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Sample records for ethanolic seed extract

  1. Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Cvetnić, Zdenka; Vladimir-Knezević, Sanda

    2004-09-01

    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast strains. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution susceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined spectrometrically in crude ethanolic extract. The presence of flavanones naringin and hesperidin in the extract was confirmed by TLC analysis. Ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V). PMID:15610620

  2. Life Span and Motility Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Sophora moorcroftiana Seeds on Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Han, Junxian; Zhu, Rongyan; Cui, Rongrong; Ma, Xingming; Dong, Kaizhong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sophora moorcroftiana is an endemic shrub species with a great value in folk medicine in Tibet, China. In this study, relatively little is known about whether S. moorcroftiana is beneficial in animals' nervous system and life span or not. Materials and Methods: To address this question, under survival normal temperature (25°C), S. moorcroftiana seeds were extracted with 95% ethanol, and Caenorhabditis elegans were exposed to three different extract concentrations (100 mg/L, 200 mg/L, and 400 mg/mL) from S. moorcroftiana seeds. Results: The 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds could increase life span and slow aging-related increase in C. elegans and could not obviously influence the motility of C. elegans. Conclusion: Given these results by our experiment for life span and motility with 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds in C. elegans, the question whether S. moorcroftiana acts as an anti-aging substance in vivo arises. SUMMARY The 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds have no effect on the life span in C. elegans when extract concentrations from S. moorcroftiana seeds <400 mg/LThe 400 mg/L 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds could increase life span in C. elegansThe 95% ethanolic extracts from S. moorcroftiana seeds could not obviously influence the motility in C. elegans. Abbreviation used: S. moorcroftiana: Sophora moorcroftiana; C. elegan: Caenorhabditis elegan; E. coli OP50: Escherichia coli OP50; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide. PMID:27279712

  3. Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds

    PubMed Central

    Dwarampudi, Lalitha Priyanka; Palaniswamy, Dhanabal; Nithyanantham, Muruganantham; Raghu, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae) is popularly known as black cumin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmenthic. The seeds are externally applied for eruptions of skin. The seeds are used traditionally for psoriasis tropicus with general pain and eruption of patches. Objective: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: The screening of antipsoriatic activity of 95% of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds by using mouse tail model for psoriasis and in vitro antipsoriatic activity was carried out by SRB Assay using HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds extract produced a significant epidermal differentiation, from its degree of orthokeratosis (71.36±2.64) when compared to the negative control (17.30±4.09%). This was equivalent to the effect of the standard positive control, tazarotene (0.1%) gel, which showed a (90.03±2.00%) degree of orthokeratosis. The 95% ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa shown IC50 239 μg/ml, with good antiproliferant activity compared to Asiaticoside as positive control which showed potent activity with IC50 value of 20.13 μg/ml. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds also showed increase in relative epidermal thickness when compared to control group by confirming its traditional use in psoriasis treatment. PMID:24082629

  4. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. PMID:25151455

  5. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

  6. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

  7. Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W.; Bost, G.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined

  8. Evaluation of antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dushyant Kumar; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Surendra; Joshi, Vivek; Mandal, Ravi Shankar Kumar; Prakash, A. G. Bhanu; Singh, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Family - Apocynaceae) seeds against induced diarrhea in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The extract was evaluated for castor oil and Escherichia coli induced diarrhea. Extract was given at 100, 200, 400 mg/kg body wt. orally in both protocols. Standard antidiarrheal Loperamide was used at 5 mg/kg body wt. orally in castor oil induced protocol, while standard antibiotic Gentamicin at 8 mg/kg body wt. intraperitoneally was used in E. coli induced diarrhea. In castor oil induced protocol, the percentage inhibition of defecation was calculated for each group, whereas in E. coli induced protocol, change in fecal consistency, and body weight was recorded for each individual rat for 3 days. Results: The severity of castor oil induced diarrhea was reduced significantly (p<0.05) with H. antidysenterica seeds extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. which showed equivalent effectiveness like that of Loperamide treated groups. Similarly in E. coli induced diarrhea protocol, the mean change in body weight was significantly (p<0.05) higher in positive control, whereas no significant variation was observed in negative control, Gentamicin treated and H. antidysenterica treated group at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body wt., respectively. Conclusion: The study concluded that ethanolic extract of H. antidysenterica seeds effectively controlled diarrhea and decreased the severity of clinical signs of castor oil and E. coli induced diarrhea in Wistar rats. PMID:27047049

  9. Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of ethanol extracts of seeds, pericarp and leaves of Eugenia Jamolana in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Shenawy, S M A

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of ethanol extracts of seeds, pericarp and leaves of Eugenia Jamolana (E. Jamolana) on inflammation, gastric ulcer, anti-oxidants and hepatoprotective in rats. The acute inflammation was induced by intra-plantar injection of carrageenan (100 microl of 1 %) in the rat hind paw. Gastric ulcer was evoked by indomethacin (25 mg/kg) oral administration. Liver damage was induced by given CCL4 (2.5 ml/kg) orally. The median lethal (LD(50)) of the ethanol extract of both seeds and pericarp were determined and revealed that the investigated extracts of seeds and pericarp were non toxic up to 5 g/kg. The anti-inflammatory results showed that the oral administration of ethanol extract of E. Jamolana seeds (250, 500 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of oedema formation in dose-dependent manner by -27.86, -41.23, -44.73, -51.78 % and by -63.16, -37.77, -47.04, -55.36 % at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively. While the pericarp given at dose (500 mg/kg) exhibited significant inhibition of the oedema formation by -34.64, -21,8, 19.23 and -33.47 % at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively post carrageenan injection as compared with saline control group. E. Jamolana leaves fraction 1 given orally at dose of 25 mg/kg, induced non significant change on oedema, while the oedema response was significantly inhibited by -25.14, -33.4, -20.57 and -26.46 % at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively in group of rats that received leaves fraction 2 at the same dose. Rats were given leaves fraction 3 extract showed inhibition of oedema formation by -4.48 % at 1(st) h post- carrageenan injection, while at 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) h showed non significant change on oedema formation. The acute gastric mucosal lesions was significantly reduced by given ethanol extract of E. Jamolana seeds, pericarp (250, 500 mg/kg) and leaves fractions 1, 2 and 3 (25 mg/kg) respectively in dose dependent manner, as compared with indomethacin treated group (control group). All

  10. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract prevents ethanol-induced toxicity and apoptosis in Chang liver cells.

    PubMed

    Kaviarasan, Subramanian; Ramamurty, Nalini; Gunasekaran, Palani; Varalakshmi, Elango; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2006-01-01

    The protective effect of a polyphenolic extract of fenugreek seeds (FPEt) against ethanol (EtOH)-induced toxicity was investigated in human Chang liver cells. Cells were incubated with either 30 mM EtOH alone or together in the presence of seed extract for 24 h. Assays were performed in treated cells to evaluate the ability of seeds to prevent the toxic effects of EtOH. EtOH treatment suppressed the growth of Chang liver cells and induced cytotoxicity, oxygen radical formation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration was significantly elevated in EtOH-treated cells as compared with normal cells. Incubation of FPEt along with EtOH significantly increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, caused a reduction in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and normalized GSH/GSSG ratio. The extract dose-dependently reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation. Apoptosis was observed in EtOH-treated cells while FPEt reduced apoptosis by decreasing the accumulation of sub-G1 phase cells. The cytoprotective effects of FPEt were comparable with those of a positive control silymarin, a known hepatoprotective agent. The findings suggest that the polyphenolic compounds of fenugreek seeds can be considered cytoprotective during EtOH-induced liver damage. PMID:16574673

  11. Vitis vinifera (Muscat Variety) Seed Ethanolic Extract Preserves Activity Levels of Enzymes and Histology of the Liver in Adult Male Rats with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eswar Kumar, Kilari; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600 μg/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:25852767

  12. Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera Peach): Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Pulp, Peel and Seed Ethanolic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Núñez, Oscar; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Tundis, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    A comparative analysis of ethanol extracts from peel, pulp and seed of Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera peach) was done. The total phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid content as well as the antioxidant properties by using different in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, Fe-chelating, β-carotene bleaching test) were evaluated. Pulp extract was subjected to liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were identified as main constituents. Pulp extract was characterized by the highest total phytonutrients content and exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in all in vitro assays (IC(50) values of 2.2 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation by using β-carotene bleaching test and 2.9 μg/mL by using Fe-chelating assay). Overall, the obtained results suggest that P. persica var. platycarpa displays a good antioxidant activity and its consumption could be promoted. PMID:26138775

  13. Anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract of Bryonia laciniosa seeds and its saponins rich fraction in neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sandip B.; Santani, Devdas; Patel, Veena; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. Aim: This study evaluated the anti-diabetic action of the ethanol extract of B. laciniosa seeds and saponin fraction of it through its effect on hyperglycemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in neonatally streptozotocin (n-STZ)-induced diabetic rats (n-STZ diabetic rats). Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.), saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.) and standard drug glibenclamide (3 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats when the rats were 6 weeks old and continued for 10 consecutive weeks. Effects of ethanol extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Results: The treatment with ethanol extract and saponin fraction for 10 weeks decrease in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, serum urea, serum creatinine and diminished activities of aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. The anti-hyperglycemic nature of B. laciniosa is probably brought about by the extra- the pancreatic mechanism as evidenced from unchanged levels of plasma insulin. B. laciniosa modulated effect of diabetes on the liver malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity. Administration of ethanol extract and saponin fraction to diabetic rats showed a significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status. Significant increase in SOD, CAT, and levels of GSH was observed in treated n-STZ diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of n-STZ diabetic rats. PMID:25598641

  14. Antitussive, expectorant and analgesic effects of the ethanol seed extract of Picralima nitida (Stapf) Th. & H. Durand.

    PubMed

    Dapaah, Gabriel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Mante, Priscilla Kolibea; Ben, Inemesit Okon

    2016-01-01

    Picralima nitida is used traditionally for management of cough. This study, therefore, investigated the antitussive, expectorant, and analgesic properties of the ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida (PNE), and ascertained its safety for use. Presence of secondary metabolites, and safety of PNE (10-2000 mg/kg) were evaluated by preliminary phytochemical screening, and by Irwin's test respectively. Percentage reduction in cough count, percentage increase in latency of cough, and percentage protection offered by PNE were established by the citric acid-induced cough, acetylcholine- and Histamine-induced bronchoconstriction models. Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were treated with 100-500 mg/kg PNE or reference drugs, dihydrocodiene, atropine, mepyramine. Expectorant property of PNE (100-1000 mg/kg) was determined using the tracheal phenol red secretion; with ammonium chloride as a reference medication. Percentage maximal possible analgesic effect in the tail immersion test and the total nociceptive score in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes, after treatment of BALB/c mice with PNE (100-500 mg/kg), diclofenac, and morphine were also estimated. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids and anthraquinones. PNEdid not cause any extract-related physical, pharmacological and CNS toxicities or mortality; sedation was observed at doses 1000-2000 mg/kg. It showed significant dose-dependent reduction in cough count, and increased cough latency. PNE (1000 mg/kg) enhanced tracheal phenol red secretion. PNE (100-500 mg/kg) significantly and dose dependently increased tail withdrawal latencies, and nociceptive score. PNE has antitussive, expectorant, and analgesic properties, with an LD50>2000 mg/kg. PMID:27168749

  15. Antitussive, expectorant and analgesic effects of the ethanol seed extract of Picralima nitida (Stapf) Th. & H. Durand

    PubMed Central

    Dapaah, Gabriel; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Mante, Priscilla Kolibea; Ben, Inemesit Okon

    2016-01-01

    Picralima nitida is used traditionally for management of cough. This study, therefore, investigated the antitussive, expectorant, and analgesic properties of the ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida (PNE), and ascertained its safety for use. Presence of secondary metabolites, and safety of PNE (10-2000 mg/kg) were evaluated by preliminary phytochemical screening, and by Irwin's test respectively. Percentage reduction in cough count, percentage increase in latency of cough, and percentage protection offered by PNE were established by the citric acid-induced cough, acetylcholine- and Histamine-induced bronchoconstriction models. Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were treated with 100-500 mg/kg PNE or reference drugs, dihydrocodiene, atropine, mepyramine. Expectorant property of PNE (100-1000 mg/kg) was determined using the tracheal phenol red secretion; with ammonium chloride as a reference medication. Percentage maximal possible analgesic effect in the tail immersion test and the total nociceptive score in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes, after treatment of BALB/c mice with PNE (100-500 mg/kg), diclofenac, and morphine were also estimated. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids and anthraquinones. PNEdid not cause any extract-related physical, pharmacological and CNS toxicities or mortality; sedation was observed at doses 1000-2000 mg/kg. It showed significant dose-dependent reduction in cough count, and increased cough latency. PNE (1000 mg/kg) enhanced tracheal phenol red secretion. PNE (100–500 mg/kg) significantly and dose dependently increased tail withdrawal latencies, and nociceptive score. PNE has antitussive, expectorant, and analgesic properties, with an LD50>2000 mg/kg. PMID:27168749

  16. A comparison of the cytotoxic potential of standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of a polyherbal mixture comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots) and Smilax glabra (rhizome)

    PubMed Central

    Samarakoon, Sameera R.; Thabrew, Ira; Galhena, Prasanna B.; De Silva, Dilip; Tennekoon, Kamani H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A decoction (hot-water extract) comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots), and Smilax glabra (rhizome) has been reported to prevent chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenic changes in rats and to exert significant cytotoxic effects on human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. However, the decoction used in previous studies to determine cytotoxicity was not standardized. Further, during preparation of pharmaceuticals for clinical use, it is more convenient to use an ethanolic extract. Therefore this study was carried out to (a) develop standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant mixture (N. sativa, H. indicus, and S. glabra) used in the preparation of the original decoction, and (b) compare the cytotoxic effects of these two extracts by evaluating cytotoxicity to the human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. Methods: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts have been standardized by evaluating organoleptic characters, physicochemical properties, qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents, and analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) profiles. Cytotoxic potentials of the above standardized extracts were compared by evaluating their effects on the survival and overall cell activity of HepG2 cells by use of the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl) -2, 5 – biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assays. Results: Results from MTT and SRB assays demonstrated that both extracts exerted strong dose-dependent in vitro cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. The standardized aqueous extract showed a marginally (though significantly, P<0.05) higher cyotoxic potential than the ethanolic extract. Thymoquinone, an already known cytotoxic compound isolated from N. sativa seeds was only observed in the standardized ethanolic extract. Thus, compounds other than thymoquinone appear to mediate the cytotoxicity of the standardized aqueous extract of this poly-herbal preparation. Conclusion: It

  17. Ethanolic Extract of the Seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Eun; Lee, So Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Young Woo; Jung, Jun Man; Kim, Dong Hyun; Shin, Bum Young; Jang, Dae Sik; Kang, Sam Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EEZS) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with EEZS. The behavioral tests were conducted using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in our present behavioral tasks without changes of locomotor activity. The ameliorating effect of EEZS on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was significantly reversed by a sub-effective dose of MK-801 (0.0125 mg/kg, s.c.). In addition, single administration of EEZS in normal naïve mouse enhanced latency time in the passive avoidance task. Western blot analysis was employed to confirm the mechanism of memory-ameliorating effect of EEZS. Administration of EEZS (200 mg/kg) increased the level of memory-related signaling molecules, including phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampal region. Also, the time-dependent expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by the administration of EEZS was markedly increased from 3 to 9 h. These results suggest that EEZS has memory-ameliorating effect on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, which is mediated by the enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system, in part, via NMDA receptor signaling, and that EEZS would be useful agent against cognitive dysfunction such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24244815

  18. Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Oyinloye, B E; Nwozo, S O; Amah, G H; Awoyinka, A O; Ojo, O A; Ajiboye, B O; Tijani, H A

    2014-02-01

    The liver is vulnerable to alcohol-related injury because it is the primary site of alcohol metabolism. Additionally, a number of potentially dangerous by-products are generated as alcohol is broken down in the liver. However, dietary supplements may prevent or relieve some of alcohol's deleterious effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ethanol, pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Sesamum indicum, (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 28 days; two hours before, simultaneously with or two hours after ethanol exposure. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg bw) by oral gavage. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were then determined in the liver, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. The results revealed that ethanol administration led to significant elevation of TBARS level while depleting in the level of GSH as well as CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities. Similarly, TG level and ALT and AST activities were elevated. The SI pre-treated group significantly inhibited TBARS, restored GSH level, enhanced CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities and significantly decreased the elevated level of serum TG, ALT and AST activities. SI treatment (simultaneously with ethanol) exhibited similar effects to those of the SI pre-treated groups, while the SI post-treated group did not show the same protection as the Pre-treated group. S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic

  19. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  20. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  1. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Chien; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Wen-Ju; Yap, Hui-Yi; Wang, Shao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  2. [Extraction of rape seed proanthocyanidin with ultrasonic wave].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jian-Ming; Xia, Chun-Tang; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Zheng-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Rape seed proanthocyanidin was extracted by ultrasonic technology, and the conditions of extraction were studied. The results showed that the order of the factors which influenced the extraction effects were as follows: ethanol concentration, extracting temperature, ultrasonic extracting time and the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extraction agent (w/v). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature: 60 degrees C, extracting agent: 60% ethanol aqueous, the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extracting agent: 1 : 20 (w/v), extracting number: 3 times, extracting time: 20 min, respectively. The yield of proanthocyanidins extracted by ultrasonic technology was 84.5% higher than traditional method. Rape Seed was rich in proanthocyanidin. PMID:20518317

  3. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dekker; 2005:309–325. Grape. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on June ... Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on June ...

  4. Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wenli; Li, Xiaona; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS⁺ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants. PMID:21788927

  5. Cerebroprotective effect of isolated harmine alkaloids extracts of seeds of Peganum harmala L. on sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia and ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in young mice.

    PubMed

    Biradar, S M; Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Tarak, K C

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate the harmine alkaloids from the seeds of Peganum harmala (TAPH) and its cerebroprotective effect on cognitive deficit mice. The tested doses of TAPH were screened for Sodium nitrite induced hypoxia and Ethanol induced neurodegeneration using behavioral models. The TAPH was found to be non-neurotoxic and Psychoactive by preventing the motor impairment and increasing the locomotion activity of animals in Rota rod and Actophotometer respectively. TAPH (5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg kg(-1) p.o.) significantly (p < 0.001) protected the Sodium nitrite induced memory impairment by decreasing the time require to find the water bottle in special water bottle case model. In Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Passive Shock Avoidance paradigm (PSA) the TAPH shown improved acquisition and retention memory significantly (p < 0.001) by decreasing the Transverse Latency Time (TLT) and increasing the Step Down Latency (SDL), respectively in dose dependent manner. The results were well supported by biochemical parameters, by inhibiting the Acetylcholinestrase (p < 0.01) activity, increasing the GSH (p < 0.001) level and decreasing the TBARS (p < 0.001) level of whole brain. Moreover TAPH has shown the significant Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) inhibition action (p < 0.001), hence it reduces the metabolism of epinephrine, 5-HT and other monoamines and enhances the action of these neurotransmitters indirectly; this adrenergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. Further, TAPH (5 mg kg(-1)) protect the DNA fragmentation of frontotemporal cortex of the brain from hypoxic effect induced by Sodium nitrite in Gel Electrophoresis studies. The results were comparable to their respective standards. Hence, harmine alkaloids are potential enough to utilize in the management of Neurodegenerative disorders of the type Alzheimer's diseases. PMID:24506035

  6. Assessment of an ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida ([Stapf] Th. and H. Durand) on reproductive hormones and its safety for use

    PubMed Central

    Otoo, Lydia Francisca; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ansah, Charles; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Benneh, Charles; Ben, Inemesit Okon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Picralima nitida seed extract (PNE) has aphrodisiac and contraceptive effect. Aim: To investigate the effect of PNE on reproductive hormones. Materials and Methods: The size and length of the combs of white leghorn day-old chicks treated with testosterone (0.5-1.5 mg/kg), cyproterone (3-30 mg/kg), or PNE (50-500 mg/kg) for 7 days, as well as cyproterone (10, and 30 mg/kg) on PNE-induced, and PNE (50-500 mg/kg) on testosterone-induced comb growth, were measured in the chick comb test. The effect of PNE the percentage change in an oviduct-chick weight ratio of Rhode Island Red layer day-old chicks treated with 17-β-estradiol (0.1-0.9 µg), PNE (30-300 mg/kg) or vehicle, for 6 days, was determined in the chick uterotrophic assay. Liver and kidney function was well lipid, and hematological profile tests were conducted to assess safety. Results: 7-day treatment with PNE and testosterone increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01-0.001) while cyproterone significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.001) comb growth dose-dependently. Qualitatively, testosterone and PNE treatment resulted in relatively brighter red combs. Cyproterone caused significant inhibition (P ≤ 0.001) of both testosterone and PNE-induced comb growth. Co-administration of testosterone and PNE suppressed comb growth significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Administration of 17-β estradiol and PNE increased (P ≤ 0.001) oviduct-chick weight ratio dose-dependently. No significant changes were observed in assessing liver and kidney function, lipid profile, and hematological parameters. Conclusion: PNE exhibits both androgenic (partial testosterone agonist) and estrogenic activity. It has no detrimental effects on the blood, liver, and kidney tissue with prolonged use. PMID:26649234

  7. Intraperitoneal seeding from hepatocellular carcinoma following percutaneous ethanol ablation therapy.

    PubMed

    Kurl, S; Farin, P; Rytkonen, H; Soimakallio, S

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of intraperitoneal seeding in a 36-year-old woman with a large primary hepatocellular carcinoma located superfically in the left lobe of the otherwise normal liver. The patient was treated with percutaneous ethanol ablation therapy. Eight months after the treatment computed tomography and ultrasonography (US) revealed an intraperitoneal seeding that was confirmed with US-guided percutaneous biopsy. PMID:9107646

  8. Effect of neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) seeds and leaves extract on some plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Moslem, M A; El-Kholie, E M

    2009-07-15

    In this study plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were chosen to study the effect of ethanolic, hexane and methanolic extracts of neem seeds and leaves. Antifungal effects of neem leave and seed extracts obtained by ethanol, hexane and ptrolium ether were examined separately in vitro against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results indicated that seeds and leaves extracts could cause growth inhibition of tested fungi, although the rate of inhibition of tested fungi varied with different extracts and concentrations. But all these extracts and concentrations of extract inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi at a significant level. Azadirachtin, nimonol and expoxyazdirodione were detected from neem extract by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We can conclude that neem leave and seed extracts were effective as antifungal against all tested fungi but F. oxysporum and R. solani were the most sensitive fungi. PMID:19947185

  9. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  10. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

  11. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass)

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

  12. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Simone N M; Salazar, Marcela M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2-6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4-8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol. PMID:26150956

  13. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by ethanolic mango seed extract in cultured estrogen receptor positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 μg/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX), p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9) in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione) as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent. PMID:25664859

  14. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  15. Antihyperglycaemic effect and acute toxicity of Securigera Securidaca L. seed extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, H; Ramezani, M; Danaei, A R

    2002-12-01

    The antihyperglycaemic activity of a Securigera securidaca aqueous infusion and an ethanol maceration extract of seeds was studied in normoglycaemic, glucose-induced hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The acute toxicity of the ethanol extract was more than that of the aqueous one. The phytochemical analysis showed that the seed extracts were rich in flavonoids. The intraperitoneal and oral administration of the aqueous and ethanol extracts significantly reduced blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In normoglycaemic and glucose-induced hyperglycaemic mice, the blood glucose levels were not significantly different from the control. Glibenclamide was not able to lower blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, while it significantly lowered the blood sugar in normoglycaemic mice. The results indicate that S. securidaca seed extracts significantly reduce blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice by a mechanism different from that of sulfonylurea agents. PMID:12458478

  16. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activity and functional components of the ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) from various growing regions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The variations in antioxidant activity and concentration of functional components in the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes based on the growing region and dryness were investigated. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and concentration of several specific flavonoids and alkaloids in the ethanol extracts of lotus were measured. Antioxidant activity and its correlative total phenolic content varied characteristically depending on the growing region and dryness. High-perfomance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds from Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City), raw rhizomes from Korea (Siheung), and dried rhizomes from Japan (Nigata) had the greatest specific flavonoid content. The ethanol extracts of seeds from China (Hubei), raw rhizomes from Japan (Nigata), and dried rhizomes from Korea (Siheung) had the greatest specific alkaloid content. Astragaline, rutin, isoquercetin, nuciferine, dauricine, isoliensinine, and neferine were identified in lotus rhizomes for the first time in this study. PMID:24932940

  17. An Extract of Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue Seed Induces Vasoconstriction of Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ethanol extract of tall fescue seed was produced to further understand the interactions of toxic compounds that cause fescue toxicosis. We hypothesized that the combination of alkaloids present in the extract would have a greater vasoconstrictive response than individual alkaloids. The objective ...

  18. Comparative Hepatoprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Cuscuta australis against Acetaminophen Intoxication in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Folarin, Rachael O.; Omirinde, Jamiu O.; Bejide, Ronald; Isola, Tajudeen O.; Usende, Levi I.; Basiru, Afisu

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the comparative hepatoprotective activity of crude ethanol extracts of Cuscuta australis against acetaminophen (APAP) intoxication. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into six groups of 6 replicates: Group 1 which served as control received water. Group 2 was orally administered 835 mg/kg body wt. of paracetamol on day 8. Groups 3 and 4 were orally administered ethanolic extracts of the seed of Cuscuta australis in doses of 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively, for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Group 2 on the 8th day. Groups 5 and 6 received similar oral doses of Cuscuta australis stem extracts for 7 days and then intoxicated as in Groups 3 and 4. Group 2 rats showed severe periportal hepatic necrosis, significantly elevated serum hepatic injury markers, markedly increased lipid peroxidation, and decreased hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities. Remarkably, Cuscuta australis (seed and stem) extract pretreatments in Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6, most especially, the stem extract pretreatment in Groups 5 and 6, improved better the hepatic histoarchitecture, the hepatocellular, and the oxidative stress injury markers in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusively, ethanol extractions of Cuscuta australis stem appear to protect the liver from acetaminophen intoxication better than the seed counterpart. PMID:27433518

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

  20. Influence of solvents on the composition of condensed tannins in grape pomace seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Antonella; Guaita, Massimo; Petrozziello, Maurizio

    2016-09-15

    The extracting effectiveness of some solvents (water, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate), used as pure or in binary and ternary mixtures, was studied for the extraction of seeds from the fermented pomace of Nebbiolo cv. The aqueous mixtures of acetone provided the highest extraction yields in total polyphenols and total flavonoids. Polyphenolic extracts were also obtained with aqueous mixtures of ethanol or acetone at variable concentrations, and the condensed tannins were quantified with the phloroglucinolysis method. The aqueous mixtures of acetone were more effective than the corresponding aqueous mixtures of ethanol. The solvent influenced the extraction yield and the composition of the extracts: with the increase of the yield, the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of the condensed tannins increased. A significant correlation was noticed between mDP and the molar percentages of (+)-catechin as terminal unit (negative correlation), and of (-)-epicatechin and (-)-epicatechin-3O-gallate as extension units (positive correlation). PMID:27080893

  1. Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2010-04-01

    In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs. PMID:19904502

  2. Hippocratic screening of ethanolic extracts from two Tabernaemontana species.

    PubMed

    Taesotikul, T; Panthong, A; Kanjanapothi, D; Verpoorte, R; Scheffer, J J

    1989-11-01

    Ethanolic extracts of roots, stems, leaves and flowers of Tabernaemontana divaricata and T. pandacaqui were studied by an observational (hippocratic) screening method in rats. Extracts of all plant parts caused sedation, decreased respiration and decreased skeletal muscle tone. Except for the leaf extract of T. pandacaqui, the extracts caused vasodilatation of ear vasculature. Analgesic activity was found for all extracts of both Tabernaemontana species, except for the flower extract of T. divaricata. Lethal doses of the extracts caused the animals to die from respiratory paralysis. Intensity of pharmacological activities was greater with the root and stem extracts. The extracts of T. pandacaqui were more potent than those of T. divaricata. PMID:2615432

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y; Choi, Yong Hee

    2012-12-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique was applied and optimized for temperature, CO₂ pressure and ethanol (modifier) concentration using orthogonal array design and response surface methodology for the extract yield, total phenols and antioxidants from grape (Vitis labrusca B.) seeds. Effects of extraction temperature and pressure were found to be significant for all these response variables in SFE process. Optimum SFE conditions (44 ~ 46 °C temperature and 153 ~ 161 bar CO₂ pressure) along with ethanol (<7 %) as modifier, for the maximum predicted values of extract yield (12.09 %), total phenols (2.41 mg GAE/ml) and antioxidants (7.08 mg AAE/ml), were used to obtain extracts from grape seeds. The predicted values matched well with the experimental values (12.32 % extract yield, 2.45 mg GAE/ml total phenols and 7.08 mg AAE/ml antioxidants) obtained at optimum SFE conditions. The antiradical assay showed that SFE extracts of grape seeds can scavenge more than 85 % of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The grape seeds extracts were also analyzed for hydroxybenzoic acids which included gallic acid (1.21 ~ 3.84 μg/ml), protocatechuic acid (3.57 ~ 11.78 μg/ml) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (206.72 ~ 688.18 μg/ml). PMID:22992888

  4. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  5. Extraction optimization and nanoencapsulation of jujube pulp and seed for enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye Jung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Park, Sun-Ah; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize extraction conditions for jujube pulp and seed in order to obtain maximum active ingredient yield and antioxidant activity, as well as to prepare chitosan nanoparticles loaded with jujube pulp and seed extracts for enhancing stability. The extraction conditions, i.e. temperature, time, and ethanol concentration, were optimized at the following respective values: 61.2 °C, 38 h, and 60.4% for pulp, and 58 °C, 34 h, and 59.2% for seed. The jujube nanoparticle size significantly increased with a higher chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate ratio and extract concentration. Entrapment efficiency was greater than 80% regardless of preparation conditions. The stabilities of jujube pulp and seed extract in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were effectively enhanced by nanoencapsulation. In conclusion, jujube pulp and seed extracts prepared using optimal conditions could be useful as a natural functional food ingredient with antioxidant activity, and nanoencapsulation can be used to improve the stability of jujube extract. Therefore, these results could be used to promote the utilization of not only jujube pulp but also seed, by product. PMID:25911157

  6. Antiangiogenesis and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of Pithecellobium jiringa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis plays a critical role in embryonic development and various physiological processes. However, excessive angiogenesis is associated with several pathological conditions including cancer. Pithecellobium jiringa (Jack) Prain is a traditional medicinal plant from the family Leguminosae. It is native to the Southeast Asia, where it has been used traditionally for treatment of various ailments such as hypertension and diabetes. The present work is aimed to study antioxidant and antiangiogenesis activities of P. jiringa ethanol extracts. Methods P. jiringa fruit rinds were extracted with ethanol and 50% ethanol. The antioxidant property was analysed using, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical analysis was performed using thin layer chromatography and colorimetric methods. Then, cell growth inhibition was studied against a panel of human cell lines by MTT test. In vitro inhibition of angiogenesis was studied by the following assays: isolated rat aortic rings cell viability, colony formation, endothelial cell migration, endothelial tube formation on matrigel, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by endothelial cells. In vivo antiangiogenesis effect was studied by utilising fertilised chick embryos assay. The results were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. Results Ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts showed relatively high concentration of total phenolics associated with potent antioxidant activity. The rat aortic rings study conducted showed potent inhibition of the microvessels outgrowth with IC50s 5.27 ± 0.81 μg/ml (ethanolic) and 4.45 ± 0.63 μg/ml (50% hydro-ethanolic). Both extracts arrested the growth of human endothelial cells via down-regulation of VEGF expression, leading to inhibition of other angiogenesis cascades including migration of endothelial cells, and formation of capillary network on matrigel matrix. The extracts also inhibited the neovascularisation of

  7. Extraction of ethanol from aqueous solution. 2. A solvent more volatile than ethanol: Dichloromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, F.; Gomis, V.; Botella, R.F.

    1988-04-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system water-ethanol-dichloromethane have been determined experimentally at 25/sup 0/C and correlated simultaneously with vapor-liquid equilibrium data by using the UNIQUAC model. A suitable extraction process for separating ethanol and water using dichloromethane as the solvent has been chosen, and the design calculations have been carried out to determine the energetic requirements. The properties that another solvent should offer to decrease these energetic requirements have been studied.

  8. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of Monechma ciliatum (black mahlab) seed extracts as antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed Oshi, Murtada; Mohmmed Abdelkarim, Abdelkarim

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Tribes in Nubia Mountains regions of Sudan used Monechma ciliatum seeds for common cold and other chest allergic conditions as a traditional medicine. The aim of this paper is to validate this traditional practice scientifically. Materials and Methods: Monechma ciliatum seeds were screened for major phytochemical groups using standard methods. Different extracts were bioassayed in- vitro for their bioactivity to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Results: Phytochemical screening results showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpens, and anthraquinones. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be sensitive to both water extract with zones of inhibition 22 – 26 mm at concentrations of 50 and 100mg/ml and ethanol extract 17 mm at concentration of 100 mg/ml. The growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae was inhibited by ethanol extract with zones of inhibition equal to 16, 26, and 33 mm at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/ml, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was insensitive to all extracts used. Similarly, all used fungi were found to be insensitive to extracts used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts against microorganisms were ranged from 12.5 to 25 mg/ml. Conclusion: The findings of the current study support the traditional uses of the plant's seed in the therapy of respiratory tract infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:25050266

  9. Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum) polyphenols inhibit ethanol-induced collagen and lipid accumulation in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kaviarasan, S; Viswanathan, P; Anuradha, C V

    2007-11-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with fatty liver and fibrosis characterized by collagen accumulation. Seeds of fenugreek, an annual herb, are reported to possess hepatoprotective activity. The study aims to investigate the effects of fenugreek seed polyphenol extract (FPEt) on liver lipids and collagen in experimental hepatotoxic rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in male albino Wistar rats by administrating ethanol (6 g/kg per day) for 30 days. Control rats were given isocaloric glucose solution. FPEt was co-administered with ethanol at a dose of 200 mg/kg per day for the next 30 days. Silymarin was used as a positive control. Ethanol treatment caused increase in plasma and liver lipids, together with alterations in collagen content and properties. Administration of FPEt to alcohol-fed rats significantly improved lipid profile and reduced collagen content, crosslinking, aldehyde content and peroxidation. The effects were comparable with that of silymarin. FPEt administration had a positive influence on both lipid profile and on the quantitative and qualitative properties of collagen in alcoholic liver disease. The protective effect is presumably due to the bioactive phytochemicals in fenugreek seeds. PMID:17453353

  10. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

    PubMed Central

    Kannur, Dayanand M.; Paranjpe, Mukta P.; Sonavane, Lalit V.; Dongre, Prerana P.; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students’ ‘t’ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

  11. Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots

    PubMed Central

    Momin, Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Bellah, Sm Faysal; Rahman, Sarder Mohammad Raussel; Rahman, Ahmed Ayedur; Murshid, Gazi Mohammad Monjur; Emran, Talha Bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Methods Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Results Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 µg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. Conclusions The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required. PMID:24144125

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Helicteres gardneriana Ethanol Extract on Acute Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Juliana Oliveira; de Arruda, Laura Lícia Milani; Baroni, Silmara; Truiti, Maria da Conceição Torrado; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana (Nees) Castiglioni was assayed in experimental models of pleurisy and microcirculation in situ. Treatment of animals with 500 mg/kg body weight reduced the exudate volume (35% reduction) induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan and the migration of polymorphonuclear cells into the inflamed pleural cavity of rats (40%). Additionally, rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the number of leukocytes that migrated toward the perivascular space in response to the carrageenan injection were decreased by the extract (500 mg/kg). These data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana and imply that inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions is important in the extract's mechanism of action. PMID:22028731

  13. Antinociceptive Activity of Ethanol Extract from Duguetia chrysocarpa Maas (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Araújo, Edigênia Cavalcante da Cruz; Ribeiro, Luciano Augusto de Araújo; de Lima, Julianeli Tolentino; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Barbosa Filho, José Maria

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the fruits of Duguetia chrysocarpa was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The intraperitoneal administration of the ethanol extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhes. The extract also produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test in all doses tested and increased the reaction time in hot-plate test at dose of 200 mg/kg. The data obtained suggest that the antinociceptive effect of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The phytochemical investigation yielded the isolation of the benzenoid derivative 3-methoxy-4-ethoxy benzoic acid which is being reported for the first time in this genus. PMID:22645460

  14. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigation of Ethanol Extract of Cissampelos pareira.

    PubMed

    Reza, H M; Shohel, M; Aziz, Sadia B; Pinaz, Farzana I; Uddin, M F; Al-Amin, M; Khan, I N; Jain, Preeti

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the ethanol extract of Cissampelos pareira has been evaluated. The extract was tested for analgesic properties using both hot plate and acetic acid-induced writhing methods. Antiinflammatory effect was investigated using two different doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight on Evans rats by carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The antipyretic activity was evaluated using Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in Wistar rats. The phytochemical screening of the extract of Cissampelos pareira exhibited the presence of several phytochemical compounds including saponins, gums and carbohydrates, reducing sugars, alkaloids and terpenoids. Ethanol extract of Cissampelos pareira exhibited significant analgesic, antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity in a dose-dependent manner. The results obtained from these studies confirm its therapeutic value against diseases caused by various pain and fever. PMID:25425762

  15. Cellulosic ethanol fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae seeds cultured by pretreated corn stover material.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Utilization of lignocellulose materials to replace the pure glucose for preparation of the fermenting yeast seeds could reduce the cost of ethanol fermentation, because a large quantity of glucose is saved in the large-scale seed fermentor series. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae DQ1 was cultured using the freshly pretreated corn stover material as the carbon source, and then the culture broth was used as the inoculation seeds after a series of seed transfer and inoculated into the ethanol production fermentor. The results show that the yeast cell growth and ethanol fermentation performance have essentially no difference when the yeast seeds were cultured by glucose, the corn stover hydrolysate liquid, and the pretreated corn stover solids as carbon sources, respectively. Approximately 22% of the yeast cell culture cost was saved, and the process flow sheet in industrial scale plants was simplified by using the pretreated corn stover for seed culture. The results provided a practical method for materials and operational cost reduction for cellulosic ethanol production. PMID:25604953

  16. Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed extract as an antineoplastic agent.

    PubMed

    Sur, P; Das, M; Gomes, A; Vedasiromoni, J R; Sahu, N P; Banerjee, S; Sharma, R M; Ganguly, D K

    2001-05-01

    The antineoplastic effect of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract has been evaluated in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in Balb-C mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of the alcohol extract of the seed both before and after inoculation of EAC cell in mice produced more than 70% inhibition of tumour cell growth with respect to the control. Treatment with the extract was found to enhance both the peritoneal exudate cell and macrophage cell counts. The extract also produced a significant antiinflammatory effect. We report here the antiinflammatory and antineoplastic effects, of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract. PMID:11351364

  17. Effects of Anethum graveolens L. seed extracts on experimental gastric irritation models in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Karimi, Gholam_Reza; Ameri, Maryam

    2002-01-01

    Background As a folk remedy, Anethum graveolens seed (dill) is used for some gastrointestinal ailments. We aimed to evaluate aqueous and ethanolic extracts of anti-ulcer and acute toxicity effects of the Anethum graveolens in mice. Results Gastric mucosal lesions were induced by oral administration of HCl (1 N) and absolute ethanol in mice. The acidity and total acid content of gastric juice were measured in pylorus-ligated mice. LD50 values of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 3.04 g/kg, i.p., (1.5, 6.16) and 6.98 g/kg, i.p., (5.69, 8.56), respectively. The efficacy of high dose of extracts (p.o.) was similar to sucralfate. The acidity and total acid content were reduced by the orally or intraperitoneally administration of the extracts. Conclusions The results suggest that A. graveolens seed extracts have significant mucosal protective and antisecretory effects of the gastric mucosa in mice. PMID:12493079

  18. Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa leaf ethanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Marslin; Divya, B.; Mary, Revina Ann; Viji, M. M. Hipolith; Kalaichelvan, V. K.; Palanivel, V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity and acute toxicity of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) leaf ethanolic extract in animal models. Methods Anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was studied on stress induced ulcer animal models. Ranitidine was used as standard. The anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa was evaluated with the help of ulcer area and histopatholgical examination. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and acute toxicity studies of F. religiosa also carried out. Results Results showed that the extract treatments prevented ulcer area and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of 2 000 mg/kg extract did not show any acute toxicity in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis identified the presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of F. religiosa. Conclusions The extract is non-toxic even at relatively high concentrations. The anti-ulcer activity is probably due to the presence of flavanoids. PMID:23836366

  19. Effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. on tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Yarlagadda, Sanjyothi; Chintala, Saritha

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. seeds (100, 200 mg/kg) was studied on tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia. Tacrine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) treated animals were observed for vacuous chewing movements (VCM), tongue protrusions (TP) and orofacial bursts (OB) for 1 h followed by observations for locomotor changes and cognitive dysfunction. Sub-chronic administration of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract (E-CS) (100, 200 mg/kg, p.o., for 15 days significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the tacrine induced VCM, TP and OB; and also significantly (P < 0.05), increased locomotion and cognition compared to the tacrine treated group. Biochemical analysis revealed that tacrine administration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GSH) levels and also significantly (P < 0.05) increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) as an index of oxidative stress, whereas subchronic administration of E-CS significantly (P < 0.05) improved the antioxidant enzyme (i.e. SOD, CAT, and GSH) levels and also significantly (P < 0.05) decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO). The results have demonstrated the protective role of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum. L against tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia. PMID:26040026

  20. Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Judith H.; Wernet, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. The technique is not limited to alumina/ethanol and is also demonstrated with an alumina/H2O system. Other ceramic powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(sub pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined.

  1. Economic evaluation of a multicompartment bioreactor for ethanol production using in situ extraction of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Shuler, M.L.; Steinmeyer, D.E.; Togna, A.P.

    1991-12-31

    We have previously described a multicompartment reactor that can be used with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for ethanol production from a starch hydrolysate. By separating a solvent layer (tri-normal-butylphosphate, or TBP) from a cell layer, ethanol was extracted in situ and phase toxicity was prevented. Pressure cycling of the gas phase can be used to reduce significantly mass-transfer limitations that often limit entrapped-cell systems. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that with TBP the multicompartment reactor is generally more economically favorable at low volumes, and the traditional system is more favorable at high volumes. Improved solvents can increase economic viability at high volumes (10{sup 8} L/yr of 95% ethanol).

