-methoxy-cucurbita-6,23-dien-3beta and 25-diol (compound 2), and 3beta, 7beta,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (compound 3), were obtained. These three compounds at concentration of 100-400 microg x ml(-1) all had inhibitory effects on the feeding and oviposition of L. sativae. At the concentration of 400 microg x ml(-1), the AFI and AOI were 66.89% , 53.53% and 78.02% , and 76.32%, 58.36% and 78.36% for compound 1, 2 and 3, respectively. PMID:19565764

  14. Apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from some Apiaceae on human leukaemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bogucka-Kocka, A; Smolarz, H D; Kocki, J

    2008-12-01

    Apiaceae are a family of medicinal plants widely used in traditional medicine. The apoptotic activities of seven ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae, Eryngium planum, Archangelica officinalis, Pastinaca sativa, Heracleum sibiricum, Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Levisticum officinale against ML-1--human acute myeloblastic leukaemia, J-45.01--human acute T cell leukaemia, EOL--human eosinophilic leukaemia, HL-60--human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia, 1301--human T cell leukaemia lymphoblast, C-8166--human T cell leukaemia, U-266B1--human myeloma, WICL--human Caucasian normal B cell, and H-9--human T cell, were investigated. PMID:18672039

  15. Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Aerial Parts of Echium italicum L. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Shahandeh, Shabnam; Shahsavand, Shabnam

    2012-01-01

    Background Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has clearly improved in recent decades. Self-administration of herbal medicines has been the most popular therapeutic alternative to standard medicine. Objectives Since the extract of Echium amoenum exhibits an anxiolytic effect, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects in mice of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of E. italicum, a member of the Boraginaceae family. Materials and Methods Mice were administered the agents intraperitoneally before the start of the experiments for evaluation of hypnotic activity (induced by sodium pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), anxiolytic activity (elevated plus-maze [EPM] test), locomotor activity (open field test), and motor coordination (rotarod test). Result The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum, at doses of 1.2 and 2.1 g/kg, increased the percentage of time-spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM and decreased the percentage of time-spent in the closed arms of the EPM. Moreover, both extracts decreased the pentobarbital-induced latency to sleep and significantly increased the total sleeping time induced by pentobarbital. In addition, locomotor activity was affected by aqueous extracts and ethanolic extract (at higher doses). Both extracts showed no effect in the rotarod test. Conclusions These results suggest that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum may have anxiolytic effects and sedative activity but no effect on muscle relaxation. PMID:24624158

  16. Extraction of nobiletin and tangeretin from Citrus depressa Hayata by supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol as modifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ying-Hung Lee; Albert Linton Charles; Hsien-Feng Kung; Chi-Tang Ho; Tzou-Chi Huang

    2010-01-01

    An optimal condition of supercritical fluid extraction for two polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), nobiletin and tangeretin, from Citrus depressa Hayata was developed. The effect of modifier type, modifier composition in terms of water content in ethanol, modifier percentage, extraction condition (temperature, pressure and CO2 flow rate), and particle size on the yield of nobiletin and tangeretin were investigated. The contents of nobiletin

  17. Anti-obesity and antihyperlipidaemic effect of Hunteria umbellata seed extract in experimental hyperlipidaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adejuwon Adewale Adeneye; Olufunmilayo Olaide Adeyemi; Esther Oluwatoyin Agbaje

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the studyIn Nigerian folk medicine, water infusion of the dried seeds of Hunteria umbellata (K. Schum.) Hallier f. has a reputation for the local management of obesity and hyperlipidaemia. The present study is aimed at evaluating the anti-obesity and antihyperlipidaemic activities as well as the underlying mechanisms of action of the aqueous seed extract of Hunteria umbellata (HU)

  18. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Marie-Magdeleine; H. Hoste; M. Mahieu; H. Varo; H. Archimede

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and

  19. Uncaria tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract triggers an immunomodulation toward a Th2 cytokine profile.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Alexandre; Sartori, Alexandrina; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Golim, Marjorie Assis; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2011-08-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC (Rubiaceae) is a large woody vine that is native to the Amazon and Central American rainforests and is used widely in traditional medicine for its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activities. The present work used in vivo immunotoxic and in vitro immunomodulatory experiments to investigate the effects of a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid extract from U. tomentosa bark on lymphocyte phenotype, Th1/Th2 cytokine production, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity. For the in vivo immunotoxicity testing, BALB/c male mice were treated once a day with 125, 500 or 1250?mg/kg of U. tomentosa extract for 28?days. For the in vitro protocol, lymphocytes were cultured with 10-500??g/mg of the extract for 48?h. The extract increased the cellularity of splenic white pulp and the thymic medulla and increased the number of T helper lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Also, a large stimulatory effect on lymphocyte viability was observed. However, mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations of U. tomentosa extract. Furthermore, an immunological polarization toward a Th2 cytokine profile was observed. These results suggest that the U. tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract was not immunotoxic to mice and was able to modulate distinct patterns of the immune system in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:21656603

  20. Antidiarrheal evaluation of the ethanol extract of Nauclea latifolia root bark.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, O J; Nworgu, Z A M; Odushu, K

    2010-10-01

    Nauclea latifolia (Rubiaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Nigeria folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The root bark of the plant was extracted with 70% ethanol and the extract screened for antidiarrheal activity by investigating castor oil-induced diarrhea and small intestinal motility in mice. The effects of the extract on isolated rat ileum were also investigated. The extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in the frequency of diarrhea and conferred protection following castor oil administration (P < 0.05). It also significantly (P < 0.0001) inhibited small intestinal motility in mice at the same doses. Its activity was dose-dependent and when compared to atropine, its antidiarrheal effects at 500 mg/kg were 179% and 165% respectively, in castor oil-induced diarrhea and small intestinal motility experiments. Extract effects on rat ileum revealed a significant (P < 0.0001) inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contractions at 0.2 and 2 mg/mL final bath concentrations used. These findings confirm the antidiarrheal activity of the root bark extract of N. latifolia. PMID:21132124

  1. Effect of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed extract on stability of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the antioxidant effect of date (Phoenix dactylifera L., Arecaceae) seed extracts at different concentrations (0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the oxidative stability of olive oil at 60 °C was determined. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was used as positive control in the experiment. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activity compared to BHA up to 21 days. When antioxidant effect of extract concentrations were compared with BHA, the effect of 0.5 % extract concentration was more remarkable for olive oil up to 21 days. After 14 days of assay, all of seed extracts was effective at 60 °C in comparison with control. On the other hand, an important increase was observed in both the peroxide and free fatty acidity values during the experiment period. It concluded that date seed extract could be used as a oxidative inhibitor agent in oil and oil products. PMID:25694743

  2. Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits. PMID:22188801

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts on Gram-Negative Food-borne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were prepared from different solvents, water (TW), ethanol (TE), and n-hexane (TH), and assessed for their antimicrobial activities against six gram-negative food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli KCTC 1039, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895, Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 3311, Salmonella Typhimurium KCCM 11862, Shigella sonnei KCTC 2518, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802). Among the tested TSEs, TE and TH showed a slight inhibition activity on V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802, but a good growth inhibition activity on Sal. Typhimurium KCCM 11862. TH and TE showed steady growth inhibition activity with increasing growth time after 6 hr when compared to the control (p<0.05). From these results, we confirmed the possibility of TH and TE as antimicrobial materials. PMID:24471089

  4. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected medicinal plants--effects of high pressure and added ethanol on yield of extracted substances.

    PubMed

    Hamburger, M; Baumann, D; Adler, S

    2004-01-01

    The possibilities and limitations of supercritical fluid extraction of natural products of low, medium and high polarity under very high pressure and with polar modifiers has been investigated. The medicinal herbs marigold (Calendula officinalis), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) were used as models in this study. Extraction profiles and the spectra of extractable metabolites were recorded following extraction with mixtures of carbon dioxide:ethanol of varying proportions (0-20% ethanol) and at various pressures in the range 300-689 bar. Components were identified by HPLC-PAD-MS or GC-MS and quantified by HPLC or GC as appropriate. Extraction yields under the varying conditions depended to a large extent on the profiles of secondary metabolites present in the three drugs. Whereas the extractability of lipophilic compounds increased substantially at pressures above 300 bar, the yields of polyphenolic and glycosidic compounds remained low even at 689 bar and with 20% modifier in the extraction fluid. PMID:14979527

  5. Ethanolic Extracts of California Mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) Are Cytotoxic against Normal and Cancerous Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Somaweera, Himali; Lai, Gary C.; Blackeye, Rachel; Littlejohn, Beverly; Kirksey, Justine; Aguirre, Richard M.; LaPena, Vince; Pasqua, Anna; Hintz, Mary McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) is used by many tribes throughout California to treat a variety of conditions, including colds, allergies, and pain. California mugwort is also utilized as women’s medicine. Its use is on the rise outside of Native communities, often without the guidance of a traditional healer or experienced herbalist. Because it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity against plant and animal cells, we investigated whether California mugwort extracts have an effect on normal human cells as well as estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor negative (ER?) human breast cancer cells. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of A. douglasiana leaves were tested for cytotoxicity against unstimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC), as well as against an ER+ human breast cancer cell line (BT-474) and an ER? human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). An ethanolic leaf extract killed hPBMC, BT-474, and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 23.6 ± 0.3, 27 ± 5, and 37 ± 4 ?g/ml, respectively. An aqueous extract killed hPBMC with an IC50 value of 60 ± 10 ?g/ml, but had no effect on the two cancer cell lines at concentrations up to 100 ?g/ml. The results of this study indicate that the cytotoxicity of California mugwort extends to normal human cells, as well as cancerous cells. Therefore, until further is known about the safety of this medicine, caution should be taken when consuming extracts of California mugwort, whether as a tincture or as a tea. PMID:24073389

  6. Design of a press for oil extraction from moringa seeds for Haiti

    E-print Network

    Sabelli, Alessandra Maria, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    The project here presented focuses on the development of a harvesting tool for Haiti, a developing country, for the extraction of oil from the seeds of the moringa trees. Moringas have an extraordinarily nutritional potential ...

  7. Final report on the safety assessment of Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, and Corylus Rostrata (Hazel) Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Madhaven, N

    2001-01-01

    These ingredients are all derived from hazelnut trees. The two seed oils are expressed from the nuts of the hazelnut tree of the particular species identified. Most current reported cosmetic uses are of the seed oils. The seed extracts are the extract of the nuts of the identified species tree. There is one current report of use of seed extract in cosmetics. The leaf extracts are the extract from the leaves of the particular species tree. There are no current reports of use of these extracts in cosmetics. Analysis of seed oil from one species identified Oleic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Eicosaenoic Acid, Docosenoic Acid, Eicosanoic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Stearic Acid, and Tetraeicosanoic Acid. Little information is available to characterize the extracts, however. The functions of most of these ingredients in cosmetics are not reported. In studies of hazelnuts from Spain and Egypt, aflatoxin was reported as a possible contaminant. Aflatoxins are considered carcinogenic in humans. Virtually no safety test data are available on these ingredients. Negative results in one comedogenicity study using a seed oil are reported. Cross-sensitivity to proteins in peanuts and those in hazelnuts are reported, but the presence or absence of protein in nut extract and plant extract from hazelnut trees is not known. Additional data were provided regarding concentration of use, method of extraction and contaminants, comedogenicity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorption, but these data related to nut oil from only one species, and were not overall sufficient to resolve questions about irritation, sensitization, and photosensitization. Because of the absence of data, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic products. Because of the limited information that characterizes any of these oils or extracts, data are needed on each (except that items 1, 2, and 3 below are not needed for Hazel [Corylus Avellana] Nut Oil). The additonal data needs include: (1) current concentration of use; (2) method of extraction/manufacture and quality control (i.e., chemical analyses); (3) contaminants and methods of extraction (especially pesticides and heavy metals); (4) dermal irritation and sensitization; (5) UV absorption; if there is significant absorption, then a photosensitization study will be needed; (6) 28-day dermal toxicity; (7) reproductive and developmental toxicity; and (8) two genotoxicity assays, one in a mammalian system; if positive, then a 2-year dermal carcinogenesis study using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods may be needed. PMID:11358108

  8. Antitumor Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Dendrobium formosum in T-Cell Lymphoma: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ritika; Koch, Biplob

    2014-01-01

    Dendrobium, a genus of orchid, was found to possess useful therapeutic activities like anticancer, hypoglycaemic, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities. The study was aimed to evaluate the anticancer property of the ethanolic extract of Dendrobium formosum on Dalton's lymphoma. In vitro cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay, apoptosis was determined by fluorescence microscopy, and cell cycle progression was analysed using flow cytometry; in vivo antitumor activity was performed in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract was obtained at 350??g/mL in Dalton's lymphoma cells. Fluorescence microscopy analysis showed significant increase in apoptotic cell death in dose- and time-dependent manner which was further confirmed through the resulting DNA fragmentation. Further, flow cytometry analysis showed that the ethanolic extract arrests the cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The in vivo anticancer activity study illustrates significant increase in the survival time of Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice on treatment with ethanolic extract when compared to control. These results substantiate the antitumor properties of ethanolic extract of Dendrobium formosum and suggest an alternative in treatment of cancer. Further studies are required regarding the isolation and characterization of bioactive components along with the analysis of molecular mechanism involved. PMID:24959588

  9. Quality of borage seed oil extracted by liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Molero Gómez; E Mart??nez de la Ossa

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the extraction of borage seed oil by liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide, from the point of view of both operative method and pre-treatment of raw material. The best conditions for borage seed oil extraction are obtained at 300bar, 40°C and a solvent flow rate of 1.5l\\/min at STP. The yields obtained are very similar to those resulting

  10. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alaaeldin A. Hamza

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), twice weekly and for 8weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g\\/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well

  11. A twin-screw extruder for oil extraction: I. Direct expression of oleic sunflower seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne Dufaure; Juliette Leyris; Luc Rigal; Zéphirin Mouloungui

    1999-01-01

    Lipids are traditionally removed from seeds by mechanical crushing and solvent extraction. During the mechanical crushing\\u000a process the oilseed is cleaned, cracked, flaked, and cooked before entering a mechanical screw press. Seventy-five percent\\u000a of the oil of sunflower seeds can be extracted by crushing, and the fatty cake then contains about 15% of oil. The oil levels\\u000a remaining in the

  12. Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ishnava, Kalpesh B; Shah, Pankit P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria. Materials and Methods: The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract. Results: The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36?g/ml and 182.19?g/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50) value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein. Conclusion: Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria. PMID:25628685

  13. Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    AlRashdi, Ahmed S.; Salama, Suzy M.; Alkiyumi, Salim S.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Abdelwahab, Siddig I.; Taha, Manal M.; Hussiani, Jamal; Asykin, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20?mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500?mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as compared with omeprazole or extract which shows significant protection towards gastric mucosal injury the plant promotes ulcer protection as it shows significant reduction of ulcer area grossly, and histology showed marked reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared with ulcer group. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of Hsp70 protein and downexpression of Bax protein in rats pretreated with extract. Significant increased in the pH, mucus of gastric content and high levels of PGE2, SOD and reduced amount of MDA was observed. PMID:22550543

  14. Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Alrashdi, Ahmed S; Salama, Suzy M; Alkiyumi, Salim S; Abdulla, Mahmood A; Hadi, A Hamid A; Abdelwahab, Siddig I; Taha, Manal M; Hussiani, Jamal; Asykin, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20?mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500?mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as compared with omeprazole or extract which shows significant protection towards gastric mucosal injury the plant promotes ulcer protection as it shows significant reduction of ulcer area grossly, and histology showed marked reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared with ulcer group. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of Hsp70 protein and downexpression of Bax protein in rats pretreated with extract. Significant increased in the pH, mucus of gastric content and high levels of PGE(2), SOD and reduced amount of MDA was observed. PMID:22550543

  15. Controlling rice blast in vitro and in vivo with extracts of Azadirachta indica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Amadioha

    2000-01-01

    Water and ethanol leaf extracts, and oil extract of seeds of Azadirachta indica (neem) significantly reduced the in vitro radial growth of Pyricularia oryzae and the development and spread of blast disease in rice plants in the greenhouse. Oil extracts exhibited the best control of the pathogen and subsequent disease followed by ethanol extract, cold water and then hot water

  16. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan. PMID:24300515

  17. Grape seed extract attenuates arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, JIANGONG; PAN, XINJUAN; LI, NING; LI, XING; WANG, YONGCHAO; LIU, XIAOZHUAN; YIN, XINJUAN; YU, ZENGLI

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a recognized factor in nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (As). Grape seed extract (GSE) possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effects of GSE against arsenic-induced renal injury. Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to As in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg) for 12 months. The serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and mRNA expression levels of fibrogenic markers in the renal tissues were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) subunits, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) were assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cotreatment with GSE significantly improved renal function, as demonstrated by the reductions in relative kidney weight (% of body weight) and blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in the creatinine clearance capacity. GSE attenuated the As-induced changes in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1? and the mRNA levels of TGF-?1, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in renal tissue. Furthermore, administration of GSE markedly reduced As-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nox activity, as well as the protein expression levels of the NADPH subunits (Nox2, p47phox and Nox4). In addition, GSE cotreatment was correlated with a significant reduction in TGF-?/Smad signaling, as demonstrated by the decreased protein levels of TGF-?1 and pSmad2/3 in renal tissue. This study indicated that GSE may be a useful agent for the prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to As. GSE may exert its effects through the suppression of Nox and inhibition of TGF-?/Smad signaling activation. PMID:24348802

  18. Grape seed extract attenuates arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiangong; Pan, Xinjuan; Li, Ning; Li, Xing; Wang, Yongchao; Liu, Xiaozhuan; Yin, Xinjuan; Yu, Zengli

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a recognized factor in nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (As). Grape seed extract (GSE) possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effects of GSE against arsenic-induced renal injury. Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to As in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg) for 12 months. The serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and mRNA expression levels of fibrogenic markers in the renal tissues were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) subunits, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) were assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cotreatment with GSE significantly improved renal function, as demonstrated by the reductions in relative kidney weight (% of body weight) and blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in the creatinine clearance capacity. GSE attenuated the As-induced changes in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1? and the mRNA levels of TGF-?1, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in renal tissue. Furthermore, administration of GSE markedly reduced As-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nox activity, as well as the protein expression levels of the NADPH subunits (Nox2, p47phox and Nox4). In addition, GSE cotreatment was correlated with a significant reduction in TGF-?/Smad signaling, as demonstrated by the decreased protein levels of TGF-?1 and pSmad2/3 in renal tissue. This study indicated that GSE may be a useful agent for the prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to As. GSE may exert its effects through the suppression of Nox and inhibition of TGF-?/Smad signaling activation. PMID:24348802

  19. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as indicators of the presence or high levels of anti-oxidants in the oils. PMID:22530436

  20. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  1. Extraction of Field Pennycress Seed Oil by Full Pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in the temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (db) with the major fatty acid as erucic acid (38%). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a major source of...

  2. Antifertility activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Ayodeji F; Akhigbe, Roland E

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complementary medicine has grown over time with more botanicals emerging and remaining integral parts of medicare. Such botanicals include Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. AIM: This study investigated the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract on male reproductive system using rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Control and treated rats were maintained on control diet. Treated rats also received graded doses of the extract. RESULTS: When compared with the controls, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta treatment led to significant testosterone suppression associated with consequent significant rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) and decrease in sperm count. Treatment with Cryptolepis sanguinolenta did not result in significant attenuation of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and testicular morphometry. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also comparable in all groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity. PMID:22870014

  3. Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hefnawy, Hefnawy Taha M.; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in reproductive system of rats. Methods Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v). The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight) in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px). Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally) once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal level by lettuce extract supplementation to CCl4-intoxicated rat. Conclusions The results clearly demonstrate that lettuce extract treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism against CCl4-induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

  4. Evaluation of anti-Bothrops asper venom activity of ethanolic extract of Brownea rosademonte leaves.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Marcos; Chérigo, Lilia; Acosta, Hildaura; Otero, Rafael; Martínez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    Significant inhibition of the coagulant and hemorrhagic effects of Bothrops asper venom was demonstrated by ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Brownea rosademonte. In vitro experiments preincubating 5.5 mg of extract kg-1 b.m. for 30 min with a minimum hemorrhagic dose of venom (273.8 ± 16.1 ?g of venom kg-1 b.m.) lowered the hemorrhagic activity of the venom alone in CD-1 mice by 51.5 ± 2.6 %. Additionally, 1.7 mg extract L-1 plasma prolonged 5.1 times the plasma coagulation time. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two compounds: ononitol (1) and quercetrin (2). The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was established by spectroscopic analyses, including APCI-HRMS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY). A quercetrin concentration of 0.11 ?mol L-1 prolonged the plasma coagulation time 2.6 times demonstrating that this compound was one of the active constituents of the Brownea rosademonte extract. PMID:25531787

  5. Antidiarrheal evaluation of the ethanol extract of Musanga cecropioides stem bark.

    PubMed

    Owolabi, O J; Ayinde, B A; Nworgu, Z A M; Ogbonna, O O

    2010-01-01

    The ethnomedicinal uses of Musanga cecropioides R. Apud Tedlie (Cecropiaceae) as a hypotensive agent have been scientifically investigated and reported. This work examines its effect on various models of diarrhea based on the ethnomedicinal use of the plant for this indication. The stem bark of the plant, used locally by soaking in gin (alcoholic), was treated with absolute ethanol and the extract screened for antidiarrheal activity using the castor oil-induced diarrhea and small intestinal motility models in mice. Its effects on the isolated rat ileum were also investigated. In the castor oil-induced diarrhea, the extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.05 at all doses) showed dose-related antidiarrheal effects as indicated by reduction in the number and weight of fecal material produced. The extract at all doses used also significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses, respectively) decreased the intestinal motility of the treated mice as compared to controls and inhibited acetylcholine-induced contractions (P < 0.0001). In the isolated rat ileum the extract at 5 and 10 mg/mL, remarkably inhibited acetylcholine induced contractions, indicating a probable antimuscarinic effect of the extract. The results obtained confirmed that the stem bark of M cecropioides has antidiarrheal activity as used in folkloric medicine. PMID:20852749

  6. Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Jin, Wenwen; Ao, Mingzhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. Materials and Methods: Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group. Conclusions: Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women. PMID:25097281

  7. Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Anantha, Krishna Chaitanya D.; Siva, Reddy Challa; Manohar, Reddy A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE) was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. Results: Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body weight was administered orally once for 3 days. Substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment were restored towards normal. Biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. In addition, BHEE significantly decreased the liver weight of paracetamol intoxicated rats. Silymarin at a dose level of 25 mg/kg used as a standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: The results of this study strongly indicate that BHEE has got a potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. PMID:23326091

  8. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Md.; Atikur Rahman, Md.; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1?mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. PMID:25861372

  9. Ethanolic extract of Aloe vera ameliorates sciatic nerve ligation induced neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Kanyadhara, Swetha; Dodoala, Sujatha; Sampathi, Sunitha; Punuru, Priyanka; Chinta, Gopichand

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is being used since ages by human kind for treating various ailments including various inflammatory conditions, but scientific validation has not been done for analgesic activity against neuropathic pain. Objective: The current study was designed to systematically evaluate the therapeutic potential of the ethanolic extract of A. vera (EEAV) against sciatic nerve ligation (SCNL) induced neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Nociceptive threshold of EEAV against thermal hyperalgesia, chemical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were performed on 0, 7, 14 and 21st day post-SCNL. Serum total protein, serum nitrite, in vivo anti-oxidant parameters and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated. Sciatic nerve homogenate was used to estimate myeloperoxidase (MPO) and calcium levels. Histopathology of the sciatic nerve was done to confirm the biochemical findings. Results: Treatment with ethanolic extract has increased the threshold for the nociception in thermal hyperalgesia, chemical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia models. A significant improvement of in vivo anti-oxidant parameters and decreased LPO levels were observed on treatment with A. vera. Significant decrease in serum nitrite, protein, calcium and MPO levels were observed, indicating protection against damage caused by SCNL. Conclusion: The results of the present study validate the use of EEAV to treat neuropathic pain. This effect may be attributed to the decreased migration of neutrophils and due to the anti-oxidant properties of A. vera. Further studies to confirm the mechanism of action will help develop suitable A. vera formulations for neuropathic pain therapy. PMID:25593400

  10. Acaricidal activity of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla ethanolic extracts against Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies.