  2. Nutritional evaluation of ethanol-extracted lentil flours.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M A; Blázquez, I; Sierra, I; Medrano, M A; Frias, J; Vidal-Valverde, C; Hernández, A

    2001-04-01

    Lentil flours were extracted with 80% ethanol at 25 and 50 degrees C for 1, 2, or 3 h. The various nitrogen fractions, soluble carbohydrates, three amino acids (Lys, His, and Tyr), available lysine, protein digestibility, and vitamins B(1) and B(2) were analyzed to evaluate the effect of extraction. Extraction resulted in an increase in the total nitrogen content of the extracted flours, with extraction temperature affecting the nature of the nitrogen (protein or nonprotein) content. There was also a large reduction in the oligosaccharides of the raffinose family, although the effect of temperature was appreciable only in the case of stachyose. There was hardly any effect on the concentrations of the amino acids analyzed or on protein digestibility; however, a positive correlation between protein digestibility and the available lysine was recorded in the samples. The vitamin B(1) and B(2) contents underwent variable decreases depending on extraction temperature. PMID:11308336

  3. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  4. Production of 16.5% v/v ethanol from seagrass seeds.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Motoharu; Miyoshi, Tatsuo; Kaneniwa, Masaki; Ishihara, Kenji; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Urano, Naoto

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol fermentation on seeds of seagrass Zostera marina was studied. The seeds were collected from the annual plant colony of Z. marina at Hinase Bay, Okayama. The seeds contained 83.5% carbohydrates including 48.1% crude starch on a dry weight basis, which is comparable to cereals such as wheat flour and corns. The seeds were saccharified with glucoamylase (50°C, 96 h) and 103.4 g/l concentration of glucose juice was obtained. The glucose juice was further fermented (23°C-35°C, 15 days) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains NBRC10217(T) and Kyokai 7-go, and ethanol was obtained at a 65.0 g/l (82.3 ml/l) level by monographic double-fermentation and at a 130.4 g/l (165.1 ml/l) level by parallel double-fermentation. Fermented products of seagrass seeds containing such a high ethanol concentration as the present study have potential to be utilized not only for biofuel but also for foods and beverages in the future. Culturing of seagrass seeds as a crop may enable development of a new marine fermentation industry. PMID:24969514

  5. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds*

    PubMed Central

    Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-chao

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contained in the crude extracts were measured as 1.71% (SG), 0.74% (STH), 0.97% (LJ), 3.30% (SC), and 5.06% (ST). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Pakistani SC and ST were 109.5 and 21 μg/ml, respectively, lower than those of Chinese SG, STH, and LJ (134, 269, and 148 μg/ml, respectively). An antiallergic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), had an IC50=39 μg/ml, and a natural inhibitor of hyaluronidase, catechin, had an IC50=20 μg/ml. The IC50 of ST extract was found similar to that of catechin (21 vs 20 μg/ml) and lower than that of DSCG (21 vs 39 μg/ml). This suggests that ST is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronidase, indicating a promising future development of natural antiallergic medicines or functional foods. PMID:19235274

  6. Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-chao

    2009-02-01

    Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contained in the crude extracts were measured as 1.71% (SG), 0.74% (STH), 0.97% (LJ), 3.30% (SC), and 5.06% (ST). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of Pakistani SC and ST were 109.5 and 21 microg/ml, respectively, lower than those of Chinese SG, STH, and LJ (134, 269, and 148 microg/ml, respectively). An antiallergic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), had an IC(50)=39 microg/ml, and a natural inhibitor of hyaluronidase, catechin, had an IC(50)=20 microg/ml. The IC(50) of ST extract was found similar to that of catechin (21 vs 20 microg/ml) and lower than that of DSCG (21 vs 39 microg/ml). This suggests that ST is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronidase, indicating a promising future development of natural antiallergic medicines or functional foods. PMID:19235274

  7. Bioactivity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 μg/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 μg/mL) and TH (165.44 μg/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 μg/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 μg/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation. PMID:24471075

  8. Demonstration of a stabilized alumina/ethanol colloidal dispersion technique for seeding high temperature air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.

    1995-01-01

    Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.

  9. Demonstration of a stabilized alumina/ethanol colloidal dispersion technique for seeding high temperature air flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.

    1995-06-01

    Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.

  10. Characterisation of Mediterranean grape pomace seed and skin extracts: polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes. PMID:25642834

  11. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cuphea seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea seed oil is being investigated as a potential domestic source of medium chain fatty acids for several industrial uses. Although the oil from cuphea seeds has been obtained using both solvent extraction and screw pressing, both methods suffer from several disadvantages. Petroleum ether extra...

  12. Full-press oil extraction of Cuphea (PSR23) seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid Cuphea hybrid, is being developed as a potential commercial alternative source of medium chain fatty acids. Recent seed increases in Cuphea had provided sufficient amounts of seeds to pursue an oil extraction study and, at the same time, produce m...

  13. Responsive Surface Methodology Optimizes Extraction Conditions of Industrial by-products, Camellia japonica Seed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Mi-So; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Cho Rong; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background: The central nervous system is easily damaged by oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption and poor defensive capacity. Hence, multiple studies have demonstrated that inhibiting oxidative stress-induced damage, through an antioxidant-rich diet, might be a reasonable approach to prevent neurodegenerative disease. Objective: In the present study, response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the extraction for neuro-protective constituents of Camellia japonica byproducts. Materials and Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma cells were used to evaluate protective potential of Camellia japonica byproducts. Results: Optimum conditions were 33.84 min, 75.24%, and 75.82°C for time, ethanol concentration and temperature. Further, we demonstrated that major organic acid contents were significantly impacted by the extraction conditions, which may explain varying magnitude of protective potential between fractions. Conclusions: Given the paucity of information in regards to defatted C. japonica seed cake and their health promoting potential, our results herein provide interesting preliminary data for utilization of this byproduct from oil processing in both academic and industrial applications. SUMMARY Neuro-protective potential of C. japonica seed cake on cell viability was affected by extraction conditionsExtraction conditions effectively influenced on active constituents of C. japonica seed cakeBiological activity of C. japonica seed cake was optimized by the responsive surface methodology. Abbreviations used: GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, PC12 cells: Pheochromocytoma, RSM: Response surface methodology. PMID:27601847

  14. Antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. ethanolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Iris C; Vattuone, Marta A; Isla, Maria I

    2005-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata ethanolic extract against 47 strains of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and to identify bioactive compounds. Inhibition of bacterial growth was investigated using agar diffusion, agar macrodilution, broth microdilution and bioautographic methods. Zuccagnia punctata extract was active against all assayed bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 25 to 200 microg/mL. Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were identical or two-fold higher than the corresponding MIC values. Contact bioautography, indicated that Zuccagnia punctata extracts possess one major antibacterial component against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and at least three components against. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Activity-guided fractionation of 1he ethanol extract on a silica gel column yielded a compound (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone), which exhibited strong antibacterial activity with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.00 microg/mL for Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These values are lower than imipenem (0.25-16 microg/mL). Zuccagnia punctata might provide promising therapeutic agents against infections with multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16137849

  15. Optimization of phenolics and dietary fibre extraction from date seeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Farsi, Mohamed Ali; Lee, Chang Yong

    2008-06-01

    This work was conducted to optimise extraction conditions of phenolics and dietary fibre from date seeds. The effects of solvent to sample ratio, temperature, extraction time, number of extractions and solvent type on phenolic extraction efficiency were studied. At two-stage extraction, each stage 1h duration at 45°C with a solvent to sample ratio of 60:1, is considered optimum. Acetone (50%), and butanone were the most efficient solvents for extraction and purification, increasing the yield and phenolic contents of seed concentrate to 18.10 and 36.26g/100g, respectively. The total dietary fibre of seeds (57.87g/100g) increased after water and acetone extractions to 83.50 and 82.17g/100g, respectively. Nine phenolic acids (free and liberated) were detected in seeds with p-hydroxybenzoic (9.89mg/100g), protocatechuic (8.84mg/100g), and m-coumaric (8.42mg/100g) acids found to be among the highest. After extraction and purification, total phenolic acid content increased significantly from 48.64 to 193.83mg/100g. Protocatechuic, caffeic and ferulic acids were the major phenolic acids found in the concentrates. Based on this study, we believe date seed concentrates could potentially be an inexpensive source of natural dietary fibre and antioxidants and possibly used as a functional food ingredient. PMID:26065761

  16. Induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human colorectal carcinoma by Litchi seed extract.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chih-Ping; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Chiu-Chen; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chou, Jyh-Ching; Tsia, Yu-Ting; Su, Jhih-Rou; Chung, Yuan-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    The Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit products possess rich amounts of flavanoids and proanthocyanidins. Its pericarp has been shown to inhibit breast and liver cancer cell growth. However, the anticolorectal cancer effect of Litchi seed extract has not yet been reported. In this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich Litchi seed ethanol extract (LCSP) on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two colorectal cancer cell lines Colo320DM and SW480 were examined. The results demonstrated that LCSP significantly induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle in G2/M in colorectal carcinoma cells. LCSP also suppressed cyclins and elevated the Bax : Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activity. This study provides in vitro evidence that LCSP serves as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer. PMID:23093841

  17. Ethanol extracts of Serratia marcescens are compatible with Trichoderma isolates for control of damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmentally friendly control measures for soil-borne plant pathogens are needed that are effective in different soils when applied alone or as components of an integrated disease control strategy. Ethanol extracts of Serratia marcescens N4-5 when applied as a cucumber seed treatment effectively ...

  18. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume.

    PubMed

    Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Tze, Liong Min; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays. In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and tannin contents were also determined. Overall, the methanol extracts of the pod contained high concentration of phenolics and showed high antioxidant capacities compared to seed extracts. In addition, a positive correlation was found between total phenol and tannin versus antioxidant capacity. Results of the present study indicate pods and seeds of C. fairchildiana to possess rich amount of natural antioxidants, and can be further explored for their possible use as a natural additive in food or in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24425949

  19. Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) seeds: Selective supercritical extraction of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Marques, Leila Larisa Medeiros; Panizzon, Gean Pier; Aguiar, Bruna Aparecida Alves; Simionato, Ane Stéfano; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio; Andrade, Galdino; de Oliveira, Admilton Gonçalves; Guedes, Terezinha Aparecida; Mello, João Carlos Palazzo de

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 70% of the Brazilian production of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) seeds is absorbed by the beverage industries. Guaraná has several pharmacological properties: energy stimulant, antimicrobial, chemoprophylactic, antigenotoxic, antidepressive, anxiolytic, and anti-amnesic effects. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of bioactive compounds from guaraná seeds was carried out and optimized by an orthogonal array design (OA9(3(4))). The factors/levels studied were: modifier(s) (ethanol and/or methanol), extraction time (20, 40, and 60min), temperature (40, 50, and 60°C), and pressure (100, 200, and 300bar). The statistical design was repeated with increasing proportions of modifiers. The percentage of modifier used was proportional to the amount of polar compounds extracted. The best conditions for the supercritical extraction, based on the content of polyphenols, epicatechin/catechin quantification, yield and operating cost, proved to be: 40% ethanol:methanol during 40min, under 40°C, and 100bar. The temperature had a significant effect on the total phenolic content. PMID:27374587

  20. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  1. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts.

    PubMed

    Goldson Barnaby, Andrea; Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:27034834

  2. In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of Centratherum anthelminticum seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Mehta, B K

    1991-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial efficacy of different extracts of seeds of Centratherum anthelminticum was studied by the filter paper disk method against several human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Some of the extracts showed significant effect over tested bacteria and fungi. PMID:1940330

  3. Antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinenesis Linn.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Leena; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Zahid, Hina; Khursheed, Raheela; Shareef, Huma

    2014-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the antidepressant effect of crude ethanolic extract of floral part of Hibiscusrosa sinensis (HRS) at doses 100mg/kg, 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg using three parameters which are forced induced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test(OFT). Flouxetine (15mg/kg, body weight) was used as standard. Significant dose dependent decline in immobility time was observed in all the three doses in FST and TST while in case of OFT none of the dose of HRS exhibited effectual results. To determine MAO"A" and MAO"B" activity HRS extract was used and the results revealed that each dose of this plant exhibited marked effect on MAO"A", while on MAO"B" only 250mg/kg dose was found significant. PMID:25176367

  4. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P < 0.05). Much lower chlorophyll content was found in the water extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). In general, 60-80 % ethanolic extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P < 0.05). When brown lead seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). Generally, phenolic compounds and mimosine were more released when water was used as the extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract. PMID:26396295

  5. Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-hyperlipidemic Effects of Bryonia Laciniosa Seed Extract and its Saponin Fraction in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, SB; Santani, D; Shah, MB; Patel, VS

    2012-01-01

    Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. This investigation was carried out to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract of seeds of B. laciniosa Linn. and its saponin fraction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.) and saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats and standard drug insulin (5 IU/kg; i.p.) to the group serving as a positive control. Effects of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's t-test. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction for 28 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of blood glucose and improved the levels of plasma insulin. The levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, urea, and creatinine were markedly altered in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction restored all these biochemical parameters to near control levels. This study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of diabetes and its associated complications. PMID:23112536

  6. Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.

    PubMed

    Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus. PMID:20645772

  7. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  8. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

  9. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract.

    PubMed

    San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03 mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

  10. Phytochemical comparison between Pet ether and ethanolic extracts of Bacopa monnieri, Evolvulus alsinoides and Tinospora cordifolia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Avneet; Raj, Hem; Sharma, Bhartendu; Upmanyu, Neeraj

    2014-04-01

    Bacopa monnieri, Evolvulus alsinoides and Tinospora cordifolia are established ayurvedic herbs having neuropharmacological effect. In present study is aimed to Phytochemical Comparison between Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of Bacopa monnieri (BME), Evolvulus alsinoides (EAE) and Tinospora cordifolia (TCE). To identify the presence (+) or absence (-) of different phytoconstituents in Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of BME, EAE and TCE by using various phytochemical testing methods. Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of various phytochemical constituents in Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of BME, EAE and TCE. When comparison between Pet ether and Ethanolic extracts of BME, EAE and TCE; Ethanolic extracts of these plants showed more phytoconstituents as compared to Pet ether extracts of these plants. From present investigation, it can be concluded that phytochemical comparison is subsequently momentous and useful in finding chemical constituents in the plant substances that may lead to their quantitative evaluation and also pharmacologically active chemical compounds. PMID:25911854

  11. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23099617

  12. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μ g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μ g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  13. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  14. Extraction, quantification, and antioxidant activities of phenolics from pericarp and seeds of bitter melons (Momordica charantia) harvested at three maturity stages (immature, mature, and ripe).

    PubMed

    Horax, Ronny; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Chen, Pengyin

    2010-04-14

    Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is an exotic vegetable used for consumption and medicinal purposes mainly throughout Asia. Phenolics were extracted from pericarp (fleshy portion) and seeds of bitter melons harvested at three maturation stages (immature, mature, and ripe) using ethanol and water solvent systems. Total phenolic assessment demonstrated 80% of ethanol to be the optimal solvent level to extract phenolics either from pericarp or seed. Main phenolic constituents in the extracts were catechin, gallic acid, gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, and epicatechin. Free radical scavenging assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) demonstrated the bitter melon extracts as slow rate free radical scavenging agents. There were low correlations between the total phenolic contents and antiradical power values of the extracts, suggesting a possible interaction among the phenolic constituents occurred. Bitter melon phenolic extracts contain natural antioxidant substances, and could be used as antioxidant agents in suitable food products. PMID:20225855

  15. Antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and phenolics of different solvent extracts from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Zahid Iqbal; Anwar, Farooq; Shabir, Ghulam; Rasul, Ghulam; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC(50) value, 3.21 μg/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50-6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18-4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52-0.65 mg/100 g DW) as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22466852

  16. Antinociceptive Activity of Melicope ptelefolia Ethanolic Extract in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Mohd Padzil, Azyyati; Shaari, Khozirah; Khalid, Syamimi; Shaik Mossadeq, Wan Mastura; Mohamad, Azam Shah; Ahmad, Syahida; Akira, Ahmad; Israf, Daud; Lajis, Nordin

    2010-01-01

    Melicope ptelefolia is a medicinal herb commonly used in Malaysia to treat fever, pain, wounds, and itches. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the Melicope ptelefolia ethanolic extract (MPEE) using animal models of nociception. The antinociceptive activity of the extract was assessed using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot-plate, and formalin-induced paw licking tests. Oral administration of MPEE produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects when tested in mice and rats using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and on the second phase of the formalin-induced paw licking test, respectively. It was also demonstrated that MPEE had no effect on the response latency time to the heat stimulus in the thermal model of the hot-plate test. In addition, the antinociception produced by MPEE was not blocked by naloxone. Furthermore, oral administration of MPEE did not produce any effect in motor performance of the rota-rod test and in acute toxicity study no abnormal behaviors as well as mortality were observed up to a dose level of the extract of 5 g/kg. These results indicated that MPEE at all doses investigated which did not produce any sedative and toxic effects exerted pronounce antinociceptive activity that acts peripherally in experimental animals. PMID:21274262

  17. Antinociceptive activity of Melicope ptelefolia ethanolic extract in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Mohd Padzil, Azyyati; Shaari, Khozirah; Khalid, Syamimi; Shaik Mossadeq, Wan Mastura; Mohamad, Azam Shah; Ahmad, Syahida; Akira, Ahmad; Israf, Daud; Lajis, Nordin

    2010-01-01

    Melicope ptelefolia is a medicinal herb commonly used in Malaysia to treat fever, pain, wounds, and itches. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the Melicope ptelefolia ethanolic extract (MPEE) using animal models of nociception. The antinociceptive activity of the extract was assessed using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot-plate, and formalin-induced paw licking tests. Oral administration of MPEE produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects when tested in mice and rats using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and on the second phase of the formalin-induced paw licking test, respectively. It was also demonstrated that MPEE had no effect on the response latency time to the heat stimulus in the thermal model of the hot-plate test. In addition, the antinociception produced by MPEE was not blocked by naloxone. Furthermore, oral administration of MPEE did not produce any effect in motor performance of the rota-rod test and in acute toxicity study no abnormal behaviors as well as mortality were observed up to a dose level of the extract of 5 g/kg. These results indicated that MPEE at all doses investigated which did not produce any sedative and toxic effects exerted pronounce antinociceptive activity that acts peripherally in experimental animals. PMID:21274262

  18. Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

    2014-02-15

    Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. PMID:24128509

  19. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate. PMID:26976217

  20. Antioxidative and prooxidative effects in food lipids and synergism with α-tocopherol of açaí seed extracts and grape rachis extracts.

    PubMed

    Melo, Priscilla Siqueira; Arrivetti, Leandro de Oliveira Rodrigues; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Skibsted, Leif H

    2016-12-15

    Extracts of açaí seed and of grape rachis alone or in combination with α-tocopherol were evaluated as antioxidants in (i) bulk soybean oil, (ii) soybean oil liposomes and (iii) soybean-oil/water emulsions. The extracts made with 57% aqueous ethanol showed an antioxidant activity not dependent on concentration for grape rachis extracts and a concentration-dependent prooxidative activity for açaí seed extracts in bulk soybean oil. Both the extracts, however, protected liposome suspensions and oil/water emulsions against lipid oxidation. Synergism was demonstrated when extracts were combined with α-tocopherol, effects explained by the solubility of extract components in the water-phase and of α-tocopherol in the lipid-phase. Phenolic profiling of the extracts by U-HPLC-ESI-LTQ-MS was used to identify active antioxidants. Açaí seed and grape rachis extracts served as good sources of procyanidins and flavan-3-ols, imparted high antioxidant activity especially when combined with α-tocopherol and are suggested for protection of food oil/water emulsions. PMID:27451202

  1. Antiulcerogenic effect of Securigera securidaca L. seed extract on various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats.

    PubMed

    Mard, S A; Bahari, Z; Eshaghi, N; Farbood, Y

    2008-12-01

    Securigera securidaca belongs to the family Fabaceae is used in Iranian folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the Securigera securidaca seed hydroalcoholic extract (SSE) and its subfractions for their gastroprotective effect in rat. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of ethanol (100%; 1 mL/200 g of body weight) or water immersion restraint-stress (5 h, water immersion restraint stress at 20-22 degrees C). Ranitidine (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) was used as the reference antiulcer drug. After ethanol administration, the gastric wall mucus was examined. Chronic gastric ulceration was produced by injection of acetic acid in rat gastric subserosa. The antisecretory effect of the extract and its subfractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and aqueous fractions) were investigated in pylorus-ligated rats. Administration of SSE significantly inhibited gastric mucosa damage induced by ethanol, water immersion restraint-stress and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. In pylorus ligature rats, SSE and its subfractions significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion and total acidity; moreover, it inhibited the increase in total acidity induced by carbachol. However, the antisecretory effect of the chloroform fraction was more potent than two other fractions. Administration of SSE did not affect the gastric mucus production. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the SSE has gastroprotective and antisecretory effects on gastric mucosa in rats. PMID:19630213

  2. Extraction of proteins from pennycress seeds and press cake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to more fully utilize pennycress, a potentially viable bio-diesel source, the proteinaceous components were extracted from pennycress seed and press cake. The amino acid composition of the proteins present in pennycress was typical for proteins derived from plants, with glycine, glutamic ac...

  3. Immunomodulatory and antitumor activity of Aerva lanata ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Siveen, K S; Kuttan, Girija

    2011-09-01

    Cancer is responsible for millions of deaths each year worldwide. Pharmacological intervention with plant-derived products alone or in combination to reverse, suppress, or prevent the cancer progression plays a key role in the fight against this terrible disease. Aerva lanata is an important medicinal plant widely used in traditional systems of medicine like ayurveda and siddha. Ethanolic extract of whole plant of A. lanata exhibited immunomodulatory and antitumor activity. Intraperitoneal administration of five doses of the extract (10 mg/kg body weight) was found to enhance the total WBC count (14,238 cells/mm(3)), bone marrow cellularity (22.33 × 10(6) cells/femur), and number of α-esterase-positive cells (1276 cells/4000 cells). Aerva treatment also showed enhanced proliferation of splenocytes, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells both in the presence and absence of specific mitogens in vitro and in vivo. The number of plaque-forming cells (PFC) in spleen (243.33 PFC/10(6) spleen cells) and circulating antibody titer were also increased (P < 0.001). The extract was 100% cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. It was also found to be cytotoxic toward L929 and HELA cells at higher concentrations, whereas the nontoxic concentrations produced a reduction in the rate of proliferation. Simultaneous administration of five doses of A. lanata extract could produce significant inhibition in DLA-induced solid tumor development in mice and increase the life span of mice-bearing EAC tumors by 53.47%. PMID:20979430

  4. Nanoemulsion of ethanolic extracts of propolis and its antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauludin, R.; Primaviri, D. S.; Fidrianny, I.

    2015-09-01

    Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical and prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity but has very small solubility in water thus was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). EEP contains steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerin; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparent, had particle size of 23.72 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25°C and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced around 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0.

  5. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    PubMed

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88 % of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60 °C, 80 % ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (dw), 25.0 mg quercetin equiv./100 g dw and 28.6 % DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95 % confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26139905

  6. Antitussive activity of ethanolic extract of Curcuma aromatica rhizomes on sulfur dioxide induced cough in mice

    PubMed Central

    Marina, G.D.; Kekuda, T.R Prashith; Sudarshan, S.J

    2008-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Curcuma aromatica (Zingiberaceae) was investigated for its antitussive effect on Sulfur dioxide induced cough model in mice. The extract exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependant manner. The activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent codeine phosphate. The ethanolic extract at the dose of lOOmg. 200mg and 400mg/kg body weight, po, showed 68%, 74% and 79% of inhibition of cough with respect to control group. PMID:22557276

  7. Studies on the mechanism of efficient extraction of tea components by aqueous ethanol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ci-Jie; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Lu, Jian-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Effect of solvent on the extraction yield and its relevant mechanism have been studied in this paper. Compared with extraction by water, catechins and caffeine could be easily extracted from green tea by aqueous ethanol, but hardly at all by absolute ethanol. Results of the vacuum-assisted extraction, solubility determination of EGCG and caffeine, as well as swelling ratio analysis of the infused leaves, indicated that an excellent leaf-matrix-swelling effect and high solubility of tea components might be the key mechanisms for high extraction efficiency by the aqueous ethanol. These mechanisms were further confirmed by the pre-swelling extraction. This is a first report on the mechanism of efficient extraction by aqueous organic solvent. Application of pre-swelling extraction is also discussed. PMID:26471560

  8. Toxicity of anthraquinones: differential effects of rumex seed extracts on rat organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Ismayil, Ilyar; Yan, Ming; Kadir, Mahsutjan; Abdugheny, Abdujilil; Rapkat, Haximjan; Niyaz, Mardan; Ali, Yusupjan; Abay, Sirapil

    2015-05-01

    The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15 days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy. PMID:25753342

  9. Bioactivity of non-edible oil seed extracts and purified extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pushpa; Joseph, Mary; Tungikar, Vijay; Joshi, Swati

    2004-01-01

    Extracts and purified extracts of seeds of two plant species, Madhuca latifolia and Calophyllum inophyllum when evaluated against the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera reared on synthetic diet, exhibited high larval mortality, prolongation of developmental period, morphological deformities and highly significant reduction in adult emergence. The reduction in larval weights in the treatments was also highly significant. PMID:15274488

  10. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.).

    PubMed

    Howlader, Md Amran; Alam, Mahmudul; Ahmed, Kh Tanvir; Khatun, Farjana; Apu, Apurba Sarker

    2011-10-01

    The ethanol leaf extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) was evaluated for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) body weight, exerted the analgesic activity by observing the number of abdominal contractions and anti-inflammatory activity against Carrageenin induced paw edema in mice by measuring the paw volume. The ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of percentage of writhing of 33.57 and 61.31% at 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) oral dose, respectively, when compared to negative control. The Ethanolic plant extract also showed significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent reduction of mean increase of formation of paw edema. The results of the experiment and its statistical analysis showed that the ethanolic plant extract had shown significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities when compared to the control. PMID:22518936

  11. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Cha, Hae-Sim; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM) on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE)/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA-) induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC-) γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK). These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis. PMID:26981139

  12. Antioxidation and antiglycation of Fagopyrum tataricum ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Ying-Jang

    2015-02-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of 75 % ethanol extract of buckwheat (EEB) and rutin on carbohydrate-metabolized enzymes, including α-amylase and α-glucosidase, which are related to hyperglycemia. The rutin dosage (40 μg/mL) was equivalent to that of EEB (200 μg/mL). In addition, the antioxidant and antiglycation activities of EEB and rutin were investigated. Results showed that both EEB and rutin exerted free radical (DPPH and ABTS) scavenging activity. They also attenuated protein glycation to lower the generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) through the suppression of fructosamine and α-dicarbonyl compounds. Moreover, EEB and rutin also inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that EEB and rutin may reduce oxidative stress, AGEs formation, and carbohydrate-metabolized enzymes hence EEB may use as protection agent in diabetic patients. PMID:25694726

  13. Antioxidant activity of oils extracted from orange (Citrus sinensis) seeds.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Neuza; Silva, Ana Carolina da; Aranha, Caroline P M

    2016-05-31

    Due to the increasing production of food in the world with consequent increase of the production of waste, the importance of developing researches for its use is noticed. Thus, the interest in vegetable oils with bioactive compounds, such as the ones extracted from fruit seeds, is growing. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the oils extracted from seeds of Hamlin, Natal, Pera-rio and Valencia orange varieties (Citrus sinensis), as to the levels of total carotenoids, total phenolic compounds, tocopherols and phytosterols, as well as to determine their antioxidant activity. The orange seed oils presented important content of total carotenoids (19.01 mg/kg), total phenolic compounds (4.43 g/kg), α-tocopherol (135.65 mg/kg) and phytosterols (1304.2 mg/kg). The antioxidant activity ranged from 56.0% (Natal) to 70.2% (Pera-rio). According to the results it is possible to conclude that the orange seed oils can be used as specialty oils in diet, since they contain considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidants. PMID:27254458

  14. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  15. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  16. In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 μg/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal. PMID:21031260

  17. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  18. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7 W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40 °C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry. PMID:26964955

  19. Cytotoxic Effects of the Ethanol Bane Skin Extract in Human Prostate Cancer Pc3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Maryam; Kazerouni, Faranak; Namaki, Saeed; Darbandi Tamijani, Hassan; Rahimipour, Hooman; Boroumand, Nasrin; Barghi, Siyamak; Ebrahimi, Nazanin; Gheibi Hayat, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is extensively supposed that vegetarian diet could affect cancer progress and increase the influence of formal chemotherapy. Objectives: The present study was designed to determine the effect of the ethanol Bane skin extract against chemo resistant prostate cancer PC3 cells. Materials and Methods: PC3 and L929 cells were cultivated and then incubated in the ethanol Bane skin extract with various concentrations of 0.78, 1.5, 3.13, 6.25, 12.5 mg/mL in 3 times 24, 48, 72 hours. Cytotoxic effect of the ethanol Bane skin extract on PC3 and L929 cells was examined by MTT assay after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Morphology of PC3 cells was evaluated by Gimsa staining. Results: The ethanol Bane skin extract inhibited proliferation and caused cell death with IC50 values of 2.8 mg/mL on PC3 cells and the IC50 was 6.1 mg/mL on l929 cells. Morphological changes and apoptotic bodies were observed in PC3 cells faced with the ethanol Bane skin extract by staining with Gimsa. Conclusions: The ethanol Bane skin extract could repress the growth of PC3 cell line. This inhibitory effect of the Bane extract depended on the dose and the time on PC3. The result of this study shows that the ethanol Bane skin extract includes photochemical and inhibitory function against proliferation and inducer of apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC3 cells and also has less cytotoxic effect on l929 than PC3 cells. The ethanol Bane skin extract might be a good candidate for the new herbal anticancer drug. PMID:27482333

  20. Antioxidant extraction from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal using high-intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Dubie, Jeremiah; Stancik, Aaron; Morra, Matthew; Nindo, Caleb

    2013-04-01

    Brassicaceae oilseeds provide feedstocks for the biofuels industry, but value-added coproducts are necessary to supply financial incentives for increased production. Our objective was to use high-intensity ultrasound to optimize extraction of antioxidants from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables included temperature, solvent-to-material ratio, sonication duration, and EtOH concentration. Extracts were analyzed for total phenolics content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and sinapine content. Conventional extraction using water and 70% EtOH (v/v) at 80 °C for 3×30 min yielded 7.83 ± 0.07 and 8.81 ± 0.17 mg sinapic acid equivalents (SAE)/g meal, respectively. UAE extraction at 40 °C for 30 min yielded similar phenolics content (8.85 ± 0.33 mg SAE/g meal) as conventional hot ethanolic extraction, but required less time and lower temperature. The highest TPC (13.79 ± 0.38 mg SAE/g meal) was in the 7-d aqueous extracts. Sonicated solutions of pure sinapine and sinapic acid showed 1st-order reaction kinetics with greater degradation of isolated compounds than those present in extracts. Sinapine contained in extracts showed insignificant (P < 0.05) degradation after 30 min of sonication. Our research indicates that ultrasound treatment can assist the extraction of antioxidants from B. juncea meal by reducing both the temperature and time requirement without significant degradation of the primary antioxidants present. PMID:23488824

  1. Efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract in Reducing Metabolic and Inflammatory Alterations Associated With Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Abedinzade, Mahmood; Nasri, Sima; Jamal Omodi, Masome; Ghasemi, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several experimental and clinical studies support beneficial effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) in the management of metabolic diseases and inflammatory disorders. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of T. foenum-graecum seed extract in reducing the metabolic and inflammatory alternations associated with menopause. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 49 rats were divided into seven groups: (I) sham-control, (II) ovariectomized-control, (III and IV) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum seed ethanolic extract, (V and VI) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum hexanic extract, (VII) ovariectomized-positive control treated with 10 µg/kg of estradiol. The extracts were injected intraperitoneally one day after ovariectomy and the treatments were lasted for 42 days. Results: Fasting blood glucose and body weight gain increased significantly in the ovariectomized-control group compared with that in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Administration of estradiol and T. foenum-graecum (50 and 150 mg/dL of hexanic extract and 150 mg/kg of ethanolic extract) significantly diminished the increase in glucose and body weight (P < 0.05). The serum level of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the ovariectomized control group was significantly higher than those in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Both hexanic and ethanolic extracts as well as estradiol were able to decrease level of these cytokines in the serum of ovariectomized rats (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study show that administration of T. foenum-graecum corrects metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with ovariectomy and has a potential for the management of menopause. PMID:26732240

  2. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Francisco Segovia; Sánchez, Sara Peiró; Gallego Iradi, Maria Gabriela; Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill) has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed) is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM), the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC) and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC). In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), were analyzed. The RSM model has an R2 of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%. PMID:26784880

  3. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Francisco Segovia; Sánchez, Sara Peiró; Iradi, Maria Gabriela Gallego; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill) has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed) is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM), the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC) and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC). In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), were analyzed. The RSM model has an R² of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%. PMID:26784880

  4. A preliminary study of the mechanism of hypoglycaemic activity of Nauclea latifolia leaf ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Gidado, Abubakar; Ameh, Danladi A; Atawodi, Sunday E; Ibrahim, Sani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the possible underlying mechanism of the hypoglycaemic activity of the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia leaves in rats. The extract, glibenclamide or water was administered orally in a glucose, sucrose and maltose tolerance tests. In addition, the effect of the extract on α-glucosidase enzymes was also studied. The ethanolic extract at 200mg/kg body weight inhibited the increase in glucose level after both oral and intraperitoneal glucose loads as did glibenclamide. The extract also dose dependently inhibited both maltase and sucrase activities in vitro but not in vivo. The hypoglycaemic effect of N. latifolia leaf ethanolic extract thus appears to be most probably exerted through a mechanism similar to that of glibenclamide which is related to increased insulin release from pancreatic β-cells. PMID:22944715

  5. Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts of Propolis on Alpha-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcheng; Wang, Guangxin; Beta, Trust; Dong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of various extracts of propolis on alpha-glucosidase from baker's yeast and mammalian intestine. Inhibitory activities of aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis were determined by using 4-nitrophenyl-D-glucopyranoside, sucrose and maltose as substrates, and acarbose as a positive reference. All extracts were significantly effective in inhibiting α-glucosidase from baker's yeast and rat intestinal sucrase in comparison with acarbose (P < 0.05). The 75% ethanol extracts of propolis (75% EEP) showed the highest inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase and sucrase and were a noncompetitive inhibition mode. 50% EEP, 95%, EEP and 100% EEP exhibited a mixed inhibition mode, while water extracts of propolis (WEP) and 25% EEP demonstrated a competitive inhibition mode. Furthermore, WEP presented the highest inhibitory activity against maltase. These results suggest that aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis may be used as nutraceuticals for the regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25767553

  6. Antiulcer activity of ethanol leaf extract of Cassia fistula.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Sivanesan; Gobianand, Kuppannan

    2010-08-01

    The ethanol leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula Linn. (Caesalpinaceae) was evaluated for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. Ranitidine (30 mg/kg b.w.) and ELE at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.w. were administered orally in different groups of rats (n = 6), 1 h prior to pyloric ligation. Four hours after pyloric ligation, the gastric juice was collected for evaluation of various parameters. The antiulcer activity of ELE was evidenced by the significant attenuation of gastric volume, pH, free acidity, and total acidity in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats in a dose-dependent manner, and this protective effect could be due to strengthening of the mucosal defense mechanism. ELE pre-treatment significantly attenuated the fall in status of sialic acid and fucose accompanied by an increase in hexose, hexosamine, total non-amino polysaccharide, total carbohydrate, and C:P ratio in the gastric juice of pylorus-ligated rats, and this effect could be due to protection of the mucosal barrier system. ELE pre-treatment significantly prevented the increase in LPO and SOD accompanied by a fall in CAT, in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats. This protective ability of ELE against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Higher doses of ELE (750 mg/kg b.w.) produced maximum antiulcer activity comparable to ranitidine treatment. In essence, the antiulcer activity of ELE could be attributed to (i) a decrease in gastric acid secretion, (ii) protection of the mucosal barrier and restoration of mucosal secretions, (iii) inhibition of free radical generation or prevention of lipid peroxidation, and (iv) free radical scavenging or antioxidant properties. PMID:20673173

  7. Effects of fenugreek seed extract in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Handa, Toshiaki; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Sono, Yoshikatsu; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2005-06-01

    It was found that fenugreek seed extract reduced the body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet in obese mice. The extract decreased plasma triglyceride gain induced by oil administration. The major component of the extract, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, also decreased plasma triglyceride gain. Consequently, fenugreek seed extract is expected to prevent the obesity induced by a high-fat diet. PMID:15973051

  8. Anthelmintic effects of citrus peels ethanolic extracts against Ascaridia galli.

    PubMed

    Abdelqader, Anas; Qarallah, Bassam; Al-Ramamneh, Diya; Daş, Gürbüz

    2012-08-13

    The use of phytogenic bioactive compounds to control poultry helminthes is increasing in different production systems. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of citrus peels against Ascaridia galli was investigated. Ethanolic extracts of three citrus peels species were suspended in 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to form an experimental composition (EC). EC was mainly composed of Limonene (96%), followed by β-Pinene (1.5%), α-Pinene (0.5%), and Sabinene (0.3%). For in vitro investigation, adult A. galli worms (n=225) were collected from naturally infected chickens and distributed to 3 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were exposed to Fenbendazole (0.5mg/ml), EC (50mg/ml), and 0.5% DMSO, respectively. For in vivo investigation, 200 Lohmann Selected Leghorns chicks were infected at 1-day old with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs. At 6 weeks of age, 150 A. galli infected birds were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were treated with 300, 600, and 1200 mg EC kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Group 4 was treated with Fenbendazole (50 mg kg(-1)). Group 5 was left as control. Birds were euthanized 2-weeks post-treatment, and all worms were collected from their intestines. EC possessed significant (P<0.001) in vitro anthelmintic properties on live worms. No significant (P>0.05) difference was quantified between number of motile worms exposed either to EC or Fenbendazole 7h post-exposure. A significant (P<0.0001) reduction in fecal egg count was observed 14 days post-treatment with 1200 mg kg(-1) EC. No significant differences were observed in worm burden of the 300 mg EC-treated group compared to the controls. In contrast, the 600 and 1200 mg EC-treated groups showed significant (P<0.0001) reduction in worm burden. Fenbendazole was the most effective in reducing A. galli burden (Efficacy=97%) followed by 1200 mg EC kg(-1) (68%), 600 mg EC kg(-1) (66%), and 300 mg EC kg(-1) (5%). It is concluded that citrus peels extracts have potential

  9. Feasibility of incorporating cotton seed extract in Clostridium strain P11 fermentation medium during synthesis gas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kundiyana, Dimple K; Huhnke, Raymond L; Maddipati, Prasanth; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R

    2010-12-01

    Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. To make this process more economical, the complexity of media should be reduced while using less costly components. In this study, the feasibility of incorporating cotton seed extract (CSE) as a media component for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was evaluated. A factorial experiment was conducted to screen and evaluate the effect of different media components, in relation to CSE, on ethanol production. Also, different CSE concentrations as well as the presence of MES buffer were tested to determine their effect on ethanol production. Bottle fermentations with media containing only 1.0 gL(-1) CSE produced more ethanol after 15 d (1.17 gL(-1)) than fermentation using any other media. Further bottle experiments showed that media containing only 0.5 gL(-1) CSE produced more ethanol after 15 days (2.67 gL(-1)) than a control media (0.6 gL(-1)) and media containing only 1.0 gL(-1) CSE (2.16 gL(-1)). Fermentations in 5- and 7.5-L stirred fermentors with 0.5 gL(-1) CSE media achieved ethanol concentrations similar to those observed in bottle studies. These results indicate that CSE can replace all the vitamin and mineral media components generally used for fermentation of syngas to ethanol by Clostridium strain P11, thereby improving the process economics. PMID:20696571

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae) is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2 g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100 mg/kg). Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200 mg/kg body weight and 400 mg/kg body weight) had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol‒induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:22607721

  11. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents. PMID:25183127

  12. Optimization of the Ethanol Recycling Reflux Extraction Process for Saponins Using a Design Space Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79–82%, extraction time of 6.1–7.1 h, and RES of 0.039–0.040 min−1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met. PMID:25470598

  13. In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bert.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; Bajpai, Vivek K; Shukla, Savita

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana as a natural antioxidant. The DPPH activity of the extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200 microg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 36.93-68.76% as compared to ascorbic acid 64.26-82.58%. The IC(50) values of ethanolic extract and ascorbic acid in DPPH radical scavenging assay were obtained to be 93.46 and 26.75 microg/ml, respectively. The ethanolic extract was also found to scavenge the superoxide generated by EDTA/NBT system. Measurement of total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract of S. rebaudiana was achieved using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent containing 61.50 mg/g of phenolic content, which was found significantly higher when compared to reference standard gallic acid. The ethanolic extract also inhibited the hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, superoxide anions with IC(50) values of 93.46, 132.05 and 81.08 microg/ml, respectively. However, the IC(50) values for the standard ascorbic acid were noted to be 26.75, 66.01 and 71.41 microg/ml respectively. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that S. rebaudiana has a significant potential to use as a natural antioxidant agent. PMID:19540900

  14. A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes.

    PubMed

    Ramavandi, Bahman; Hashemi, Seyedenayat; Kafaei, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1-3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na(+) and K(+)), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: •According to the Hardy-Schulze rule, we applied the Fe(3+) ions instead of Na(+) and K(+) for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds.•The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction).•Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes. PMID:26150999

  15. A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes

    PubMed Central

    Ramavandi, Bahman; Hashemi, Seyedenayat; Kafaei, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1], [2], [3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na+ and K+), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: • According to the Hardy–Schulze rule, we applied the Fe3+ ions instead of Na+ and K+ for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds. • The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction). • Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes. PMID:26150999

  16. Apparatus to Measure Ethanol Extraction Rates During Supercritical Carbon Dioxide-Based Drying of Alcogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Drew

    An important and time consuming portion of the manufacturing of aerogel insulation is the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction step. An improved understanding of its kinetics is likely to reduce the time and energy required to dry alcogels and thus make aerogel insulation more economically feasible. A supercritical CO2 extraction apparatus was designed, constructed, and characterized. Then the rate of ethanol removal from a 220 mm tall x 46.2 mm inner diameter x 5 mm thick annulus of alcogel as a function of time was measured. Three independent techniques to track the mass fraction of ethanol in the effluent were considered. First, an IR-based sensor was used to directly measure it. Secondly, an equation of state for the CO2 + ethanol system to compute mass fraction of ethanol as a function of temperature, pressure and density was utilized to extract mass fraction from effluent densities measured by a Coriolis flowmeter. Lastly, the ethanol in the effluent stream was condensed into a graduated cylinder mounted on a laboratory scale. The apparatus allows for control of the thickness of the (annular geometry) channel for carbon dioxide flow surrounding the alcogel in addition to pressure, temperature, and mass flow rate of carbon dioxide. The experimental results highlight the impact of carbon dioxide mass flow rate on ethanol removal rate and overall drying time. The apparatus can be used to collect benchmark data for the extraction process and those data may then be compared to predictions from various models of the extraction process. Additionally, the rig was modified for density measurements of the CO2 + ethanol binary system as a function of mixture composition, temperature, and pressure in order to develop higher accuracy equations of state for the CO2 + ethanol system.

  17. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Emily R.; Oberhofer, Martina; Leyte-Lugo, Martha; Moody, Ashley N.; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Grubbs, Laura F.; Juzumaite, Monika; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Faeth, Stanley H.; Laster, Scott M.; Cech, Nadja B.

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can originate from endophytic

  18. The Comparative Analysis of Antioxidant and Biological Activity for the Dendropanax morbifera LEV. Leaves Extracted by Different Ethanol Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masaya; Ra, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The different concentrations of ethanol (20-100%) and distilled water extract for Dendropanax morbifera LEV. leaves were evaluated to induce antioxidant and biological activity employed by variety of assays. The 20%, 80%, and 100% ethanol extract demonstrated the relatively higher activity, whereas distilled water, 40%, and 60% ethanol extracts exhibited the lower antioxidant and biological activity. Especially, 80% ethanol extract showed the remarkably higher radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenol and flavonoid content, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Also, 100% ethanol extract exhibited relatively greater activity, but there did not show significant radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, there were 50% and 30% promotion effect for ADH activity assay and 80% and 40% promotion effect for ALDH activity assay in 80% and 100% ethanol extract, respectively. In addition, in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), all extracts except for distilled water extract inhibited Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Escherichia coli. For Pichia jadinii, whole extracts effectively inhibited yeast multiplication at concentration of 125 μg/mL for 100% ethanol extract and 250 μg/mL for the rest of extract. These result indicated that D. morbifera LEV. leaves extracted by 80% ethanol would be the ideal extracting solution to maximize inherent antioxidant and biological activity agent. PMID:27592831

  19. Acute and Cytotoxicity Studies of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Chromolaena odorata.

    PubMed

    Asomugha, R N; Ezejiofor, A N; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I

    2015-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata, a commonly used traditional remedy for different ailments, believed to be quite safe in terms of toxicity was evaluated for acute toxicity and cytotoxic potentials. Acute toxicity was done on albino Wistar rats using the Lorke method while brine shrimps were used to test for cytotoxicity. The results showed that the estimated LD50 for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 2154 and > 5000 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Cytotoxicity to brine shrimps showed LC50 values of 324 and 392 ppm for aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. These results indicate the relative non toxic nature of Chromolaena odorata extracts. PMID:26353417

  20. Extraction of certain elements from aqueous methanol, ethanol and acetone by tridodecylamine and tributyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Sanad, W; Khalifa, H

    1968-02-01

    The extraction of silver, mercury, selenium, zinc, cobalt and iron with tridodecylamine (TDA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) from hydrochloric acid solutions in aqueous methanol, ethanol and acetone is reported. The presence of these additives increases extraction for some elements and decreases it for others. The effect is generally greater with TDA than with TBP. PMID:18960287

  1. Sorghum Protein Extraction by Sonication and Its Relationship to Ethanol Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research were to develop a rapid method for extracting proteins from mashed and non-mashed sorghum meal using sonication (ultrasound), and to determine the relationships between the levels of extractable proteins and ethanol fermentation. Nine grain sorghum samples with a bro...

  2. Wheat proteins extracted from flour and batter with aqueous ethanol at subambient temperatures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contact of wheat flour proteins with aqueous ethanol may enrich protein by starch displacement and/or deplete protein by extraction depending (1) on the concentration and temperature of the applied solvent and (2) the form of the contacted substrate. Generally, extraction at sub-ambient temperatures...

  3. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of nitrophenol using biologically active Phyllanthus emblica seed extract.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Murugesan; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Selvaraj, Chinnadurai Immanuel

    2016-08-01

    The present study deals about the vicinity of phytochemicals present in the Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) seed extract. The bio-active compounds present in the methanolic seed extract have been identified using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS)·The antioxidant activity of P. emblica seed extract was evaluated using assistance of DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The determination of total phenol and flavonoid substance were contemplated. Further blood clot lysis activity was also done to check the percentage of clot lysis in methanolic seed extract. The result proved that seed extract has potential application. The GCMS results of P. emblica suggest that Octyl-β-d-Glucopyranoside is present in major quantity. The work has been designed towards the degradation of 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol using P. emblica methanolic seed extract. The progress of nitrophenol degradation has been observed in UV-visible spectroscopy. At 5min duration, the 4-nitrophenol has been degraded up to 82.42%. This may be due to the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, carbohydrate and phenols in the P. emblica seed extract. The seed extract showed good scavenging activity which resulted in IC50 value of 85.92μg/mL. The total phenol and flavonoid content present in the extract were 48.242 and 12.72mg/mL. Also the seed extract showed good lysis when compared to the standard streptokinase. PMID:27288657

  5. Anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of Terminaliapallida Brandis. in Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Manikandan, L; Bhattacharya, S; Senthilkumar, G P; Suresh, R

    2005-02-28

    Ethanol extract of Terminalia pallida Brandis. (EETP) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against various models of ulcers, such as drug-induced ulcers, histamine-induced ulcers and ethanol-induced ulcers in Swiss albino rats. The EETP at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per os (p.o.) exhibited significant protection against ulcers produced by indomethacin, histamine and the effect was comparable to that of the reference drug famotidine (30 mg/kg b.w) orally. The extract also afforded significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Meanwhile, EETP significantly lowered the elevated lipid peroxide level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and restored the altered glutathione level in ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. The present investigation revealed that the EETP exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa, thereby reducing mucosal damage. PMID:15707782

  6. Antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Encholirium spectabile Mart. ex Schult & Schult f. (Bromeliaceae) in rodents.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Katharinne I Moraes; Fernandes, Hélio B; Machado, Flávia D Frota; Oliveira, Irisdalva S; Oliveira, Francisco A; Nunes, Paulo Humberto M; Lima, Julianeli T; Almeida, Jackson R G Silva; Oliveira, Rita C Meneses

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the antiulcer activity of an ethanolic extract of Encholirium spectabile (ES-EtOH) by using different standard experimental models of induced acute gastric ulceration. ES-EtOH (100 mg/kg p.o) protected the gastric mucosa against ulceration that was induced by absolute ethanol (53%), ethanol/HCl (75%), ibuprofen (52 %) and ischemia/reperfusion (43 %). It also restored catalase activity and non-protein sulfhydryl group concentration in the gastric wall of mice that had been treated with ethanol. The pre-treatment of mice with N-nitro-L-arginine (70 mg/kg i.p.) abolished the protective activity of ES-EtOH, which indicates that prostaglandins, antioxidant compounds and nitric oxide synthase activity are involved in the gastroprotective activity of the extract. PMID:21526273

  7. Carbon Dioxide Expanded Ethanol Extraction: Solubility and Extraction Kinetics of α-Pinene and cis-Verbenol.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamimi, Said; Abellan Mayoral, Alícia; Cunico, Larissa P; Turner, Charlotta

    2016-04-19

    In general, diffusion rates in extractions are enhanced by increasing the temperature. In this study, we instead add compressed liquid carbon dioxide to the extraction phase to accomplish faster mass transfer. The feasibility of using carbon dioxide expanded ethanol (CXE) as the extraction phase was explored, targeting two medium-polar analytes, α-pinene and cis-verbenol in Boswellia sacra tree resin. Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) were first calculated for the analytes and the extraction phases investigated, ethanol, CXE, and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) containing ethanol as a cosolvent. Second, an extraction method with CXE as the extraction phase was optimized using a Box Behnken design, giving optimal conditions of 40 °C, 9.3 MPa, and 0.31 molar fraction of CO2 in ethanol. Third, the developed method was compared with a supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method and a conventional solid liquid extraction (SLE) method, showing that CXE enables faster and more efficient extraction than both SFE and SLE. In fact, calculations based on Peleg's equation showed that the initial extraction rate of the new method is up to 10 times faster than SFE when using the highest flow rate tested, 3 mL/min. It was also discovered that it is crucial to cool the makeup solvent in the collection system for efficient analyte collection, at least in modern SFE equipment where pressure is regulated by a backpressure regulator. The use of CXE and pertinently also other CO2-expanded liquids in sample preparation shows a great potential in terms of increasing the extraction rate without elevating the temperature. PMID:27002237

  8. Application of carboxyphenylboronic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for extracting nucleic acid from seeds.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Ge, Guanglu; Xia, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA-MNPs) were developed for extracting genomic DNA, total RNA and nucleic acids from seeds. The seed samples were genetically-modified maize seeds and unmodified soybean seeds infected by bean pod mottle virus and tobacco ringspot virus. The total nucleic acids, genomic DNA, and RNA could be separately extracted from these seeds with high qualities using CPBA-MNPs under different conditions. Furthermore, the results of real-time quantitative qPCR and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the nucleic acids extracted from these seeds using CPBA-MNPs were suitable for the detection of genetically-modified seeds and seed-borne viruses. PMID:25214223

  9. Unpolluted fractionation of wheat straw by steam explosion and ethanol extraction.

    PubMed

    Hongzhang, Chen; Liying, Liu

    2007-02-01

    An unpolluted process of wheat straw fractionation by steam explosion coupled with ethanol extraction was studied. The wheat straw was steam exploded for 4.5 min with moisture of 34.01%, a pressure of 1.5 MPa without acid or alkali. Hemicellulose sugars were recovered by water countercurrent extraction and decolored with chelating ion exchange resin D412. The gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis results indicated that there were organic acids in the hemicellulose sugars and the ratio of monosaccharides to oligosaccharides was 1:9 and the main component, xylose, was 85.9% in content. The total recovery rate of hemicellulose was 80%. Water washed materials were subsequently extracted with ethanol. The optimum extraction conditions in this work were 40% ethanol, fiber/liquor ratio 1:50 (w/v), severity log(R)=3.657 (180 degrees C for 20 min), 0.1% NaOH. The lignin yield was 75% by acid precipitation and 85% ethanol solvent was recovered. The lignin was purified using Björkman method. Infrared spectrometry (IR) results indicated that the lignin belonged to GSH (guaiacyl (G) syringyl (S) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H)) lignin and its purity rate reached 85.3%. The cellulose recovery rate was 94% and the results of electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and infrared spectrometry (IR) showed that hemicellulose and lignin content decreased after steam explosion and ethanol extraction. PMID:16574408

  10. Inhibition of heterocyclic amine formation in beef patties by ethanolic extracts of rosemary.

    PubMed

    Puangsombat, Kanithaporn; Smith, J Scott

    2010-03-01

    Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are mutagenic compounds formed during cooking muscle foods at high temperature. Inhibition of HCAs by rosemary extracts were evaluated with beef patties cooked at 191 degrees C (375 degrees F) for 6 min each side and 204 degrees C (400 degrees F) for 5 min each side. Five rosemary extracts extracted with different solvents were used in this study: extract 100W (100% water), 10E (10% ethanol), 20E (20% ethanol), 30E (30% ethanol), and 40E (40% ethanol). The 5 extracts were directly added to beef patties at 3 levels (0.05%, 0.2%, and 0.5%) before cooking and HCA contents were extracted and quantified. All of the patties contained 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). There was no statistical difference in the inhibition of HCAs in the 0.05%, 0.2%, and 0.5% rosemary extracts. All rosemary extracts significantly decreased the levels of MeIQx and PhIP at both cooking conditions. When cooking at 204 degrees C (400 degrees F) for 5 min each side, rosemary extracts 10E and 20E were superior to rosemary extracts 100W, 30E, and 40E in inhibiting HCA formation. Rosemary extract 20E showed the greatest inhibition of MeIQx (up to 91.7%) and PhIP (up to 85.3%). The inhibiting effect of rosemary extracts on HCA formation corresponded to their antioxidant activity based on a DPPH scavenging assay. Rosemary extract 10E and 20E contain a mixture of rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid. It is possible that these compounds might act synergistically in inhibiting the formation of HCAs. PMID:20492265

  11. In vitro antibacterial potential of Eugenia jambolana seed extracts against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bag, Anwesa; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Pal, Nishith Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

    2012-06-20

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible in vitro antibacterial potential of extracts of Eugenia jambolana seeds against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens. Agar well diffusion and microbroth dilution assay methods were used for antibacterial susceptibility testing. Kill-kinetics study was done to know the rate and extent of bacterial killing. Phytochemical analysis and TLC-bioautography were performed by colour tests to characterize the putative compounds responsible for this antibacterial activity. Cytotoxic potential was evaluated on human erythrocytes by haemolytic assay method and acute oral toxicity study was done in mice. The plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of strain specific antibacterial activity against all the test isolates. Further, ethyl acetate fraction obtained from fractionation of most active ethanol extract showed maximum antibacterial effect against all the test isolates. Phytochemical analysis and TLC-bioautography of ethyl acetate fraction revealed that phenolics were the major active phytoconstituents. Ethyl acetate fraction also demonstrated no haemolytic activity on human erythrocytes and no gross behavioural changes as well as toxic symptoms were observed in mice at recommended dosage level. The results provide justification for the use of E. jambolana in folk medicine to treat various infectious diseases and may contribute to the development of novel antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infections caused by these drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:22444436

  12. Preclinical screening of phyllanthus amarus ethanolic extract for its analgesic and antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, S. Sham; Hegde, K. Sundeep; Chandrashekhar, Sharath; Rao, S. N.; Manikkoth, Shyamjith

    2015-01-01

    Background: To discover a new agent which possesses dual property of analgesic and antimicrobial activity, thereby reducing the burden of polypharmacy. Phyllanthus amarus was screened for its analgesic and antimicrobial activities. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the analgesic and antimicrobial activity, of P. amarus ethanolic extract (PAEE). Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of P. amarus was prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. An in vivo study using Swiss albino mice was done to screen the central and peripheral analgesic activity of P. amarus extract. The extract was administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight orally. The peripheral analgesic activity was assessed using acetic acid induced writhing test. The central analgesic activity was assessed using Eddy's hot plate apparatus. An in vitro study was carried out to study the antimicrobial activity of the above extract using selected species of Streptococcus mutans, and S. salivarius. The antimicrobial activities were determined using the agar well method. Results: The ethanolic extract of P. amarus showed significant (P < 0.05) peripheral and central analgesic activity. In vitro antimicrobial screening indicated that the ethanolic extract had shown a zone of inhibition against S. mutans and S. salivarius in the agar wells. Conclusion: This study showed that PAEE exhibited significant analgesic and antimicrobial activities. PMID:26692753

  13. Inhibitory effect of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts on melanin synthesis via repression of tyrosinase expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Chen, Chun-Hao; Yu, Chih-Wen; Chen, Hsiao Ling; Huang, Wei-Tung; Chang, Yun-Shiang; Hung, Shu-Hsien; Lee, Tai-Lin

    2016-09-01

    Melanin contributes to skin color, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps of melanin formation. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may contribute to the control of skin hyperpigmentation. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity by Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts was previously reported. In this report, we test the hypothesis that Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira, an endemic plant to Taiwan, contains compounds that inhibit tyrosinase activity, similar to C. zeylanicum. The cytotoxicity of three sources of C. osmophloeum Kanehira ethanol extracts was measured in B16-F10 cells using a methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. At concentrations greater than 21.25 μg/mL, the ethanol extracts were toxic to the cells; therefore, 21.25 μg/mL was selected to test the tyrosinase activities. At this concentration, all three ethanol extracts decreased the melanin content by 50% in IBMX-induced B16-F10 cells. In addition to the melanin content, greater than 20% of the tyrosinase activity was inhibited by these ethanol extracts. The RT-PCR results showed that tyrosinase and transcription factor MITF mRNAs expression were down-regulated. Consistent with the mRNA results, greater than 40% of the human tyrosinase promoter activity was inhibited based on the reporter assay. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts protect cells from UV exposure. C. osmophloeum Kanehira neutralized the IBMX-induced increase in melanin content in B16-F10 cells by inhibiting tyrosinase gene expression at the level of transcription. Moreover, the ethanol extracts also partially inhibited UV-induced cell damage and prevented cell death. Taken together, we conclude that C. osmophloeum Kanehira is a potential skin-whitening and protective agent. PMID:27084445

  14. Protective action of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in gastric ulcer prevention induced by ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Guilherme Pires; de Carvalho, Nelson Rodrigues; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Portella, Rafael de Lima; da Silva, Michele Hinerasky; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Villetti, Marcos Antonio; Antunes Soares, Félix Alexandre; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2013-05-01

    The pathology of a gastric ulcer is complex and multifactorial. Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and its development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (eeRo); this plant, more commonly known as rosemary, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its numerous pharmacological properties and their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we tested the preventive effects of eeRo against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol in male Wistar rats. In addition, we aimed to clarify the mechanism involved in the preventive action of the eeRo in gastric ulcers. Based on the analysis of markers of oxidative damage and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, the measurement of nitrite and nitrate levels and the assessment of the inflammatory response, the eeRo exhibited significant antioxidant, vasodilator and antiinflammatory properties. PMID:23279841

  15. In Vivo Antioxidant and Antiulcer Activity of Parkia speciosa Ethanolic Leaf Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mazen M.; Abdualkader, Abdualrahman Mohammed; Hadi, Hamid A.; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2013-01-01

    Background The current study was carried out to examine the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Sprague Dawley rats were separated into 7 groups. Groups 1–2 were orally challenged with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC); group 3 received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and groups 4–7 received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract, respectively. After 1 h, CMC or absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2–7. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Then, the injuries to the gastric mucosa were estimated through assessment of the gastric wall mucus, the gross appearance of ulcer areas, histology, immunohistochemistry and enzymatic assays. Group 2 exhibited significant mucosal injuries, with reduced gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa, whereas reductions in mucosal injury were observed for groups 4–7. Groups 3–7 demonstrated a reversal in the decrease in Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining induced by ethanol. No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. Conclusion Treatment with the extract led to the upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Significant increases in the levels of the antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the gastric mucosal homogenate were observed, whereas that of a lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) was significantly decreased. Significance was defined as p<0.05 compared to the ulcer control group (Group 2). PMID:23724090

  16. Effect of ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp. on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Ao, Mingzhang; Jin, Wenwen

    2006-04-21

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) is a cruciferous plant from the Andes of Peru. The root of Maca is traditionally employed for its supposed properties in aphrodisiacs and improving fertility, it also has been widely used to help alleviate the symptoms of menopause. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of Maca on postmenopausal osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: Sham-operated and ovariectomized groups were fed with equivolume of distilled water, and the remaining ovariectomized groups were orally administrated with ethanol extract of Maca at 0.096 and 0.24 g/kg for 28 weeks. The findings derived from the basis of bone mineral density, biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters indicated that higher dose of ethanol extract of Maca was effective in the prevention of estrogen deficient bone loss. PMID:16466876

  17. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Choochote, Wej; Tuetun, Benjawan; Kanjanapothi, Duangta; Rattanachanpichai, Eumporn; Chaithong, Udom; Chaiwong, Prasong; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2004-12-01

    Crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens, was investigated for anti-mosquito potential, including larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue haemorrhagic fever. The ethanol-extracted A. graveolens possessed larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with LD50 and LD95 values of 81.0 and 176.8 mg/L, respectively. The abnormal movement observed in treated larvae indicated that the toxic effect of A. graveolens extract was probably on the nervous system. In testing for adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited a slightly adulticidal potency with LD50 and LD95 values of 6.6 and 66.4 mg/cm2, respectively. It showed repellency against Ae. aegypti adult females with ED50 and ED95 values of 2.03 and 28.12 mg/cm2, respectively. It also provided biting protection time of 3 h when applied at a concentration of 25 g%. Topical application of the ethanol-extracted A. graveolens did not induce dermal irritation. No adverse effects on the skin or other parts of the body of human volunteers were observed during 3 mo of the study period or in the following 3 mo, after which time observations ceased. A. graveolens, therefore, can be considered as a probable source of some biologically active compounds used in the development of mosquito control agents, particularly repellent products. PMID:15707293

  18. Effect of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Adwan, Ghaleb; Salameh, Yousef; Adwan, Kamel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium (E. elaterium) fruits alone against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains and Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains, or in combination with penicillin against Staphylococcus areus strains. Methods Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity or synergy interaction was carried out using microdilution method. Results The results showed that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and C. albicans. This extract showed a significant decrease in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin against both MRSA and MSSA strains. Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC) between penicillin and ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits against these test strains was less than 0.5. Conclusions This study suggests that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and C. albicans and there is a possibility of concurrent use of penicillin and E. elaterium extract in combination in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA and MSSA strains. A wider study is needed to identify the effective components, the mode of action and the possible toxic effect in vivo of these ingredients. PMID:23569813

  19. An efficient extraction method to enhance analysis of low abundant proteins from soybean seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of the major seed storage proteins, such as ß-conglycinin and glycinin, in soybean (Glycine max) seeds hinder the isolation and characterization of less abundant seed proteins. We investigated whether isopropanol extraction could facilitate resolution of the less abundant proteins fro...

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 °C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  1. In vitro enzyme inhibition activities of crude ethanolic extracts derived from medicinal plants of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Somia; Saeed-Ur-Rehman; Shah, Hameed Ullah; Khan, Taous; Ahmad, Manzoor

    2005-09-01

    Twenty two crude ethanolic extracts from 14 indigenous medicinal plants were subjected to enzyme inhibition screening against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and lipoxygenase enzymes (LO). Three extracts showed activity against AChE, nine extracts were found to be active against BChE and four extracts inhibited the enzyme LO. The most significant inhibition activities (> or =50%) were found in extracts derived from Aloe vera (leaves), Alpinia galanga (rhizome), Curcuma longa (rhizome), Cymbopogon citratus (leaves), Ocimum americanum (leaves), Ocimum americanum (stem) and Withania somnifera (roots). PMID:16010821

  2. Evaluation of CNS activities of ethanol extract of roots and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Dutta, Santanu; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus (EECR) was tested for possible pharmacological effects on experimental animals. EECR significantly potentiated the sleeping time of mice induced by standard hypnotics, viz. pentobarbitone sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependent manner. EECR showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. Pretreatment with EECR caused significant protection against strychnine and leptazol-induced convulsions. The behavioral studies on mice indicate CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extract of C. rotundus. PMID:19894649

  3. CNS activities of ethanol extract of aerial parts of Hygrophila difformis in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Samanta, Krishanu

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract of aerial parts of Hygrophila difformis (EEHD) was tested for possible pharmacological effects on experimental animals. EEHD significantly potentiated the sleeping time of mice induced by standard hypnotics, viz. pentobarbital sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependent manner. EEHD showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. Pretreatment with EEHD caused significant protection against strychnine and leptazol-induced convulsions. The behavioral studies on mice indicate CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extract of H. difformis. PMID:21485704

  4. Curcuma aromatica Water Extract Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastritis via Enhancement of Antioxidant Status

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Jin, Seong Eun; Ha, Hyekyung

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW) in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p < 0.01, resp.) and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p < 0.01) and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p < 0.01, resp.). CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol. PMID:26483844

  5. Liquefaction of cotton seed in sub-critical water/ethanol with modified medical stone for bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaomin; Wang, Baofeng; Zhang, Jinjun

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated thermal liquefaction of cotton seed in an autoclave. The effects of solvent (ethanol/water, water and ethanol), temperature and some additives on product distribution were investigated. The results showed that using ethanol/water as solvent could get higher total conversion. The highest liquid oil yield (38.4%) was obtained at 300°C, 2MPa and 30min in ethanol/water with Mo/MS (medical stone). The highest hydrogen content in gas also was obtained when adding Mo/MS, and then followed by that when adding Co-Mo/MS. (1)H NMR analysis indicated that the use of additives (except MS) could increase the aliphatic content in liquid oil. (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR showed that the liquefied oil from liquefaction of cotton seed mainly obtained aliphatic compounds, and adding the additives only changed the amount of compounds and did not alter the type of compounds obtained in the oil. PMID:26318931

  6. Stepwise ethanolic precipitation of sugar beet pectins from the acidic extract.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-20

    A stepwise ethanol-precipitation (SEP) procedure was developed for the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from a pectin-containing aqueous extract. Five fractions of different chemical and molecular characteristics were produced by stepwise elevating the alcohol concentration of the precipitation medium from 50% to 80% v/v. Comparison of chemical and macromolecular features between the obtained fractions indirectly suggested that the ability of pectin to solubilize in the ethanol-water binary mixture depended greatly on the polymer structure. Fractions rich in neutral sugars were precipitated at relatively high ethanol concentrations, probably due to the enhanced interactions generated between pectin side chains and solvent molecules. Furthermore, the obtained fractions displayed different surface activities. Results obtained in this work indicate that the SEP procedure is more selective with respect to pectin structural features and surface properties than the one-step ethanolic precipitation. PMID:26572361

  7. [Anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit on Ascaridia galli].

    PubMed

    Brito, Danilo R Barros; Fernandes, Rozeverter Moreno; Fernandes, Maria Zenaide de Lima C M; Ferreira, Marcos Daniel de S; Rolim, Fernanda R L; da Silva Filho, Manoel L

    2009-01-01

    The anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit (noni) was evaluated in chicken naturally infected by Ascaridia galli. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was determined in adult parasites. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were used in the following concentrations: 1.69; 3.37; 6.74; 13.48 e 26.96 mg.mL(-1) and 4.17; 8.34; 16.68; 33.36 and 66.72 mg.mL(-1), respectively. The anthelmintic activity in vivo was determined by the administration of 10 mL.kg(-1) of the aqueous (50.1 mg.mL(-1)) and ethanolic (24.6 mg.mL(-1)) extracts during three consecutive days. Later the chickens were euthanized and necropsy was performed in order to count the remaining helminths. The data were analyzed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. In the concentrations of 13.48 and 26.96 mg.mL(-1), the aqueous extract demonstrated mortality of 46.67 and 50%, respectively, there was a significative difference from the negative control (P < 0.05). The ethanolic extract presented statistical difference from the negative control (diluent) (P < 0.05) for the concentrations of 33.36 and 66.72 mg.mL(-1), expressed by a mortality rate of 66.67 and 76.67%, respectively. In the in vivo test, the aqueous extract of noni fruit showed 27.08% of elimination, deferring statistically from the control group. There was no statistical difference between the ethanolic extract treatments and the control (P > 0.05). It follows that the anthelmintic activity of noni fruit test showed satisfactory results in vitro, there is a need for studies in higher concentrations in the in vivo test. PMID:20040206

  8. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii by Water-soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot and cold water-soluble muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) seed extracts and their polar and polyphenol fractions from two Muscadine cultivars (‘Ison’, purple and ‘Carlos’, bronze) were investigated for their inhibition of Enterobacter sakazakii. The heat treatment on each seed extract not only incre...

  9. Antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of ethanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina del. Leaf in Swiss mice

    PubMed Central

    Omoregie, Ehimwenma Sheena; Pal, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vernonia amygdalina (V. amygdalina) leaf is locally employed in the Southern region of Nigeria in the treatment of malaria infection. This study evaluated the in vivo antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effect of ethanol extract of V. amygdalina leaf. Materials and Methods: The active principles of the dried leaf were extracted with ethanol. For quality validation, chemical finger-print of the extract was performed through high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). The extract was assessed for antiplasmodial activity by the standard four-day suppressive test on Plasmodium berghei (ANKA) infected male Swiss mice (six weeks old) placed into five groups of six animals each. Result: The absorption spectra from the HPTLC revealed several peaks suggesting presence of some bioactive compounds. Results from the in vivo study showed that the ethanol extract of the plant leaf was significantly active against P. berghei in a dose-dependent manner with the minimum and maximum activity observed in the mice treated orally with 100mg/kg (% inhibition of 23.7%) and 1000 mg/kg (% inhibition of 82.3 %) of the extract, respectively, on day four of the study. There was also a dose-dependent decrease (p<0.05) in some oxidative stress indices including nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation levels in the extract treated groups as against the non-treated infected group which had high levels of these parameters. The pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-ɣ) levels were also considerably low in the extract treated groups relative to the non-treated infected group. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of V. amygdalina leaf was active, with some immunomodulatory effect, against P. berghei infection. PMID:27222837

  10. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus Roxb. tubers.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sanjay; Dixit, Vinod K; Malviya, Neelesh; Ambawatia, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels were significantly restored towards normalization by the extracts. Silymarin was used as a standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced haptotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) tubers have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. The ethanolic extract was found hepatoprotective more potent than the aqueous extract. The antioxidant activity was also screened and found positive for both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical scavenging potential caused by the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:19702175

  11. New ethanol extraction improves the anti-obesity effects of black tea.

    PubMed

    Park, Bongju; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Bonggyeong; Kim, Ingyum; Baek, Namjoon; Lee, Tae Ho; Lee, Seok-Yong; Son, Miwon; Park, Hyunsung

    2016-03-01

    Black tea has been reported to have anti-obesity effects in both rodents and humans. Gallic acid, an active component of black tea, decomposes quickly into pyrogallol in high-temperature solutions. This study introduced a new, aqueous ethanol extraction of black tea, which resulted in extracts with higher concentrations of gallic acid than conventional black tea extracts prepared by hot-water extraction or hot-ethanol extraction. We confirmed that, compared with the hot-water extract of black tea, the cold-ethanol extract of black tea (CE-BTE) had greater effects on reducing body weight and body fat, improving fatty liver, regulating blood glucose, and reducing blood cholesterol in the high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model. Nonetheless, although CE-BTE significantly reduced fat content, it did not reduce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) protein in epididymal fat tissue of HFD mice. We also showed that CE-BTE did not inhibit the function of PPARγ protein to drive adipogenesis of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Considering that PPARγ is a master transcription factor not only for adipocyte differentiation, but also for adipose tissue function, such as glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, these results suggest that CE-BTE reduced fat mass and body weight without dampening fat cell homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. PMID:26604105

  12. COMPARISION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AERVA LANATA (Linn.) Juss. ex. Schult & AERVA TOMENTOSA Forsk. Family: AMARANTHACEAE

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Deepak; Prasad, D.N.; Bhatnagar, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    The diuretic activity of concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata (Linn) & Aerva tomentosa Forsk on healthy albino rats were studied with frusemide as reference drug. The urine output increased with concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata only. In this case the level of electrolytes in urine also increased. But the diuretic activity was mild as compared to frusemide. PMID:22557194

  13. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and its antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150-300 bar), temperature (40-50 °C) and dynamic extraction time (60-120 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The SC-CO(2) extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9%) as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO(2) extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC) showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO(2) extraction conditions. PMID:23322066

  14. Hot water extraction and steam explosion as pretreatments for ethanol production from spruce bark.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Katariina; Inkinen, Jenni; Uusitalo, Jaana; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina; Siika-aho, Matti

    2012-08-01

    Spruce bark is a source of interesting polyphenolic compounds and also a potential but little studied feedstock for sugar route biorefinery processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of spruce bark sugars to ethanol were studied after three different pretreatments: steam explosion (SE), hot water extraction (HWE) at 80 °C, and sequential hot water extraction and steam explosion (HWE+SE), and the recovery of different components was determined during the pretreatments. The best steam explosion conditions were 5 min at 190 °C without acid catalyst based on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the material. However, when pectinase was included in the enzyme mixture, the hydrolysis rate and yield of HWE bark was as good as that of SE and HWE+SE barks. Ethanol was produced efficiently with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the pretreated and hydrolysed materials suggesting the suitability of spruce bark to various lignocellulosic ethanol process concepts. PMID:22613888

  15. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract. PMID:26071101

  16. Analgesic properties of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Nguelefack, T B; Fotio, A L; Watcho, P; Wansi, S L; Dimo, T; Kamanyi, A

    2004-05-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the dry leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (300 and 600 mg/kg) were evaluated for their analgesic properties on the pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and heat in mice and by pressure on rats. The ethanol extract of K. crenata at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced an inhibition of 61.13% on pain induced by acetic acid and 50.13% for that induced by formalin. An inhibition of 67.18% was observed on pain induced by heat 45 min after the administration of the extract. The aqueous extract administered at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced a maximum effect of 25% on pain induced by pressure. These activities were similar to those produced by a paracetamol-codeine association, while indomethacin exhibited a protective effect only against the writhing test. Our results suggest that the leaves of K. crenata could be a source of analgesic compounds. PMID:15173998

  17. Challenges of cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylose production using corncobs is an established industrial practice. The cellulose-rich xylose-extracted corncob residue (X-ER), as a byproduct, is a potential energy resource. Efforts to convert the cellulose fraction of X-ER to ethanol have been unsatisfactory due to a lack of understanding of ...

  18. Assessment of the antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts of some Colombian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M F; Puebla, P; Carrón, R; Martín, M L; Arteaga, L; Román, L San

    2002-04-01

    The antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts prepared from Calea glomerata Klatt, Croton schiedeanus Schlecht, Curatella americana L., Lippia alba (Mill)n N.E.Br. and Lupinus amandus, which are medicinal plants used in Colombian folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, were assayed both in SHR and Wistar rats and in rat isolated aortic rings. At a dose of 20 mg/kg, intravenous bolus administration of the ethanolic extracts, from C. schiedeanus, C. americana and L. amandus showed significant antihypertensive activity in SHR, C. schiedeanus being the most active. C. schiedeanus elicited dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate (5-100 mg/kg, i.v.) in SHR but 200 mg/kg administered orally did not show any significant effects, even after 3 h of observation. In intact rat aortic rings, ethanolic extracts from C. schiedeanus and Calea glomerata relaxed the contractions induced by KCl (80 mM) and phenylephrine (10(-6) M) in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-6)-3x10(-4) g/ml), with IC(50) of 6.5x10(-5) (7.3-5.8) g/ml and 7.1x10(-5) (7.9-6.4) g/ml, respectively. Bioguided phytochemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract from C. schiedeanus was started. More than one active principle seems to be present, flavonoids and terpenoids compounds were detected. PMID:11891085

  19. Subacute oral toxicity study of ethanolic leaves extracts of Strobilanthes crispus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kean Tatt; Lim, Vuanghao; Chin, Jin Han

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the oral toxicity of repeated dosing of Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) ethanol leaves extract on the liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Young female rats aged between 8 and 12 week-old were randomly assigned into four groups with five animals each group (n=5). The first group served as control, while the second, third and fourth groups were orally treated with a single dose daily with 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract for 14 d consecutively. Cage-side observation was conducted for first 4 h after each dosing. The body weight changes, food consumptions and water intake were also recorded. Serum biochemical parameters, i.e., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea were determined at Day 15. All results were expressed as mean±SD and analysed using Dunnett's test. Results It was obtained that 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract did not cause any adverse effects or lethality to the female Sprague Dawley rats. No significant changes in serum biochemical parameters, relative organs weights, body weights, food intake and water consumptions were observed between the treatment groups and control. Conclusions In conclusion, 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract was safe to be consumed in female rats without affecting the liver and kidney functions. PMID:23593574

  20. Mixed solvent systems for recovery of ethanol from dilute aqueous solution by liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.J.; Arrowsmith, A.; Ashton, N.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution coefficients and selectivities of a number of mixed solvent systems have been determined in order to assess their suitability in preferentially extracting ethanol from aqueous solution. The measured values of distribution coefficients and selectivities differ substantially from the values estimated by interpolating between the pure solvents. (Refs. 10).

  1. Ethanolic leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) inhibits buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Bhuvaneswari, V; Ramesh, V; Nagini, S

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract in the initiation and post-initiation phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei as well as the concentrations of lipid peroxides, ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of the GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas that showed diminished lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status associated with increased frequencies of bone marrow micronuclei. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of tumours in the initiation phase and reduced tumour incidence in the post-initiation phase. In addition, ethanolic neem leaf extract modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes and reduced the incidence of bone marrow micronuclei. The results of the present study, demonstrate that ethanolic neem leaf extract inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP tumours by protecting against oxidative stress. PMID:15473007

  2. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM CONTAMINATED SOILS USING WATER-ETHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a wood preserving agent that is commonly found in contaminated soils at wood treatment sties. The extraction of PCP from contaminated soils was evaluated using water-ethanol mixtures as solvents. A mixed solvent containing equal proportions of water and...

  3. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of industrial sweetpotatoes for ethanol production and anthocyanins extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) system was studied for ethanol production in flour industrial sweetpotato (ISP) feedstocks (lines: white DM02-180 and purple NC-413) as an integrated cost saving process, and to examine the feasibility of extracting anthocyanins from flour purple IS...

  4. Challenges of cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corncobs are commonly used for xylose production at industrial scale, and the xylose-extracted corncob residue (X-ER), as a byproduct, is abundant and can serve as a potential energy resource. The X-ER is cellulose-rich and efforts to convert the cellulose fraction into ethanol have been attempted; ...

  5. Effect of Mitragyna speciosa aqueous extract on ethanol withdrawal symptoms in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumarnsit, Ekkasit; Keawpradub, Niwat; Nuankaew, Watcharin

    2007-04-01

    Administration of the aqueous extract of Mitragyna speciosa at a dose of 300 mg/kg significantly inhibited ethanol withdrawal-induced behaviors that included rearing, displacement and head weaving. The results also showed that at doses of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg M. speciosa showed antidepressant activity without effect on the spontaneous motor activity. PMID:17335995

  6. Antioxidant Studies on Ethanol Extracts from Two Selected Genera of Indian Lamiaceae.

    PubMed

    Ramu, G; Dhanabal, S P

    2015-01-01

    The present work is targeted to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of Plectranthus mollis and Salvia officinalis belonging to family Lamiaceae using nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and lipid peroxidation methods. The results of the study indicate that the leaf extracts of both the plants possess in vitro antioxidant activity. The higher amount of flavanoids and phenolic compounds may correspond to their greater antioxidant activity. PMID:26997708

  7. Antioxidant Studies on Ethanol Extracts from Two Selected Genera of Indian Lamiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, G.; Dhanabal, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is targeted to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of Plectranthus mollis and Salvia officinalis belonging to family Lamiaceae using nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and lipid peroxidation methods. The results of the study indicate that the leaf extracts of both the plants possess in vitro antioxidant activity. The higher amount of flavanoids and phenolic compounds may correspond to their greater antioxidant activity. PMID:26997708

  8. Antifatigue Effects of Ethanol Extracts and Polysaccharides Isolated from Abelmoschus esculentus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Xian; Yang, Zhong-Han; Lin, Yin; Han, Wei; Jia, Shan-Shan; Yuan, Ke

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to determine the antifatigue active fraction from Abelmoschus esculentus. The in vivo antifatigue effects of ethanol extracts and polysaccharides from A. esculentus fruit have been determined. The polysaccharides of A. esculentus were determined as the best effective fractions of antifatigue effects. Materials and Methods: About 360 Kunming male mice were randomly divided into nine subgroups: normal control subgroup, model subgroup, positive subgroup and the ethanol extracts of A. esculentus with high dose (3.2 g/kg) subgroup, medium dose (1.6 g/kg) subgroup and low dose (0.8 g/kg) subgroup, the polysaccharides of high dose (3.2 g/kg) subgroup, medium dose (1.6 g/kg) subgroup, and the low dose (0.8 g/kg) subgroup. The antifatigue effects of ethanol extracts and polysaccharides form A. esculentus were measured by comparing body weight, food intake, swimming time, liver glycogen, serum urea, blood lactic acid as well as visceral parameter in mice. Results: Compared with the model subgroup, other subgroups significantly prolonged swimming time, and high dose polysaccharides administration was the most effective (P < 0.01). High dose polysaccharides significantly increased liver glycogen, serum lactic acid, and serum urea (P < 0.01) in mice. In contrast with model group, the high dose polysaccharides administration could also significantly elevated the parameters of testicles and epididymis (P < 0.01). The study established that the ethanol extracts and polysaccharides of A. esculentus both have antifatigue effects. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that both the ethanol extracts and polysaccharides of A. esculentus have antifatigue effects. The high dosage polysaccharides have significant antifatigue properties. The results will provide the basis for further development and utilization of this plant. SUMMARY The high dosage polysaccharides have restoration ability on kidney yang deficiency mice.The high dosage polysaccharides

  9. Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2009-11-01

    Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water. PMID:19786292

  10. In vitro anti oxidant activity and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia paniculata bark ethanolic extract on Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Mopuri, Ramgopal; Meriga, Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T. paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1 000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25182554

  11. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Satish E.; Kale, Ranjana S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. Objective: The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. Results: MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats. PMID:25878462

  12. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Momordica dioica Roxb. leaves.

    PubMed

    Jain, Avijeet; Soni, Manish; Deb, Lokesh; Jain, Anurekha; Rout, S P; Gupta, V B; Krishna, K L

    2008-01-01

    In present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Momordica dioica Roxb. leaves were evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at dose of 200mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) and total bilirubin were restored towards normalization significantly by the extracts. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride induced haptotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Momordica dioica Roxb. leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage in rats. Ethanolic extract was found more potent hepatoprotective. Meanwhile, in vivo antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities were also screened which were positive for both ethanolic and aqueous extracts. This study suggests that possible mechanism of this activity may be due to free radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities which may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:17983713

  13. Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janet P.-C.; Wijaya, Sumi; Ting, Kang-Nee; Wiart, Christophe; Mustafa, Kamarul'Ain; Shipton, Fiona; Khoo, Teng-Jin

    2014-01-01

    If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500 μg/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223 μg/mL of pravastatin (control) showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate : methanol (95 : 5), gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A). Fraction 7A at 150 μg/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s), working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:24839451

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of Mammea africana ethanol stem bark extract

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Jude Efiom; Bawo, Michael Burata; Mbagwu, Herbert Orji

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The stem bark of Mammea africana Sabine (Guttiferae), (M. africana) a common plant that has been traditionally used to treat various diseases and ailments was evaluated for hepatoprotective potentials against paracetamol-induced liver injury in rats. Materials and Methods: The hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract (30-90 mg/kg) was evaluated by the assay of liver function parameters, namely total and direct bilirubin, serum protein and albumin, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase activities (ALP), antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and histopathological study of the liver. Results: Administration of the stem bark extract caused a significant (p<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of high levels of liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), total cholesterol, direct and total bilirubin as well as elevation of serum levels of total protein, albumin and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH). Histology of the liver sections of extract and silymarin-treated animals showed reductions in the pathological features compared to the paracetamol-treated animals. The chemical pathological changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the stem bark extract of M. africana. Conclusion: The results show that the stem bark extract of M. africana has hepatoprotective potential which may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:27222838

  15. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Analysis of Cichoriumintybus Seeds Extract and Various Organic Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Nasir; Zubaır, Muhammad; Rızwan, Komal; Rasool, Nasır; Shahid, Muhammad; Uddin Ahmad, Viqar

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant effectiveness of methanolic extract and different fractions (n-butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of C.intybus seeds. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against a panel of microorganisms (four bacterial strains, i.e. P. multocida, E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureus and three fungal strains, i.e A. flavus, A. niger and R. solani). The results indicated that seeds extract and fractions of C. intybus showed moderate activity as antibacterial agent. While Antifungal activity of C. intybus seeds extract/fractions was very low against A. flavus and A. niger while mild against R. solani. The C.intybus seeds extract/fractions contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (50.8-285 GAE mg/100g of Dry plant matter) and total flavonoid contents (43.3-150 CE mg/100g of Dry plant matter). The C. intybus seed extract/fractions also exhibited good DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 ranging from 21.28-72.14 μg/mL. Of the C .intybus seeds solvent extract/fractions tested, 100% methanolic extract and ethylacetate fraction exhibited the maximum antioxidant activity. The results of the present investigation demonstrated significant (p < 0.01) variations in the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of C. intybus seeds solvent extract/fractions. PMID:24250548

  16. Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the

  17. In Vivo Antiplasmodial and Analgesic Effect of Crude Ethanol Extract of Piper guineense Leaf Extract in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, A. Y.; Ibikunle, G. F.; Innalegwu, D. A.; Bola, B. M.; Madaki, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiplasmodial and analgesic effects of crude ethanol extract of Piper guineense was investigated in mice. The antiplasmodial and analgesic efficacy of the extract was judged on its ability to reduce parasitemia and writhing, respectively, in mice. The antiplasmodial screening involved treating infected mice with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of extract while the positive control group was given standard artesunate drug. The analgesic test was carried out by administering 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of extract to three groups of healthy mice, respectively, after induction of pain with 0.75% acetic acid. The positive control group was given aspirin drug. Parasitemia was reduced by 28.36%, 43.28%, and 62.69% in a dose-dependent pattern in the curative test which was significantly different (P < 0.05) from 96.03% of the standard drug. The reduction of writhing by mice given the extract was also dose-dependent (36.29, 45.43, and 59.07%). Aspirin drug was however more effective (86.36%). The extract was safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, and coumarins. Result obtained in this study demonstrated the efficacy of ethanol extract of Piper guineense as an antiplasmodial and analgesic agent. PMID:27446637

  18. Use of Embryos Extracted from Individual Cannabis sativa Seeds for Genetic Studies and Forensic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soler, Salvador; Borràs, Dionís; Vilanova, Santiago; Sifres, Alicia; Andújar, Isabel; Figàs, Maria R; Llosa, Ernesto R; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves. DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties. A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis. PMID:27404624

  19. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2 000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

  20. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of methanol, ethanol, and water extracts of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix.