    PubMed

    El Zalabani, Soheir M; El-Askary, Hesham I; Mousa, Ola M; Issa, Marwa Y; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2012-02-01

    The acaricidal (miticidal) activity of 90% ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla were tested against Varroa destructor mite. Four concentrations were used over two different time intervals under laboratory and field conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on mortality and LC(50) of all tested extracts against the Varroa mite was concentration and time dependant. The acaricidal action against Varroa mites was relatively the least for the S. macrophylla stem bark extract at 500 ppm concentration after 48 h while it reached 100% and 95% in case of S. mahogani bark and S. macrophylla leaves, respectively. The% infestation with Varroa in colonies treated with the different extracts at various time intervals showed that the rate of infestation decreased to 0.0% after 12 days from the beginning of treatments with 500 ppm of S. mahogani leaves extract compared to 0.79% decrease after treatment with Mitac, a reference drug (60 mg/colony). The rate of infestation in case of treatments with S. mahogani bark, S. macrophylla leaves and S. macrophylla bark was decreased to 0.11%, 2.41% and 1.08%, respectively. The highest reduction was observed with S. mahogani leaves extract followed by S. mahogani bark. All the tested extracts showed less or no effect on honey bees at the different concentrations and at different bioassay times. This study suggested that the use of natural plant extracts or their products as ecofriendly biodegradable agents could be of high value for the control of Varroa mite. PMID:22101075

  11. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary. PMID:23569852

  12. Extraction of Essential Oils From the Seeds of Pomegranate Using Organic Solvents and Supercritical CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajar Abbasi; Karamatollah Rezaei; Ladan Rashidi

    2008-01-01

    In this study, essential oils from pomegranate seeds of the Malas variety from Shahreza, Iran, were extracted using hexane\\u000a and petroleum benzene applying four extraction methods: normal stirring, soxhlet, microwave irradiation, and ultrasonic irradiation.\\u000a Also, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 under different conditions was used for comparison. Different methods of extraction with organic solvents (normal stirring,\\u000a soxhlet, microwave irradiation,

  13. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Baysal; D. A. J. Starmans

    1999-01-01

    The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with supercritical-CO2 (SC-CO2) have been optimized with respect to pressure, temperature, CO2-flow and extraction time in order to selectively obtain the essential oil. Using Soxhlet extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were extracted. From

  14. Effect of Garden Cress Seeds Powder and Its Alcoholic Extract on the Metabolic Activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I.; Al-Thukair, Areej A.; Abbas, Fawkeya A.; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

    2014-01-01

    The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:24711855

  15. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  16. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  17. Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab.; Tayyab, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5?mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20?mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250?mg/kg and 500?mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5?mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2?g/kg and 5?g/kg). PMID:24783203

  18. Gastroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Golbabapour, Shahram; Ismail, Salmah; Tayyab, Saad; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5?mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20?mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250?mg/kg and 500?mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5?mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2?g/kg and 5?g/kg). PMID:24783203

  19. Flavonoid content in ethanolic extracts of selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous foods consumed by vulnerable groups of Kenya: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related functional properties.

    PubMed

    Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-08-01

    The present study evaluated the flavonoid content, antioxidant as well as type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activities of ethanolic extract of certain raw and traditionally processed indigenous food ingredients including cereals, legumes, oil seeds, tubers, vegetables and leafy vegetables, which are commonly consumed by vulnerable groups in Kenya. The vegetables exhibited higher flavonoid content (50-703 mg/100 g) when compared with the grains (47-343 mg/100 g). The ethanolic extract of presently studied food ingredients revealed 33-93% DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 486-6,389 mmol Fe(II)/g reducing power, 19-43% ?-amylase inhibition activity and 14-68% ?-glucosidase inhibition activity. Among the different food-stuffs, the drumstick and amaranth leaves exhibited significantly higher flavonoid content with excellent functional properties. Roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be suitable processing methods in preserving the functional properties. Hence, such viable processing techniques for respective food samples will be considered in the formulation of functional supplementary foods for vulnerable groups in Kenya. PMID:21375390

  20. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100?mg/L A. montana and 10–500?mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10?mg/L A. montana and 10–300?mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders. PMID:22958433

  1. Antiplasmodial and antidiabetic activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Heinsia crinata.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Jude E; Umoh, Emem E; Etim, Emmanuel I; Jackson, Clement L

    2009-02-01

    The ethanolic leaf extract of Heinsia crinata, grown particularly for the leaf in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, was evaluated for antiplasmodial activity in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice as well as for hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. H. crinata (450-1,350 mg/kg/day) exhibited significant (P < .05) blood schizonticidal activity in both the 4-day early infection test and established infection with a considerable mean survival time, though not comparable to that of the standard drug, chloroquine (5 mg/kg/day). Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the leaf extract caused a significant (P < .01) reduction in fasting blood glucose levels of normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats both in an acute study and with prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activity of the extract was comparable to that of the reference drug, glibenclamide, during the acute study but was not comparable to that of the standard drug during prolonged treatment. The results suggest that the leaf extract of H. crinata possesses significant (P < .05) antiplasmodial as well as hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects that can be employed in health care. PMID:19298206

  2. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Rados?aw; Zieli?ski, Henryk; Ciesio?ka, Danuta; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-03-01

    The antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the Uncaria tomentosa bark were evaluated. The analysis included trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOD) and quantitation of total tannins (TT) and total phenolic compounds (TPC). The obtained results indicate high antioxidant capacity of the studied materials in comparison to the other extracts of fruits, vegetables, cereals and medicinal plants. Higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of the alcoholic preparations -- TEAC=0.57 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.52 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.39 U/mg than of the aqueous preparation -- TEAC=0.34 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.19 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.10 U/mg were observed. These results might suggest higher medical suitability of alcoholic extracts. However, the highly elevated level of tannins in alcoholic extracts may cause undesirable gastric effects. PMID:16202551

  3. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

  4. Grape Seed Extract for Control of Human Enteric Viruses ?

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ?7 log10 PFU/ml or ?5 log10 PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37°C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (?7 log10 PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log10 PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log10 PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 37°C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. GSE treatment of low titers (?5 log10 PFU/ml) at 37°C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety. PMID:21498749

  5. Microemulsion system for topical delivery of thai mango seed kernel extract: development, physicochemical characterisation and ex vivo skin permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Padois, Karine; Falson, Françoise; Bavovada, Rapepol; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan

    2014-01-01

    A microemulsion system containing Thai mango seed kernel extract (MSKE, cultivar "Fahlun") was developed and characterised for the purpose of topical skin delivery. The MSKE-loaded microemulsions were prepared by using the spontaneous emulsification method. Isopropyl myristate (IPM) was selected as the oil phase. A polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate and sorbitan monododecanoate (1:1, w/w) system was used as the surfactant phase; an aqueous mixture of different cosurfactants (absolute ethanol, 96.3% v/v ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol or 1,2-propanediol) at a weight ratio of 1:1 was used as the aqueous phase. Among the cosurfactants studied, the 1-propanol aqueous mixture had the largest microemulsion region (48.93%) in the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Microemulsions containing 1% MSKE demonstrated good physicochemical stability during a six-month study period at 25 ± 2 °C/60% ± 5% RH. The ex vivo skin permeation study demonstrated that the microemulsions exhibited a potent skin enhancement effect allowing MSKE to penetrate skin layers up to 60-fold higher compared with the control. Neither skin irritation nor skin corrosion was observed in ex vivo studies. The present study revealed that IPM-based microemulsion systems may be promising carriers to enhance skin penetration and delivering MSKE for topical treatment. PMID:25347456

  6. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chatelain, Kourt; Phippen, Spencer; McCabe, Jonathan; Teeters, Christopher A.; O'Malley, Susan; Kingsley, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression. PMID:18955355

  7. Safety evaluations on ethanolic extract of red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) in mice.

    PubMed

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Sankhari, Jayanta M; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-01-01

    The present study has carried out safety evaluations on an ethanolic extract of red cabbage (RC) leaves in terms of acute and subchronic oral toxicity tests as per Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines in Swiss albino mice. Single-dose administration of RC extract (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, or 5000 mg/kg body weight) to Swiss albino mice did not manifest toxicity or any significant adverse behavioral alterations. Chronic administration of RC extract (1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/kg body weight) for 28 d also did not register any significant alterations in fluid intake, organ weights, plasma lipid profile, plasma creatine kinase-MB, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine, electrolytes, and calcium levels, and the total blood count showed a nonsignificant change. However, significant reduction in body-weight gain, food intake, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin content along with higher alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and urea levels was observed in mice treated with 3000 mg/kg body weight for 28 d. Since there was no mortality up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight, 50% lethal dose (LD(50)) could not be determined, and hence, it can be assumed that, LD(50) of RC extract is >5000 mg/kg. No observable adverse effect level dose of the RC extract was found to be 2000 mg/kg body weight. Hence, consumption of RC extract for various medicinal purposes is safe. Practical Application: RC is a popularly consumed foodstuff that has been ubiquitously reported to exert medicinal properties. It is mandatory to understand the highest permissible consumption limit of any food supplement to avoid toxicity. This study establishes the safe dose of RC. These results can be of relevance for the scientific fraternity as well as laymen who consume this vegetable or its phytochemical preparation. PMID:21535729

  8. Effects of hydro-ethanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis on blood glucose levels and pathology of organs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Oryan, Ahmad; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Hamidi, Ahmad-Reza; Mohammadalipour, Adel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluated the differential effects of ethanol extraction of Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis) on the blood glucose concentration and pathology of pancreas, liver, lungs, kidney and gastrointestinal tract in the alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 adult female Albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The first group was treated with the extract of C. colocynthis seed (300 mg/kg) and the rats of the second group, as an untreated diabetic group, received ordinary diet. Ten non diabetic rats remained as a normal control group. Results The results of this study indicate that C. colocynthis was able to reduce blood glucose significantly compared with the control diabetic group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, alloxan resulted in severe necrotic changes in the pancreatic islets, especially in the central area of the islets. Tissue sections of the pancreas in the treated rats demonstrated enhanced regeneration of B cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Liver of the treated diabetic rats revealed significant improvement of the hepatic tissue compared to those of the untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions The present study indicated a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect of C. colocynthis seed and supported its traditional usage in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  9. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?uk, M.; Dymi?ska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; M?czka, M.; Zaj?c, A.; Szo?tysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  10. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds.

    PubMed

    Zuk, M; Dymi?ska, L; Kulma, A; Boba, A; Prescha, A; Szopa, J; M?czka, M; Zaj?c, A; Szo?tysek, K; Hanuza, J

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis. PMID:21237701

  11. Efficacy of certain plant extracts against seed-borne infection of Collectotrichum destructivum on cowpea (Vigna uniguculata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera Lam, Vernonia amygdalina and Annona muricata were evaluated for the control of Collectotrichum destructivum on seeds of cowpea (Vigna uniguculata). The seeds were soaked in sterile distilled water extract (10, 20 and 30%, w\\/v) of the leaves for 6, 12 and 18 h. All these plant extracts had significant inhibitory growth effect on

  12. Differences in the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Stanis?aw; Rybarczyk, Anna; Karama?, Magdalena; Król, Angelika; Mostek, Agnieszka; Gr?bosz, Joanna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae) seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power. PMID:23493104

  13. Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and DNA protective capacity of Chenopodium album's ethanolic leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Elif Korcan, S; Aksoy, Onur; Erdo?mu?, S Feyza; Ci?erci, ? Hakk?; Konuk, Muhsin

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the antibacterial effects of Chenopodium album's ethanolic leaf extract (CAE) on all the Gram (+) and Gram (-) microorganisms and evaluated the protective effects of CAE on both yeast and human mononuclear leukocytes' genomic DNA upon oxidative shock. Antibacterial activity was recorded on Bacillus subtilis with 13 mm of inhibition zone. Total oxidative status (TOS) and the total antioxidative status (TAS) levels were determined to evaluate the antioxidant activity of CAE. Results indicated that there was a good correlation between dose of CAE and TAS levels. We also observed that CAE protect the DNA of both yeast and mononuclear leukocytes against the damaging effect of hydrogen peroxide. The comet assay, applied on both Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 (MATa his3?1 leu2?0 met15?0 ura3?0) and human leukocytes, results suggested that there was statistically significant correlation between CAE dilutions and antigenotoxic activity. PMID:22897836

  14. Antioxidant activity of grape seed ( Vitis vinifera) extracts on peroxidation models in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Jayaprakasha; R. P. Singh; K. K. Sakariah

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) using various solvents, such as acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and mixtures of different solvents, such as ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water in 9:1, 17:3 and 4:1 ratios. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using a ?-carotene-linoleate model system and linoleic acid peroxidation method. At 100 ppm concentration, various extracts

  15. Larvicidal Efficiency of Certain Seed Extracts Against Anopheles Stephensi, with Reference to Azadirachta indica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lata Batabyal; Preeti Sharma; Lalit Mohan; Prejwltta Maurya; C. N. Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity of seed extracts of three Indian medicinal plants, Azadirachta indica, Momordica charantia and Ricinus communis, was evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against Anopheles stephensi. The methanol extract of A. indica exhibited potent larvicidal activity with LC50 15.25 and 12.70 ppm and LC90 46.79 and 45.56 ppm after 24 and 48 hrs, respectively, followed by methanol extract of R.

  16. A toxicological investigation of a celery seed extract having anti-inflammatory activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Powanda; K. D. Rainsford

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims  An extract of the seed from celery (Apium graviolens) (CSE), and fractions thereof, have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity, gastro-protective activity, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. In view of the potential for employing these extracts for therapeutic use, toxicological investigations were undertaken\\u000a with an alcoholic extract (A-CSE) which has previously been shown to have the above pharmacological activities.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of Ekebergia capensis Sparrm (Meliaceae) ethanolic leaf extract in experimental animal paradigms.

    PubMed

    Kamadyaapa, David R; Gondwe, Mavuto M; Moodley, Kogi; Ojewole, John A O; Musabayane, Cephas T

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the in vivo effects of Ekebergia capensis leaf ethanolic extract (EKE) on the blood pressure of anaesthetised normotensive male Wistar rats and conscious weanling Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats, which develop hypertension as they age. To investigate possible mechanism(s) of the extract's hypotensive effects, the contractile or relaxant responses to EKE in the absence or presence of reference drugs were evaluated in Wistar rat isolated aortic rings precontracted with methoxamine hydrochloride (ME, 10 microM). Acute intravenous administration of EKE elicited hypotensive responses in anaesthetised animals, while sub-chronic treatment with the extract averted the development of high blood pressure in weanling DSS rats. Isometric recordings of methoxamine hydrochloride (ME) pre-contracted, isolated, endothelium-intact and -denuded aortic rings revealed concentration-dependent relaxation responses to EKE (1-160 mg/ml). The potency was significantly less in the endothelium- denuded rings. Inhibitors of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), L-NAME, methylene blue and indomethacin significantly reduced EKE-evoked vasorelaxations in endothelium-intact aortic rings. These results indicate that the vasorelaxant effect of EKE was in part mediated via EDRF-dependent or -independent pathways. These observations suggest that the hypotensive effect of EKE was in part mediated via modulation of total peripheral resistance of the vascular smooth muscles. PMID:19575078

  18. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. PMID:19854235

  19. In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens

    PubMed Central

    Olugbami, J. Olorunjuwon; Gbadegesin, Michael A.; Odunola, Oyeronke A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in various pathological conditions. Synthetic antioxidants have adverse health effects, while many medicinal plants have antioxidant components that can prevent the harmful effects of ROS. Objectives: This study quantitatively determined the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens (EESTG). Materials and Methods: The objectives were achieved based on in vitro assays. Data were analyzed by Sigma Plot (version 11.0). Results: Using gallic acid as the standard compound, TPC value obtained was 596.57 ?g GAE/mg extract. TFC content of EESTG, determined as quercetin equivalent was 129.58 ?g QE/mg extract. Furthermore, EESTG significantly (P < 0.001) displayed higher reducing power activity than the standard compounds (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]). Total antioxidant capacity assay, measured by phosphomolybdate method, was 358.33 ± 5.77 ?g butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg extract. ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching method affirmed the potency of EESTG because of its significantly (P < 0.001) higher anti-oxidant activity when compared with quercetin and BHT. Based on DPPH assay, EESTG displayed significantly (P < 0.001) higher activity than BHT, while the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of BHT and quercetin significantly (P < 0.001) exceeded that of the extract, although EESTG still displayed a high level of activity obtained as 83.77% in comparison to 92.80% of the standard compounds. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate the presence of promisingly potent phytoconstituents in EESTG that have the capability to act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. PMID:25598635

  20. Hepatoprotective Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Ficus caricaLinn. LeavesinCarbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicityin Rats.

    PubMed

    Mujeeb, Mohd; Alam Khan, Shah; Aeri, Vidhu; Ali, Babar

    2011-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Ficus carica leaves was screened for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity in hepatotoxic Albino rats induced via carbon tetrachloride. The degree of protection was measured by estimating biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate Oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase ( SGPT),totalprotein (TP), totalalbumin (TA), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and the level of total serum bilirubin. The extract in addition reduced CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation in - vivo and in - vitro. The ethanolic extract (50 mg/kg, 100mg/kg,200mg/kg)exhibited significant hepatoprotection incarbontetra chloride in toxicated rats in a dose dependant manner. The hepatoprotective effects of the extract were comparable with the standard drug silymarin 10)mg/kg body weight, IP). PMID:24250358

  1. Ethanolic extract from Hemidesmus indicus (Linn) displays otoprotectant activities on organotypic cultures without interfering on gentamicin uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurizio Previati; Elisa Corbacella; Laura Astolfi; Marco Catozzi; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Ilaria Lampronti; Roberto Gambari; Silvano Capitani; Alessandro Martini

    2007-01-01

    The ethanolic extract from Hemidesmus indicus (Linn) (Apocynaceae) (Hie) was studied for its otoprotective effects in ex vivo rat organotypic model of gentamicin (GM) toxicity. In organ of Corti organotypic cultures (OC), GM can induce a fast dose-dependent apoptosis of hair cells (HC), both external and internal. We found that, after coadministration of GM and Hie to organotypic cultures, the

  2. Effect of yeast extract and vitamin B sub 12 on ethanol production from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Honnami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B{sub 12}, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B{sub 12} alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

  3. Antihyperglycaemic effects of ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius leaf in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Vello Sumathi; Naidu Rameshwar Jegathambigai; Lachimanan Yoga Latha

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a global disease that is increasing in an alarming rate. The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic effect of the ethanol extracts of Carica papaya and Pandanus amaryfollius on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. The results of the present study indicated that there was no significant difference in the body weight of the treated groups when compared

  4. Spasmolytic Activity of the Ethanol Extract of Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr. on the Isolated Rat Ileum Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Kitic, Dusanka; Radenkovic, Mirjana; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Jankovic, Teodora; Savikin, Katarina; Zdunic, Gordana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr., known as “mountain tea,” has been widely used in the Mediterranean region as a spice and in folk medicine as a very popular decoction because of its anti-inflammatory, carminative, analgesic, antitussive, stomachic, and antimicrobial properties. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of S. raeseri on intestinal activity. Air-dried and powdered aerial parts were extracted with 96% ethanol. The rat ileum preparations were incubated in Tyrode's solution gassed (95% O2/5% CO2) at 37°C. The ethanol extract of S. raeseri (0.03–0.3?mg/mL) relaxed spontaneous contractions in isolated rat ileum, similar to that produced by papaverine. The plant extract in a concentration-dependent manner (0.015–0.15?mg/mL) significantly inhibited the contractile response to acetylcholine (P<.01). Atropine inhibited the response to acetylcholine. A similar relaxation-inducing effect of the S. raeseri extract was observed on the precontracted ileum by histamine and barium chloride. Plant extract (0.03–0.3?mg/mL) significantly shifted the histamine concentration–response curve to the right and down (P<.01). The S. raeseri extract (0.03–0.3?mg/mL) significantly inhibited the contractions induced by barium chloride (P<.01). The results show that the ethanol extract of S. raeseri can produce inhibition of the the spontaneous rat ileum contractions and contractions induced by different spasmogens. These data indicate that S. raeseri acts as a spasmolytic on intestinal smooth muscle, which justifies its use in gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:21480795

  5. Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina B. Wandscheer; Jonny E. Duque; Mario A. N. da Silva; Yoshiyasu Fukuyama; Jonathan L. Wohlke; Juliana Adelmann; José D. Fontana

    2004-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05g%

  6. Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Honghai Hu; Zhenya Zhang; Zhongfang Lei; Yingnan Yang; Norio Sugiura

    2009-01-01

    The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and widely used multi-functional fungus. Hot water (50 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C) and ethanol crude extracts of I. obliquus were investigated for their antioxidant activity with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays. We also investigated the antiproliferative effects and ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer

  7. Induction of Reversible Antifertility with a Crude Ethanol Extract of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad Fruit in Male Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Chaturvedi; P. C. Mali; A. S. Ansari

    2003-01-01

    A crude 50% ethanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad was administered orally to male albino rats for evaluation of antifertility effects. The animals were divided into five groups: group A was a vehicle-treated control group; treatment groups B, C, and D received 100 mg\\/kg\\/day C. colocynthis extract for periods of 20, 40, and 60 days, respectively, and group E animals

  8. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  9. Extractive acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using methylated crude palm oil as extractant in batch culture of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayaaki Ishizaki; Shigeru Michiwaki; Edward Crabbe; Genta Kobayashi; Kenji Sonomoto; Sadazo Yoshino

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of employing methylated crude palm oil (CPOE) as an extraction solvent to reduce end-product inhibition and to enhance solvent productivity in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was evaluated using oleyl alcohol as the standard butanol extractant. Fermentation was carried out at an initial glucose concentration of 90 g\\/l. CPOE did not inhibit the growth of the fermentative organism. Without solvent

  10. Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

    2014-02-01

    The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (?), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug. PMID:24158737

  11. Green tea extract therapy diminishes hepatic fibrosis mediated by dual exposure to carbon tetrachloride and ethanol: A histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    SAFER, ABDEL-MAJEED; AFZAL, MOHAMAD; HANAFY, NOMNY; MOUSA, SHAKER

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of green tea extract (GTE) against the hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), ethanol, and dual exposure to CCl4 plus ethanol in rats. In particular, an investigation of the three-dimensional architecture was conducted using scanning electron microscopy. Various techniques revealed that hepatic fibrosis with intermingled fibers was located between cells in the CCl4, ethanol and combined CCl4 plus ethanol groups. The hepatic fibrosis differed among the ethanol, CCl4 and CCl4 plus ethanol groups in terms of the type, thickness and distribution of fibers. The fibrotic lesions virtually disappeared in all the groups after 25 days of treatment with GTE, returning the architecture of the liver tissue to its normal status. The rats were also found to regain normal body weight and fur color, which had earlier been discolored due to weight loss. The autopsy results also showed that the animal livers returned to the normal shape and color. GTE demonstrated the same clear action in attenuating the hepatofibrosis for all three inducing treatments, by impairing collagen fibers, eliminating lipid peroxidation and returning the liver architecture to normal. GTE presents a safe therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis. PMID:25667629

  12. Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5?mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200?mg/kg) was administered to rats 2?h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000?mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23118790