    PubMed

    Wang, Myeong-Hyeon; Jeong, Su-Hyeon; Guo, Huifang; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Angelicae Dahuricae Radix has been used for the treatment of headaches, rhinitis, and colds in traditional medicine. Methanol, ethanol, and water extracts of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix were collected. A statistically significant reduction in the cellular viability of the mouse leukemic monocyte macrophage cell line was noted after treatment with water extracts of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. Stimulation with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) for 24 h led to a robust increase in nitric oxide production, but Angelicae Dahuricae Radix at 400 μg/mL concentration significantly suppressed nitric oxide produced by the LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in 70% ethanol, absolute ethanol, 70% methanol, absolute methanol, and boiling water groups (P < 0.05). Pretreatment with absolute ethanol extract of Angelicae Dahuricae Radix suppressed the LPS-stimulated inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-1β, and cycloxygenase-2 expression. Angelicae Dahuricae Radix showed significant cytotoxic effects on the human adenocarcinoma cell line and keratin-forming cell line. (J Oral Sci 58, 125-131, 2016). PMID:27021549

  1. Effects of Danshen Ethanol Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Furong; Zeng, Jin; Liu, Songcan; He, Min; Zhu, Leilei; Ye, Yujie; Miao, Ping; Shen, Shujiao; Jiang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. A sequential, open-label, two-period pharmacokinetic interaction design was used. 12 healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose of fexofenadine (60 mg) followed by danshen ethanol extract (1 g orally, three times a day) for 10 days, after which they received 1 g of the danshen extract with fexofenadine (60 mg) on the last day. The plasma concentrations of fexofenadine was measured by LC-MS/MS. After 10 days of the danshen extract administration, the mean AUC and Cmax⁡ of the fexofenadine was decreased by 37.2% and 27.4% compared with the control, respectively. The mean clearance of fexofenadine was increased by 104.9%. The in vitro study showed that tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone could induce MDR1 mRNA. This study showed that multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract could increase oral clearance of fexofenadine. The increased oral clearance of fexofenadine is attributable to induction of intestinal P-glycoprotein. PMID:25538791

  2. Androgenic and spermatogenic activity of alkylamide-rich ethanol solution extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Boonen, Jente; Spiegeleer, Bart De; Dixit, V K

    2013-01-01

    Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum) has been used as Vajikaran Rasayana (aphrodisiac) in traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine to treat male sexual dysfunction, including infertility. Aphrodisiac activity may be due to an increase in the production or effect of androgens, so this study sought to evaluate the androgenic and spermatogenic potential of the alkylamide-rich ethanol solution extract. Male Wistar strain rats weighing between 150 and 180 g were completely randomized divided into five groups. The ethanol solution extract of A. pyrethrum was administered to groups of rats in 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg doses for a period of 28 days, and the action was compared with control and testosterone-treated rats. Thirteen N-alkylamides were detected in the extract by using HPLC/UV/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. Extract administration at all the doses produced significant increase in body weight, sperm count, motility, and viability along with serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Histoarchitecture of testis revealed increased spermatogenic activities. Seminal fructose content was also significantly increased after 28 days of treatment. Our results suggest that the ethanol solution extract of the roots of A. pyrethrum has androgenic potential and may improve male fertility by enhancing spermatogenesis. PMID:22473789

  3. Sedative and anxiolytic effects of ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Irfan Newaz; Sarker, Md. Mominul Islam; Ajrin, Marzina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate possible anxiogenic activity, sedative property and anxiolytic potential of crude ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves. Methods The anxiogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves was evaluated using standard animal behavioral models, such as hole cross and open field; sedative property and anxiolytic potential were evaluated by conducting thiopental sodium induced sleeping time tests and elevated plus-maze test. Results The crude ethanolic extract exhibited a significant (P<0.05, P<0.001) decrease of motor activity and exploratory behavior in hole cross and open field tests. The extract also markedly increased both the number of visits to and time spent in the corners of the open field. The extract treated rats spent more time in the open arm of elevated plus-maze, showing its antianxiety activity. There was a decrease in the locomotor activity. Conclusions The obtained results provide support for the use of this species in traditional medicine and warrant further investigation to isolate the specific components that are responsible for the sedative and anxiolytic effects. Components from this plant may have a great potential value as medicinal agents, as leads or model compounds for synthetic or semi synthetic structure modifications and optimization, and as neuropharmacological probes. PMID:25183117

  4. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinth, Abu Adakole; Nwocha, Uchendu Chukwuka

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05) in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05) compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats. PMID:26396567

  5. Ethanolic rhizome extract from Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Suwannachot, Kittiphan; Rattanapanone, Viboon; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2008-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker is a Thai herb containing many flavonoids that have anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and antioxidant activities. The objective of this study was to demonstrate apoptotic effects of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex. Baker rhizome ethanolic extract on HL-60 cells in vitro. The extract suppressed HL-60 cell growth and decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptotic cell death was demonstrated by changes in cell morphology, externalization of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface, loss in mitochondrial transmembrane potential and activation of caspase 3. Apoptosis induced by K. parviflora Wall. ex. Baker rhizome ethanolic extract was enhanced by treatment with paclitaxel or doxorubicin, and inhibitors of Akt, PI3-K and MEK. PMID:19256745

  6. In vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of ethanolic extract from Tecomella undulata

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study was undergone to evaluate the in-vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tecomella undulata Seem. on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 minutes after the i.p administration of 110 mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide. The extract has shown significant blood glucose lowering effect in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The blood glucose level, cholesterol, glycogen contents, glycosylated hemoglobin, and antioxidant parameters (Malondialdehyde and Glutathione level) were estimated from the blood plasma by using standard kits to demonstrate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect in treated animals. The data showed that the extract have significant influence on the above biochemical parameters. Thus ethanolic fraction of the plant Tecomella undulata can be used as new candidate for antihyperglycemic and antioxidant. PMID:22769229

  7. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel. PMID:19748936

  8. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Pandanus odoratissimus root against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Garima; Khosa, R. L.; Singh, Pradeep; Jha, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pandanus odoratissimus (Pandanaceae) is popular in the indigenous system of medicines like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy. In the traditional system of medicine various plant parts such as leaves, root, flowers, and oils are used as anthelmintic, tonic, stomachic, digestive and in the treatment of jaundice and various liver disorders. Objective: The aim was to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of the root of P. odoratissimus against paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rat by PCM (2 g/kg b.w. p.o. for 7 days). The ethanolic extract of P. odoratissimus root was administered at the dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. orally for 7 days and silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w. p.o.) as standard drug was administered once daily for a week. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin and triglycerides. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results: Experimental findings revealed that the extract at dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of b.w. showed dose dependant hepatoprotective effect against PCM induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal that was comparable to that of silymarin, but the extract at dose level of 400 mg/kg was found to be more potent when compared to that of 200 mg/kg. Besides, the results obtained from histopathological study also support the study. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that ethanolic extract of the root of P. odoratissimus afforded significant protection against PCM induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:25709336

  9. Protective Effect of Areca catechu Leaf Ethanol Extract Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcers in ICR Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Pa; Choi, Nan Hee; Sudjarwo, Giftania Wardani; Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Park, In-Sik; Lee, Sang-Rak; Hong, Heeok

    2016-02-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common digestive disorder that results in considerable suffering. Hence, this digestive pathology has been the focus of a number of recent studies. Although numerous drugs have been developed to treat gastric ulcers, therapeutic approaches for many of the complications associated with these drugs remain to be identified. For this reason, many natural compounds have been explored as alternatives for these drugs. In this study, we have investigated the effectiveness of Areca catechu leaf ethanol extract (ACE) for treating ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice. We performed histological as well as immunohistochemical examinations to explore the therapeutic properties of ACE. We also examined the levels of inflammatory signaling molecules to confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of ACE. The histochemical data demonstrate that ACE can protect the mucosal epithelium as well as the vascular supply in the gastric tract. Furthermore, ACE significantly reduced the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Taken together, these data suggest that ACE administration may have the potential as an alternative treatment for gastric ulcer because of its cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects and ability to promote the rejuvenation and revascularization of the damaged gastric epithelium. PMID:26540449

  10. Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3

    PubMed Central

    Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

    2014-01-01

    Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml−1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations. PMID:25400590

  11. Evaluating the Anticancer Potential of Ethanolic Gall Extract of Terminalia chebula (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ravi Shankara, B. E.; Ramachandra, Y. L.; Rajan, S. Sundara; Ganapathy, P. S. Sujan; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Richard, S. A.; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been an important source for discovery of anticancer compounds. With the current decline in the number of new molecular entities from the pharmaceutical industry, novel anticancer agents are being sought from traditional medicines; therefore the anticancer efficacy of many plants that are used in traditional medicine is yet to be verified. The objective of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of ethanolic leaf gall extract of Terminalia chebula are evaluated against buffalo rat liver 3A, MCF-7 (Human mammary gland adenocarcinoma) and A-549 (Human lung cancer) cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract was evaluated by MTT assay. The extract was potent and effective in inducing cytotoxic effects in all the cell lines with an IC50 value of 305.18 ± 1.7 μg/mL, 643.13 ± 4.2 μg/mL, and 208.16 ± 3.7 μ/mL, respectively. The extract was more effective against A549 cell lines when compared to others. The presences of phenolics, triterpenoids, and flavonoids were identified in the extract. The extract showed total phenolic and flavonoid content of 478 ± 2.2 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g d.w and 538 ± 1.4 mg of quercetinequivalent/g d.w, respectively. This higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids found in the ethanolic extract was directly associated to higher cytotoxicity activity. Conclusion: The ethanolic leaf gall extract of T. chebula showed effective cytotoxic activities; which might be attributed to the phenolics/flavonoids present in higher concentration. Future work will be interesting to know the chemical composition of the extract and also better understand the mechanism of action of the constituents present in the extract to develop it as drug for therapeutic application. SUMMARY The present investigation establishes the anticancer activities of T. chebula leaf gall extracts on BRL3A, MCF-7, and A-549 cells. Presumably, these activities could be attributed in part to the phenolics/flavanoids features of the

  12. Broccoli seed extract: Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Yang, Hui; Li, Yongning; Lynch, B; Jia, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    Potential health benefits have been attributed to broccoli consumption. Hence, there is potential for use of broccoli seed extract (BSE) in food or for use as a dietary supplement. To assess the potential safety of a BSE product, three genotoxicity experiments, including an Ames, in vivo mouse micronucleus, and in vivo mouse sperm abnormality assay, were carried out. BSE was subject to an acute oral toxicity test and was evaluated in a 30-day feeding study in rats. BSE showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames assay and no evidence of genotoxic potential in the in vivo assays at doses up to 10 g/kg body weight (bw). The LD50 of BSE in rats was >10 g/kg bw/d. In the 30-day feeding study, in which BSE was administered in the diet to provide doses of 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg bw/d, no toxicological significant effects were noted on body weight, body weight gain, organ weights, or on the results of hematological, clinical chemistry and histopathological evaluations. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 3.0 g/kg bw/d, the highest dose tested. Collectively, these results support the safe use of BSE as a food ingredient or product. PMID:26271574

  13. Non-destructive high-throughput DNA extraction and genotyping methods for cotton seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiuting; Hoegenauer, Kevin A; Maeda, Andrea B V; Wang, Fei; Stelly, David M; Nichols, Robert L; Jones, Don C

    2015-05-01

    Extensive use of targeted PCR-based genotyping is precluded for many plant research laboratories by the cost and time required for DNA extraction. Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) as a model for plants with medium-sized seeds, we report here manual procedures for inexpensive non-destructive high-throughput extraction of DNA suitable for PCR-based genotyping of large numbers of individual seeds and seedlings. By sampling only small amounts of cotyledon tissue of ungerminated seed or young seedlings, damage is minimized, and viability is not discernibly affected. The yield of DNA from each seed or seedling is typically sufficient for 1000 or 500 PCR reactions, respectively. For seeds, the tissue sampling procedure relies on a modified 96-well plate that is used subsequently for seed storage. For seeds and seedlings, the DNA is extracted in a strongly basic DNA buffer that is later neutralized and diluted. Extracts can be used directly for high-throughput PCR-based genotyping. Any laboratory can thus extract DNA from thousands of individual seeds/seedlings per person-day at a very modest cost for consumables (~$0.05 per sample). Being non-destructive, our approach enables a wide variety of time- and resource-saving applications, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), before planting, transplanting, and flowering. PMID:25967902

  14. Ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production from field bean (Vicia faba var. equina) seeds in an integrated process.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Witold; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Król, Barbara; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    The use of field beans, a non-food leguminous crop, was studied for ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production. The seeds were hydrolyzed using enzymes or with combination of acid (H3PO4) and alkaline (Ca(OH)2) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with or without removal of suspended solids, yielded 38.3-42.5gL(-1) ethanol (71.3-79.2% efficiency). The filtration residues contained ca. 247-326gkg(-1) crude protein, 10.6-15.5% acid detergent fiber and 19.9-29.1% neutral detergent fiber. They were enriched in phenolics (by up to 93.4%) and depleted in condensed tannin (by up to 59.3%) in comparison to the raw material. The thin stillages were used for cultivation of edible fungus Neurospora intermedia which produced 8.5-15.9gL(-1) ethanol and 4.8-16.2gL(-1) biomass containing over 62% protein. The mass balances showed that fermentation of unfiltered mashes was more efficient yielding up to 195.9gkg(-1) ethanol and 84.4% of protein recovery. PMID:27233099

  15. Antiulcer and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Passiflora foetida L.

    PubMed Central

    Sathish, R.; Sahu, Alok; Natarajan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Passiflora foetida L. (Passifloraceae), a widely growing perennial climber, has been used in traditional medicine for treating many ailments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extract of P. foetida (EEPF) whole plant on gastric ulcer. The antiulcer effects of EEPF at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses were evaluated on ethanol and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models. The antioxidant parameters and histological changes in gastric tissue of ulcer rats were also determined in both the models. P. foetida treatment significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the ulcer index and significantly (P < 0.01) increased the gastric pH of both ethanol and aspirin-induced ulcer rats. P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.01) reduction in lipid peroxidation and increase in reduced glutathione levels. The observations confirm that EEPF whole plant has antiulcer and antioxidant activities. PMID:21713043

  16. Optimization of seed production for a simultaneous saccharification cofermentation biomass-to-ethanol process using recombinant Zymomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D.; McMillan, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    The five-carbon sugar D-xylose is a major component of hemicellulose and accounts for roughly one-third of the carbohydrate content of many lignocellulosic materials. The efficient fermentation of xylose-rich hemicellulose hydrolyzates (prehydrolyzates) represents an opportunity to improve significantly the economics of large-scale fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is currently investigating a simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) process for ethanol production from biomass that uses a dilute-acid pretreatment and a metabolically engineered strain of Zymomonas mobilis that can coferment glucose and xylose. The objective of this study was to establish optimal conditions for cost-effective seed production that are compatible with the SSCF process design. 55 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Anxiolytic-like effect of ethanolic extract of Argemone mexicana and its alkaloids in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Arcos-Martínez, Aideé Itzel; Muñoz-Muñiz, Omar David; Domínguez-Ortiz, Miguel Ángel; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia; Vázquez-Hernández, Maribel; Alcántara-López, María Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Argemone mexicana is a Papaveracea plant; some reports have shown their antibacterial, anti-cancer, sedative and probably anti-anxiety properties. From their aerial parts, flavonoids and alkaloids have been isolated, which are intrinsically related to some actions on the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiolytic-like effects of the plant, using its ethanolic extract and alkaloid-enriched extract obtained from fresh leaves. Material and Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out together with evaluation of antioxidant capacity and the enrichment of alkaloids present in the extract. Subsequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of ethanolic extract and alkaloid-enriched extract (200 µg/kg) were intraperitoneally administered to female Wistar rats, which were exposed to elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Picrotoxin (1 mg/kg), a non-competitive gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) chloride channel antagonist, was used in experimental procedures to evaluate if this receptor is involved in the anxiolytic-like effects of A. mexicana. To discard motor effects associated with the treatments, the rats were evaluated by the locomotor activity test. Results: Only the ethanolic extract at 200 mg/kg and alkaloid-enriched extract (200 µg/kg) produced anxiolytic-like effects similarly to diazepam 2 mg/kg on EPM test, without affecting locomotor activity. Meanwhile, the administration of picrotoxin blocked anti-anxiety effect of alkaloid-enriched extract of the plant. Conclusion: These results showed that A. mexicana is a potential anxiolytic agent and we suggest that this effect is mediated by the GABAA receptor. These effects are related to the presence of alkaloids. PMID:27516989

  18. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of tubers of Dioscorea alata in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Maithili, V.; Dhanabal, S.P.; Mahendran, S.; Vadivelan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Dioscorea alata in glucose loaded and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The authenticated tubers of D. alata (DA) (JSSCPDP/2008/157) were collected from Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu. The ethanol extract was tested for hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. In oral glucose tolerance test, glucose (3 g/kg, p.o.) was administered to non diabetic control, metformin (250 mg/kg, p.o.) and DA extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) to treat treated rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) in physiological saline after overnight fasting for 18 hours. DA extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard drug metformin (250 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose level and changes in body weight were measured on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. At the end of 21st day, serum lipid profile, total protein, albumin, and creatinine were assessed. Results: In glucose loaded normal rats, the treatment with the extract of DA had shown a highly significant reduction (P < 0.001) in blood glucose levels at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. The extract did not produce hypoglycemic activity at both the dose levels in normal, fasted rats. In alloxan induced diabetic rats, the body weight of the DA extract treated animals had shown a significant increase (P < 0.001) after 21 days treatment. The blood glucose level was reduced significantly by 47.48% and 52.09% after 21 days treatment at dose levels 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Serum lipid levels, total protein, albumin, and creatinine were reversed toward near normal in treated rats as compared to diabetic control. Conclusion: The results indicate that ethanol extract of DA tubers possesses significant antidiabetic activity. PMID:21845005

  19. Anticonvulsant Effects of Lippia citriodora (Verbenaceae) Leaves Ethanolic Extract in Mice: Role of GABAergic System

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Amir; Farhang, Forogh; Vahedi, Habib; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Ejtemai Mehr, Shahram; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lippia citriodora Kunth is one of the Iranian traditional medicines for the treatment of convulsive disorders. The goal of this study is to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's leave ethanolic extract against electro- and chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. Methods: The anticonvulsant activity of the extract (200, 400, 800 mg/kg, per os, p.o.) was investigated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. Diazepam (1 mg/kg) and phenytoin (25 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.) were used as reference drugs. In addition, for investigating the role of GABAergic system, flumazenil (2 mg/kg, i.p.) was also injected before L. citriodora. Results: The extract had not any toxicity and significantly decreased the duration and increased the latency of the seizures induced by PTZ (90 mg/kg). In the MES test, L. citriodora displayed statistically significant reduction in hind limb tonic extension duration in a nondose-dependent manner. Flumazenil reversed the anticonvulsant activity of the plant's extract in the PTZ model. Conclusions: The results propose that L. citriodora leave ethanolic extract has anticonvulsant activity against convulsive disorders. It seems that this plant's extract generates its antiseizure effect through GABAergic system potentiation. Further studies will be needed in order to investigate the exact mechanisms of it. Moreover, one may conclude that the present results are in accordance with the positive effect of L. citriodora extract to treat convulsion mentioned in old Iranian literature. PMID:27563433

  20. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H.; Blanco, Mónica; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols was optimal at 65 °C, the maximum antioxidant capacity was achieved with an extraction temperature of 90 °C. This study has identified the optimal conditions for the extraction of tea liquor with the best antioxidant properties. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin were extracted from white tea at concentrations up to 29.6 ± 10.6, 5.40 ± 2.09, 5.04 ± 0.20 and 2.48 ± 1.10 mg/100 g. PMID:26785234

  1. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistiyani; Safithri, Mega; Puspita Sari, Yoana

    2016-01-01

    Development of α-glucosidase inhibitor derived from natural products is an opportunity for a more economic management of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to test the activity of α-glucosidase with or without potential inhibitor compounds. By in vitro method, α-glucosidase hydrolizes p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopiranoside to glucose and the yellow of p-nitrophenol which can be determined with spectrophotometry at 400 nm. The ability of ethanolic leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. as a-glucosidase inhibitor was compared with that of commercial acarbose (Glucobay®). Acarbose showed strong inhibitory activity against a-glucosidase with IC50 values of 2.154 µg/mL. The crude ethanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach, however, showed less inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3, 444.114 µg/mL. Total phenolics of M. azedarach leaves EtOH extract showed 17.94 µg GAE/mg extract and flavonoids total compound of 9.55 µg QE/mg extract. Based on the published wide range of IC50 values of extracts reported as a-glucosidase inhibitor which were between 10, 000 ppm-0.66 ppm, our result suggests that extract of M.azedarach leaves is potential candidate for development of anti-hyperglycemic formulation.

  2. Antioxidant Activity of Brown Soybean Ethanolic Extracts and Application to Cooked Pork Patties

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    The brown soybean extract (BE, extracted by distilled water, 50%, 75%, and 95% ethanol) were analyzed for their total phenol, flavonoid, anthocyanin content, and DPPH radical-scavenging activity to determine antioxidant activities. Brown soybean extract with 75% ethanol showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenol and anthocyanin content compared to the other treatments (p<0.05). Then, brown soybean extract with 75% ethanol was applied to pork patties at different concentration (0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) and lipid oxidation was evaluated during 15 d of refrigerated storage. Addition of BE significantly increased redness and pH values, respectively (p<0.05). Moreover, TBARS value of pork patties decreased significantly (p<0.05) as BE concentration increased. In sensory evaluation, pork patties with 0.1% BE had significantly higher score than other treatments in flavor and overall acceptability (p<0.05). Consequently, these results indicate that 0.1% BE could be an effective natural antioxidant to inhibit lipid oxidation in pork patties. PMID:27433107

  3. Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Pongamia pinnata Bark.

    PubMed

    Bhandirge, S K; Tripathi, A S; Bhandirge, R K; Chinchmalatpure, T P; Desai, H G; Chandewar, A V

    2015-06-01

    Present study evaluate wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata (PP). Evaluation of wound healing activity, 2 wound models were used I. e., incision and excision wounds were perform in this study on Albino wistar rats (150-200 g). The rats were been treated with 10% and 5% ointment base formulation at dose 15 µl/wound topically. The parameters studied were breaking strength in case of incision wounds, epithelization period and wound area in case of excision wound. The ethanolic extract treated group showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in the wound breaking strength in incision type of wound model and significant increase in epithelization period and reduction in percentage of wound area in excision type of wound model as compared to control group. Extract treated groups showed significant (P < 0.01) improvement in all the wound healing parameters of incision and excision wound models as compared to control. This study justify the traditional use of ethanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata stem bark shows wound healing property. PMID:25607746

  4. Hepatoprotective effects of hoveniae semen cum fructus extracts in ethanol intoxicated mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ilje; Kim, Joowan; Jung, Jaijun; Sung, Soohyun; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Ku, Saekwang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract in ethanol induced hepatic damages. [Methods] Hepatic damages were induced by oral administration of ethanol and then Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract was administered. [Results] Following Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract administration, body and liver weights were increased, while aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, γ-glutamyl transferase, and triglyceride levels in the serum, triglyceride contents, tumor necrosis factor -α level, cytochrome (CY) P450 2E1 activity in the liver and mRNA expression of hepatic lipogenic genes, and Nitrotyrosine and 4-HNE-immunolabelled hepatocytes were decreased. However, mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation was increased. Also, as a protective mechanism for hepatic antioxidant defense systems, decreased liver MDA contents, increased glutathione contents, increased dismutase and catalase activities were observed when compared to the ethanol control. [Conclusion] Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract favorably protected against liver damages, mediated by its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-steatosis properties through the augmentation of the hepatic antioxidant defense system by NF-E2-related factor-2 activation, and down-regulation of the mRNA expression of hepatic lipogenic genes or up-regulation of the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. PMID:27298813

  5. Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract protects neurons from apoptosis and mitigates brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebral malaria is a rapidly developing encephalopathy caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Drugs currently in use are associated with poor outcome in an increasing number of cases and new drugs are urgently needed. The potential of the medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria was evaluated in mice. Methods Experimental cerebral malaria was induced in mice by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Infected mice were administered with Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract at doses of 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) in experimental groups, or with the anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) or artemether (1.6 mg/kg, i.p.), in the positive control groups. Treatment was initiated at the onset of signs of brain involvement and pursued for five days on a daily basis. Mice brains were dissected out and processed for the study of the effects of the extract on pyramidal cells’ fate and on markers of neuroinflammation and apoptosis, in the medial temporal lobe. Results Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract mitigated neuroinflammation, decreased the severity of brain oedema, and protected pyramidal neurons from apoptosis, particularly at the highest dose used, comparable to chloroquine and artemether. Conclusions The present findings suggest that Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract has protective effects on neuronal populations in the inflamed central nervous system, and justify at least in part its use in African and Asian folk medicine and practices. PMID:23984986

  6. Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanolic extract from fruits of Schinus molle in rats.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Adriana; Minetti, Alejandra; Bras, Cristina; Zanetti, Noelia

    2007-09-25

    Ethanolic and hexanic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle showed ability to control several insect pests. Potential vertebrate toxicity associated with insecticidal plants requires investigation before institutional promotion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity of ethanolic extracts from fruits of Schinus molle in rats. The plant extract was added to the diet at 2g/kg body weight/day during 1 day to evaluate acute toxicity and at 1g/kg body weight/day during 14 days to evaluate subacute toxicity. At the end of the exposure and after 7 days, behavioral and functional parameters in a functional observational battery and motor activity in an open field were assessed. Finally, histopathological examinations were conducted on several organs. In both exposures, an increase in the arousal level was observed in experimental groups. Also, the landing foot splay parameter increased in the experimental group after acute exposure. Only the subacute exposure produced a significant increase in the motor activity in the open field. All these changes disappeared after 7 days. None of the exposures affected the different organs evaluated. Our results suggest that ethanolic extracts from fruits and leaves of Schinus molle should be relatively safe to use as insecticide. PMID:17716846

  7. Hydnophytum formicarum Jack ethanol extract modulates quorum sensing-controlled pathogenicity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hertiani, Triana; Pratiwi, Sylvia Utami Tunjung

    2015-09-01

    The discovery of new mechanism to control microbial pathogenicity by quorum sensing modulation has generated the search for quorum sensing inhibitor from natural resources. The objective of this research was to evaluate the ability of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack (Rubiaceae) ethanol extract to antagonize cell-to cell communication. Pulverized H. formicarum tuber was macerated in ethyl alcohol 96% and evaporated to yield ethanol extract. A dillution technique using Luria-Bertani (LB) medium was used to observe the capability of the extract to reduce the violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum. Samples in two-fold dilution were prepared to obtain 2 - 0.0625 mg/mL concentration. The effects on swimming, swarming and twitching motility as well as the formation of biofilm towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were recorded over control. All experiments were done in triplicate. The architecture of Ps. aeruginosa biofilm treated with samples was examined by CLSM (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) . Our results suggested that the ethanol extract of H. formicarum caused violacein production inhibition. Furthermore, inhibition of Ps. aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation were recorded to be significant over control in a concentration dependent manner. H. formicarum serves as a potential source for new QS-based antibacterial drugs towards Ps. aeruginosa. PMID:26408889

  8. Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

    2010-09-01

    To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3 ~ 12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9 ~ 2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

  9. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Poonam; Tandan, Neeraj; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Divyansh; Kumar, Monu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:25254057

  10. Production of ethanol by immobilized Saccharomyces bayanus in an extractive fermentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, M.R.A.; Cabral, J.M.S.; Novais, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    An extractive fermentation system using immobilized yeast cells was developed to study the ethanol production at high sugar concentrations. Organic acids were used as extracting solvents of ethanol and their toxicity was tested in free and k-carrageenan entrapped cell preparations. Immobilization seems to protect cells against solvent toxicity, when long-chain organic acids, e.g., oleic acid, were used, probably due to steric and diffusional limitations, the free cells not being viable at high oleic acid concentrations. The entrapped cells also present a high metabolic activity than their free counterparts at high glucose concentrations. A solution of 300 g/L of glucose was totally fermented by the immobilized yeast cells, which when free cannot normally convert more than 200 g/L. In situ recovery of ethanol by oleic acid in a batch immobilized cell system led to higher ethanol productivities and to the fermentation of 400 g/L, when an oleic acid/medium ratio of 5 was used.

  11. Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

  12. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  13. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (≥2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  14. Extraction of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed oil by full pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennycress is currently being developed as an oilseed crop for biofuel production. Pennycress seeds harvested from a field near Peoria, IL, provided our first opportunity to conduct an oil extraction study on a pilot scale. The goals of this study were to determine the effects of seed moisture and c...

  15. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as

  16. Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

  17. The effect of topical ethanol extract of Cotinus coggygria Scop. on cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Halil; Sancar, Mesut; Sen, Ali; Okuyan, Betul; Bitis, Leyla; Uras, Fikriye; Akakin, Dilek; Cevik, Ozge; Kultur, Sukran; İzzettin, Fikret Vehbi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the cutaneous wound healing effects of the ethanol extract of Cotinus coggygria leaves in rats by excision wound model to provide scientific evidence for the traditional use of C. coggygria Scop. The levels of malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and hydroxyproline were investigated in wound tissues. Histopathological examination was also performed. The hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue and the glutathione levels were both significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (p < 0.05 for both); while the malondialdehyde levels were significantly lower in the treatment group (p < 0.05). These results were supported with histological results. The ethanol extract of C. coggygria Scop could be considered as an effective agent in wound healing in accordance with its traditional use. PMID:25775378

  18. Oil extraction from lesquerella seeds by dry extrusion and expelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole Lesquerella seeds with 6% (as is) and 12% moisture were extruded at different residence times by varying screw speeds and feed rates. The temperature of the extrudate was recorded and its moisture content was determined. The extent of seed cooking was evaluated by measuring the protein solub...

  19. Extraction of Field Pennycress Seed Oil by Full Pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in the temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (db) with the major fatty acid as erucic acid (38%). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a major source of...

  20. Full-Press Oil Extraction of Extruded Lesquerella Seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella fendleri is a winter annual oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family that is native to the desert Southwestern United States. The seed has 30% oil, which contains 55-64% lesquerolic and auricolic acids (hydroxy FA). The seeds contain glucosinolates that, upon hydrolysis by thi...

  1. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

  2. Antibacterial profile of fermented seed extracts of Ricinus communis: findings from a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Jombo, G T; Enenebeaku, M N

    2008-01-01

    The study was carried out to ascertain the antibacterial properties inherent in fermented seed extracts of Ricinus communis. Dry seeds of R. communis (Castor oil plant) were deshelled, grounded to powder, fermented, and then extracted both with alcohol and water using Soxhlet machine. Different concentrations of the extracts were tested against selected bacteria using diffusion method of susceptibility testing on sensitivity testing agar medium. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, and Staphylococcus aureus were highly susceptible to both the methanol and water extracts of the seed while Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed reduced susceptibility. Enterococcus faecalis on the other hand was resistant to all the preparations tested. The active antimicrobial ingredients in fermented R. communis seeds should be identified while its medicinal value to humans properly investigated. PMID:19434215

  3. Antidiabetic Effect of Young and Old Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Asante, Du-Bois; Effah-Yeboah, Emmanuel; Barnes, Precious; Abban, Heckel Amoabeng; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko; Ofori, Eric Gyamerah; Dadzie, Joseph Budu

    2016-01-01

    The young leaves of Vernonia amygdalina are often utilized as vegetable and for medicinal purpose compared to the old leaves. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the antidiabetic effects between ethanolic leaf extracts of old and young V. amygdalina on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat for four weeks. Preliminary screening of both young and old ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of the same phytochemicals except flavonoids which was only present in the old V. amygdalina. Difference in antioxidant power between the young and old leaf extracts was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Both leaf extracts produced a significant (p < 0.05) antihyperglycaemic effect. Also results from treated rats revealed increasing effect in some haematological parameters. Similarly, the higher dose (300 mg/kg) of both extracts significantly (p < 0.05) reduced serum ALT, AST, and ALP levels as compared to the diabetic control rats. Results also showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in LDL-C and VLDL-C in the extract-treated rats with a corresponding increase in HDL-C, as compared to the diabetic control rats. Moreover histopathological analysis revealed ameliorative effect of pathological insults induced by the STZ in the pancreas, liver, and spleen, most significantly the regeneration of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in treated rats. PMID:27294153

  4. Antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of Laminaria japonica against oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Jin, Hyung-Joo; Lee, Si Young

    2013-06-01

    Laminaria japonica is a brown alga, which is consumed widely in Korea, Japan, and China. This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts of L. japonica against oral microbial species to assess the possible application of L. japonica extracts in dental care products. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined in culture medium using a microdilution method. The MICs of ethanol extracts of L. japonica with oral streptococci were 62.5-500 μg/ml and the MBCs were 125-1000 μg/ml. The MICs of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces odontolyticus were 250 and 62.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MBCs of A. naeslundii and A. odontolyticus were 500 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. The MICs were 250 and 62.5 μg/ml for Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis, respectively. The killing of Streptococcus mutans and P. gingivalis was dependent on the incubation time. The killing of S. mutans, A. odontolyticus, and P. gingivalis was significantly dependent on the extract concentration. Bacterial treatment with L. japonica extracts changed the cell surface texture of S. mutans, A. odontolyticus, and P. gingivalis. The results of this study suggest that L. japonica extracts may be useful for the development of antimicrobial agents to combat oral pathogens. PMID:23583539

  5. Antidiabetic Effect of Young and Old Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Asante, Du-Bois; Effah-Yeboah, Emmanuel; Barnes, Precious; Abban, Heckel Amoabeng; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko; Ofori, Eric Gyamerah; Dadzie, Joseph Budu

    2016-01-01

    The young leaves of Vernonia amygdalina are often utilized as vegetable and for medicinal purpose compared to the old leaves. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the antidiabetic effects between ethanolic leaf extracts of old and young V. amygdalina on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat for four weeks. Preliminary screening of both young and old ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of the same phytochemicals except flavonoids which was only present in the old V. amygdalina. Difference in antioxidant power between the young and old leaf extracts was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Both leaf extracts produced a significant (p < 0.05) antihyperglycaemic effect. Also results from treated rats revealed increasing effect in some haematological parameters. Similarly, the higher dose (300 mg/kg) of both extracts significantly (p < 0.05) reduced serum ALT, AST, and ALP levels as compared to the diabetic control rats. Results also showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in LDL-C and VLDL-C in the extract-treated rats with a corresponding increase in HDL-C, as compared to the diabetic control rats. Moreover histopathological analysis revealed ameliorative effect of pathological insults induced by the STZ in the pancreas, liver, and spleen, most significantly the regeneration of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in treated rats. PMID:27294153

  6. Microbiological and mucociliary properties of the ethanol extract of Hymenocardia acida on selected respiratory clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Obidike, I C; Aboh, M I; Salawu, O A

    2011-03-01

    The antimicrobial property of the ethanol leaf extract of Hymenocardia acida (H. acida) on some opportunistic respiratory pathogens was evaluated in this study. We also assessed the activity of the extract on tracheal mucociliary activity using murine tracheal mucus exudation and mucociliary motility in pigeons as experimental models. Phytochemical screening of the extract was done; and acute toxicity of the extract in mice was carried out using Lorke's method for estimation of its median lethal dose. Results show the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, resins, and balsams in the extract and the absence of anthraquinones, terpenes, and sterols. Results of the acute toxicity test showed that the extract was slightly toxic, with an estimated median lethal dose of 1,767.77 mg/kg body weight. At 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight of H. acida, tracheal mucus exudation was increased by 14.29, 19.24, and 33.82%, respectively. The effect on mucociliary velocity was dose-dependent as 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract led to increased ciliary activity by 7.69, 61.5, and 81.6%, respectively. The effects of the extract (200 mg/kg body weight) on mucus exudation and clearance were significant (p < .05) and higher than the effect of ammonium chloride. Although the extract did not inhibit the growth of C. albicans and K. pneumoniae, it exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. These findings show the mucociliary activity and antimicrobial properties of H. acida ethanol extract, and justify its use in the treatment of airway disorders. PMID:22432631

  7. Hypoglycemic activity of Nymphaea stellata leaves ethanolic extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dhanabal, S P; Raja, M K Mohan Maruga; Ramanathan, M; Suresh, B

    2007-06-01

    The ethanolic extract of leaves of Nymphaea stellata given by oral route to diabetic rats at dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for seven days reduced significantly by 31.6 and 42.6 % the plasma glucose level increased by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/day of alloxan. Moreover, the treatment significantly affected the plasma level of cholesterol and triglyceride. PMID:17498889

  8. Final report on the safety assessment of Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, and Corylus Rostrata (Hazel) Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Madhaven, N

    2001-01-01

    These ingredients are all derived from hazelnut trees. The two seed oils are expressed from the nuts of the hazelnut tree of the particular species identified. Most current reported cosmetic uses are of the seed oils. The seed extracts are the extract of the nuts of the identified species tree. There is one current report of use of seed extract in cosmetics. The leaf extracts are the extract from the leaves of the particular species tree. There are no current reports of use of these extracts in cosmetics. Analysis of seed oil from one species identified Oleic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Eicosaenoic Acid, Docosenoic Acid, Eicosanoic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Stearic Acid, and Tetraeicosanoic Acid. Little information is available to characterize the extracts, however. The functions of most of these ingredients in cosmetics are not reported. In studies of hazelnuts from Spain and Egypt, aflatoxin was reported as a possible contaminant. Aflatoxins are considered carcinogenic in humans. Virtually no safety test data are available on these ingredients. Negative results in one comedogenicity study using a seed oil are reported. Cross-sensitivity to proteins in peanuts and those in hazelnuts are reported, but the presence or absence of protein in nut extract and plant extract from hazelnut trees is not known. Additional data were provided regarding concentration of use, method of extraction and contaminants, comedogenicity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorption, but these data related to nut oil from only one species, and were not overall sufficient to resolve questions about irritation, sensitization, and photosensitization. Because of the absence of data, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic products. Because of the limited information that characterizes any of these oils or extracts, data are needed on each (except that items 1, 2, and 3 below are not needed for Hazel

  9. Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ishnava, Kalpesh B; Shah, Pankit P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria. Materials and Methods: The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract. Results: The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36μg/ml and 182.19μg/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50) value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein. Conclusion: Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria. PMID:25628685

  10. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  11. Chemoprotective effects of ethanolic extract of neem leaf against MNNG-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Kumaraguruparan, R; Chandramohan, K V P; Nagini, S

    2003-07-01

    We evaluated the modifying effects of ethanolic extract of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on oxidative stress induced by the potent gastric carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in male Wistar rats. The extent of lipid peroxidation and the status of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were used as intermediate endpoints of chemoprevention. Three different concentrations of ethanolic neem leaf extract (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) body weight) were administered by intragastric intubation (i.g) for five consecutive days followed by MNNG (i.g) 1.5 h after the final administration. Enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences in the stomach, liver and erythrocytes of MNNG-treated rats. Pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight (bw) significantly lowered the concentration of lipid peroxides and increased antioxidant levels. Our results demonstrate that neem leaf exerts its chemoprotective effects on MNNG- induced oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant status. PMID:12889539

  12. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  13. Combination pulsed electric field with ethanol solvent for Nannochloropsis sp. extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Ghazy Ammar; Mumpuni, Perwitasari Yekti; Indarto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, energy is one of human basic needs. As the human population increased, energy consumption also increased. This condition causes energy depletion. In case of the situation, alternative energy is needed to replace existing energy. Microalgae is chosen to become one of renewable energy resource, especially biodiesel, because it contains high amount of lipid instead of other feedstock which usually used. Fortunately, Indonesia has large area of water and high intensity of sunlight so microalgae cultivation becomes easier. Nannochloropsis sp., one of microalgae species, becomes the main focus because of its high lipid content. Many ways to break the cell wall of microalgae so the lipid content inside the microalgae will be released, for example conventional extraction, ultrasonic wave extraction, pressing, and electrical method. The most effective way for extraction is electrical method such as pulsed electric field method (PEF). The principal work of this method is by draining the electrical current into parallel plate. Parallel plate will generate the electrical field to break microalgae cell wall and the lipid will be released. The aim of this work is to evaluate two-stage procedure for extraction of useful components from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. The first stage of this procedure includes pre-treatment of microalgae by ethanol solvent extraction and the second stage applies the PEF extraction using a binary mixture of water and ethanol solvent. Ethanol is chosen as solvent because it's safer to be used and easier to be handled than other solvent. Some variables that used to study the most effective operation conditions are frequency and duty cycle for microalgae. The optimum condition based on this research are at frequency 1 Hz and duty cycle 13%.

  14. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan. PMID:24300515

  15. Fenugreek seed extract treats peripheral neuropathy in pyridoxine induced neuropathic mice

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Farshad Homayouni; Vakili-Zarch, Behzad; Shafiee, Mohammad; Mirjalili, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum commonly known as Fenugreek exerts normoglycemic and insulinotropic effects in humans by compounds from its seed and leaf extracts. Some studies reported that treating pregnant mice with fenugreek seed could cause toxic effects on the nervous system of its pubs during developmental growth, while in some other studies neuroprotective properties were considered for it. Safety of anti-diabetic drugs for nervous system is very important because peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes and hazardous drugs could worsen it. In this study, the effect of treatment with fenugreek seed extract on the function of sciatic nerves of neuropathic mice was evaluated. Neuropathy was induced in male mice by pyridoxine intoxication. After that, animals were treated with 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds for 10 days, tail flick, electrophysiological and histological assays were performed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed extract on function of the peripheral nerves. Our data showed that fenugreek has anti neuropathic effect and restores the function of nerve fibers. Results of electrophysiological recordings stated that the highest rate of healing was occurred in 20 mg/kg fenugreek extract treated animals. In conclusion, findings of the present study demonstrate that treatment with fenugreek seed extract can potentially facilitate healing from pyridoxine induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. PMID:26417231

  16. Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits. PMID:22188801

  17. Anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant activity of the ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. F.) in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sinoriya, Pooja; Irchhaiya, R.; Sharma, Bhawna; Sahu, Gayatri; Kumar, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anticonvulsant and muscle relxant activity of ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata in mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of stems of D. falcata (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect on maximal electroshock-induced seizures and muscle relaxant activity at the same dose level using rota rod and traction test in mice. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. D. falcata ethanolic extract (DFEE) (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.001) inhibited seizures induced by MES, reduced the duration of Hind limb tonic extensor phase (HLTE) and a decline in motor coordination. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and muscle relaxant activity. PMID:22144780

  18. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  19. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  20. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. and evaluation of the morphological and structural modifications of its compounds upon the cells of Candida spp

    PubMed Central

    Anibal, Paula Cristina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Foglio, Mary Ann; Höfling, José Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Ethanolic crude extracts prepared from the arils and seeds, pericarp, peels and from the whole fruit of Punica granatum, known as pomegranate, had their antifungal activity tested against Candida spp. The ethanolic crude extracts were analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and yielded many compounds such as punicalagin and galladydilacton. The extracts from the pericarp and peel showed activity against Candida spp., with MICs of 125 μg/mL. The effect of pericarp and peel extracts upon the morphological and structure of C. albicans and C. krusei were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, with the visualization of an irregular membrane and hyphae, formation of vacuoles and thickening of the cell wall. The data obtained revealed potential antimicrobial activity against yeasts cells of the Candida genus, and the bioactive compounds could be responsible for changes in cell morphology and structure. The data obtained open new perspectives for future research in continuation to this study, where information such as determination of the site of action of the compounds could contribute to an alternative therapy against these organisms. PMID:24516425

  1. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  2. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  3. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in Ethanol-Induced Cells and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Min Ji; Truong, Van-Long; Ko, Se-Yeon; Nguyen, Xuan Ngan Giang; Ingkasupart, Pajaree; Jun, Mira; Shin, Jin Young; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized the antioxidant and hepatoprotective mechanisms underlying of wild grape seed procyanidins (WGP) against oxidative stress damage in ethanol-treated HepG2 cell and Sprague-Dawley (SD)-rat models. In HepG2 cells, WGP not only diminished the ethanol (EtOH, 100 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression, but also renovated both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Additionally, to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of WGP, rats were orally administered 10 or 50 mg/kg WGP once daily for seven days prior to the single oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg). The results show that WGP administration decreased the EtOH-induced augment of the levels of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as serum alcohol and acetaldehyde. WGP treatment upregulated the activities and protein levels of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes but downregulated the protein expression level of liver CYP2E1 in EtOH-treated rats. Moreover, the decreased phosphorylation levels of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by ethanol were induced in both HepG2 cell and rat models. Overall, pretreatment of WGP displayed the protective activity against EtOH-mediated toxicity through the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and alcohol metabolism systems via MAPKs pathways. PMID:27213339

  4. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Procyanidins from Wild Grape (Vitis amurensis) Seeds in Ethanol-Induced Cells and Rats.

    PubMed

    Bak, Min Ji; Truong, Van-Long; Ko, Se-Yeon; Nguyen, Xuan Ngan Giang; Ingkasupart, Pajaree; Jun, Mira; Shin, Jin Young; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we characterized the antioxidant and hepatoprotective mechanisms underlying of wild grape seed procyanidins (WGP) against oxidative stress damage in ethanol-treated HepG2 cell and Sprague-Dawley (SD)-rat models. In HepG2 cells, WGP not only diminished the ethanol (EtOH, 100 mM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression, but also renovated both the activity and expression of antioxidant enzymes including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Additionally, to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of WGP, rats were orally administered 10 or 50 mg/kg WGP once daily for seven days prior to the single oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg). The results show that WGP administration decreased the EtOH-induced augment of the levels of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase as well as serum alcohol and acetaldehyde. WGP treatment upregulated the activities and protein levels of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes but downregulated the protein expression level of liver CYP2E1 in EtOH-treated rats. Moreover, the decreased phosphorylation levels of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by ethanol were induced in both HepG2 cell and rat models. Overall, pretreatment of WGP displayed the protective activity against EtOH-mediated toxicity through the regulation of antioxidant enzymes and alcohol metabolism systems via MAPKs pathways. PMID:27213339

  5. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.

    PubMed

    Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  6. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol. PMID:27051475

  7. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents.

    PubMed

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine; Suntres, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol. PMID:27051475

  8. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  9. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  10. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Badari Nath, A R S; Sivaramakrishna, A; Marimuthu, K M; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco. This PHA (Gibco) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures. PMID:25004904

  11. Activity antifungal of the essential oils; aqueous and ethanol extracts from Citrus aurantium L.

    PubMed

    Metoui, N; Gargouri, S; Amri, I; Fezzani, T; Jamoussi, B; Hamrouni, L

    2015-01-01

    Our study is about the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. in Tunisia and its plant extract. The yield of this essential oil is 0, 56% but the yield of the extract of plant was 17.1% for the aqueous extract ant 18.3% for the ethanolic extract. The analysis of chemical composition by using GC and GC/MS showed the essential oil of C. aurantium L. species to be rich in monoterpenes such as α-terpineol, lianolyl acetate, linalool and limonene. The antifungal activity of this oil showed us an inhibition of the germination of mushrooms, in the same way we could note that the biologic activities are generally assigned to the chemotypes high content in oxygenated monoterpene. PMID:26207731

  12. Salt effects in extraction of ethanol, 1-butanol and acetone from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Malinowski, J.J.; Daugulis, A.J. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    Experimental studies were performed to assess the effect of salt addition on the extraction of 1-butanol, ethanol and acetone from dilute aqueous solutions using cyclopentanol, n-valeraldehyde, tert-amyl alcohol, and Adol 85NF as extractants. The liquid-liquid partitioning was examined for a few strong electrolytes in a broad range of concentrations. Results demonstrate that the distribution coefficient and selectivity in systems with reduced water activity resulting from salt addition were markedly increased. These observations can be qualitatively explained on the basis of the hydration theory. It was also determined that strong electrolytes added to the aqueous feed reduced extractant solubility in the aqueous phase, thus contributing to lower solvent losses. The results showed that the extraction efficiency was not significantly affected by increasing salt content beyond a level that reduces the water activity to a value of 0.92.

  13. Characterization of co-products from producing ethanol by sequential extraction processing of corn

    SciTech Connect

    Hojilla-Evangelista, M.P.; Johnson, L.A.; Pometto, A.L. III; Svendsen, L.K.

    1996-12-31

    Sequential Extraction Processing (SEP) is a new process for ethanol production that has potential to produce more valuable co-products than alternative processes. Previous work determined the yields of oil and protein and evaluated their chemical and functional properties. The properties of the crude fiber and spent solids, however, have yet to be studied. This research was conducted to evaluate the potential of SEP corn fiber to increase ethanol conversion and as replacement for gum arabic, and evaluate the potential of SEP starch and fiber to be fermented to ethanol. SEP hemicellulose from crude fiber was readily dispersible in water and its solution (5%) gave low viscosity despite having high solids content. These properties indicated potential utilization as stabilizers, thickeners, and adhesive for coatings and batters in food and industrial products. Enzyme hydrolysis studies and batch fermentation of SEP starch/fiber indicated that SEP crude fiber was more readily accessible to the action of cellulases. More ethanol (about 10%) was produced from the fermentation of SEP starch/fiber than from undegermed or degermed soft dent corn, particularly when the hemicellulose fraction was absent from the SEP fiber.

  14. Ethanol production from nonsterilized carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using fed-batch culture

    SciTech Connect

    Roukas, T. . Dept. of Food Science and Technology)

    1994-02-05

    The production of ethanol from carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in batch and fed-batch culture was investigated. Fed-batch culture proved to be a better fermentation system for the production of ethanol than batch culture. In fed-batch culture, both free and immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave the same maximum concentration of final ethanol at an initial sugar concentration of 300 g/L and F = 167 mL/h. The maximum ethanol productivity was obtained with both free and immobilized cells at a substrate concentration of 300 g/L and F = 334 mL/h. In repeated fed-batch culture, immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave a higher overall ethanol concentration compared with the free cells. The immobilized S. cerevisiae cells in Ca-alginate beads retained their ability to produce ethanol for 10 days.

  15. Antioxidant and antiulcer potential of aqueous leaf extract of Kigelia africana against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Matheus M; Olaleye, Mary T; Ineu, Rafael P; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Barbosa, Nilda BV; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotanical claims regarding Kigelia africana reported antiulcer properties as part of its medicinal application. In this work, aqueous leaf extract from K. africana was investigated for its phytochemical constituents and antiulcer potential against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The participation of oxidative stress on ethanol-induced ulcer and the potential protective antioxidant activity of K. africana extracts were investigated by determining vitamin C and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) contents in the gastric mucosa of rats. The HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and also the flavonoids rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in the aqueous plant extract. Oral treatment with K. africana extract (1.75; 3.5; 7 and 14 mg/kg) one hour after ulcer induction with ethanol decreased in a dose dependent manner the ulcer index. Ethanol increased significantly stomachal TBARS levels and decreased vitamin C content when compared to the control animals. K. africana blunted the ethanol-induced oxidative stress and restored vitamin C content to the control levels. The present results indicate that the aqueous leaf extract from K. africana possesses antiulcer potential. The presence of flavonoids in plant extract suggests that its antiulcerogenic potential is associated with antioxidant activity. Of particular therapeutic potential, K. africana was effective against ethanol even after the induction of ulcer, indicating that it can have protective and curative effects against gastric lesion. PMID:26417263

  16. The anti-candidal activity of Satureja khuzistanica ethanol extract against clinical isolates of C. albicans.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2016-03-01

    Candida albicans is the common cause of some infectious diseases such as vaginal candidiasis or candidemia. Due to the emergence of drug resistant isolates of C. albicans, finding a new anti-Candida agent is a new strategy for current treatments. This study evaluated the anti-candidal activity of Satureja khuzistanica ethanol extract against clinical isolates of C. albicans. S. khuzistanica ethanol extract from aerial parts of plant at full flowering stage was evaluated against 30 clinical isolates and two ATCC reference strains of C. albicans by disc diffusion and micro-broth dilution assay. Also, in this study we evaluated the synergistic effects of amphotericin B, clotrimazole and ketoconazole with S. khuzistanica ethanol extract. The means of MIC and MFC of S. khuzistanica ethanol extract against clinical isolates were 299.4 and 722.6 (μg/mL), respectively. S. khuzistanica ethanol extract increased the anti-candidal effect of amphotericin B and ketoconazole, while it had no synergistic effect on clotrimazole against clinical isolates of C. albicans. Therefore, S. khuzistanica ethanol extract can be introduced as a new source of anti-candidal agent against clinical isolates of C. albicans. PMID:26849903

  17. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  18. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  19. Hepatoprotective potential of Lavandula coronopifolia extracts against ethanol induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtsam S; Al-Oqail, Mai M; Hassan, Wafaa H B; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

    2015-08-01

    The present investigations were carried out to study the protective potential of four extracts (namely petroleum ether extract (LCR), chloroform extract (LCM), ethyl acetate extract (LCE), and alcoholic extract (LCL)) of Lavandula coronopifolia on oxidative stress-mediated cell death induced by ethanol, a known hepatotoxin in human hapatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cells were pretreated with LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts (10-50 μg/ml) of L. coronopifolia for 24 h and then ethanol was added and incubated further for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red uptake assays and morphological changes in HepG2 cells were studied. Pretreatment with various extracts of L. coronpifolia was found to be significantly effective in countering the cytotoxic responses of ethanol. Antioxidant properties of these L. coronopifolia extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels induced by ethanol were investigated. Results show that pretreatment with these extracts for 24 h significantly inhibited ROS generation and LPO induced and increased the GSH levels reduced by ethanol. The data from the study suggests that LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts of L. coronopifolia showed hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced damage in HepG2 cells. However, a comparative study revealed that the LCE extract was found to be the most effective and LCL the least effective. The hepatoprotective effects observed in the study could be associated with the antioxidant properties of these extracts of L. coronopifolia. PMID:23546397

  20. Grape seed extract for foodborne virus reduction on produce.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-05-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have antibacterial properties with few current studies on antiviral activity. Recently, we reported the effects of GSE against foodborne viral surrogates in vitro. This study evaluated the application of GSE (commercial Gravinol-S) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1), on model produce. Washed and air-dried lettuce (3 × 3 cm(2)) and jalapeno peppers (25-30 g) were inoculated with FCV-F9, MNV-1, or HAV at high (∼7 log10 PFU/ml) or low (∼5 log10 PFU/ml) titers, and treated with 0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/ml GSE or water for 30 s to 5 min. Treatments were stopped/diluted with cell-culture media containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and evaluated using plaque assays. At high titers, FCV-F9 was reduced by 2.33, 2.58, and 2.71 log10 PFU on lettuce; and 2.20, 2.74, and 3.05 log10 PFU on peppers after 1 min using 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively. Low FCV-F9 titers could not be detected after 1 min at all three GSE concentrations. Low titer MNV-1 was reduced by 0.2-0.3 log10 PFU on lettuce and 0.8 log10 PFU on peppers, without reduction of high titer. GSE at 0.25-1 mg/ml after 1 min caused 0.7-1.1 and 1-1.3 log10 PFU reduction for high and low HAV titers, respectively on both commodities. Instrumental color analysis showed no significant differences between treated and untreated produce. GSE shows potential for foodborne viral reduction on produce as part of hurdle technologies. PMID:23498171

  1. Melanogenesis-Promoting Effects of Rhynchosia nulubilis and Rhynchosia volubilis Ethanol Extracts in Melan-a Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seong Hee; Sim, Mi Ja; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the antioxidant activity and melanogenic effects of black soybean ethanol extracts, including Rhynchosia nulubilis bean ethanol extract (RNBEE), R. nulubilis leaf ethanol extract (RNLEE), R. volubilis bean ethanol extract (RVBEE), and R. volubilis leaf ethanol extract (RVLEE). The total polyphenol contents of RNBEE, RNLEE, RVBEE, and RVLEE were 16.0, 57.7, 365.9, and 260.1 mg/g, respectively. The total flavonoid contents of RNBEE, RNLEE, RVBEE, and RVLEE were 40.4, 91.7, 84.7, and 216.5 mg/g, respectively. The electron-donating abilities of RNBEE, RNLEE, RVBEE, and RVLEE at 1,000 μg/mL were 32.4%, 12.7%, 83.5%, and 84.5%, respectively. RNBEE, RNLEE, RVBEE, and RVLEE at 50 μg/mL significantly increased (p < 0.01) melanin contents by 30.4%, 32.1%, 35.5%, and 37.4%, respectively, compared to that of the control. RNBEE, RNLEE, RVBEE, and RVLEE at 50 μg/mL significantly increased (p < 0.01) intracellular tyrosinase activity by 18.4%, 21.8%, 21.5%, and 21.1%, respectively, compared to that of the control. These results demonstrated that black soybean ethanol extracts promote melanogenesis in melan-a cells. Among the black soybean ethanol extracts, R. volubilis was found to be more effective than R. nulubilis, and leaf extract was found to be more effective than bean extract. The potential mechanism underlying the hyperpigmentation effects of black soybeans is the promotion of tyrosinase activity. PMID:27123165

  2. Melanogenesis-Promoting Effects of Rhynchosia nulubilis and Rhynchosia volubilis Ethanol Extracts in Melan-a Cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seong Hee; Sim, Mi Ja; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the antioxidant activity and melanogenic effects of black soybean ethanol extracts, including Rhynchosia nulubilis bean ethanol extract (RNBEE), R. nulubilis leaf ethanol extract (RNLEE), R. volubilis bean ethanol extract (RVBEE), and R. volubilis leaf ethanol extract (RVLEE). The total polyphenol contents of RNBEE, RNLEE, RVBEE, and RVLEE were 16.0, 57.7, 365.9, and 260.1 mg/g, respectively. The total flavonoid contents of RNBEE, RNLEE, RVBEE, and RVLEE were 40.4, 91.7, 84.7, and 216.5 mg/g, respectively. The electron-donating abilities of RNBEE, RNLEE, RVBEE, and RVLEE at 1,000 μg/mL were 32.4%, 12.7%, 83.5%, and 84.5%, respectively. RNBEE, RNLEE, RVBEE, and RVLEE at 50 μg/mL significantly increased (p < 0.01) melanin contents by 30.4%, 32.1%, 35.5%, and 37.4%, respectively, compared to that of the control. RNBEE, RNLEE, RVBEE, and RVLEE at 50 μg/mL significantly increased (p < 0.01) intracellular tyrosinase activity by 18.4%, 21.8%, 21.5%, and 21.1%, respectively, compared to that of the control. These results demonstrated that black soybean ethanol extracts promote melanogenesis in melan-a cells. Among the black soybean ethanol extracts, R. volubilis was found to be more effective than R. nulubilis, and leaf extract was found to be more effective than bean extract. The potential mechanism underlying the hyperpigmentation effects of black soybeans is the promotion of tyrosinase activity. PMID:27123165

  3. Effect of Garden Cress Seeds Powder and Its Alcoholic Extract on the Metabolic Activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I.; Al-Thukair, Areej A.; Abbas, Fawkeya A.; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

    2014-01-01

    The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:24711855

  4. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

  5. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    PubMed

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients. PMID:23869935

  6. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  7. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P<0.001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition>90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts. PMID:19135803

  8. Effects of Ethanol Addition on the Efficiency of Subcritical Water Extraction of Proteins and Amino Acids from Porcine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, hydrolysates of porcine placenta were obtained and the extraction efficiency for proteins and amino acids was compared between sub- and super-critical water extraction systems; optimum efficiency was found to be achieved using subcritical water (170℃, 10 bar). In this study, the effects of adding ethanol to the subcritical water system were investigated. The lowest-molecular-weight extraction product detected weighed 434 Da, and the efficiency of extraction for low-molecular-weight products was increased when either the concentration of ethanol was decreased, or the extraction time was lengthened from 10 min to 30 min. The highest concentration of free amino acids (approximately 8 mM) was observed following 30 min extraction using pure distilled water. The concentration of free amino acids was significantly lower when ethanol was added or a shorter extraction time was used (p<0.05). Color change of the solution following extraction was measured. There were no significant differences in color between lysates produced with different extraction times when using distilled water (p>0.05); however, using different extraction times produced significant differences in color when using 20% or 50% ethanol solution for subcritical extraction (p<0.05). The range of pH for the hydrolysate solutions was 6.4-7.5. In conclusion, the investigated extraction system was successful in the extraction of ≤ 500 Da hydrolysates from porcine placenta, but addition of ethanol did not yield higher production of low-molecular-weight hydrolysates than that achieved by DW alone. PMID:26761837

  9. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seed extract on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2008-08-01

    To determine the therapeutic potential of herbal medicine Moringa oleifera Lam. family: Moringaceae in the control of allergic diseases, the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of the seeds of the plant (MOEE) against ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway inflammation in guinea pigs was examined. During the experimental period, the test drugs (MOEE or dexamethasone) were administered by oral route prior to challenge with aerosolized 0.5% OVA. Bronchoconstriction tests were performed and respiratory parameters (i.e., tidal volume and respiratory rate) were measured. At the end of experiment, blood was collected from each animal to perform total and differential counts and serum was used for assay of IL-4, IL-6, and TNFalpha. Lung lavage fluid (BAL) was collected for estimation of cellular content and cytokine levels. Lung tissue histamine assays were performed using the homogenate of one lobe from each animal; a separate lobe and the trachea were subjected to histopathology to measure the degree of any airway inflammation. The results suggest that in OVA-sensitized control animals that did not receive either drug, tidal volume (V(t)) was decreased, respiration rate (f) was increased, and both the total and differential cell counts in blood and BAL fluid were increased significantly. MOEE-treatment of sensitized hosts resulted in improvement in all parameters except BAL TNFalpha and IL-4. Moreover, MOEE-treatment also showed protection against acetylcholine-induced broncho-constriction and airway inflammation which was confirmed by histological observations. The results of these studies confirm the traditional claim for the usefulness of this herb in the treatment of allergic disorders like asthma. PMID:18686107

  10. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M.; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.1–70.3 % and 40.1–65.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 µg/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  11. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Enomfon J; Okokon, Jude E; Offong, Emem

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fraction of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods M. scandens leaf extract/fractions (37–111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of 7 hours for acute study and 14 days for prolonged study. Lipid profiles of the treated diabetic rats were determined after the period of treatment. Results Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting bloodglucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. The extract/fractions exerted a significant reduction in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL of extract with increases in HDL levels of the diabetic rats. Conclusions These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes. PMID:23569963

  12. Ethanol Extracts of Achillea millefolium and Hypericum perforatum Low Anti-Toxoplasma Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nozari, Shagayegh; Adine, Mohtaram; Javadi, Farzaneh; Shahnazi, Mojtaba; Azadmehr, Abbas; Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Jahanihashemi, Hasan; Saraei, Mehrzad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to determine the lethal and the inhibitory effects of ethanol extracts of Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium) and Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) on Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) RH strain tachyzoites in vitro. Methods: The tachyzoites were treated with concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 mg/mL of A. millefolium and H. perforatum extracts within 10, 30, and 45 minutes in the wells. The mortality rates of tachyzoites treated with extracts were determined by using alkaline methylene blue staining. Also, the tachyzoites in cell cultures were treated with concentrations of 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL of these extracts. The cell viability, inhibition concentration (IC50), and selectivity were determined from MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays. Results: In the cell-free in vitro study, all of tachyzoites were killed at concentrations of 100 mg/mL of both extracts while at concentration 10 mg/mL, the mortality was 4.53% − 5.31%. In the cell culture study, the values of the effective concentration (EC50) were 215 and 153 μg/mL and the selectivities were 0.73 and 0.69 for the A. millefolium and the H. perforatum extracts, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that neither extracts has any significant effect on the tachyzoites of T. gondii in cell cultures. PMID:27280052

  13. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch to an ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Numa, S; Rodríguez, L; Rodríguez, D; Coy-Barrera, E

    2015-01-01

    One of the main pests of commercial rose crops in Colombia is the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. To manage this pest, synthetic chemicals have traditionally been used, some of which are well known to be potentially toxic to the environment and humans. Therefore, alternative strategies for pest management in greenhouse crops have been developed in recent years, including biological control with natural enemies such as parasitoids, predators and entomopathogenic microorganisms as well as chemical control using plant extracts. Such extracts have shown toxicity to insects, which has positioned them as a common alternative in programs of integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an unfractionated ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on adult females of T. urticae under laboratory conditions. The extract was chemically characterized by recording its metabolic profile via liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, along with tentative metabolite identification. The immersion technique and direct application to rose leaves were used to evaluate the effects of seven doses (10-2,000 µg/mL) of the ethanol extract of C. aconitifolius leaves on T. urticae females under laboratory conditions. The mortality and oviposition of individuals were recorded at 24, 48 and 72 h. It was found that the C. aconitifolius leaf extract reduced fertility and increased mortality in a dose-dependent manner. The main metabolites identified included flavonoid- and sesquiterpene-type compounds, in addition to chromone- and xanthone-type compounds as minor constituents with potential acaricidal effects. PMID:26185740

  14. Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Abatan, Mathew O.

    2013-01-01

    It is presumed that drugs sourced from herbs have lesser side effects than allopathic drugs. Enantia chlorantha is widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as jaundice, malaria, fever, infective hepatitis, etc. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. The effects of ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark on body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as histology of vital organs (heart, kidneys and liver) were assessed. Also, the phytochemical constituent of the plant was analysed. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups (A–E) of five rats each and the ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark extract was administered by oral gavage in a single dose. Group A rats were administered 500 mg/kg of the extract, group B; 1000 mg/kg, group C; 2000 mg/kg, group D; 3000 mg/kg and group E rats received distilled water (10 ml/kg) and served as control. The extract caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in a dose dependent manner. Further, significant alterations were not observed in the serum biochemical parameters analysed (AST, ALP, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubin). In addition, the extract at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg caused congestion in the heart and kidney of experimental rats. These results suggest that oral administration of E. chlorantha may produce severe toxic effects at relatively high doses, thus caution should be exercised in its use. PMID:24678252

  15. Microemulsion system for topical delivery of thai mango seed kernel extract: development, physicochemical characterisation and ex vivo skin permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Padois, Karine; Falson, Françoise; Bavovada, Rapepol; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan

    2014-01-01

    A microemulsion system containing Thai mango seed kernel extract (MSKE, cultivar "Fahlun") was developed and characterised for the purpose of topical skin delivery. The MSKE-loaded microemulsions were prepared by using the spontaneous emulsification method. Isopropyl myristate (IPM) was selected as the oil phase. A polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate and sorbitan monododecanoate (1:1, w/w) system was used as the surfactant phase; an aqueous mixture of different cosurfactants (absolute ethanol, 96.3% v/v ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol or 1,2-propanediol) at a weight ratio of 1:1 was used as the aqueous phase. Among the cosurfactants studied, the 1-propanol aqueous mixture had the largest microemulsion region (48.93%) in the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Microemulsions containing 1% MSKE demonstrated good physicochemical stability during a six-month study period at 25 ± 2 °C/60% ± 5% RH. The ex vivo skin permeation study demonstrated that the microemulsions exhibited a potent skin enhancement effect allowing MSKE to penetrate skin layers up to 60-fold higher compared with the control. Neither skin irritation nor skin corrosion was observed in ex vivo studies. The present study revealed that IPM-based microemulsion systems may be promising carriers to enhance skin penetration and delivering MSKE for topical treatment. PMID:25347456

  16. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is wide spread interest in drugs derived from plants as green medicine is believed to be safe and dependable, compared with costly synthetic drugs that have adverse effects. Methods We have attempted to evaluate the antioxidant, In vitro thrombolytic, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Clausena heptaphylla (Rutaceae) stem bark extract ethanol extract. Results Ethanolic stem bark extract of Clausena heptaphylla (CHET) contains flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and steroids but it lacks tannins, anthraquinones and resins. Phenol content of the extract was 13.42 mg/g and flavonoid content was 68.9 mg/g. CHET exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 3.11 μg/ml. Reducing power of CHET was also moderately stronger. In the cytotoxicity assay, LC50 and Chi-square value of the ethanolic extract against brine shrimp nauplii were 144.1461 μg/ml and 0.8533 demonstrating potent cytotoxic effect of the extract. In vitro thrombolytic activity of CHET is significant with 45.38% clot lysis capability compared to that of Streptokinase (65.78%). In antibacterial screening, moderate zone of inhibition (6.5-9.0 mm in diameter) was observed against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 842 and Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13578 and less promising zone of inhibition (3.0-4.5 mm in diameter) against gram-negative Salmonella typhi ATCC 65154, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Shigella sonnei ATCC 8992 did not show any sensitivity. The MIC values against these bacteria were ranged from 2,000 to 3,500 μg/ml. The extract showed significant zone of inhibition against Rhizopus oryzae DSM 2200, Aspergillus niger DSM 737 and Aspergillus ochraceus DSM 824 in antifungal assay. Conclusions Further advanced research is necessary to isolate and characterize the chemical components

  17. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  18. In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Binit; Theerathavaj, M.L. Srithavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora. Methods The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Results Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Conclusions The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants. PMID:23569854

  19. Using horsechestnut seed extract in the treatment of venous leg ulcers: a cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Leach, Matthew J; Pincombe, Jan; Foster, Gigi

    2006-04-01

    Venous leg ulcers affect approximately 0.6% of the western population, consuming millions of healthcare dollars every year. To determine whether an alternative venous ulcer treatment using horsechestnut seed extract-- Aesculus hippocastanum-- and conventional therapy involving dressings and compression was more cost-effective than using conventional therapy alone, a 12-week cost-benefit analysis of horsechestnut seed extract therapy was conducted. The study, using data from a 12-week prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted in South Australia in 2002-2004, involved 54 patients with venous ulceration who received treatment through a large South Australian district nursing service. Taking into account the cost of horsechestnut seed extract, dressing materials, travel, staff salaries, and infrastructure for each patient, horsechestnut seed extract therapy combined with conventional therapy was found to be more cost-effective than conventional therapy alone with an average savings of AUD 95 in organizational costs and AUD 10 in dressing materials per patient. This study confirms that dressing change frequency has a significant impact on the total cost of wound care and suggests that district nursing service operation efficiency may be enhanced through the use of horsechestnut seed extract as a result of less frequent nursing visits. Further study of this treatment modality is warranted. PMID:16636364

  20. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. PMID:19854235

  1. New crystallization of fatty acids from aqueous ethanol solution combined with liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Kouji; Nomura, Yoshihisa; Tai, Kimihiko; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Fukui, Keisuke; Hirota, Syouji

    1999-06-01

    A new separation process of saturated fatty acids (lauric acid-myristic acid) using crystallization from an aqueous ethanol solution has been examined. There were two vessels in this separation process: an extraction vessel and a crystallization vessel. The fatty acids in the aqueous phase were first extracted from their organic phase (melt) in the extraction vessel. The fatty acids in the aqueous phase were continuously introduced to the crystallization vessel, and then the fatty acids were crystallized there. The crystals of the fatty acids were collected continuously above the aqueous phase in the crystallization vessel. In this process, the yield and the purity of the crystals over time were measured, and it was found that the purity of lauric acid increased unsteadily up to 0.98 mole fraction of lauric acid with an increase in the yield of the low yield range. The mole fraction of ethanol in the aqueous phase could be significant to control the relationship between the yield and the purity of the crystals. Three different mole fractions of lauric acid in the organic phase were used to be separated in this process. Moreover, the authors have considered the effective separations of this process, and the maximum yield and purity of the crystals have been estimated by a simple mass balance.

  2. Effects of Asparagus officinalis extracts on liver cell toxicity and ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, B-Y; Cui, Z-G; Lee, S-R; Kim, S-J; Kang, H-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, D-B

    2009-09-01

    Asparagus officinalis is a vegetable that is widely consumed worldwide and has also long been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Although A. officinalis is generally regarded as a supplement for the alleviation of alcohol hangover, little is known about its effects on cell metabolism. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the constituents of the young shoots and the leaves of asparagus and to compare their biochemical properties. The amino acid and inorganic mineral contents were found to be much higher in the leaves than the shoots. In addition, treatment of HepG2 human hepatoma cells with the leaf extract suppressed more than 70% of the intensity of hydrogen peroxide (1 mM)-stimulated DCF fluorescence, a marker of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular toxicities induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or tetrachloride carbon (CCl(4)) were also significantly alleviated in response to treatment with the extracts of A. officinalis leaves and shoots. Additionally, the activities of 2 key enzymes that metabolize ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, were upregulated by more than 2-fold in response to treatment with the leaf- and shoot extracts. Taken together, these results provide biochemical evidence of the method by which A. officinalis exerts its biological functions, including the alleviation of alcohol hangover and the protection of liver cells against toxic insults. Moreover, the results of this study indicate that portions of asparagus that are typically discarded, such as the leaves, have therapeutic use. PMID:19895471

  3. Retarded hippocampal development following prenatal exposure to ethanolic leaves extract of Datura metel in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ishola, Azeez Olakunle; Adeniyi, Philip Adeyemi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Datura metel contains atropine alkaloids and has been used to treat complication like asthma and, bronchitis, because of its anticholinergic properties. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prenatal effects of ethanolic extract of D. metel leaves exposure on the development of hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Twenty rats (12 females and 8 males) were purchased. The females were grouped into four groups (A_D). Group A were given 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract on the first day of fertilization to the end of gestation period, Group B were given 500 mg/kg body weight on the 8th day of fertilization to the end of gestation period, Group C were given 500 mg/kg body weight on 15th day of fertilization to the end of gestation period and Group D were given normal saline throughout the gestation period. Results: Rats in Group A showed no implantation, rats in Group B had abortion on the 7th day after administration, and rats in Group C gave birth with their litters showing retarded hippocampus development and neural degeneration and rats in Group D (control) showed normal development. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of D. metel leaf is teratogenic in the late stage of pregnancy, is abortificient and can serve as a contraceptive. PMID:24665157

  4. Study of Caffein - Catechin Association in Lyophilized Fresh Seeds and in Stabilized Extract of Cola nitida.

    PubMed

    Maillard, C; Babadjamian, A; Balansard, G; Ollivier, B; Bamba, D

    1985-12-01

    Caffein-catechin association has been demonstrated in lyophilized fresh seeds and in stabilized extract of COLA NITIDA (Vent.) A. Chev. by using various analytical techniques which have made it possible to determine specifically the concentrations of free caffein versus associated caffein. Associated caffein varies from 0% in dried seeds to 91% in lyophilized fresh seeds and in stabilized extract of COLA. It was possible to simulate these quantitative variations of associated caffein by using an experimental model with a saturated aqueous solution of caffein and various amounts of catechin. Infrared spectrophotometric studies have shown the hydrogen bond type of the association. The differences of pharmacological effects of fresh and dried seeds may be due to the varying concentrations of associated and free caffein. PMID:17345274

  5. Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Tadić, Vanja M; Dobrić, Silva; Marković, Goran M; Dordević, Sofija M; Arsić, Ivana A; Menković, Nebojsa R; Stević, Tanja

    2008-09-10

    Hawthorn [Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus oxyacantha L.; sin. Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC., Rosaceae] leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. According to European Pharmacopoeia 6.0, hawthorn berries consist of the dried false fruits of these two species or their mixture. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. Phenolic compounds represented 3.54%, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Determination of total flavonoid aglycones content yielded 0.18%. The percentage of hyperoside, as the main flavonol component, was 0.14%. With respect to procyanidins content, the obtained value was 0.44%. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extract was concentration-dependent, with EC50 value of 52.04 microg/mL (calculation based on the total phenolic compounds content in the extract). Oral administration of investigated extract caused dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The obtained anti-inflammatory effect was 20.8, 23.0, and 36.3% for the extract doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to indomethacin, given in a dose producing 50% reduction of rat paw edema, the extract given in the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed 72.4% of its activity. Gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats with ranitidine as a reference drug. Hawthorn extract produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity (3.8 +/- 2.1, 1.9 +/- 1.7, and 0.7 +/- 0.5 for doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively), with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug. Antimicrobial testing of the extract revealed its moderate bactericidal

  6. Fatigue-alleviating effect on mice of an ethanolic extract from Rubus coreanus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Somi; You, Yanghee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Kim, Kyungmi; Park, Jeongjin; Kim, Sunoh; Ho, Jin-Nyoung; Lee, Jeongmin; Shim, Sangin; Jun, Woojin

    2011-01-01

    The fatigue-alleviating effects on mice of Rubus coreanus were investigated by using an adjustable-current water pool. The mice were exhaustively exercised for 2 consecutive days, and those administered with the 80% ethanol extract (RCE) of R. coreanus displayed a lower reduction (20%) in swimming time on day 2 than the control group (41% reduction). RCE significantly prevented the depletion of hepatic antioxidants during exercise-induced fatigue. These results suggest that RCE alleviated fatigue by elevating the antioxidative potential. PMID:21307576

  7. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611} high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H2PtCl6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  8. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-12-18

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611} high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H2PtCl6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells. PMID:26585310

  9. Superheated liquid and supercritical denatured ethanol extraction of antioxidants from Crimson red grape stems.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Jonathan; Samaniego, Cheryl Storer; Wang, Lihua; Nelson, La'Shyla; Ketchum, Korrine; Ammerman, Michelle; Zand, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Grapes are widely known for health benefits due to their antioxidant content. In wine production, grape stems are often discarded, though they has a higher content of antioxidants than the juice. The effectiveness of using an environmentally friendly solvent, ethanol, as a superheated liquid and supercritical fluid to extract antioxidant compounds from grape stems of organically grown Crimson Seedless grapes was evaluated. The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) assay and the Total Phenolic Content (TPC), or Folin-Ciocalteu assay, were used to quantify the antioxidant power of grape stem extracts. The extractions were performed at temperatures between 160°C and 300°C at constant density. It was found that the optimal extraction temperature was 204°C, at superheated liquid conditions, with a FRAP value of 0.670 mmol Trolox Equivalent/g of dry grape stem. The FRAP values were higher than other studies that extracted antioxidants from grape stems using single-pass batch extraction. PMID:26788298

  10. Uncaria tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract triggers an immunomodulation toward a Th2 cytokine profile.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Alexandre; Sartori, Alexandrina; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Golim, Marjorie Assis; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2011-08-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC (Rubiaceae) is a large woody vine that is native to the Amazon and Central American rainforests and is used widely in traditional medicine for its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activities. The present work used in vivo immunotoxic and in vitro immunomodulatory experiments to investigate the effects of a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid extract from U. tomentosa bark on lymphocyte phenotype, Th1/Th2 cytokine production, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity. For the in vivo immunotoxicity testing, BALB/c male mice were treated once a day with 125, 500 or 1250 mg/kg of U. tomentosa extract for 28 days. For the in vitro protocol, lymphocytes were cultured with 10-500 μg/mg of the extract for 48 h. The extract increased the cellularity of splenic white pulp and the thymic medulla and increased the number of T helper lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Also, a large stimulatory effect on lymphocyte viability was observed. However, mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations of U. tomentosa extract. Furthermore, an immunological polarization toward a Th2 cytokine profile was observed. These results suggest that the U. tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract was not immunotoxic to mice and was able to modulate distinct patterns of the immune system in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:21656603

  11. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of oil, fatty acids and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ben Rahal, Naila; Barba, Francisco J; Barth, Danielle; Chevalot, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The optimal conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) (160-220 bars, 40-80 °C) technology combined with co-solvent (ethanol), to recover oil, flavonolignans (silychristin, silydianin and silybinin) and fatty acids from milk thistle seeds, to be used as food additives and/or nutraceuticals, were studied. Moreover, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the SC-CO2 oil seeds extracts were evaluated in Caco-2 carcinoma cells. Pressure and temperature had a significant effect on oil and flavonolignans recovery, although there was not observed a clear trend. SC-CO2 with co-solvent extraction at 220 bars, 40 °C was the optimum treatment to recover oil (30.8%) and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds. Moreover, linoleic (47.64-66.70%), and oleic (19.68-24.83%) acids were the predominant fatty acids in the oil extracts recovered from milk thistle under SC-CO2. In addition, SC-CO2 extract showed a high antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS tests. Cytotoxic activities of silychristin, silydianin and silybinin and the obtained SC-CO2 extract (220 bars, 40 °C) were evaluated against Caco-2 cells. The SC-CO2 extract inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-responsive manner and induced the highest percentage of mortality of Caco-2 cells (from 43 to 71% for concentrations from 10 up to 100 μg/ml of SC-CO2 oil seeds). PMID:26172510

  12. Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Aerial Parts of Echium italicum L. in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Shahandeh, Shabnam; Shahsavand, Shabnam

    2012-01-01

    Background Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has clearly improved in recent decades. Self-administration of herbal medicines has been the most popular therapeutic alternative to standard medicine. Objectives Since the extract of Echium amoenum exhibits an anxiolytic effect, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects in mice of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of E. italicum, a member of the Boraginaceae family. Materials and Methods Mice were administered the agents intraperitoneally before the start of the experiments for evaluation of hypnotic activity (induced by sodium pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), anxiolytic activity (elevated plus-maze [EPM] test), locomotor activity (open field test), and motor coordination (rotarod test). Result The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum, at doses of 1.2 and 2.1 g/kg, increased the percentage of time-spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM and decreased the percentage of time-spent in the closed arms of the EPM. Moreover, both extracts decreased the pentobarbital-induced latency to sleep and significantly increased the total sleeping time induced by pentobarbital. In addition, locomotor activity was affected by aqueous extracts and ethanolic extract (at higher doses). Both extracts showed no effect in the rotarod test. Conclusions These results suggest that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum may have anxiolytic effects and sedative activity but no effect on muscle relaxation. PMID:24624158

  13. SUBCRITICAL (HOT) WATER/ETHANOL EXTRACTION OF NONYLPHENOL POLYETHOXY CARBOXYLATES IN INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL SLUDGES. (R821195)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subcritical (hot) water with ethanol as modifier was used
    to extract nonylphenol polyethoxy carboxylates (NPECs)
    with 1-4 ethoxy groups from sludge samples. Quantitative
    recovery of native NPECs from sludge was accomplished
    by extracting 0.25 g samples for 20 min w...