  13. Strychnos nux-vomica seeds: Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity

    PubMed Central

    Bhati, Rajesh; Singh, Anupama; Saharan, Vikas Anand; Ram, Veerma; Bhandari, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Strychnos nux-vomica, commonly known as kuchla, contains strychnine and brucine as main constituents. Minor alkaloids present in the seeds are protostrychnine, vomicine, n-oxystrychnine, pseudostrychnine, isostrychnine, chlorogenic acid, and a glycoside. Seeds are used traditionally to treat diabetes, asthma, aphrodisiac and to improve appetite. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the various pharmacognostical characters and antidiabetic activity of S. nux-vomica seed. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostical characters were performed as per the WHO guideline. Extraction was carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, hydroalcoholic, aqueous, and phytochemical constituents present in extracts were detected by different chemical tests. Among these extracts hydroalcoholic, aqueous extracts were evaluated for antidiabetic activity on the basis of extractive yield and phytoconstituents, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide as standard. Results: Various analytical values of S. nux-vomica extract were established. Phytoconstituents present in S. nux-vomica extracts were detected. Conclusion: S. nux-vomica extracts show antihyperglycemic activity in experimental animals. PMID:22707864

  14. Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

    2012-03-01

    The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

  15. Haematopoietic properties of ethanolic extract of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed) in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ita, S O; Etim, O E; Ben, E E; Ekpo, O F

    2007-01-01

    The potential haematological effects associated with the administration of ethanolic leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides was investigated in rats. 27 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group had 6 rats and served as control, the remaining 3 experimental groups and had 7 rats each. These later groups were gavaged with the extract of Ageratum conyzoides in concentrations of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively for 30 days at a dose of 0.1 ml/body weight. The control group was gavaged with 0.9% sodium chloride at a dose of 0.1 m1/body weight as placebo. The extract at the doses administered was found to increase in a dose-related fashion PCV and Hb ([P < 0.01] for 200 mg/kg and [P < 0.001] for 400 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), RBC ([P < 0.05] for 400 mg/Kg and 500 mg/kg) and marginal increases that were not significant for 200 mg/kg); MCH and MCV ([P < 0.05] and [P < 0.01] for 400 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively) 200 mg/kg was not significant. MCHC recorded no significant change. WBC recorded marginal increases that were not significant, similarly, the differential white blood cell recorded marginal increases that were not significant, except lymphocytes that recorded significant increase in group 4 [P < 0.05]. Marginal decreases in body weight were also observed, these decreases were however not significant. The result of this study thus indicate haematopoietic potentials of the extract and could possibly remedy anaemia. PMID:18379624

  16. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Duraisamy; Kalaiselvi, Manokaran; Ravikumar, Ganesan; Devaki, Kanakasabapathi; Uma, Chandrasekar

    2015-02-01

    Medicinal plants are at great interest to the researcher in the field of biotechnology, as most of the drug industries depend in medicinal plants for the production of pharmaceutical compounds. Plants are the traditional sources for many chemicals used as pharmaceutical biochemicals, fragrances, food colours and flavours in different countries especially in India. Most herbal medicines and their derivative products were often prepared from crude plant extracts, which comprise a complex mixture of different phytochemical constituents (plant secondary metabolites). The chemical features of these constituents differ considerably among different species. GC-MS method used for the analysis of the obtained extracts can be an interesting tool for testing the amount of some active principles in herbs used in cosmetic, drugs, pharmaceutical or food industry. The aim of this study was to carry out for identification of bioactive compounds from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides by Gas chromatography and Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GCMS analysis of ethanolic extract was done by standard protocol using the equipment Thermo GC-Trace Ultra Version: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of various compounds like piperine, octodeconoic acids, hexadecanoic acid and squalene in the ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides. Hence, the Evolvulus alsinoides may have chemopreventive, anticancer, anti-microbial activity, antioxidant and antidiabetic activity due to the presence of secondary metabolites in the ethanolic extract. Due to the presence of esters which can be used as a flavoring agent in food industries. These findings support the traditional use of Evolvulus alsinoides in various disorders. Further studies are needed to isolate active principle of the extract as well as to elucidate their exact mechanism of action in various disorders. PMID:25694742

  17. Antistress Effects of the Ethanolic Extract from Cymbopogon schoenanthus Growing Wild in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Han, Junkyu; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Ksouri, Riadh; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antistress properties of the ethanol extract of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (CSEE), growing wild in the southern part of Tunisia. The effect of extracts on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Its effect on stress-induced in ICR mice was exposed to force swim and tail suspension, in concordance with heat shock protein expression (HSP27 and HSP90), corticosterone, and catecholamine neurotransmitters level. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CSEE at 1/2000, 1/1000, and 1/500?v/v dilutions significantly inversed H2O2-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, CSEE treatments significantly reversed heat shock protein expression in heat-stressed HSP47-transformed cells (42°C, for 90?min) and mRNA expression of HSP27 and HSP90 in H2O2-treated SH-SY5Y. Daily oral administration of 100?mg/kg and 200?mg/kg CSEE was conducted to ICR mice for 2 weeks. It was resulted in a significant decrease of immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. The effect of CSEE on animal behavior was concordant with a significant regulation of blood serum corticosterone and cerebral cortex levels of catecholamine (dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline). Therefore, this study was attempted to demonstrate the preventive potential of CSEE against stress disorders at in vitro and in vivo levels. PMID:24228063

  18. Identification of the phenolic compounds contributing to antibacterial activity in ethanol extracts of Brazilian red propolis.

    PubMed

    Inui, Saori; Hatano, Ai; Yoshino, Megumi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Shimamura, Yuko; Masuda, Shuichi; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Tazawa, Shigemi; Araki, Yoko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the quantity and antibacterial activity of the individual phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis. Quantitative analysis of the 12 phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis was carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The main phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis were found to be (3S)-vestitol (1), (3S)-neovestitol (2) and (6aS,11aS)-medicarpin (4) with quantities of 72.9, 66.9 and 30.8 mg g of ethanol extracts(- 1), respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of each compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentrations. In particular, compound 4 exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity among all the assayed compounds against selected bacteria, indicating that 4 is the most active compound in Brazilian red propolis extracts. Thus, Brazilian red propolis may be used as food additives and pharmaceuticals to protect against bacteria. PMID:24666260

  19. Cytochalasin H, an active anti-angiogenic constituent of the ethanol extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Yi, Jin-Mu; Kim, Haejin; Lee, You Jin; Park, Jong-Shik; Bang, Ok-Sun; Kim, No Soo

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the process of new vessel formation from the pre-existing blood vasculature, is critical for continuous tumor growth and is considered to be a validated antitumor target. The results of our previous study demonstrate the anti-angiogenic potential of an extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns, which has been traditionally used in Korean medicine to remedy diverse diseases, including tumors. In the present study, we attempted to identify the active anti-angiogenic constituents of the ethanol extract of G. sinensis thorns (EEGS). By virtue of in vitro activity-guided fractionation using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) primary endothelial cells, chromatographic separation, and NMR spectral analyses, we isolated and identified the potent active constituent, cytochalasin H, a biologically active secondary metabolite of fungi. This unexpected active constituent may have originated from the endophytic fungi, Chaetomium globosum, which naturally populate G. sinensis, the identity of which was determined by analysis of fungal community. Cytochalasin H isolated from the EEGS showed in vitro anti-angiogenic activities such as suppressed cell growth and mobility in HUVEC, and inhibited the pro-angiogenic protein-induced formation of new blood vessels in vivo. The anti-angiogenic effect of cytochalasin H was in part due to reduced expression of pro-angiogenic factor, such as endothelin-1. This is the first report regarding the isolation and identification of cytochalasin H, as an active anti-angiogenic constituent of G. sinensis thorns. PMID:24172060

  20. Influence of the Toothpaste with Brazilian Ethanol Extract Propolis on the Oral Cavity Health

    PubMed Central

    Skaba, Dariusz; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Bobela, El?bieta; Skucha-Nowak, Ma?gorzata; Dawiec, Monika; Yamamoto, Rindai; Makita, Yuki; Redzynia, Ma?gorzata; Janoszka, Beata; Niedzielska, Iwona; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis-based therapeutic agents represent this potential for the development of new drugs in dental care. The aim of a clinical-cohort study was to determine the influence of application of toothpaste enriched with Brazilian extract of propolis (EEP) on health status of oral cavity. Laboratory analysis was conducted in order to assess the chemical composition of EEP including total phenolic compounds, the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. Clinical research involved two groups of subjects comprising 32 adult patients, with assessment based on the preliminary evaluation of the state of their marginal periodontium. The investigation of oral health indices API, OHI, and SBI and microbiological examination of oral microflora were also carried out. Results obtained indicated time-dependent microbial action of EEP at 50?mg/L concentration, with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The total decrease of API, OHI, and SBI mean values was observed. Hygienic preparations with 3% content of Brazilian ethanol extract of green propolis (EEP) efficiently support removal of dental plaque and improve the state of marginal periodontium. PMID:23861699

  1. Optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in a stirred tank bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Yatmaz; Irfan, Turhan; Mustafa, Karhan

    2013-05-01

    In this study, optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract was carried out by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results showed that Ca-alginate concentration and the amount of immobilized cells had significant effects on yield. Optimum conditions for ethanol fermentation were determined to be 2% Ca-alginate concentration, 150 rpm agitation rate, 5% yeast cells entrapped in beads and pH 5.5. After validation experiments; ethanol concentration, yield, production rate and sugar utilization rate were respectively 40.10 g/L, 46.32%, 3.19 g/L/h and 90.66%; and the fermentation time was decreased to 24 h. In addition, the immobilized cells were shown to be reusable for five cycles, though a decrease in yield was observed. Finally, carob pod extract was used for ethanol fermentation by controlled and uncontrolled pH without any enrichment, and the results suggest that carob extract can be utilized effectively by immobilized-cell fermentation without the use of enrichments to facilitate yeast growth. PMID:23010212

  2. Identification and quantitative determination of carbohydrates in ethanolic extracts of two conifers using 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Emilie; Castola, Vincent; Casanova, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    We developed a method for the direct identification and quantification of carbohydrates in raw vegetable extracts using (13)C NMR spectroscopy without any preliminary step of precipitation or reduction of the components. This method has been validated (accuracy, precision and response linearity) using pure compounds and artificial mixtures before being applied to authentic ethanolic extracts of pine needles, pine wood and pine cones and fir twigs. We determined that carbohydrates represented from 15% to 35% of the crude extracts in which pinitol was the principal constituent accompanied by arabinitol, mannitol, glucose and fructose. PMID:18299126

  3. Toxic effect of ethanolic extract of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) leaves against different developmental stages of Muscina stabulans (Diptera-Muscidae).

    PubMed

    el-Shazly, M M; Nassar, M I; el-Sherief, H A

    1996-08-01

    Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) is evergreen shrubs widely used for ornamental purpose in mediterranean region. The present investigation, revealed for the first time the insecticidal effect of ethanolic extract from leaves of this plant against 2nd instar larvae of the medically important false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Diptera: Muscidae). LC50 of the extract was 113.66 ppm. This dose delayed larval and pupal duration suppressed oviposition and decreased adult longevity of the survivors. Morphogenic abnormalities were recorded and photographed in larval, pupal and adult stages, which were produced from treating 2nd instar larvae with different concentrations of the extract. PMID:8754654

  4. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  5. Response surface optimization of mucilage aqueous extraction from flixweed (Descurainia sophia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Golalikhani, Mahshid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Khosravi, Azin

    2014-09-01

    The effects of four factors of pH (4-8), temperature (50-95°C), weed-seed ratio (W/S, 15-45), and time (1-4 h) on the yield of mucilage extraction of Descurainia sophia seeds were investigated using response surface methodology-Box-Behnken design (RSM-BBD). Results showed that a second-order model for the studied response was adequately fitted with a coefficient of determination of 98.7% (p<0.0001). The optimum conditions to achieve the highest yield (10.45%) were extraction time of 2.9 h, extraction temperature of 94.32°C, pH of 7.55 and the W/S ratio of 44.2. The extracted mucilage at the optimal point effectively scavenged DPPH free radical, and more concentrations of this polysaccharide indicated potent antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:25036599

  6. Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Oyeleye, Idowu S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v) and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and quinolinic acid (QA)) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 ?g/mL) and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 ?g/mL) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat's brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P < 0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications. PMID:25506036

  7. Effect of Black Seed Extract (Nigella sativa) on Growth Performance, Blood Parameters, Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage of Partridges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Çetin; Sabri Yurtseven; Turgay ?engül; Bünyamin Sögüt

    2008-01-01

    Çetin, M., Yurtseven, S., ?engiil, T. and Sögüt, B. 2008. Effect of black seed extract (Nigella sativa) on growth performance, blood parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage of partridges. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 34: 121–125.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different doses of black seed extract on fattening performance, some blood parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage

  8. Extraction of canola seed ( Brassica napus) oil using compressed propane and supercritical carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Márcia Mantovani Pederssetti; Fernando Palú; Edson Antonio da Silva; Jurandir Hillmann Rohling; Lúcio Cardozo-Filho; Cláudio Dariva

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the extraction of canola seed (Brassica napus) oil using supercritical carbon dioxide and compressed propane as solvents. The extractions were performed in a laboratory scale unit at temperatures and pressures of 40, 50 and 60°C and 20, 22.5 and 25MPa for carbon dioxide and 30, 45 and 60°C and 8, 10 and 12MPa for propane

  9. Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction of Oil and Protein Hydrolysates from Roasted Peanut Seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shao Bing Zhang; Qi Yu Lu; Hongshun Yang; Yu Li; Shuai Wang

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the roasting process on the extraction yield and oil quality, peanut seeds were roasted at different\\u000a temperatures (130–220 °C) for 20 min prior to the aqueous extraction of both oil and protein hydrolysates with Alcalase 2.4 L.\\u000a Roasting temperatures did not significantly affect the yields of free oil, whereas the temperature of 220 °C led to a reduced\\u000a recovery

  10. Ethanolic Extract of Marsdenia condurango Ameliorates Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Lung Cancer of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Sourav; Mukherjee, Avinaba; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Condurango is widely used in various systems of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) against oesophageal and stomach ailments including certain types of cancer. However, until now no systematic study has been conducted to verify its efficacy and dose with proper experimental support. Therefore, we examined if ethanolic extract of Condurango could ameliorate benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced lung cancer in rats, in vivo to validate its use as traditional medicine. Methods Fifteen male and 15 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV) (high-dosage group) and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group) for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results: A histological study revealed gradual progress in lung tissue-repair activity in Condurango-fed cancer-bearing rats, showing gradual tissue recovery after three months of drug administration. Condurango has the capacity to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may contribute to a reduction in anti-oxidative activity and to an induction of oxidative stress-mediated cancer cell-death. Condurango-activated pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, p53, cytochrome-c, apaf-1, ICAD and PARP) and down-regulated antiapoptotic-Bcl-2 expression were noted both at mRNA and protein levels. Studies on caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage by western blot analysis revealed that Condurango induced apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway. Conclusion: The anticancer efficacy of an ethanolic extract of Condurango for treating BaP-induced lung cancer in rats lends support for its use in various traditional systems of medicine.

  11. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>?-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

  12. Role of an Ethanolic Extract of Crotalaria juncea L. on High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinakaran Sathis; David, Banji; Harani, Avasarala; Vijay, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic effects of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) by performing in vivo studies. Methods The effects of oral administration of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) in rats fed with a high-fat diet were investigated by evaluating parameters like food consumption, weight gain, fecal fat excretion, serum and liver lipids, and biochemical profiles as well as by histopathological studies. The results were compared to animals fed with the standard diet and animals fed with a high-fat diet and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg BW). Results The animal group administered with the ethanolic extract for 35 days showed decreased levels of TC, LDL, VLDL, TG, HDL+VLDL, VLDL+LDL, LDL/TC, AI, SGOT, SGPT, and elevated levels of HDL, HDL/TC, significantly (p<0.01 & p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The evaluation of liver tissues of the animal groups treated with the herbal extract and standard had shown increased levels of SOD, GSH, and catalase, whereas levels of SGOT, SGPT, total glucose, HMG-CoA, lipase, amylase, and the percentage of malon-dialdehyde were decreased when compared with the high-fat diet-fed rats. Body weight and food intake in the treated groups were significantly lower than that in the model control. Conclusion The present study showed that an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea L. influences several blood lipid and metabolic parameters in rats, suggesting a potential benefit as an antihypercholesterolemic agent. PMID:24959408

  13. A New Seeded Region Growing Technique for Retinal Blood Vessels Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

    2014-01-01

    Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation. PMID:25298931

  14. EFFECTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED EXTRACT ON RUMEN FERMENTATION IN VITRO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EM HOFFMANN; S. Muetzel; K. Becker

    2003-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a pantropical tree of the family Moringaceae. A previously undescribed property of an aqueous extract from the seeds of this plant is the modulation of ruminal fermentation patterns, especially protein degradation, as demonstrated in a short-term batch incubation system. Gas, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cellulolytic enzyme activities were determined as general fermentation parameters. A dot

  15. Optimization of extraction, antioxidant activity and functional properties of quince seed mucilage by RSM.

    PubMed

    Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

    2014-05-01

    The effect of extraction temperature (25-65°C), extraction time (5-25 min) and water to seed ratio (10:1-50:1) on yield, protein content, turbidity, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability of quince seed mucilage was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Face Center Design with these seven factors, including central and axial points. Numerical optimization determined the optimum extraction conditions based on the highest yield, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability and the lowest protein content and turbidity as being time 5 min, temperature 65°C and water to seed ratio 25.1:1. At this optimum point, extraction yield, protein content, turbidity, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability were found to be 11.58 (%), 2.71 (%), 068 (Å), 1473.96 (mPas), 29.88 (%), 94.89 (%) and 21.36 (%), respectively. The results demonstrated that quince seed mucilage had desirable antioxidant activity, viscosity, emulsifying and foaming properties. PMID:24556115

  16. Dehulling of Cuphea PSR23 Seeds to Reduce Color of the Extracted Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil extracted from the seeds Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid hybrid from C. viscosissima x C. lanceolata, by screw-pressing contained 200-360 ppm of chlorophyll. A high amount of bleaching clay was needed during refining to remove the chlorophyll in the oil. In this paper, dehu...

  17. Rheological properties of Lepidium sativum seed extract as a function of concentration, temperature and time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hojjat Karazhiyan; Seyed M. A. Razavi; Glyn O. Phillips; Yapeng Fang; Saphwan Al-Assaf; Katsuyoshi Nishinari; Reza Farhoosh

    2009-01-01

    The seeds of Lepidium sativum (Garden Cress) were selected as a new source of hydrocolloid and its chemical composition and molecular parameters were determined. The macromolecular component of the extract had a molecular weight of 540 kDa, and was nearly as rigid as xanthan with regard to chain conformation. The main rheological features were investigated as a function of shear rate,

  18. Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

  19. Nigella sativa (Black Cumin) Seed Extract Alleviates Symptoms of Allergic Diarrhea in Mice, Involving Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, Swantje C.; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA) -sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa- (U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFN?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy. PMID:22768141

  20. Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debasis Bagchi; Chandan K Sen; Sidhartha D Ray; Dipak K Das; Manashi Bagchi; Harry G Preuss; Joe A Vinson

    2003-01-01

    Free radicals and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases including congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. We have demonstrated that IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) provides superior antioxidant efficacy as compared to Vitamins C, E and ?-carotene. A series of studies were

  1. Influence of ethanol-diesel blended fuels on diesel exhaust emissions and mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate extracts.

    PubMed

    Song, Chong-Lin; Zhou, Ying-Chao; Huang, Rui-Jing; Wang, Yu-Qiu; Huang, Qi-Fei; Lü, Gang; Liu, Ke-Ming

    2007-10-22

    This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of ethanol addition on diesel exhaust emissions and the toxicity of particulate extracts. The experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty diesel engine and five fuels were used, namely: E0 (base diesel fuel), E5 (5%), E10 (10%), E15 (15%) and E20 (20%), respectively. The regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were measured, and Ames test and Comet assay, respectively, were used to investigate the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of particulate extracts. From the point of exhaust emissions, the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel could result in higher brake specific THC (BSTHC) and CO (BSCO) emissions and lower smoke emissions, while the effects on the brake specific NOx (BSNOx) and particulate matters (BSPM) were not obvious. The PAH emissions showed an increasing trend with a growth of ethanol content in the ethanol-diesel blends. As to the biotoxicity, E20 always had the highest brake specific revertants (BSR) in both TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolizing enzymes (S9), while the lowest BSR were found in E5 except that of TA98-S9. DNA damage data showed a lower genotoxic potency of E10 and E15 as a whole. PMID:17513038

  2. Estrogenic activities of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed extracts and main constituents.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sun-Hye; Ha, Tae-Youl; Ahn, Jiyun; Kim, Suna

    2011-03-15

    Estrogenic activities of ethanol extract and its active components from Psoralea corylifolia L. were studied using various in vitro assays. The main components from ethanol extract were analyzed to be bakuchiol, psoralen, isobavachalcone, isobavachromene, and bavachinin. In a fractionation procedure, hexane and chloroform fractions showed estrogenic activity in yeast transactivation assay and E-screen assay. In yeast transactivation assay, ethanol extract, hexane, and chloroform fractions showed significantly higher activities at a concentration of 1.0 ng/ml, and bakuchiol at the concentration of 10(-6) M was showed the highest activity, especially, which was higher than genistein at the same concentration. In E-screen assay, cell proliferation of bakuchiol (10(-6) M) showed similar estrogenic activity with genistein (10(-6) M). In ER binding assay, bakuchiol displayed the strongest ER-binding affinity (IC(50) for ER?=1.01×10(-6) M, IC(50) for ER?=1.20×10(-6) M) and bakuchiol showed five times higher affinity for ER? than for ER?. PMID:21382704

  3. Vasorelaxant Effect of Osterici Radix Ethanol Extract on Rat Aortic Rings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyungjin; Park, Geunyong; Ham, Inhye; Yang, Gabsik; Lee, Mihwa; Bu, Youngmin; Kim, Hocheol; Choi, Ho-Young

    2013-01-01

    The root of Ostericum koreanum Maximowicz has been used as a traditional medicine called “Kanghwal” in Korea (or “Qianghuo” in China). The purpose of this study was to investigate the vasorelaxant activity and mechanism of action of an ethanol extract of the O. koreanum root (EOK). We used isolated rat aortic rings to assess the effects of EOK on various vasorelaxant or vasoconstriction factors. EOK induced vasorelaxation in phenylephrine hydrochloride (PE) or KCl precontracted aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the vasorelaxant effects of EOK on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pretreatment with L-NAME or methylene blue. In Ca2+-free Krebs-Henseleit solution, pretreatment with EOK (0.3?mg/mL) completely inhibited PE-induced constriction. In addition, EOK (0.3?mg/mL) also completely inhibited vasoconstriction induced by supplemental Ca2+ in aortic rings that were precontracted with PE or KCl. Furthermore, the EOK-induced vasorelaxation in PE-contracted aortic rings was inhibited by preincubation with nifedipine. These results indicate that the vasorelaxant effects of EOK are responsible for the induction of NO formation from L-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways, blockage of the extracellular Ca2+ entry via the receptor-operative Ca2+ channel and voltage-dependent calcium channel, and blockage of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release via the inositol triphosphate pathway. PMID:24204390

  4. Gynura procumbens ethanolic extract suppresses osteosarcoma cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HENG; ZHOU, JI WEN; FU, DA HUA; ZHOU, YANG; CHENG, WEN ZHAO; LIU, ZHI-LI

    2013-01-01

    Gynura procumbens is a traditional herb used for the treatment of inflammation, rheumatism and viral infections, although the antitumor effect and its potential mechanisms of action remain unclear. In the present study, the antitumor effect of Gynura procumbens ethanolic extract (GPE) on the osteosarcoma (OS) cell line, U2-OS, was investigated in vitro. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays, respectively. Transwell invasion and wound healing assays were performed to investigate the invasion and migration of the U2-OS cells. The results showed that GPE was able to inhibit U2-OS cell proliferation and metastasis and induce cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of the NF-?Bp65 protein was detected by western blotting to evaluate the effects of GPE on the nuclear transfer of NF-?B. It was demonstrated that the expression of the NF-?Bp65 protein was significantly decreased by GPE. This indicated that GPE was able to inhibit the nuclear transfer of NF-?B. The study shows that GPE is able to induce apoptosis and suppress proliferation and metastasis in U2-OS cells via the inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. PMID:23946787

  5. Gynura procumbens ethanolic extract suppresses osteosarcoma cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Zhou, Ji Wen; Fu, DA Hua; Zhou, Yang; Cheng, Wen Zhao; Liu, Zhi-Li

    2013-07-01

    Gynura procumbens is a traditional herb used for the treatment of inflammation, rheumatism and viral infections, although the antitumor effect and its potential mechanisms of action remain unclear. In the present study, the antitumor effect of Gynura procumbens ethanolic extract (GPE) on the osteosarcoma (OS) cell line, U2-OS, was investigated in vitro. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays, respectively. Transwell invasion and wound healing assays were performed to investigate the invasion and migration of the U2-OS cells. The results showed that GPE was able to inhibit U2-OS cell proliferation and metastasis and induce cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of the NF-?Bp65 protein was detected by western blotting to evaluate the effects of GPE on the nuclear transfer of NF-?B. It was demonstrated that the expression of the NF-?Bp65 protein was significantly decreased by GPE. This indicated that GPE was able to inhibit the nuclear transfer of NF-?B. The study shows that GPE is able to induce apoptosis and suppress proliferation and metastasis in U2-OS cells via the inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. PMID:23946787

  6. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root

    PubMed Central

    Phuneerub, Pravaree; Limpanasithikul, Wacharee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-01-01

    Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae) has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE) dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-?, and PGE2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root. PMID:25878973

  7. Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseñor, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 ± 0.1304 ppm (mean ± Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 ± 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid. PMID:25118563

  8. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Auricularia auricula ethanol extract in ICR mice fed a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Luo, Yang-Chao; Ji, Bao-Ping; Li, Bo; Su, Wei; Xiao, Zhen-Lei; Zhang, Gui-Zhi

    2011-12-01

    The cholesterol-lowering properties of Auricularia auricula are commonly attributed to the presence of polysaccharides based on previous research. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of ethanol extract of A. auricula (AAE) on hypercholesterolemia in ICR mice. AAE contained more than 16% (g/g) polyphenolic compounds, excluding other interfering factors such as polysaccharides, water-soluble fibre and protein. Thirty-six mice were randomly assigned to three groups (n?=?12). The experimental group was fed cholesterol-enriched diet (CED) with oral administration of AAE (150 mg/kg/d b.w.) for 8-week, normal control group and CED control group received either a regular diet (RD) or CED along with oral administration of equal volume distilled water. Serum lipid profiles and antioxidant status were measured in addition to fecal neutral cholesterol and bile acids. AAE showed a remarkable hypocholesterolemic effect, improving antioxidant status, decreasing the level of total cholesterol and atherosclerosis index, increasing the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fecal excretion of bile acids. No apparent effects on serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fecal excretion of neutral cholesterol and feeding efficiency were observed among all groups. These results indicated that A. auricula functional components, which prevented hypercholesterolemia contained polyphenolic compounds, in addition to polysaccharides. PMID:23572806

  9. Ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss.) causing apoptosis by ROS upregulation in Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Niladri; Saini, Prasanta; Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Roy, Priya; Gayen, Prajna; Babu, Santi P Sinha

    2014-10-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the Canine family. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (EEA) against the microfilaria (mf) of D. immitis in vitro. EEA was evaluated for different compound classes through HPTLC. Relative motility, mortality and morphological alterations were observed in the mf after exposure to EEA. The effect of EEA on redox status in the treated mf was evaluated by some key enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters. An enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the treated mf along with altered redox status was evident. DNA fragmentation and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) confirmed apoptosis. In addition, western blotting revealed down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, the microfilaricidal activity of EEA can be attributed to its capacity to inflict oxidative stress culminating in apoptosis. PMID:25092478

  10. Sutherlandia frutescens Ethanol Extracts Inhibit Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses in Neurons and Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jinghua; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Zong, Yijia; Patel, Jayleenkumar; Brownstein, Korey; Lei, Wei; Lu, Chi-Hua; Simonyi, Agnes; Gu, Zezong; Cui, Jiankun; Rottinghaus, George E.; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Folk, William R.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2014-01-01

    Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R.Br. (SF) is a medicinal plant indigenous to southern Africa and used in folk and contemporary remedies for stress, chronic diseases, cancer, and HIV/AIDS. While previous studies have focused on physiological effects of SF on cellular and systemic abnormalities associated with these diseases, little is known about its effects in the brain and immune cells in the central nervous system. Results of this study indicate that ethanol extracts of SF (SF-E) suppress NMDA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, and LPS- and IFN?-induced ROS and nitric oxide (NO) production in microglial cells. SF-E’s action on microglial cells appears to be mediated through inhibition of the IFN?-induced p-ERK1/2 signaling pathway which is central to regulating a number of intracellular metabolic processes including enhancing STAT1? phosphorylation and filopodia formation. The involvement of SF in these pathways suggests the potential for novel therapeutics for stress and prevention, and/or treatment of HIV/AIDS as well as other inflammatory diseases in the brain. PMID:24587007

  11. Anticancer activity of Bombyx batryticatus ethanol extract against the human tumor cell line HeLa.

    PubMed

    Wu, W P; Cao, J; Wu, J Y; Chen, H; Wang, D

    2015-01-01

    Anticancer activity of Bombyx batryticatus ethanol extract (BBE) against HeLa cells was studied using cell viability, DNA fragmentation, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analyses. The BBE inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of HeLa cells. The MTT assay indicated that the BBE induced cytotoxicity in HeLa cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. When HeLa cells were treated for 48 h, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for the BBE was 1.564 mg/mL. The microscopy results showed that HeLa cells were severely distorted and showed slow growth; some cells became round in shape when treated with 5 mg/mL BBE for 24 h. The DNA ladder results revealed excessive DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells treated with 7 mg/mL BBE for 36 h. The proapoptotic activity of the BBE was attributed to its ability to modulate the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax genes. The mRNA and protein expression levels of Bax were remarkably higher whereas those of Bcl-2 were lower than those in the control cells; this led to an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in cells treated with the BBE for 36 h. The results suggest that the BBE might play an important role in tumor growth suppression by inducing apoptosis in human cervical cancer cells via the regulation of the Bcl-2- and Bax-mediated apoptotic pathways. PMID:25729938

  12. Ethanol extract from portulaca oleracea L. attenuated acetaminophen-induced mice liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Shi, Hong-Guang; Tang, Gu-Sheng; Wang, Wan-Yin; Zhou, Juan; Dong, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen-induced liver injury represents the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure in the world. Portulaca oleracea L., a widely distributed weed, has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Previously, we reported that the ethanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of PO on acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity. The results demonstrated that PO was an effective anti-oxidative agent, which could, to some extent, reverse APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver of mice. At the same time, PO treatment significantly decreased mice serum levels of IL-6 and TNF? and their mRNA expression in liver tissue IL-? and TNF? play an important role during APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, PO inhibited APAP and TNF?-induced activation of JNK, whose activation play an important effect during APAP induced liver injury. These findings suggested that administration of PO may be an effective strategy to prevent or treat liver injury induced by APAP.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract in in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yong-Han; Weng, Li-Wen; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Wang, Shih-Wei; Houng, Jer-Yiing

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with ?-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by blocking the degradation of I?B-?. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-?B-dependent pathways. PMID:25328884

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Li-Wen; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Wang, Shih-Wei; Houng, Jer-Yiing

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with ?-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by blocking the degradation of I?B-?. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-?B-dependent pathways. PMID:25328884

  15. Anti-proliferative effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract on human endometrial RL-95 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Hung; Wu, Jing-Mei; Kuo, Shyh-Ming; Ling, Xue-Hua; Houng, Jer-Yiing

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE) significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis of RL95-2 cells by up-regulating Bad, Bak and Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. Treatment with SOE increased protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently, indicating that apoptosis was through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, SOE was also effective against A549 (lung cancer), Hep G2 (hepatoma), FaDu (pharynx squamous cancer), MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer), and especially on LNCaP (prostate cancer) cell lines. In total, 10 constituents of SOE were identified by Gas chromatography-mass analysis. Caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene are largely responsible for most cytotoxic activity of SOE against RL95-2 cells. Overall, this study suggests that SOE is a promising anticancer agent for treating endometrial cancer. PMID:25470271

  16. Anti-adipogenic effect of mulberry leaf ethanol extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Soo Jin; Park, Na-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Adipogenesis is part of the cell differentiation process in which undifferentiated fibroblasts (pre-adipocytes) become mature adipocytes with the accumulation of lipid droplets and subsequent cell morphological changes. Several transcription factors and food components have been suggested to be involved in adipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry leaf ethanol extract (MLEE) affects adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of MLEE for 8 days starting 2 days post-confluence. Cell viability, fat accumulation, and adipogenesis-related factors including CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), PPAR? coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and adiponectin were analyzed. RESULTS Results showed that MLEE treatments at 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml had no effect on cell morphology and viability. Without evident toxicity, all MLEE treated cells had lower fat accumulation compared with control as shown by lower absorbances of Oil Red O stain. MLEE at 50 and 100 µg/ml significantly reduced protein levels of PPAR?, PGC-1?, FAS, and adiponectin in differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, protein level of C/EBP? was significantly decreased by the treatment of 100 µg/ml MLEE. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that MLEE treatment has an anti-adipogenic effect in differentiated adipocytes without toxicity, suggesting its potential as an anti-obesity therapeutic. PMID:25489399

  17. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa on thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatology research has focused on developing traditional therapies as pharmacological medicines to treat liver cirrhosis. Thus, this study evaluated mechanisms of the hepatoprotective activity of Curcuma longa rhizome ethanolic extract (CLRE) on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods The hepatoprotective effect of CLRE was measured in a rat model of thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis over 8 weeks. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 and serum levels of TGF-?1 and TNF-? were evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured by malondialdehyde, urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine levels. The protective activity of CLRE free-radical scavenging mechanisms were evaluated through antioxidant enzymes. Protein expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in animal blood sera was studied and confirmed by immunohistochemistry of Bax, Bcl2 proteins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and liver biochemistry were significantly lower in the Curcuma longa-treated groups compared with controls. CLRE induced apoptosis, inhibited hepatocytes proliferation but had no effect on hepatic CYP2E1 levels. Conclusion The progression of liver cirrhosis could be inhibited by the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of CLRE and the normal status of the liver could be preserved. PMID:23496995

  18. Induction of apoptosis by ethanol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kyung-Jun; Han, Min-Ho; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Byung-Woo; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Yoon, Hyun-Min; Choi, Yung-Hyun

    2010-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a well-known medicinal mushroom, is highly valued and commonly used in Oriental medicine. Although recent experimental data has revealed the proapoptotic potency of G. lucidum extracts, the underlying mechanisms of this apoptotic activity have not yet been studied in detail. In the present study, the effects of ethanol extracts of G. lucidum (EGL) on the growth of an AGS human gastric carcinoma cell line were investigated. We found that EGL treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependent significant decrease in the viability of AGS cells. This decreased viability was caused by apoptotic cell death, with observed chromatin condensation and an accumulation of apoptotic fraction. EGL treatment induced the expression of death receptor-related proteins such as death receptor 5 and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, which further triggered the activation of caspase-8 and the cleavage of Bid. In addition, the increase in apoptosis that was induced by EGL was correlated with activation of caspase-9 and -3, downregulation of IAP family proteins such as XIAP and survivin, and concomitant degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover the activity of Akt was downregulated in EGL-treated cells, and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/ Akt inhibitor LY294002 sensitized the cells to EGL-induced apoptosis. The results indicated that EGL induces the apoptosis of AGS cells through a signaling cascade of death receptor-mediated extrinsic, as well as mitochondria-mediated intrinsic, caspase pathways which are associated with inactivation of the Akt signal pathway. PMID:20633512

  19. An ethanolic extract of black cohosh causes hematological changes but not estrogenic effects in female rodents.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C; Witt, Kristine L; Granville, Courtney A; Hejtmancik, Milton R; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A; Ryan, Michael J; Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M; Vallant, Molly K; Stout, Matthew D

    2012-09-01

    Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. PMID:22687605

  20. Anti-Inflammatory and Antihyperalgesic Activities of Ethanolic Extract and Fruticulin A from Salvia lachnostachys Leaves in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Piccinelli, Ana Claudia; Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, Diana; Morato, Priscila Neder; Kuraoka-Oliveira, Ângela Midori; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; dos Santos, Élide Pereira; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the ethanolic extract (SLEE) and fruticulin A from the leaves of Salvia lachnostachys were evaluated in mice, using experimental models of inflammation (paw oedema and pleurisy induced by carrageenan injection) and hyperalgesia (electronic Von Frey). Oral administration of SLEE (30, 100, and 300?mg/kg) and fruticulin A (0.3 and 3.0?mg/kg) decreased the total leucocytes number in pleural lavage, protein extravasation, and paw oedema. SLEE (100?mg/kg) and fruticulin A (3?mg/kg) also exhibited antihyperalgesic activity in carrageenan induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In addition, fruticulin A (3?mg/kg) prevented mechanical hyperalgesia, inhibiting TNF but not L-DOPA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In conclusion, SLEE and fruticulin A display anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Therefore, fruticulin A is at least partially responsible for the activity observed in the ethanolic extract of Salvia lachnostachys. PMID:25435893

  1. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Biswas, D; Yoganandam, G P; Dey, A; Deb, L

    2013-03-01

    To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16(th) days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

  2. Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Honghai; Zhang, Zhenya; Lei, Zhongfang; Yang, Yingnan; Sugiura, Norio

    2009-01-01

    The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and widely used multi-functional fungus. Hot water (50 degrees C, 70 degrees C, and 80 degrees C) and ethanol crude extracts of I. obliquus were investigated for their antioxidant activity with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays. We also investigated the antiproliferative effects and ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer DLD-1 cells. Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract (EE) exhibited the strongest SOD-like activity and antiproliferative effect on DLD-1 cells, and exposure to the EE resulted in the induction of apoptosis, whereas no apoptosis was observed in DLD-1 cells exposed to the hot water extracts (HWEs). HWE at 70 degrees C (HWE70) exhibited the strongest DPPH radical-scavenging activity (EC50, 126 microg/ml), whereas the EE showed the weakest activity (EC50, 224 microg/ml). The different biological activities among the four extracts may be attributed to differences in their chemical composition, partially supported by polysaccharide, protein and phenolic content, and the 1H-NMR spectra. PMID:19147108

  3. Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mominur; Habib, Md. Razibul; Hasan, Md. Anayet; Al Amin, Mohammad; Saha, Ayan; Mannan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 ± 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and C. frutescens (26.66667 ± 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent) respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard. Conclusion: Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment. PMID:24497740

  4. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  5. An enzymatic extraction of proanthocyanidins from País grape seeds and skins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Katherina; Vega, Marco; Aspé, Estrella

    2015-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) from the skins and seeds of País grapes were obtained by enzymatic extraction by using three enzymes (pectinase, cellulase and tannase) and an enzymatic blend to increase the phenol concentrations and reduce the PA molecular size. The total phenol concentrations (as indicated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent), mean degree of polymerisation (mDP), galloylation percentage (%G) and structural proportion (phloroglucinolysis) were analysed, in addition to the extract's capacity to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On grape skins, pectinase had the greatest effective on the release of total phenols, to 0.01g/ml solid/liquid (S/L) and 1% enzyme/substrate (E/S). On grape seed, the three enzymes were effective in increasing the phenolic extraction (p<0.05). The effects of enzymes on the mDP and %G of the extracts were related to their enzymatic activity. All the extracts inhibited ACE, but ACE inhibition was thought to be improved by the increased number of terminal units in the seed samples. PMID:25172676

  6. Effects of a plum (Prunus mume Siebold and Zucc.) ethanol extract on the immune system in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Ryohei; Koizumi, Hideki; Fujiwara, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a plum ethanol extract (PEE) on immunity was analyzed. An oral administration of PEE increased the interleukin (IL)-12p40 concentration in the serum and T-cell ratio in the spleen. In vitro studies revealed that PEE stimulated IL-12p70 production in peritoneal macrophages and natural killer activity. These findings suggest that PEE enhanced the immune function by stimulating innate immune cells. PMID:21979085

  7. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Gözlekçi, ?adiye; Saraço?lu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Özgen, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

  8. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  9. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gözlekçi, Sadiye; Saraço?lu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

    2011-04-01

    The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

  10. Anticoagulant effect of polyphenols-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Micha?; Bobrowski, Mateusz; Borowiecka, Marta; Pods?dek, Anna; Gola?ski, Jacek; Nowak, Pawe?

    2011-09-01

    Blood coagulation consists of a series of zymogens that can be converted by limited proteolysis to active enzymes leading to the generation of thrombin. Fresh plasma and human thrombin was incubated with extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5; 5; 50 ?g/ml). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts prolonged clotting time and decreased the maximal velocity of fibrin polymerization in human plasma. Moreover thrombin incubation with both extracts results in the inhibition of amidolytic activity of this enzyme. It gives hopes for development of diet supplements, which may be preventing thrombosis in pathological states. PMID:21596108

  11. Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) as a salt-tolerant feedstock for production of biodiesel and ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) is a non-invasive perennial nonclonal halophytic oilseed-producing dicot that was investigated as a feedstock for production of biodiesel from seeds and ethanol from residual stem biomass. Seashore mallow seeds contained 19.3 mass % oil, which after extract...

  12. Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, V.; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C. D.; Khanna, Geetika

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

  13. Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, Geetika

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

  14. Effect of heat treatment of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the antioxidant potential of their extracts.

    PubMed

    Terpinc, Petra; Polak, Tomaz; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Abramovic, Helena

    2011-08-24

    The effect of different heat treatments of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of their hydrolyzed extracts was investigated. The results showed that total phenol contents increased in thermally treated seeds. Heat treatment affected also the quantities of individual phenolic compounds in extracts. Phenolics in unheated camelina seeds existed in bound rather than in free form. A temperature of 160 °C was required for release of insoluble bound phenolics, whereas lower temperatures were found to be optimal to liberate those present as soluble conjugates. The best reducing power and alkyl peroxyl radical scavenging activity in the emulsion was expressed by phenolics which were bound to the cell wall, whereas the best iron chelators and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavengers were found to be those present in free form. The heat treatment of seeds up to 120 °C increased the reducing power and DPPH• radical scavenging ability of extracts, but negatively affected iron chelating ability and their activity in an emulsion against alkyl peroxyl radicals. PMID:21744787

  15. Improvement of Ethanol Production Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Enhancement of Biomass and Nutrient Supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santosh N. Sankh; Preetee S. Deshpande; Akalpita U. Arvindekar

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of ethanol production through addition of substratum and protein-lipid additives was studied. Oilseed meal extract\\u000a was used as protein lipid supplement, while rice husk was used as substratum. The effect of oil seed meal extract and rice\\u000a husk was observed at varying concentration of medium sugar from 8% to 20%. Of the three oil seed meal extracts used, viz.

  16. An ethanolic extract of black cohosh causes hematological changes but not estrogenic effects in female rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C.; Witt, Kristine L. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Granville, Courtney A.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A.; Ryan, Michael J. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)] [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M.; Vallant, Molly K. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Stout, Matthew D., E-mail: StoutM@niehs.nih.gov [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. -- Highlights: ? Mice and rats were dosed with black cohosh extract for 90 days starting at weaning. ? Hematological changes were consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia. ? Peripheral micronucleated red blood cell frequencies increased. ? Puberty was delayed 2.9 days in rats. ? No estrogenic/anti-estrogenic activity was seen in the uterotrophic assay.

  17. Experimental antithrombotic effects of sesame seed whole grains and extracts.

    PubMed

    Kinugasa, Chifumi; Naemura, Aki; Hyodo, Kanae; Nakai, Yoshiki; Katsuta, Masumi; Yamamoto, Junichiro

    2011-09-01

    Prevention of arterial thrombotic diseases has a high priority in developed countries. An inappropriate diet is known to enhance the risks for acute thrombotic events, and nutritional products experimentally shown to be antithrombotic, might contribute beneficial effects. The present study forms part of a series of investigations into the antithrombotic effect of various foods and vegetables. Roasted and crushed whole grains from six varieties of sesame seeds were added to the diet of mice. Antithrombotic activity was measured in the carotid artery in vivo, using a He-Ne laser-induced thrombosis technique after 12 weeks. Col/Chichibu/Maruteru-2/1995 and T016 varieties showed significant antithrombotic activity, whilst 00037803 was prothrombotic. The acute effects of purified ingredients, sesamin, sesamolin and sesamol, given orally or intra-arterially, were also examined after a single dose. The most effective ingredient was sesamol, followed by sesamolin and sesamin. Daily intake of specific antithrombotic sesame whole grains or purified active ingredients might help to prevent atherothrombotic diseases. PMID:21577091

  18. In vitro antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect, on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis, of fractions and subfractions from oat (Avena sativa L.) ethanol extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol and the extract was successively isolated by liquid-liquid partition to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water layers. Among these extractions the ethyl acetate (EA) layer exhibited the highest total phenolic content (TPC), t...