  14. Ethanolic Extracts of California Mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) Are Cytotoxic against Normal and Cancerous Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Somaweera, Himali; Lai, Gary C.; Blackeye, Rachel; Littlejohn, Beverly; Kirksey, Justine; Aguirre, Richard M.; LaPena, Vince; Pasqua, Anna; Hintz, Mary McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) is used by many tribes throughout California to treat a variety of conditions, including colds, allergies, and pain. California mugwort is also utilized as women’s medicine. Its use is on the rise outside of Native communities, often without the guidance of a traditional healer or experienced herbalist. Because it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity against plant and animal cells, we investigated whether California mugwort extracts have an effect on normal human cells as well as estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor negative (ER−) human breast cancer cells. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of A. douglasiana leaves were tested for cytotoxicity against unstimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC), as well as against an ER+ human breast cancer cell line (BT-474) and an ER− human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). An ethanolic leaf extract killed hPBMC, BT-474, and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 23.6 ± 0.3, 27 ± 5, and 37 ± 4 μg/ml, respectively. An aqueous extract killed hPBMC with an IC50 value of 60 ± 10 μg/ml, but had no effect on the two cancer cell lines at concentrations up to 100 μg/ml. The results of this study indicate that the cytotoxicity of California mugwort extends to normal human cells, as well as cancerous cells. Therefore, until further is known about the safety of this medicine, caution should be taken when consuming extracts of California mugwort, whether as a tincture or as a tea. PMID:24073389

  15. Jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora) Seeds: Chemical Characterization and Extraction of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Hacke, Ana Carolina Mendes; Granato, Daniel; Maciel, Laércio Galvão; Weinert, Patrícia Los; Prado-Silva, Leonardo do; Alvarenga, Verônica Ortiz; de Souza Sant'Ana, Anderson; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Rosso, Neiva Deliberali

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to assess the effect of time and temperature on the extraction of antioxidant compounds from jabuticaba seeds (Myrciaria cauliflora cv. Sabará), to optimize the solvent proportion (water, ethyl alcohol, and propanone), and to characterize the extract according to the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. Proximal composition, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities were analyzed. The optimized solvent ratio of 60% water and 40% propanone provided a mean TPC of 8.65 g GAE/100 g seeds and the antioxidant activity toward 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) was 82.79% ± 0.50%. Time and temperature parameters did not influence the yield of TPC. The gross seed extract was partially purified and both exhibited a high antioxidant activity and antimicrobial potential toward Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The purified jabuticaba seed lyophilized extract contained a higher (P < 0.05) TPC, o-diphenols, flavonols, and antioxidant activity measured by the DPPH assay and total reducing capacity as compared to the gross lyophilized extract. Electrospray ionization coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) data showed the presence of ellagitannins and ellagic acid in the extracts, which are probably the responsible for the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. PMID:27490163

  16. An efficient extraction method to enhance analysis of low abundant proteins from soybean seed.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry S; Krishnan, Hari B; Lakshman, Sukla; Garrett, Wesley M

    2009-11-15

    Large amounts of the major storage proteins, beta-conglycinin and glycinin, in soybean (Glycine max) seeds hinder the isolation and characterization of less abundant seed proteins. We investigated whether isopropanol extraction could facilitate resolution of the low abundant proteins, different from the main storage protein fractions, in one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-PAGE) and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). 1D-PAGE of proteins extracted by different concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80%) of isopropanol showed that greater than 30% isopropanol was suitable for preferential enrichment of low abundant proteins. Analysis of 2D-PAGE showed that proteins which were less abundant or absent by the conventional extraction procedure were clearly seen in the 40% isopropanol extracts. Increasing isopropanol concentration above 40% resulted in a decrease in the number of less abundant protein spots. We have identified a total of 107 protein spots using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrophotometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Our results suggest that extraction of soybean seed powder with 40% isopropanol enriches lower abundance proteins and is a suitable method for 2D-PAGE separation and identification. This methodology could potentially allow the extraction and characterization of low abundant proteins of other legume seeds containing highly abundant storage proteins. PMID:19651100

  17. Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

    2014-02-01

    The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (ρ), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug. PMID:24158737

  18. Gastroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract from Neoglaziovia variegata (Arruda) Mez (Bromeliaceae) in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Machado, Flávia Danniele F; Silva, Francilene V; Fernandes, Hélio B; Freitas, Flávia Franceli B P; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Lima, Julianeli T; Almeida, Jackson Roberto G S; Oliveira, Francisco A; Oliveira, Rita C M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the gastroprotective effect of a crude ethanolic extract of Neoglaziovia variegata (Arruda) Mez (Bromeliaceae), designated Nv-EtOH, in experimental models of gastric ulcer. In the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model, Nv-EtOH showed gastroprotection at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) (57.0% and 79.7%, respectively). Nv-EtOH also significantly reduced the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol/HCl (31.6% and 63.5%), ibuprofen (70.0% and 74.3%), or ischemia/reperfusion in rats (65.0% and 87.0%) at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW when compared with the vehicle group. In the antioxidant activity assessment, Nv-EtOH (400 mg/kg BW) increased the catalase activity and sulfhydryl groups (SH) levels, respectively. Moreover, gastroprotection against ethanol damage was decreased after ibuprofen pretreatment. Nv-EtOH (400 mg/kg BW) promoted a significant increase in the content of gastric wall mucus. The Nv-EtOH effect was significantly reduced in mice pretreated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) or glibenclamide, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and K(ATP) channel activation, respectively, suggesting the involvement of these mechanisms in the Nv-EtOH-induced gastroprotective effect. Nv-EtOH decreased the total acidity, but did not modify other gastric juice parameters. Nv-EtOH was also effective in promoting the healing process in chronic gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid in rats. PMID:23819304

  19. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; da Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo; Brandão, Hugo Neves; da Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  20. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo da; Brandão, Hugo Neves; Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro da; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  1. Antitumor Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Dendrobium formosum in T-Cell Lymphoma: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ritika; Koch, Biplob

    2014-01-01

    Dendrobium, a genus of orchid, was found to possess useful therapeutic activities like anticancer, hypoglycaemic, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities. The study was aimed to evaluate the anticancer property of the ethanolic extract of Dendrobium formosum on Dalton's lymphoma. In vitro cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay, apoptosis was determined by fluorescence microscopy, and cell cycle progression was analysed using flow cytometry; in vivo antitumor activity was performed in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract was obtained at 350 μg/mL in Dalton's lymphoma cells. Fluorescence microscopy analysis showed significant increase in apoptotic cell death in dose- and time-dependent manner which was further confirmed through the resulting DNA fragmentation. Further, flow cytometry analysis showed that the ethanolic extract arrests the cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The in vivo anticancer activity study illustrates significant increase in the survival time of Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice on treatment with ethanolic extract when compared to control. These results substantiate the antitumor properties of ethanolic extract of Dendrobium formosum and suggest an alternative in treatment of cancer. Further studies are required regarding the isolation and characterization of bioactive components along with the analysis of molecular mechanism involved. PMID:24959588

  2. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Farahnaki, F

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 μg/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 μg/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 μg/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  3. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, H.; Asghari, G.; Farahnaki, F.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 μM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 μg/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 μg/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 μg/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 μg/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  4. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of Lactuca sativa seed extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Sayyah, Mohammad; Hadidi, Naghmeh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2004-06-01

    Lactuca sativa (Lettuce) is a member of Compositae family. In folk medicine of Iran, the seeds of this plant were used for relieving of inflammation and osteodynia. In this study, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanol/petroleum ether (70/30, v/v) extract of the seeds have been evaluated. The extract exhibited a time- and dose-dependent analgesic effect in formalin test and also a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan model of inflammation. The extract had no analgesic effect in tail-flick test up to the highest dose used (6 g/kg). No abnormal behavior and lethality was observed by the extract up to 6 g/kg. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins and simple phenols in the extract. PMID:15138019

  5. Production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion: Effect of extractives content, acid catalysis and different fermentation technologies.

    PubMed

    Neves, P V; Pitarelo, A P; Ramos, L P

    2016-05-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol was carried out using samples of native (NCB) and ethanol-extracted (EECB) sugarcane bagasse. Autohydrolysis (AH) exhibited the best glucose recovery from both samples, compared to the use of both H3PO4 and H2SO4 catalysis at the same pretreatment time and temperature. All water-insoluble steam-exploded materials (SEB-WI) resulted in high glucose yields by enzymatic hydrolysis. SHF (separate hydrolysis and fermentation) gave ethanol yields higher than those obtained by SSF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and pSSF (pre-hydrolysis followed by SSF). For instance, AH gave 25, 18 and 16 g L(-1) of ethanol by SHF, SSF and pSSF, respectively. However, when the total processing time was taken into account, pSSF provided the best overall ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.58 g L(-1) h(-1). Also, the removal of ethanol-extractable materials from cane bagasse had no influence on the cellulosic ethanol production of SEB-WI, regardless of the fermentation strategy used for conversion. PMID:26943936

  6. A Comparison between Water and Ethanol Extracts of Rumex acetosa for Protective Effects on Gastric Ulcers in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Ji-Yeong; Lee, Yoon Seok; Han, Sun Young; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Kong, Jae Yang; Lee, Dong Hoon; Cho, Kyeong Jae; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Ahn, Mi-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Rumex acetosa is a perennial herb that is widely distributed across eastern Asia. Although the hot water extract of R. acetosa has been used to treat gastritis or gastric ulcers as a folk medicine, no scientific report exists for the use of this plant to treat gastric ulcers. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the anti-ulcer activity of water and 70% ethanol extracts obtained from R. acetosa, using an HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. Anti-inflammatory and free radical-scavenging activities of these two extracts were also evaluated and compared. As a result, the administration of R. acetosa extracts significantly reduced the occurrence of gastric ulcers. However, significant differences in protective activity against gastric ulcers were observed between the two samples. In the case of the group pretreated with an ethanol extract dosage of 100 mg/kg, the protective effect (90.9%) was higher than that of water extract (41.2%). Under histological evaluation, pretreatment with R. acetosa extracts reversed negative effects, such as inflammation, edema, moderate hemorrhaging and loss of epithelial cells, presented by HCl/ ethanol-treated stomachs. Meanwhile, R. acetosa extracts showed potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity and decreased NO production in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cellular viability. The greater anti-ulcer and NO production inhibitory activities exhibited by ethanol extracts compared to water extracts could be ascribed to the higher emodin levels, a major anthraquinone component of this plant. PMID:24009831

  7. Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    AlRashdi, Ahmed S.; Salama, Suzy M.; Alkiyumi, Salim S.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Abdelwahab, Siddig I.; Taha, Manal M.; Hussiani, Jamal; Asykin, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20 mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as compared with omeprazole or extract which shows significant protection towards gastric mucosal injury the plant promotes ulcer protection as it shows significant reduction of ulcer area grossly, and histology showed marked reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared with ulcer group. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of Hsp70 protein and downexpression of Bax protein in rats pretreated with extract. Significant increased in the pH, mucus of gastric content and high levels of PGE2, SOD and reduced amount of MDA was observed. PMID:22550543

  8. Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

    2012-03-01

    The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

  9. Antifertility activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Ayodeji F; Akhigbe, Roland E

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complementary medicine has grown over time with more botanicals emerging and remaining integral parts of medicare. Such botanicals include Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. AIM: This study investigated the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract on male reproductive system using rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Control and treated rats were maintained on control diet. Treated rats also received graded doses of the extract. RESULTS: When compared with the controls, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta treatment led to significant testosterone suppression associated with consequent significant rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) and decrease in sperm count. Treatment with Cryptolepis sanguinolenta did not result in significant attenuation of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and testicular morphometry. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also comparable in all groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity. PMID:22870014

  10. Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.

    PubMed

    Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano

    2007-01-01

    American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed. PMID:20411504

  11. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuting; Xu, Zhenbo; Zheng, Baodong; Martin Lo, Y

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) was evaluated using a variety of solvents. Petroleum ether was the most effective for oil extraction, followed by n-hexane, ethyl acetate, diethyl ether, acetone, and isopropanol. Several variables, such as ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time, and the ratio of solvent volume and seed weight (S/S ratio) were studied for optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). The highest oil yield, 25.11% (w/w), was obtained using petroleum ether under optimal conditions for ultrasonic power, extraction temperature, extraction time, and S/S ratio at 140 W, 40 °C, 36 min, and 10 ml/g, respectively. The PSO yield extracted by UAE was significantly higher than by using Soxhlet extraction (SE; 20.50%) and supercriti cal fluid extraction (SFE; 15.72%). The fatty acid compositions were significantly different among the PSO extracted by Soxhlet extraction, SFE, and UAE, with punicic acid (>65%) being the most dominant using UAE. PMID:22964031

  12. Evaluation of anti-Bothrops asper venom activity of ethanolic extract of Brownea rosademonte leaves.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Marcos; Chérigo, Lilia; Acosta, Hildaura; Otero, Rafael; Martínez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    Significant inhibition of the coagulant and hemorrhagic effects of Bothrops asper venom was demonstrated by ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Brownea rosademonte. In vitro experiments preincubating 5.5 mg of extract kg-1 b.m. for 30 min with a minimum hemorrhagic dose of venom (273.8 ± 16.1 μg of venom kg-1 b.m.) lowered the hemorrhagic activity of the venom alone in CD-1 mice by 51.5 ± 2.6 %. Additionally, 1.7 mg extract L-1 plasma prolonged 5.1 times the plasma coagulation time. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two compounds: ononitol (1) and quercetrin (2). The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was established by spectroscopic analyses, including APCI-HRMS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY). A quercetrin concentration of 0.11 μmol L-1 prolonged the plasma coagulation time 2.6 times demonstrating that this compound was one of the active constituents of the Brownea rosademonte extract. PMID:25531787

  13. Mechanistic Study of Silver Nanoparticle's Synthesis by Dragon's Blood Resin Ethanol Extract and Antiradiation Activity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Murtaza; Iqbal, Javed; Awan, Umer; Saeed, Yasmeen; Ranran, Yuan; Liang, Yanli; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2015-02-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is best way to avoid exposure of hazardous materials as compared to chemical manufacturing process which is a severe threat not only to biodiversity but also to environment. In present study, we reported a novel method of finding antiradiation compounds by bioreducing mechanism of silver nanoparticles formation using 50% ethanol extract of Dragons blood, a famous Chinese herbal plant. Color change during silver nanoparticles synthesis was observed and it was confirmed by ultra violet (UV) visible spectroscopy at wave length at 430 nm after 30 min of reaction at 60 °C. Well dispersed round shaped silver nanoparticles with approximate size (4 nm to 50 nm) were measured by TEM and particle size analyser. Capping of biomolecules on Ag nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectra. HPLC analysis was carried out to find active compounds in the extract. Furthermore, antiradiation activity of this extract was tested by MTT assay in vitro after incubating the SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h at 37 °C. The results indicate that presence of active compounds in plant extract not only involves in bioreduction process but also shows response against radiation. The dual role of plant extract as green synthesis of nanoparticles and exhibit activity against radiation which gives a new way of fishing out active compounds from complex herbal plants. PMID:26353649

  14. Sub-chronic safety evaluation of the ethanol extract of Aralia elata leaves in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengjin; He, Xiaoli; Niu, Wenying; Feng, Yuenan; Bian, Jingqi; Kuang, Haixue; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-08-01

    Aralia elata Seem. (A. elata) is a traditional Chinese medicine to treat some diseases. This investigation aims to evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of the ethanol extract of A. elata leaves, namely ethanol leaves extract (ELE), in Beagle dogs. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, dogs were treated with the ELE at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 12 weeks and followed by 4 weeks recovery period. During experimental period, clinical signs, mortality, body temperature, food consumption and body weight were recorded. Analysis of electrocardiogram, urinalysis, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights and histopathology were performed. The results showed that both food consumption and body weight significantly decreased in high-dose group. Treatment-related side effects and mortality were observed in high-dose female dogs. Some parameters showed significant alterations in electrocardiogram, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and relative organ weights. These alterations were not related to dose or consistent across gender, which were ascribed to incidental and biological variability. The findings in this study indicated that the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the ELE was 100 mg/kg in dogs and provided a vital reference for selecting a safe application dosage for human consumption. PMID:27156779

  15. Effect of ethanolic extract of Lepidium meyenii Walp on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Yu, Longjiang; Jin, Wenwen; Ao, Mingzhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of long-term ethanol extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on serum hormone levels in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compare them with the effect of diethylstilbestrol. Materials and Methods: Fifty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized or sham operated. Both sham and OVX control groups (n = 10, respectively) received the vehicle. The remaining OVX rats were oral administrated with ethanol extract of Maca (0.096, or 0.24g/kg; n = 10, respectively) and diethylstilbestrol (0.05 mg/kg; n = 10). The treatment continued for 28 weeks. At week 12 and week 28, the blood of rats was collected and serum hormone levels, including estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: At week 12, the levels of serum E2 were slightly higher in Maca groups than that in OVX group; T levels were significantly decreased; and FSH levels were advanced slightly in Maca groups than that in sham group. After 28 weeks administration, serum E2 levels in Maca-treated animals did not differ significantly from sham control, the low dose of Maca increased serum E2 levels, and Maca prevented increase in serum FSH levels compared with OVX group. Conclusions: Long-term Maca supply modulates endocrine hormone balance in OVX rats, especially it decreases enhanced FSH levels. It is proposed that Maca may become a potential choice for postmenopausal women. PMID:25097281

  16. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Md.; Atikur Rahman, Md.; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. PMID:25861372

  17. Acaricidal activity of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla ethanolic extracts against Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies.

    PubMed

    El Zalabani, Soheir M; El-Askary, Hesham I; Mousa, Ola M; Issa, Marwa Y; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2012-02-01

    The acaricidal (miticidal) activity of 90% ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla were tested against Varroa destructor mite. Four concentrations were used over two different time intervals under laboratory and field conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on mortality and LC(50) of all tested extracts against the Varroa mite was concentration and time dependant. The acaricidal action against Varroa mites was relatively the least for the S. macrophylla stem bark extract at 500 ppm concentration after 48 h while it reached 100% and 95% in case of S. mahogani bark and S. macrophylla leaves, respectively. The% infestation with Varroa in colonies treated with the different extracts at various time intervals showed that the rate of infestation decreased to 0.0% after 12 days from the beginning of treatments with 500 ppm of S. mahogani leaves extract compared to 0.79% decrease after treatment with Mitac, a reference drug (60 mg/colony). The rate of infestation in case of treatments with S. mahogani bark, S. macrophylla leaves and S. macrophylla bark was decreased to 0.11%, 2.41% and 1.08%, respectively. The highest reduction was observed with S. mahogani leaves extract followed by S. mahogani bark. All the tested extracts showed less or no effect on honey bees at the different concentrations and at different bioassay times. This study suggested that the use of natural plant extracts or their products as ecofriendly biodegradable agents could be of high value for the control of Varroa mite. PMID:22101075

  18. Studies on the antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of ethanol-extracted leaves of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana).

    PubMed

    Hassan, M M; Saha, A K; Khan, S A; Islam, A; Mahabub-Uz-Zaman, M; Ahmed, S S U

    2011-01-01

    This study screened the antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of ethanol-extracted leaves of yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana). The extract was tested against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in a model of albino rats and showed significant antidiarrhoeal activity (P<0.01). Disc diffusion technique was used to test the in vitro antibacterial activities of the extract and exhibited poor antibacterial activities against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria (mainly Bacillus sp). Ethanol-extracted leaves of yellow oleander showed narrow zone of inhibition in the bacterial lawns of Shigella flexineri, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella sp, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella sonnei. Cytotoxicty was determined against brine shrimp nauplii and LC50 of the plant extract was determined as 627.21μg/ml. The wide range of LC50 value denotes the safety effect of the extract. PMID:26623276

  19. Reactive Nitrogen Species Scavenging Capacity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Galinsoga parviflora and G. quadriradiata Herbs.

    PubMed

    Rogowska, Marta; Srecec, Sinisa; Bazylko, Agnieszka

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the scavenging capacity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts derived from the herb of two species of Galinsoga against NO and ONOO-. In both tests the aqueous extracts of both Galinsoga species were more active than the ethanolic extracts. The highest scavenging activity against NO, and also against ONOO- was shown by G. quadriradiata aqueous extract (SC50 ± SD = 1.54 ± 0.32, and 2.10 ± 1.98, respectively). The study showed that the activity of the extracts from both Galinsoga species is related not only to the presence of flavonoids but also to caffeic acid derivatives and caffeic acid. The results of this study partly explain the beneficial effects of Galinsoga herb extracts in the treatment of skin diseases. PMID:26749807

  20. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. PMID:25525107

  1. Flavonoid content in ethanolic extracts of selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous foods consumed by vulnerable groups of Kenya: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related functional properties.

    PubMed

    Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-08-01

    The present study evaluated the flavonoid content, antioxidant as well as type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activities of ethanolic extract of certain raw and traditionally processed indigenous food ingredients including cereals, legumes, oil seeds, tubers, vegetables and leafy vegetables, which are commonly consumed by vulnerable groups in Kenya. The vegetables exhibited higher flavonoid content (50-703 mg/100 g) when compared with the grains (47-343 mg/100 g). The ethanolic extract of presently studied food ingredients revealed 33-93% DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 486-6,389 mmol Fe(II)/g reducing power, 19-43% α-amylase inhibition activity and 14-68% α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Among the different food-stuffs, the drumstick and amaranth leaves exhibited significantly higher flavonoid content with excellent functional properties. Roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be suitable processing methods in preserving the functional properties. Hence, such viable processing techniques for respective food samples will be considered in the formulation of functional supplementary foods for vulnerable groups in Kenya. PMID:21375390

  2. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Heba M; Wahby, Mayssaa M

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140-145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities. PMID:27293516

  3. Neuroprotection of Grape Seed Extract and Pyridoxine against Triton-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Heba M.

    2016-01-01

    Triton WR-1339 administration causes neurotoxicity. Natural products and herbal extracts can attenuate cerebral injury. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective role of grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 against triton-induced neurotoxicity. Thirty-five adult male albino rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain, weighing 140–145 g, were divided into five groups: control, triton, grape seed extract + triton, grape seed extract + triton + vitamin B6, and vitamin B6 + triton. The hematological and biochemical analyses were carried out. Alteration in iNOS mRNA gene expression was determined using reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis. In addition, qualitative DNA fragmentation was examined using agarose gel electrophoresis. Triton-treatment caused significant disturbances in the hematological parameters, the neurological functions, and the antioxidant profile. Also, triton significantly increased the iNOS mRNA expression and DNA damage. Our results showed that grape seed extract and/or vitamin B6 could attenuate all the examined parameters. These natural substances could exhibit protective effects against triton-induced neurological damage because of their antioxidative and antiapoptotic capacities. PMID:27293516

  4. In vitro biological activities and fatty acid profiles of Pistacia terebinthus fruits and Pistacia khinjuk seeds.

    PubMed

    Hacıbekiroğlu, Işil; Yılmaz, Pelin Köseoğlu; Haşimi, Nesrin; Kılınç, Ersin; Tolan, Veysel; Kolak, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    This study reports in vitro anticholinesterase, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and ethanol-water extracts prepared from Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits and Pistacia khinjuk Stocks seeds as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and fatty acid compositions. Ethanol and ethanol-water extracts of both species exhibited higher anticholinesterase activity than galanthamine. Among ABTS, DPPH and CUPRAC assays, the highest antioxidant capacity of the extracts was found in the last one. P. terebinthus ethanol extract being rich in flavonoid content showed the best cupric reducing effect. All extracts possessed no antimicrobial activity. The main fatty acid in P. terebinthus fruits (52.52%) and P. khinjuk seeds (59.44%) was found to be oleic acid. Our results indicate that P. terebinthus fruits and P. khinjuk seeds could be a good source of anticholinesterase compounds, and could be phytochemically investigated. PMID:25115646

  5. Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab.; Tayyab, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg). PMID:24783203

  6. A study on the effect of ethanol extract of Radix rhapontici on erythrocyte immune function in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiang; Zhao, Hong; Guan, Yin; Song, Yanbin; Meng, Jing

    2013-01-01

    This paper mainly studied the effect of ethanol extract of Radix rhapontici on erythrocyte immune function in SD rats with acute blood stasis. The methods used the effect on erythrocyte immune function. After intragastric administration of suspension of ethanol extract of Radix rhapontici to SD rats for 3 weeks, on the 21st day from intragastric administration, SD rats were made into blood stasis model and bloods were collected to determine the C3b, C3bRR, RFIR, and RFER in erythrocyte immune function. Meanwhile, serum total antioxidant activity (TAA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) level of rats were determined, and experimental results were analysed with analysis of variance and Q test. The results showed that the ethanol extract of Radix rhapontici had a very good effect on enhancement of erythrocyte immune function in SD rats. PMID:24311883

  7. Protective effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, Rajamanickam; Kumaraguruparan, Ramasamy; Abraham, Suresh K; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in male Swiss albino mice. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei, the extent of hepatic lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidants-reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were used as intermediate biomarkers of chemoprotection. In DMBA-treated mice, the increases in micronuclei and lipid peroxides were accompanied by compromised antioxidant defenses. Pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract (200 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced DMBA-induced micronuclei and lipid peroxides and enhanced GSH-dependent antioxidant activities. The results of the present study suggest that ethanolic neem leaf extract exerts protective effects against DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant status. PMID:16635967

  8. Production of maize tortillas and cookies from nixtamalized flour enriched with anthocyanins, flavonoids and saponins extracted from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed coats.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Perez-Carrillo, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Ethanolic extract from black beans coat is a source of flavonoids, saponins and antocyanins. Nixtamalized maize flours (NF) are used for the preparation of products such as tortillas, tortillas chips, cookies among others. The objective of this research was to study the effect on textural parameters and color after adding flavonoids, saponins and anthocyanins from black bean seed coat in NF used for the production of tortillas and gluten-free cookies. Furthermore, the retention of bioactive compounds after tortilla and gluten-free-cookie preparation was assessed. Ethanolic extracts of black bean seed coats were added (3g/kg or 7 g/kg) to NF in order to prepare corn tortillas and gluten free cookies characterized in terms of dimensions, color and texture. Addition of 7 g/kg affected the color of cookies and tortillas without effect on texture and dimensions. It was possible to retain more than 80% and 60% of bioactives into baked tortillas and cookies, respectively. PMID:26304324

  9. Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of an ethanol extract of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Din, Wardah M; Chu, Jessica; Clarke, Garry; Jin, Khoo T; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Fry, Jeff R; Wiart, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    In the annals of biomedical theory perhaps no single class of natural product has enjoyed more ingenious speculation than antioxidants formally aimed at counteracting oxidative insults which are involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, skin ageing and wound healing. In pursuing our study of Malaysian traditional medicines with antioxidant properties, we became interested in Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort., used traditionally to heal wounds. To examine whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. could suppress oxidation an ethanol extract was tested by conventional chemical in vitro assays i.e., ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay (FRAP), DPPH scavenging assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. To explore whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. protected cells against oxidative injuries, we exposed human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). In all the aforementioned experiments, the ethanol extracts elicited potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. To gain a better understanding of the phytochemical nature of the antioxidant principle involved, five fractions (F1-F5) obtained from the ethanol extract were tested using FRAP, DPPH and BCB assays. Our results provided evidence that F5 was the most active fraction with antioxidant potentials equal to 2.090 +/- 0.307 microg/mL, 0.532 +/- 0.041 microg/mL, 0.032 +/- 0.025 microg/mL in FRAP, DPPH and BCB assay, respectively. Interestingly, F5 protected HepG2 against t-BHP oxidative insults. To further define the chemical identity of the antioxidant principle, we first performed a series of phytochemical tests, followed by liquid-chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) profiling which showed that the major compound contained in F5 was geraniin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the wound healing property of Acalypha wilkesiana

  10. Production of biodiesel from winery waste: extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Carmen María; Ramos, María Jesús; Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco

    2010-09-01

    In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed. Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol and bioethanol, being the methyl and ethyl ester contents higher than 97 wt.%. Finally, several in situ transesterifications were done. In situ transesterification did not reach either the oil yield extraction or the alkyl ester contents but the obtained biodiesel had better oxidation stability in comparison with the conventional process. PMID:20435475

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders. PMID:22958433

  12. Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Oyeleye, Idowu S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v) and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and quinolinic acid (QA)) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 μg/mL) and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 μg/mL) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat's brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P < 0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications. PMID:25506036

  13. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract.

    PubMed

    Sahgal, G; Ramanathan, S; Sasidharan, S; Mordi, M N; Ismail, S; Mansor, S M

    2009-12-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. The antimicrobial activity of the oily extract against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, yeast and fungus strains was evaluated based on the inhibition zone using disc diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values. The crude extract was subjected to various phytochemicals analysis. The demonstrated qualitative phytochemical tests exhibited the presences of common phytocompounds including alkaloids, terpenoids, antraquinones, cardiac glycosides, saponins, and volatile oils as major active constituents. The SMCM seed extract had inhibitory effects on the growth of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Streptococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabillase and illustrated MIC and MBC values ranging from 25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml. PMID:20237441

  14. Dyes extracted from Trigonella seeds as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batniji, Amal; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Ghamri, Hatem

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the extract of Trigonella seeds was used as sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The natural dye was extracted from the seeds using water and alcohol as solvents for the raw material. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of Trigonella extract solution and dye adsorbed on TiO2 film were measured. DSSCs sensitized by Trigonella extracted using water as a solvent exhibited better performance with efficiency of 0.215 %. The performance of the fabricated DSSCs was attempted to enhance by acid treatment of the FTO substrates with HNO3, H3PO4, and H2SO4. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the fabricated cells was also carried out.

  15. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  16. Bioactivities of the ethanol extract from Ageratum fastigiatum branches: antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory.

    PubMed

    Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Santos, Bruna C S; Alves, Maria Silvana; Araújo, Aílson L A; Yamamoto, Célia H; Pinto, Míriam A O; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C; Sousa, Orlando V

    2016-07-11

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Ageratum fastigiatum branches. Phytochemical screening and total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined. The antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrilhydrazin (DPPH) and iron reducing power methods. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, hot plate and tail immersion assays; while the carrageenan-induced paw edema and pleurisy tests were performed to examine the anti-inflammatory activity against acute inflammation. The extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, terpenes, sterols and saponins. Expressive levels of total phenols and flavonoids and a promising antioxidant effect were quantified. At the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, the extract inhibited the writhing, reduced both phases of paw licking time and increased the reaction time on the hot plate. In the tail immersion test, the extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) caused a significant inhibition of pain. In these doses, the paw edema, exudate volume and leucocyte mobilization were significantly reduced. These results suggest that A. fastigiatum can be an active source of substances with antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, adding scientific support to the appropriate use in the Brazilian folk medicine. PMID:27411067

  17. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Radosław; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesiołka, Danuta; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-03-01

    The antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the Uncaria tomentosa bark were evaluated. The analysis included trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOD) and quantitation of total tannins (TT) and total phenolic compounds (TPC). The obtained results indicate high antioxidant capacity of the studied materials in comparison to the other extracts of fruits, vegetables, cereals and medicinal plants. Higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of the alcoholic preparations -- TEAC=0.57 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.52 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.39 U/mg than of the aqueous preparation -- TEAC=0.34 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.19 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.10 U/mg were observed. These results might suggest higher medical suitability of alcoholic extracts. However, the highly elevated level of tannins in alcoholic extracts may cause undesirable gastric effects. PMID:16202551

  18. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 μg/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

  19. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Riadh Ben; Jilani, Imtinen Ben Haj; Bouaziz, Mohammed; Gargouri, Bochra; Elloumi, Nésrine; Attia, Hamadi; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb; Lassoued, Saloua

    2016-01-01

    Caper plant (Capparis spinosa) extracts have been associated with diverse biological activities including anti-oxidant properties. In this work, we characterized the hydro-ethanolic extract obtained from C. spinosa leaves [hydroethanolic extract of C. spinosa (HECS)] by analyzing the content in anti-oxidant compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Further, we evaluated HECS antioxidant activities in vitro using bleaching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ABTS test as well as by pretreatment of HeLa cells exposed to Fe(2+) or H2O2. Our findings indicate that HECS contains high amount of total phenolic compounds and high levels of flavonoids and anthocyanins. Furthermore, HECS exhibited antioxidant activity in both chemical and biological tests. Specially, pretreatment of HeLa cells with different concentrations of the extract conferred protection against lipid peroxidation and modulated activities of two antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase. These results revealed HECS antioxidant effects and suggest that C. spinosa leaves are a potential source of natural antioxidant molecules with possible applications in industry and medicine. PMID:25377263

  20. Chemical characterization of high-molar-mass fractions in a Norway spruce knotwood ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Smeds, Annika I; Eklund, Patrik C; Willför, Stefan M

    2016-10-01

    The low-molar-mass (LMM) fraction, only, i.e., the GC-eluting compounds, which are mainly lignans, has been characterized in Norway spruce knotwood hydrophilic extracts previously. Of this fraction, many lignans and sesquilignans and all GC peaks supposedly representing dilignans remain unidentified. In this work, dilignans and the GC non-eluting compounds (the high-molar mass fractions, HMM) were characterized in a 7-hydroxymatairesinol-reduced knotwood ethanol extract of Norway spruce by using several fractionation and analytical techniques. A methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) insoluble fraction of the extract contained mainly HMM material, of which the main part was shown to consist of lignan oligomers. The oligolignans (with a molar mass up to approximately 3700 Da) seemed to be linked by 55' bonds, some of them containing one or two guaiacylglycerol ether units linked to the lignan by βO4 or β5 bonds. Several oligolignans were identified or tentatively identified. The MTBE soluble fraction, which accounted for the major part (81%) of the extract, contained mainly LMM material (lignans, sesqui- and dilignans). The part of the HMM material in the MTBE soluble fraction that was easily isolable (2%) seemed to contain polymers of fatty acids and alcohols, resin acids, and sterols. PMID:27256310

  1. Antibacterial activity of clove, gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448

    PubMed Central

    Mirpour, Mirsasan; Gholizadeh Siahmazgi, Zohreh; Sharifi Kiasaraie, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial compounds from herbal sources have good therapeutic potential. In this study, the antibacterial effects of clove and gall nut, methanolic and ethanolic extractions, were evaluated for their effect on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448, as both the two cause oral diseases. Method The clove and gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts were prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated for S. mutans and S. salivarius in the base of inhibition zone diameter using agar diffusion method. In this part minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed. Results These extracts showed effective antibacterial activity on bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of clove was more than that of ethanolic extract, and ethanolic extracts of gall nut had antibacterial activity more than that of methanolic extracts. MIC and MBC results for clove methanolic extract were 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml for S. mutans and 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for clove ethanolic extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. MIC and MBC results for gall nut methanolic extract were 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. mutans and 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for gall nut ethanolic extracts were 3.1 mg/ml and 6.2 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. Discussion The results showed effective antibacterial activity using clove and gall nut methanolic extracts. If other properties such as tolerance of tissue can also be studied, these extracts can be used as a mouthwash. PMID:25853041

  2. Effects of hydro-ethanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis on blood glucose levels and pathology of organs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Oryan, Ahmad; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Hamidi, Ahmad-Reza; Mohammadalipour, Adel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluated the differential effects of ethanol extraction of Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis) on the blood glucose concentration and pathology of pancreas, liver, lungs, kidney and gastrointestinal tract in the alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 adult female Albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The first group was treated with the extract of C. colocynthis seed (300 mg/kg) and the rats of the second group, as an untreated diabetic group, received ordinary diet. Ten non diabetic rats remained as a normal control group. Results The results of this study indicate that C. colocynthis was able to reduce blood glucose significantly compared with the control diabetic group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, alloxan resulted in severe necrotic changes in the pancreatic islets, especially in the central area of the islets. Tissue sections of the pancreas in the treated rats demonstrated enhanced regeneration of B cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Liver of the treated diabetic rats revealed significant improvement of the hepatic tissue compared to those of the untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions The present study indicated a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect of C. colocynthis seed and supported its traditional usage in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  3. Effect of the extracts of pumpkin seeds on the urodynamics of rabbits: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Ouyang, J Z; Zhang, Y S; Tayalla, B; Zhou, X C; Zhou, S W

    1994-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds were prepared into oil n-butyle alcohol and ether extracts. The effects of the three extracts on the urodynamics of rabbits were observed. It was concluded that the oil preparation could remarkably reduce the bladder pressure, increase the bladder compliance, reduce the urethral pressure. Other two kinds of preparations had no effect in this experimental. The mechanisms of the effect of oil preparation on the urodynamics and the prospect of clinical use was discussed. PMID:7760436

  4. Preparation and characterization of nano liposomes of Orthosiphon stamineus ethanolic extract in soybean phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background O. stamineus is a medicinal herb with remarkable pharmacological properties. However, poor solubility of the active principles limits its medicinal value. This study sought to prepare nano liposomes of OS ethanolic extract in unpurified soybean phospholipids in order to improve its solubility and permeability. OS liposomes were prepared by the conventional film method, and were characterized for solubility, entrapment efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size and zeta potential, release, absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs, and DPPH scavenging effect. Results OS liposomes showed substantial enhancement of extract’s solubility from 956 ± 34 to 3979 ± 139 μg/ml, with entrapment efficiency of 66.2 ± 0.9%. FTIR study indicates interaction between soybean phospholipids and OS extract. TEM and dynamic light scattering showed presence of round anionic nano liposomes with particle size and zeta potential of 152.5 ± 1.1 nm and −49.8 ± 1.0 mV, respectively. A study using the fluorescent probe pyrene showed the critical micellar concentration is 9.2 ± 2.9 μg/ml. Release studies showed 94 ± 0.1% release in non-formulated extract and 62.4 ± 0.1% in OS liposomes. Released extract from OS liposomes showed improvement in DPPH scavenging effect, IC50 = 23.5 ± 1.1 μg/ml compared to 32.4 ± 0.5 μg/ml in non-formulated extract. OS liposomes were stable at pH 5.5 and 7.4, but showed reversible agglomeration at pH 1.6. Absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs showed substantial improvement in permeability of 3′-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4″-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, eupatorin, and 3 other unknown compounds. Conclusions Enhanced solubility, absorption and antioxidant effect may improve the overall pharmacological effects and medicinal value of OS ethanolic extract. PMID:24674107

  5. Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

  6. Effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour in the rat: metabolic-endocrine correlates.

    PubMed

    Petit, P; Sauvaire, Y; Ponsin, G; Manteghetti, M; Fave, A; Ribes, G

    1993-06-01

    Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) are assumed to have restorative and nutritive properties. The present work was designed to investigate the effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour. Experiments were performed to determine food consumption and motivation to eat as well as metabolic-endocrine changes in chronically treated animals. Male Wistar rats were given the seed extract orally (10 and 100 mg/day per 300 g body weight), mixed together with food, and control animals were monitored in parallel. The results show that chronic oral administration of the fenugreek extract significantly increases food intake and the motivation to eat. The treatment, however, does not prevent the anorexia nor the decreased motivation to eat induced by d-fenfluramine (2 mg/kg, IP). An increase in plasma insulin and a decrease in total cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) total cholesterol were also observed. In conclusion, chronic administration of a fenugreek seed extract enhances food consumption and motivation to eat in rats and also induces hyperinsulinemia as well as hypocholesterolemia. PMID:8327543

  7. Dehulling of Cuphea PSR23 Seeds to Reduce Color of the Extracted Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil extracted from the seeds Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid hybrid from C. viscosissima x C. lanceolata, by screw-pressing contained 200-360 ppm of chlorophyll. A high amount of bleaching clay was needed during refining to remove the chlorophyll in the oil. In this paper, dehu...

  8. Development of a fescue toxicosis model using a fescue seed extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to examine the efficacy of a fescue seed extract for inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. Four growing Holstein steers (BW = 309±36kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas were utilized in a four phase crossover design experiment. The basal diet consisted of endophyte fr...

  9. Formulation and characterization of a cream containing extract of fenugreek seeds.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Muhammad K; Akhtar, Naveed; Ahmad, Mahmood; Murtaza, Ghulam; Khan, Haji M S; Iqbal, Muhammad; Rasul, Akhtar; Bhatti, Naveed S

    2010-01-01

    Fenugreek seeds possess antioxidant effects and contain a mucilage which has emollient properties. It can also produce skin healing, whitening, moisturizing, skin soothening and antiwrinkle effects. The purpose of study was to formulate a stable W/O emulsion containing fenugreek seeds extract using liquid paraffin oil. Fenugreek seeds extract, which was obtained by concentrating methanolic extract of fenugreek seeds, was entrapped in the inner aqueous phase of W/O emulsion. A base containing no active material and a formulation containing concentrated extract of fenugreek (in a concentration of 4%) in the internal aqueous phase (W/O emulsion) were prepared and stored at different accelerated conditions for a period of four weeks to predict the stability of these creams. It was found that both, the base and the formulation, were stable at all the accelerated conditions regarding color, liquifaction and phase separation. However, insignificant changes in the pH of base and significant changes in the pH of the formulation were observed with the passage of time. Both the base and the formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for six weeks and various parameters of the skin were evaluated every week to measure any effect produced by these creams. All the effects of base were statistically significant except the sebum contents and pH, which changed but insignificantly. A significant decrease on skin melanin and erythma was produced by the formulation. An insignificant decrease in TEWL was observed for the formulation. PMID:20369794

  10. Umami taste amino acids produced by hydrolyzing extracted protein from tomato seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...

  11. Evaluation of antidepressant-like effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum fruit in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shahamat, Zahra; Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mohammadi Motamed, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pimpinella anisum (P. anisum) has different pharmacological properties such as anticonvulsant, analgesic, tranquilizer, antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects. In this study the antidepressant-like effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum fruit in mice was investigated. Materials and Methods: Forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were used to determine the antidepressant effects of P. anisum (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) fruit extracts. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and imipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) were used as standard drugs. Results: All the three doses of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (except 50 mg/kg of aqueous extract in FST) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the immobility times in both FST and TST. All doses of extracts increased the swimming time dose-dependently, without any significant change in climbing time. In addition, all doses of ethanolic extract reduced immobility times and increased swimming time insignificantly higher than aqueous extract. But, the two extracts decreased the duration of climbing time similarly. Fluoxetine and imipramine decreased immobility time in both tests. Fluoxetine increased the swimming time without modifying climbing time. In contrast, imipramine increased climbing time without any significant change in swimming time. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that P. anisum possesses an antidepressant-like activity similar to that of fluoxetine, which has a potential clinical value for application in the management of depression. PMID:27462555

  12. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>α-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

  13. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>α-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

  14. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla L. (Saltcedar) in mice.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Abbas, Khizar; Hamayun, Rahma; Ali, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Tamarix aphylla. The powdered plant was extracted by the method of cold maceration using aqueous ethanol (70:30) as solvents. Analgesic activity was assessed by Eddy's hot plate method, formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carageenan-induced mice paw edema. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. The aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla showed 42% inhibition (p<0.005) of acetic acid- induced writhing, 63% reduction (p<0.005) in formalin-induced paw licking, and 42% increase (p<0.05) in reaction time as compared to normal control. The extract did not show significant anti-inflammatory activity. However, it showed significant antipyretic effect (p<0.005). The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla exhibit analgesic and antipyretic activity but lacks anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25362598

  15. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 µg/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml) with the IC50=119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  16. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 µg/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml) with the IC50=119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  17. The Prophylactic Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Zingiber Officinale (Ginger) on Ethanol-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akbari, Abolfazl; Nasiri, Khadijeh; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ginger is a natural dietary component with antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats by measuring the total homocysteine (tHcy), trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity including glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and malondialdehyde (MDA). Methods: Twenty-eight adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups and treated daily for 28 days as follows: control, control+ginger (1 g/kg of body weight (B.W)/day by gavage), test group (ethanol 4 g/kg of B.W/day by gavage), and treated group (ethanol+ginger). At the end of the experiment, all the rats were sacrificed and their testes were removed and used for the measurement of the above factors. Results: The results in the test group indicated that ethanol decreased antioxidant enzymes activity and increased MDA and tHcy compared with the control groups (P<0.05). In the treated group, ginger extract improved antioxidant enzymes activity and reduced tHcy and MDA level compared with the test group (P<0.05). Conclusion: It can be concluded that ethanol causes oxidative stress in testis and ginger extract improves the trace elements, antioxidant enzymes activity, and decreases tHcy and MDA. PMID:26722150

  18. Application of response surface methodology to optimize microwave-assisted extraction of silymarin from milk thistle seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several parameters of Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) including extraction time, extraction temperature, ethanol concentration and solid-liquid ratio were selected to describe the MAE processing. The silybin content, measured by an UV-Vis spectrophotometry, was considered as the silymarin yield....

  19. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenols from seeds of grape pomace.