  19. [Anti-herpes virus action of ethanol-extract from the root and rhizome of Rheum officinale Baill].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Wang, G; Xu, H; Wang, P

    1996-06-01

    The study has shown that the cytotoxity of ethanol-extract from the root and rhizome of Rheum of ficinale is very low. It shows no cytotoxity even at 20,000 micrograms/ml and on the contrary tends to promote cell growth. Obvious anti-viral action can be observed in cell culture. The minimum inhibition dose for herpes simplex virus (HSV) is 100 micrograms/ml. Also, the extract helps to prevent cells from viral infections and has some direct effect on viral particles. PMID:9388926

  20. Bioinspired reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using Terminalia chebula seeds extract.

    PubMed

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Pamanji, Sreedhara Reddy

    2015-06-15

    A green one step facile synthesis of graphene nanosheets by Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) extract mediated reduction of graphite oxide (GO) is reported in this work. This method avoids the use of harmful toxic reducing agents. The comparative results of various characterizations of GO and T. chebula reduced graphene oxide (TCG) provide a strong indication of the exclusion of oxygen containing groups from graphene oxide and successive stabilization of the formed reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with the oxidized polyphenols causes their stability by preventing the aggregation. We also have proposed how the oxidized polyphenols are accountable for the stabilization of the formed graphene sheets. PMID:25770934

  1. Solidphase micro-extraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and headspace-gas chromatography of tetrahydrocannabinol, amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine and ethanol in saliva samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauricio Yonamine; Nadia Tawil; Regina Lucia de Moraes Moreau; Ovandir Alves Silva

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, a method was developed aiming at the serial detection of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine and ethanol in saliva. Saliva samples were submitted to an initial headspace procedure for ethanol determination by gas chromatography\\/flame ionization detector (GC–FID). After this step, two consecutive solid-phase micro-extractions (SPME) were carried out: THC was extracted by submersing a polydimethylsiloxane fiber

  2. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu's stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy. PMID:25678797

  3. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu’s stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy. PMID:25678797

  4. Reduction of lipid accumulation in white adipose tissues by Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed extract is associated with AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2013-01-15

    Natural herbal medications may be one answer to the worldwide epidemic of obesity. This study examines the effects of Cassia seed ethanol extract (CSEE) upon lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT). CSEE exhibited a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the intracellular accumulation of trigycerides in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. After being fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks, rats were fed CSEE (100, 200 or 300 mg/kg) once daily for 8 weeks. CSEE caused dose-related reductions in body weight gain (as well as plasma lipid levels and epididymal WAT sizes in HFD-fed rats). CSEE enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in epididymal WAT of HFD-fed rats. CSEE could attenuate lipid accumulation in WAT via AMPK signaling pathway activation. PMID:23122166

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activities of Morinda citrifolia seed extract and its constituents in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether a 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) of the seeds of Morinda citrifolia (noni) and its constituents have matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity in UVA-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The MCS-ext (10 ?g/mL) inhibited MMP-1 secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, without cytotoxic effects, at 48 h after UV exposure. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of MCS-ext was the most potent inhibitor of MMP-1 secretion. Among the constituents of the fraction, a lignan, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), inhibited the MMP-1 secretion at a concentration of 0.3 ?M without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 1 (0.3 ?M) reduced the level of intracellular MMP-1 expression. Other constituents, namely americanin A (2), quercetin (3) and ursolic acid (4), were inactive. To elucidate inhibition mechanisms of MMP-1 expression and secretion, the effect of 1 on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation was examined. Western blot analysis revealed that 1 (0.3 ?M) reduced the phosphorylations of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that 1 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression, and consequent secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, by down-regulation of MAPKs phosphorylation. PMID:22293351

  6. Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Ravber, Matej; Knez, Željko; Škerget, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130 °C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20 g/mL after 30 min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ?100 °C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation. PMID:25053062

  7. Antiulcer effect of the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica seeds in different experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Pankaj; Sharma, Sunil; Suman; Kumar, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Peptic ulcer is a global health problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion which occurs due to due to an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Objective: The present study was carried out with methanolic extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica Linn. to evaluate its antiulcer potential on ibuprofen, alcohol and pyloric ligation induced gastric lesions. Materials and Methods: Doses of 100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract wre administered orally to rats of different groups. Ranitidine at a dose of 50 mg/kg was used as a standard drug for these gastric ulcer models. The gastric content was collected and the volume was measured. The ulceration index was determined by examining the inner lining of each stomach. Furthermore, the effect was assessed by free acidity, pepsin activity, total carbohydrate (TC), protein content (PK). Result: The result showed that the methanolic extract of seed coats of Tamarindus indica significantly reduce the total volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity of gastric secretion (P < 0.01) in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model as is comparable with the standard drug ranitidine. There was also a significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.01) as compared to control group. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of seed coat of Tamarindus indica can be used as a new source of antiulcer agent in animals. PMID:21687352

  8. Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

  9. Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria] [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    1999-08-01

    Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

  10. Antioxidative and anticancer activities of various ethanolic extract fractions from crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Chiu; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2014-11-01

    Many studies currently researching marine invertebrates to determine the therapeutic potential of their bioactive materials have been showing very promising results. The crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, an Echinodermata of the class Asteroidea, is infamous as the unique venomous starfish and as a destroyer of coral reefs. Starfish possesses many useful pharmacological and biological characteristics. In this study, A. planci was extracted with 70% ethanol and lyophilized to obtain an ethanol fraction. The ethanol fraction was dissolved with water and defatted with petroleum ether to obtain a non-polar fraction. The residual solution was successively partitioned with ethylacetate and butanol to obtain an ethylacetate fraction and butanol fraction, respectively. Four fractions were used to examine the antioxidant and anticancer properties. The ethanol fraction of A. planci contained the highest antioxidant effects such as ABTS, DPPH, Fe(2+) chelating activity and reducing power when compared with four fractions. Among the four fractions, the butanol fraction was especially shown to inhibit human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells' proliferation, which is involved in the apoptotic progression. This fraction could induce apoptosis and even necrosis in A375.S2 cells as evidenced by double staining with an Annexin V-FITC and PI assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. These results indicated that the starfish A. planci is a good resource for obtaining the biologically active substances for antioxidant and anticancer effects. PMID:25305737

  11. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Methods Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents). Results Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50?=?8.78 ?g/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 ?g/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23?±?15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64?±?5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly correlated with the antioxidant activity (R2?=?0.9268 and 0.8515 in DPPH test for leaves and bark, respectively). Conclusion The results of the study show that leaves of C. cujete possesses significant free radical scavenging properties compared with stem bark and a clear correlation exists between the antioxidant activity and phenolic content. PMID:24495381

  12. A case of beta-carboline alkaloid intoxication following ingestion of Peganum harmala seed extract.

    PubMed

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Zancanaro, Flavio; Fazzin, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2008-08-01

    Beta-carboline alkaloids harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of amine neurotransmitters, or by direct interaction with specific receptors; they are found in numerous plants, including Peganum harmala, Passiflora incarnata and Banisteriopsis caapi, and in the entheogen preparation Ayahuasca, which is traditionally brewed using B. caapi to enhance the activity of amine hallucinogenic drugs. The ingestion of plant preparations containing beta-carboline alkaloids may result in toxic effects, namely visual and auditory hallucinations, locomotor ataxia, nausea, vomiting, confusion and agitation. We report a case of intoxication following intentional ingestion of P. harmala seed infusion; P. harmala seeds were bought over the Internet. The harmala alkaloids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the seed extract and the patient's urine. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of P. harmala intoxication corroborated by toxicological findings. PMID:18603389

  13. Antinociceptive Activity of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Aggregatin D Isolated from Sinningia aggregata Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Geórgea V.; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L.; Frois, Gisele R. A.; Ribas, João L. C.; Verdan, Maria H.; Kassuya, Cândida A. L.; Stefanello, Maria E.; Zampronio, Aleksander R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa), fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction) reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs. PMID:25719394

  14. Antinociceptive Activity of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Aggregatin D Isolated from Sinningia aggregata Tubers.

    PubMed

    Souza, Geórgea V; Simas, Alex S; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L; Frois, Gisele R A; Ribas, João L C; Verdan, Maria H; Kassuya, Cândida A L; Stefanello, Maria E; Zampronio, Aleksander R

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa), fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction) reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs. PMID:25719394

  15. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  16. The impact of seed extraction on the population dynamics of Pinus maximartinezii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Mata, Lauro

    2013-05-01

    Pinus maximartinezii is a rare, endemic, threatened species known from a single small population in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Among the pine species that produce edible nuts, it produces one of the largest and most nutritious seeds. The seeds of P. maximartinezii have historically been used for human consumption. The cones are harvested directly from the trees, and the seeds are sold illegally in local, national and international markets. However, the effects of seed extraction must be thoroughly evaluated to determine the potential impacts on population stability. To assess the impact of different rates of seed harvesting on the demography of this species, a 2-yr study of population dynamics was conducted in three 0.1-ha plots. A 9 × 9 size-structured matrix model was used to simulate changes in population growth over time in conjunction with increasing stepwise reductions in fecundity. The population growth rate (?) of P. maximartinezii was 1.1175, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.1008 to 1.1321, and it was relatively insensitive to changes in fecundity and growth. Under a seed extraction intensity of 99%, ? decreased to 1.0241, with a CI from 1.0177 to 1.0361. Elasticity analysis was then performed to identify the combined effects of proportional changes in fecundities and the largest stasis elements on ?. The results suggest that a sound conservation strategy should focus on improving the survival of juveniles and adults during their first reproductive events and on the largest adults, as well as on protecting the habitat of this threatened endemic species.

  17. Attenuation of diabetic disorders in experimentally induced diabetic rat by methanol extract of seed of Holarrhena antidysenterica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazi Monjur Ali; Tushar Kanti Bera; Suvra Mandal; Bikash Ranjan Barik; Debidas Ghosh

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of methanol extract of seed of Holarrhena antidysenterica in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Extract was administered orally at a dose of 400 mg \\/ kg body weight \\/ day for 21 days, to STZ-induced diabetic rats. The fasting blood glucose level was decreased significantly after the treatment of methanolic extract

  18. Optimised amylases extraction from oat seeds and its impact on bread properties.

    PubMed

    Ben Halima, Nihed; Borchani, Maha; Fendri, Imen; Khemakhem, Bassem; Gosset, David; Baril, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Ayadi, Mohamed-Ali; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Statistical approaches were employed for the optimisation of the extraction of amylolytic activity from oat (Avena sativa) seeds. The application of the response surface methodology allows us to determine a set of optimal conditions (ratio seed weight/buffer volume 0.1, germination days 10 days, temperature 20 °C and pH 5.6). Experiments carried out under these conditions led to amylase production yield of 91 U/g. Its maximal activity was in the pH 5.6 and at 55 °C. Study of the incorporation of the optimised oat extract into the bread formulation revealed an improvement of the sensory quality and the textural properties of fresh and stored bread. Three-dimensional elaborations of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) images were performed on crumb of the different breads to evaluate the influence of amylase activity on microstructure. The result showed improved baking characteristics as well as overall microscopic and macroscopic appearance. PMID:25453287

  19. Phenolic content, antioxidant and astroprotective response to oxidative stress of ethanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia from Sinai.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Tarek F; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2014-10-01

    The aerial parts ofMentha longifolia L. are used as herbal remedies for curing different diseases through traditional Bedouin medicine. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of M longifolia was investigated measuring peroxyl radical-scavenging activity by ORAC assay, with Trolox (a water-soluble analogue of ?-tocopherol) employed as reference compound. In addition, the total content of phenolic compounds estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and the identification of the polyphenols using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) have been performed. Furthermore, the effect of these extracts on cell viability and intracellular ROS production was assayed using the U373-MG human astrocytoma cell line in a H2O2-induced oxidative stress model. Results showed that the major type of polyphenols found were benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, flavones and flavanones. The total phenolic content was 37.7 mg gallic acid/g sample and the ORAC value was 1.355 .mol TE/mg sample. The data obtained in cellular assays demonstrated that these ethanolic extracts protected H2O2-induced astrocyte damage by increasing cell viability and inhibiting production of intracellular ROS. These results suggest that the investigated extracts obtained from the aerial parts of M longifolia have antioxidant potential related to their phenol content which have important beneficial health effects, especially in those disease associated with ROS. PMID:25522540

  20. Gastroprotective Activity of Polygonum chinense Aqueous Leaf Extract on Ethanol-Induced Hemorrhagic Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Iza Farhana; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Kadir, Farkaad A.; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Awang, Khalijah

    2012-01-01

    Polygonum chinense is a Malaysian ethnic plant with various healing effects. This study was to determine preventive effect of aqueous leaf extract of P. chinense against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. The normal and ulcer control groups were orally administered with distilled water. The reference group was orally administered with 20?mg/kg omeprazole. The experimental groups received the extracts 62.5, 125, 250, and 500?mg/kg, accordingly. After sixty minutes, distilled water and absolute ethanol were given (5?mL/kg) to the normal control and the others, respectively. In addition to histology, immunohistochemical and periodic acid schiff (PAS) stains, levels of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA), antioxidant enzymes, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured. The ulcer group exhibited severe mucosal damages. The experimental groups significantly reduced gastric lesions and MDA levels and increased SOD level. Immunohistochemistry of the experimental groups showed upregulation and downregulation of Hsp70 and Bax proteins, respectively. PAS staining in these groups exhibited intense staining as compared to the ulcer group. Acute toxicity study revealed the nontoxic nature of the extract. Our data provide first evidence that P. chinense extract could significantly prevent gastric ulcer. PMID:23365597

  1. Ethanolic Extract of Allium cepa Stimulates Glucose Transporter Typ 4-Mediated Glucose Uptake by the Activation of Insulin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Pal, Savita; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-02-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects and the molecular mechanism of the standardized ethanolic extract of Allium cepa (onion) on the glucose transport for controlling diabetes mellitus. A. cepa stimulates glucose uptake by the rat skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes) in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This effect was shown to be mediated by the increased translocation of glucose transporter typ 4 protein from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane as well as the synthesis of glucose transporter typ 4 protein. The effect of A. cepa extract on glucose transport was stymied by wortmannin, genistein, and AI½. In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that, like insulin, A. cepa extract also enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-?, insulin receptor substrate-1, and the serine phosphorylation of Akt under both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions without affecting the total amount of these proteins. Furthermore, it is also shown that the activation of Akt is indispensable for the A. cepa-induced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings provide ample evidence that the ethanolic extract of A. cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4 translocation-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt dependent pathway. PMID:25654406

  2. Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract

    PubMed Central

    Dhoble, Sagar B.; Majumdar, Anuradha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification). Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling) of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materials and Methods: Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract. Results: The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification without affecting its therapeutic potential. PMID:25336846

  3. Effects of processing on oxidative stability of sesame oil extracted from intact and dehulled seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Abou-Gharbia; F. Shahidi; A. Adel; Y. Shehata; M. M. Youssef

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative stability of oils extracted from intact and dehulled sesame seeds was determined by monitoring changes in fatty\\u000a acid composition, iodine value (IV), peroxide value (PV), conjugated diene (CD), para-anisidine value (p-AV), and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy after storage under Schaal oven\\u000a conditions at 65C for up to 35 d. The oils from coated

  4. Efficacy of neem seed extract shampoo on head lice of naturally infected humans in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Margit Semmler

    2007-01-01

    Sixty heavily lice-infested male and female children (4–15 years) were selected and subjected to the treatment with a neem seed extract shampoo. Twenty to thirty milliliter of the shampoo were thoroughly mixed with completely wet hair and rubbed in to reach the skin of the scalp. After 5, 10, 15 and 30 min, the shampoo was washed out and the hair basically

  5. Protective role of extracts of neem seeds in diabetes caused by streptozotocin in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Gupta; M Kataria; P. K Gupta; S Murganandan; R. C Yashroy

    2004-01-01

    Effect of petroleum ether extracts of kernel (NSK) and husk (NSH) of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae) seeds on the prevention of oxidative stress caused by streptozotocin (STZ) was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in adult male Wistar rats after administration of STZ (55mg\\/kg b.wt., i.p., tail vein).The effect of NSK (2gm\\/kg, b.wt.) and NSH (0.9gm\\/kg, b.wt.) orally for

  6. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achyut Narayan Kesari; Rajesh Kumar Gupta; Santosh Kumar Singh; Sandhya Diwakar; Geeta Watal

    2006-01-01

    Aegle marmelos Corr. (Rutaceae) is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos seeds was administered orally at different doses (100, 250 and 500mg\\/kg) to normal as well as sub (fasting blood glucose (FBG) normal; glucose tolerance abnormal) and mild (FBG 120–250mg\\/dl) diabetic rats. The dose of 250mg\\/kg was found

  7. Effect of grape seed extract on puromycin-aminonucleoside-induced nephrosis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tej K. Mattoo; Larisa Kovacevic

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that an excessive production of oxidants plays an important role in the pathogenesis of glomerular disease. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a potent antioxidant, and the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate its effect on puromycin-aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced nephrosis in rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 rats received water

  8. Ethanol extract and isolated constituents from artemisia dracunculus inhibit esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and induce apoptotic cell death.

    PubMed

    Hong, L; Ying, S-h

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the antitumor efficacy of the ethanol extract from Artemisia dracunculus as well as the compounds isolated from it on cultured EC?109 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Apoptotic activities of the compounds were also studied using flow cytometry. EC?109 esophageal cancer cells were treated with varying concentrations of compounds 1-7 isolated from the plant as well as the ethanol extract of Artemisia dracunculus. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay and the apoptotic studies of the compounds were determined using flow-cytometry. Effect on mitochondrial membrane potential loss ?? m induced by compounds 2 and 4 was also studied in these cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract from the shoot and root parts of Artemisia dracunculus led to the isolation of 7-methoxycoumarin (1), scopoletin (2), dracumerin (3), sakuranetin (4), elimicin (5), davidigenin (6) and 6-methoxycapillarisin (7). All the compounds as well as the extract showed mild to potent cell proliferation inhibitory activities against the esophageal cell line. Sakuranetin and 6-methoxycapillarisin were found to have the most potent effects in inhibiting the cell proliferation. The 2 potent compounds, sakuranetin and 6-methoxycapillarisin were evaluated for their effects on cell cycle phase distribution (DNA damage) as well as their effects on mitochondrial membrane potential loss ?? m. Both compounds induced DNA damage as well as mitochondrial membrane potential loss in esophageal cancer cells. The study suggests that compounds, Sakuranetin and 6-methoxycapillarisin isolated from Artemisia dracunculus possess potent anticancer effects by inducing DNA damage in these cells. PMID:25076224

  9. Anti-microbial effect of Nigella sativa seed extract against staphylococcal skin Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rafati, Shiva; Niakan, Mohammad; Naseri, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of microbial resistance to the existing anti-microbial agents has become a real challenge and a serious problem facing patients suffering from skin infections. Seeds of Nigella sativa have been used for a long time in folk medicine for the treatment of skin infections. Production of new potent agents is urgently needed, especially for hospitals and health care centers. This study is designed to explore anti-microbial effect of extract from the Nigella sativa seeds against skin pustules infection. Methods: The in vivo anti-microbial effect of the Nigella sativa seeds extract at a concentration of 33% on pustules staphylococcal Skin Infections was assessed and compared with standard drug mupirocin on 40 neonates .All neonates were divided and examined into two experimental and control groups randomly. Recovery times were compared between two groups. Results: The mean of recovery time in experimental group was 75/1 with SD= ± 12, and the mean of recovery time in control group was 69/4 with SD = ± 8/7.There was no significant difference in recovery time between two groups (p value = 0/131). Conclusion: In clinical practice, the agent of Nigella Sativa recovered as pustular from tissues of all patients. While the extract was as nearly effective as the standard drug, mupirocin, no side effect was observed. PMID:25405108

  10. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi (black Zeera) seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Muhammad Rashad; Sadiq, Soban; Nayak, Salma; Tahir, Muhammad Usman

    2012-04-01

    Medicinal plants play a key role in preventing various diseases. Hyperlipidemia is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. 2% cholesterol diet were given to rats for six weeks and rats showed high lipid levels were included in the study. Then all rats were divided into, normal control group (A), hyperlipidemia positive control group (B), and the remaining two groups (C and D) served as experimental groups. Group C hyperlipidemic experimental rats received aqueous dried extract of Carum carvi seeds at 60 mg/kg of body weight for eight weeks on daily basis. On the other hand group D rats received simvastatin at 1.0 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Blood samples were collected after eight weeks. The hyperlipidemic positive control group rats showed variable increase in serum triglycerides, LDL and total cholesterol levels. Serum HDL levels decreased in hyperlipidemic positive control groups. Carum carvi and simvastatin significantly decreased the levels of these parameters in rats. On comparison Carum carvi reduced lipid levels more, effectively than the simvastatin. Carum carvi constituents, especially flavonoids and carvone have strong anti-oxidant activity which might be involved in hypolipidemia. In conclusion, Carum carvi aqueous seeds extract decrease lipid levels in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:22459457

  11. Effect of Early Seed Removal During Fermentation on Proanthocyanidin Extraction in Red Wine: A Commercial Production Example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) were made by a commercial winery to examine the effects of seed removal at ~10 °Brix on the extraction of proanthocyanidins during fermentation. Seeds were removed at the point when they fell to the bottom of the fermentor, and were thus easily removed during reg...

  12. Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M; Michels, Alexander J; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

    2012-09-12

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) and their constituent flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. To evaluate the relative potency of extracts and catechins, their concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined and compared to the widely used pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess relative inhibitory efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. Whereas tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of ?-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase. Nongallated catechins were ineffective. The data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates, in particular epigallocatechin gallate, are potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase activity and suggest that procyanidins in grape seed extract strongly inhibit ?-amylase activity. PMID:22697360

  13. Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections. PMID:23569812

  14. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Fori?, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as ?Eq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co ?-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with ?-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  15. Gastroprotective potentials of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomathy, G; Venkatesan, D; Palani, S

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Gastric ulceration was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (30 mg/kg b.wt.). M. maderaspatana extract produced significant reduction in gastric mucosal lesions, malondialdehyde and serum tumour necrosis factor-? associated with a significant increase in gastric juice mucin content and gastric mucosal catalase, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels. The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in pretreated rats. The plant extract was evaluated in the gastric juice of rats, untreated has showed near normal levels in pretreated rats. The M. maderaspatana was able to decrease acidity and increase the mucosal defence in the gastric area, therefore justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. Ranitidine significantly increased pH value and decreased pepsin activity and gastric juice free and total acidity. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. PMID:25471339

  16. Assessment of morphological changes of Clostridium acetobutylicum by flow cytometry during acetone/butanol/ethanol extractive fermentation.

    PubMed

    González-Peñas, Helena; Lu-Chau, Thelmo Alejandro; Moreira, Maria Teresa; Lema, Juan Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Acetone/butanol/ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum was investigated in extractive fed-batch experiments. In conventional fermentations, metabolic activity ceases when a critical threshold products concentration is reached (~21.6 g solvents l(-1)). Solvents production was increased up to 36.6 and 37.2 g l(-1), respectively, using 2-butyl-1-octanol (aqueous to organic ratio: 1:0.25 v/v) and pomace olive oil (1:1 v/v) as extraction solvents. The morphological changes of different cell types were monitored and quantified using flow cytometry. Butanol production in extractive fermentations with pomace olive oil was achieved mainly by vegetative cells, whereas the percentage of sporulating cells was lower than 10 %. PMID:25351808

  17. Antitumor activity of ethanol extract from Hippophae rhamnoides L. leaves towards human acute myeloid leukemia cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhamanbaeva, G T; Murzakhmetova, M K; Tuleukhanov, S T; Danilenko, M P

    2014-12-01

    We studied the effects of ethanol extract from Hippophae rhamnoides L. leaves on the growth and differentiation of human acute myeloid leukemia cells (KG-1a, HL60, and U937). The extract of Hippophae rhamnoides L. leaves inhibited cell growth depending on the cell strain and extract dose. In a high concentration (100 ?g/ml), the extract also exhibited a cytotoxic effect on HL60 cells. Hippophae rhamnoides L. leaves extract did not affect cell differentiation and did not modify the differentiating effect of calcitriol, active vitamin D metabolite. Inhibition of cell proliferation was paralleled by paradoxical accumulation of phase S cells (synthetic phase) with a reciprocal decrease in the count of G1 cells (presynthetic phase). The extract in a concentration of 100 ?g/ml induced the appearance of cells with a subdiploid DNA content (sub-G1 phase cells), which indicated induction of apoptosis. The antiproliferative effect of Hippophae rhamnoides L. extract on acute myeloid leukemia cells was at least partially determined by activation of the S phase checkpoint, which probably led to deceleration of the cell cycle and apoptosis induction. PMID:25432283

  18. Some physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil extracted using solvent and aqueous enzymatic methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

    2005-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of oil from Moringa oleifera seed were determined following extraction either with petroleum ether or 2% Neutrase 0.8L (a neutral bacterial protease from Bacillus amyloiquefaciens, Novozyme Bagsvaerd Denmark). The enzyme was chosen following a preliminary study conducted on the enzymatic extraction of M. oleifera seed oil using four commercial enzymes that showed Neutrase to be the best

  19. Effects of defatted safflower seed extract and phenolic compounds in diet on plasma and liver lipid in ovariectomized rats fed high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hee; Lee, Hyang-Rim; Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Sang-Won; Lee, Won-Jung; Choi, Youngsun

    2004-02-01

    Six polyphenolic compounds were isolated from ethylacetate extract secondary to 80% ethanol extraction of defatted safflower seeds. They were categorized into three types: lignans, flavones and serotonin derivatives. Female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 163.4 +/- 6.3 g were ovariectomized (Ovx) and fed either ethylacetate extract at a level of 1% (w/w) or three types of safflower polyphenolic compounds at a level of 200 mg/kg in a diet containing 0.5% (w/w) cholesterol for four wk. The sham and Ovx control groups were fed the same diet without safflower components. Plasma GOT and GPT levels did not differ among the six experimental groups. The plasma levels of total cholesterol were reduced in the four safflower groups by 20-30% as compared to the Ovx control. The plasma level of HDL-cholesterol was higher in the Ovx+ethylacetate extract group or appeared to be in the three Ovx+safflower polyphenolic groups than in the Ovx control. The level of plasma triglyceride was also significantly lower in the Ovx+lignan group than in the Ovx control. The liver level of cholesterol was significantly reduced in the Ovx+ethylacetate extract group. Fecal excretion of cholesterol increased by the safflower lignans and flavones, whereas that of bile acid was not significantly changed by the safflower polyphenols. Matairesinol and acacetin isolated from safflower seeds reduced the cholesterol content in cultured HepG2 cells at a concentration of 0.01-0.1 microM and all three safflower polyphenolics decreased triglyceride content at the concentration of 0.1 microM. These results suggest that safflower polyphenols have the effect of improving blood lipid status via increasing HDL-cholesterol formation and cholesterol excretion without significant uterotropic action in estrogen-deficient animals. PMID:15228215

  20. Phenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Contraceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salsola imbricata Forssk. in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shehab, Naglaa Gamil

    2014-01-01

    Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330?nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500?mg/kg b. wt.), over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692%) followed by coumaric acid (4.251%). Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P < 0.01) in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin. PMID:25587346

  1. LiDAR Segmentation using Suitable Seed Points for 3D Building Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, S. M.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.