    PubMed

    Andjelković, Marko Z; Milenković-Andjelković, Ana S; Radovanović, Blaga C; Radovanović, Aleksandra N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to optimize the extraction condition of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenols from the red grape of Vranac variety (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace seeds. The minimum experiments needed for optimization of UAE by response surface methodology (RSM) were obtained by spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses of seed extracts. UAE greatly depends on three independent variables: extraction temperature, time and liquid/solid ratio. The RSM can be used for optimization of UAE conditions to obtain maximum responses such as extraction yield, TPC, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and proanthocyanidin content. The predicted values of the model were in accordance with experimental data under the same conditions (RSD was 0.74%). Experimental data also confirmed that UAE gives a better yield of phenolics than conventional solvent extraction (23.76% increase). The UAE under optimal extraction conditions is suitable for obtaining extracts that are rich in phenolic content, and have strong antioxidant activity which could be used as additives in food and medicaments. PMID:25551727

  20. Ethanol extract of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi promotes osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Zhang, Xiao-ai; Zhang, Jin-fang; Chan, Chu-yan; Yew, David Tai Wai; He, Ming-liang; Lin, Marie Chia-mi; Leung, Ping-chung; Kung, Hsiang-fu

    2010-04-01

    Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 1000 years. The ethanol extract of FLL (EFLL) has been shown to be a potential candidate in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The present study aimed to determine whether EFLL carries out the effect by promoting osteogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was evaluated by their alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and mineralization. Expression of genes was detected by RT-PCR. We found that EFLL significantly stimulated the ALP activities and shortened the time needed for the mineralization of MSCs during osteogenic differentiation. The expression of several osteoblast differentiation regulators was also upregulated by EFLL during this process. Our study demonstrated that the EFLL is capable of enhancing osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. It might be useful for treating diseases with inadequate bone formation, including osteoporosis. PMID:19813230

  1. An ethanol extract of Ramulus mori improves blood circulation by inhibiting platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyun; Kwon, Gayeung; Park, Jieun; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Choe, Soo Young; Seo, Yoonhee; Lim, Young-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Inappropriate platelet aggregation can cause blood coagulation and thrombosis. In this study, the effect of an ethanol extract of Ramulus mori (ERM) on blood circulation was investigated. The antithrombotic activity of ERM on rat carotid arterial thrombosis was evaluated in vivo, and the effect of ERM on platelet aggregation and blood coagulation time was evaluated ex vivo. To evaluate the safety of ERM, its cytotoxicity to platelets and its effect on tail bleeding time were assessed; ERM was not toxic to rat platelets and did not prolong bleeding time. Moreover, administering ERM to rats had a significant preventive effect on carotid arterial thrombosis in vivo, and significantly inhibited adenosine diphosphate- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation ex vivo, whereas it did not prolong coagulation periods, such as prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. The results suggest that ERM is effective in improving blood circulation via antiplatelet activity rather than anticoagulation activity. PMID:26967156

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and DNA protective capacity of Chenopodium album's ethanolic leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Elif Korcan, S; Aksoy, Onur; Erdoğmuş, S Feyza; Ciğerci, İ Hakkı; Konuk, Muhsin

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the antibacterial effects of Chenopodium album's ethanolic leaf extract (CAE) on all the Gram (+) and Gram (-) microorganisms and evaluated the protective effects of CAE on both yeast and human mononuclear leukocytes' genomic DNA upon oxidative shock. Antibacterial activity was recorded on Bacillus subtilis with 13 mm of inhibition zone. Total oxidative status (TOS) and the total antioxidative status (TAS) levels were determined to evaluate the antioxidant activity of CAE. Results indicated that there was a good correlation between dose of CAE and TAS levels. We also observed that CAE protect the DNA of both yeast and mononuclear leukocytes against the damaging effect of hydrogen peroxide. The comet assay, applied on both Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 (MATa his3Δ1 leu2Δ0 met15Δ0 ura3Δ0) and human leukocytes, results suggested that there was statistically significant correlation between CAE dilutions and antigenotoxic activity. PMID:22897836

  3. Ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa protects Fe(II) induced lipid peroxidation in rat's brain, kidney and liver homogenates.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Khalil, ShafqatUllah; Hussain, Arshad; Rehman, Shakilla; Sajjad, Shagufta; Rahman, Ataur; da Rocha, Joao B T

    2016-01-01

    The study describes the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa against Fe(II) induced lipid peroxidation. Basal and Fe(II) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production was significantly inhibited by the ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa at 25-200 μg/ml. Our data revealed that the extract has high DPPH radical scavenging activity at highest tested concentrations. The extract significantly chelated Fe(II) and scavenged hydroxyl (OH) radical at 25-200μg/ml concentration. The nutritional analysis was performed and carbohydrate, fats, fiber, protein, moisture and ash content were measured in the studied extract. The phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate & sugar, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, protein and amino acid, phytosterols, tannins, gum and mucilage. The extract also showed significant antimicrobial activities against 10 bacterial strains i.e. Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escheria coli, Xanthomonas, Salmonella heidelberg, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium and Escheria coli (human) and 5 fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Entomola, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium. This study confirms the potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa which can be considered not only as a diet supplement but can be used against a variety of free radical induced damage diseases. PMID:26826815

  4. Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness. PMID:22225422

  5. The effectiveness of ethanolic extract of Amaranthus tricolor L.: A natural hepatoprotective agent.

    PubMed

    Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

    2010-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Amaranthus tricolor L. (ATE) leaves was tested for its efficacy against CCl₄-induced liver toxicity in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of ATE was evaluated via measuring various liver toxicity parameters, the lipid profile, and a histopathological evaluation. A sleeping time determination study and an acute toxicity test were performed in mice. The results clearly showed that oral administration of ATE for three weeks significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum GOT, GPT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, TG, and MDA induced by CCl₄. Moreover, ATE treatment was also found to significantly increase the activities of NP-SH and TP in liver tissue. These biochemical findings have been supported by the evaluation of the liver histopathology in rats. The prolongation of narcolepsy induced by pentobarbital was shortened significantly by the extract. The acute toxicity test showed that no morbidity or mortality was caused by the extract. The observed hepatoprotective effect appears to be due to the antioxidant properties of A. tricolor, which may pave the way to finding a new drug to be used for fighting liver diseases. PMID:21061460

  6. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory Activities, and Safety of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Gongronema latifolium Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Agwaramgbo, Amanze; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Onuorah, Maureen Ugochukwu; Mbagwu, Sonne Ikechukwu

    2014-01-01

    Gongronema latifolium fruit has wide application in ethnomedicine, especially in maintaining healthy living and general body healing. We therefore investigated the antioxidant, immunomodulatory activities, and safety of its ethanol extract and fractions. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test while in vivo activities were determined using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced oxidative stress. Cell and humoral mediated immune responses were also evaluated together with toxicity studies. The extract, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions showed inhibition of DPPH radical with IC50s 120, 90, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA conc. 1.2 μmol/L) compared to control (2.8 μmol/L). Both ethyl acetate and methanol fractions at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) phagocytic index of 0.021 and 0.025, respectively, compared with control (0.01). Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of white blood cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were noticed on the 91st day at higher doses. Generally, this study justified the traditional use of G. latifolium fruit for general body healing and maintenance of healthy living. Long term administration is safe on the haematological and biochemical systems especially at lower doses and its toxicity at higher doses is reversible. PMID:27433504

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory Activities, and Safety of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Gongronema latifolium Fruit.

    PubMed

    Agwaramgbo, Amanze; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Onuorah, Maureen Ugochukwu; Mbagwu, Sonne Ikechukwu

    2014-01-01

    Gongronema latifolium fruit has wide application in ethnomedicine, especially in maintaining healthy living and general body healing. We therefore investigated the antioxidant, immunomodulatory activities, and safety of its ethanol extract and fractions. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test while in vivo activities were determined using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced oxidative stress. Cell and humoral mediated immune responses were also evaluated together with toxicity studies. The extract, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions showed inhibition of DPPH radical with IC50s 120, 90, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA conc. 1.2 μmol/L) compared to control (2.8 μmol/L). Both ethyl acetate and methanol fractions at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) phagocytic index of 0.021 and 0.025, respectively, compared with control (0.01). Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of white blood cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were noticed on the 91st day at higher doses. Generally, this study justified the traditional use of G. latifolium fruit for general body healing and maintenance of healthy living. Long term administration is safe on the haematological and biochemical systems especially at lower doses and its toxicity at higher doses is reversible. PMID:27433504

  8. Detoxification of corn stover prehydrolyzate by trialkylamine extraction to improve the ethanol production with Pichia stipitis CBS 5776.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjun; Yong, Qiang; Xu, Yong; Yu, Shiyuan

    2011-01-01

    In order to realize the separated ethanol fermentation of glucose and xylose, prehydrolysis of corn stover with sulfuric acid at moderate temperature was applied, while inhibitors were produced inevitably. A complex extraction was adopted to detoxify the prehydrolyzate before fermentation to ethanol with Pichia stipitis CBS 5776. The best proportion of mixed extractant was 30% trialkylamine-50% n-octanol -20% kerosene. Detoxification results indicated that 73.3% of acetic acid, 45.7% of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 100% of furfural could be removed. Compared with the undetoxified prehydrolyzate, the fermentability of the detoxified prehydrolyzate was significantly improved. After 48 h fermentation of the detoxified prehydrolyzate containing 7.80 g/l of glucose and 52.8 g/l of xylose, the sugar utilization ratio was 93.2%; the ethanol concentration reached its peak value of 21.8 g/l, which was corresponding to 82.3% of the theoretical value. PMID:20952191

  9. Investigation on hypoglycemic effects of ethanol extract of Alpinia nigra (Gaertn.) in animal model

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Mohammad Shah Hafez; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Hosen, S. M. Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our study aims at exploring the hypoglycemic effect, efficacy, and possible mode of action of ethanol extract of Alpinia nigra (EEAN) as an antidiabetic agent in an animal model. Methods: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to identify primary hypoglycemic effect in mice. Three tests (glucose absorption, sucrose absorption, and disaccharidase activity) were carried out by gut perfusion and six segments studies to assess carbohydrate absorption and glucose utilization. Results: In OGTT, at 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg dose of EEAN extract significantly improved oral glucose tolerance among normal mice at 60 min and 90 min with compared to control. Both doses of extract significantly (P < 0.01) reduced blood glucose level and showed the hypoglycemic effect by retarding 11.43% and 20.82% of blood glucose level after 2 h of administration in glucose-induced mice, respectively. In situ perfused rat intestinal model demonstrated reduced glucose absorption at a 500 mg/kg dose. Inhibition of intestinal disaccharidase was also found by the extract. This was confirmed, yet again, via the six segment study. Throughout the length of the gastrointestinal tract, sucrose digestion was found to be inhibited which is also evident in the six segment study. Conclusions: This study suggests that the EEAN has hypoglycemic effects in a dose-dependent manner by inhibiting intestinal glucose absorption, and these may be effective in the treatment of diabetes. Further study is required to explicate the effect this extract or the active compounds have on the individual glucose transporters and the precise mechanism. PMID:27104033

  10. Antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats.

    PubMed

    Oyagbemi, A A; Odetola, A A; Azeez, O I

    2010-12-01

    This research was designed to investigate the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in five of the six groups (B-F) by a single intra-peritoneal injection at the dose of 100mg/kg after normal fasting blood glucose had been determined. Group A served as the positive control while groups C-E received 100mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract respectively. Group B did not received any treatment while group F received chlorpropamide, a standard drug used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose and body weights were monitored weekly for four weeks. Plasma lipids and electrolytes such as Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL), Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) were determined after four weeks of treatment with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. The results show significant reduction (P<0.001) in the blood glucose in group C (100mg/kg of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) when compared with diabetic control (Alloxan only) and other treatment groups. There was gradual increase in weight of all treatment groups compared with the diabetic control, which had progressive weight loss. Plasma cholesterol levels also significantly reduced (P<0.001) in rats treated with 1,000mg/kg Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. From this study, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract was found to considerably reduce blood glucose and plasma cholesterol levels and progressively increase weight gain in diabetic treated rats confirming its traditional use for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22416660

  11. In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens

    PubMed Central

    Olugbami, J. Olorunjuwon; Gbadegesin, Michael A.; Odunola, Oyeronke A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in various pathological conditions. Synthetic antioxidants have adverse health effects, while many medicinal plants have antioxidant components that can prevent the harmful effects of ROS. Objectives: This study quantitatively determined the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens (EESTG). Materials and Methods: The objectives were achieved based on in vitro assays. Data were analyzed by Sigma Plot (version 11.0). Results: Using gallic acid as the standard compound, TPC value obtained was 596.57 μg GAE/mg extract. TFC content of EESTG, determined as quercetin equivalent was 129.58 μg QE/mg extract. Furthermore, EESTG significantly (P < 0.001) displayed higher reducing power activity than the standard compounds (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]). Total antioxidant capacity assay, measured by phosphomolybdate method, was 358.33 ± 5.77 μg butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg extract. β-carotene-linoleate bleaching method affirmed the potency of EESTG because of its significantly (P < 0.001) higher anti-oxidant activity when compared with quercetin and BHT. Based on DPPH assay, EESTG displayed significantly (P < 0.001) higher activity than BHT, while the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of BHT and quercetin significantly (P < 0.001) exceeded that of the extract, although EESTG still displayed a high level of activity obtained as 83.77% in comparison to 92.80% of the standard compounds. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate the presence of promisingly potent phytoconstituents in EESTG that have the capability to act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. PMID:25598635

  12. Neuroprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia ethanol extract on 6-hydroxy dopamine induced Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Chinni, Santhivardhan; Roy, Partha Deb; Kannan, Elango; Antony, A. Shanish; Kumar, M. N. Satish

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates the neuroprotective activity of ethanol extract of Tinospora cordifolia aerial parts against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Materials and Methods: T. cordifolia ethanol extract (TCEE) was standardized with high performance thin layer chromatography using berberine. Experimental PD was induced by intracerebral injection of 6-OHDA (8 μg). Animals were divided into five groups: sham operated, negative control, positive control (levodopa 6 mg/kg) and two experimental groups (n = 6/group). Experimental groups received 200 and 400 mg/kg of TCEE once daily for 30 days by oral gavage. Biochemical parameters including dopamine level, oxidative stress, complex I activity and brain iron asymmetry ratio and locomotor activity including skeletal muscle co-ordination and degree of catatonia were assessed. Results: TCEE exhibited significant neuroprotection by increasing the dopamine levels (1.96 ± 0.20 and 2.45 ± 0.40 ng/mg of protein) and complex I activity (77.14 ± 0.89 and 78.50 ± 0.96 nmol/min/mg of protein) at 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively when compared with negative control group. Iron asymmetry ratio was also significantly attenuated by TCEE at 200 (1.57 ± 0.18) and 400 mg/kg (1.11 ± 0.15) when compared with negative control group. Neuroprotection by TCEE was further supported by reduced oxidative stress and restored locomotor activity in treatment groups. Conclusion: Results show that TCEE possess significant neuroprotection in 6-OHDA induced PD by protecting dopaminergic neurons and reducing the iron accumulation. PMID:24741189

  13. Modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by ethanolic neem leaf extract during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Velmurugan, B; Nagini, S

    2005-06-01

    Chemoprevention by medicinal plants is a promising approach for controlling cancer. There is substantial evidence to indicate that chemopreventive agents exert their anticarcinogenic effects by modulation of phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Therefore, we examined the chemopreventive potential of ethanolic neem leaf extract (ENLE) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. The right buccal pouches of animals in Group I were painted with 0.5 per cent DMBA in liquid paraffin three times per week. Animals in Group 2 painted with DMBA as in group 1, received in addition, intragastric administration of ENLE at a concentration of 200 mg/kg bw three times per week on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 was given ENLE alone. Animals in Group 4 served as controls. All animals were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Five out of six hamsters painted with DMBA alone developed squamous cell carcinomas in the buccal pouch. The HBP tumours showed an increase in phase I carcinogen activation (cytochrome P450 and b5) and phase II detoxification enzyme (glutathione-S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and NADPH-diaphorase) activities. In the liver of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced cytochrome P450 and b5 levels were accompanied by a decrease in phase II detoxification enzyme activities. Administration of ENLE effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP tumours, decreased cytochrome P450 and b5 levels, and enhanced phase II enzyme activities in the pouch and liver. Our results suggest that the modulation of DMBA metabolism is a possible mechanism for the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract. PMID:16110755

  14. Ulcer healing potential of ethanolic extract of Caralluma attenuata on experimental diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sunil; Srivastava, Sajal; Singh, Kisanpal; Sharma, Alok; Garg, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Available data indicated that diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the vulnerability of the gastric ulcers and the need of the hour is to develop effective agents to treat ulcer with diabetes for better patient compliance and cost effectiveness. The ulcer-healing properties of ethanolic extract of Caralluma attenuata (CAEt) against both chemically- and physically induced gastric ulcers in experimental rats are recently studied. Aim: To assess the ulcer healing potential of Ethanolic Extract of Caralluma attenuata on Experimental Diabetic Rats. Material and Methods: The current study aimed to evaluate ulcer healing properties of CAEt on the aspirin induced gastric ulcer in rats with streptozotocin induced DM. The hypothesis is based on the fact that DM results in compromising the mucosal defensive factors associated with delay in gastric ulcer healing, and if these changes can be corrected by using agents known for their antidiabetic and antiulcer properties. Experimental albino rats were divided into six groups. Except for Group I, other groups contained streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Group I (normal control) and Group II (diabetic control) were administered vehicle, Groups III and IV (diabetic experimental) were administered CAEt in dose of 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively, and Groups V and VI (positive controls) were respectively administered oral standard drugs omeprazole, 20 mg/kg, and tolbutamide 10 mg/kg. Result: The results confirmed that the CAEt significantly decreases the ulcer index (P < 0.05) in the aspirin-induced gastric ulcers and also significantly exhibit antioxidant and glucose lowering activity in the diabetic ulcer rats. The study showed that C. attenuata has the potential to be used as an antiulcer agent in experimental diabetic rats. PMID:27621520

  15. Antimicrobial activities of ethanol and butanol fractions of white rose petal extract.

    PubMed

    Park, Dongsun; Shin, Kyungha; Choi, Youngjin; Guo, Haiyu; Cha, Yeseul; Kim, Sa-Hyun; Han, Nam Soo; Joo, Seong Soo; Choi, Jae Kwon; Lee, Yoon Bok; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Kim, Jong Bae; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2016-04-01

    White rose (Rosa hybrida) petals were extracted with ethanol (EtOH) or butanol (BuOH), and tested for their antimicrobial activities against two species of Gram-positive bacteria, six species of Gram-negative bacteria, and two species of fungi. On in vitro antimicrobial assays, Helicobacter pylori and Propionibacterium acnes were highly susceptible to white rose petal extract (WRPE)-EtOH and WRPE-BuOH, leading to minimal inhibitory concentrations of 100 and 10 μg/mL for H. pylori and 400 and 40 μg/mL for P. acnes, respectively. In in vivo experiments, C57BL/6 mice were infected with H. pylori by intragastric inoculation (1 × 10(8) CFU/mouse) 3 times, and orally treated twice a day for 14 days with WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-BuOH. On a CLO kit assay, 200 mg/kg of WRPE-EtOH fully eliminated the bacteria from the gastric mucosa, and the effect of 100 mg/kg of ethanol fraction was similar to pantoprazole (30 mg/kg), displaying 75% elimination. WRPE-BuOH was more effective, exhibiting 75% elimination at 20 mg/kg. The CLO test results were confirmed by bacterial identification. WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-BuOH inhibited the growth of various bacteria and fungi, and in particular, they effectively killed H. pylori and eliminated the bacteria from the mouse stomach. The results indicate that WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-BuOH could be good candidates for the elimination of H. pylori. PMID:26802535

  16. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:12722156

  17. Chemical composition of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Tiruppur Venkatachallam, Suresh Kumar; Pattekhan, Hajimalang; Divakar, Soundar; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

    2010-12-01

    Chemical composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide at two different conditions that result in total extract (28 MPa/50°C, SFE 1) and major volatile part (12 MPa/40°C, SFE 2) and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of SFE-1 (HD SFE). SFE have been carried out to characterize the compounds and the variation of quinones and phenolics. The extracts were analysed by GC and GC-MS and the presence of phenolic compounds was further confirmed by 2D HSQCT (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Forty-seven volatile compounds were detected where sixteen compounds were reported for the first time in the oil of this seed. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ), dithymoquinone (DTQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ) and thymol (THY) were the major phenolic compounds. It can be concluded that the chemical composition of extracts obtained by SC CO2 extraction of the seeds showed better recovery of phenolic compounds than HD SFE and proved the occurrence of thermally labile or photosensitive bioactive volatiles of four major quinonic phenol compounds. PMID:23572692

  18. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  19. Assessment of Pb and Cd in seed oils and meals and methodology of their extraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Hongliang; Peng, Liang; Chen, Zhipeng; Zeng, Qingru

    2016-04-15

    Oil seed, which is a secondary product in phytoremediation, contaminated with heavy metals should be disposed of in an appropriate fashion. In this study, heavy metal concentrations found in oilseed rape and peanut oils were below 0.1 mg kg(-1) after extractions, being found most of the heavy metals in meals rather in oils. Extraction experiments were carried out to determine the optimum methodology for the removal of Pb and Cd from seed meals using K3C6H5O7, K2C4H4O6 and (NH4)2EDTA. The highest extraction of the Pb and Cd in the seed meals was achieved using 30 mM extractant solutions at 30°C for 24 h and a three-step extraction procedure. K3C6H5O7 and K2C4H4O6 had less impact on the removal of nutrients than (NH4)2EDTA. PMID:26616978

  20. Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

    2013-01-01

    The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses. PMID:23652639

  1. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gözlekçi, Sadiye; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

    2011-04-01

    The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

  2. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Gözlekçi, Şadiye; Saraçoğlu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Özgen, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

  3. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cydonia oblong seed extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, Faria; Ghafoor, Nida; Iqbal, Mudassir; Mehboob, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    The green synthesis of nanoparticles has emerged as a cost-effective and environmentally benign technique. The present study describes the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a seed extract of Cydonia oblonga. The conditions were optimized by adjusting pH, temperature, time and amount of seed extract. The nanoparticles produced were characterized by different techniques, namely UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of Ag-NPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic analysis. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the biomolecules, which played a key role in the reduction of Ag+ ions. XRD confirmed that the silver nanoparticles possessed face-centered cubic structure. The green chemistry approach has proven that Ag-NPs can be synthesized by using plant extract in which biomolecules effectively act as capping and reducing agent.

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  5. Anticoagulant effect of polyphenols-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Michał; Bobrowski, Mateusz; Borowiecka, Marta; Podsędek, Anna; Golański, Jacek; Nowak, Paweł

    2011-09-01

    Blood coagulation consists of a series of zymogens that can be converted by limited proteolysis to active enzymes leading to the generation of thrombin. Fresh plasma and human thrombin was incubated with extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5; 5; 50 μg/ml). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts prolonged clotting time and decreased the maximal velocity of fibrin polymerization in human plasma. Moreover thrombin incubation with both extracts results in the inhibition of amidolytic activity of this enzyme. It gives hopes for development of diet supplements, which may be preventing thrombosis in pathological states. PMID:21596108

  6. Hepatoprotective Activity of the Ethanolic Extract of Ficus caricaLinn. LeavesinCarbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicityin Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mujeeb, Mohd; Alam Khan, Shah; Aeri, Vidhu; Ali, Babar

    2011-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Ficus carica leaves was screened for hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity in hepatotoxic Albino rats induced via carbon tetrachloride. The degree of protection was measured by estimating biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate Oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase ( SGPT),totalprotein (TP), totalalbumin (TA), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and the level of total serum bilirubin. The extract in addition reduced CCl4 induced lipid peroxidation in-vivo and in-vitro. The ethanolic extract (50 mg/kg, 100mg/kg,200mg/kg)exhibited significant hepatoprotection incarbontetra chloride in toxicated rats in a dose dependant manner. The hepatoprotective effects of the extract were comparable with the standard drug silymarin 10)mg/kg body weight, IP). PMID:24250358

  7. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Salvadora oleoides in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, J.P.; Saini, Sushila; Kalia, A.N.; Dangi, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To find out the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of an ethanolic extract of the aerial part of Salvadora oleoides Decne in euglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Normal as well as diabetic albino rats were divided into groups (n = 6) receiving different treatments: vehicle (control), ethanolic extract (1 g and 2 g/kg b.w), and standard antidiabetic drug tolbutamide (0.5 g/kg b.w.). Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and were analyzed for blood glucose and lipid profile on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: The ethanolic extract of S oleoides produced significant reduction (P < 0.001) in blood glucose and also had beneficial effects (P < 0.001) on the lipid profile in euglycemic as well as alloxan-induced diabetic rats at the end of the treatment period (21st day). However, the reduction in the blood glucose and improvement in lipid profile was less than that achieved with the standard drug tolbutamide. Conclusion: We concluded that an ethanolic extract of S oleoides is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and improves lipid profile in euglycemic as well as diabetic rats. PMID:21264157

  8. Effect of Yeast Extract and Vitamin B(12) on Ethanol Production from Cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Goto, S; Yonemura, S; Sekine, K; Okuma, E; Takagi, Y; Hon-Nami, K; Saiki, T

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B(12), biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B(12) alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20. PMID:16348657

  9. Bioinspired reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using Terminalia chebula seeds extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Pamanji, Sreedhara Reddy

    2015-06-01

    A green one step facile synthesis of graphene nanosheets by Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) extract mediated reduction of graphite oxide (GO) is reported in this work. This method avoids the use of harmful toxic reducing agents. The comparative results of various characterizations of GO and T. chebula reduced graphene oxide (TCG) provide a strong indication of the exclusion of oxygen containing groups from graphene oxide and successive stabilization of the formed reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with the oxidized polyphenols causes their stability by preventing the aggregation. We also have proposed how the oxidized polyphenols are accountable for the stabilization of the formed graphene sheets.

  10. Bioinspired reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using Terminalia chebula seeds extract.

    PubMed

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Pamanji, Sreedhara Reddy

    2015-06-15

    A green one step facile synthesis of graphene nanosheets by Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) extract mediated reduction of graphite oxide (GO) is reported in this work. This method avoids the use of harmful toxic reducing agents. The comparative results of various characterizations of GO and T. chebula reduced graphene oxide (TCG) provide a strong indication of the exclusion of oxygen containing groups from graphene oxide and successive stabilization of the formed reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with the oxidized polyphenols causes their stability by preventing the aggregation. We also have proposed how the oxidized polyphenols are accountable for the stabilization of the formed graphene sheets. PMID:25770934

  11. New mixes based on collagen extracts with bioactive properties, for treatment of seeds in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate. PMID:24372268

  12. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 μg/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 μg/ml) and α-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 μg/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 μM) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 μg/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic. PMID:24602819

  13. Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract on the experimental model against chronic ethanol toxicity.

    PubMed

    Arulmozhi, Vadivel; Krishnaveni, Mani; Karthishwaran, Kandhan; Dhamodharan, Ganesan; Mirunalini, Sankaran

    2010-01-01

    The possible protective effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNFEt) was investigated for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity against ethanol-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental animals were intoxicated with 20% ethanol (7.9 g/kg/day) for 30 days via gastric intubation. SNFEt was administered at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight along with the daily dose of ethanol for 30 days. From the result it was observed that ethanol-induced rats showed a significant elevation in the levels of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which lowered the antioxidant defense systems, such as, reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamins C and E, when compared to the controls. In the lipid profiles, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), free fatty acids (FFA), and phospholipids were significantly elevated in the ethanol-induced group, whereas, the high density lipoproteins (HDL) were found to be reduced in the plasma, and the phospholipid levels were significantly decreased in the tissues. Supplementation of SNFEt improved the antioxidant status by decreasing the levels of TBARS and altering the lipid profiles to near normal. These activities were also compared to the standard drug silymarin (25 mg/kg body weight). Thus the findings of the present study indicated a significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Solanum nigrum fruits, which offered protection against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:20548935

  14. Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5 mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered to rats 2 h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23118790

  15. Aloe vera gel extract attenuates ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation by suppressing the expression of lipogenic genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamada, Muneo; Yamauchi, Kouji; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that Aloe vera gel had hypoglycemic activity and anti-obesity effects, although the effect on alcoholic fatty liver was unclear. We examined in this present study the effect of an Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) on hepatic lipid metabolism by using an ethanol-induced transient fatty liver mouse model. Ethanol (3 g/kg of mouse weight) was orally administered to induce an accumulation of triglyceride (TG) and increase the mRNA expression of such lipogenic genes as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in the liver. Although ethanol ingestion caused a 5.4-fold increase in liver TG, pre-treating with AVGE (1 mg/kg/d) for 1 week significantly suppressed this elevation of the ethanol-induced liver TG level. The expression of lipogenic genes was also lower in the AVGE pre-treatment group than in the control group. This inhibitory effect on the ethanol-induced accumulation of TG was attributed to a reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes that were increased by ethanol. PMID:23132591

  16. Green tea extract therapy diminishes hepatic fibrosis mediated by dual exposure to carbon tetrachloride and ethanol: A histopathological study

    PubMed Central

    SAFER, ABDEL-MAJEED; AFZAL, MOHAMAD; HANAFY, NOMNY; MOUSA, SHAKER

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of green tea extract (GTE) against the hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), ethanol, and dual exposure to CCl4 plus ethanol in rats. In particular, an investigation of the three-dimensional architecture was conducted using scanning electron microscopy. Various techniques revealed that hepatic fibrosis with intermingled fibers was located between cells in the CCl4, ethanol and combined CCl4 plus ethanol groups. The hepatic fibrosis differed among the ethanol, CCl4 and CCl4 plus ethanol groups in terms of the type, thickness and distribution of fibers. The fibrotic lesions virtually disappeared in all the groups after 25 days of treatment with GTE, returning the architecture of the liver tissue to its normal status. The rats were also found to regain normal body weight and fur color, which had earlier been discolored due to weight loss. The autopsy results also showed that the animal livers returned to the normal shape and color. GTE demonstrated the same clear action in attenuating the hepatofibrosis for all three inducing treatments, by impairing collagen fibers, eliminating lipid peroxidation and returning the liver architecture to normal. GTE presents a safe therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis. PMID:25667629

  17. Ethanolic neem leaf extract protects against N-methyl -N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced gastric carcinogenesis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Nagini, S

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. The extent of lipid peroxidation and the status of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the stomach, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. Animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. Rats in group 1 were given MNNG (150 mg/kg bw) by intragastric intubation three times with a gap of 2 weeks in between the treatments. Rats in group 2 administered MNNG as in group 1, in addition received intragastric intubation of ethanolic neem leaf extract (200 mg/kg bw) three times per week starting on the day following the first exposure to MNNG and continued until the end of the experimental period. Group 3 animals were given ethanolic neem leaf extract alone, while group 4 served as controls. All the animals were killed after an experimental period of 26 weeks. Diminished lipid peroxidation in the stomach tumour tissue was associated with enhanced antioxidant levels. In contrast to tumour tissue, enhanced lipid peroxidation with compromised antioxidant defences was found in the liver and erythrocytes of tumour bearing animals. Administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract significantly reduced the incidence of stomach tumours, modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the stomach, liver and blood. From the results of our study, we suggest that ethanolic neem leaf extract may exert its chemopreventive effects by modulating lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant status in the stomach, liver and erythrocytes. PMID:14507242

  18. Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Onoja, Samuel Okwudili; Omeh, Yusuf Ndukaku; Ezeja, Maxwell Ikechukwu; Chukwu, Martins Ndubuisi

    2014-01-01

    Aframomum melegueta Schum (Zingiberaceae) is a perennial herb widely cultivated for its valuable seeds in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of methanolic seed extract of A. melegueta. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay and in vivo serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay method. The extract (25–400 μg/mL concentration) produced concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay. The extract (400 mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the control group. The extract (400 mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the seed of A. melegueta has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement. PMID:24955096

  19. Blackberry seed extracts and isolated polyphenolic compounds showing protective effect on human lymphocytes DNA.

    PubMed

    Gođevac, Dejan; Tešević, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka; Milosavljević, Slobodan; Stanković, Miroslava

    2011-09-01

    The tentative identification of seed extracts from 3 cultivars of blackberry (blackberry seed extracts [BSEs]) constituents was performed by LC/UV/MS technique. The identified compounds belonged to ellagitannins, galic acid derivatives, and ellagic acid derivatives. Two ellagitannins, Lambertianin C and Sanguiniin H-6, and an ellagic acid derivative, 4-α-L-arabinofuranosylellagic acid, were isolated using semipreparative High-performance liquid chromatography. The structure elucidations were based on high resolution-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. The BSEs and 3 isolated pure compounds were tested for in vitro protective effect on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using cytochalasin-B blocked micronucleus (MN) assay. The frequency of MN was scored in binucleated cells, and nuclear proliferation index was calculated. Among the tested extracts, the seeds of cv. Thornfree at concentration of 1 μg/mL exhibit the most prominent effect decreasing the frequency of MN by 62.4%, when compared with the controls cell cultures. Antioxidant potential of pure ellagitannins cannot explain the strong effect of BSEs. The assumption was that better antioxidant effect of BSEs result from synergistic effects of individual compounds contained in the extracts and/or some minor components possessed strong activity. PraCTICAL APPLICATION: Our results provide evidence of protective effects of BSEs and isolated pure compounds on cytogenetic damages in human lymphocytes. Thus, BSEs could exert beneficial effects in quite a few diseases, because many of the biological actions have been attributed to their antioxidant properties. PMID:21824137

  20. A case of beta-carboline alkaloid intoxication following ingestion of Peganum harmala seed extract.

    PubMed

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Zancanaro, Flavio; Fazzin, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2008-08-01

    Beta-carboline alkaloids harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of amine neurotransmitters, or by direct interaction with specific receptors; they are found in numerous plants, including Peganum harmala, Passiflora incarnata and Banisteriopsis caapi, and in the entheogen preparation Ayahuasca, which is traditionally brewed using B. caapi to enhance the activity of amine hallucinogenic drugs. The ingestion of plant preparations containing beta-carboline alkaloids may result in toxic effects, namely visual and auditory hallucinations, locomotor ataxia, nausea, vomiting, confusion and agitation. We report a case of intoxication following intentional ingestion of P. harmala seed infusion; P. harmala seeds were bought over the Internet. The harmala alkaloids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the seed extract and the patient's urine. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of P. harmala intoxication corroborated by toxicological findings. PMID:18603389

  1. Protective effect of the n-butanol Toona sinensis seed extract on diabetic nephropathy rat kidneys.

    PubMed

    Li, W Z; Wang, X H; Zhang, H X; Mao, S M; Zhao, C Z

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the protective effect of the n-butyl alcohol phase of Toona sinensis seed extract on the kidneys of diabetic nephropathy (DN) rats and its preliminary mechanism. Male wistar rats were administered a normal or high-fat diet for 1 month. DN rats were divided into a model group and a petroleum ether phase of T. sinensis seed extract intervention group. The intervention group was administered 5 mg·100 g-1·day-1 extract. After treatment for 10 weeks, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples and the renal cortex were collected. Biochemical indicators in the serum and renal indices were assessed. Pathological changes of the renal tissues were also determined. Changes in the renal structure and protein levels were detected. Compared with the normal group, the blood glucose, urinary albumin, renal index, and oxidative stress index were sharply increased in the model group. The protein levels of TGF-b1, collagen IV, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were increased. Compared with the model group, the n-butyl alcohol phase of T. sinensis seed extract significantly reduced the blood glucose, urinary albumin, renal index, oxidative stress index, serum creatinine, and urea nitrogen levels. The renal pathology abnormality was improved in DN rats. The protein levels of TGF-b1, collagen IV, and CTGF were increased. The expression of TGF-b1, collagen IV, and CTGF decreased. In conclusion, the n-butyl alcohol phase of T. sinensis seed extract has protective effects on DN rats via the inhibition of oxidative stress and protein expression of TGF-b1, collagen IV, and CTGF. PMID:27050993

  2. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Duraisamy; Kalaiselvi, Manokaran; Ravikumar, Ganesan; Devaki, Kanakasabapathi; Uma, Chandrasekar

    2015-02-01

    Medicinal plants are at great interest to the researcher in the field of biotechnology, as most of the drug industries depend in medicinal plants for the production of pharmaceutical compounds. Plants are the traditional sources for many chemicals used as pharmaceutical biochemicals, fragrances, food colours and flavours in different countries especially in India. Most herbal medicines and their derivative products were often prepared from crude plant extracts, which comprise a complex mixture of different phytochemical constituents (plant secondary metabolites). The chemical features of these constituents differ considerably among different species. GC-MS method used for the analysis of the obtained extracts can be an interesting tool for testing the amount of some active principles in herbs used in cosmetic, drugs, pharmaceutical or food industry. The aim of this study was to carry out for identification of bioactive compounds from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides by Gas chromatography and Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GCMS analysis of ethanolic extract was done by standard protocol using the equipment Thermo GC-Trace Ultra Version: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of various compounds like piperine, octodeconoic acids, hexadecanoic acid and squalene in the ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides. Hence, the Evolvulus alsinoides may have chemopreventive, anticancer, anti-microbial activity, antioxidant and antidiabetic activity due to the presence of secondary metabolites in the ethanolic extract. Due to the presence of esters which can be used as a flavoring agent in food industries. These findings support the traditional use of Evolvulus alsinoides in various disorders. Further studies are needed to isolate active principle of the extract as well as to elucidate their exact mechanism of action in various disorders. PMID:25694742

  3. Hepatoprotective potential of extracts from seeds of Areca catechu and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria.

    PubMed

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl(4). It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress-induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts. PMID:20032872

  4. The antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of different plant seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Atrooz, Omar M

    2009-08-01

    Different plant seeds extracts of Citrus sinensis, Hordeum sativum, Triticum sativum, Canna indica, Citrullus vulgaris and Capsicum annuum were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by the following methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycril-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, RBCs hemolysis and linoleic acid oxidation, a long with the determination of total phenolic and flavonoids contents. All the methanolic extracts showed high antioxidant activity and have high contents of phenolic and flavonoid. The Canna indica extract exhibited strong antioxidant as a reducing power and as DPPH radical-scavenging (3.61 absorbance, 87.12%, respectively), while the Hordeum sativum extract exhibited highest inhibitory effect on RBCs hemolysis (59.55%) and the Capsicum annuum extract has highest inhibitory effect on linoleic acid peroxidation (65.06%). PMID:19943462

  5. Influence of the Toothpaste with Brazilian Ethanol Extract Propolis on the Oral Cavity Health

    PubMed Central

    Skaba, Dariusz; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Bobela, Elżbieta; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Dawiec, Monika; Yamamoto, Rindai; Makita, Yuki; Redzynia, Małgorzata; Janoszka, Beata; Niedzielska, Iwona; Król, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis-based therapeutic agents represent this potential for the development of new drugs in dental care. The aim of a clinical-cohort study was to determine the influence of application of toothpaste enriched with Brazilian extract of propolis (EEP) on health status of oral cavity. Laboratory analysis was conducted in order to assess the chemical composition of EEP including total phenolic compounds, the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. Clinical research involved two groups of subjects comprising 32 adult patients, with assessment based on the preliminary evaluation of the state of their marginal periodontium. The investigation of oral health indices API, OHI, and SBI and microbiological examination of oral microflora were also carried out. Results obtained indicated time-dependent microbial action of EEP at 50 mg/L concentration, with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The total decrease of API, OHI, and SBI mean values was observed. Hygienic preparations with 3% content of Brazilian ethanol extract of green propolis (EEP) efficiently support removal of dental plaque and improve the state of marginal periodontium. PMID:23861699

  6. Ethanolic Extract of Algerian Propolis and Galangin Decreased Murine Melanoma T.

    PubMed

    Benguedouar, Lamia; Lahouel, Mesbah; Gangloff, Sophie C; Durlach, Anne; Grange, Florent; Bernard, Philippe; Antonicelli, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is the more dangerous skin cancer, and metastatic melanoma still carries poor prognosis. Despite recent therapeutic advances, prolonged survival remains rare and research is still required. Propolis extracts from many countries have attracted a great deal of attention for their biological properties. We here investigated the ability of an ethanolic extract of Algerian propolis (EEP) to control melanoma tumour growth when given to mice bearing B16F1melanoma tumour either as preventive or as therapeutic treatment. EEP given after tumour occurrence increased mice survival (+30%) and reduced tumour growth (-75%). This was associated with a decrease of the Mitotic Index (-75%) and of Ki-67 (-50%) expression. When given either before or both before and after tumour occurrence, EEP reduced tumour growth but without prolonging mice life. Isolation of B16F1 melanoma cells from resected tumour showed that preventive and curative EEP treatments reduced invasiveness by 55% and 40% respectively compared to control. Galangin, one of the most abundant flavonoids in propolis, significantly reduced the number of melanoma cells in vitro and induced autophagy/apoptosis dose dependently. In conclusion, we showed that EEP reduced melanoma tumour progression/dissemination and could extend mice lifespan when used as therapeutic treatment. Then, EEP may help patients with melanoma when used as a complementary therapy to classical treatment for which autophagy is not contraindicated. PMID:26863880

  7. Orofacial antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliane C; Macedo, Larissa A R O; Souza, Grasielly R; Oliveira-Junior, Raimundo G; Lima-Saraiva, Sarah R G; Lavor, Érica M; Silva, Mariana G; Souza, Marilia T S; Bonjardim, Leonardo R; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J; Mendes, Rosemairy L; Almeida, Jackson R G S

    2016-01-01

    Annona vepretorum Mart. (Annonaceae) is a species popularly known in Brazil as "araticum" and "pinha da Caatinga". We have evaluated the antinociceptive effects of A. vepretorum in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced orofacial nociception in mice. Male Swiss mice were pretreated with either saline (p.o.), A. vepretorum ethanol extract (Av-EtOH 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), or morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), before formalin, capsaicin, or glutamate was injected into the right upper lip. Pre-treatment with Av-EtOH at all doses produced a reduction in face-rubbing behavior induced by formalin in both phases, and these pre-treatments also produced a significant antinociceptive effect in the capsaicin and glutamate tests. Pre-treatment with naloxone (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.) did not reverse the antinociceptive activity of the extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg in the first phase of this test. Our results suggest that Av-EtOH might be useful in the treatment of orofacial pain. PMID:27269894

  8. Analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta resin in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Kumar, Dhirendra; Prasad, Raju; Verma, Pawan Kumar; Sardar, Kaustuk K.; Tandan, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Shorea robusta (Sal), an important traditional Indian medicinal plant used in various ailments and rituals and the indigenous use of the resin of this plant as a medicament for treatment of various inflammatory conditions is well documented in literature. In the present study, ethanolic extract of S. robusta resin (SRE) was evaluated for its analgesic activity by making use of different central and peripheral pain models. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of SRE was assessed by employing different pain models such as, i) hot plate and tail flick tests for central analgesia, ii) acetic acid- induced writhing (peripheral analgesic model), iii) formalin-induced hind paw licking (both central and peripheral model), iv) carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia (peripheral analgesic model) and v) post-surgical pain (peripheral analgesic model). Results: The extract produced significant central and peripheral analgesic effects, as is evident from increase in reaction time in hot plate and tail flick tests, inhibition in writhing counts in acetic acid-induced writhing test, inhibition of licking time in formalin-induced hind paw licking, increased pain threshold in paw withdrawal latency in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and increased paw withdrawal threshold in post-surgical pain. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate marked antinociceptive effects of SRE. PMID:23087512

  9. Effects of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract on chronic toxoplasmosis in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Eraky, Maysa Ahmad; El-Fakahany, Amany Farouk; El-Sayed, Nagwa Mostafa; Abou-Ouf, Eman Abdel-Rahman; Yaseen, Doaa Ibrahim

    2016-07-01

    The current work was undertaken to investigate the potential effectiveness of Thymus vulgaris ethanolic extract (TVE) against Toxoplasma gondii infection in chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. To evaluate prophylactic effects, mice received 500 mg/kg TVE for 5 days before they were infected by an avirulent Me49 T. gondii strain. To investigate the therapeutic effects of the extract postinfection, daily treatment with TVE was initiated at 6 weeks postinfection and continued for 10 days. The following groups of animals were used as controls: uninfected/non-treated, infected/non-treated, and infected/treated with a combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine. Brain cyst count and histopathological changes using H&E and Feulgen stains were used to evaluate the efficacy of TVE. The mean number of brain cysts was significantly decreased by 24 % in mice treated prophylactically with TVE. TVE also significantly reduced the mean number of brain cysts when administered to animals already chronically infected with T. gondii. The effect of TVE was comparable to that of treatment with a mixture of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine (46 and 51 % reduction, respectively). Moreover, considerable amelioration of the pathological lesions in the brain and retina was observed. The results demonstrate the potential efficacy of T. vulgaris as a new natural therapeutic and prophylactic agent for use in the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis. PMID:27098159

  10. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2009-01-01

    The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. PMID:19448924

  11. Antiurolithiatic activity of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extracts against zinc disc implantation-induced urolithiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Anil T.; Vyawahare, Niraj S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The commonly used techniques for removing renal calculi are associated with the risk of acute renal injury and increase in stone recurrence which indicates an urgent need for alternate therapy. Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the antiurolithiatic activity of Abelmoschus moschatus seed extracts in rats. Materials and Methods: Urolithiasis was induced by surgical implantations of zinc disc in the urinary bladders of rats. Upon postsurgical recovery, different doses of chloroform (CAM) and methanolic (MAM) extracts of A. moschatus seeds (viz., 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight) were administered to disc implanted rats for the period of 7 days by the oral route. Antiurolithiatic activity was evaluated by measuring various dimensions of stones and estimating levels of various biomarkers in serum and urine samples. Results: A significant decrease in urinary output was observed in disc implanted animals, which was prevented by the treatment with extracts. Supplementation with extracts caused significant improvement in glomerular filtration rate and urinary total protein excretion. The elevated levels of serum creatinine, uric acid, and blood urea nitrogen were also prevented by the extracts. The extracts significantly reduced deposition of calculi deposition around the implanted disc. This antiurolithiatic potential is observed at all doses (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of MAM, whereas only higher dose (400 mg/kg) of CAM showed significant antiurolithiatic potential. Conclusion: The extracts of A. moschatus seeds possessed significant antiurolithiatic activity. The possible mechanism underlying this effect is mediated collectively through diuretic, antioxidant, and free-radical scavenging effects of the plant. PMID:27057124

  12. The impact of seed extraction on the population dynamics of Pinus maximartinezii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Mata, Lauro

    2013-05-01

    Pinus maximartinezii is a rare, endemic, threatened species known from a single small population in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Among the pine species that produce edible nuts, it produces one of the largest and most nutritious seeds. The seeds of P. maximartinezii have historically been used for human consumption. The cones are harvested directly from the trees, and the seeds are sold illegally in local, national and international markets. However, the effects of seed extraction must be thoroughly evaluated to determine the potential impacts on population stability. To assess the impact of different rates of seed harvesting on the demography of this species, a 2-yr study of population dynamics was conducted in three 0.1-ha plots. A 9 × 9 size-structured matrix model was used to simulate changes in population growth over time in conjunction with increasing stepwise reductions in fecundity. The population growth rate (λ) of P. maximartinezii was 1.1175, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.1008 to 1.1321, and it was relatively insensitive to changes in fecundity and growth. Under a seed extraction intensity of 99%, λ decreased to 1.0241, with a CI from 1.0177 to 1.0361. Elasticity analysis was then performed to identify the combined effects of proportional changes in fecundities and the largest stasis elements on λ. The results suggest that a sound conservation strategy should focus on improving the survival of juveniles and adults during their first reproductive events and on the largest adults, as well as on protecting the habitat of this threatened endemic species.

  13. Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M.; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M.

    1999-08-01

    Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

  14. Antimicrobial Potential of Callistemon lanceolatus Seed Extract and its Statistical Optimization.

    PubMed

    Arora, Daljit Singh; Nim, Lovedeep; Kaur, Harpreet

    2016-09-01

    Plants have always been eminent source of medicinal products. Screening of the aqueous seeds extract of Callistemon lanceolatus (bottle brush) revealed its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential with an inhibition zone ranging from 13 to 28 mm against various pathogenic microorganisms. While optimizing the different parameters the antimicrobial activity was better expressed at 15 % concentration, prepared by extracting the material at 60 °C for 20 min. The extract was filtered through muslin cloth and gave best results at its natural pH. Statistical optimization by Response surface methodology enhanced the antimicrobial activity up to 1.6-fold. Minimum inhibitory concentration values of the aqueous extract of seeds of C. lanceolatus against different organisms ranged from 1-5 mg/ml. The viable cell count studies indicated a bactericidal effect against most of the pathogens. The aqueous extract was found to be relatively thermostable at 100 °C. When treated for shelf life at ambient conditions and refrigeration temperature (2-8 °C), the latter only showed a 28 % loss in antimicrobial activity. The aqueous extract was found to be biosafe when evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reagent (MTT toxicity) assay and Ames mutagenicity assay. PMID:27179517

  15. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant acitivity of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.

    PubMed Central

    Parimala, Mabel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.

  16. The anti-snake venom properties of Tamarindus indica (leguminosae) seed extract.

    PubMed

    Ushanandini, S; Nagaraju, S; Harish Kumar, K; Vedavathi, M; Machiah, D K; Kemparaju, K; Vishwanath, B S; Gowda, T V; Girish, K S

    2006-10-01

    In Indian traditional medicine, various plants have been used widely as a remedy for treating snake bites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Tamarindus indica seed extract on the pharmacological as well as the enzymatic effects induced by V. russelli venom. Tamarind seed extract inhibited the PLA(2), protease, hyaluronidase, l-amino acid oxidase and 5'-nucleotidase enzyme activities of venom in a dose-dependent manner. These are the major hydrolytic enzymes responsible for the early effects of envenomation, such as local tissue damage, inflammation and hypotension. Furthermore, the extract neutralized the degradation of the Bbeta chain of human fibrinogen and indirect hemolysis caused by venom. It was also observed that the extract exerted a moderate effect on the clotting time, prolonging it only to a small extent. Edema, hemorrhage and myotoxic effects including lethality, induced by venom were neutralized significantly when different doses of the extract were preincubated with venom before the assays. On the other hand, animals that received extract 10 min after the injection of venom were protected from venom induced toxicity. Since it inhibits hydrolytic enzymes and pharmacological effects, it may be used as an alternative treatment to serum therapy and, in addition, as a rich source of potential inhibitors of PLA(2), metalloproteinases, serine proteases, hyaluronidases and 5 cent-nucleotidases, the enzymes involved in several physiopathological human and animal diseases. PMID:16847999

  17. Prophylactic effects of Clausena excavata Burum. f. leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Albaayit, Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas; Abba, Yusuf; Abdullah, Rasedee; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2016-01-01

    Clausena excavata is a natural herb with both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been used for decades in folkloric practice for the amelioration of various ailments. In this study, the gastroprotective activity of methanolic extract of C. excavata leaves (MECE) was determined in the Sprague Dawley rat ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Rats were pretreated with a single dose of vehicle (5% Tween 20), 20 mg/mL omeprazole, 400 and 200 mg/mL of MECE dissolved in 5% Tween 20. Ulcer was induced with 5 mL/kg of ethanol and stomach tissue was obtained after 1 hour. Histological examination was done on hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and immunochemically stained gastric mucosal tissues. Prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation levels of the gastric tissue homogenates were also determined. Significantly (P<0.05) smaller ulcer areas, less intense edema, and fewer leukocytes’ infiltration were observed in MECE- and omeprazole-treated than in untreated gastric mucosa with ulcer. The gastric pH, mucus production, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase contents increased, while the lipid peroxidation content decreased as a result of MECE treatment. Bcl-2-associated X protein was underexpressed, while heat shock protein 70 and transforming growth factor-beta protein were overexpressed in the ulcerated gastric mucosa tissues treated with omeprazole and MECE. Similarly, there was a reduction in the levels of tumor necrotic factor-alpha and interleukin-6, while the level of interleukin-10 was increased. This study showed that the gastroprotective effect of MECE is achieved through inhibition of gastric juice secretion and ulcer lesion development, stimulation of mucus secretion, elevation of gastric pH, reduction of reactive oxygen species production, inhibition of apoptosis in the gastric mucosa, and modulation of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27366052

  18. Optimization for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides with chemical composition and antioxidant activity from the Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Quan; Ren, Daoyuan; Yang, Nana; Yang, Xingbin

    2016-10-01

    Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides have been reported to have a variety of important biological activities. However, effective extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides is still an unsolved issue. In this study, the orthogonal rotatable central composite design was employed to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides. Based on a single-factor analysis method, ultrasonic power, extraction time, solid-liquid ratio and extraction temperature were shown to significantly affect the yield of polysaccharides extracted from the A. sphaerocephala Krasch seeds. The optimal conditions for extraction of Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides were determined as following: ultrasonic power 243W, extraction time 125min, solid-liquid ratio 64:1 and extraction temperature 64°C, where the experimental yield was 14.78%, which was well matched with the predicted value of 14.81%. Furthermore, ASKP was identified as a typical heteropolysaccharide with d-galacturonic acid (38.8%) d-galactose (20.2%) and d-xylose (15.5%) being the main constitutive monosaccharides. Moreover, Artemisia sphaerocephala Krasch seeds polysaccharides exhibited high total reducing power and considerable scavenging activities on DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. PMID:27316764

  19. Pepper seed extract suppresses invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-A; Kim, Min-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Yoo Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the antimetastatic activities of chili pepper seed on human breast cancer cells. The water extract of chili pepper seeds was prepared and it contained a substantial amount of phenols (131.12 mg%) and no capsaicinoids. Pepper seed extract (PSE) suppressed the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 10, 25, and 50 μg/ml (MDA-MB-231: IC50 = 20.1 μg/ml, MCF-7: IC50 = 14.7 μg/ml). PSE increased the expression level of E-cadherin up to 1.2-fold of the control in MCF-7 cells. PSE also decreased the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 25 and 50 μg/ml. PSE treatment significantly suppressed the invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The motility of cancer cells was apparently retarded in the wound healing assay by the PSE treatment. Although our data collectively demonstrate that PSE inhibits invasion and migration of breast cancer cells, further study is needed to identify specific mechanisms and bioactive components contributing to antimetastatic effects of chili pepper seed. PMID:24341783

  20. Isolation and structural characterization of the water-extractable polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia seeds.

    PubMed

    Shang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Xiaoman; Dong, Qun; Yao, Jian; Liu, Qin; Ding, Kan

    2012-10-01

    The seed of Cassia obtusifolia is a food or herbal medicine used for improving eyesight, treating constipation and other disorders, and polysaccharides have been implicated in these pharmacological activities. The endosperm of the seeds, Cassia gum, is a commercial thickening or gelling agent, composed mainly of galactomannans. However, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia, rather than the endosperm, are used in folk medicine or food, which might contain more complex constituents of polysaccharides. In this study, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia were extracted with boiling water, and from the water extract, three homogeneous fractions were isolated, designated CFAA-1, CFAA-3, and CFBB2, respectively, after treatment with Fehling solution followed by anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Using chemical and spectroscopic methods, CFAA-1, and CFAA-3 were elucidated to be both branched galactomannans with different molecular weights, consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-mannopyranosyl backbone with single-unit α-d-galactopyranosyl branches attached to O-6 of mannose, while CFBB2 was shown to be a linear (1→4)-α-polygalacturonic acid. PMID:22840008

  1. Efficient and eco-friendly extraction of corn germ oil using aqueous ethanol solution assisted by steam explosion.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shuangshuang; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Yang, Ruijin

    2016-04-01

    An improved aqueous extraction method has been established for extraction of oil from corn germs. This method primarily included steam explosion pretreatment and aqueous ethanol extraction. Process variables such as steam pressure, resident time, particle size and ethanol concentration were investigated. The highest yield of 93.74 % was obtained when ground steam-exploded corn germ (1.3 MPa, 30 s, 30-35 μm particle size) was treated with 30 % (v/v) aqueous ethanol for 2 h, at 60 °C and pH 9.0. The residual oil content in water and sediment phase decreased dramatically to 4 % and 3 %, respectively. The enhancement mechanism of the process induced by steam explosion was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The quality of extracted crude oil was also investigated. The results showed that the quality of extracted oil was superior to commercial oils. PMID:27413241

  2. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    PubMed

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products. PMID:20140296

  3. Anti-diabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea Linn. seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Vetrichelvan, Thangarasu; Jegadeesan, Maniappan; Devi, Bangaru Adigalar Uma

    2002-04-01

    Celosia argentea Linn. commonly known as "Cocks Comb" and its seeds are widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of an alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea seeds (ACAS) on blood glucose and body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ACAS was found to reduce the increase of blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (27.8% at 250 mg/kg and 38.8% at 500 mg/kg body weight). Chronic administration of ACAS significantly (p<0.01) reduced the blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats for two weeks. Also the extract prevented a decrease in body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that the ACAS possesses anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:11995938

  4. [Effect of grape seed extracts on blood lipids in rabbits model with hyperlipidemia].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongxia; Zhao, Xiulan; Xu, Guifa; Wang, She-e

    2002-04-01

    The effect of grape seed extracts on serum lipids was observed in rabbits fed with high fat diet. The control group fed with normal stock diet. The diet of the four experimental groups was high in fat and cholesterol. The experimental control group fed with the high fat diet only, and the other three experimental groups fed the high fat diet added with grape seed extracts (5, 10 or 15 g/d) for three months. At the 0th, 6th and 12th week of the experiment, there was a lower serum TC, TG, LDL-C and a higher HDL-C in experimental groups in comparison with experimental control group. PMID:12561546

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Oyagbemi, A A; Odetola, A A

    2010-02-15

    The study was designed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on paracetamol poisoning in rats. Twenty five male Wistar rats were used in this study. They were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats. Groups I and II received normal saline (0.9% physiological saline). Animal in groups III-V were administered Cnidoscolus aconitifolius at 100, 500 and 1,000 mg kg(-1), respectively for 7 days. All animal in groups II-V were given paracetamol at 3 g kg(-1) by gastric gavage on days 8 and 9. Animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on day 10 after an overnight fast. Paracetamol overdose caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the plasma Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), triglycerides (TAG) with total cholesterol (TC) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) and significant (p<0.05) decrease Total Protein (TP) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) in rats treated with paracetamol alone when compared with rats pre-treated with extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius. Pre-treatment with ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius led to significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum ALT, ALP, AST, LDL and BUN when compared with the paracetamol treated rats in dose-dependent manner. The extract also similarly caused significant (p<0.05) increase in HDL values compared with paracetamol treated group. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that Cnidoscolus aconitifolius can ameliorate paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Significant hepato-protective activity was observed in rats treated with the dose of 1000 mg kg(-1) b.wt. PMID:20437682

  6. Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Stem Ethanolic Extract Liberates Reactive Oxygen Species and Induces Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in KB Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Saba; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Dhasmana, Anupam; Safia; Haque, Ejazul; Kamil, Mohammed; Lohani, Mohtashim; Arshad, Mohammad; Mir, Snober Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ) commonly known as Hadjod (Family: Vitaceae) is usually distributed in India and Sri Lanka and contains several bioactive compounds responsible for various metabolic and physiologic effects. Objective: In this study, the biological effects of CQ ethanolic extract were evaluated by in vitro and supported by in silico analysis on KB oral epidermoid cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: Anti-cancer potential of ethanolic extract of CQ stem against KB oral epidermoid cancer cells was evaluated in terms of morphological analysis, nuclei staining, liberation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and p53 and Bcl-2 protein expression which reveal the induction of apoptosis along with supporting in silico analysis. Results: Ethanolic extract of CQ stem contains various bioactive compounds responsible for cancer cell morphological alterations, liberation of ROS, G1 phase cell cycle arrest and decreased MMP along with up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. By employing in silico approach, we have also postulated that the CQ extract active constituents sequester Bcl-2 with higher affinity as compared to p53, which may be the reason for induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in KB cells. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the CQ extract has a remarkable apoptotic effect that suggests that it could be a viable treatment option for specific types of cancers. SUMMARY Cissus quadrangularis stem ethanolic extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phaseIt liberates (ROS) and mitochondria mediated apoptosisIt upregulates p53 and down-regulates Bcl-2 protein expressionIn silico studies indicates that the active constituents of CQ binds Bcl-2 with higher affinity as compared to p53. PMID:26929569

  7. Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Kishalay; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Ghosh, Abhinandan; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae) using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and α-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC50 value 157.4 μg/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC50 value 61.9 μg/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC50 value 64.32 μg/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC50 value 58.87 μg/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract). Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22247894

  8. Anticancer activity of Petroselinum sativum seed extracts on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz Ali; Siddiqui, Maqsood Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological and preventive properties of Petroselinum sativum seed extracts are well known, but the anticancer activity of alcoholic extracts and oil of Petroselinum sativum seeds on human breast cancer cells have not been explored so far. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxic activities of these extracts against MCF-7 cells. Cells were exposed to 10 to 1000 μg/ml of alcoholic seed extract (PSA) and seed oil (PSO) of Petroselinum sativum for 24 h. Post-treatment, percent cell viability was studied by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays, and cellular morphology by phase contrast inverted microscopy. The results showed that PSA and PSO significantly reduced cell viability, and altered the cellular morphology of MCF-7 cells in a concentration dependent manner. Concentrations of 50 μg/ml and above of PSA and 100 μg/ml and above of PSO were found to be cytotoxic in MCF-7 cells. Cell viability at 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml of PSA was recorded as 81%, 57%, 33%, 8% and 5%, respectively, whereas at 100, 250, 500, and 1000 μg/ml of PSO values were 90%, 78%, 62%, and 8%, respectively by MTT assay. MCF-7 cells exposed to 250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml of PSA and PSO lost their typical morphology and appeared smaller in size. The data revealed that the treatment with PSA and PSO of Petroselinum sativum induced cell death in MCF-7 cells. PMID:24289568

  9. The Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Estrogen Levels of Postmenopausal Women - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L.; Bauer, Brent A.; Loehrer, Laura L.; Cha, Stephen S.; Suman, Vera J.; Hoskin, Tanya L.; Olson, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The roll of estrogens in the pathogenesis of breast cancer is well documented and has lead to the development of Selective Estrogene Receptor Modulators and Aromatase Inhibitors for treatment and prevention of breast cancer. However these agents are associated with significant side effects and are therefore not well accepted by healthy women who are at high risk for breast cancer. There has been some evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies that grapes have an aromatase inhibiting effect resulting in a decrease in estrogen synthesis and increase in androstenedione and testosterone. Method We conducted a randomized, double-blind, dose finding early phase trial. Eligible partici-pants were randomly assigned to one of 4 doses of grape seed extract (200, 400, 600, or 800 mg) to be taken daily for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the change of plasma hormone levels (estrogen conjugates from baseline to 12 weeks after treatment with grape seed extract). Results Forty-six women were enrolled, 39 (84.8%) completed the study. In this pilot study grape-seed extract given in daily doses of 200, 400, 600 or 800 mg for 12 weeks to postmenopausal women did not decrease plasma estrogens (estrone, estradiol, estrone sulfate) and did not increase precursors of androgens (testosterone and androstenedione). There were large variations in pre- and posttreatment estrone, estradiol and estrone sulfate and androgen precursors. Conclusion Future research should carefully consider BMI and changes in BMI as well as higher dosing of grape seed extract in their design. PMID:24670122

  10. Bioactivities of Ethanolic Extract and its Fractions of Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) Species

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Osman; Berrin-Ozcelik; Baykal, Turhan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) have been used for treatment of some illnesses in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, the ethanolic extract and its fractions obtained using re-extraction by hexane (Hx), chloroform (CHCl3), butanol, and remaining-water (r-H2O) of C. laurifolius were screened for their in vitro bioactivities. Materials and Methods: Activities were determined against both standard and the isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as yeasts such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis by microdilution method. Also, antiviral activity of C. laurifolius and S. wiedemannii extracts were tested on herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and vero cell lines. Results: Tested extracts of C. laurifolius (minimum inhibitory concentration 32 μg/mL) exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii. Conclusion: The Hx extract of C. laurifolius (cytopathogenic effect of 32–8 μg/mL) had antiviral activity on PI-3. Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16–<0.25 μg/mL) of S. wiedemannii had significant antiviral activity on HSV-1, same as control. SUMMARY The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of plant extracts used in folk medicineEthanolic extract and its fractions obtained using re-extraction by hexane (Hx), chloroform (CHCl3), butanol, and remaining-water (r-H2O) of Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae) and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae) were screened against both standard and the isolated strains of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, S. aureus, E. faecalis, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis by microdilution methodAntiviral activity were tested on HSV-1 and PI-3

  11. Immunocontraceptive activity guided fractionation and characterization of active constituents of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Talwar, G P; Upadhyay, S N

    1998-04-01

    A novel approach for immunocontraception by intervention of local cell mediated immunity in the reproductive system by using single intrauterine application of neem oil has been described earlier. The reversible block in fertility was reported to last for 107-180 days in female Wistar rats (Upadhyay et al., 1990. Antifertility effects of neem oil by single intrauterine administration: A novel method of contraception. Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London B 242, 175-180) and 7-11 months in monkeys (Upadhyay et al., 1994. Long term contraceptive effects of intrauterine neem treatment (IUNT) in bonnet monkeys: An alternative to intrauterine contraceptive devices. Contraception 49, 161-167). The present study, describes the identification and characterization of the biologically active fraction from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Family Meliaceae), responsible for the above activity in adult female Wistar rats. Initial studies with the mechanically extracted oil and solvent extracts of neem seeds have revealed that the antifertility activity was present in constituents of low to intermediate polarity. A hexane extract of neem seeds was reported to be biologically active (Garg et al., 1994. Comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 22, 87-92). Subsequently, hexane extract was sequentially fractionated through the last active fraction using various separation techniques and tested for antifertility activity at each step. Preparative HPLC was used for isolating individual components of the active fraction in quantities, sufficient for characterization. An analytical HPLC method was developed for standardization of the fraction. The active fraction was identified to be a mixture of six components, which comprises of saturated, mono and di-unsaturated free fatty acids and their methyl esters. Dose response study was performed with the last active fractions. The antifertility

  12. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Harshal A.; Lalitha, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w). The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568 dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198 kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability. PMID:26640490

  13. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Harshal A; Lalitha, K G

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w). The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568 dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198 kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability. PMID:26640490

  14. Chemical Composition and Inhibitory Effect of Lentinula edodes Ethanolic Extract on Experimentally Induced Atopic Dermatitis in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Ju; Park, Zee-Yong; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Lentinula edodes was partially analyzed and then characterized for its efficacy in treating atopic dermatitis. Polyphenols were determined to be the major antioxidant component in the extract (6.12 mg/g), followed by flavonoids (1.76 mg/g), β-carotene (28.75 μg/g), and lycopene (5.25 μg/g). An atopic dermatitis (AD) model was established and epidermal and dermal ear thickness, mast cell infiltration, and serum immunoglobulin levels were measured after oral administration of the L. edodes extract for 4 weeks. L. edodes extract decreased Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE) and 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced expression of several inflammatory cytokines in the ears, cervical lymph nodes, and splenocytes. Consequently, L. edodes extract may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of AD attributable to its immunomodulatory effects. PMID:27483228

  15. Ethanolic Extract of Marsdenia condurango Ameliorates Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Lung Cancer of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Sourav; Mukherjee, Avinaba; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Condurango is widely used in various systems of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) against oesophageal and stomach ailments including certain types of cancer. However, until now no systematic study has been conducted to verify its efficacy and dose with proper experimental support. Therefore, we examined if ethanolic extract of Condurango could ameliorate benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced lung cancer in rats, in vivo to validate its use as traditional medicine. Methods Fifteen male and 15 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV) (high-dosage group) and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group) for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results: A histological study revealed gradual progress in lung tissue-repair activity in Condurango-fed cancer-bearing rats, showing gradual tissue recovery after three months of drug administration. Condurango has the capacity to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may contribute to a reduction in anti-oxidative activity and to an induction of oxidative stress-mediated cancer cell-death. Condurango-activated pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, p53, cytochrome-c, apaf-1, ICAD and PARP) and down-regulated antiapoptotic-Bcl-2 expression were noted both at mRNA and protein levels. Studies on caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage by western blot analysis revealed that Condurango induced apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway. Conclusion: The anticancer efficacy of an ethanolic extract of Condurango for treating BaP-induced lung cancer in rats lends support for its use in various traditional systems of

  16. Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract

    PubMed Central

    Dhoble, Sagar B.; Majumdar, Anuradha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification). Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling) of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materials and Methods: Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract. Results: The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification without affecting

  17. Coffea arabica Seed Extract Stimulate the Cellular Immune Function and Cyclophosphamide-induced Immunosuppression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rafiul Haque, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid Hussain; Rashikh, Azhar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the immunostimulatory effects of alcoholic extract of the coffee seed on cell-mediated immune response and cyclophosphamide-induced (CP) immunosuppressed mice. The assessment of cellular immune function was carried out by the measurement of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. According to the literature survey, cyclophosphamide has only suppressing effect on the lymphoid organ, white blood cell (WBC) and other parts of humoral immunity. Humoral immunity was assessed by the hemagglutination antibody titre. Mice were treated with three doses of extract (50, 150 and 250 mg/Kg body weight per os). Relative organ weight and WBC counts were also studied in these animals. At doses of 50 and 150, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in relative organ weight of spleen and thymus was observed but there was no effect on kidney and liver weights. WBC counts was also increased significantly (p < 0.001) in all doses of the plant extract. Coffea arabica extract elicited a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the DTH response at doses of 50 and 150 mg/Kg, but the change at higher dose of 250 mg/Kg was not statistically significant. In the HT test, plant extract also showed modulatory effect at all doses groups. Over all, coffee seed showed the stimulatory effect on cellular immune function and cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression in mice. PMID:24250577

  18. Assessment of the anti-protozoal activity of crude Carica papaya seed extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

    2013-01-01

    In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05), compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage). PMID:24126379

  19. Comparison of fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential of extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds.

    PubMed

    Plastina, Pierluigi; Fazio, Alessia; Gabriele, Bartolo

    2012-01-01

    The extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds have been compared regarding fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) was found to contain the highest oil amount (34%), while the Poncirus trifoliata cultivars contained the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (84-87%). In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts from defatted seeds have been evaluated by measuring their radical scavenging activity against 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The highest antioxidant activities were observed in the case of the acetone extract of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle (76% and 75%, respectively), at a concentration of 0.17 mg mL(-1). Moreover, the total phenolic content of the extracts, determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, was found to be correlated with the radical scavenging activity results. The acetone extracts of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle exhibited the highest phenolic content [112.3 and 103.4 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) dry sample weight, respectively]. PMID:22236049

  20. Effect of Early Seed Removal During Fermentation on Proanthocyanidin Extraction in Red Wine: A Commercial Production Example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) were made by a commercial winery to examine the effects of seed removal at ~10 °Brix on the extraction of proanthocyanidins during fermentation. Seeds were removed at the point when they fell to the bottom of the fermentor, and were thus easily removed during reg...

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Thunbergia laurifolia Linn extract in rats treated with ethanol: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Pramyothin, Pornpen; Chirdchupunsare, Hemvala; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

    2005-12-01

    Primary cultures of rat hepatocyte and rats were used as the in vitro and in vivo models to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract from Thunbergia laurifolia (TLE). Ethanol was selected as hepatotoxin. Silymarin (SL) was the reference hepatoprotective agent. In the in vitro study, MTT reduction assay and release of transaminases (ALT and AST) were the criteria for cell viability. Primary cultures of rat hepatocyte (24 h culturing) were treated with ethanol (96 microl/ml) and various concentrations of TLE (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg/ml) or SL (1, 2 and 3 mg/ml) for 2 h. Ethanol decreased MTT (%) nearly by half. Both TLE and SL increased MTT reduction and brought MTT (%) back to normal. Ethanol induced release of ALT and AST was also reduced by TLE (2.5 and 5.0 mg/ml) and SL (1 mg/ml). In the in vivo study, serum transaminases, serum triglyceride (STg) together with hepatic triglyceride (HTg) and histopathological examination were the criteria for evidences of liver injury. Ethanol (4 g/(kg day), po for 14 days) caused the increase in ALT, AST, HTg and centrilobular hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. TLE at 25 mg/(kg day), po, or SL at 5 mg/(kg day), po, for 7 days after ethanol enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing HTg, ALT and/or AST back to normal. These results suggest that TLE and SL possess the hepatoprotective activity against ethanol induced liver injury in both primary cultures of rat hepatocyte and rats. PMID:16085378

  2. Anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activity of the leaf aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Melanthera scandens in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Twinomujuni, Silvano S.; Oloro, Joseph; Alele, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Modern drug therapy of epilepsy is complicated by the inability of drugs to control seizures in some patients and side effects that range in severity from minimal impairment of the central nervous system to death from aplastic anemia or hepatic failure. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of epilepsy have been scientifically shown to possess promising anticonvulsant activities in animal models for screening for anticonvulsant activity and can be a source of newer anticonvulsants. The aim of this study was to investigate the preliminary phytochemical properties, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic activities of Melanthera scandens aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Phytochemicals from the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were screened by standard methods. Anticonvulsant activity was evaluated against pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizure model in rats. The effect of the extract at oral dose levels of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg was evaluated in an experimental rat model, using diazepam (5 mg/kg) as positive control. Anxiolytic activity was performed using elevated plus maze method. Phytochemical screening revealed that M. scandens extracts contain carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, phenols and phytosterols. The aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg significantly increased seizure latency (P=0.0023), while the ethanolic extract did not have a significant effect on seizure latency. Both extracts significantly reduced the seizure severity (P= 0.0155), and provided up to 100% protection against PTZ induced death at 1000 mg/kg. Both extracts had no significant effect on the duration of PTZ induced seizures. Both extracts were found to increase the number of entries and the time spent in the open arms of the maze at a dose of 250 mg/kg, indicating anxiolytic activity, which was not seen at higher doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg). The total numbers of entries into the closed arm were significantly reduced at 500 and 1000 mg

  3. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Foriş, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as μEq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co γ-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 μEq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with γ-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 μEq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 μEq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  4. Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections. PMID:23569812

  5. Nutritional Composition, in vitro Antioxidant Activity and Artemia salina L. Lethality of Pulp and Seed of Tamarindus indica L. Extracts.

    PubMed

    Khairunnuur, F A; Zulkhairi, A; Azrina, A; Moklas, Ma M; Khairullizam, S; Zamree, M S; Shahidan, M A

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the nutritional composition, antioxidant activity and medium lethal concentration (LC50 value) of Tamarindus indica L. pulp and seed extracts in vitro. The extraction was set at 40◦C, 60◦C and 100◦C for 12 hours, 6 hours and 15 minutes respectively to determine the optimum extraction parameter whereas the anti-oxidant activity of the extracts was measured using iron (III) reduction (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the extracts was estimated as gallic acid equivalent by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Toxicity potential of the extract was assessed in vitro by Artemia salina lethality test both in seed and pulp samples. The results showed that tamarind seed contained a higher percentage of carbohydrate, protein, fat and energy (15%, 82%, 95% and 33.13% respectively) than the pulp. On the other hand, the pulp demonstrated a high moisture (51.1%) and ash (34.84%) content than the seed. For the mineral analysis, tamarind seed contained higher Ca and C (1.0% and 50.73% respectively) than the pulp (0.27% and 40.40% respectively). No heavy metals were detected in both samples. Seed extracted at 60◦C/6 hours and 100◦C/15 minutes showed the highest TPC value and were significantly different (p<0.05) than the seed extracted at 40◦C/12 hours. Anti-oxidant activity is positively correlated to the TPC value of the extracts (R=0.991). The pulp and seed extracted at 100◦C/15 minutes showed the highest FRAP value among its groups (216.17 ± 14.06 μmol (Fe)/g and 659.74 ± 16.40 μmol (Fe)/g respectively). This study indicates that tamarind pulp and seed extracts possess beneficial antioxidant properties and the optimum extraction parameter is 100◦C for 15 minutes. In Artemia salina lethality test, tamarind pulp caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC50 in the range of 26-28 μL/mL. Tamarind seed were not toxic to Artemia salina since the LC50 of the extracts was higher than 1000 μL/mL. PMID:22691806

  6. LiDAR Segmentation using Suitable Seed Points for 3D Building Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, S. M.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.

    2014-08-01

    Effective building detection and roof reconstruction has an influential demand over the remote sensing research community. In this paper, we present a new automatic LiDAR point cloud segmentation method using suitable seed points for building detection and roof plane extraction. Firstly, the LiDAR point cloud is separated into "ground" and "non-ground" points based on the analysis of DEM with a height threshold. Each of the non-ground point is marked as coplanar or non-coplanar based on a coplanarity analysis. Commencing from the maximum LiDAR point height towards the minimum, all the LiDAR points on each height level are extracted and separated into several groups based on 2D distance. From each group, lines are extracted and a coplanar point which is the nearest to the midpoint of each line is considered as a seed point. This seed point and its neighbouring points are utilised to generate the plane equation. The plane is grown in a region growing fashion until no new points can be added. A robust rule-based tree removal method is applied subsequently to remove planar segments on trees. Four different rules are applied in this method. Finally, the boundary of each object is extracted from the segmented LiDAR point cloud. The method is evaluated with six different data sets consisting hilly and densely vegetated areas. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method offers a high building detection and roof plane extraction rates while compared to a recently proposed method.

  7. Gastroprotective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats

    PubMed Central

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mazen M; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Fouad, Mustafa; Golbabapour, Shahram; Talaee, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background and AimCorchorus olitorius is a medicinal plant traditionally utilized as an antifertility, anti-convulsive, and purgative agent. This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of C. olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in adult Sprague Dawley rats. MethodsThe rats were divided into seven groups according to their pretreatment: an untreated control group, an ulcer control group, a reference control group (20 mg/kg omeprazole), and four experimental groups (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract). Carboxymethyl cellulose was the vehicle for the agents. Prior to the induction of gastric ulcers with absolute ethanol, the rats in each group were pretreated orally. An hour later, the rats were sacrificed, and gastric tissues were collected to evaluate the ulcers and to measure enzymatic activity. The tissues were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. ResultsCompared with the extensive mucosal damage in the ulcer control group, gross evaluation revealed a marked protection of the gastric mucosa in the experimental groups, with significantly preserved gastric wall mucus. In these groups, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) and reduced (P < 0.05), respectively. In addition to the histologic analyses (HE and periodic acid-Schiff staining), immunohistochemistry confirmed the protection through the upregulation of Hsp70 and the downregulation of Bax proteins. The gastroprotection of the experimental groups was comparable to that of the reference control medicine omeprazole. ConclusionsOur study reports the gastroprotective property of an ethanolic extract of C. olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats. PMID:23611708

  8. The Topical Effect of Grape Seed Extract 2% Cream on Surgery Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati, Ali Asghar; foroozan, Maryam; Houshmand, Gholamreza; Moosavi, Zahra Beigom; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Maram, Nader Shakiba

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reducing the wound healing time is crucial in wound as it lowers the chance of infection and decreases complications and cost. Grape seed extract has the ability to release endothelial growth factor and its topical application results in contraction and closure of the skin wound. Furthermore, it possesses antioxidant and antibacterial properties. In several studies it has been proved effective in animals. Therefore, due to low side effects and recognition of herbal medicine, we decided to evaluate the effect of grape seed extract 2% herbal cream on human skin lesions. Materials: This study is a double blind clinical trial conducted on two groups of treatment and placebo. Surgery was performed on skin lesions such as skin tags and moles which were found on the neck, trunk and limbs (except for face). After enrollment and obtaining informed consent from participants, they were randomized into two groups of treatment and placebo. Excision of the lesions was done by surgical scissors. The lesions got restored by secondary intention method. After the first day of treatment, the patients were visited on the 3rd, 7th, 10th, 14th, and 21st day. Grape seed extract cream 2% was produced and coded by the Faculty of Pharmacy, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences. In order to compare the two groups, T-test was used. For time assessing, analysis of variance with repeated measures was employed. Results: The results showed complete repair of wounds averagely on day 8 for the treatment group and on day 14 for the placebo group, which was clearly significant in terms of statistical difference (p=0.00). Conclusion: Proanthocyanidins in grape seed extract trigger the release of vascular endothelial growth factor and its topical application causes wound contraction and closure. Curing skin lesions with grape seed extract caused proliferation areas with protected boundaries in epithelium, increased cell density and increased deposition of connective tissue at the wound site

  9. Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) as a salt-tolerant feedstock for production of biodiesel and ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) is a non-invasive perennial nonclonal halophytic oilseed-producing dicot that was investigated as a feedstock for production of biodiesel from seeds and ethanol from residual stem biomass. Seashore mallow seeds contained 19.3 mass % oil, which after extract...

  10. Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseñor, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 ± 0.1304 ppm (mean ± Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 ± 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid. PMID:25118563

  11. Anti-inflammatory action of ethanolic extract of Ramulus mori on the BLT2-linked cascade.

    PubMed

    Park, Geun-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Mulberry tree twigs (Ramulus mori) contain large amounts of oxyresveratrols and have traditionally been used as herbal medicines because of their anti-inflammatory properties. However, the signaling mechanism by which R. mori exerts its anti-inflammatory action remains to be elucidated. In this study, we observed that R. mori ethanol extracts (RME) exerted an inhibitory effect on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Additionally, RME inhibited IL-6 production by blocking the leukotriene B4 receptor- 2 (BLT2)-dependent-NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1)-reactive oxygen species (ROS) cascade, leading to anti-inflammatory activity. Finally, RME suppressed the production of the BLT2 ligands LTB4 and 12(S)-HETE by inhibiting the p38 kinase- cytosolic phospholipase A2-5-/12-lipoxygenase cascade in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells. Overall, our results suggest that RME inhibits the 'BLT2 ligand-BLT2'-linked autocrine inflammatory axis, and that this BLT2-linked cascade is one of the targets of the anti-inflammatory action of R. mori. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(4): 232-237]. PMID:26879317

  12. Anti-proliferative effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract on human endometrial RL-95 cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Hung; Wu, Jing-Mei; Kuo, Shyh-Ming; Ling, Xue-Hua; Houng, Jer-Yiing

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is a common malignancy of the female genital tract. This study demonstrates that Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE) significantly inhibited the proliferation of RL95-2 human endometrial cancer cells. Treating RL95-2 cells with SOE caused cell arrest in the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis of RL95-2 cells by up-regulating Bad, Bak and Bax protein expression and down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression. Treatment with SOE increased protein expression of caspase-3, -8 and -9 dose-dependently, indicating that apoptosis was through the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, SOE was also effective against A549 (lung cancer), Hep G2 (hepatoma), FaDu (pharynx squamous cancer), MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer), and especially on LNCaP (prostate cancer) cell lines. In total, 10 constituents of SOE were identified by Gas chromatography-mass analysis. Caryophyllene oxide and caryophyllene are largely responsible for most cytotoxic activity of SOE against RL95-2 cells. Overall, this study suggests that SOE is a promising anticancer agent for treating endometrial cancer. PMID:25470271

  13. In vitro larvicidal effects of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa Linn. on Haemonchus larval stage

    PubMed Central

    Nasai, Norisal Binti; Abba, Yusuf; Abdullah, Faez Firdaus Jesse; Marimuthu, Murugaiyah; Tijjani, Abdulnasir; Sadiq, Muhammad Abubakar; Mohammed, Konto; Chung, Eric Lim Teik; Omar, Mohammed Ariff Bin

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Gastrointestinal helminthosis is a global problem in small ruminant production. Most parasites have developed resistance to commonly available anthelminthic compounds, and there is currently an increasing need for new compounds with more efficacies. This study evaluated the in vitro effects of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa (EECL) as a biological nematicide against third stage Haemonchus larvae (L3) isolated from sheep. Materials and Methods: Haemonchus L3 were cultured and harvested from the feces of naturally infected sheep. EECL was prepared and three concentrations; 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL were tested for their efficacies on Haemonchus L3. Levamisole at concentration 1.5 and 3 mg/mL were used as positive controls. Results: EECL showed anthelmintic activity in a dose-dependent manner with 78% worm mortality within 24 h of exposure at the highest dose rate of 200 mg/mL. There was a 100% worm mortality rate after 2 h of levamisole (3 mg/mL) admisntration. However, there was a comparable larvicidal effect between when levamisole (1.5 mg/mL) and EECL (200 mg) were administered. Conclusion: The study shows that EECL does exhibit good anthelmintic properties at 200 mg/mL which is comparable with levamisole at 1.5 mg/mL. PMID:27182139

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of Taxillus tsaii Chiu in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Yu; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Chien, Tzu-Mei; Wu, Lung-Yuan; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2015-06-01

    Preclinical Research This study was conducted to investigate the analgesic activities and mechanism of anti-inflammatory activities of a 50% ethanol extract of Taxillus tsaii (ETT) in vivo using the acetic acid induced writhing test and formalin induced paw licking in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of ETT was evaluated using a mouse model of λ-carrageenan (Carr)-induced paw edema. ETT reduced the writhing in the acetic acid assay test at a dose 1.0 g/kg po and reduced the licking time in the late phase of the formalin test at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg po). Carr-induced paw edema was reduced when ETT (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg po) was administered 3-5 h after Carr injection. ETT (1.0 g/kg po) reduced the level of malondialdehyde in the edemic paw by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, e.g., superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase, in the liver and reducing TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 activity in the edemic paw. This study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ETT, thus verifying its application in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:26077892

  15. Vasorelaxant effect of osterici radix ethanol extract on rat aortic rings.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyungjin; Park, Geunyong; Ham, Inhye; Yang, Gabsik; Lee, Mihwa; Bu, Youngmin; Kim, Hocheol; Choi, Ho-Young

    2013-01-01

    The root of Ostericum koreanum Maximowicz has been used as a traditional medicine called "Kanghwal" in Korea (or "Qianghuo" in China). The purpose of this study was to investigate the vasorelaxant activity and mechanism of action of an ethanol extract of the O. koreanum root (EOK). We used isolated rat aortic rings to assess the effects of EOK on various vasorelaxant or vasoconstriction factors. EOK induced vasorelaxation in phenylephrine hydrochloride (PE) or KCl precontracted aortic rings in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the vasorelaxant effects of EOK on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pretreatment with L-NAME or methylene blue. In Ca(2+)-free Krebs-Henseleit solution, pretreatment with EOK (0.3 mg/mL) completely inhibited PE-induced constriction. In addition, EOK (0.3 mg/mL) also completely inhibited vasoconstriction induced by supplemental Ca(2+) in aortic rings that were precontracted with PE or KCl. Furthermore, the EOK-induced vasorelaxation in PE-contracted aortic rings was inhibited by preincubation with nifedipine. These results indicate that the vasorelaxant effects