    2014-08-01

    Effective building detection and roof reconstruction has an influential demand over the remote sensing research community. In this paper, we present a new automatic LiDAR point cloud segmentation method using suitable seed points for building detection and roof plane extraction. Firstly, the LiDAR point cloud is separated into "ground" and "non-ground" points based on the analysis of DEM with a height threshold. Each of the non-ground point is marked as coplanar or non-coplanar based on a coplanarity analysis. Commencing from the maximum LiDAR point height towards the minimum, all the LiDAR points on each height level are extracted and separated into several groups based on 2D distance. From each group, lines are extracted and a coplanar point which is the nearest to the midpoint of each line is considered as a seed point. This seed point and its neighbouring points are utilised to generate the plane equation. The plane is grown in a region growing fashion until no new points can be added. A robust rule-based tree removal method is applied subsequently to remove planar segments on trees. Four different rules are applied in this method. Finally, the boundary of each object is extracted from the segmented LiDAR point cloud. The method is evaluated with six different data sets consisting hilly and densely vegetated areas. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method offers a high building detection and roof plane extraction rates while compared to a recently proposed method.

  2. Influence of an aqueous extract of Ligustrum lucidum and an ethanol extract of Schisandra chinensis on parameters of antioxidative metabolism and spleen lymphocyte proliferation of broilers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Deying; Shan, Anshan; Li, Jianping; Zhao, Yun; Guo, Xiaoqiu

    2009-02-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with different levels of two extracts, an aqueous extract of Ligustrum lucidum (AELL), and an ethanol extract of Schisandra chinensis (EESC) on growth performance, parameters of antioxidative status and spleen lymphocyte proliferation of broilers, respectively. The results showed that neither AELL nor EESC had significant effects on growth performance of broilers. However, malondialdehyde concentration in heart and liver of the broilers were significantly decreased by feeding AELL or EESC. Superoxide dismutase activity in heart, liver, and kidney of broilers were improved by feeding different dosages of AELL or EESC. In contrast, glutathione reductase activity in serum, heart and kidney of broilers was not affected by experimental treatment. In addition, spleen lymphocyte proliferation of broilers was significantly enhanced by feeding different dosages of AELL or EESC. In conclusion, the results suggested that either AELL or EESC may improve antioxidant status and immune function of broilers. PMID:19271552

  3. An in vivo and in vitro investigation of the effect of Aloe vera gel ethanolic extract using animal model with diabetic foot ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Daburkar, Mohan; Lohar, Vikram; Rathore, Arvind Singh; Bhutada, Pravin; Tangadpaliwar, Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine the preventive effect of Aloe vera gel ethanolic extract using diabetic foot ulcer (DFUs) protocol in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into untreated control (Group I), untreated DFUs (Group II), DFUs treated with A. vera gel ethanolic extract (Group III), DFUs treated with topical A. vera gel (Group IV), DFUs treated with A. vera gel ethanolic extract and topical A. vera gel (Group V). The rats in the treatment groups were daily administered the A. vera gel and ethanolic extract for 9 days. Fasting blood glucose levels and percentage of wound ulcer contraction were measured on day 3, 6, and 9. Statistical Analysis used: The results are expressed as a mean ± Standard Error Mean (SEM). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) after Newman–Keuls test. P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant in all cases. Results: Oral administration of A. vera gel ethanolic extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight per day to diabetic rats for a period of 9 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and a significant improvement in plasma insulin. Topical application of A. vera gel at a dose 30 mg/kg body weight per day to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for a period of 9 days resulted in no change in blood glucose and plasma insulin. Oral administration as well as topical application of A. vera gel ethanolic extract and gel significantly reduced the blood glucose, improved the plasma insulin, and significantly increased DNA and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) to improve the wound ulcer healing as well as the breaking strength on day 9. Conclusions: Present findings provide a scientific rationale for the use of A. vera gel ethanolic extract, and showed that the gel attenuated the diabetic foot wound in rats. PMID:25035641

  4. Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract increases bone mineral density and improves bone properties in growing female rats.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ying; Feng, Xin; Zhao, Pengling; Wu, Zhenghao; Xu, Hao; Fang, Yuehui; Hou, Yangfeng; Denney, Liya; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. It is generally accepted that acquisition of a high peak bone mass (PBM) early in life can reduce the risk of osteoporosis later in life. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) ethanol extract on bone mineral density and its mechanical properties in growing female rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The rats were given different doses of FLL extract mixed with AIN-93G formula (0.40, 0.65 and 0.90 %), and a group given AIN-93G diet treatment only was used as control. The intervention lasted for 16 weeks until the animals were about 5 months old, the time when the animals almost reach their PBM. Our results showed that FLL treatment increased bone mineral density and improved bone mechanical properties in the growing female rats in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, FLL treatment significantly decreased the serum bone-resorbing marker, CTX-I, while significantly increasing serum 25(OH)D3 and thereby increasing Ca absorption and Ca retention. Intriguingly, both in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that FLL treatment could reduce the RANKL/OPG ratio. In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract exerted beneficial effects on peak bone mass acquisition and the improvement of bone mechanical properties by favoring Ca metabolism and decreasing the RANKL/OPG ratio. PMID:24362453

  5. Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptotic by ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga rhizhome in human breast carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the potential of galangal rhizomes to induce cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in the cultured human breast carcinoma cell line, (MCF-7) in compare with the non-malignant (MRC-5) cells. Methods Both cells were cultured in DMEM medium and treated with galangal rhizomes for three consecutive days. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate. Results The results showed that the ethanolic extract of galangal rhizomes decreased cell viability in the malignant cells as a concentration- and time- dependent manner. The IC50 values against MCF-7 were determined at 400.0?±?11.7 and 170.0?±?5.9 ?g/ml after 48 and 72 h respectively. The morphology of MCF-7 cells treated with the ethanolic extract confirmed the cell proliferation assay results. Alpinia galanga induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as determined by flow cytometry. Conclusions We concluded that the extract of Alpinia galanga exerts pro-apoptotic effects in a breast cancer-derived cell line and could be considered as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer. PMID:24935101

  6. The antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of dietary phenolic extracts from horse gram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perumal Siddhuraju; Sellamuthu Manian

    2007-01-01

    Total phenolics and the antioxidative properties of two varieties of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) were studied. The raw and dry-heated seed samples were extracted successively with methanol and 70% acetone separately. After removing the solvents, the extracts were freeze-dried. The black seeds contained relatively high levels of total phenolics and tannins than the brown seeds with respect to the treatments

  7. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    PubMed Central

    Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Bellakhdar, Wafaa; Belkacem, Nacera; Kadiata, Marcel; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2?000 µg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 µg/mL as compared to 1.1 µg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant. PMID:23570014

  8. Ultrasound-assisted Soxhlet extraction: an expeditive approach for solid sample treatment. Application to the extraction of total fat from oleaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Luque-García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2004-04-23

    Conventional Soxhlet extraction assisted in the cartridge by ultrasound has been developed and used to extract the total fat content from oleaginous seeds such as sunflower, rape and soybean seeds. The application of ultrasound to the sample cartridge enormously decreases the number of Soxhlet extraction cycles needed for quantitative extraction of the fat, thus reducing the extraction time at least to half the time needed by the conventional procedures. The results agree well with those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction and the ISO reference method, both in terms of efficiency and precision. The repeatability of the proposed approach, expressed as relative standard deviation, was 0.9%; the within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.3%. Qualitative analysis of the extracted fat showed that the application of ultrasound does not change the composition of the oil. PMID:15116936

  9. Antithrombin effect of polyphenol-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Micha?; Saluk, Joanna; Ponczek, Micha? B?a?ej; Nowak, Pawe?

    2013-01-01

    Thrombin is a serine protease that cleaves the peptide bonds in proteins located on the carboxyl side of arginine. Thrombin plays a central role in thromboembolic diseases, which are the major cause of mortality. The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of plant extracts on proteolytic properties of thrombin. Thrombin was incubated with polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5, 5, 50 µg/mL) and with polyphenols ((+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, cyanidin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, quercetin). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts in all used concentrations inhibited proteolytic activity of thrombin observed as inhibition of thrombin-induced fibrinogen polymerization, stabilized fibrin formation, and platelet aggregation. Moreover, thrombin amidolytic activity was inhibited by polyphenols belonging to the flavonoid class. Results presented in this study indicate that polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of A.?melanocarpa and seeds of V.?vinifera may become promising dietary supplements in the prevention of thrombotic states. PMID:22473647

  10. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  11. In vitro antilisterial properties of crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.

    PubMed

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  12. Suppression of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma cell by the ethanol extract of pomegranate fruit through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pomegranate possesses many medicinal properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antitumor. It has been extensively used as a folk medicine by many cultures. Pomegranate fruit has been shown to have the inhibitory efficacy against prostate cancer and lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. It can be exploited in chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. In this study we examined the anti-cancer efficacy of pomegranate fruit grown in Taiwan against urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC) and its mechanism of action. Methods Edible portion of Taiwanese pomegranate was extracted using ethanol and the anti-cancer effectiveness of ethanol extract was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Flow cytometry and western immunoblotting were exploited to uncover the molecular pathways underlying anti-UBUC activity of Taiwanese pomegranate ethanol extract. Results This study demonstrated that Taiwanese pomegranate fruit ethanol extract (PEE) could effectively restrict the proliferation of UBUC T24 and J82 cells. Cell cycle analyses indicated that the S phase arrest induced by PEE treatment might be caused by an increase in cyclin A protein level and a decrease in the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 1. The results of western immunoblotting demonstrated that PEE treatment could not only evoke the activation of pro-caspase-3, -8,-9 but also increase Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in T24 cells. The above observations implicated that PEE administration might trigger the apoptosis in T24 cells through death receptor signaling and mitochondrial damage pathway. Besides we found that PEE exposure to T24 cells could provoke intensive activation of procaspase-12 and enhance the expressions of CHOP and Bip, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker, suggesting that ER stress might be the cardinal apoptotic mechanism of PEE-induced inhibition of bladder cancer cell. Conclusions The analytical results of this study help to provide insight into the molecular mechanism of induced bladder cancer cell apoptosis by pomegranate and to develop novel mechanism-based chemopreventive strategy for bladder cancer. PMID:24359437

  13. Chemopreventive properties of the ethanol extract of chinese licorice ( Glycyrrhiza uralensis) root: induction of apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest in MCF7 human breast cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Hye Jo; Sung-Hoon Kim; Jeong-Chan Ra; Sung-Ran Kim; Sung-Dae Cho; Ji-Won Jung; Se-Ran Yang; Joon-Suk Park; Jae-Woong Hwang; Okezie I Aruoma; Tae-Yung Kim; Yong-Soon Lee; Kyung-Sun Kang

    2005-01-01

    Much of the interest on the chemopreventive properties of licorice has been focused on the plant genius Glycyrrhiza glabra. In this study the ethanol extract of Chinese licorice root, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (G. uralensis) was investigated for its estrogenic effect and the ability to inhibit cell proliferation in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The extract of the root of

  14. Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Archana Sachdewa; L. D Khemani

    2003-01-01

    Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41–46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed

  15. Optimisation of ultrasound-assisted extraction of natural pigment from annatto seeds by response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Yolmeh, Mahmoud; Habibi Najafi, Mohammad B; Farhoosh, Reza

    2014-07-15

    The present study reports on the extraction of natural pigment from annatto seeds. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Four independent variables including temperature (20-80°C), sonication time (2-10 min), duty cycle (0.2-0.8s) and the ratio of seeds to the solvent (5-20%) were studied. According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with a temperature of 72.7°C, extraction time of 7.25 min, the ratio of seed to solvent of 14% and duty cycle of 0.8s. At these conditions, extraction yield determined as 6.35% and the absorbance value as 0.865%. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values, which suggested UAE is more efficient process as compared to conventional extraction. PMID:24594191

  16. Effect of ethanolic extract of Carpolobia lutea G. Don (polygalaceae) root on learning and memory in CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Ajiwhen, I O; Bisong, S A

    2013-01-01

    Carpolobia lutea, commonly called cattle stick or poor man's candle, is used by traditional herbalists in eastern Nigeria to treat 'madness'. It has a reported analgesic and anti-nociceptive effect. The effect of its ethanolic root extract on learning and memory was investigated. Thirty mice were divided into three groups of ten each. One group of mice served as the control and was given normal saline (p.o.) while the other two groups were given acute low dose (1500mg/kg, p.o.) and high dose (2500mg/kg, p.o.) (LD50 3338.83mg/kg). The effect of the extract on cognitive memory was investigated using the Novel Object recognition task (NORT) while the effect on visuospatial learning and memory was studied using the Morris Water maze (MWM). The results obtained in the NORT show that the index of habituation was significantly lower following acute treatment with a low dose of C. lutea extract compared to control. However, the index of habituation did not differ following treatment with a high dose of C. lutea compared to control but it was higher compared to the low dose. Following treatment with a low dose of the extract, the index of discrimination was significantly higher compared to control. The index of discrimination in the high dose treatment group did not differ from control, but it was lower compared to the low dose treatment. This indicated that there was improved cognitive memory only in the low dose treatment group. In the MWM there was no significant difference in swim latency during Acquisition and Reversal training. There also was no significant difference in quadrant duration during probe trial. The swim latency during the visible platform test showed that all mice used had good visual acuity. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of C. lutea root enhanced cognitive memory. However it did not affect visuospatial learning and memory. PMID:24937388

  17. Blood pressure lowering, vasodilator and cardiac-modulatory potential of Carum roxburghianum seed extract.

    PubMed

    Khan, Munasib; Khan, Arif-Ullah; Rehman, Najeeb-Ur-; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    In current study, we describe blood pressure (BP)-lowering, endothelium-dependent, and independent vasodilator and cardio-modulatory actions of Carum roxburghianum seed. The crude extract of C. roxburghianum seed (Cr.Cr) induced dose-dependent (10-100?mg/kg) fall in arterial BP of anaesthetized rats. In isolated rabbit aorta, Cr.Cr (0.3-10?mg/mL) inhibited high K(+) (80?mM) and phenylephrine (PE, 1?µM)-induced contractions, like verapamil and papaverine. In endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations, N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-sensitive vasodilator activity was observed with Cr.Cr, which also relaxed endothelium-denuded aorta tissues. In guinea-pig atria, Cr.Cr initially caused mild cardiac stimulation, followed by inhibition, as shown by papaverine. These results reveal that cardiovascular effects of C. roxburghianum seed extract are mediated possibly through combination of Ca(++) antagonist, nitric oxide modulating and phosphodiesterase inhibitory mechanisms, though further in-depth studies are required for elucidating precise mode of action. PMID:24785464

  18. Ethanol production from glucose and xylose obtained from steam exploded water-extracted olive tree pruning using phosphoric acid as catalyst.

    PubMed

    Negro, M J; Alvarez, C; Ballesteros, I; Romero, I; Ballesteros, M; Castro, E; Manzanares, P; Moya, M; Oliva, J M

    2014-02-01

    In this work, the effect of phosphoric acid (1% w/w) in steam explosion pretreatment of water extracted olive tree pruning at 175°C and 195°C was evaluated. The objective is to produce ethanol from all sugars (mainly glucose and xylose) contained in the pretreated material. The water insoluble fraction obtained after pretreatment was used as substrate in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process by a commercial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The liquid fraction, containing mainly xylose, was detoxified by alkali and ion-exchange resin and then fermented by the xylose fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis. Ethanol yields reached in a SSF process were close to 80% when using 15% (w/w) substrate consistency and about 70% of theoretical when using prehydrolysates detoxified by ion-exchange resins. Considering sugars recovery and ethanol yields about 160g of ethanol from kg of water extracted olive tree pruning could be obtained. PMID:24345569

  19. Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (?3) and omega-6 (?6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ?3 (linolenic acid) and ?6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and ?-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes. PMID:24909999

  20. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid ?-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid ? (A?) peptide. A? is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds’ aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on A? (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against A?-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on A?-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in A?-induced HIPN. RESULTS: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from A? treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the A?-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. CONCLUSION: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against A?-mediated cell death. PMID:23833520

  1. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Körpe, Didem Aksoy; ??er?, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 ?g/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 ?g/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 ?g/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 ?g/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance. PMID:23067263

  2. Anxiolytic and hyperlocomotive effects of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Farhat; Ahmed, Afrinah; Parveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

    2014-09-01

    Use of the herbal drugs increasing all over the world due to its minimum side effect. Nigella sativa black seeds used in folk medicine for the promotion of good health and for the treatment of many diseases .The present study is designed to investigate the neurochemical and behavioral effect of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds in rats. Neurochemical studies were performed for DA and DOPAC levels in whole rats' brain. Locomotive behavior was observed in novel environment and familiar environment. Elevated plus maze and light dark behavioral modules were used to monitor anxiety in rats. The oral administration of AENS for six weeks increased time spent in open arm of elevated plus maze and light compartment in light dark box. Increased locomotors activity in novel environment (open field) was noticed suggesting that increased in DA level may be related to increased locomotive activity in rats. PMID:25176249

  3. Mathematical modeling of sunflower seed extraction by supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Perrut, M.; Clavier, J.Y. [Separex, Champigneulles (France)] [Separex, Champigneulles (France); Poletto, M.; Reverchon, E. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare

    1997-02-01

    Extraction of oil from crushed sunflower seeds with supercritical CO{sub 2} was performed at 280 bar and 40 C on a laboratory apparatus of 0.15 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3} volume and on a pilot plant of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3} volume. CO{sub 2} flow rate ranged between 5 and 45 kg/h. To study the influence of the vegetable matrix on the extraction rate, a re-extraction experiment on the extraction product was also performed on the pilot scale apparatus. A mathematical model of the supercritical extraction process was developed on the basis of the experimental evidence. The equilibrium between the solids and the fluid phase appeared to be the controlling step during the extraction process. A simplified form of a sigmoidal-shaped equilibrium curve was adopted to fit the experimental data in the whole range of CO{sub 2} flow rates explored. The meaning of this nonlinear equilibrium relationship was also discussed.

  4. Extracts of phenolic compounds from seeds of three wild grapevines-comparison of their antioxidant activities and the content of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Stanis?aw; Powa?ka, Anna; Karama?, Magdalena; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS WERE EXTRACTED FROM THREE WILD GRAPEVINE SPECIES: Vitis californica, V. riparia and V. amurensis seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing the Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent while the content of tannins was assayed with the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The RP-HPLC method was applied to identify the phenolic compounds in the extracts, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins, catechins and gallic acid and observable quantities of p-coumaric acid. The total content of phenolic compounds and tannins was similar in the extracts from V. californica and V. riparia seeds. However, the total content of total phenolic compounds and tannins in the extracts from V. californica and V. riperia seeds were about two-fold higher than that in the extracts from V. amurensis seeds. Extracts from seeds of the American species (V. californica and V. riparia) contained similarly high concentrations of tannins, whereas extracts from seeds of V. amurensis had approximately half that amount of these compounds. The content of catechin and epicatechin was similar in all extracts. The highest DPPH(•) anti-radical scavenging activity was observed in the acetonic and methanolic extracts of V. californica and V. riparia seeds- while the acetonic extract from the V. californica seeds was the strongest reducing agent. PMID:22489161

  5. Variations of carnosic acid and carnosol concentrations in ethanol extracts of wild Lepechinia salviae in Spring (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Labbé, Cecilia; Faini, Francesca; Calderón, Daniela; Molina, Juanita; Arredondo, Susana

    2014-10-01

    Ethanol extracts from dried leaves of wild Lepechinia salvia (Lindl) Epling, collected during the flowering period (September-November), contained 15% to 25% carnosic acid and 2 to 8% carnosol, depending on the month of collection. The highest concentration of carnosic acid in extracts was in October, while carnosol concentration had a peak in September, which suggests that it is not a product of carnosic acid oxidation. A comparison of extracts obtained in September 2008 to 2011 shows that the production of both abietanes increased in years with less winter rainfall and higher temperatures, which induced an early blooming. EC50 values in DPPH radical scavenging and antiproliferative (CCRF-CEM tumor cells) bioassays confirm that the high bioactivity of the extracts of rosemary, sage and L. salviae does not arise only from carnosol and carnosic acid. The cytotoxic activity was significantly higher in extracts of L. salviae, probably due to water stress differences between the cultivars and the wild species. These results correlate well with the close phylogenetic relationship between the three species, and their similar medicinal uses. PMID:25522527

  6. Rapid Antidepressant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Is Associated with Upregulation of BDNF Expression in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hailou; Xue, Wenda; Wu, Runjie; Gong, Tong; Tao, Weiwei; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Nan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Chang; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol extract of Yueju pill, a Traditional Chinese Medicine herbal formula widely used to treat mood disorders, demonstrates rapid antidepressant effects similar to ketamine, likely via instant enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. Here we investigated ethanol extracts of the constituent herbs of Yueju responsible for rapid antidepressant effects. Screening with tail suspension test in Kunming mice at 24 hours after a single administration of five individual constituent herbs of Yueju, we found that only Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJ) showed a significant effect. The antidepressant response started at 2 hours after GJ administration. Similar to Yueju and ketamine, a single administration of GJ significantly reduced the number of escape failures in the learned helplessness test. Furthermore, GJ decreased latency of food consumption in the novelty suppressed-feeding test. Additionally, starting from 2 hours and continuing for over 20 hours after GJ administration, BDNF expression in the hippocampus was upregulated, temporally linked with the antidepressant response. These findings suggest that GJ has rapid antidepressant effects, which are associated with the elevated expression of BDNF in the hippocampus. In Yueju formula, Yue represents GJ, as thus our study demonstrates the primary role of GJ in rapid antidepressant efficacy of Yueju.

  7. Comparisons of Ethanol Extracts of Chinese Propolis (Poplar Type) and Poplar Gums Based on the Antioxidant Activities and Molecular Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianglin; Cao, Xueping; Ping, Shun; Wang, Kai; Shi, Jinhu; Zhang, Cuiping; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang

    2015-01-01

    The biological activities of propolis are varied from plant sources and the prominent antioxidant effects of Chinese propolis (poplar type) have been extensively reported. Oxidative stress is associated with inflammation and induces many diseases. In the study, to evaluate antioxidant capacities and clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol extracts of Chinese propolis (EECP) and ethanol extracts of poplar gums (EEPG), we analyzed their compositions by HPLC, evaluating their free radical scavenging activities and reducing power by chemical analysis methods. Moreover, we studied the roles of EECP and EEPG on the elimination of ROS and expressions of antioxidant genes (HO-1, TrxR1, GCLM, and GCLC) in RAW264.7 cells. We further investigated the effects of MAPKs on the antioxidant genes expression by specific inhibitors. The nucleus translocation effects of Nrf2 were also measured by confocal microscopy analysis. The results indicated that EECP had higher TPC and FDC values but regarding TFC values were not significant. EECP also possessed more contents of 11 compounds than EEPG. Both phytochemical analysis and cell experiment reflected that EECP exerted stronger antioxidant activities than EEPG. EECP and EEPG enhanced endogenous antioxidant defenses by eliminating reactive oxygen species directly and activating Erk-Nrf2-HO1, GCLM, and TrxR1 signal pathways.

  8. An Ethanol Extract of Artemisia iwayomogi Activates PPAR? Leading to Activation of Fatty Acid Oxidation in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Si Young; Jeong, Hyun Woo; Sohn, Jong Hee; Seo, Dae-Bang; Kim, Wan Gi; Lee, Sang-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Although Artemisia iwayomogi (AI) has been shown to improve the lipid metabolism, its mode of action is poorly understood. In this study, a 95% ethanol extract of AI (95EEAI) was identified as a potent ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor? (PPAR?) using ligand binding analysis and cell-based reporter assay. In cultured primary human skeletal muscle cells, treatment of 95EEAI increased expression of two important PPAR?-regulated genes, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 (CPT1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozyme 4 (PDK4), and several genes acting in lipid efflux and energy expenditure. Furthermore, 95EEAI stimulated fatty acid oxidation in a PPAR?-dependent manner. High-fat diet-induced obese mice model further indicated that administration of 95EEAI attenuated diet-induced obesity through the activation of fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that a 95% ethanol extract of AI may have a role as a new functional food material for the prevention and/or treatment of hyperlipidermia and obesity. PMID:22479450

  9. Extraction, purification, and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Li, Xiaona; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Hao; Liu, Jing; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Protease inhibitors against trypsin were extracted from cowpea seeds, purified, and characterized. After the seed powder was defatted with hexane, the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was extracted with 0.15 M NaCl for 30 min. The crude extracts were then heated at 90°C for 10 min, followed by precipitation with 40-65% saturation ammonium sulfate, by which the protein purity increased approximately 15-fold. The CpTI had approximate 88-fold and 186-fold purification after anion-exchange chromatography (Super-Q) and gel filtration (Sephadex G-200), respectively. A broad band of the purified CpTI on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicates a degree of heterogeneity and partial denaturation of CpTI, having a molecular mass of ?8000 kD. Multiple peaks between 7451 and 8898 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy also suggest heterogeneity. The purified CpTI was stable at 90°C for 60 min, pH 5-10, and 0-3.0% of NaCl. The purification method described here can be used to obtain highly purified CpTI for its studies such as risk assessment of CpTI genetically modified foods. PMID:24117148

  10. Chemopreventive and anti-leukemic effects of ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves on wistar rats bearing benzene induced leukemia.

    PubMed

    Akanni, E O; Adedeji, A L; Adedosu, O T; Olaniran, O I; Oloke, J K

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological exploitation of natural compounds has continued to lead to development of non-synthetic and non-toxic anticancer agents that are promising at ameliorating the menace of neoplastic diseases such as leukemia. This study is an attempt to determine the chemopreventive and antileukemic activities of ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves on benzene induced leukemia bearing rats. Leukemia was induced by intravenous injection of 0.2 mL benzene solution 48 hourly for 4 weeks in appropriate rat groups. Ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera (EMO) leaves was administered at 0.2 mL of 100 mg/mL to respective treatment rat groups. A standard antileukemic drug (cyclophosphamide) was also used to treat appropriate rat groups. Clinical examination of liver and spleen with hematological parameters were employed to assess the leukemia burden following analysis of the rat blood samples on Sysmex KX-21N automated instrument. Leukemia induction reflected in severe anemia and a marked leukocytosis over the control/baseline group. Liver and spleen enlargements were also observed in group exposed to benzene carcinogen. The in vivo antioxidative potential of EMO was evaluated using Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. The liver MDA and GSH levels obtained in benzene induced leukemic rats treated with EMO compared favorably with those obtained in similar treatments with the standard drug (p< 0.05). The extract demonstrated chemopreventive and anti-leukemic activities as much as the standard anti-leukemic drug (p>0.05) by ameliorating the induced leukemic condition in the affected rat groups owing to its bioactive constituents. This study reveals that the extract might be an active, natural and non-toxic anticancer drug lead. PMID:25051949

  11. Interfacial properties and fluorescence of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds and its interaction with sodium dodecyl sulphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Maikokera; H. M. Kwaambwa

    2007-01-01

    The surfactant behaviour of aqueous coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds has been investigated by surface tension measurements. The interaction of the coagulant protein with an anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) has been monitored by surface tension and intrinsic protein fluorescence measurements. The extracted protein shows some weak surface activity at low concentrations. To achieve maximum surface activity

  12. Modulation of quorum sensing controlled behaviour of bacteria by growing seedling, seed and seedling extracts of leguminous plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qaseem Fatima; Maryam Zahin; Mohd Sajjad Ahmad Khan; Iqbal Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Effect of growing seedling, seeds and seedlings extracts from seven leguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Vigna radiata, Vigna mungo, Cajanus cajan, Lentil culinaris, Cicer arietinum and Trigonella foenum graecum) were screened for their ability to influence quorum sensing controlled pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum indicator strains (CV12472 and CVO26). Germinating seedling and seedling extracts of only P. sativum (pea) showed inhibition

  13. Joint effect of halides and ethanol extract of Lasianthera africana on inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in H 2 SO 4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. O. Eddy; S. A. Odoemelam; A. O. Odiongenyi

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitive and adsorption properties of ethanol extract of Lasianthera africana for inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 were studied using gravimetric, thermometric, gasometric, and infrared (IR) methods. The extract was found to be a good inhibitor\\u000a of corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4. Inhibitive properties of the extract were attributed to enhancement in adsorption of the inhibitor on

  14. Extractive acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using methylated crude palm oil as extractant in batch culture of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564).

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, A; Michiwaki, S; Crabbe, E; Kobayashi, G; Sonomoto, K; Yoshino, S

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of employing methylated crude palm oil (CPOE) as an extraction solvent to reduce end-product inhibition and to enhance solvent productivity in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was evaluated using oleyl alcohol as the standard butanol extractant. Fermentation was carried out at an initial glucose concentration of 90 g/l. CPOE did not inhibit the growth of the fermentative organism. Without solvent extraction, butanol production ceased after 30 h at a concentration of 15.4 g/l limiting cell growth to 3.98 g/l and glucose consumption to 62%. Applying CPOE as the extraction solvent, about 47% of the total butanol produced was extracted, glucose consumption was increased to 83% and relatively high glucose consumption rates and solvent productivities were obtained. Butanol production increased to 20.9 g/l; total ABE solvents and yield also increased from 21.2 g/l and 38% (in conventional fermentation) to 29.8 g/l and 40.4%, respectively. PMID:16232480

  15. In vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extracts of Daucus carota seeds in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Singh, Nisha; Chandy, Anish; Manigauha, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the In vivo antioxidFant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Daucus carota (D. carota) seeds in experimental animals. Methods Methanolic extracts of D. carota seeds is used for hepatoprotection assessment. Oxidative stress were induced in rats by thioacetamide 100 mg/kg s.c, in four groups of rats (two test, standard and toxic control). Two test groups received D. carota seeds extract (DCSE) at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Standard group received silymarin (25 mg/kg) and toxic control received only thioacetamide. Control group received only vehicle. On the 8th day animals were sacrificed and liver enzyme like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in blood serum and antioxidant enzyme like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated in liver homogenate. Results A significant decrease in SGPT, SGOT and ALP levels was observed in all drug treated groups as compared to thioacetamide group (P < 0.001) and in case of antioxidant enzyme a significant (P < 0.001) increase in SOD, CAT, GRD, GPX and GST was observed in all drug treated groups as compared with thioacetamide group. But in case of LPO a significant (P < 0.001) reduction was observed as compared to toxic control group. Conclusions DCSE has contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress and the protection of liver in experimental rats. PMID:23569935

  16. Adverse effects by artificial grapefruit seed extract products in patients on warfarin therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Brandin; Olle Myrberg; Torgny Rundlöf; Ann-Kristin Arvidsson; Gunilla Brenning

    2007-01-01

    Objective  Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a natural product with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The aim of this\\u000a study was to investigate the composition of some commercially available GSE products and evaluate their effect in vitro on\\u000a two cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A couple on lifelong treatment with warfarin and continuous regular follow-ups took some drops of

  17. A fluorescence spectroscopic study of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds.

    PubMed

    Kwaambwa, H M; Maikokera, R

    2007-11-15

    The fluorescence studies of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds have been studied using steady-state intrinsic fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra are dominated by tryptophan emission and the emission peak maximum (lambda(max)=343+ or -2nm) indicated that the tryptophan residue is not located in the hydrophobic core of the protein. Changes in solution pH affected the protein conformation as indicated by changes in the tryptophan fluorescence above pH 9 whereas the ionic strength had minimal effect. The exposure and environments of the tryptophan residue were determined using collisional quenchers. PMID:17646090

  18. Aqueous and Ethanolic Valeriana officinalis Extracts Change the Binding of Ligands to Glutamate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Cordero-Hernández, José M.; González-Medina, Giselle; Ramos-Vélez, Igmeris; Berríos-Cartagena, Nairimer; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A.; Ortíz, José G.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of two valerian extracts (aqueous and hydroalcoholic) were investigated through [3H]Glutamate ([3H]Glu) and [3H]Fluorowillardine ([3H]FW) receptor binding assays using rat synaptic membranes in presence of different receptor ligands. In addition, the extract stability was monitored spectrophotometrically. Both extracts demonstrated interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). However, the extracts displayed considerable differences in receptor selectivity. The hydroalcoholic extract selectively interacted with quisqualic acid (QA), group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) ligand, while the aqueous extract did not alter the binding of QA. The stability of the extracts was examined during several weeks. Freshly prepared extract inhibited 38–60% of [3H]FW binding (AMPA). After 10 days, the aqueous extract inhibited 85% of [3H]FW binding while the hydroalcoholic extract markedly potentiated (200%) [3H]FW binding to AMPA receptors. Thus, our results showed that factors such as extraction solvent and extract stability determine the selectivity for glutamate receptor (GluR) interactions. PMID:21151614

  19. Aqueous and Ethanolic Valeriana officinalis Extracts Change the Binding of Ligands to Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Cordero-Hernández, José M; González-Medina, Giselle; Ramos-Vélez, Igmeris; Berríos-Cartagena, Nairimer; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Ortíz, José G

    2011-01-01

    The effects of two valerian extracts (aqueous and hydroalcoholic) were investigated through [(3)H]Glutamate ([(3)H]Glu) and [(3)H]Fluorowillardine ([(3)H]FW) receptor binding assays using rat synaptic membranes in presence of different receptor ligands. In addition, the extract stability was monitored spectrophotometrically. Both extracts demonstrated interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). However, the extracts displayed considerable differences in receptor selectivity. The hydroalcoholic extract selectively interacted with quisqualic acid (QA), group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) ligand, while the aqueous extract did not alter the binding of QA. The stability of the extracts was examined during several weeks. Freshly prepared extract inhibited 38-60% of [(3)H]FW binding (AMPA). After 10 days, the aqueous extract inhibited 85% of [(3)H]FW binding while the hydroalcoholic extract markedly potentiated (200%) [(3)H]FW binding to AMPA receptors. Thus, our results showed that factors such as extraction solvent and extract stability determine the selectivity for glutamate receptor (GluR) interactions. PMID:21151614

  20. In vitro lethal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seed on hydatid cyst protoscoleces

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Asadi, Arash; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Sharififar, Fariba; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Dezaki, Ebrahimm Saedi

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): There are several scolicidal agents for inactivation of hydatid cyst protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects such as sclerosing cholangitis and liver necrosis. The present study was aimed to evaluate scolicidal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seeds against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst in an in vitro model. Materials and Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of the different extracts of N. sativa (5 to 50 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results: The findings exhibited that methanolic extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 10 min of incubation, and aqueous extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation can kill 100% of protoscoleces. In addition, all of experiments revealed dose-dependent and also time-dependent scolicidal effect of various extracts of N. sativa on the protoscoleces of hydatid cyst. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that N. sativa may be a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be required to evaluate scolicidal effects of N. sativa in the in vivo model.

  1. Effects of Peganum harmala (Zygophyllaceae) seed extract on the olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its larval parasitoid Psyttalia concolor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    PubMed

    Rehman, Junaid Ur; Wang, Xin-Geng; Johnson, Marshall W; Daane, Kent M; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Mir A; Zalom, Frank G

    2009-12-01

    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is an herb native to arid and semiarid regions of Central Asian deserts. This study investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of P. harmala seeds on the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), i.e., adult repellency, reproductive activity, and larval growth, as well as parasitism levels by Psyttalia concolor (Szépligeti). Olive fruit treated with 2% extract reduced B. oleae oviposition. In choice tests, female B. oleae spent >99% of their time foraging on untreated fruit rather than P. harmala-treated fruit. These changes in ovipositional behavior resulted in a nearly 30-fold decrease in oviposition marks on treated fruit compared with untreated fruit during a 48 h exposure period. When female B. oleae were fed liquid diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract, there was no effect on the number of ovipositional marks on exposed fruit, but up to 21.4% of the deposited eggs were deformed. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses of deformed eggs revealed that some protein bands were missing. Consequently, the number of offspring produced by treated females was lower than by untreated females. Neither the sex ratio nor body size of the fly's offspring were affected by adults fed diet containing 0.2% P. harmala extract. However, there was a slightly prolonged developmental time from egg to adult. Parasitism of larval B. oleae by P. concolor was not affected by infested fruit treatment with 2% P. harmala extract. P. harmala extracts as a potential control for insect pest species are discussed. PMID:20069853

  2. Oviposition deterrent activity from the ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus

    PubMed Central

    Swathi, S.; Murugananthan, G.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for spread of many diseases than any other group of arthropods. Diseases such as malaria, filariasis, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and chikunguinya are real threat to mankind. In the present study, ethanolic extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium were evaluated for oviposition deterrent activity against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The oviposition deterrent tests of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata, Coleus forskohlii, and Datura stramonium leaves reduced egg laying by 97.62%, 77.3%, 100% against Aedes aegypti and 59.10%, 39.22%, 82% against Culex quinquefasciatus at higher concentration (0.1%). PMID:21120036

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile components from Bunium persicum Boiss. (black cumin) and Mespilus germanica L. (medlar) seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seied Mahdi Pourmortazavi; Modjtaba Ghadiri; Seiedeh Somayyeh Hajimirsadeghi

    2005-01-01

    Volatile constituents of black cumin and medlar seeds were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 16 compounds accounting for 99.36% of the black cumin supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) extracts were identified. ?-terpinene (37.98%), cuminaldehyde (11.48%) and ?-methyl-benzenemethanol (25.55%) were the major compounds identified in black cumin. The SFE method has

  4. Effect of Temperature and Pressure on the Extraction Yield of Oil from Sunflower Seed with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhupesh C. Roy; M. Sasaki; M. Goto

    2006-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide in a semi-continuous flow extractor with the temperature range 313-343 K and the pressure range 20-40 MPa. The extraction rates increased with pressure at each temperature, but decreased with temperature increase up to about 28 MPa. After this pressure, higher temperature favored the extraction rate because of the competitive effects of

  5. Comparison of proanthocyanidins in commercial antioxidants: grape seed and pine bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Weber, Holly A; Hodges, Andrew E; Guthrie, Jill R; O'Brien, Brandon M; Robaugh, David; Clark, Alice P; Harris, Roger K; Algaier, Joseph W; Smith, Cynthia S

    2007-01-10

    The major constituents in grape seed and pine bark extracts are proanthocyanidins. To evaluate material available to consumers, select lots were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC/MS was used to identify monomers, dimers, and trimers present. GC/MS analyses led to the identification of ethyl esters of hexadecanoic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, as well as smaller phenolic and terpene components. The GPC molecular weight (MW) distribution indicated components ranging from approximately 162 to approximately 5500 MW (pine bark less than 1180 MW and grape seed approximately 1180 to approximately 5000 MW). MALDI-TOF MS analyses showed that pine bark did not contain oligomers with odd numbers of gallate units and grape seed contained oligomers with both odd and even numbers of gallate. Reflectron MALDI-TOF MS identified oligomers up to a pentamer and heptamer, and linear MALDI-TOF MS showed a mass range nearly double that of reflectron analyses. PMID:17199326

  6. In vitro evaluation of ethanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Parveen, S; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Singh, N K

    2014-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT). Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P<0.05). The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus. PMID:25525626

  7. In Vitro Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, S.; Godara, R.; Katoch, R.; Yadav, A.; Verma, P. K.; Katoch, M.; Singh, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT). Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P < 0.05). The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus. PMID:25525626

  8. Free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative activities of an ethanol-soluble pigment extract prepared from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiang Ping; Fan, Chong; Dong, Wen Min; Gao, Bin; Yuan, Wei; Gong, Jia Shun

    2013-09-01

    An ethanol-soluble pigment extract was separated from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea. The compositions of the ethanol soluble pigment extract were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). The extract was prepared into a series of ethanol solutions and analyzed for free radical-scavenging activities (against two free radicals: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO)) and in vitro anti-oxidative properties. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed that the peaks of DPPH and TEMPO decreased with increasing extract concentration, suggesting that the extract had excellent free radical-scavenging activities. In vitro cell culture suggested that, at 50-200 mg/L, the extract had no measurable effect on the viability of vascular endothelial cells (ECV340) but produced significant protective effects for cells that underwent oxidative injuries due to hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) treatment. Compared with the H?O? treatment alone cells group, 200 mg/L of the extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cells by 397.3%, and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of lactate acid dehydrogenase (LDH) by 47.8% and 69.6%, respectively. These results suggest that the extract has excellent free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative properties. PMID:23831194

  9. Importance of seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso and their control using plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Zida, Pawindé Elisabeth; Sérémé, Paco; Leth, Vibeke; Sankara, Philippe; Somda, Irénée; Néya, Adama

    2008-02-01

    Seed-borne fungi of sorghum and pearl millet in Burkina Faso were surveyed. A total of 188 seed samples from various locations, collected in 1989 (42) and 2002 (146), were tested, using the blotter, dry inspection and washing methods. Infection experiments were carried out with the major fungi recorded on each crop by the blotter test. Six essential oils of plants were investigated for their inhibitory activity against eight pathogenic fungi. Thirty four and 27 fungal species were found in seed samples of sorghum and pearl millet, respectively. Phoma sp. and Fusarium moniliforme infected 95 to 100% of the seed samples of both sorghum and pearl millet. Sphacelotheca sorghi and Tolyposporium ehrenbergii were encountered in respectively, 75 and 33% of seed samples of sorghum. T. penicillariae, Sclerospora graminicola and Claviceps fusiformis were present in 88, 41 and 32% of seed samples of pearl millet, respectively. Seeds inoculated with Acremonium strictum, Curvularia oryzae, F. equiseti, F. moniliforme and F. subglutinans and sown in sterilized soil, showed considerable mortality of the seedlings. Three essential oils inhibited in vitro the mycelial growth of all the fungi used by 85 to 100% and reduced significantly sorghum and pearl millet seed infection rates of Phoma sp., Fusarium sp., Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum graminicola and Exserohilum sp. Presence of many pathogenic fungi in considerable number of seed samples indicates the need of field surveys for these and other pathogens. Development of plant extracts for the control of seed-borne pathogens and public awareness on seed-borne diseases management measures for maintaining quality seed should be increased. PMID:18817152

  10. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  11. Anticonvulsant Effect of Hydroalcoholic Seed Extract of Croton Tiglium in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mudium, Raghunandan; Kolasani, Bhanuprakash

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of hydro-alcoholic seed extract of croton tiglium in rats and mice. Materials and Methods: Forty -eight each of rats and mice of either sex were randomised into four groups and subjected to seizures induced by electroconvulsiometer and pentylenetetrazole. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of croton tiglium (250 and 500mg/kg) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect using sodium valproate (200mg/kg) as standard and distilled water as control. The parameters observed were time for onset of HLE (Hind Limb Extension) and duration of HLE in electrically induced seizures, and time for onset of convulsions and duration of convulsions in chemically induced seizures. Mortality of the animals over 24 hours was observed in both the models. For testing statistical significance between various groups unpaired student t-test was used. Observations and Results: In electrically induced seizures croton tiglium produced dose dependant prolongation of time for onset of HLE and a reduction in duration of HLE and in chemically induced convulsions, it prolonged time for onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of convulsions indicating its anticonvulsant effect in both models. However, anticonvulsant effect was less compared to sodium valproate. There was a higher percentage of mortality in croton tiglium group in chemically induced convulsions when compared to sodium valproate. Conclusion: Croton tiglium has dose dependant anticonvulsant effect in electrically induced seizures, while in pentylenetetrazole induced-seizures the protection is very minimal. PMID:24783071

  12. Preventive Effects of Pomegranate Seed Extract on Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati, Ali Asghar; Rezaie, Annahita; Darabpour, Pegah

    2013-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis and many antioxidant agents have been used for the treatment of this disease in animals. Objectives To evaluate the antioxidant effects of pomegranate seed extract (PSE) on bleomycin treated rats. Materials and Methods Male Spraque – Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: rats in groups I (bleomycin) and II (control) were given a single dose of bleomycin (7.5 IU/kg, intratracheally) in the bleomycin group and same amount of saline in the control, respectively. Treatment groups (III-V) were given PSE (100,200,400 mg/kg) orally a week before the bleomycin injection and this was continued for 3 weeks. At day 28, animals were sacrificed and lungs were removed for histological investigation. Results Histological analysis showed that PSE could prevent pathological changes that were seen in the bleomycin group. Conclusions Results of the present study showed that hydroalcoholic extracts of pomegranate seeds had a significant protective effect against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis by its antioxidant properties. The highest protective effect was observed for the 400 mg/kg dose. PMID:24624192

  13. Ripening stage and extraction method effects on physical properties, polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Kefi, Sarra; Bourgou, Soumaya; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Ksouri, Riadh; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2014-12-01

    The effects of two extraction methods, used at three ripening stages on the total polyphenol contents and the antioxidant activities of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extracts were studied. The ripening stage effect on some physical properties of cumin seed was significant. The increase of dry matter (from 10.3 to 87.5%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that of moisture content (from 89.7 to 12.5%). Besides results showed that the full ripe seeds were richer on polyphenols and condensed tannin than unripe ones, and consequently exhibited higher antioxidant activities. However, the unripe seeds had a higher total flavonoid content compared to those of half ripe and full ripe ones. The comparison of two extraction methods showed that soxhlet extracts contained the greatest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, while maceration samples exhibited higher antiradical and bleaching power assay. Total phenolic contents and IC50 (concentration required to cause a 50% DPPH inhibition) values in cumin seed during their maturation allowed to conclude that antioxidant activity does not depend only on the high content of total phenolics but also on the phenolic composition. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were successfully identified by HPLC analysis during the ripening of cumin seeds. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic acid for the unripe seeds. Furthermore, half ripe and full ripe seeds were dominated by p-coumaric acid. These compounds might be considered as interesting bioactive natural substances that may be used in several fields, such as nutraceuticals, cosmetics and agro-food industry. PMID:25277369

  14. The cytotoxic effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on cultured human cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Ye; R. L. Krohn; W. Liu; S. S. Joshi; C. A. Kuszynski; T. R. McGinn; M. Bagchi; H. G. Preuss; S. J. Stohs; D. Bagchi

    1999-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins are natural antioxidants which possess a broad spectrum of chemoprotective properties against free radicals and oxidative stress. In this study, we have assessed the cytotoxicity of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, A-427 human lung cancer cells, CRL-1739 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and K562 chronic myelogenous leukemic cells at

  15. LPS-induced NO inhibition and antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from four brown seaweeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Myoung Lae; Lee, Dong-Jin; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; You, Sang Guan

    2013-12-01

    The nitric oxide inhibitory (NOI) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging effects with reducing power) activities of the ethanol (EtOH) extracts and solvent partitioned fractions from Scytosiphon lomentaria, Chorda filum, Agarum cribrosum, and Desmarestia viridis were investigated, and the correlation between biological activity and total phenolic (TP) and phlorotannin (TPT) content was determined by PCA analysis. The yield of EtOH extracts from four brown seaweeds ranged from 2.6 to 6.6% with the highest yield from D. viridis, and the predominant compounds in their solvent partitioned fractions had medium and/or less polarity. The TP and TPT content of the EtOH extracts were in the ranges of 25.0-44.1 mg GAE/g sample and 0.2-4.6 mg PG/g sample, respectively, which were mostly included in the organic solvent partitioned fractions. Strong NOI activity was observed in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from D. viridis and C. filum. In addition, the EtOH extract and its solvent partitioned fractions of D. viridis exhibited little cytotoxicity to Raw 264.7 cells. The most potent ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging capacity was shown in the EtOH extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from S. lomentaria and C. filum, and both also exhibited strong reducing ability. In the PCA analysis the content of TPT had a good correlation with DPPH ( r = 0.62), ABTS ( r = 0.69) and reducing power ( r = 0.65), however, an unfair correlation was observed between the contents of TP and TPT and NOI, suggesting that the phlorotannins might be responsible for the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities.

  16. Phytochemical, antioxidant and protective effect of Rhus tripartitum root bark extract against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Hichem; Mbarki, Sakhria; Barka, Zeineb B; Feriani, Anwer; Bouoni, Zouhour; Hfaeidh, Najla; Sakly, Mohsen; Tebourbi, Olfa; Rhouma, Khémais B

    2013-03-01

    Rhus tripartitum (sumac) is an Anacardiaceae tree with a wide phytotherapeutic application including the use of its roots in the management of gastric ulcer. In the present study the Rhus tripartitum root barks extract (RTE) was phytochemical studied, in vitro tested for their potential antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay and in vivo evaluated for its ability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The RTE was rich in phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and polysaccharide contents and exhibited a low but not weak in vitro antioxidant activity when compared with (+)-catechin. Pre-treatment with RTE at oral doses 50, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against ethanol-induced ulcer by averting the deep ulcer lesions of the gastric epithelium, by reducing gastric juice and acid output, by enhancing gastric mucus production by preserving normal antioxidant enzymes activities, and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation. The antiulcerogenic activity of RTE might be due to a possible synergistic antioxidant and antisecretory effects. PMID:23531841

  17. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on toluene diisocyanate-induced immune-mediated inflammatory responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mali, Ravindra G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-04-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a small tree cultivated throughout India. We have investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE, an herbal remedy) on the potential prevention of immune-mediated inflammatory responses in toluene diisocyanate (TDI as antigen)-induced asthma in Wistar rats. Rats were divided into five different groups (n = 8/group): Group-I = unsensitized control; Group-II = TDI control/vehicle; Group-III = dexamethasone (DXM) 2.5 mg/kg; and, Groups IV and V = 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body weight [BW] of MOEE, respectively. All rats (except unsensitized controls) were sensitized by intranasal application of 10% TDI to induce airway hypersensitivity. Animals in Groups II-V were given their respective drug treatment per os from 1 wk prior to initiation of sensitization until the day of final provocation with 5% TDI. After this last challenge, all rats were examined for hyperreactivity symptoms and then sacrificed to determine their total and differential leucocytes in blood and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid and levels of TNF proportional, variant, IL-4, and IL-6 in their BAL and serum. Homogenates of one lung lobe from each animal were utilized to assess oxidative stress; a separate lobe underwent histologic examination to assess airway inflammatory status. The results suggest that asthmatic symptoms were found in TDI control rats only, while both MOEE- and DXM-treated rats did not manifest any airway abnormality. In MOEE- and DXM-treated rats, neutrophil and eosinophil levels in the blood were decreased significantly; levels of total cells and each different cell in their BAL fluid were markedly decreased as compared to those in TDI controls. TNF alpha, IL-4, and IL-6 were predominant in serum as well as in BAL fluids in TDI controls, but these levels were reduced significantly by MOEE treatment. The antioxidant activity in relation to antiinflammatory activity of the extract and histopathological observations also reflected a protective effect. Based on the above findings and observations, it can be concluded that Moringa oleifera may possess some beneficial properties that act against chemically stimulated immune-mediated inflammatory responses that are characteristic of asthma in the rat. PMID:18958717

  18. Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Chidambara Murthy, K N; Jayaprakasha, G K

    2002-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from pomegranate (Punica granatum) peels and seeds using ethyl acetate, methanol, and water. The extracts were screened for their potential as antioxidants using various in vitro models, such as beta-carotene-linoleate and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) model systems. The methanol extract of peels showed 83 and 81% antioxidant activity at 50 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. Similarly, the methanol extract of seeds showed 22.6 and 23.2% antioxidant activity at 100 ppm using the beta-carotene-linoleate and DPPH model systems, respectively. As the methanol extract of pomegranate peel showed the highest antioxidant activity among all of the extracts, it was selected for testing of its effect on lipid peroxidation, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation. The methanol extract showed 56, 58, and 93.7% inhibition using the thiobarbituric acid method, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and LDL oxidation, respectively, at 100 ppm. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties of the extracts from pomegranate peel and seeds. Owing to this property, the studies can be further extended to exploit them for their possible application for the preservation of food products as well as their use as health supplements and neutraceuticals. PMID:11754547

  19. Influence of the addition of raspberry seed extract on changes in the volatile pattern of stored model breakfast cereal.

    PubMed

    Klensporf, Dorota; Jele?, Henryk H

    2008-05-14

    Laboratory-prepared muesli-type breakfast cereal (mixture of oat flakes, wheat flakes, corn flakes, hazelnuts, raisins, sunflower seeds, and flax seeds) was subjected to accelerated storage test at 60 degrees C with or without the addition of red raspberry seed extract. The oxidative changes in muesli resulting in the formation of secondary oxidation products were evaluated using solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) to isolate volatiles and GC-MS and chromatography-olfactometry to quantify them and determine the key odorants. During 14 days of storage the total amount of volatile compounds changed from 1.0 mg/kg, in freshly prepared muesli, to 32 mg/kg after storage. The predominant compound was hexanal; its content during storage increased 20-fold, reaching 17 mg/kg. Red raspberry seed extract addition limited the rate of lipid oxidation, and the total amount of volatiles was estimated at 11 mg/kg and that of hexanal at almost 5 mg/kg. An elevated temperature of the storage test also influenced the crucial flavor compounds determined using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The flavor dilution factor (FD) values for volatile lipid oxidation products were lower in samples with red raspberry seed extract added. PMID:18407655

  20. Antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity of methanol extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chan-Wei; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan

    2014-11-01

    There is a growing interest in the exploitation of the residues generated by plants. This study explored the potential beneficial health effects from the main biowaste, tea seed pomace, produced when tea seed is processed. DPPH radical scavenging and total phenolic content assays were performed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. Caenorhabditis elegans was used as in vivo model to evaluate the beneficial health effects, including antioxidant activity, delayed aging, and reduced amyloid-? toxicity. Among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts of tea seed pomace from Camellia tenuifolia, the methanol (MeOH)-soluble fraction has the best in vivo antioxidant activities. The MeOH-soluble extraction was further divided into six fractions by chromatography with a Diaion HP-20 column eluted with water/MeOH, and fraction 3 showed the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Further analysis in C. elegans showed that the MeOH extract (fraction 3) of tea seed pomace significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species, prolonged C. elegans lifespan, and reduced amyloid-? (A?) toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human A?. Moreover, bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded two potent constituents from fraction 3 of the MeOH extract, namely, kaempferol 3-O-(2?-glucopyranosyl)-rutinoside and kaempferol 3-O-(2?-xylopyranosyl)-rutinoside, and both compounds exhibited excellent in vivo antioxidant activity. Taken together, MeOH extracts of tea seed pomace from C. tenuifolia have multiple beneficial health effects, suggesting that biowaste might be valuable to be explored for further development as nutraceutical products. Furthermore, the reuse of agricultural byproduct tea seed pomace also fulfills the environmental perspective. PMID:25295856

  1. Gold nanoparticles: sonocatalytic synthesis using ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata and functionalization with polycaprolactone-gelatin composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu, Punuri Jayasekhar; Saranya, Sibyala; Sharma, Pragya; Tamuli, Ranjan; Bora, Utpal

    2012-09-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized by sonication using ethanolic leaf extract of Andrographis paniculata. We investigated the optimum parameters for AuNP synthesis and functionalization with polycaprolactone-gelatin (PCL-GL) composites. The AuNPs were characterized with various biophysical techniques such as TEM, XRD, FT-IR and EDX spectroscopy. TEM images showed that nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 5 to 75 nm. EDX analysis revealed the presence of molecular oxygen and carbon on the surface of AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs were tested for their effect on HeLa (human cervical cancer) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer) cell lines and found to be nontoxic and biocompatible, which are potential carriers for hydrophobic drugs.

  2. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of extract from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes.

    PubMed

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Birch, Edward John

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultrasonic extraction of phenolics and flavonoids from defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes was compared to the conventional extraction method. Ultrasonic treatment at room temperature showed increased polyphenol extraction yield and antioxidant capacity by two-fold over the conventional extraction method. Different combinations of ultrasonic treatment parameters consisting of solvent volume (25, 50, 75 and 100 mL), extraction time (20, 30 and 40 min) and temperature (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C) were selected for polyphenol extractions from the seed cakes. The chosen parameters had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the polyphenol extraction yield and subsequent antioxidant capacity from the seed cakes. Application of heat during ultrasonic extraction yielded higher polyphenol content in extracts compared to the non-heated extraction. From an orthogonal design test, the best combination of parameters was 50 mL of solvent volume, 20 min of extraction time and 70 °C of ultrasonic temperature. PMID:23993457

  3. Antinociceptive effect of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Woode, Eric; Abotsi, Wonder K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hilleria latifolia (Lam.) H. Walt. (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial herb used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the treatment of various painful conditions. Little scientific evidence exists in literature on the effect of this plant on pain. Materials and Methods: The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of H. latifolia in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, glutamate, formalin, and capsaicin tests) and thermal (tail immersion test) behavioral pain models in rodents. The possible mechanisms of the antinociceptive action were also assessed with various antagonists in the formalin test. Results: The H. latifolia extract (HLE) together with morphine and diclofenac (positive controls), showed significant antinociceptive activity in all the models used. The antinociceptive effect exhibited by HLE in the formalin test was partly or wholly reversed by the systemic administration of naloxone, theophylline, and atropine. Glibenclamide, ondansetron, yohimbine, nifedipine, and NG-L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), however, did not significantly block the antinociceptive effect of the extract. HLE, unlike morphine, did not induce tolerance to its antinociceptive effect in the formalin test after chronic administration; morphine tolerance did not also cross-generalize to HLE. Interestingly, also, the chronic concomitant administration of HLE and morphine significantly suppressed the development of morphine tolerance. Conclusion: Together, these results indicate that HLE produces dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical and thermal pain, without tolerance induction, through mechanisms that involve an interaction with adenosinergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and opioid pathways. PMID:21966159

  4. Identification of bioactive candidate compounds responsible for oxidative challenge from hydro-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Tangestani Fard, Masoumeh; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-09-01

    Free radicals trigger chain reaction and inflict damage to the cells and its components, which in turn ultimately interrupts their biological activities. To prevent free radical damage, together with an endogenous antioxidant system, an exogenous supply of antioxidant components to the body in the form of functional food or nutritional diet helps undeniably. Research conducted by the Natl. Inst. of Health claimed that Moringa oleifera Lam possess the highest antioxidant content among various natural food sources based on an oxygen radical absorbent capacity assay. In this study, a 90% (ethanol:distilled water--90:10) gradient solvent was identified as one of the best gradient solvents for the effectual extraction of bioactive components from M. oleifera leaves. This finding was confirmed by various antioxidant assays, including radical scavenging activity (that is, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H(2)O(2), and NO radical scavenging assay) and total antioxidant capacity (that is, ferric reducing antioxidant power and molybdenum assay). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of the 90% gradient extract visually showed few specific peaks, which on further analysis, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, were identified as flavonoids and their derivatives. Despite commonly reported flavonoids, that is, kaempferol and quercetin, we report here for the 1st time the presence of multiflorin-B and apigenin in M. oleifera leaves. These findings might help researchers to further scrutinize this high activity exhibiting gradient extract and its bio-active candidates for fruitful clinical/translational investigations. PMID:24024688

  5. Isolation, identification, and antibacterial activity of chemical compounds from ethanolic extract of suji leaf (Pleomele angusifolia NE Brown)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faridah; Natalia; Lina, Maria; W, Hendig

    2014-03-01

    Suji (Pleomele angustifolia NE Brown) is one of the medicinal plants of the tribe of Liliaceae, empirically useful to treat coughs and respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis (TB) and pneumonia. In this study, ethanolic extract of suji leaves was tested its activity against bacteria that attacks the respiratory organs, namely Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, using a paper disc diffusion and dilution agar method. These extracts have activity in inhibiting the growth of M. tuberculosis at a concentration of 8 mg and against S. pneumoniae at a concentration of 4 mg. The fractions were tested their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae using paper disc diffusion method. The most active fraction was chosen based on the inhibition diameter. The fractions contained flavonoids, steroids, and essential oils. The precipitate isolated from the extraction process shows needle-shaped, white, cold and tasteless crystals. Moreover, the HPLC analysis of isolate revealed a single peak with a retention time of 7.183 minutes. The exact compounds in the isolate could not be determined but it was known the compounds contained the functional groups of alkene, alkane, C=O, -OH. Test results obtained from UV-Vis spectrophotometer provides maximum absorption at a wavelength of 203.0 nm.

  6. Ethanol extract of Forsythia suspensa root induces apoptosis of esophageal carcinoma cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LIANMEI; YAN, XI; SHI, JUAN; REN, FENGZHI; LIU, LIHUA; SUN, SHIPING; SHAN, BAOEN

    2015-01-01

    Forsythia suspensa root is used in the treatment of fever and jaundice in Traditional Chinese Medicine. In the present study, the anti-tumor activity of the ethanolic extract of Forsythia suspensa root (FSREE) against esophageal carcinoma cells was investigated in vitro and in vivo and its anti-cancer mechanism was examined. The results revealed that FSREE, rather than Forsythia suspensa ethanolic extracts from the leaf (FSLEE) and fruit (FSFEE) exhibited marked anti-tumor activity towards human esophageal cancer cells. FSREE induced cancer cell apoptosis and growth arrest by downregulating B-cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2, Bcl-extra large and myeloid cell leukemia 1, while upregulating Bcl-2-associated X protein, Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1. This led to the activation of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, caspase-3 and caspase-9, but not caspase-8. Furthermore, the anti-cancer activity of FSREE was associated with a decreased level of phosphorylated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase signaling activity. It was also observed that the levels of cytochrome c were elevated in the cytoplasm, accounting for the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in the TE-13 cells upon treatment with FSEER. In addition, FSEER inhibited the growth of esophageal cancer cells in xenograft models and no detectable toxicity was present in the lung or liver tissues. These observations provided further evidence of the anti-tumor effect of FSEER and may be of importance to further examine the potential role of Forsythia suspensa root as a therapeutic agent in esophageal carcinoma therapy. PMID:25373392

  7. Ethanol extract of Forsythia suspensa root induces apoptosis of esophageal carcinoma cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lianmei; Yan, Xi; Shi, Juan; Ren, Fengzhi; Liu, Lihua; Sun, Shiping; Shan, Baoen

    2015-02-01

    Forsythia suspensa root is used in the treatment of fever and jaundice in Traditional Chinese Medicine. In the present study, the anti-tumor activity of the ethanolic extract of Forsythia suspensa root (FSREE) against esophageal carcinoma cells was investigated in vitro and in vivo and its anti-cancer mechanism was examined. The results revealed that FSREE, rather than Forsythia suspensa ethanolic extracts from the leaf (FSLEE) and fruit (FSFEE) exhibited marked anti-tumor activity towards human esophageal cancer cells. FSREE induced cancer cell apoptosis and growth arrest by downregulating B?cell lymphoma (Bcl)?2, Bcl?extra large and myeloid cell leukemia 1, while upregulating Bcl?2?associated X protein, Bcl?2 antagonist of cell death and phorbol?12?myristate?13?acetate?induced protein 1. This led to the activation of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, caspase?3 and caspase?9, but not caspase?8. Furthermore, the anti-cancer activity of FSREE was associated with a decreased level of phosphorylated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and extracellular?signal?regulated kinase signaling activity. It was also observed that the levels of cytochrome c were elevated in the cytoplasm, accounting for the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in the TE?13 cells upon treatment with FSEER. In addition, FSEER inhibited the growth of esophageal cancer cells in xenograft models and no detectable toxicity was present in the lung or liver tissues. These observations provided further evidence of the anti-tumor effect of FSEER and may be of importance to further examine the potential role of Forsythia suspensa root as a therapeutic agent in esophageal carcinoma therapy. PMID:25373392

  8. Influence of ethanolic extract of Jasminum grandflorum linn flower on wound healing activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Nayak, B S; Mohan, Krishna

    2007-01-01

    The influence of flower extract of Jasminum grandiflorum was studied for its wound healing activity at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight, using excision and dead space wound models in rats. The animals were divided into three groups in excision wound model, the controls (n=10) were treated with 0.25% CM cellulose, reference standard (n=10) were treated with sulfathiazole ointment and the experimental (n=10) were treated with extract of J. grandiflorum flower till complete epithelialization. The animals in dead space wound models were divided into two groups, controls were given plain drinking water and the experimental animals were administered with extract orally for 10 days. The extract treated wounds were found to epithelize faster as compared to controls. Extract-treated rats exhibited 65% reduction in the wound area when compared to controls (54%). The wet and dry granulation tissue weight, and hydroxyproline content in a dead space wound model increased significantly (P < 0.001) when compared to controls. Histological studies of the tissue obtained on day 10 from the extract-treated group showed increased well organized bands of collagen, more fibroblasts and few inflammatory cells when compared to controls which showed inflammatory cells, scanty collagen fibres and fibroblasts. The. demonstration of increased rate of wound contraction together with the biochemical and histological findings suggest the use of J. grandiflorum flower extract in the management of wound healing. PMID:18175666

  9. The effects of combining Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa ethanolic extracts in broilers challenged with infective oocysts of Eimeria acervulina and E. maxima

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to an increasing demand for natural products to control coccidiosis in broilers we investigated the effects of supplementing a combination of ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua and Curcuma longa in drinking water. Three different dosages of this herbal mixture were compared with a negative co...

  10. HPLC ANALYSIS OF CATECHINS, THERAFLAVINS, AND ALKALOIDS IN COMMERCIAL TEAS AND GREEN TEA DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS: COMARARISON OF WATER AND 80% ETHANOL/WATER EXTRACTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea supplements, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea compounds, we compared the following conditions for the extraction of tea leaves and green tea-containing dietary supplements: 80% ethanol/water at 60 'C for 15 min and ...

  11. Endothelium-dependent effects of the ethanolic extract of the mistletoe Psittacanthus calyculatus on the vasomotor responses of rat aortic rings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E Rodr??guez-Cruz; L Pérez-Ordaz; B. E Serrato-Barajas; M. A Juárez-Oropeza; D Mascher; M. C Paredes-Carbajal

    2003-01-01

    The mistletoe Psittacanthus calyculatus (Loranthaceae) is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of hypertension. In the present study the effects of a crude ethanolic extract of this mistletoe, on the vasomotor reactivity of superfused rat aortic rings (with or without a functional endothelium) were analyzed. Either in the absence or in the presence of l-NAME or indomethacin, the

  12. Profiling Sugars in Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Extracts Assayed for Total Water- and Ethanol-Soluble Carbohydrates: Relationship of Chromatographic to Spectrophotometric Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) of herbage are often quantified by spectrophotometric assays. To determine if quantifying individual sugars from chromatograms could yield results comparable to those obtained by the assays, WSC and ESC were extracted from fr...

  13. Rosmarinic Acid in Prunella vulgaris Ethanol Extract Inhibits LPS-induced Prostaglandin E2 and Nitric Oxide in RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prunella vulgaris has been used therapeutically for inflammation related conditions for centuries, but systematic studies of its anti-inflammatory activity are lacking and no specific active components have been identified. In this study, water and ethanol extracts of four P. vulgaris accessions we...

  14. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Xylose-extracted Corncob Residue by SSF Using Inhibitor- and Thermal-tolerant Yeast Clavispora NRRL Y-50339

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylose-extracted corncob residue, a byproduct of the xylose-producing industry using corncobs, is an abundant potential energy resource for cellulosic ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is considered an ideal one-step process for conversion of lignocellulosic b...

  15. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOEpatents

    Tedder, Daniel W. (Marietta, GA)

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  16. Inhibitory effects of ginseng seed on melanin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeonmi; Kim, Kyoung-Tack; Kim, Sung Soo; Hur, Jinyoung; Ha, Sang Keun; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ginseng root has been traditionally used for the treatment of many diseases in Korea. However, so far ginseng seed has been mostly unused and discarded. As part of our ongoing research on the ginseng seeds, the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production was verified to assess their potential as a skin depigmenting substance. Materials and Methods: The present study measured the inhibitory effect of ginseng seeds on melanin production through the tyrosinase inhibitory effect and analyzed their effects on melanin production in melan-a-cells. Results: Ethanol extract of ginseng seed was applied to melan-a-cells at a concentration of 100 ppm and melanin production was reduced by 35.1% without cytotoxicity. In addition, the ethanol extract of ginseng seed was shown to reduce tyrosinase activity. Conclusion: Because the results showed excellent melanin inhibitory activity compared with that obtained by arbutin, ethanol extracts of ginseng leaf and ginseng root at the same concentration, it can be concluded that ginseng seeds show great potential as a skin depigmenting substance. PMID:24991102

  17. Comparative in vitro study on the anti-herpetic effect of phytochemically characterized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis grown at two different locations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Schnitzler; S. Nolkemper; F. C. Stintzing; J. Reichling

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) from two different locations (Garden and Swabian Mountains) were examined in vitro on RC-37 cells for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts for HSV plaque formation were determined in dose–response studies.

  18. Effect of instant controlled pressure drop treatments on the oligosaccharides extractability and microstructure of Tephrosia purpurea seeds.

    PubMed

    Amor, Bouthaina Ben; Lamy, Cécile; Andre, Patrice; Allaf, Karim

    2008-12-12

    The study of the oligosaccharides extracted from Tephrosia purpurea seeds was undertaken using the instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) as a pre-treatment prior to conventional solvent extraction. This DIC procedure provided structural modification in terms of expansion, higher porosity and improvement of specific surface area; diffusion of solvent inside such seeds and availability of oligosaccharides increase notably. In this paper, we investigated and quantified the impact of the different DIC operative parameters on the yields of ciceritol and stachyose extracted from T. purpurea seeds. The treatment could be optimized with a steam pressure (P) (P=0.2 MPa), initial water content (W) (W=30% dry basis (DB)) and thermal treatment time (t) (t=30s). By applying DIC treatment in these conditions, the classic process of extraction was intensified in both aspects of yields (145% of ciceritol and 185% of stachyose), and kinetics (1h of extraction time instead of 4h for conventional process). The scanning electron microscopy micrographs provided evident modifications of structure of seeds due to the DIC treatment. PMID:18992889

  19. Evaluation of Drying Process on the Composition of Black Pepper Ethanolic Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography With Diode Array Detector

    PubMed Central

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Hejazi, Hoda; Ramezani, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the well-known spices extensively used worldwide especially in India, and Southeast Asia. The presence of alkaloids in the pepper, namely, piperine and its three stereoisomers, isopiperine, chavicine and isochavicine are well noticed. Objectives The current study evaluated the effect of lyophilization and oven drying on the stability and decomposition of constituents of black pepper ethanolic extract. Materials and Methods In the current study ethanolic extract of black pepper obtained by maceration method was dried using two methods. The effect of freeze and oven drying on the chemical composition of the extract especially piperine and its three isomers were evaluated by HPLC analysis of the ethanolic extract before and after drying processes using diode array detector. The UV Vis spectra of the peaks at piperine retention time before and after each drying methods indicated maximum absorbance at 341.2 nm corresponding to standard piperine. Results The results indicated a decrease in intensity of the chromatogram peaks at approximately all retention times after freeze drying, indicating a few percent loss of piperine and its isomers upon lyophilization. Two impurity peaks were completely removed from the extract. Conclusions In oven dried samples two of the piperine stereoisomers were completely removed from the extract and the intensity of piperine peak was increased. PMID:24624176

  20. H- beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion sourcea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, A.; Matsuno, T.; Funaoi, T.; Tanaka, N.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.

    2012-02-01

    H- beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 1019 m-3 was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H- ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents.