Sample records for ethanolic seed extract

  1. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    PubMed

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

  2. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from seeds in fresh Bokbunja ( Rubus coreanus Miq.) and wine processing waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chang Sub Ku; Sung Phil Mun

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant potential of ethanol extracts from defatted Bokbunja seed wastes generated during wine processing were estimated by radical scavenging abilities (DPPH, H2O2, and O2-), retardation of lipid oxidation, and iron ion-chelating characteristics. For comparison, ethanol extracts from seeds of fresh ripe Bokbunja fruits were also used. The ethanol extracts from the wine seed waste always showed higher scavenging activities

  3. Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

    2012-12-01

    Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

  4. Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2013-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. ?-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes. PMID:23742045

  5. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from seeds in fresh Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) and wine processing waste.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chang Sub; Mun, Sung Phil

    2008-07-01

    The antioxidant potential of ethanol extracts from defatted Bokbunja seed wastes generated during wine processing were estimated by radical scavenging abilities (DPPH(*), H(2)O(2), and O(2)(*-)), retardation of lipid oxidation, and iron ion-chelating characteristics. For comparison, ethanol extracts from seeds of fresh ripe Bokbunja fruits were also used. The ethanol extracts from the wine seed waste always showed higher scavenging activities against DPPH(*), H(2)O(2), and O(2)(*-) than those from the fresh seeds. The oxidation of linoleic acid in dimethylsulfoxide at 105 degrees C revealed that the kinetic behavior clearly obeyed pseudo-zero-order regardless of the linoleic acid concentration. The Fe(II)-chelating capacity was determined by the Freundlich isotherm. The results showed high potential and favorability of the two extracts for Fe(II) chelation. The Freundlich chelation capacities (mg(1-1/n)L(1/n)/g) of both ethanol extracts from seeds of fresh Bokbunja and wine processing wastes, tannic acid, and proanthocyanidin from Pinus radiata bark were 100, 224, 260, and 307, respectively. The Fe(III)-chelating properties of the ethanol extracts were considered to be deeply associated with its 3',4',5'-trihydroxyl (galloyl) group as with tannic acid. PMID:17931856

  6. Effect of ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds on antioxidative defense system and oxidative stress in rats fed high-fat · high-cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Song, Won-Young; Ku, Kyung-Hyung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds on the antioxidative defense system and oxidative stress in rats fed a high fat · high cholesterol diet. Rats were divided into four experimental groups which were composed of high fat · high cholesterol diet group (HF), high fat · high cholesterol diet with 0.1% ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds supplemented group (HEA), high fat · high cholesterol diet with 0.2% ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds supplemented group (HEB) and high fat·high cholesterol diet with 0.5% ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds supplemented group (HEC). Supplementation of ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds groups (HEA, HEB and HEC) resulted in significantly increased activities of hepatic glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Hepatic superoxide radical contents in microsome and mitochondria were significantly reduced in the groups supplemented with red pepper seeds ethanol extracts. Hepatic hydrogen peroxide content in the mitochondria was reduced in ethanol extracts from red pepper seeds supplemented groups. TBARS values in the liver were reduced in red pepper seeds ethanol extracts supplemented groups. Especially, HEB and HEC groups were significantly decreased compared to the HF group. Hepatic carbonyl values were significantly reduced in mitochondria in these supplemented groups. These results suggest that red pepper seeds ethanol extracts may reduce oxidative damage, by activation of antioxidative defense system in rats fed high fat · high cholesterol diets. PMID:20198203

  7. Reproductive toxicity of Momordica charantia ethanol seed extracts in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Ploypattarapinyo, Ravicha; Pongchairerk, Urai; Thong-asa, Wachiryah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Momordica charantia (M. charantia) seed has been supposed to have an antifertility property but mechanisms underlying the infertility effect have not been investigated. Objective: We investigated the antifertility effect of M. charantia ethanol seed extracts on reproductive toxicology and seminal and plasma testosterone in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The control group (I) was provided daily 1 ml dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the experimental groups II and III were given daily 400 and 800 mg dry matter/kg body weight of the extracts dissolved in 1 ml DMSO via the esophageal route. All groups were administered for 42 days (day 42). Changes in body weight, fertility, reproductive characteristics, testicular histopathology and levels of seminal and plasma testosterone among three groups were compared. Results: On day 42, the extracts caused antifertility (p=0.001). The extracts demonstrated significant reductions in diameters of seminiferous tubules and epididymides, spermatid density, daily sperm production and caudal epididymal spermatozoa, sperm motility and viability (p=0.046). Pathological changes in seminiferous tubules revealed atrophy, desquamation, pyknosis nucleus and multinucleated giant cell. Plasma cells were evident in three parts of epididymides of rats treated with high dose of the extract. Furthermore, the high dose of the extract suppressed seminal testosterone level (p=0.001) and plasma testosterone level (p=0.002). Conclusion: Our data showed that high dose of M. Charantia seed extracts caused infertility in male rats. The interruption in their fertility was probably attributed to the direct toxic to seminiferous tubules, epididymis and the lowered testosterone level which might impact on sperm parameters. PMID:25469128

  8. Punica granatum cv. Dente di Cavallo seed ethanolic extract: antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

    PubMed

    Lucci, Paolo; Pacetti, Deborah; Loizzo, Monica R; Frega, Natale G

    2015-01-15

    This paper aims to provide a solid base for the utilisation of pomegranate whole seed ethanolic extract (PSEE) as a nutraceutical/functional food ingredient. PSEE was tested for its antioxidant and antiproliferative activities against different human cancer cell lines. Bioactive lipid compounds were identified by studying the PSEE lipid portion. PSEE exhibited a protection of lipid peroxidation threefold higher than a positive control. PSEE showed a promising antiproliferative activity against hormone dependent prostate carcinoma LNCaP, with an IC50 value 3 times lower than the positive control vinblastine, and against human breast cancer cell lines (IC50=9.6 ?g/ml). PSEE contained lipid bioactive compounds, such as neutral lipids, consisting of 72.8% punicic acid, glycolipids and phospholipids rich in essential fatty acids (?-linoleic and ?-linolenic acids). Due the presence of bioactive compounds and the remarkable antiproliferative activity, the use of PSEE as a value-added ingredient in formulations of products aimed to prevent diseases, especially cancer, could be promoted. PMID:25149014

  9. GC\\/MS Analysis of Bioactive Components of Benzene\\/Ethanol Extractive and Pyrolyzate from Wasted Kernel Hull of Camellia Oleifera Seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dang-Quan ZHANG; Xiao-Feng TAN; Qing-Zhi MA; W.-X. Peng; Q.-M. Liu

    2008-01-01

    The kernel hull of Camellia oleifera seed is underutilized and still wasted, therefore, we used GC\\/MS to analyze the top value-added bioactive components of benzene\\/ethanol extractive and pyrolyzate from the kernel hull of C. oleifera seed. After treated with freeze-drying, the fresh kernel hull was treated by benzene\\/ethanol extraction and direct pyrolysis in Helium atmosphere at 590 degC, respectively, then

  10. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seed in paracetamol induced acute hepatotoxicity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kushwah, D S; Salman, M T; Singh, P; Verma, V K; Ahmad, A

    2014-04-01

    Paracetamol overdose causes serious liver necrosis. Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa in Paracetamol induced acute hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Fasted male Wistar rats were orally treated with Nigella sativa extract in graded doses for 5 days followed by Nigella sativa extract and paracetamol 3 g kg(-1) on 6 and 7th day. Circulatory liver markers and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were estimated and histopathological study of liver performed. Paracetamol caused a significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and total Bilirubin and a significant decrease in GSH compared to control. Nigella sativa pretreatment significantly prevented the increase in liver enzymes and total bilirubin and decrease in GSH level as compared to paracetamol group. Liver histopathology showed marked reduction in sinusoidal dilatation, midzonal necrosis, portal triaditis and occasional apoptosis in Nigella sativa extract treated groups as compared to group receiving only paracetamol. Nigella sativa extract possesses hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced acute hepatoxicity. Further research is needed to advocate its prophylactic use for drug induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:25911839

  11. Vitis vinifera (Muscat Variety) Seed Ethanolic Extract Preserves Activity Levels of Enzymes and Histology of the Liver in Adult Male Rats with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Giribabu, Nelli; Eswar Kumar, Kilari; Swapna Rekha, Somesula; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2015-01-01

    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500?mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600??g/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:25852767

  12. Ethanolic Extract of the Seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Eun; Lee, So Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Young Woo; Jung, Jun Man; Kim, Dong Hyun; Shin, Bum Young; Jang, Dae Sik; Kang, Sam Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EEZS) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with EEZS. The behavioral tests were conducted using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in our present behavioral tasks without changes of locomotor activity. The ameliorating effect of EEZS on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was significantly reversed by a sub-effective dose of MK-801 (0.0125 mg/kg, s.c.). In addition, single administration of EEZS in normal naďve mouse enhanced latency time in the passive avoidance task. Western blot analysis was employed to confirm the mechanism of memory-ameliorating effect of EEZS. Administration of EEZS (200 mg/kg) increased the level of memory-related signaling molecules, including phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampal region. Also, the time-dependent expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by the administration of EEZS was markedly increased from 3 to 9 h. These results suggest that EEZS has memory-ameliorating effect on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, which is mediated by the enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system, in part, via NMDA receptor signaling, and that EEZS would be useful agent against cognitive dysfunction such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24244815

  13. Evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Ammi majus seeds in albino rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Asaad, Gihan F; Megahed, Hoda A; Zahran, Hanan; Arbid, Mahmoud S

    2012-06-01

    Pharmacological and biochemical studies on the Ammi majus seeds L. (family Umbelliferae) grown in Egypt are limited. Furocoumarins are the major constituents in the plant seeds. In the present study, the evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities on albino rats and mice was done. After 2 months of administration, both the doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight [bwt], respectively) of the alcoholic extract of the A. majus seed result in a significant decrease in the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein and increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein. The extract was found to inhibit the rat paw edema at both the doses, which means that it exerts a significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with control-untreated groups at the intervals of 30 and 60 minutes posttreatment. The antipyretic effect of the extract was quite obvious; it showed that 100 mg/kg bwt was more potent in lowering body temperature starting after 1 hour of treatment than the lower dose (50 mg/kg bwt). It is worth to mention that the A. majus extract with its coumarin contents as well as the tested biological activities of the plant was investigated for the first time in the current study. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of the A. majus seeds had antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities that are dose dependant. PMID:22550046

  14. Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties of ethanolic extracts of defatted borage ( Borago officinalis L.) seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahinda Wettasinghe; Fereidoon Shahidi

    1999-01-01

    Borage meal exerted a concentration-dependent antioxidant activity in a meat model system. At 2% (w\\/w), it inhibited (p?0.05) 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), hexanal and total volatile formation in meat by 26.5, 30.5 and 18.6%, respectively. Antioxidant compounds in the meal were concentrated at optimum extraction conditions (in 52% ethanol at 74°C for 62 min) predicted by response surface methodology (RSM).

  15. Preliminary studies on the hypoglycemic effect of Peganum harmala L. Seeds ethanol extract on normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amar B; Chaturvedi, J P; Narender, T; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2008-10-01

    Peganum harmala L. (Zygophyllaceae) is a traditional medicine used for the treatment of variety of human ailments, including antidepression, hallucination, antileishmaniasis etc. We report for first time the hypoglycemic activity of the ethanolic extract of this plant at two dose levels of 150 and 250mg/kg bw in sucrose challenged normal as well as in rats with streptozotocin induced diabetes. The oral administration of ethanolic extract causes maximum fall of blood glucose level to 22.9% (p<0.05) and 29.4% (p<0.01) respectively with the two doses in normal and 30.3% (p<0.01) and 48.4% (p<0.001) in diabetic rats. The standard drug metformin treated group showed 28.0% (p<0.01) and 45.5% (p<0.001) respectively in normal and diabetic rats. The above results show that the ethanolic extract of P. harmala is as effective as metformin in reducing the blood glucose levels of normoglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PMID:23105794

  16. Anticancer Potential of Aqueous Ethanol Seed Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Cancer Cell Lines and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Tulika; Khullar, Madhu; Bhatia, Aruna

    2011-01-01

    Ziziphus mauritiana (Lamk.) is a fruit tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases. In the present study, anticancer potential of seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana in vitro against different cell lines (HL-60, Molt-4, HeLa, and normal cell line HGF) by MTT assay as well as in vivo against Ehrich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice was investigated. The extract was found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells. Annexin and PI binding of treated HL-60 cells indicated apoptosis induction by extract in a dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis revealed a prominent increase in sub Go population at concentration of 20??g/ml and above. Agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells after 3 h incubation with extract. The extract also exhibited potent anticancer potential in vivo. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice with varied doses (100–800?mg/kg b.wt.) of plant extract significantly reduced tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and improved haemoglobin content, RBC count, mean survival time, tumor inhibition, and percentage life span. The enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals was evident from decline in levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. PMID:20953391

  17. Grapefruit-seed extract attenuates ethanol-and stress-induced gastric lesions via activation of prostaglandin, nitric oxide and sensory nerve pathways

    PubMed Central

    Brzozowski, Tomasz; Konturek, Peter C; Drozdowicz, Danuta; Konturek, Stanislaw J; Zayachivska, Oxana; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Pawlik, Wieslaw W; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) containing flavonoids, possesses antibacterial and antioxidative properties but whether it influences the gastric defense mechanism and gastroprotection against ethanol- and stress-induced gastric lesions remains unknown. METHODS: We compared the effects of GSE on gastric mucosal lesions induced in rats by topical application of 100% ethanol or 3.5 h of water immersion and restraint stress (WRS) with or without (A) inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity by indomethacin and rofecoxib, the selective COX-2 inhibitor, (B) suppression of NO-synthase with L-NNA (20 mg/kg ip), and (C) inactivation by capsaicin (125 mg/kg sc) of sensory nerves with or without intragastric (ig) pretreatment with GSE applied 30 min prior to ethanol or WRS. One hour after ethanol and 3.5 h after the end of WRS, the number and area of gastric lesions were measured by planimetry, the gastric blood flow (GBF) was assessed by H2-gas clearance technique and plasma gastrin levels and the gastric mucosal generation of PGE2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as an index of lipid peroxidation were determined. RESULTS: Ethanol and WRS caused gastric lesions accompanied by the significant fall in the GBF and SOD activity and the rise in the mucosal MDA content. Pretreatment with GSE (8-64 mg/kg i g) dose-dependently attenuated gastric lesions induced by 100% ethanol and WRS; the dose reducing these lesions by 50% (ID50) was 25 and 36 mg/kg, respectively, and this protective effect was similar to that obtained with methyl PGE2 analog (5 ?g/kg i g). GSE significantly raised the GBF, mucosal generation of PGE2, SOD activity and plasma gastrin levels while attenuating MDA content. Inhibition of PGE2 generation with indomethacin or rofecoxib and suppression of NO synthase by L-NNA or capsaicin denervation reversed the GSE-induced protection and the accompanying hyperemia. Co-treatment of exogenous calcitonine gene-related peptide (CGRP) with GSE restored the protection and accompanying hyperemic effects of GSE in rats with capsaicin denervation. CONCLUSION: GSE exerts a potent gastroprotective activity against ethanol and WRS-induced gastric lesions via an increase in endogenous PG generation, suppression of lipid peroxidation and hyperemia possibly mediated by NO and CGRP released from sensory nerves. PMID:16425415

  18. Effect of heating conditions of grape seeds on the antioxidant activity of grape seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So-Young Kim; Seok-Moon Jeong; Woo-Po Park; K. C. Nam; D. U. Ahn; Seung-Cheol Lee

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of heating and physical conditions of grape seeds on the antioxidant activity of their extracts. Two forms of grape seeds, whole and powdered forms, were heated at four different temperatures ?50, 100, 150 and 200°C. After heating, grape seeds were extracted with 70% ethanol (0.1g grape seed\\/10mL of 70% ethanol), and

  19. Ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Minier; G. Goma

    1982-01-01

    The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

  20. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of guarana seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucija Majheni?; Mojca Škerget; Željko Knez

    2007-01-01

    The antioxidant and antibacterial activities of guarana (Paullinia cupana) seed extracts were determined. The seeds were extracted with water, methanol, 35% acetone and 60% ethanol at room (TR) and at boiling (TB) temperature of solvent.Extracts were analyzed for the contents of caffeine and catechins, epicatechin (EC), catechin (C) and epicatechin gallate (ECG), by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contents

  1. Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Grape Seed Extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anamarija I. Mandic; Sonja M. ?ilas; Gordana S. ?etkovi?; Jasna M. ?anadanovi?-Brunet; Vesna T. Tumbas

    2008-01-01

    Grape seed extracts (GSEs,) obtained from Italian and Rhine Rieslings, were examined for polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activities using HPLC and ESR spectrometry. The seed extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate and ethanol. The contents of polyphenols, flavan-3-ols and antioxidant activities were found to be higher in ethyl acetate than in ethanolic extracts. IC50 values were 0.1045 mg\\/mL and

  2. Hepatoprotective Activity of Bi-Herbal Ethanolic Extract on CCl4 Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Samudram; Rajeshwari Hari; R. Vasuki; A. Geetha; P. Sathiya Moorthi

    2008-01-01

    The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi- herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE) was evaluated against carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Eclipta alba and seeds of Piper longum at a dose level of 50 mg\\/kg body weight was administered orally daily once for 14 days. The substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as

  3. Safflower seed extract lowers plasma and hepatic lipids in rats fed high-cholesterol diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kwang-Deog Moon; Seoung-Sook Back; Jun-Han Kim; Seon-Min Jeon; Mi-Kyung Lee; Myung-Sook Choi

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary studies showed that powdered safflower seed lowered the plasma cholesterol concentration in high-fat and high-cholesterol fed rats. These studies were designed to test the hypolipidemic activity of safflower seed extracts prepared with ethanol or hot water. Male rats were fed a high-cholesterol (1%, wt\\/wt) or high-cholesterol diet supplemented with safflower seed powder (5%, wt\\/wt; SSP), safflower seed ethanol extract

  4. Complementary and Comparative Study on Hypoglycemic and Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Extracts of Eugenia jambolana Seed, Momordica charantia Fruits, Gymnema sylvestre , and Trigonella foenum graecum Seeds in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukesh Yadav; Amita Lavania; Radha Tomar; G. B. K. S. Prasad; Shalini Jain; Hariom Yadav

    2010-01-01

    In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol,\\u000a hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and\\/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract

  5. Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract.

    PubMed

    Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

    2004-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions. PMID:15030930

  6. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBP? and PPAR?. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis. PMID:23179316

  7. Cerebroprotective effect of isolated harmine alkaloids extracts of seeds of Peganum harmala L. on sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia and ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in young mice.

    PubMed

    Biradar, S M; Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Tarak, K C

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to isolate the harmine alkaloids from the seeds of Peganum harmala (TAPH) and its cerebroprotective effect on cognitive deficit mice. The tested doses of TAPH were screened for Sodium nitrite induced hypoxia and Ethanol induced neurodegeneration using behavioral models. The TAPH was found to be non-neurotoxic and Psychoactive by preventing the motor impairment and increasing the locomotion activity of animals in Rota rod and Actophotometer respectively. TAPH (5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg kg(-1) p.o.) significantly (p < 0.001) protected the Sodium nitrite induced memory impairment by decreasing the time require to find the water bottle in special water bottle case model. In Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Passive Shock Avoidance paradigm (PSA) the TAPH shown improved acquisition and retention memory significantly (p < 0.001) by decreasing the Transverse Latency Time (TLT) and increasing the Step Down Latency (SDL), respectively in dose dependent manner. The results were well supported by biochemical parameters, by inhibiting the Acetylcholinestrase (p < 0.01) activity, increasing the GSH (p < 0.001) level and decreasing the TBARS (p < 0.001) level of whole brain. Moreover TAPH has shown the significant Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) inhibition action (p < 0.001), hence it reduces the metabolism of epinephrine, 5-HT and other monoamines and enhances the action of these neurotransmitters indirectly; this adrenergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. Further, TAPH (5 mg kg(-1)) protect the DNA fragmentation of frontotemporal cortex of the brain from hypoxic effect induced by Sodium nitrite in Gel Electrophoresis studies. The results were comparable to their respective standards. Hence, harmine alkaloids are potential enough to utilize in the management of Neurodegenerative disorders of the type Alzheimer's diseases. PMID:24506035

  8. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  9. Antioxidative activities of water extract and ethanol extract from field horsetail ( tsukushi) Equisetum arvense L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Nagai; Takao Myoda; Toshio Nagashima

    2005-01-01

    Water extract and ethanol extract from top and body portions of field horsetail (tsukushi) were prepared, and the antioxidative activity was investigated using four different methods. The contents of total phenolic components were richer in the ethanol extract fractions of each portion than in the water extracts. On the other hand, protein contents were much lower in ethanol extract fractions

  10. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activity and functional components of the ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) from various growing regions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The variations in antioxidant activity and concentration of functional components in the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes based on the growing region and dryness were investigated. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and concentration of several specific flavonoids and alkaloids in the ethanol extracts of lotus were measured. Antioxidant activity and its correlative total phenolic content varied characteristically depending on the growing region and dryness. High-perfomance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds from Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City), raw rhizomes from Korea (Siheung), and dried rhizomes from Japan (Nigata) had the greatest specific flavonoid content. The ethanol extracts of seeds from China (Hubei), raw rhizomes from Japan (Nigata), and dried rhizomes from Korea (Siheung) had the greatest specific alkaloid content. Astragaline, rutin, isoquercetin, nuciferine, dauricine, isoliensinine, and neferine were identified in lotus rhizomes for the first time in this study. PMID:24932940

  11. Extraction Kinetics and Anethole Content of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Anise Seed (Pimpinella anisum) Extracts Obtained by Soxhlet, Ultrasound, Percolation, Centrifugation and Steam Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia F. Leal; Talyta S. Almeida; Glaucia H. C. Prado; Juliana M. Prado; M. Angela A. Meireles

    2011-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Pimpinella anisum (anise) extracts were obtained by Soxhlet, cold percolation, ultrasound assisted extraction and centrifugal extraction using ethanol as solvent; anise extracts were also obtained by steam distillation. Soxhlet presented the highest yields for both fennel and anise seed (16.8% and 23.3%, respectively). The highest anethole content among ethanolic extracts was obtained for centrifugal extraction (6.8 mg\\/g

  12. Extraction Kinetics and Anethole Content of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Anise Seed (Pimpinella anisum) Extracts Obtained by Soxhlet, Ultrasound, Percolation, Centrifugation, and Steam Distillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrícia F. Leal; Talyta S. Almeida; Glaucia H. C. Prado; Juliana M. Prado; M. Angela A. Meireles

    2011-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Pimpinella anisum (anise) extracts were obtained by Soxhlet, cold percolation, ultrasound assisted extraction, and centrifugal extraction using ethanol as solvent; anise extracts were also obtained by steam distillation. Soxhlet presented the highest yields for both fennel and anise seed (16.8% and 23.3%, respectively). The highest anethole content among ethanolic extracts was obtained for centrifugal extraction (6.8 mg\\/g

  13. Oenanthe javanica extract accelerates ethanol metabolism in ethanol-treated animals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Yeon; Kim, Ki-Hoon; Lee, Youn Ju; Lee, Seung Ho; Park, Jong Cheol; Nam, Doo Hyun

    2009-08-31

    The effect of water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica DC) extract in eliminating ethanol was evaluated in New Zealand white rabbit and ICR mice. When a hot-water extract of water dropwort extract and ethanol was injected into New Zealand white rabbit, the plasma ethanol level was rapidly reduced, similar to metadoxine treatment. Specifically, the n-butanol fraction of hot-water extract was the strongest in eliminating plasma alcohol in ICR mice. When ethanol was orally ingested, administration of the hot-water extract eliminated up to 44% of the plasma ethanol in mice while the n-butanol fraction eliminated around 70%. Alcohol removal behaved in a dose-dependent manner in response to 50-200 mg/kg of n-butanol fraction. These data show O. javanica extract is effective in overcoming alcohol intoxication by the accelerating ethanol metabolism. PMID:19712583

  14. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by ethanolic mango seed extract in cultured estrogen receptor positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 ?g/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX), p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9) in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione) as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent. PMID:25664859

  15. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Simone N.M.; Salazar, Marcela M.; Pereira, Gonçalo A.G.; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2–6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4–8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol.

  16. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  17. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  18. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F; Klotz, J; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

    1984-01-01

    The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

  20. An Extract of Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue Seed Induces Vasoconstriction of Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An ethanol extract of tall fescue seed was produced to further understand the interactions of toxic compounds that cause fescue toxicosis. We hypothesized that the combination of alkaloids present in the extract would have a greater vasoconstrictive response than individual alkaloids. The objective ...

  1. High pressure extraction of oil seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Eggers; U. Sievers; W. Stein

    1985-01-01

    For calculation of phase equilibria of the system seed oil\\/CO2, an equation of state published in the literature has been fitted to experimental data of that system. The results thus obtained\\u000a are of only limited use in designing a supercritical extraction process. The experimental investigation of the mass transfer\\u000a kinetics is much more significant. Mechanical processing of the oil seed’s

  2. Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

    1980-01-01

    Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells. PMID:7378060

  3. Feasibility of incorporating cotton seed extract in Clostridium strain P11 fermentation medium during synthesis gas fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimple K. Kundiyana; Raymond L. Huhnke; Prasanth Maddipati; Hasan K. Atiyeh; Mark R. Wilkins

    2010-01-01

    Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. To make this process more economical, the complexity of media should be reduced while using less costly components. In this study, the feasibility of incorporating cotton seed extract (CSE) as a media component for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was

  4. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  5. Toxicity of neem (Azadirachta Indica) seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents, on the spider chiracanthium mildei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Mansour; K. R. S. Ascher; N. Omari

    1986-01-01

    The toxicity of neem seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents against the predatory spider,Chiracanthium mildei L. Koch, was investigated. The order of toxicity of the 4% extracts was pentane < acetone < ethanol << methanol = water (nontoxic).\\u000a All extracts were nontoxic at 2.5%.

  6. Effect of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) extracts on blood glucose level of normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fathy K. El-Fiky; Mohamed A. Abou-Karam; Elham A. Afify

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic extracts of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) on blood glucose levels both in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Treatment with both extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose level in STZ diabetic rats during the first three hours of treatment. L. aegyptiaca extract decreased blood glucose

  7. Prevention of Action of Far-Red-Absorbing Phytochrome in Rumex crispus L. Seeds by Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Taylorson, Ray B.

    1984-01-01

    Phytochrome-enhanced germination of curled dock (Rumex crispus L.) seeds is further stimulated by pretreatments in solutions of 0.5 to 2 molar methanol and 0.03 to ? 0.3 molar 2-propanol during a 2-day 20°C imbibition. Similar pretreatments in 0.1 molar ethanol, acetaldehyde, and n-propanol inhibit phytochrome-enhanced germination. If exposure to ethanol is delayed until 16 hours after a red irradiation, seeds escape the ethanol inhibition indicating a mechanism other than toxicity. The rate of escape from ethanol inhibition roughly parallels the escape from phytochrome control in seeds held in water only, indicating possible ethanol effects on phytochrome. It was found that ethanol pretreatment prevents the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome (Pfr) from acting but does not accelerate dark decay or prevent transformation. Ethanol inhibition may be prevented if ethanol pretreatment is at 10°C instead of 20°C, or may be overcome by transferring ethanol-pretreated seeds to 10°C in water. Similarly, ethanol inhibition can be overcome by a 2-hour 40°C temperature shift concluding the pretreatment. It is proposed that the ethanol causes perturbations at a membrane which prevent Pfr from acting. PMID:16663401

  8. Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Münir Oktay; ?lhami Gülçin; Ö. ?rfan Küfrevio?lu

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of water and ethanol extracts of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed (FS) was evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including total antioxidant, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, metal chelating activities and reducing power. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and

  9. Phenolic compounds from the edible seeds extract of Chinese Mei ( Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc) and their antimicrobial activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daozong Xia; Xiaoqin Wu; Jiayi Shi; Qing Yang; Ying Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Prunus mume seeds have been used as a healthy food and traditional drug in China. The present study investigated the phenolic compounds and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract from seeds of P. mume. Total phenolic content was determined as gallic acid equivalents by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The antibacterial activity was measured by a filter paper disc method. Three chlorogenic acid

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

  11. Ethanol production from carob extract by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Irfan; Bialka, Katherine L; Demirci, Ali; Karhan, Mustafa

    2010-07-01

    Carob has been widely grown in the Mediterranean region for a long time. It has been regarded as only a forest tree and has been neglected for other economical benefits. However, in recent years, this fruit has gained attention for several applications. As petroleum has become depleted, renewable energy production has started to gain attention all over the world; including the production of ethanol from underutilized agricultural products such as carob. In this project, the optimum extraction conditions were determined for the carob fruit by using the response surface design method. The obtained extract was utilized for production of ethanol by using suspended Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation. The effect of various fermentation parameters such as pH, media content and inoculum size were evaluated for ethanol fermentation in carob extract. Also, in order to determine economically appropriate nitrogen sources, four different nitrogen sources were evaluated. The optimum extraction condition for carob extract was determined to be 80 degrees C, 2h in 1:4 dilution rate (fruit: water ratio) according to the result of response surface analysis (115.3g/L). When the fermentation with pH at 5.5 was applied, the final ethanol concentration and production rates were 42.6g/L and 3.37 g/L/h, respectively, which were higher than using an uncontrolled pH. Among inoculum sizes of 1%, 3%, and 5%, 3% was determined as the best inoculum size. The maximum production rate and final ethanol concentration were 3.48 g/L/h and 44.51%, respectively, with an alternative nitrogen source of meat-bone meal. Overall, this study suggested that carob extract can be utilized for production of ethanol in order to meet the demands of renewable energy. PMID:20189805

  12. Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

    Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

  13. Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots

    PubMed Central

    Momin, Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Bellah, Sm Faysal; Rahman, Sarder Mohammad Raussel; Rahman, Ahmed Ayedur; Murshid, Gazi Mohammad Monjur; Emran, Talha Bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Methods Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Results Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 µg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. Conclusions The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required. PMID:24144125

  14. EXTRACTION OF NEEM OIL (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) USING N-HEXANE AND ETHANOL: STUDIES OF OIL QUALITY, KINETIC AND THERMODYNAMIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Yuliana Liauw; F. A. Natan; D. Ikasari; N. Indraswati; F. E. Soetaredjo

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, Neem oil extraction from Neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) with n-hexane and ethanol are presented. Effects of particle size, temperature and type of solvent on the extraction kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were studied. Results showed that the maximum oil yields were 41.11% for ethanol and 44.29% for n-hexane at 50 o C, and 0.425-0.71 mm particle

  15. Extraction optimization and nanoencapsulation of jujube pulp and seed for enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye Jung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Park, Sun-Ah; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize extraction conditions for jujube pulp and seed in order to obtain maximum active ingredient yield and antioxidant activity, as well as to prepare chitosan nanoparticles loaded with jujube pulp and seed extracts for enhancing stability. The extraction conditions, i.e. temperature, time, and ethanol concentration, were optimized at the following respective values: 61.2°C, 38h, and 60.4% for pulp, and 58°C, 34h, and 59.2% for seed. The jujube nanoparticle size significantly increased with a higher chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate ratio and extract concentration. Entrapment efficiency was greater than 80% regardless of preparation conditions. The stabilities of jujube pulp and seed extract in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were effectively enhanced by nanoencapsulation. In conclusion, jujube pulp and seed extracts prepared using optimal conditions could be useful as a natural functional food ingredient with antioxidant activity, and nanoencapsulation can be used to improve the stability of jujube extract. Therefore, these results could be used to promote the utilization of not only jujube pulp but also seed, by product. PMID:25911157

  16. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. seed extracts in normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, B K; Rao, C H

    2001-03-01

    Aqueous, ethanolic and hexane fractions of Syzygium alternifolium seeds were prepared and given different doses of these extracts individually to different batches of rats (both normal and alloxan diabetic rats) after an overnight fast. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 hours after the treatment. The aqueous extract of Syzygium alternifolium at a dosage of 0.75 g/kg b.w. is showing maximum blood glucose lowering effect in both normal and alloxan diabetic rats. The ethanol and hexane fractions are also showing hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity, but the effect is significantly less than that of aqueous extract. The antihyperglycemic activity of Syzygium alternifolium seed was compared with the treatment of Glibenclamide. PMID:11315761

  17. Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa leaf ethanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Marslin; Divya, B.; Mary, Revina Ann; Viji, M. M. Hipolith; Kalaichelvan, V. K.; Palanivel, V.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity and acute toxicity of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) leaf ethanolic extract in animal models. Methods Anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was studied on stress induced ulcer animal models. Ranitidine was used as standard. The anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa was evaluated with the help of ulcer area and histopatholgical examination. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and acute toxicity studies of F. religiosa also carried out. Results Results showed that the extract treatments prevented ulcer area and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of 2?000 mg/kg extract did not show any acute toxicity in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis identified the presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of F. religiosa. Conclusions The extract is non-toxic even at relatively high concentrations. The anti-ulcer activity is probably due to the presence of flavanoids. PMID:23836366

  18. Study on Grape Seeds Extraction and Optimization: An Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalia Youssef; Hala El-Adawi

    2006-01-01

    The efficient methods for extracting phenolics from grape seeds have shown broad range of pharmacological activities, due to the special health promoting and disease preventing effects of polyphenols. In this research, red grape seeds were subjected to different extraction conditions. The effect of single factor such as the concentration of solvent, the ratio of liquid to solid (L\\/S), extraction temperature

  19. Chemical constituents from the ethanol extract of Viburnum ternatum.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang; Shi, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Xia; Li, Hui; Chen, Jian-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the 70% ethanol extract from Viburnum ternatum resulted in the isolation of three new compounds, vibsanol-9'-al (1), 4-methoxy-vibsanol (2), and 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavanone(8 ? 3')-5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone (4), together with a known compound vibsanol (3). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HR-ESI-MS analyses. PMID:24678994

  20. Gastroprotective activity of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract on experimentally induced gastric lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Junko; Takuma, Daisuke; Hamada, Atsuhide; Onogawa, Masahide; Yoshioka, Saburo; Kusunose, Masahiko; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Kyotani, Shojiro; Nishioka, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract (ESE) prepared with 70% ethanol on gastric mucosal injury was investigated. Six experimental models with different action mechanisms were used for the evaluation. Three concentrations of ESE were prepared for each model. ESE administration was initiated 14 days before induction of gastric mucosal injury, and its effect was investigated. ESE inhibited formation of gastric mucosal injury. PMID:18404352

  1. IMPROVIN PARTICLE SEPARATION FROM AN ETHANOL EXTRACT TO WATER: SETTLING DEPENDENCE ON FINE PARTICLE CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Separating solid particles from ethanolic corn extracts by gravitational settling into a water layer has been studied as part of a project to develop a low cost method to extract ethanol-soluble protein from corn meal. During settling some of the liquid part of the extract (extract liquid) is entra...

  2. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    PubMed Central

    Kamkar Asl, Mina; Nazariborun, Ashraf; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1) Saline, (2-4) Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7) Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9) Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE) in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s). PMID:25050273

  3. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ? -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  4. Antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. ethanolic extracts.

    PubMed

    Zampini, Iris C; Vattuone, Marta A; Isla, Maria I

    2005-12-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata ethanolic extract against 47 strains of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and to identify bioactive compounds. Inhibition of bacterial growth was investigated using agar diffusion, agar macrodilution, broth microdilution and bioautographic methods. Zuccagnia punctata extract was active against all assayed bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 25 to 200 microg/mL. Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were identical or two-fold higher than the corresponding MIC values. Contact bioautography, indicated that Zuccagnia punctata extracts possess one major antibacterial component against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and at least three components against. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Activity-guided fractionation of 1he ethanol extract on a silica gel column yielded a compound (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone), which exhibited strong antibacterial activity with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.00 microg/mL for Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These values are lower than imipenem (0.25-16 microg/mL). Zuccagnia punctata might provide promising therapeutic agents against infections with multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16137849

  5. Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Judith H.; Wernet, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. The technique is not limited to alumina/ethanol and is also demonstrated with an alumina/H2O system. Other ceramic powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(sub pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined.

  6. Production of 16.5% v/v ethanol from seagrass seeds.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Motoharu; Miyoshi, Tatsuo; Kaneniwa, Masaki; Ishihara, Kenji; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Urano, Naoto

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol fermentation on seeds of seagrass Zostera marina was studied. The seeds were collected from the annual plant colony of Z. marina at Hinase Bay, Okayama. The seeds contained 83.5% carbohydrates including 48.1% crude starch on a dry weight basis, which is comparable to cereals such as wheat flour and corns. The seeds were saccharified with glucoamylase (50°C, 96 h) and 103.4 g/l concentration of glucose juice was obtained. The glucose juice was further fermented (23°C-35°C, 15 days) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains NBRC10217(T) and Kyokai 7-go, and ethanol was obtained at a 65.0 g/l (82.3 ml/l) level by monographic double-fermentation and at a 130.4 g/l (165.1 ml/l) level by parallel double-fermentation. Fermented products of seagrass seeds containing such a high ethanol concentration as the present study have potential to be utilized not only for biofuel but also for foods and beverages in the future. Culturing of seagrass seeds as a crop may enable development of a new marine fermentation industry. PMID:24969514

  7. Immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract of Shirishadi compound

    PubMed Central

    Kajaria, Divya; Tripathi, Jyoti Shankar; Tiwari, Shri Kant; Pandey, Bajrangi Lal

    2013-01-01

    Immunomodulators are substances that helps to regulate the immune system. The basic mechanisms by which the herbs defend the body against infection have two probable ways- one by destroying pathogens and other by enhancing the body immunity. Shirishadi compound is a polyherbal drug used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for the management of allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma etc., The present study was carried out to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of polyherbal compound “Shirishadi” on Swiss albino mice. Cyclophosphamide (CP) induced immunosuppression model was used to assess the activity of drug. CP was given in the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight through i.p route. 500 mg/kg body weight of Shirishadi polyherbal drug was given through oral route. The extent of protection against immunosuppression caused by CP was evaluated after 14 days of drug administration, by estimating hematological parameters and neutrophil adhesion test. Ethanolic extracts of Shirishadi compound showed pronounced immunoprotective activity by increasing the depleted levels of total WBC count and RBC, % Hb, and % neutrophils adhesion. The extract was found to be an effective immunomodulatory agent. PMID:24501532

  8. Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) seed kernel extracts and azadirachtin as oviposition deterrents against the melon fly ( Bactrocera cucurbitae ) and the oriental fruit fly ( Bactrocera dorsalis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shivendra Singh; R. P. Singh

    1998-01-01

    Neem(Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) seed kernel (NSK) extracts,viz., NSK aqueous suspension (NSKS), ethanolic extract of NSK (EtOH. NSK), hexane extract of NSK (neem oil), ethanolic extract\\u000a of the hexane extract (EtOH. oil) and acetone extract of deoiled NSK powder (Acet. DNSKP) at 1.25-20% concentrations, and\\u000a pure azadirachtin at 1.25-10 ppm, were evaluated as oviposition deterrents toBactrocera cucurbitae (Coq.) andB. dorsalis

  9. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol and water extracts of Cassia alata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N Somchit; I Reezal; I. Elysha Nur; A. R Mutalib

    2003-01-01

    Crude ethanol and water extract of leaves and barks from Cassia alata were tested in vitro against fungi, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Microsporum canis), yeast (Candida albicans) and bacteria (Staphylococcus aereus and Escherichia coli). C. albicans showed concentration-dependent susceptibility towards both the ethanol and water extracts from the barks, but resistant towards the extracts of leaves. The degree of susceptibility varied,

  10. Evaluation of antidiarrhoeal potentials of ethanolic extract of leaves of Holoptelea integrifolia in mice model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharma Shrinivas

    The ethanolic extract of leaves of Holoptelea integrifolia was studied for its antidiarrhoeal properties in experimental diarrhoea, induced by castor oil and magnesium sulphate in mice. At the doses of 250 and 500 mg\\/kg per oral, the ethanolic extract showed significant and dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity in both models. The extracts also significantly reduced the intestinal transit in charcoal meal test

  11. Microwave-assisted extraction kinetics of terpenes from caraway seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smain Chemat; Hamid Aďt-Amar; Ahcčne Lagha; D. C. Esveld

    2005-01-01

    The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with microwave-assisted extraction have been studied with respect to microwave power, radiation dose and extraction time in order to obtain the secondary metabolites selectively. Using classical solid–liquid extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were

  12. Demonstration of a stabilized alumina/ethanol colloidal dispersion technique for seeding high temperature air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.

    1995-01-01

    Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.

  13. Characterisation of Mediterranean grape pomace seed and skin extracts: polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvčdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes. PMID:25642834

  14. Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed extract.

    PubMed

    Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Francisco, Angelica D; De Guzman, Florecita; Tigno, Xenia T

    2003-01-01

    Carica papaya seed extract is currently being marketed as a nutritional supplement with purported ability "to rejuvenate the body condition and to increase energy". The product claims to improve immunity against common infection and body functioning. The present study was initiated to analyze the chemical constituents of the Carica Seed Extract and determine the potential immunomodulatory properties of the different bioactive fractions. These immunomodulatory activities of crude Carica Seed Extract and its bioactive fractions were examined in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation assays and complement-mediated hemolytic assay. Three major observations were made in this study: (1) the crude Carica Seed Extract and two other bioactive fractions significantly enhanced the phytohemagglutinin responsiveness of lymphocytes; (2) none of the Carica Seed Extract (at the concentrations used in this study) was able to protect the lymphocytes from the toxic effects of chromium; and (3) some of the bioactive fractions of Carica Seed Extract were able to significantly inhibit the classical complement-mediated hemolytic pathway. These findings provide evidence for immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of Carica Seed Extract. No single compound is likely responsible for these activities. Further purification, isolation and characterization of the active components are needed. PMID:14724345

  15. Bioactivity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2012-06-01

    Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 ?g/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 ?g/mL) and TH (165.44 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 ?g/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 ?g/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation. PMID:24471075

  16. The protective action of ethanolic ginger ( Zingiber officinale) extract in cholesterol fed rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U Bhandari; J. N Sharma; R Zafar

    1998-01-01

    The effects of ethanolic extract of ginger (200 mg\\/kg, p.o.) were studied in cholesterol fed rabbits. The marked rise in serum and tissue cholesterol, serum triglycerides, serum lipoproteins and phospholipids that followed 10 weeks of cholesterol feeding, was significantly reduced by the ethanolic ginger extract and results were compared with gemfibrozil, a standard orally effective hypolipidaemic drug. The severity of

  17. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume.

    PubMed

    Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Tze, Liong Min; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays. In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and tannin contents were also determined. Overall, the methanol extracts of the pod contained high concentration of phenolics and showed high antioxidant capacities compared to seed extracts. In addition, a positive correlation was found between total phenol and tannin versus antioxidant capacity. Results of the present study indicate pods and seeds of C. fairchildiana to possess rich amount of natural antioxidants, and can be further explored for their possible use as a natural additive in food or in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24425949

  18. Full-press oil extraction of Cuphea (PSR23) seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid Cuphea hybrid, is being developed as a potential commercial alternative source of medium chain fatty acids. Recent seed increases in Cuphea had provided sufficient amounts of seeds to pursue an oil extraction study and, at the same time, produce m...

  19. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cuphea seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea seed oil is being investigated as a potential domestic source of medium chain fatty acids for several industrial uses. Although the oil from cuphea seeds has been obtained using both solvent extraction and screw pressing, both methods suffer from several disadvantages. Petroleum ether extra...

  20. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  1. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  2. Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-hyperlipidemic Effects of Bryonia Laciniosa Seed Extract and its Saponin Fraction in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, SB; Santani, D; Shah, MB; Patel, VS

    2012-01-01

    Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. This investigation was carried out to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract of seeds of B. laciniosa Linn. and its saponin fraction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.) and saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats and standard drug insulin (5 IU/kg; i.p.) to the group serving as a positive control. Effects of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's t-test. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction for 28 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of blood glucose and improved the levels of plasma insulin. The levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, urea, and creatinine were markedly altered in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction restored all these biochemical parameters to near control levels. This study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of diabetes and its associated complications. PMID:23112536

  3. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera) seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Jayaprakasha; Tamil Selvi; K. K. Sakariah

    2003-01-01

    Grape seeds were powdered and the fatty material was extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether (60–80 °C) for 6 h. The defatted powder was extracted with acetone:water:acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) and methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) for 8 h each separately. The extracts were concentrated under vacuum to obtain crude extracts, which were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection

  4. Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.

    PubMed

    Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus. PMID:20645772

  5. Effect of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uma Bhandari; Raman kanojia; K. K. Pillai

    2005-01-01

    The lipid lowering and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (family, Zingiberaceae) was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. Ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale (200mg\\/kg) fed orally for 20 days produced, significant antihyperglycaemic effect (P<0.01) in diabetic rats. Further, the extract treatment also lowered serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and increased the HDL-cholesterol levels when compared with

  6. Antioxidant Property of an Ethanol Extract of the Stem of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong-Chae Lee; Hak-Ryul Kim; Ju Kim; Yong-Suk Jang

    2002-01-01

    An ethanol extract of the stem of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) was assessed to determine the mechanism(s) of its antioxidant activity. The ethanol extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in a thiocyanate assay system. In addition, the OFS extract showed dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity, including DPPH radicals, superoxide anions (O2Ą-), and hydroxyl radicals (ĄOH), using different

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE IN COMMERCIAL GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS), and element...

  8. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM BLACK SEED HULLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New methodology has been developed for the preparative scale extraction and purification of anthocyanins from "black" seed coats and hulls. A combination of physical fractionation, extraction, flash chromatography and preparative chromatography has resulted in the isolation of gram quantities of pu...

  9. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol and water extracts of Cassia alata.

    PubMed

    Somchit, M N; Reezal, I; Nur, I Elysha; Mutalib, A R

    2003-01-01

    Crude ethanol and water extract of leaves and barks from Cassia alata were tested in vitro against fungi, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Microsporum canis), yeast (Candida albicans) and bacteria (Staphylococcus aereus and Escherichia coli). C. albicans showed concentration-dependent susceptibility towards both the ethanol and water extracts from the barks, but resistant towards the extracts of leaves. The degree of susceptibility varied, the water extract from barks showed bigger inhibition zone than the ethanol extracts (12-16 and 10-14 mm, diameter respectively). The growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Microsporum canis were not affected by all types of the plant extracts. Results were comparable to standard antifungal drug Tioconazole (18 mm diameter) at equivalent concentration. The anti-bacterial activity of C. alata extracts on S. aureus was detected with only the leaves extracts using water and ethanol. The water extract exhibited higher antibacterial activity than the ethanol extract from leaves (inhibition zones of 11-14 and 9-11 mm, respectively). E. coli showed resistance to all types of extracts. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that this plant has antimicrobial activity, which is as potent as standard antimicrobial drugs against certain microorganisms. PMID:12499068

  10. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (?) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32?mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15?mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73??g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51??g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9?µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  11. Antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and phenolics of different solvent extracts from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Zahid Iqbal; Anwar, Farooq; Shabir, Ghulam; Rasul, Ghulam; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC(50) value, 3.21 ?g/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50-6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18-4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52-0.65 mg/100 g DW) as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22466852

  12. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  13. Mutagenicity and safety evaluation of ethanolic extract of Prunus mume.

    PubMed

    Lu, Baiyi; Wu, Xiaoqin; Dong, Yuejie; Gong, Jinyan; Zhang, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Prunus mume (EPM) is a novel polyphenol preparation derived from branches (with leaves) of Prunus mume, which could be used as a functional ingredient for antioxidant and antiobesity therapy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of EPM. An EPM was prepared and evaluated for oral acute and subacute toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats, while its mutagenic potential was assessed by a reverse mutation test using Salmonella typhimurium, by a bone marrow cell micronucleus test using ICR mice, and by a sperm abnormality test using ICR mice. The results showed no acute lethal effects at the maximal tested EPM dose of 20 g/kg bw in either rats or mice, suggesting that EPM can be regarded as virtually nontoxic. Administration at levels of 0.84, 1.67, and 3.33 g/kg bw to rats for 30 d did not induce any significant hematological, clinical, chemical, or histopathological changes. No mutagenicity evidence was detected in any of the 3 mutagenic tests. The level of "no observed adverse effect" (NOAEL) for EPM was above 3.33 g/kg bw for the subacute toxicity study. PMID:20492134

  14. Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract from Flos populi.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Tang, Guosheng; Cai, Enbo; Liu, Shuangli; Zhang, Lianxue; Wang, Shijie

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate antihyperlipidaemic and in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Flos populi (EFP). The results demonstrated that EFP contains 78.5% flavonoids and 10.4% phenolics, and it exhibited free radical-scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 36.40 ± 0.62 ?g/mL) and high reducing power (EC50 206.32 ± 1.6l ?g/mL) under in vitro chemical assays. And irrespective of prophylactic administration or remedial administration, in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidaemic mice, oral treatment with EFP produced a decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In a word, in high fat diet-fed hyperlipidaemic mice, EFP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly altered the plasma lipid levels to near normal. These results support a potential effect of EFP in cardiovascular disease. PMID:24730759

  15. Toxicity evaluation of a standardised 50% ethanol extract of Orthosiphon stamineus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elsnoussi Ali Hussin Mohamed; Chung Pin Lim; Omar Saad Ebrika; Mohd. Zaini Asmawi; Amirin Sadikun; Mun Fei Yam

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the studyThe present investigation was carried out to evaluate the safety of standardised 50% ethanol extract of Orthosiphon stamineus plant by determining its potential toxicity after acute and subchronic administration in rats.

  16. Immunomodulatory Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Thyphonium flagelliforme (Lodd) Blume in Rats Induced by Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Nurrochmad, Arief; Ikawati, Muthi; Sari, Ika Puspita; Murwanti, Retno; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract of Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd) Blume in cyclophosphamide-treated rats. The immunomodulatory effects were determined by lymphocytes proliferation, phagocytic activity of macrophages, plasma cytokines of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, interleukin-10 levels, and killer T cells (CD8+ T cells) counts. The results showed that the administration of ethanolic extract of T flagelliforme reduced immunosupessive effect on lymphocyte proliferation, increase the number and phagocytic activity of macrophages in cyclophosphamide-treated rats. Moreover, the ethanolic extract of T flagelliforme also significantly (P < .05) improved the immune system activities especially the proliferation of CD8+T cells and reduced the suppressive effects on cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-1?. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of T flagelliforme has immunomodulatory properties in cyclophosphamide-treated rats. The results suggest that T flagelliforme can reduce immunosuppresive effect caused by a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:25613330

  17. The effect of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract on oxidative stress in adriamycin-induced nephropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Atsuhide; Yoshioka, Saburo; Takuma, Daisuke; Yokota, Junko; Cui, Tailine; Kusunose, Masahiko; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Kyotani, Shojiro; Nishioka, Yutaka

    2004-12-01

    Eriobotrya japonica has been used as a medicinal plant for a long time, and its leaves are known to have many physiological actions such as anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and expectoran. In contrast, Eriobotrya japonica seeds are only known to contain amygdalin, and almost no investigations of its pharmacological action have been performed. Moreover, some anticancer agents such as adriamycin cause renal disorders as an adverse effect, and the mechanism of the adverse effect is considered to involve oxidative stress. We have reported that Eriobotrya japonica seed extract has an inhibitory effect on liver disorders. In this study, we prepared a 70% ethanol extract of Eriobotrya japonica seeds and administered the extract to rats with renal disorder induced by a single administration of 7 mg/kg body weight adriamycin, and investigated the usefulness of the extract. Increases in indices of renal function, plasma urea nitrogen, were significantly inhibited in rats treated with the Eriobotrya japonica extract compared to rats treated with tap water. In addition, the renal tissue level of reduced glutathione was significantly high in rats that ingested the extract, while the lipid peroxide levels in plasma and renal tissue were significantly low. However, no effect on renal tissue antioxidative enzymes was observed, suggesting that Eriobotrya japonica seed extract has direct antioxidative action. Based on these findings, Eriobotrya japonica seed extract may be effective in reducing the oxidative stress of adriamycin-induced renal disorder. Therefore, ingestion of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract may contribute to a reduction of the adverse effects of adriamycin. PMID:15577213

  18. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanolic extract of potato (Solanum tuberlosum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eunmi Choi; Sungja Koo

    2005-01-01

    The ethanol extract of potato tubers (Solanum tuberlosum L.) has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in mice. The acute treatment of mice with an ethanolic extract from the potato tuber at doses of 100 and 200 mg\\/kg, by oral administration, produced a significant anti-nociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced pain licking and hot plate-induced pain. Also,

  19. Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts of Propolis on Alpha-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcheng; Wang, Guangxin; Beta, Trust; Dong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of various extracts of propolis on alpha-glucosidase from baker's yeast and mammalian intestine. Inhibitory activities of aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis were determined by using 4-nitrophenyl-D-glucopyranoside, sucrose and maltose as substrates, and acarbose as a positive reference. All extracts were significantly effective in inhibiting ?-glucosidase from baker's yeast and rat intestinal sucrase in comparison with acarbose (P < 0.05). The 75% ethanol extracts of propolis (75% EEP) showed the highest inhibitory effect on ?-glucosidase and sucrase and were a noncompetitive inhibition mode. 50% EEP, 95%, EEP and 100% EEP exhibited a mixed inhibition mode, while water extracts of propolis (WEP) and 25% EEP demonstrated a competitive inhibition mode. Furthermore, WEP presented the highest inhibitory activity against maltase. These results suggest that aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis may be used as nutraceuticals for the regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25767553

  20. Inhibitory properties of aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis on alpha-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongcheng; Wang, Guangxin; Beta, Trust; Dong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of various extracts of propolis on alpha-glucosidase from baker's yeast and mammalian intestine. Inhibitory activities of aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis were determined by using 4-nitrophenyl-D-glucopyranoside, sucrose and maltose as substrates, and acarbose as a positive reference. All extracts were significantly effective in inhibiting ?-glucosidase from baker's yeast and rat intestinal sucrase in comparison with acarbose (P < 0.05). The 75% ethanol extracts of propolis (75% EEP) showed the highest inhibitory effect on ?-glucosidase and sucrase and were a noncompetitive inhibition mode. 50% EEP, 95%, EEP and 100% EEP exhibited a mixed inhibition mode, while water extracts of propolis (WEP) and 25% EEP demonstrated a competitive inhibition mode. Furthermore, WEP presented the highest inhibitory activity against maltase. These results suggest that aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis may be used as nutraceuticals for the regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25767553

  1. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    PubMed

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88 % of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60 °C, 80 % ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (dw), 25.0 mg quercetin equiv./100 g dw and 28.6 % DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95 % confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26139905

  2. Antiulcer activity of ethanol leaf extract of Cassia fistula.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Sivanesan; Gobianand, Kuppannan

    2010-08-01

    The ethanol leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula Linn. (Caesalpinaceae) was evaluated for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. Ranitidine (30 mg/kg b.w.) and ELE at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.w. were administered orally in different groups of rats (n = 6), 1 h prior to pyloric ligation. Four hours after pyloric ligation, the gastric juice was collected for evaluation of various parameters. The antiulcer activity of ELE was evidenced by the significant attenuation of gastric volume, pH, free acidity, and total acidity in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats in a dose-dependent manner, and this protective effect could be due to strengthening of the mucosal defense mechanism. ELE pre-treatment significantly attenuated the fall in status of sialic acid and fucose accompanied by an increase in hexose, hexosamine, total non-amino polysaccharide, total carbohydrate, and C:P ratio in the gastric juice of pylorus-ligated rats, and this effect could be due to protection of the mucosal barrier system. ELE pre-treatment significantly prevented the increase in LPO and SOD accompanied by a fall in CAT, in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats. This protective ability of ELE against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Higher doses of ELE (750 mg/kg b.w.) produced maximum antiulcer activity comparable to ranitidine treatment. In essence, the antiulcer activity of ELE could be attributed to (i) a decrease in gastric acid secretion, (ii) protection of the mucosal barrier and restoration of mucosal secretions, (iii) inhibition of free radical generation or prevention of lipid peroxidation, and (iv) free radical scavenging or antioxidant properties. PMID:20673173

  3. Antioxidant\\/prooxidant activity of a polyphenolic grape seed extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veronica Sanda Chedea; Cornelia Braicu; Carmen Socaciu

    2010-01-01

    The oxidative potential of a polyphenolic grape seed extract, with the idea of using this extract as a nutritive supplement, was evaluated. Data presented in this work provide in vitro (primary leukocyte culture) UV–Vis spectral evidence, indicating that quinones, as oxidation products, are involved in the modulation of the antioxidant\\/prooxidant balance at cellular level in the case of catechin-type compounds

  4. Identification of Benzethonium Chloride in Commercial Grapefruit Seed Extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary R. Takeoka; Lan T. Dao; Rosalind Y. Wong; Leslie A. Harden; Noreen Mahoney

    2001-01-01

    Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis). The main constituent was identified as benzethonium chloride, a synthetic antimicrobial agent commonly used in cosmetics and other

  5. Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents. PMID:25183127

  6. APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN METHOD FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION OF SUNFLOWER SEED HULL HYDROLYSATE USING PICHIA STIPITIS NRRL-124

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Odonchimeg Jargalsaikhan; Nurdan Saraço?lu

    2008-01-01

    The lignocellulosic hydrolysates provide a rich medium for fermentation of sugars into ethanol. The potential use of sunflower seed hull hemicellulose hydrolysate in ethanol fermentation was evaluated by using the Experimental Design method in this study. A 2 Box-Wilson experimental design was used to develop a statistical model. The effects of shaking rate (55–145 rpm) and initial pH (4.6–7.4) on the

  7. Grape Seed Extract Activates Th1 Cells In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Narayanan Nair; Supriya Mahajan; Ram Chawda; Chithan Kandaswami; Thomas C. Shanahan; Stanley A. Schwartz

    2002-01-01

    Although flavonoids manifest a diverse range of biological activities, including antitumor and antiviral effects, the molecular mechanisms underlying these activities await elucidation. We hypothesize that the flavonoid constituents of a proprietary grape seed extract (GSE) that contains procyandins exert significant antiviral and antitumor effects, by inducing production of the Th1-derived cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells) from

  8. Inhibitory effects of grape seed extract on lipases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego A. Moreno; Nebojsa Ilic; Alexander Poulev; Dawn L. Brasaemle; Susan K. Fried; Ilya Raskin

    2003-01-01

    ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to assess the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on the fat-metabolizing enzymes pancreatic lipase, lipoprotein lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase in vitro and evaluate its potential application as a treatment for obesity.

  9. Extraction of proteins from pennycress seeds and press cake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to more fully utilize pennycress, a potentially viable bio-diesel source, the proteinaceous components were extracted from pennycress seed and press cake. The amino acid composition of the proteins present in pennycress was typical for proteins derived from plants, with glycine, glutamic ac...

  10. Extraction and utilization of breadfruit seed oil ( Treculia africana)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. E. Ajiwe; C. A. Okeke; H. U. Agbo

    1995-01-01

    Oil was extracted from crushed breadfruit (Treculia africana) seeds by Soxhlet. The yield of the oil was 20·83 ± 0·57%. Tests showed the oil to be a semi-drying oil which is unsaturated, with a high saponification value, acidic and requires purification. The oil could be used for making soap, hair shampoo and alkyd resin.

  11. Toxicity of anthraquinones: differential effects of rumex seed extracts on rat organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Ismayil, Ilyar; Yan, Ming; Kadir, Mahsutjan; Abdugheny, Abdujilil; Rapkat, Haximjan; Niyaz, Mardan; Ali, Yusupjan; Abay, Sirapil

    2015-05-01

    The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15?days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25753342

  12. [Anti-yeast activity of ethanol extracts of Lilium candidum L].

    PubMed

    Mucaji, P; Hudecová, D; Haladová, M; Eisenreichová, E

    2002-11-01

    The paper deals with anti-yeast activity of ethanolic extracts from the flowers and bulbs of Lilium candidum L., Liliaceae, as well as some compounds isolated from these extracts. Several different methods were used for the determination of anti-yeast activity: Lowry method of protein determination, dilution and cultivation method. The extract from the bulbs was shown to be more active than the extract from the flowers, while isolated compounds were inactive against the tested yeasts. PMID:12501491

  13. Toxicity of Brazilian plant seed extracts to two strains of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and nontarget animals.

    PubMed

    Souza, T M; Farias, D F; Soares, B M; Viana, M P; Lima, G P G; Machado, L K A; Morais, S M; Carvalho, A F U

    2011-07-01

    Seed ethanolic extracts of 21 Brazilian plants were evaluated for ovicidal, larvicidal, and pupicidal activities against insecticide-susceptible (SS) and field-collected (FC) strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), as well as for their effects on nontarget organisms. Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. Allemao extract was highly toxic to both mosquito strains. Schinopsis brasiliensis Engler extract showed low toxicity and was 38-68 times less toxic to Ae. aegypti larvae than was M. urundeuva extract. The pupicidal activity (LC50) of 14 plant seed extracts ranged between 9 and 433/g/ml, and toxicities were comparable to both mosquito strains. Piptadenia moniliformis Benth. and Luetzelburgia auriculata (Allemao) Ducke extracts showed the highest activities against pupae of FC and SS strains. None of the extracts showed 100% ovicidal activity. In addition, the active extracts did not show high acute toxicity to mice (LD50 > 1.5 g/kg), except that of Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong. Most of the active extracts exhibited low toxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) nauplii. The extracts of M. urundeuva, P. moniliformis, and L. auriculata are promising sources of recognized classes of insecticidal compounds with good selectivity against immature stages of Ae. aegypti. PMID:21845944

  14. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Todd, Daniel A; Gulledge, Travis V; Britton, Emily R; Oberhofer, Martina; Leyte-Lugo, Martha; Moody, Ashley N; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Grubbs, Laura F; Juzumaite, Monika; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Faeth, Stanley H; Laster, Scott M; Cech, Nadja B

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-?, and also suppress production of TNF-? in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-?, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-? suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-?, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can originate from endophytic bacteria. Together, our findings indicate that ethanolic E. purpurea extracts contain multiple constituents that differentially regulate cytokine production by macrophages. PMID:25933416

  15. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Emily R.; Oberhofer, Martina; Leyte-Lugo, Martha; Moody, Ashley N.; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Grubbs, Laura F.; Juzumaite, Monika; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Faeth, Stanley H.; Laster, Scott M.; Cech, Nadja B.

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-?, and also suppress production of TNF-? in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-?, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-? suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-?, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can originate from endophytic bacteria. Together, our findings indicate that ethanolic E. purpurea extracts contain multiple constituents that differentially regulate cytokine production by macrophages. PMID:25933416

  16. Gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extract from Cissampelos pareira in experimental animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Amresh; Hussain Zeashan; Ram Ji Gupta; Ravi Kant; Chandana Venkateswara Rao; Paras Nath Singh

    2007-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira (L.) Hirsuta (Menispermaceae) roots have been examined in various acute and chronic ulcers in validated experimental models\\u000a in rats. C. pareira extract of 25–100 mg\\/kg administered orally, twice daily for 5 days showed a dose-dependent, ulcer-protective effect. The\\u000a extract demonstrated significant protection against 100% ethanol- (P P P P C. pareira, showed significant antiulcer property (P P C. pareira significantly (P C. pareira significantly

  17. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agbafor KN; Akubugwo EI

    Hypocholesterolaemic effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) was investigated using albino rats. Hypercholesterolaemia was induced in the animals by feeding with egg yolk fortified diet for 14 days. The plant extract was administered orally to two groups, doses of 200 and 100 mg\\/kg body weight respectively for 7 days. Physical activities, food and water intake

  18. In Vitro Nitric Oxide Scavenging Activity of Ethanol Leaf Extracts of Four Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moni Rani Saha; Rumana Jahangir; Israt Jahan Biv

    2008-01-01

    The ethanol leaf extracts of four medicinal plants named Hibiscus mutabilis, Leucas aspera, Ixora coccinea and Polyalthia longifolia were examined for their possible regulatory effect on nitric oxide (NO) levels using sodium nitroprusside as a NO donor in vitro. Most of the extracts tested demonstrated direct scavenging of NO and exhibited significant activity and the potency of scavenging activity was

  19. Sorghum Protein Extraction by Sonication and Its Relationship to Ethanol Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research were to develop a rapid method for extracting proteins from mashed and non-mashed sorghum meal using sonication (ultrasound), and to determine the relationships between the levels of extractable proteins and ethanol fermentation. Nine grain sorghum samples with a bro...

  20. Extraction of ethanol with higher alcohol solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a solvent extraction screening study, several beta-branched alcohols in the 16 ­ 20 carbons range show improved extractive performance to recover ethanol from aqueous solutions compared to commonly studied solvents such as oleyl alcohol and 1-dodecanol. These beta-branched alcohols were selected ...

  1. Wheat proteins extracted from flour and batter with aqueous ethanol at subambient temperatures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contact of wheat flour proteins with aqueous ethanol may enrich protein by starch displacement and/or deplete protein by extraction depending (1) on the concentration and temperature of the applied solvent and (2) the form of the contacted substrate. Generally, extraction at sub-ambient temperatures...

  2. Gastroprotective and antioxidant activities of Phyllanthus amarus extracts on absolute ethanol- induced ulcer in albino rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. S. Shokunbi; A. A. Odetola

    This study was designed to evaluate the gastroprotective and antioxidant effects of aqueous and acetone extracts of Phyllanthus amarus leaves in albino rats. P. amarus extracts (500 and 1000 mg\\/Kg) as well as cimetidine (100 mg\\/Kg) was administered orally once a day for two weeks before challenge with absolute ethanol (1 ml\\/ 200 g body wt). Pretreatment with P. amarus

  3. Evaluation of reducing power and radical scavenging activities of water and ethanol extracts from sumac ( Rhus coriaria L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ercan Bursal; Ekrem Köksal

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reducing power, metal chelating, and radical scavenging capabilities of water and ethanol extracts of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.), comparatively. The water and ethanol extracts of sumac were evaluated for their radical scavenging activities by means of the DPPH and DMPD assays. Water extract of sumac (R. coriaria L.) scavenged radicals effectively

  4. Corrosion inhibition and adsorption properties of ethanol extract of Gongronema latifolium on mild steel in H2SO4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. O. Eddy; E. E. Ebenso

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the inhibitive and adsorptive characteristics of ethanol extract of Gongronema latifolium (GL) as a corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in H2SO4. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The inhibition efficiencies were evaluated using thermometric and hydrogen evolution techniques. Findings – The inhibition efficiency of ethanol extract of GL vary with concentration of the extract,

  5. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by Eriobotrya japonica seed extract.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Junko; Takuma, Daisuke; Hamada, Atsuhide; Onogawa, Masahide; Yoshioka, Saburo; Kusunose, Masahiko; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Kyotani, Shojiro; Nishioka, Yutaka

    2006-03-01

    We have clarified that Eriobotrya japonica seed extract has strong antioxidative activity, and is effective for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as hepatopathy and nephropathy. In this study, to investigate the influences of components of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract on its antioxidative activity, extracts were prepared using various solvents (n-hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (n-BuOH), methanol (MeOH) and H2O) and the antioxidative activity of the solvent fractions and components was evaluated based on the scavenging of various radicals (DPPH and O2(-)) measured by the ESR method and the inhibition of Fe3+-ADP induced NADPH dependent lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. The radical scavenging activities and inhibitory activities on lipid peroxidation differed among the solvent fractions and components. In the n-BuOH, MeOH and H2O fractions, radical scavenging activity and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation were high. In addition, these fractions contained abundant polyphenols, and the radical scavenging activity increased with the polyphenol content. In the low-polar Hex and EtOAc fractions, the radical scavenging activity was low, but the lipid peroxidation inhibition activity was high. These fractions contained beta-sitosterol, and the inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation was high. Based on these findings, the antioxidative activity of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract may be derived from many components involved in a complex mechanism, resulting in high activity. PMID:16508147

  6. In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 ?g/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal. PMID:21031260

  7. Effects of ethanol extract of Crocus sativus L. and its components on learning behavior and long-term potentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Saito; M Sugiura; K. Abe; H. Tanaka; S. Morimoto; F. Taura; Y. Shoyama

    2001-01-01

    The increase of errors and the decrease in number of learned mice were significantly ameliorated by Crocus sativus ethanol extracts (CSE) in SD test. The LTP-blocking effect of ethanol was significantly improved by oral-, intravenous-, and intracerebroventricular- administration of CSE, respectively. When a single oral administration of crocin was given 10 min before the ethanol treatment the number of successful

  8. Feasibility of incorporating cotton seed extract in Clostridium strain P11 fermentation medium during synthesis gas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kundiyana, Dimple K; Huhnke, Raymond L; Maddipati, Prasanth; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R

    2010-12-01

    Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. To make this process more economical, the complexity of media should be reduced while using less costly components. In this study, the feasibility of incorporating cotton seed extract (CSE) as a media component for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was evaluated. A factorial experiment was conducted to screen and evaluate the effect of different media components, in relation to CSE, on ethanol production. Also, different CSE concentrations as well as the presence of MES buffer were tested to determine their effect on ethanol production. Bottle fermentations with media containing only 1.0 gL(-1) CSE produced more ethanol after 15 d (1.17 gL(-1)) than fermentation using any other media. Further bottle experiments showed that media containing only 0.5 gL(-1) CSE produced more ethanol after 15 days (2.67 gL(-1)) than a control media (0.6 gL(-1)) and media containing only 1.0 gL(-1) CSE (2.16 gL(-1)). Fermentations in 5- and 7.5-L stirred fermentors with 0.5 gL(-1) CSE media achieved ethanol concentrations similar to those observed in bottle studies. These results indicate that CSE can replace all the vitamin and mineral media components generally used for fermentation of syngas to ethanol by Clostridium strain P11, thereby improving the process economics. PMID:20696571

  9. Evaluation of the safety and antioxidant activities of Crocus sativus and Propolis ethanolic extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ramadan; G. Soliman; Sawsan S. Mahmoud; Salwa M. Nofal; Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman

    The possible toxicological effects and in vitro antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of Crocus sativus and Propolis were investigated. Both extracts did not cause any mortalities or signs of toxicity in mice when administered orally at doses up to 5g\\/kgb.wt. In the sub-chronic study; the tested extracts did not produce any significant change in liver and kidney functions of

  10. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of the Ethanol Extract from Red Toon Leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chungang Chen; Benguo Liu; Fenxia Han; Huirong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Red toon leaves have been consumed as herbal medicine and vegetable. In this study, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of its ethanol extract were investigated. The results showed that the extract was an effective scavenger in quenching hydroxyl radicals with IC50 of 10.57 mg\\/mL. A linear correlation between concentration of the extract and reducing power was observed with a coefficient

  11. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Schott.).

    PubMed

    Mulla, Wa; Kuchekar, Sb; Thorat, Vs; Chopade, Ar; Kuchekar, Bs

    2010-04-01

    Extracts obtained from the leaves of various Alocasia species have been used in India as folk remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments including rheumatism and bruise. The ethanolic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica Schott. was evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical. The antinociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response, hot plate method, and tail flick method in albino rats. The anti-inflammatory potential of gels of ethanolic extract has been determined by using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, formalin-induced paw edema assay, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema assay, and xylene-induced ear edema assay. The extract showed remarkable antioxidant activity in all models, comparable to the standard reference drug ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extract of Alocasia indica and its gels produced dose-dependent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. This finding suggests that ethanolic extract of A. indica possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity possibly due to its free radical scavenging properties. PMID:21264115

  12. Effect of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Adwan, Ghaleb; Salameh, Yousef; Adwan, Kamel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium (E. elaterium) fruits alone against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains and Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains, or in combination with penicillin against Staphylococcus areus strains. Methods Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity or synergy interaction was carried out using microdilution method. Results The results showed that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and C. albicans. This extract showed a significant decrease in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin against both MRSA and MSSA strains. Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC) between penicillin and ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits against these test strains was less than 0.5. Conclusions This study suggests that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and C. albicans and there is a possibility of concurrent use of penicillin and E. elaterium extract in combination in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA and MSSA strains. A wider study is needed to identify the effective components, the mode of action and the possible toxic effect in vivo of these ingredients. PMID:23569813

  13. DETERMINATION OF CATECHINS IN COMMERCIAL GRAPE SEED EXTRACT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenkui Li; Harry H. S. Fong; Keith W. Singletary; John F. Fitzloff

    2002-01-01

    An HPLC-UV method with gradient elution for the quantification of catechins [(+)-catechin, (?)-epicatechin and (?)-epicatechin gallate] in grape seed extract was developed. The presence of monomers, dimers, and\\/or trimers of catechin were assayed with an initial HPLC-APCI-MS analysis, which was followed by isolation, purification, and characterization with spectral (NMR and MS) analyses of the compounds of interest. The results confirmed

  14. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography of polyphenolic compounds in grape seed extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Karnangerpour; M. Ashraf-Khorassani; L. T. Taylor; H. M. McNair; L. Chorida

    2002-01-01

    Summary  Supercritical Fluid Chromatography with a packed column on a mixture of eight polyphenols has been optimized. Carbon dioxide\\u000a which was modified with methanol which contained less than 1% (w\\/w) citric acid as a secondary additive served as the mobile\\u000a phase. Two tandem diol columns were used sequentially. The optimized method was applied to a supercritical fluid grape seed\\u000a extract. Various

  15. Stability of polyphenolic extracts from grape seeds after thermal treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Davidov-Pardo; Ińigo Arozarena; María R. Marín-Arroyo

    2011-01-01

    Five commercial grape seed extracts (GSEs) were put under pasteurisation (HTST and LTLT), cooking, baking and sterilisation\\u000a conditions. After each treatment, the tannin content, antioxidant activity, browning and characteristics of eight phenolic\\u000a compounds were determined. For nearly all quantified parameters, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between at least two treatments. The gallic acid, gallocatechin and browning parameters showed a greater

  16. Identification of benzalkonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, Gary R; Dao, Lan T; Wong, Rosalind Y; Harden, Leslie A

    2005-09-21

    Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS), tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS), and elemental analysis (by proton-induced X-ray emission analysis). Three major constituents were observed by HPLC and were identified as benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride, and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride. This mixture of homologues is commonly known as benzalkonium chloride, a widely used synthetic antimicrobial ingredient used in cleaning and disinfection agents. PMID:16159196

  17. Identification of benzethonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Takeoka, G; Dao, L; Wong, R Y; Lundin, R; Mahoney, N

    2001-07-01

    Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (by proton-induced X-ray emission [PIXE] analysis). The main constituent was identified as benzethonium chloride, a synthetic antimicrobial agent commonly used in cosmetics and other topical applications. This compound comprised 8.03% (n = 2) of the liquid GSE sample. Higher amounts of benzethonium chloride were found in powder GSE samples. PMID:11453769

  18. Acaricidal effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf ethanolic extract against Rhipicephlaus (Boophilus) annulatus.

    PubMed

    Sunil, A R; Amithamol, K K; Juliet, S; Nair, S N; Ajithkumar, K G; Soorya, V C; Divya, T M; Jyothymol, G; Ghosh, S; Ravindran, R

    2013-06-01

    The present study evaluates the acaricidal properties of crude ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula leaves for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus based on adult immersion test (AIT). The percentage of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of ova laid were studied at different concentrations of the extract ranging from 50 to 100 mg / ml. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA. The extract produced complete inhibition of hatching of eggs at concentrations above 80 mg / ml of the extract. Mortality of adult engorged female ticks and inhibition of fecundity were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of extract against R. (B.) annulatus was 97.1 mg / ml. PMID:23959488

  19. Evaluation of CNS activities of ethanol extract of roots and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Dutta, Santanu; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus (EECR) was tested for possible pharmacological effects on experimental animals. EECR significantly potentiated the sleeping time of mice induced by standard hypnotics, viz. pentobarbitone sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependent manner. EECR showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. Pretreatment with EECR caused significant protection against strychnine and leptazol-induced convulsions. The behavioral studies on mice indicate CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extract of C. rotundus. PMID:19894649

  20. Effects of blackcurrant seeds and rosemary extracts on oxidative stability of bulk and emulsified lipid substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urszula Samotyja; Maria Ma?ecka

    2007-01-01

    The effects of blackcurrant seeds extract and commercially available rosemary extracts on rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil triacylglycerol oxidative stability were evaluated. The antioxidant activity of plant extracts was investigated, both in bulk and emulsified lipid substrates, and compared with those of ?-tocopherol and BHT. The investigation showed that blackcurrant seeds and rosemary extracts are the source of active antioxidants

  1. Scutellariae radix extracts suppress ethanol-induced caspase-11 expression and cell death in N 2a cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyounglan Kang; Yeo Kyoung Oh; Ryowon Choue; Shin Jung Kang

    2005-01-01

    Scutellariae radix is a Chinese herbal medicine that has been used to treat disease conditions accompanying inflammation and oxidative stress. In the present study, we examined the effect of Scutellariae radix extracts during acute ethanol exposure in N2a neuroblastoma. The Scutellariae radix extracts effectively inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis and caspase-3\\/-7 activation. Ethanol induced the expression of caspase-11 that has been known

  2. A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes

    PubMed Central

    Ramavandi, Bahman; Hashemi, Seyedenayat; Kafaei, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1–3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na+ and K+), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: • According to the Hardy–Schulze rule, we applied the Fe3+ ions instead of Na+ and K+ for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds. • The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction). • Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes.

  3. Analysis of Proanthocyanidins in Grape Seed Extracts, Health Foods and Grape Seed Oils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yumiko Nakamura; Sumiko Tsuji; Yasuhide Tonogai

    2003-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is one of Japan's natu- ral food additives, and is recommended for use as an antioxidant. The component of interest is polyphenol, mainly proanthocyanidins, which are condensed tannins. A vanillin-hydrochloric acid (HCl) assay is spe- cific for flavan-3-ol. The sensitivity of GSE components to the vanillin-HCl assay differed according to the chemical structure. We applied this

  4. Antioxidant activity of extracts of black sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L.) by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiuhui; Xu, Juan; Chen, Shubing; Yang, Fangmei

    2004-02-25

    Antioxidant activities of extracts derived from sesame seed by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction and by n-hexane were determined using alpha,alpha-diphenyl-beta-picylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and linoleic acid system methods. The highest extracted yield was given at 35 degrees C, 40 MPa, and a CO(2) flow rate of 2.5 mL min(-1) by an orthogonal experiment. The yields of extracts increased with increasing pressure, and yields at 40 and 30 MPa were higher than that by solvent extraction at 46.50%. Results from the linoleic acid system showed that the antioxidant activity follows the order: extract at 35 degrees C, 20 MPa > BHT > extract at 55 degrees C, 40 MPa > extract at 55 degrees C, 30 MPa > Trolox > solvent extraction > alpha-tocopherol. The SC-CO(2) extracts exhibited significantly higher antioxidant activities comparable to that by n-hexane extraction. The extracts at 30 MPa presented the highest antioxidant activities assessed in the DPPH method. At 20 MPa, the EC(50) increased with temperature, which indicated that the antioxidant activity was decreased in a temperature-dependent manner. The significant differences of antioxidant activities were found between the extracts by SC-CO(2) extraction and n-hexane. However, no significant differences were exhibited among the extracts by SC-CO(2) extraction. The vitamin E concentrations were also significantly higher in SC-CO(2) extracts than in n-hexane extracts, and its concentrations in extracts corresponded with the antioxidant activity of extracts. PMID:14969554

  5. Antioxidant activity of brown pigment and extracts from black sesame seed ( Sesamum indicum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Xu; Shubing Chen; Qiuhui Hu

    2005-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of brown pigment, extract of n-hexane and extract of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of black sesame seeds were investigated in this study. Kinetics of anti-radical activity showed that the reaction between DPPH and brown pigment of sesame seed was rapid and reached the steady state in 10 min. Extracts from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and n-hexane extraction

  6. Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65? was the highest, at 17.48%. Color was not different based on the extraction method, but the b-value increased as the roasting time for compression extraction was increased. The b-values of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction were 3.54 to 15.6 and those following compression extraction after roasting treatment at 200? for 30 min, were 20.49, which was the highest value. The result of the phenolic compounds composition showed the presence of gentisic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid in the ginseng seed oil. No differences were detected in phenolic acid levels in ginseng seed oil extracted by compression extraction or solvent extraction, but vanillic acid tended to decrease as extraction pressure and temperature were increased for seed oil extracted by a supercritical fluid extraction method. The fatty acid composition of ginseng seed oil was not different based on the extraction method, and unsaturated fatty acids were >90% of all fatty acids, among which, oleic acid was the highest at 80%. Phytosterol analysis showed that ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol were detected. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction was 100.4 to 135.5 mg/100 g, and the phytosterol content following compression extraction and solvent extraction was 71.8 to 80.9 mg/100 g. PMID:24235861

  7. Effects of an ethanolic extract of Desmodium adscendens on central nervous system in rodents.

    PubMed

    N'gouemo, P; Baldy-Moulinier, M; Nguemby-Bina, C

    1996-06-01

    This study investigates some pharmacological effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Desmodium adscendens (Papillionaceae), a medicinal plant in the African traditional medicine, on the central nervous system. The plant extract induced hypothermia and had analgesic effect in mice. D. adscendens suppressed the tonic phase of convulsion and mortality induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in mice. In addition, the plant extract delayed the onset of PTZ forelimb clonus, and generalized limbic seizures induced by kainic acid. In contrast, the plant extract did not affect either tonic convulsion induced by maximal electroshock in mice or the progression of limbic seizures towards the status epilepticus in rats. PMID:8735451

  8. Inhibition of neutrophils' chemiluminescence by ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) and its phenolic components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Krol; S. Scheller; Z. Czuba; T. Matsuno; G. Zydowicz; J. Shani; M. Mos

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol extract of propolis (EEP), a natural beehive product, has been known for centuries for a variety of beneficial traditional medical properties, among which an anti-inflammatory effect is a major one. Now that most of its components have been isolated and recently identified, we tested 19 of them (all phenolic compounds) for their degree of anti-inflammatory activity. This was performed

  9. Mixed solvent systems for recovery of ethanol from dilute aqueous solution by liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.J.; Arrowsmith, A.; Ashton, N.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution coefficients and selectivities of a number of mixed solvent systems have been determined in order to assess their suitability in preferentially extracting ethanol from aqueous solution. The measured values of distribution coefficients and selectivities differ substantially from the values estimated by interpolating between the pure solvents. (Refs. 10).

  10. Antidiabetic activity of 50% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis and its purified fractions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poonam Shokeen; Prachi Anand; Y. Krishna Murali; Vibha Tandon

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the antidiabetic activity of 50% ethanolic extract of roots of Ricinus communis (RCRE) along with its bioassay-guided purification. Five-hundred milligram per kilogram body weight appeared to be the effective dose as it caused the maximum lowering of the fasting blood glucose, both in normal as well as type 1 diabetic animals. The maximum hypoglycemic effect was always observed

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract and alkamides-derived from Heliopsis longipes roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivones Hernández; Lucía Márquez; Ioanna Martínez; Rodrigo Dieguez; Carla Delporte; Sylvia Prieto; Jorge Molina-Torres; Gabino Garrido

    2009-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevanceHeliopsis longipes (A. Gray) Blake (Asteraceae) is a broadly used species in the Mexican, Central and South American Traditional Medicine for its anaesthetic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerative properties. The ethanolic extract contains alkamides, mainly affinin (spilanthol). This family of compounds exerts an in vitro inhibitory action on the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase enzymes.

  12. Anti-hypoxic activity of the ethanol extract from Portulaca oleracea in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng-Jie Chen; Wan-Yin Wang; Xiao-Li Wang; Li-Wei Dong; Yi-Tian Yue; Hai-Liang Xin; Chang-Quan Ling; Min Li

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the studyTo investigate the effects of the ethanol extract from Portulaca oleracea (EEPO) on hypoxia models mice and to find the possible mechanism of its anti-hypoxic actions so as to elucidate the anti-hypoxia activity and provide scientific basis for the clinical use of Portulaca oleracea.

  13. Spermatozoa morphology and characteristics of male wistar rats administered with ethanolic extract of Lagenaria Breviflora Roberts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adebowale Bernard Saba; Olayinka Ayotunde Oridupa; Matthew Olugbenga Oyeyemi; Oluwaseun Dapo Osanyigbe

    Accepted 17 July, 2008 This study was aimed at determining the effects of the ethanolic extract of the whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora Robert on male fertility by evaluating some andrological parameters of the Wistar rat such as morphology of spermatozoa, sperm count, motility, liveability and volume of the semen. Histopathology of the testis was carried out. 20 adult male

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL SCREENING OF CRUDE ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF FOUR MEDICINAL PLANTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eze E A; Oruche N E; Onuora V. C; Eze C N

    2013-01-01

    Agar well diffusion techniques and macrobroth dilution methods were used to screen the ethanolic leaf extracts of four medicinal plants (Picralima nitida, Chromolaena odorata, Aspilia africana and Hyptis suaveolens) for antibacterial activity against the following bacterial pathogens: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of P. nitida ranged from 1.56 mg\\/ml

  15. In vitro anti oxidant activity and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia paniculata bark ethanolic extract on Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Mopuri, Ramgopal; Meriga, Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T. paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1?000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25182554

  16. Anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activity of the ethanol extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chioma A. Anosike; Onyechi Obidoa; Meshach M. Nwuba

    2009-01-01

    The acute toxicity test carried out on the ginger extract gave the LD50 value as 1000 mg\\/kg. The anti- inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic effects of the ethanol extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in adult Wistar rats were studied using values below the lethal dose. Inflammation was induced by injecting 0.1 ml undiluted fresh egg albumin (philogistic agent) into the subplantar surface

  17. In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bert

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shruti Shukla; Archana Mehta; Vivek K. Bajpai; Savita Shukla

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana as a natural antioxidant. The DPPH activity of the extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200?g\\/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 36.93–68.76% as compared to ascorbic acid 64.26–82.58%. The IC50 values of

  18. Temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient of soluble substances during ethanol extraction of clove

    Microsoft Academic Search

    San Myint; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Abu Bakar Mohamad; Abdul Amir H. Kadhum

    1996-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of ethanol-soluble substances from ground cloves (particle size 250\\u000a ?m) during extraction was estimated by fitting batch extraction data at several temperatures (27.8, 40, 50, and 60C) to a\\u000a previously developed mass transfer model. The model was based on spherical geometry of particles. Nonlinear regression analysis\\u000a was used to develop an equation that

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanolic root extract of Heliopsis longipes in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivones HERNÁNDEZ; Yeny LEMUS; Sylvia PRIETO; Jorge MOLINA-TORRES; Gabino GARRIDO

    2009-01-01

    Heliopsis longipes (A. Gray) Blake (Asteraceae) is a species broadly used in Mexican Traditional Medicine. The present study illustrates the effects of the root ethanolic extract from this species on the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and nitric oxide (NO) by activated RAW264.7 macrophage. The extract showed an inhibitory activity on TNF? (IC50= 223.0 ?g\\/mL) and NO (IC50

  20. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Elephantopus tomentosus Ethanolic Extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mun Fei Yam; Lee Fung Ang; Omar Ziad Ameer; Ibrahim Muhammad Salman; Hesham Abdul Aziz; Mohd. Zaini Asmawi

    2009-01-01

    Elephantopus tomentosus is widely used in Asia, especially in Malaysia, for the treatment of pain and inflammation. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a 95% ethanol extract of E. tomentosus were investigated in different experimental models. In the anti-inflammation study, 1000 mg\\/kg of extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw edema (p < 0.05) and inhibited abdominal

  1. Effect of mung bean ethanol extract on pro-inflammtory cytokines in LPS stimulated macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suk-Jun Lee; Ji Hye Lee; Han-Hyung Lee; Seul Lee; Sae Hun Kim; Taehoon Chun; Jee-Young Imm

    2011-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of mung bean ethanol extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages (J774) was evaluated.\\u000a The mung bean extract was separated into 5 fractions by normal phase silica gel column chromatography and the mRNA expressions\\u000a of pro-inflammatory cytokines were examined after incubation with each fraction in LPS stimulated macrophages. All pro-inflammatory\\u000a cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-12?, tumor necrosis

  2. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity and acute oral toxicity of standardized ethanolic extract of the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.

    PubMed

    Devaraj, Sutha; Esfahani, Azadeh Sabetghadam; Ismail, Sabariah; Ramanathan, Surash; Yam, Mun Fei

    2010-04-01

    Ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza was used to evaluate the analgesic and toxicity effects in vivo. The extract was standardized using GC-MS, which showed that 1 mg of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract contains 0.1238 mg of xanthorrhizol. The analgesic activity was studied in rats using three different models, namely the hot plate test, tail flick test and formalin-induced pain test. The acute oral toxicity was examined by the oral administration of standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract in mice at doses ranging from 300-5,000 mg/kg and observation for 14 days. Standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show significant analgesic effect in the hot plate and tail flick tests. However, in the formalin-induced pain test, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the paw licking time of rats in both early and late phases at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg of the extract, respectively. In the acute oral toxicity study, Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract did not show any toxic effects in mice at 5 g/kg. These experimental results suggest that the standardized Curcuma xanthorrhiza ethanolic extract showed peripheral and central antinociceptive activity associated with neurogenic pain as well as a relative absence of toxic effects which could compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine. PMID:20428088

  3. Comparison of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smain Chemat; Ahcčne Lagha; Hamid AitAmar; Paul V. Bartels; Farid Chemat

    2004-01-01

    Extraction experiments with hexane were carried out at atmospheric pressure in Soxhlet, conventional and ultrasound extractions of flaked caraway seeds, and detailed results are given for two major plant extract components, carvone and limonene. The results indicate that carvone yield and plant extract quality are better in ultrasound extraction compared to those given by conventional methodology. Extraction rates of carvone

  4. Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janet P.-C.; Wijaya, Sumi; Ting, Kang-Nee; Wiart, Christophe; Mustafa, Kamarul'Ain; Shipton, Fiona; Khoo, Teng-Jin

    2014-01-01

    If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500??g/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223??g/mL of pravastatin (control) showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate?:?methanol (95?:?5), gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A). Fraction 7A at 150??g/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s), working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:24839451

  5. Antioxidative activity of persimmon and grape seed extract: in vitro and in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Seok Ahn; Tae Il Jeon; Joo Yong Lee; Seong Gu Hwang; Yoongho Lim; Dong Ki Park

    2002-01-01

    We determined in vitro radical scavenging activity of persimmon seed extract (PSE) and grape seed extract (GSE), and quantified total tannin concentrations of each extract. It has been found that both PSE and GSE have radical scavenging activities, and total tannin concentration of PSE was significantly higher than GSE (p < 0.05). In order to investigate the protective effect on

  6. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Strychnos potatorum seed extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Swati; Murugesan, T; Sinha, Sanghamitra; Maiti, Kuntal; Gayen, Jiaur Rahaman; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    2002-02-01

    The antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of the dried seeds of Strychnos potatorum (MESP) has been evaluated out in rats using different models (castor oil-induced diarrhoea, effects on gastrointestinal motility and on PGE(2)-induced gastric enteropooling. MESP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.001) inhibited the frequency of defaecation and reduced the wetness of faecal droppings in castor oil-induced diarrhoea, decreased the propulsion of charcoal meal through the gastrointestinal tract, and also reduced the PGE(2)-induced enteropooling. PMID:11864763

  7. Effect of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) extracts on blood glucose level of normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    El-Fiky, F K; Abou-Karam, M A; Afify, E A

    1996-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of oral administration of the ethanolic extracts of Luffa aegyptiaca (seeds) and Carissa edulis (leaves) on blood glucose levels both in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Treatment with both extracts significantly reduced the blood glucose level in STZ diabetic rats during the first three hours of treatment. L. aegyptiaca extract decreased blood glucose level with a potency similar to that of the biguanide, metformin. The total glycaemic areas were 589.61 +/- 45.62 mg/dl/3 h and 660.38 +/- 64.44 mg/dl/3 h for L. aegyptiaca and metformin, respectively, vs. 816.73 +/- 43.21 mg/dl/3 h for the control (P < 0.05). On the other hand, in normal rats, both treatments produced insignificant changes in blood glucose levels compared to glibenclamide treatment. PMID:8778506

  8. Effects of Rumex patientia root extract on indomethacine and ethanol induced gastric damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Süleyman, H; Demirezer, L O; Kuruüzüm-Uz, A

    2004-02-01

    The effects of an aqueous root extract from Rumex patientia (D-1) compared to COX-2 selective inhibitors on indomethacine and ethanol induced stomach ulcers were investigated. Adult male Wistar albino rats, weighing between 185-200 g were used. It was determined that D-1 does not show its gastroprotective activity via a COX enzyme in indomethacine induced ulcers. Antioxidant effects protect the gastrointestinal system. The effect of D-1 in ethanol induced ulcers may also be due to its antioxidant effect. PMID:15025185

  9. Grape seed extract suppresses lipid peroxidation and reduces hypoxic ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yangzheng Feng; Yi-Ming Liu; Jonathan D. Fratkins; Michael H. LeBlanc

    2005-01-01

    Oxygen radicals play a crucial role in brain injury. Grape seed extract is a potent anti-oxidant. Does grape seed extract reduce brain injury in the rat pup? Seven-day-old rat pups had the right carotid arteries permanently ligated followed by 2.5h of hypoxia (8% oxygen). Grape seed extract, 50mg\\/kg, or vehicle was administered by i.p. 5min prior to hypoxia and 4h

  10. Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya linn. seeds in male rabbits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirmal K Lohiya; N Pathak; Pradyumna K Mishra; B Manivannan

    1999-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy and reversibility of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits were investigated. Eighteen adult male rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each; Group I—control, Group II—administered chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at 20 mg\\/animal\\/d for 150 d by gavage, and Group III—administered the seed extract

  11. Effects of danshen ethanol extract on the pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Furong; Zeng, Jin; Liu, Songcan; He, Min; Zhu, Leilei; Ye, Yujie; Miao, Ping; Shen, Shujiao; Jiang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. A sequential, open-label, two-period pharmacokinetic interaction design was used. 12 healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose of fexofenadine (60?mg) followed by danshen ethanol extract (1?g orally, three times a day) for 10 days, after which they received 1?g of the danshen extract with fexofenadine (60?mg) on the last day. The plasma concentrations of fexofenadine was measured by LC-MS/MS. After 10 days of the danshen extract administration, the mean AUC and C max? of the fexofenadine was decreased by 37.2% and 27.4% compared with the control, respectively. The mean clearance of fexofenadine was increased by 104.9%. The in vitro study showed that tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone could induce MDR1 mRNA. This study showed that multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract could increase oral clearance of fexofenadine. The increased oral clearance of fexofenadine is attributable to induction of intestinal P-glycoprotein. PMID:25538791

  12. Effects of Danshen Ethanol Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Furong; Zeng, Jin; Liu, Songcan; He, Min; Zhu, Leilei; Ye, Yujie; Miao, Ping; Shen, Shujiao; Jiang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. A sequential, open-label, two-period pharmacokinetic interaction design was used. 12 healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose of fexofenadine (60?mg) followed by danshen ethanol extract (1?g orally, three times a day) for 10 days, after which they received 1?g of the danshen extract with fexofenadine (60?mg) on the last day. The plasma concentrations of fexofenadine was measured by LC-MS/MS. After 10 days of the danshen extract administration, the mean AUC and Cmax? of the fexofenadine was decreased by 37.2% and 27.4% compared with the control, respectively. The mean clearance of fexofenadine was increased by 104.9%. The in vitro study showed that tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone could induce MDR1 mRNA. This study showed that multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract could increase oral clearance of fexofenadine. The increased oral clearance of fexofenadine is attributable to induction of intestinal P-glycoprotein. PMID:25538791

  13. In vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of ethanolic extract from Tecomella undulata

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study was undergone to evaluate the in-vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tecomella undulata Seem. on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 60?mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 minutes after the i.p administration of 110?mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide. The extract has shown significant blood glucose lowering effect in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The blood glucose level, cholesterol, glycogen contents, glycosylated hemoglobin, and antioxidant parameters (Malondialdehyde and Glutathione level) were estimated from the blood plasma by using standard kits to demonstrate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect in treated animals. The data showed that the extract have significant influence on the above biochemical parameters. Thus ethanolic fraction of the plant Tecomella undulata can be used as new candidate for antihyperglycemic and antioxidant. PMID:22769229

  14. [Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Zygophyllum gaetulum].

    PubMed

    Ait El Cadi, M; Makram, S; Ansar, M; Khabbal, Y; Alaoui, K; Faouzi, M A; Cherrah, Y; Taoufik, J

    2012-03-01

    Zygophylle or Zygophyllum gaetulum Emberger and. Maire is a Moroccan medicinal plant which has been used as an anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antispasmodic and antidiarrheic. The present study was carried out to study and compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract with aqueous extract of Z. gaetulum. Organic extract of Z. gaetulum was obtained in soxhlet apparatus. Aqueous extract was obtained by infusion. The Wistar albinos rats of either sex weighing 200-300 g aged 2-3 months were used for this experiment. The rats were housed under standard environmental conditions. The anti-inflammatory activity was estimated by measuring the oedema induced by carragenin according to the method of Winter and al. Ethanolic extract of Z. gaetulum reduced the increase of the paw volume with a percentage of inhibition of 46% (p<0.01), this percentage was 47.48% (p<0.01) with aqueous extract. The inhibition decrease in time, it arrived to 39% (p<0.01) at the sixth hour while the activity of aqueous extract decrease a lot. In conclusion, Z. gaetulum is an interesting plant which the aqueous and éthanolic extracts could be used scientifically in the treatment of inflammation. PMID:22500963

  15. Evaluation of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of Euphorbia hirta ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neelesh; Samarakoon, Kalpa W; Gyawali, Rajendra; Park, Yang-Ho; Lee, Sung-Jin; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of a Euphorbia hirta L. extract. The antioxidant activities of whole E. hirta ethanol extract were determined by electron spin resonance spectrophotometric analysis of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and alkyl radical levels and by using an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay. The E. hirta ethanol extract (0.5 mg/mL) exhibited DPPH-scavenging activity of 61.19% ± 0.22%, while the positive control (0.5 mg/mL ascorbic acid) had 100% ± 0.22% activity. The concentration of the extract required to trap 50% of DPPH (IC50) was 0.205 mg/mL. Online HPLC analysis of the extract also showed strong antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the E. hirta extract was assessed in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity was highest in the presence of 200 µg/mL E. hirta extract, and nitric oxide production was decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The extract also showed selective anticancer activity at a concentration of 100 µg/mL (p < 0.05). These results indicated that E. hirta may warrant further investigation for the development of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer herbal medications. PMID:25225720

  16. Flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract and evaluation of its neuroprotective effect.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Gómez, José de Jesús; Zamora-Natera, Juan Francisco; Bańuelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej; García-López, Pedro Macedonio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract (PE) and to evaluate its effect as a phytoestrogen on the morphometric parameters of CA3 hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rats (OVX). L. mexicanus seeds, germinated for 48 h, were homogenized and macerated using an 80% ethanol solution. The extract was analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. Thirty young Wistar strain female rats (200±10 g) were randomly distributed into four groups: sham operated (S) treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle); ovariectomized and treated with 1250 ?g of PE extract (OVX-PE); ovariectomized and treated with 5 ?g estradiol benzoate (OVX-EB); and ovariectomized and vehicle treated (OVX). All substances were injected subcutaneously daily for 28 days. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed, perfused, and fixed to obtain the brains for histological processing. Each brain was cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The thickness of the stratum oriens (SO), the nuclear diameter, and the neuronal density were measured in the hippocampus CA3 area. Nine different flavonoids and one non-identified compound were detected. The histological analysis demonstrated that the thickness of the SO was higher in the OVX-EB and S groups than in the OVX-PE and OVX groups (p?0.05); in addition, the nuclear diameters of the neurons in the OVX-EB and S groups were higher compared with the other groups (p?0.05). The OVX group had the highest cellular density among groups (p?0.05). Based on our results, the PE obtained did not have beneficial effects on CA3 hippocampal neurons. PMID:24723146

  17. In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Three Hypericum and Three Achillea Species From Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deniz Bar??; Murat K?z?l; Çetin Aytekin; Göksel K?z?l; Murat Yavuz; Bircan Çeken; A. Selçuk Ertekin

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of Hypericum scabrum L (HSm), Hypericum lysimachioides var. lysimachioides (HL), and Hypericum retusum Aucher (HR) and ethanol extracts of Achillea aleppica D.C. subsp. aleppica (AA), Achillea aleppica D.C. subsp. zederbaueri (Hayek) Hub.-Mor (AZ), and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (AB). The antioxidant properties of extracts

  18. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel. PMID:19748936

  19. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-01-01

    Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this article: Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, Saujanya KP, Patil AK, Kakde DD. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):61-6 . PMID:24453446

  20. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Elephantopus tomentosus ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Yam, Mun Fei; Ang, Lee Fung; Ameer, Omar Ziad; Salman, Ibrahim Muhammad; Aziz, Hesham Abdul; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini

    2009-12-01

    Elephantopus tomentosus is widely used in Asia, especially in Malaysia, for the treatment of pain and inflammation. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a 95% ethanol extract of E. tomentosus were investigated in different experimental models. In the anti-inflammation study, 1000 mg/kg of extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw edema (p < 0.05) and inhibited abdominal permeability compared with control (p < 0.01). The analgesic activity was assayed in several experimental models in mice: (1) hot plate, (2) tail flick, (3) writhing test; and rats: carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia pain threshold test. However, at the doses tested, no significant activity was found in the hot plate test and the tail flick test. E. tomentosus ethanol extract at 1000 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) increased hyperalgesia pain threshold and inhibited writhing activity. The results suggest that E. tomentosus ethanol extract at 1000 mg/kg dose is effective in anti-inflammatory and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug type anti-nociception activities. PMID:20633503

  1. Ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced memory deficiency via its antineuroinflammatory and antiamyloidogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Hwan Mook; Lee, Kiho; Choi, Seok Hwa; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Jeong, Jea-Hwang; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

    2013-03-01

    Magnolia bark contains several compounds such as magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, obovatol, and other neolignan compounds. These compounds have been reported to have various beneficial effects in various diseases. There is sufficient possibility that ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis is more effective in amyloidogenesis via synergism of these ingredients. Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether the ethanol extract of M.?officinalis (10?mg/?kg in 0.05% ethanol) prevents memory dysfunction and amyloidogenesis in AD mouse model by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250?µg/?kg/day for seven times) injection. We found that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevented LPS-induced memory deficiency as well as inhibited the LPS-induced elevation of inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In particular, administration of M.?officinalis ethanol extract inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis, which resulted in the inhibition of amyloid precursor protein, beta-site amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving enzyme 1 and C99. Thus, this study shows that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevents LPS-induced memory impairment as well as amyloidogenesis via inhibition of neuroinflammation and suggests that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis might be a useful intervention for neuroinflammation-associated diseases such as AD. PMID:22628265

  2. A numerical evaluation of a hollow fiber extractive fermentor process for the production of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Naser, S F; Fournier, R L

    1988-08-20

    The economics of a process for the production of ethanol employing a hollow fiber extractive fermentor have been investigated. A computer simulation of the process incorporating a mathematical model of the fermentor was used to calculate the mass and energy balances. The results of the process simulation were read into a computer spreadsheet programmed with the economic calculations from which a final ethanol product cost was obtained. The process was found to be as competitive as conventional fermentation processes even at the currently high cost--$4/sq ft--of hollow fibers. It was determined that the 1986 price of 46.2 cents/L of ethanol produced by the process would be reduced by 1.8 cents/L for every $1/sq foot drop in the price of hollow fibers. A comparison of this process with conventional fermentation processes indicates that its potential savings lie in its ability to use a concentrated sugar feed, and the fermentor's increased productivity and ability to produce a concentrated ethanol stream which is removed by the extracting solvent. PMID:18587763

  3. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patińo, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  4. A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects Hugues intake, fat, fenugreek seed, overweight subjects, human Word count: 3056 (main text) / 245 (abstract Purpose - Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) have long been used as herbal medicine

  5. Anticonvulsant activity of ethanol leaf extract of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv (Bignoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Ilodigwe, Emmanuel E; Akah, Peter A; Nworu, Chukwuemeka S

    2010-08-01

    The anticonvulsant properties of ethanol leaf extract of Spathodea campanulata, a plant used in traditional medicine to treat convulsion and epilepsy, were studied in mice using pentylenetetrazole-, picrotoxin-, and electroshock-induced models in mice. Other central nervous system effects and anticonvulsant-related activities such as the effects on position sense, righting reflex, Rota-Rod performance, phenobarbital sleep time, and amphetamine-induced stereotypy were also investigated. The acute toxicity potential in mice was determined by the oral route. The results showed that the administration of S. campanulata extract (250-1,000 mg/kg, p.o.) 30 minutes prior to intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg) or picrotoxin (5 mg/kg) protected the treated mice against the respective pentylenetetrazole- and picrotoxin-induced convulsion in a dose-dependent manner, offering 100% protection at the maximum dose of 1,000 mg/kg. The extract increased the threshold of maximum electroshock and reduced duration of convulsive episodes, dose-dependently. Oral administration of S. campanulata ethanol extract did not significantly (P > .05) affect other centrally coordinated behaviors and convulsion-related properties such as position sense, righting reflex, Rota-Rod performance, phenobarbital sleep time, and amphetamine-induced stereotypy in treated animals. The oral median lethal dose of the extract was estimated as 4.5 g/kg. These results show that the ethanol leaf extracts of S. campanulata possess anticonvulsant activity. The results also show that S. campanulata extract is nonsedating, has no antipsychotic properties, and may not affect motor coordination when used as an anticonvulsant. PMID:20553140

  6. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch to an ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Numa, S; Rodríguez, L; Rodríguez, D; Coy-Barrera, E

    2015-01-01

    One of the main pests of commercial rose crops in Colombia is the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. To manage this pest, synthetic chemicals have traditionally been used, some of which are well known to be potentially toxic to the environment and humans. Therefore, alternative strategies for pest management in greenhouse crops have been developed in recent years, including biological control with natural enemies such as parasitoids, predators and entomopathogenic microorganisms as well as chemical control using plant extracts. Such extracts have shown toxicity to insects, which has positioned them as a common alternative in programs of integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an unfractionated ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on adult females of T. urticae under laboratory conditions. The extract was chemically characterized by recording its metabolic profile via liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, along with tentative metabolite identification. The immersion technique and direct application to rose leaves were used to evaluate the effects of seven doses (10-2,000 µg/mL) of the ethanol extract of C. aconitifolius leaves on T. urticae females under laboratory conditions. The mortality and oviposition of individuals were recorded at 24, 48 and 72 h. It was found that the C. aconitifolius leaf extract reduced fertility and increased mortality in a dose-dependent manner. The main metabolites identified included flavonoid- and sesquiterpene-type compounds, in addition to chromone- and xanthone-type compounds as minor constituents with potential acaricidal effects. PMID:26185740

  7. Effect of aqueous-ethanol extract from Crocus sativus (saffron) on guinea-pig isolated heart.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, M H; Shafei, M N; Shakiba, A; Sefidi, H Sang

    2008-03-01

    In this study, the effects of an aqueous-ethanol extract from Crocus sativus on heart rate and contractility were examined. Isolated guinea-pig hearts were perfused through the aorta in a Langendorff mode. Heart rate and contractility were determined in the presence of four concentrations of the extract (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg%) and diltiazem (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 microm) in perfused heart with: (1) ordinary Krebs solution (group 1, n = 9), (2) calcium-free Krebs solution (group 2, n = 7). In group 1, three higher concentrations of diltiazem (1, 10 and 100 microm), but only the highest (5.0 mg%) and two higher concentrations (1.0 and 5.0 mg%) of the extract caused significant reduction in heart rate and contractility, respectively (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). In group 2, the highest (100 microm) and two higher concentrations (10 and 100 microm) of diltiazem (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01), but only the highest concentration of the extract showed significant reductions in the heart rate and contractility (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). There were significant negative correlations between concentrations of the extract and diltiazem and their effects in both groups (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). These results suggested a potent inhibitory effect of aqueous-ethanol extract from C. sativus on the calcium channel of guinea-pig heart. PMID:18058985

  8. Superoxide radical scavenging and antibacterial activities of different fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata (L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ponnan Arumugam; Rajenderan Murugan; Mahalingam Subathra; Arabandi Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Mentha spicata is a well-known spice that has a variety of biological properties and is abundantly available throughout the world. This\\u000a study was designed to investigate the superoxide radical scavenging and antibacterial properties of different fractions (hexane,\\u000a chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous) of the ethanol extract of Mentha spicata. In addition, xanthine oxidase generated uric acid inhibition, reducing potential and

  9. Apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from some Apiaceae on human leukaemia cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bogucka-Kocka; H. D. Smolarz; J. Kocki

    2008-01-01

    Apiaceae are a family of medicinal plants widely used in traditional medicine. The apoptotic activities of seven ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae, Eryngium planum, Archangelica officinalis, Pastinaca sativa, Heracleum sibiricum, Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Levisticum officinale against ML-1—human acute myeloblastic leukaemia, J-45.01—human acute T cell leukaemia, EOL—human eosinophilic leukaemia, HL-60—human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia, 1301—human T cell

  10. ANTICONVULSANT EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF CROCUS SATIVUS L. STIGMAS IN MICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossein Hosseinzadeh; Vahid Khosravan

    Background-Crocus sativus L. stigma (CSS) has sedative properties and is used in traditional medicine for its anticonvulsant property. Objective-We studied the anticonvulsant activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of CSS in mice in order to evaluate the traditional use of this plant. Methods-The pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) tests were used for assessing the anticonvulsive effects

  11. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Auricularia auricula ethanol extract in ICR mice fed a cholesterol-enriched diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Chen; Yang-Chao Luo; Bao-Ping Ji; Bo Li; Wei Su; Zhen-Lei Xiao; Gui-Zhi Zhang

    The cholesterol-lowering properties of Auricularia auricula are commonly attributed to the presence of polysaccharides based on previous research. The present study was designed to\\u000a investigate the effects of ethanol extract of A. auricula (AAE) on hypercholesterolemia in ICR mice. AAE contained more than 16% (g\\/g) polyphenolic compounds, excluding other interfering\\u000a factors such as polysaccharides, water-soluble fibre and protein. Thirty-six mice

  12. Hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Annona squamosa L. in experimental animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Kumar Gupta; Achyut Narayan Kesari; P. S. Murthy; R. Chandra; V. Tandon; Geeta Watal

    2005-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) leaves was administered orally at different doses to normal as well as streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The dose of 350mg\\/kg body weight (bw) reduced the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level by 6.0% within 1h, whereas, the peak blood glucose at 1h during glucose tolerance test (GTT) was reduced

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanolic extract from Clematis mandshurica Rupr

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun Kyung Park; Mi Hyun Ryu; Young Hoon Kim; Yeon Ah Lee; Sang Hoon Lee; Doo Hyun Woo; Seung Jae Hong; Jung Soo Han; Myung Chul Yoo; Hyung In Yang; Kyoung Soo Kim

    2006-01-01

    Clematis mandshurica Rupr (Ranunculaceae) roots are used in traditional Korean medicine to treat inflammation-related diseases. Therefore, we undertook to investigate their inhibitory effect on inflammation under non-cytotoxic conditions. The ethanolic extract of Clematis mandshurica at 100?g\\/ml was found to significantly block the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)\\/interferon(IFN)-?-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages,

  14. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts from eleven spice plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ömer Ertürk

    2006-01-01

    Eleven ethanolic extracts from spices of Melissa officinalis, Mentha piperita, Laurus nobilis, Rhus coriaria, Dianthus coryophyllum, Piper nigrum, Capsicum annum,\\u000a Juniperus oxycedrus, Erica arborea, Colutea arborescens, and Cuminum cyminum collected from various regions of Turkey and local markets were assayed for the in vitro antibacterial activity against 3 Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) and 2 Gram-negative bacteria

  15. The Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa Dried Calyx Ethanolic Extract Reduced Lipid Profile in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Stefan M. Waliszewski; Dulce Ma. Barradas-Dermitz; Zaida Orta-Flores; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipólito; Ofelia Angulo-Guerrero; Ramón Sánchez-Ricańo; Rosa M. Infanzón; Patricia R. L. Trujillo

    2005-01-01

    The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention\\u000a of chronic and degenerative diseases is continously advancing. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect\\u000a of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanolic extract on the serum lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed during 4

  16. Antioxidative effect of ethanol tea extracts on oxidation of canola oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Y. Chen; P. T. Chan; H. M. Ma; K. P. Fung; J. Wang

    1996-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the biological effects of natural antioxidants present in teas on formation ofin vivo free radicals, carcinogenesis, and atherogenesis. Teas are traditionally classified into six major groups, namely, green,\\u000a yellow, white, black, dark-green, and oolong teas. The present study examined the antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts\\u000a from these six major groups of teas against oxidation

  17. Antidiabetic Activity of the Ethanol Extract of Capparis sepiaria L Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Selvamani, P.; Latha, S.; Elayaraja, K.; Babu, P. Suresh; Gupta, J. K.; Pal, T. K.; Ghosh, L. K.; Sen, D. J.

    2008-01-01

    Capparis sepiaria L, a profusely branched hedge plant, is used in Indian traditional medicine. Capparis sepiaria leaves were extracted with ethanol and concentrated to dryness. The LD50 value was determined as 894.43 mg/kg body weight by acute toxicity study. The ethanol extract was investigated for possible hypoglycemic effect produced by single oral administration at various dose levels 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and compared against normal saline control and the standard glibenclamide. A maximum fall of plasma glucose level 9.40%; 13.57%; 15.25% and 18.80% was observed after 12 h of treatment when administered with ethanol extract of Capparis sepiaria at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, and glibenclamide 10 mg/kg dose, respectively. The findings from the study suggest that the Capparis sepiaria leaves may be prescribed as an adjunct to traditional formulation and drug treatment for controlling diabetes mellitus. PMID:20046752

  18. Rejuvenation of antioxidant system in central nervous system of aged rats by grape seed extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muthaiya Balu; Purushotham Sangeetha; Dayalan Haripriya; Chinnakannu Panneerselvam

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered as a major risk factor that contributes to age-related increase in lipid peroxidation and declined antioxidants in the central nervous system during aging. Grape seed extract, one of the bioflavonoid, is widely used for its medicinal properties. In the present study, we evaluated the role of grape seed extract on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in

  19. Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rohan Kermanshai; Brian E McCarry; Jack Rosenfeld; Peter S Summers; Elizabeth A Weretilnyk; George J Sorger

    2001-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although

  20. Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Vijaya; M Ramanathan; B Suresh

    Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg\\/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly

  1. Antibacterial activity of clove, gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448

    PubMed Central

    Mirpour, Mirsasan; Gholizadeh Siahmazgi, Zohreh; Sharifi Kiasaraie, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial compounds from herbal sources have good therapeutic potential. In this study, the antibacterial effects of clove and gall nut, methanolic and ethanolic extractions, were evaluated for their effect on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448, as both the two cause oral diseases. Method The clove and gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts were prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated for S. mutans and S. salivarius in the base of inhibition zone diameter using agar diffusion method. In this part minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed. Results These extracts showed effective antibacterial activity on bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of clove was more than that of ethanolic extract, and ethanolic extracts of gall nut had antibacterial activity more than that of methanolic extracts. MIC and MBC results for clove methanolic extract were 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml for S. mutans and 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for clove ethanolic extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. MIC and MBC results for gall nut methanolic extract were 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. mutans and 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for gall nut ethanolic extracts were 3.1 mg/ml and 6.2 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. Discussion The results showed effective antibacterial activity using clove and gall nut methanolic extracts. If other properties such as tolerance of tissue can also be studied, these extracts can be used as a mouthwash. PMID:25853041

  2. Antioxidant properties of water and ethanol extracts from hot air-dried and freeze-dried daylily flowers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin-Chun Mao; Xin Pan; Fei Que; Xue-Hua Fang

    2006-01-01

    Daylily (Hemerocallis fulva Linn.) flowers were hot air-dried and freeze-dried after harvest. Water and ethanol extracts were\\u000a prepared from these dried flowers and their antioxidant properties were evaluated using total antioxidant activity, reducing\\u000a capacity, metal chelating activity, and DPPH and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities, comparing with standards.\\u000a Extracts from daylily flowers exhibited strong antioxidant activity. Ethanol was more efficienct

  3. Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract

    PubMed Central

    Sahgal, Geethaa; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mordi, Mohd. Nizam; Ismail, Sabariah; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2010-01-01

    Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine. PMID:21808570

  4. Relaxant effect of ethanol extract of Carum carvi on dispersed intestinal smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Al-Essa, Mohammed K; Shafagoj, Yanal A; Mohammed, Faysal I; Afifi, Fatma U

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the direct effects of Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) ethanol extract on dispersed intestinal smooth muscle cells (SMC) of guinea pigs. Effects of the plant extract on SMC and of acetylcholine (Ach) on extract pretreated SMC were measured by micrometric scanning technique. Three different extract concentrations (2.5 mg/mL, 250 mug/mL, and 25 mug/mL) were used. Ethanol extract of C. carvi reduced significantly the response of dispersed SMC to Ach. Pretreatment of SMC with the highest concentration of C. carvi ethanol extract (2.5 mg/mL) has significantly inhibited the response of SMC to Ach. The data obtained indicate a dose-dependent inhibition of the contraction induced by Ach. This response may explain, in part, the beneficial effect of caraway in relieving gastrointestinal symptoms associated with dyspepsia. PMID:20645759

  5. Influence of an aqueous extract of Ligustrum lucidum and an ethanol extract of Schisandra chinensis on parameters of antioxidative metabolism and spleen lymphocyte proliferation of broilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deying Ma; Anshan Shan; Jianping Li; Yun Zhao; Xiaoqiu Guo

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with different levels of two extracts, an aqueous extract of Ligustrum lucidum (AELL), and an ethanol extract of Schisandra chinensis (EESC) on growth performance, parameters of antioxidative status and spleen lymphocyte proliferation of broilers, respectively. The results showed that neither AELL nor EESC had significant effects on growth performance

  6. Effect of ethanolic extracts of Justicia neesii Ramam. against experimental models of pain and pyrexia

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Nimmakayala; Lakshmi, Duggirala Suguna; Goverdhan, Puchchakayala

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of ethanolic extracts of Justicia neesii Ramam. by different experimental models. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of plant extract was evaluated against thermal and chemical stimulus induced by Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid respectively in mice. Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity in rats and TAB vaccine induced pyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity in rabbits. Results: In the hot plate model 400 mg/kg p.o. dose of J. neesii has shown its maximal effect at 3 h. The results are significant (P < 0.05) and comparable to the values of standard drug pentazocine (30 mg/kg i.p.). In acetic acid induced writhing model 400 mg/kg p.o. of plant extracts have shown highly significant activity (P < 0.001) and better than standard drug indomethacin (10 mg/kg p.o.). The 400 mg/kg p.o. dose of plant extract has given significant results against both yeast induced pyrexia and TAB vaccine induced pyrexia (P< 0.01 and 0.05 respectively). These values are comparable to that of paracetamol 100 mg/kg p.o. standard dose. Conclusion: This study shows that the ethanol extract of J. neesii has significant analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:25878377

  7. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  8. Anticonvulsant potential of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from Flemingia strobilifera root

    PubMed Central

    Gahlot, Kavita; Lal, Vijay Kumar; Jha, Shivesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Flemingia strobilifera (FS) R.Br. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant. In wealth of India it has been reported that roots of FS are used by santals in epilepsy, hysteria, insomnia, and to relieve pain. In Burma also the roots of F. strobilifera are used to treat epilepsy. Objective: To investigate anticonvulsant potential of 95% ethanol extract and four subsequent fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the roots of FS against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) induced convulsions. Material and Methods: All the fractions and crude ethanol extract were administered (i.e., 200, 400, 600 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days and at the end of the treatment convulsions were induced experimentally using pentylenetetrazole and Maximal electroshock Test. Diazepam and phenytoin (4 mg/kg, i.p. and 20 mg/kg, i.p., respectively) were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs against experimentally induced convulsions. The latency of tonic convulsions and the numbers of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results: High doses (200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) of ethyl acetate fraction and 95% ethanol crude extract (400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the duration of seizure induced by maximal electroshock (MES). The same dose also protected from pentylenetetrzole-induced tonic seizures and significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures. However, pet, ether, chloroform, and aqueous fraction at any of the doses used (i.e., 100, 200, 300 mg/kg, p.o.) did not show any significant effect on PTZ and MES induced convulsions. The treatment with crude ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction caused signs of central nervous system depressant action in the locomotor activity test, confirmed by the potentiation of sodium pentobarbital sleeping time. Both did not cause disturbance in motor coordination assessed by rotarod test. Conclusion: The data suggest that crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of roots of Flemingia strobilifera have a central nervous system depressant action and behave as a potential anticonvulsant. It may produce its anticonvulsant effect via non-specific mechanism since it reduced the duration of seizures produced by maximal electroshock as well as delayed the latency of seizures produced by pentylenetetrazole. PMID:24174820

  9. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract of Rubus coreanus in murine macrophages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Hong Park; Sun-mee Oh; Soon Sung Lim; Yeon Sil Lee; Hyun-Kyung Shin; Yang-Seok Oh; Nong-Hoon Choe; Jung Han Yoon Park; Jin-Kyung Kim

    2006-01-01

    Foods of plant origin, especially fruits and vegetables, draw increased attention because of their potential benefits to human health. The aim of the present study was to determine in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of four different extracts obtained from the fruits of Rubus coreanus (aqueous and ethanol extracts of unripe and ripe fruits). Among the four extracts, the ethanol extract of

  10. Extraction of norflurazon residues in cotton seeds with supercritical CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Lanças; M. A. Barbirato; M. S. Galhiane

    1995-01-01

    A new method for the extraction of Norflurazon residues in cotton seeds using supercritical CO2 as the extracting fluid is described. The supercritical fluid extraction results were compared with those of the classical procedure using liquid extraction. All SFE experiments were performed using a home-made system. The method presented, besides being faster and more economical than existing methods, showed better

  11. Green tea and grape seed extracts — Potential applications in food safety and quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. S. Perumalla; Navam. S. Hettiarachchy

    2011-01-01

    Using “natural green” plant extracts or their derived products in various food and beverage applications is an increasing trend in the food industry. Selection of these plant extracts and their application depends on their functional properties, availability, cost effectiveness, consumer awareness and their effect on the sensory attributes of the final product. Green tea extract (GTE) and grape seed extract

  12. Extraction of sesame seed oil using supercritical CO 2 and mathematical modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Onur Döker; U?ur Salgin; Nuray Yildiz; Mihrican Aydo?mu?; Ayla Çalimli

    2010-01-01

    In this work, extraction of sesame oil from sesame seeds using supercritical CO2 was carried out. The effect of operating parameters such as pressure, temperature, and supercritical CO2 flow rate and particle size on extraction yield were investigated. An increase in the pressure and the supercritical CO2 flow rate improved the extraction yield and also shortened the extraction time. The

  13. Hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves against garlic-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu

    2005-01-01

    Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf is a darkish-green leafy vegetable popularly used in soup and in herbal preparations for the management of many diseases in Nigeria. In this study, the hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. occidentalis leaf (earlier confirmed to have a high level of antioxidant activity) against garlic induced-oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes was investigated. Oxidative stress was induced in Wistar strain albino rats by overdosing them with raw garlic (4%) for 14 days, and this caused a significant increase (P < .05) in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), while there was no significant change (P > .05) in serum bilirubin, albumin, globulin, and total proteins. However, intubation of some of the rats fed raw garlic with 5 mg or 10 mg/0.5 mL of T. occidentalis leaf extract (ethanolic or aqueous) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in serum ALP, GOT, and GPT when compared with rats fed raw garlic without intubation with the T. occidentalis leaf extract. Moreover, 10 mg/0.5 mL of extract was more effective than 5 mg/0.5 mL of extract, while the aqueous extracts appeared to be more effective than the ethanolic extracts in protecting hepatocytes. It could be inferred that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaf have hepatoprotective properties, although the aqueous extract is more effective than the ethanolic extract, which could be attributed to the higher antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract than the ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaves. PMID:16379574

  14. Hepatoprotective potential of Lavandula coronopifolia extracts against ethanol induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtsam S; Al-Oqail, Mai M; Hassan, Wafaa H B; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

    2013-03-28

    The present investigations were carried out to study the protective potential of four extracts (namely petroleum ether extract (LCR), chloroform extract (LCM), ethyl acetate extract (LCE), and alcoholic extract (LCL)) of Lavandula coronopifolia on oxidative stress-mediated cell death induced by ethanol, a known hepatotoxin in human hapatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cells were pretreated with LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts (10-50 ?g/ml) of L. coronopifolia for 24 h and then ethanol was added and incubated further for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red uptake assays and morphological changes in HepG2 cells were studied. Pretreatment with various extracts of L. coronpifolia was found to be significantly effective in countering the cytotoxic responses of ethanol. Antioxidant properties of these L. coronopifolia extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels induced by ethanol were investigated. Results show that pretreatment with these extracts for 24 h significantly inhibited ROS generation and LPO induced and increased the GSH levels reduced by ethanol. The data from the study suggests that LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts of L. coronopifolia showed hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced damage in HepG2 cells. However, a comparative study revealed that the LCE extract was found to be the most effective and LCL the least effective. The hepatoprotective effects observed in the study could be associated with the antioxidant properties of these extracts of L. coronopifolia. PMID:23546397

  15. Characterization of co-products from producing ethanol by sequential extraction processing of corn

    SciTech Connect

    Hojilla-Evangelista, M.P.; Johnson, L.A.; Pometto, A.L. III; Svendsen, L.K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Sequential Extraction Processing (SEP) is a new process for ethanol production that has potential to produce more valuable co-products than alternative processes. Previous work determined the yields of oil and protein and evaluated their chemical and functional properties. The properties of the crude fiber and spent solids, however, have yet to be studied. This research was conducted to evaluate the potential of SEP corn fiber to increase ethanol conversion and as replacement for gum arabic, and evaluate the potential of SEP starch and fiber to be fermented to ethanol. SEP hemicellulose from crude fiber was readily dispersible in water and its solution (5%) gave low viscosity despite having high solids content. These properties indicated potential utilization as stabilizers, thickeners, and adhesive for coatings and batters in food and industrial products. Enzyme hydrolysis studies and batch fermentation of SEP starch/fiber indicated that SEP crude fiber was more readily accessible to the action of cellulases. More ethanol (about 10%) was produced from the fermentation of SEP starch/fiber than from undegermed or degermed soft dent corn, particularly when the hemicellulose fraction was absent from the SEP fiber.

  16. Antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from the twigs of Cinnamomum osmophloeum.

    PubMed

    Chua, Meng-Thong; Tung, Yu-Tang; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2008-04-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. is an indigenous tree species in Taiwan. In this study, phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from the twigs of C. osmophloeum were investigated for the first time. The extracts were obtained successively using liquid-liquid partition to yield n-hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water fractions. The antioxidant activities of C. osmophloeum twig extracts were examined using various antioxidant assays, such as DPPH, NBT, reducing power, lipid peroxidation using mouse brain homogenates, metal chelating ability, and photochemiluminescence (PCL). In addition, total phenolic contents were also determined. Results revealed that the BuOH fraction exhibited the best performance in DPPH assay, NBT assay, reducing power assay and lipid peroxidation using mouse brain homogenates assay. Furthermore, the BuOH fraction has the highest total phenolic contents (496.7 mg of GAE/g). Consequently, kaempferol-7-O-rhamnoside was also isolated from the antioxidative BuOH fraction and its activity was also confirmed. These results demonstrated that ethanolic extracts of C. osmophloeum twigs have excellent antioxidant activities and thus it has great potential as a source for natural health products. PMID:17478090

  17. Response surface methodology for optimization of extraction yield, viscosity, hue and emulsion stability of mucilage extracted from Lepidium perfoliatum seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arash Koocheki; Ali Reza Taherian; Seyed M. A. Razavi; Aram Bostan

    2009-01-01

    Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimum processing conditions that give maximum extraction yield, viscosity, hue and emulsion stability, as well as, minimum protein content for the gum extracted from Lepidium perfoliatum seed. Temperature (45–75°C), processing time (1.5–3.5h), pH (5–8) and water to seed ratio (30:1–60:1) were the factors investigated. Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Rotatable

  18. Supercritical CO 2 extraction of omega-3 rich oil from Sacha inchi ( Plukenetia volubilis L.) seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis A. Follegatti-Romero; Carla R. Piantino; Renato Grimaldi; Fernando A. Cabral

    2009-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) was employed to extract omega-3 rich oil from Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) seeds and partially defatted cake. For ground seeds, the supercritical extraction was carried out at temperatures of 40, 50 and 60°C and pressures of 300 and 400bar, and for the cold pressed partially defatted cake, the extraction was carried out with 300bar at

  19. PRESSURIZED FLUID EXTRACTION OF PUMPKIN SEED AND PUMPKIN SEED PRESSED CAKE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pumpkin seed oil is one of the top three nutritional oils (hemp seed oil, flax seed oil, pumpkin seed oil) that provide the highest essential fatty acids (Omega 3 and Omega 6) required for healthy mind/body functioning. It is known to prevent and alleviate bladder and prostate problems. The oil th...

  20. Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

    2010-09-01

    To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3?~?12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9?~?2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

  1. Structure and rheological properties of a xyloglucan extracted from Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril seeds.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Isabel R S; Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Santos, Gustavo R C; Silva, Alexandre G; Mourăo, Paulo A S; Correia, Maria T S; Vicente, António A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2015-02-01

    Hymenaea courbaril var courbaril seed xyloglucan was efficiently extracted with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation (yield=72±5% w/w). Its amorphous structure was identified by the pattern of X-ray diffraction. The monosaccharide composition was determined by GC/MS analysis of the alditol acetates and showed the occurrence of glucose:xylose:galactose:arabinose (40:34:20:6). One-(1D) and two-dimensional-(2D) NMR spectra confirmed a central backbone composed by 4-linked ?-glucose units partially branched at position 6 with non-reducing terminal units of ?-xylose or ?-galactose-(1?2)-?-xylose disaccharides. The xyloglucan solution was evaluated by dynamic light scattering and presents a polydisperse and practically neutral profile, and at 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) the solutions behave as a viscoelastic fluid. The polysaccharide did not show significant antibacterial or hemolytic activities. Overall our results indicate that xyloglucan from H. courbaril is a promising polysaccharide for food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25450047

  2. Evaluation of Physiological Activities of the Citron (Citrus junos Sieb. ex TANAKA) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Citron seed extracts (CSEs) were made using distilled water (CSEW), ethanol (CSEE), and n-hexane (CSEH), to measure the total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The total polyphenol content was observed the highest in CSEE (188.71 ?g/mL), and occurred in the following order: CSEE>CSEW (141.11 ?g/mL)>CSEH (26.19 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL. CSEE (63.56%) and CSEW (56.61%) showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activities when compared with CSEH (28.57%). ABTS radical scavenging activities of CSEE (45.53%) and CSEW (40.02%) were also observed to be higher, whereas CSEH did not show ABTS radical scavenging activity. Anti-complementary activity of CSEE (26.85%) showed a greater activity than that of CSEW (7.84%) at 1,000 ?g/mL. Limonin and nomilin contents had the highest values (1.882% and 2.089%) in CSEE, and with 0.327% and 0.139% in CSEW; however, CSEH showed relatively very low values at 0.061% and 0.026%, respectively. Among the CSEs tested, CSEE as a by-product from citron may provide an important source of dietary antioxidant compounds with rich polyphenol and limonoid contents, and immunopotentiating activity, including the complement activation factor. PMID:24471132

  3. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2014-09-01

    A ?-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract?Rd?F2?compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively. PMID:25346602

  4. Antimalaria Effect of the Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus platyphylla Del

    PubMed Central

    Shittu, Isma'il; Emmanuel, Amlabu; Nok, Andrew Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The antimalarial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Ficus platyphylla Del was evaluated against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Nontreated, experimental control mice died of fulminant parasitemia from day 7 to 9 post-infection but mice treated with the extract at 300?mg/kg showed markedly reduced parasitaemia bouts of 43.50% and a mean survival time of 28 days postinfection. The plant extract prevented a drastic reduction in PCV showing its efficacy in ameliorating anaemic conditions in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Histological examination of liver tissues of treated and untreated mice further supports the antimalaria potential of this plant. This observation validates the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria. PMID:22174991

  5. Antimalaria Effect of the Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus platyphylla Del.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Isma'il; Emmanuel, Amlabu; Nok, Andrew Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The antimalarial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Ficus platyphylla Del was evaluated against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Nontreated, experimental control mice died of fulminant parasitemia from day 7 to 9 post-infection but mice treated with the extract at 300?mg/kg showed markedly reduced parasitaemia bouts of 43.50% and a mean survival time of 28 days postinfection. The plant extract prevented a drastic reduction in PCV showing its efficacy in ameliorating anaemic conditions in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Histological examination of liver tissues of treated and untreated mice further supports the antimalaria potential of this plant. This observation validates the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria. PMID:22174991

  6. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Zaleya decandra in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi, Periasamy; Bhuvaneshwari, Rajendran; Rathi, Muthaiyan Ahalliya; Thirumoorthi, Lakshmanan; Guravaiah, Dugganaboyana Chinna; Jiji, Muthedath Janardhanan; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

    2010-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder that disturbs the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Medicinal plants play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Zaleya decandra roots on alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of the root (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days restored the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, urea, creatinine, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidant enzymes significantly in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies showed significant changes like necrosis and degeneration in the liver and pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Also these histopathological abnormalities were found to be normalized after treatment with Z. decandra extract. The efficacy of the root extract was found to be equivalent when compared to the standard hypoglycemic drug glibenclamide (1.25 mg/kg body weight/day, orally) in diabetic rats. PMID:19957208

  7. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee

    2014-01-01

    A ?-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract?Rd?F2?compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively. PMID:25346602

  8. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Enomfon J; Okokon, Jude E; Offong, Emem

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fraction of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods M. scandens leaf extract/fractions (37–111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of 7 hours for acute study and 14 days for prolonged study. Lipid profiles of the treated diabetic rats were determined after the period of treatment. Results Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting bloodglucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. The extract/fractions exerted a significant reduction in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL of extract with increases in HDL levels of the diabetic rats. Conclusions These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes. PMID:23569963

  9. Antiviral activity of ethanol extracts of Ficus binjamina and Lilium candidum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yarmolinsky, Ludmila; Zaccai, Michele; Ben-Shabat, Shimon; Mills, David; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2009-12-31

    The antiviral activity of plant ethanol extracts against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and -2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) was investigated in vitro. Ficus binjamina, resistant to plant viruses, and Lilium candidum, which has a high susceptibility to plant viruses were used. Leaf extracts of F. binjamina inhibited all studied viruses, while its fruit extracts inhibited only VZV. L. candidum leaf extracts had no effect on VZV but strongly inhibited HSV-1 and slightly HSV-2. None of the extracts showed significant cytotoxic effect on uninfected Vero cells even at a concentration of 250 microg/ml (CC(50)>400 microg/ml). The greatest antiviral effect was obtained when extracts were added to cells at the time of infection, whereas a partial inhibitory effect was observed when they were added post-infection. There was indirect evidence for strong interactions between the plant extracts and the viruses and weak interactions with the cell surface. PMID:19703599

  10. IN VITRO ACTIVITY OF CERTAIN DRUGS IN COMBINATION WITH PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghaleb Mohammad Adwan; Bassam Ali Abu-Shanab; Kamel Mohammad Adwan

    Objectives: This study has been done to evaluate the interaction between ethanolic extracts of Rhus coriaria (seed), Psidium guajava (Leaf), Lawsonia inermis (Leaf) and Sacropoterium spinosum (seed) and antimicrobial drugs including oxytetracycline HCl, enrofloxacin, gentamicin sulphate and sulfadimethoxine against four clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methodology: Evaluation of the interaction between ethanolic extracts and different antimicrobial agents has

  11. Antidiabetic properties of the ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, S.; Montasser Kouhsari, S; Monavar Feshani, A

    2010-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Fruits of Rhus coriaria L. (Anacardiaceae) are traditionally used as a table spice in Iran and are highly recommended for diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the antidiabetic properties of the ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits and also its mechanisms of action. Methods The effects of ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits were measured on blood glucose, lipids and antioxidant enzymes by commercial kits. mRNA levels of insulin (INS) and glucose transporter type-4 (GLUT-4) genes were investigated by RT-PCR (Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction) technique. Moreover, its effects on intestinal a-glucosidases was measured using an in vitro method. Results and Conclusion Following a single dose administration of the extract it was found that extract could significantly reduce postprandial blood glucose by 24% (at 5 hrs). In the long term experiment, on the day of 21, postprandial blood glucose (PBG) was found to be significantly lower (by 26%) compared to diabetic control group. The plant extract raised markedly serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 34% and also reduced low-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 32%. Also it had noticeable antioxidant effects by elevating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase(CAT) activities by 46% and 77%, respectively. However it did not show a strong effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. The extract inhibited maltase and sucrase activities by 44% and 27%, respectively. However it made no changes in the transcript levels of INS and GLUT-4 genes. It can be concluded that constituents of Rhus coriaria fruits have effective components which can be utilized as useful herb for alleviation of diabetes complications. PMID:22615627

  12. Inhibition of ?-Amylase and ?-Glucosidase Activity by Tea and Grape Seed Extracts and their Constituent Catechins

    PubMed Central

    Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M.; Michels, Alexander J.; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, glucosidases required for starch digestion. The abundant flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) in these extracts were also tested for their inhibitory potential and evaluated against the pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. To evaluate relative potency of these extracts and catechins, the concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess an inhibitor’s relative efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. While tea extracts and individual catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of ?-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase. Our data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase, and suggest that procyanidins found in grape seed extract strongly inhibit ?-amylase activity. PMID:22697360

  13. ?-Sitosterol: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Sajfrtová, Marie; Li?ková, Ivana; Wimmerová, Martina; Sovová, Helena; Wimmer, Zden?k

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15–60 MPa and temperatures of 40–80 °C. Oil and ?-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of ?-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of ?-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 °C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 °C. Both ?-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide. PMID:20480045

  14. Non-destructive high-throughput DNA extraction and genotyping methods for cotton seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiuting; Hoegenauer, Kevin A; Maeda, Andrea B V; Wang, Fei; Stelly, David M; Nichols, Robert L; Jones, Don C

    2014-01-01

    Extensive use of targeted PCR-based genotyping is precluded for many plant research laboratories by the cost and time required for DNA extraction. Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) as a model for plants with medium-sized seeds, we report here manual procedures for inexpensive non-destructive high-throughput extraction of DNA suitable for PCR-based genotyping of large numbers of individual seeds and seedlings. By sampling only small amounts of cotyledon tissue of ungerminated seed or young seedlings, damage is minimized, and viability is not discernibly affected. The yield of DNA from each seed or seedling is typically sufficient for 1000 or 500 PCR reactions, respectively. For seeds, the tissue sampling procedure relies on a modified 96-well plate that is used subsequently for seed storage. For seeds and seedlings, the DNA is extracted in a strongly basic DNA buffer that is later neutralized and diluted. Extracts can be used directly for high-throughput PCR-based genotyping. Any laboratory can thus extract DNA from thousands of individual seeds/seedlings per person-day at a very modest cost for consumables (~$0.05 per sample). Being non-destructive, our approach enables a wide variety of time- and resource-saving applications, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), before planting, transplanting, and flowering. PMID:25967902

  15. Effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ajitha; Shetty, Manjunath; Parida, Amrita; Adiga, Shalini; Kamath, Shobha; Sowjanya

    2014-01-01

    Background: The effects and benefits of Acacia auriculiformis on health are not well established. This study was planned to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats. Materials and Methods: Learning and memory were evaluated using passive avoidance paradigm and rewarded alternation test (T-maze) after the oral administration of two doses (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis with rivastigmine as positive control. Forty eight rats were divided into 4 groups in each study model. Estimation of brain cholinesterase activity was done to substantiate the results of the above mentioned tests. Data was analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test using GraphPad InStat software, version 3.06. Results: The extract produced a dose-dependent improvement in the memory score namely the step through latency in passive avoidance model (P < 0.001) and the percentage of correct responses in rewarded alternation test (P < 0.05). Dose-dependent inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity (P < 0.001) was also noted. Conclusion: The acetylcholinesterase inhibiting property of Acacia auriculiformis contributes to its memory enhancing potential. Further large scale studies are required to elucidate its benefits on cognitive function. This may offer a promising new option for the treatment of dementia and other cognitive deficits. PMID:25002806

  16. Ethanol Extract of Ulmus pumila Root Bark Inhibits Clinically Isolated Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    You, Yong-Ouk; Kim, Kang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    In this study, root bark of Ulmus pumila (U. pumila) was extracted with ethanol, and then the antimicrobial effects were tested on clinically isolated 12 MRSA strains and 1 standard MRSA strain. U. pumila showed antibacterial activities against all MRSA strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of U. pumila root bark against all MRSA strains revealed a range from 125 to 250??g/mL. These results may provide the scientific basis on which U. pumila root bark has traditionally been used against infectious diseases in Korea. In real-time PCR analysis, the sub-MIC (64–125??g/mL) concentrations of U. pumila root bark extract showed the inhibition of the genetic expressions of virulence factors such as mecA, sea, agrA, and sarA in standard MRSA. Phytochemical analyses of U. pumila root bark showed relatively strong presence of phenolics, steroids, and terpenoids. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of U. pumila root bark may have antibacterial activity against MRSA, which may be related to the phytochemicals such as phenolics, steroids, and terpenoids. Further studies are needed to determine the active constituents of U. pumila root bark responsible for such biomolecular activities. PMID:24228058

  17. Effects of Asparagus officinalis extracts on liver cell toxicity and ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, B-Y; Cui, Z-G; Lee, S-R; Kim, S-J; Kang, H-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, D-B

    2009-09-01

    Asparagus officinalis is a vegetable that is widely consumed worldwide and has also long been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Although A. officinalis is generally regarded as a supplement for the alleviation of alcohol hangover, little is known about its effects on cell metabolism. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the constituents of the young shoots and the leaves of asparagus and to compare their biochemical properties. The amino acid and inorganic mineral contents were found to be much higher in the leaves than the shoots. In addition, treatment of HepG2 human hepatoma cells with the leaf extract suppressed more than 70% of the intensity of hydrogen peroxide (1 mM)-stimulated DCF fluorescence, a marker of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular toxicities induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or tetrachloride carbon (CCl(4)) were also significantly alleviated in response to treatment with the extracts of A. officinalis leaves and shoots. Additionally, the activities of 2 key enzymes that metabolize ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, were upregulated by more than 2-fold in response to treatment with the leaf- and shoot extracts. Taken together, these results provide biochemical evidence of the method by which A. officinalis exerts its biological functions, including the alleviation of alcohol hangover and the protection of liver cells against toxic insults. Moreover, the results of this study indicate that portions of asparagus that are typically discarded, such as the leaves, have therapeutic use. PMID:19895471

  18. Effect of ethanol content on supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of caffeine from tea stalk and fiber wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hacer ?çen; Metin Gürü

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the effect of ethanol content on supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of caffeine from tea plant wastes. Tea stalk and fiber wastes of Turkish tea plants that have no economical value were evaluated as raw material throughout the caffeine extraction experiments. These wastes were supplied from tea factory marked “Çaykur” in the east blacksea region. They were separately

  19. Selective induction of apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) by an ethanol extract of Lentinula edodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Huan Gu; Martha A. Belury

    2005-01-01

    The effects of ethanol extracts from four species of mushroom fruiting bodies, mushroom spores and mushroom cultured broth, were assessed for modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) and non-tumorigenic epidermal cells (C50). While extracts from mycelia of Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, or from spores of G. lucidum exerted little, if any, effect

  20. Apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from some Apiaceae on human leukaemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bogucka-Kocka, A; Smolarz, H D; Kocki, J

    2008-12-01

    Apiaceae are a family of medicinal plants widely used in traditional medicine. The apoptotic activities of seven ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae, Eryngium planum, Archangelica officinalis, Pastinaca sativa, Heracleum sibiricum, Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Levisticum officinale against ML-1--human acute myeloblastic leukaemia, J-45.01--human acute T cell leukaemia, EOL--human eosinophilic leukaemia, HL-60--human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia, 1301--human T cell leukaemia lymphoblast, C-8166--human T cell leukaemia, U-266B1--human myeloma, WICL--human Caucasian normal B cell, and H-9--human T cell, were investigated. PMID:18672039

  1. Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

  2. Ethanolic Extracts of California Mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) Are Cytotoxic against Normal and Cancerous Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Somaweera, Himali; Lai, Gary C.; Blackeye, Rachel; Littlejohn, Beverly; Kirksey, Justine; Aguirre, Richard M.; LaPena, Vince; Pasqua, Anna; Hintz, Mary McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) is used by many tribes throughout California to treat a variety of conditions, including colds, allergies, and pain. California mugwort is also utilized as women’s medicine. Its use is on the rise outside of Native communities, often without the guidance of a traditional healer or experienced herbalist. Because it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity against plant and animal cells, we investigated whether California mugwort extracts have an effect on normal human cells as well as estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor negative (ER?) human breast cancer cells. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of A. douglasiana leaves were tested for cytotoxicity against unstimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC), as well as against an ER+ human breast cancer cell line (BT-474) and an ER? human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). An ethanolic leaf extract killed hPBMC, BT-474, and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 23.6 ± 0.3, 27 ± 5, and 37 ± 4 ?g/ml, respectively. An aqueous extract killed hPBMC with an IC50 value of 60 ± 10 ?g/ml, but had no effect on the two cancer cell lines at concentrations up to 100 ?g/ml. The results of this study indicate that the cytotoxicity of California mugwort extends to normal human cells, as well as cancerous cells. Therefore, until further is known about the safety of this medicine, caution should be taken when consuming extracts of California mugwort, whether as a tincture or as a tea. PMID:24073389

  3. In vitro anticancer activity of aqueous extracts and ethanol extracts of fifteen taditional Chinese medicines on human digestive tumor cell lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Sun; Bao-Rui Liu; Wen-Jing Hu; Li-Xia Yu; Xiao-Ping Qian

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of 15 traditional Chinese medicines which are usually used for tumor patients in China. The MTT (methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) method was applied to compare the antitumoral activity of the aqueous crude extracts and the ethanol crude extracts of these drugs on six human digestive tumor cell lines: human liver carcinoma

  4. Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits. PMID:22188801

  5. A Comparison between Water and Ethanol Extracts of Rumex acetosa for Protective Effects on Gastric Ulcers in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji-Yeong; Lee, Yoon Seok; Han, Sun Young; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Kong, Jae Yang; Lee, Dong Hoon; Cho, Kyeong Jae; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Ahn, Mi-Jeong

    2012-07-01

    Rumex acetosa is a perennial herb that is widely distributed across eastern Asia. Although the hot water extract of R. acetosa has been used to treat gastritis or gastric ulcers as a folk medicine, no scientific report exists for the use of this plant to treat gastric ulcers. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the anti-ulcer activity of water and 70% ethanol extracts obtained from R. acetosa, using an HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. Anti-inflammatory and free radical-scavenging activities of these two extracts were also evaluated and compared. As a result, the administration of R. acetosa extracts significantly reduced the occurrence of gastric ulcers. However, significant differences in protective activity against gastric ulcers were observed between the two samples. In the case of the group pretreated with an ethanol extract dosage of 100 mg/kg, the protective effect (90.9%) was higher than that of water extract (41.2%). Under histological evaluation, pretreatment with R. acetosa extracts reversed negative effects, such as inflammation, edema, moderate hemorrhaging and loss of epithelial cells, presented by HCl/ ethanol-treated stomachs. Meanwhile, R. acetosa extracts showed potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity and decreased NO production in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cellular viability. The greater anti-ulcer and NO production inhibitory activities exhibited by ethanol extracts compared to water extracts could be ascribed to the higher emodin levels, a major anthraquinone component of this plant. PMID:24009831

  6. Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    AlRashdi, Ahmed S.; Salama, Suzy M.; Alkiyumi, Salim S.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Abdelwahab, Siddig I.; Taha, Manal M.; Hussiani, Jamal; Asykin, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20?mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500?mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as compared with omeprazole or extract which shows significant protection towards gastric mucosal injury the plant promotes ulcer protection as it shows significant reduction of ulcer area grossly, and histology showed marked reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared with ulcer group. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of Hsp70 protein and downexpression of Bax protein in rats pretreated with extract. Significant increased in the pH, mucus of gastric content and high levels of PGE2, SOD and reduced amount of MDA was observed. PMID:22550543

  7. Optimization of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from boat-fruited sterculia seeds by response surface methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Wu; Steve W. Cui; Jian Tang; Xiaohong Gu

    2007-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the extraction of crude polysaccharides from boat-fruited sterculia seeds. A central composite design was used for experimental design and analysis of the results to obtain the optimal extraction conditions. Extraction temperature, pH, extraction time and water to seed ratio were found to have a significant influence on the yield and purity of

  8. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

  9. Design of a press for oil extraction from moringa seeds for Haiti

    E-print Network

    Sabelli, Alessandra Maria, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    The project here presented focuses on the development of a harvesting tool for Haiti, a developing country, for the extraction of oil from the seeds of the moringa trees. Moringas have an extraordinarily nutritional potential ...

  10. Final report on the safety assessment of Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, and Corylus Rostrata (Hazel) Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Madhaven, N

    2001-01-01

    These ingredients are all derived from hazelnut trees. The two seed oils are expressed from the nuts of the hazelnut tree of the particular species identified. Most current reported cosmetic uses are of the seed oils. The seed extracts are the extract of the nuts of the identified species tree. There is one current report of use of seed extract in cosmetics. The leaf extracts are the extract from the leaves of the particular species tree. There are no current reports of use of these extracts in cosmetics. Analysis of seed oil from one species identified Oleic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Eicosaenoic Acid, Docosenoic Acid, Eicosanoic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Stearic Acid, and Tetraeicosanoic Acid. Little information is available to characterize the extracts, however. The functions of most of these ingredients in cosmetics are not reported. In studies of hazelnuts from Spain and Egypt, aflatoxin was reported as a possible contaminant. Aflatoxins are considered carcinogenic in humans. Virtually no safety test data are available on these ingredients. Negative results in one comedogenicity study using a seed oil are reported. Cross-sensitivity to proteins in peanuts and those in hazelnuts are reported, but the presence or absence of protein in nut extract and plant extract from hazelnut trees is not known. Additional data were provided regarding concentration of use, method of extraction and contaminants, comedogenicity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorption, but these data related to nut oil from only one species, and were not overall sufficient to resolve questions about irritation, sensitization, and photosensitization. Because of the absence of data, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic products. Because of the limited information that characterizes any of these oils or extracts, data are needed on each (except that items 1, 2, and 3 below are not needed for Hazel [Corylus Avellana] Nut Oil). The additonal data needs include: (1) current concentration of use; (2) method of extraction/manufacture and quality control (i.e., chemical analyses); (3) contaminants and methods of extraction (especially pesticides and heavy metals); (4) dermal irritation and sensitization; (5) UV absorption; if there is significant absorption, then a photosensitization study will be needed; (6) 28-day dermal toxicity; (7) reproductive and developmental toxicity; and (8) two genotoxicity assays, one in a mammalian system; if positive, then a 2-year dermal carcinogenesis study using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods may be needed. PMID:11358108

  11. Characterization and Benzo[a]pyrene Content Analysis of Camellia Seed Oil Extracted by a Novel Subcritical Fluid Extraction.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianyin; Che, Ke; Xi, Ruchun; He, Liping; Chen, Xuexiang; Guan, Xiaosheng; Zhuang, Xueying; Wen, Xiujun; Cao, Yong

    2013-01-01

    A novel continuous subcritical n-butane extraction technique for Camellia seed oil was explored. The fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, and benzo[a]pyrene content of Camellia seed oil extracted using this subcritical technique were analyzed. Orthogonal experiment design (L9(3(4))) was adopted to optimize extraction conditions. At a temperature of 45 °C, a pressure of 0.5 MPa, a time of 50 min and a bulk density of 0.7 kg/L, an extraction yield of 99.12 ± 0.20 % was obtained. The major components of Camellia seed oil are oleic acid (73.12 ± 0.40 %), palmitic acid (10.38 ± 0.05 %), and linoleic acid (9.15 ± 0.03 %). Unsaturated fatty acids represent 83.78 ± 0.03 % of the total fatty acids present. Eight physicochemical indexes were assayed, namely, iodine value (83.00 ± 0.21 g I/100 g), saponification value (154.81 ± 2.00 mg KOH/g), freezing-point (-8.00 ± 0.10 °C), unsaponifiable matter (5.00 ± 0.40 g/kg), smoke point (215.00 ± 1.00 °C), acid value (1.24 ± 0.03 mg KOH/g), refrigeration test (transparent, at 0 °C for 5.5 h), and refractive index (1.46 ± 0.06, at 25 °C). Benzo[a]pyrene was not detected in Camellia seed oil extracted by continuous subcritical n-butane extraction. In comparison, the benzo[a]pyrene levels of crude Camellia seed oil extracted by hot press extraction and refined Camellia seed oil were measured at 26.55 ± 0.70 and 5.69 ± 0.04 ?g/kg respectively. PMID:24098057

  12. The effect of grape-seed extract on 24 h energy intake in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Vogels; I M T Nijs; M S Westerterp-Plantenga

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Since grape-seed extract has been shown to stimulate lipolysis in vitro and reduce food intake in rats, we assessed the efficacy of grape-seed extract with respect to energy intake (EI) and satiety.Design: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study, 51 subjects (age 18–65 y, body mass index 22–30 kg\\/m2) ate an ad libitum lunch and dinner twice in the

  13. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiberius Dicu; Ion D. Postescu; Vasile Foris; Ioana Brie; Eva Fischer-Fodor; Valentin Cernea; Mircea Moldovan; Constantin Cosma

    2009-01-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50\\/50, v\\/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare-BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu

  14. Antioxidant effects of a grape seed extract in a rat model of diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina C. Chis; Marius I. Ungureanu; Adriana Marton; Ramona Simedrea; Adriana Muresan; Ion-Dan Postescu; Nicoleta Decea

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of grape seed extract, a polyphenolic flavonoid, in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Group I: non-diabetic control; Group II: diabetic control; Group III: diabetic rats treated with grape seed extract, administered via an intragastric tube (0.6 ml\\/rat), at a

  15. Antioxidant effects of a grape seed extract in a rat model of diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina C. Chis; Marius I. Ungureanu; Adriana Marton; Ramona Simedrea; Adriana Muresan; Ion-Dan Postescu; Nicoleta Decea

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of grape seed extract, a polyphenolic flavonoid, in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Group I: non-diabetic control; Group II: diabetic control; Group III: diabetic rats treated with grape seed extract, administered via an intragastric tube (0.6 ml\\/rat), at a

  16. PHYTOTOXICITY OF OIL SHALE SEMICOKE AND ITS AQUEOUS EXTRACTS: A STUDY BY SEED GERMINATION BIOASSAY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. RAAVE; S. KAPAK; K. ORUPŐLD

    2007-01-01

    Phytotoxicity of oil shale semi-coke has been studied by germination bioassay. Timothy (Phleum pratense) seeds were germinated on solid semi- coke and in its water extracts. Fresh semi-coke completely blocked seed germination but weathering significantly decreased its inhibition effect. The inhibitory effect of aqueous extracts was less than that of solid semi-coke, and it decreased as the liquid-to-solid ratio used

  17. Ethanolic extract of Aloe vera ameliorates sciatic nerve ligation induced neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Kanyadhara, Swetha; Dodoala, Sujatha; Sampathi, Sunitha; Punuru, Priyanka; Chinta, Gopichand

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is being used since ages by human kind for treating various ailments including various inflammatory conditions, but scientific validation has not been done for analgesic activity against neuropathic pain. Objective: The current study was designed to systematically evaluate the therapeutic potential of the ethanolic extract of A. vera (EEAV) against sciatic nerve ligation (SCNL) induced neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Nociceptive threshold of EEAV against thermal hyperalgesia, chemical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were performed on 0, 7, 14 and 21st day post-SCNL. Serum total protein, serum nitrite, in vivo anti-oxidant parameters and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated. Sciatic nerve homogenate was used to estimate myeloperoxidase (MPO) and calcium levels. Histopathology of the sciatic nerve was done to confirm the biochemical findings. Results: Treatment with ethanolic extract has increased the threshold for the nociception in thermal hyperalgesia, chemical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia models. A significant improvement of in vivo anti-oxidant parameters and decreased LPO levels were observed on treatment with A. vera. Significant decrease in serum nitrite, protein, calcium and MPO levels were observed, indicating protection against damage caused by SCNL. Conclusion: The results of the present study validate the use of EEAV to treat neuropathic pain. This effect may be attributed to the decreased migration of neutrophils and due to the anti-oxidant properties of A. vera. Further studies to confirm the mechanism of action will help develop suitable A. vera formulations for neuropathic pain therapy. PMID:25593400

  18. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary. PMID:23569852

  19. Physical and oxidative stability of uncoated and chitosan-coated liposomes containing grape seed extract.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan. PMID:24300515

  20. Ethanol extract of Brazilian red propolis induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Tetsuro; Nishihara, Hiroko; Hara, Hirokazu; Adachi, Tetsuo

    2012-11-01

    Propolis, a natural product collected from plants by honey bees, is commonly used in folk medicines. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is known to induce apoptosis through the induction of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Here, we investigated whether ethanol extracts of propolis and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) induce apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ER stress in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and human fibroblasts. Among several ethanol extracts of propolis and CAPE, Brazilian red propolis (BRP) significantly reduced MCF-7 cell viability through the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase-3 activity, and DNA fragmentation but did not affect those of fibroblasts. Moreover, treatment with BRP significantly induced CHOP expression in MCF-7 cells compared to fibroblasts. Further, pretreatment with a chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid, suppressed BRP-triggered MCF-7 cell death. Overall, we revealed that an ethanol extract of BRP induces MCF-7 cell apoptosis through, at least in part, ER stress-related signaling. PMID:23066995

  1. Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab.; Tayyab, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5?mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20?mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250?mg/kg and 500?mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5?mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2?g/kg and 5?g/kg). PMID:24783203

  2. Effect of Garden Cress Seeds Powder and Its Alcoholic Extract on the Metabolic Activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I.; Al-Thukair, Areej A.; Abbas, Fawkeya A.; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

    2014-01-01

    The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:24711855

  3. Grape seed extract for foodborne virus reduction on produce.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-05-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have antibacterial properties with few current studies on antiviral activity. Recently, we reported the effects of GSE against foodborne viral surrogates in vitro. This study evaluated the application of GSE (commercial Gravinol-S) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1), on model produce. Washed and air-dried lettuce (3 × 3 cm(2)) and jalapeno peppers (25-30 g) were inoculated with FCV-F9, MNV-1, or HAV at high (?7 log10 PFU/ml) or low (?5 log10 PFU/ml) titers, and treated with 0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/ml GSE or water for 30 s to 5 min. Treatments were stopped/diluted with cell-culture media containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and evaluated using plaque assays. At high titers, FCV-F9 was reduced by 2.33, 2.58, and 2.71 log10 PFU on lettuce; and 2.20, 2.74, and 3.05 log10 PFU on peppers after 1 min using 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively. Low FCV-F9 titers could not be detected after 1 min at all three GSE concentrations. Low titer MNV-1 was reduced by 0.2-0.3 log10 PFU on lettuce and 0.8 log10 PFU on peppers, without reduction of high titer. GSE at 0.25-1 mg/ml after 1 min caused 0.7-1.1 and 1-1.3 log10 PFU reduction for high and low HAV titers, respectively on both commodities. Instrumental color analysis showed no significant differences between treated and untreated produce. GSE shows potential for foodborne viral reduction on produce as part of hurdle technologies. PMID:23498171

  4. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  5. Full-Press Oil Extraction of Extruded Lesquerella Seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella fendleri is a winter annual oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family that is native to the desert Southwestern United States. The seed has 30% oil, which contains 55-64% lesquerolic and auricolic acids (hydroxy FA). The seeds contain glucosinolates that, upon hydrolysis by thi...

  6. Extraction of Field Pennycress Seed Oil by Full Pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in the temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (db) with the major fatty acid as erucic acid (38%). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 – 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a major source of...

  7. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Baysal; D. A. J. Starmans

    1999-01-01

    The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with supercritical-CO2 (SC-CO2) have been optimized with respect to pressure, temperature, CO2-flow and extraction time in order to selectively obtain the essential oil. Using Soxhlet extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were extracted. From

  8. Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of an ethanol extract of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Din, Wardah M; Chu, Jessica; Clarke, Garry; Jin, Khoo T; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Fry, Jeff R; Wiart, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    In the annals of biomedical theory perhaps no single class of natural product has enjoyed more ingenious speculation than antioxidants formally aimed at counteracting oxidative insults which are involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, skin ageing and wound healing. In pursuing our study of Malaysian traditional medicines with antioxidant properties, we became interested in Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort., used traditionally to heal wounds. To examine whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. could suppress oxidation an ethanol extract was tested by conventional chemical in vitro assays i.e., ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay (FRAP), DPPH scavenging assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. To explore whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. protected cells against oxidative injuries, we exposed human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). In all the aforementioned experiments, the ethanol extracts elicited potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. To gain a better understanding of the phytochemical nature of the antioxidant principle involved, five fractions (F1-F5) obtained from the ethanol extract were tested using FRAP, DPPH and BCB assays. Our results provided evidence that F5 was the most active fraction with antioxidant potentials equal to 2.090 +/- 0.307 microg/mL, 0.532 +/- 0.041 microg/mL, 0.032 +/- 0.025 microg/mL in FRAP, DPPH and BCB assay, respectively. Interestingly, F5 protected HepG2 against t-BHP oxidative insults. To further define the chemical identity of the antioxidant principle, we first performed a series of phytochemical tests, followed by liquid-chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) profiling which showed that the major compound contained in F5 was geraniin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the wound healing property of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. is mediated by a geraniin containing extract. Furthermore, our data leads us to conclude that geraniin could be used as a potential pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic topical agent. PMID:23678815

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100?mg/L A. montana and 10–500?mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10?mg/L A. montana and 10–300?mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders. PMID:22958433

  10. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Badari Nath, A R S; Sivaramakrishna, A; Marimuthu, K M; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco. This PHA (Gibco) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures. PMID:25004904

  11. Legume seed exudates and Physcomitrella patens extracts influence swarming behavior in Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed

    Tambalo, Dinah D; Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Shawn; Halmillawewa, Anupama; Hynes, Michael F; Yost, Christopher K

    2014-01-01

    Plants are known to secrete chemical compounds that can change the behavior of rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria. We investigated the effects of extracts from legume host plants on the swarming behavior of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. We also investigated the effects on swarming when Rhizobium is exposed to extracts from an ancestor to vascular plants, the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Lentil and faba bean seed exudates enhanced and inhibited swarming motility, respectively, whereas pea seed exudates had no observable effect on swarming. Swarming was also enhanced by the moss extracts. Exposure to lentil seed exudates and the moss extract increased flaA expression 2-fold, while faba bean seed exudates exposure decreased expression 3-fold, suggesting that the swarming effect could, in part, be due to regulation of flagellin gene expression. However, the exudates and extracts did not significantly affect flaA gene expression in planktonic motile cells, indicating that the response to flagellar regulation is specific to a physiology unique to the swarming cell. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that addition of the lentil seed exudate and the moss extract results in earlier differentiation into swarmer cells, which could contribute to the development of a larger swarming surface area. To gain further mechanistic insight into the effect of the moss extract on swarming, a moss strigolactone-deficient mutant (Ppccd8?) was tested. A reduction in the promotive effect was observed, suggesting that the plant hormone strigolactone may be a signalling molecule activating swarming motility in R. leguminosarum. PMID:24392922

  12. Antiplasmodial and antidiabetic activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Heinsia crinata.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Jude E; Umoh, Emem E; Etim, Emmanuel I; Jackson, Clement L

    2009-02-01

    The ethanolic leaf extract of Heinsia crinata, grown particularly for the leaf in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, was evaluated for antiplasmodial activity in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice as well as for hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. H. crinata (450-1,350 mg/kg/day) exhibited significant (P < .05) blood schizonticidal activity in both the 4-day early infection test and established infection with a considerable mean survival time, though not comparable to that of the standard drug, chloroquine (5 mg/kg/day). Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the leaf extract caused a significant (P < .01) reduction in fasting blood glucose levels of normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats both in an acute study and with prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activity of the extract was comparable to that of the reference drug, glibenclamide, during the acute study but was not comparable to that of the standard drug during prolonged treatment. The results suggest that the leaf extract of H. crinata possesses significant (P < .05) antiplasmodial as well as hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects that can be employed in health care. PMID:19298206

  13. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

  14. Ethanol production from syngas by Clostridium strain P11 using corn steep liquor as a nutrient replacement to yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Maddipati, Prasanth; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Bellmer, Danielle D; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2011-06-01

    The feasibility of replacing yeast extract (YE) by corn steep liquor (CSL), a low cost nutrient source, for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was investigated. About 32% more ethanol (1.7 g L(-1)) was produced with 20 g L(-1) CSL media in 250-mL bottle fermentations compared to media with 1 g L(-1) YE after 360 h. Maximum ethanol concentrations after 360 h of fermentation in a 7.5-L fermentor with 10 and 20 g L(-1) CSL media were 8.6 and 9.6 g L(-1), respectively, which represent 57% and 60% of the theoretical ethanol yields from CO. Only about 6.1 g L(-1) of ethanol was obtained in the medium with 1 g L(-1) YE after 360 h, which represents 53% of the theoretical ethanol yield from CO. The use of CSL also enhanced butanol production by sevenfold compared to YE in bottle fermentations. These results demonstrate that CSL can replace YE as the primary medium component and significantly enhance ethanol production by Clostridium strain P11. PMID:21474306

  15. Evaluation of Nitta (Hyptis suaveolens Poit.) Seed and Leaf Extracts and Seed Powder for the Control of Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) in Stored Groundnut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Musa; M. C. Dike; I. Onu

    2009-01-01

    2 Abstract: Nitta (Hyptis suaveolens Poit.) seed and leaf extracts obtained by extraction with methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus, were compared with the seed powder for their relative effectiveness against Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts, in stored groundnut. Three adults of T. granarium (1 male and 2 females) were exposed to three concentrations (1%,2% and 3%) for exposure period of

  16. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla L. (Saltcedar) in mice.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Abbas, Khizar; Hamayun, Rahma; Ali, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activity of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Tamarix aphylla. The powdered plant was extracted by the method of cold maceration using aqueous ethanol (70:30) as solvents. Analgesic activity was assessed by Eddy's hot plate method, formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carageenan-induced mice paw edema. The anti-pyretic activity was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia in mice. The aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla showed 42% inhibition (p<0.005) of acetic acid- induced writhing, 63% reduction (p<0.005) in formalin-induced paw licking, and 42% increase (p<0.05) in reaction time as compared to normal control. The extract did not show significant anti-inflammatory activity. However, it showed significant antipyretic effect (p<0.005). The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous ethanolic extract of Tamarix aphylla exhibit analgesic and antipyretic activity but lacks anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:25362598

  17. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 µg/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 µg/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 µg/ml) with the IC50=119.7 µg/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.75±0.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.25±0.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.25±0.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  18. Microemulsion system for topical delivery of thai mango seed kernel extract: development, physicochemical characterisation and ex vivo skin permeation studies.

    PubMed

    Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Padois, Karine; Falson, Françoise; Bavovada, Rapepol; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan

    2014-01-01

    A microemulsion system containing Thai mango seed kernel extract (MSKE, cultivar "Fahlun") was developed and characterised for the purpose of topical skin delivery. The MSKE-loaded microemulsions were prepared by using the spontaneous emulsification method. Isopropyl myristate (IPM) was selected as the oil phase. A polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate and sorbitan monododecanoate (1:1, w/w) system was used as the surfactant phase; an aqueous mixture of different cosurfactants (absolute ethanol, 96.3% v/v ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol or 1,2-propanediol) at a weight ratio of 1:1 was used as the aqueous phase. Among the cosurfactants studied, the 1-propanol aqueous mixture had the largest microemulsion region (48.93%) in the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Microemulsions containing 1% MSKE demonstrated good physicochemical stability during a six-month study period at 25 ± 2 °C/60% ± 5% RH. The ex vivo skin permeation study demonstrated that the microemulsions exhibited a potent skin enhancement effect allowing MSKE to penetrate skin layers up to 60-fold higher compared with the control. Neither skin irritation nor skin corrosion was observed in ex vivo studies. The present study revealed that IPM-based microemulsion systems may be promising carriers to enhance skin penetration and delivering MSKE for topical treatment. PMID:25347456

  19. Antioxidant potential of crocins and ethanol extracts of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS and Crocus sativus L.: A relationship investigation between antioxidant activity and crocin contents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Chen; Hao Zhang; Xi Tian; Can Zhao; Le Cai; Ying Liu; Lin Jia; Hong-Xiang Yin; Chu Chen

    2008-01-01

    Crocins are water-soluble carotenoids responsible for the colour of saffron and gardenia. In this study, we isolated and identified three major crocins from gardenia, and then evaluated their antioxidant potential using four in vitro antioxidant tests in comparison with saffron ethanol extract (SE), gardenia ethanol extract (GE) and gardenia resin fraction (GRF). The relationship between total crocin contents and antioxidant

  20. Anxiolytic-like effect of Griffonia simplicifolia Baill. seed extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, G; Di Viesti, V; Zavatti, M; Zanoli, P

    2011-07-15

    The seeds of Griffonia simplicifolia Baill., a tropical shrub native to West Africa, are rich in 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a direct precursor in the synthesis of serotonin (5-HT). In spite of the modern therapeutic application of Griffonia simplicifolia seed extract in mood disorders, no scientific evidence has been provided till now. For this reason the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of Griffonia simplicifolia seed extract on anxiety behavior. Griffonia simplicifolia seed extract, dosed at 1, 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg, was orally administered in rats which were submitted to the dark-light test and open field test, 60 min after the treatment. In the dark-light test, the administration of the extract at the doses of 10 and 25 mg/kg was able to significantly increase the time spent in the light compartment (P<0.05). In the open field test, the extract dosed at 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg induced an anti-tigmotactic effect, as indicated by a significant increase of time spent in the central area of the open field (P<0.01). In conclusion these findings indicate that Griffonia simplicifolia seed extract exerts anxiolytic-like effect in rats and suggest its potential usefulness for the treatment of anxiety in humans. PMID:21353511

  1. Characterization of chia seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanesa Y. Ixtaina; Marcela L. Martínez; Viviana Spotorno; Carmen M. Mateo; Damián M. Maestri; Bernd W. K. Diehl; Susana M. Nolasco; Mabel C. Tomás

    2011-01-01

    The oil yield, fatty acid composition and the physicochemical and quality characteristics of chia crude seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction were determined. The extraction methods assayed influenced significantly the oil yield, obtaining about 30% more oil by solvent than by pressing. The main fatty acids ranked in the following order of abundance: ?-linolenic acid (? Ln)>linoleic acid

  2. Effect of extract and essential oil of Coriandrum sativum seed against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidari-Hamedani GH

    2008-01-01

    2 Objectives: Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) has been indicated for a number of medical problems in traditional medicine such as relief of insomnia, anxiety and convulsion. The aim of this study was to examine whether the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts or essential oil of coriander seeds have anticonvulsant effect in mice. Methods: Anticonvulsant effects of extracts and essential oil were

  3. Subchronic 3-month oral toxicity study of grape seed and grape skin extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S Bentivegna; K. M Whitney

    2002-01-01

    Meganatural™ brand grape seed extract (GSE) and grape skin extract (GSKE), containing proanthocyanidin (PAC) polyphenolic compounds, are intended for use in food as functional ingredients exhibiting antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidins, as well as the minor constituent phenolic compounds in GSE and GSKE, are present naturally in many foods such as fruits, vegetables, chocolate, tea, etc., and on average people consume 460–1000

  4. Apple scab control with grapefruit seed extract: no alternative to chemical fungicides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Spitaler; Klaus Marschall; Christian Zidorn; Kelderer Markus

    Summary The growth inhibiting effect of four commercially available grapefruit seed extracts on the causal organism of apple scabVenturia inaequalis ?? was tested. Germination of the conidia of Venturia inaequalis was pronouncedly inhibited by all tested extracts. The commercial products were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography. All samples contained at least one preserving agent. These

  5. Grape Seed Extract for Control of Human Enteric Viruses ?

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ?7 log10 PFU/ml or ?5 log10 PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37°C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (?7 log10 PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log10 PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log10 PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 37°C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. GSE treatment of low titers (?5 log10 PFU/ml) at 37°C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety. PMID:21498749

  6. Identification and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins extracted from the seed and cob of purple corn ( Zea mays L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhendong Yang; Weiwei Zhai

    2010-01-01

    The total anthocyanin content (TAC) and the antioxidant activity of the seed and cob from Chinese purple corn (Zea mays L., cv Zihei) extracts were determined by pH-differential method, and DPPH, FRAP, and TEAC methods, respectively. TAC in purple corn cob anthocyanins (PCCAs) extract was higher than TAC in purple corn seed anthocyanins (PCSAs) extract. Compared to bulylated hydroxytoluene (BHT),

  7. The determination of glucoraphanin in broccoli seeds and florets by solid phase extraction and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Craige Trenerry; Domenico Caridi; Aaron Elkins; Osaana Donkor; Rod Jones

    2006-01-01

    A robust method for the determination of glucoraphanin in broccoli (brassica oleracea ssp. italica ‘Marathon’) seeds and florets has been developed using solid phase extraction (SPE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) as the determinative step. Glucosinolates were extracted from the broccoli seeds and florets with hot water. Unwanted impurities were removed by passing the extracts through C18 and protonated

  8. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?uk, M.; Dymi?ska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; M?czka, M.; Zaj?c, A.; Szo?tysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  9. Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and DNA protective capacity of Chenopodium album's ethanolic leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Elif Korcan, S; Aksoy, Onur; Erdo?mu?, S Feyza; Ci?erci, ? Hakk?; Konuk, Muhsin

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the antibacterial effects of Chenopodium album's ethanolic leaf extract (CAE) on all the Gram (+) and Gram (-) microorganisms and evaluated the protective effects of CAE on both yeast and human mononuclear leukocytes' genomic DNA upon oxidative shock. Antibacterial activity was recorded on Bacillus subtilis with 13 mm of inhibition zone. Total oxidative status (TOS) and the total antioxidative status (TAS) levels were determined to evaluate the antioxidant activity of CAE. Results indicated that there was a good correlation between dose of CAE and TAS levels. We also observed that CAE protect the DNA of both yeast and mononuclear leukocytes against the damaging effect of hydrogen peroxide. The comet assay, applied on both Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 (MATa his3?1 leu2?0 met15?0 ura3?0) and human leukocytes, results suggested that there was statistically significant correlation between CAE dilutions and antigenotoxic activity. PMID:22897836

  10. Antioxidant synergism between ethanolic Centella asiatica extracts and ?-tocopherol in model systems.

    PubMed

    Thoo, Yin Yin; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi-Ming; Ho, Chun Wai; Yin, Jie; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Skibsted, Leif H; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-06-01

    The synergistic antioxidant effects of ethanolic extracts of Centella asiatica (CE), and ?-tocopherol have been studied. The types of interactions exhibited by CE and ?-tocopherol combined at different ratios were measured using three assays: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity, the ?-carotene bleaching system and liposome peroxidation assays. Fixed-fraction isobolographic analysis was used to detect any inducement of the antioxidant activity compared with the individual activities of CE and ?-tocopherol. Of all synergistic combinations of CE and ?-tocopherol, only fraction 2/3 showed the synergistic combination that fits well in three different assays and can be explained by the regeneration of ?-tocopherol by CE despite the interaction effect of ?-carotene present in the analytical assay. This phenomenon involved complex interactions between CE and ?-tocopherol to exhibit different degrees of interactions that eventually increased antioxidant activity. PMID:23411234

  11. Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extract protects against ethanol-induced gastropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Yam, Mun Fei; Ang, Lee Fung; Salman, Ibrahim Muhammad; Ameer, Omar Ziad; Lim, Vuanghao; Ong, Lai Man; Ahmad, Mariam; Asmawil, Mohd Zaini; Basir, Rusliza

    2009-10-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth., which is used as a gastroprotective herbal remedy in Malaysia, was assessed for its anti-ulcerogenic activity against ethanol-induced ulcers in rats. Fifty percent methanol was used to extract the oven-dried O. stamineus leaves. The extract was then lyophilized with a rotary evaporator and freeze-dried. Oral administration of O. stamineus methanolic extract (OSME) (125, 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg) was found to significantly decrease the ulcer index (P < .01, P < .001, P < .001, and P < .001, respectively). Histological study of a section of the rat stomach also showed a marked improvement in the gastric mucosal damage in groups receiving OSME. In order to further investigate the gastroprotective mechanism of OSME, mucus secretion and lipid peroxidation level were estimated in vitro and ex vivo. OSME exhibited dose-dependent stimulation of mucus secretion (r = 0.718, P < .001) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat gastric mucosal homogenates (both in vitro [r = 0.819, P < .05] and ex vivo [r = 0.981, P < .05]). It was concluded that the gastroprotective mechanism of OSME was partly due to its ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and stimulate gastric mucus secretion. PMID:19857074

  12. In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens

    PubMed Central

    Olugbami, J. Olorunjuwon; Gbadegesin, Michael A.; Odunola, Oyeronke A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in various pathological conditions. Synthetic antioxidants have adverse health effects, while many medicinal plants have antioxidant components that can prevent the harmful effects of ROS. Objectives: This study quantitatively determined the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens (EESTG). Materials and Methods: The objectives were achieved based on in vitro assays. Data were analyzed by Sigma Plot (version 11.0). Results: Using gallic acid as the standard compound, TPC value obtained was 596.57 ?g GAE/mg extract. TFC content of EESTG, determined as quercetin equivalent was 129.58 ?g QE/mg extract. Furthermore, EESTG significantly (P < 0.001) displayed higher reducing power activity than the standard compounds (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]). Total antioxidant capacity assay, measured by phosphomolybdate method, was 358.33 ± 5.77 ?g butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg extract. ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching method affirmed the potency of EESTG because of its significantly (P < 0.001) higher anti-oxidant activity when compared with quercetin and BHT. Based on DPPH assay, EESTG displayed significantly (P < 0.001) higher activity than BHT, while the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of BHT and quercetin significantly (P < 0.001) exceeded that of the extract, although EESTG still displayed a high level of activity obtained as 83.77% in comparison to 92.80% of the standard compounds. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate the presence of promisingly potent phytoconstituents in EESTG that have the capability to act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. PMID:25598635

  13. Antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats.

    PubMed

    Oyagbemi, A A; Odetola, A A; Azeez, O I

    2010-12-01

    This research was designed to investigate the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in five of the six groups (B-F) by a single intra-peritoneal injection at the dose of 100mg/kg after normal fasting blood glucose had been determined. Group A served as the positive control while groups C-E received 100mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract respectively. Group B did not received any treatment while group F received chlorpropamide, a standard drug used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose and body weights were monitored weekly for four weeks. Plasma lipids and electrolytes such as Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL), Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) were determined after four weeks of treatment with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. The results show significant reduction (P<0.001) in the blood glucose in group C (100mg/kg of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) when compared with diabetic control (Alloxan only) and other treatment groups. There was gradual increase in weight of all treatment groups compared with the diabetic control, which had progressive weight loss. Plasma cholesterol levels also significantly reduced (P<0.001) in rats treated with 1,000mg/kg Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. From this study, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract was found to considerably reduce blood glucose and plasma cholesterol levels and progressively increase weight gain in diabetic treated rats confirming its traditional use for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22416660

  14. Neuroprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia ethanol extract on 6-hydroxy dopamine induced Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Kosaraju, Jayasankar; Chinni, Santhivardhan; Roy, Partha Deb; Kannan, Elango; Antony, A. Shanish; Kumar, M. N. Satish

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigates the neuroprotective activity of ethanol extract of Tinospora cordifolia aerial parts against 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Materials and Methods: T. cordifolia ethanol extract (TCEE) was standardized with high performance thin layer chromatography using berberine. Experimental PD was induced by intracerebral injection of 6-OHDA (8 ?g). Animals were divided into five groups: sham operated, negative control, positive control (levodopa 6 mg/kg) and two experimental groups (n = 6/group). Experimental groups received 200 and 400 mg/kg of TCEE once daily for 30 days by oral gavage. Biochemical parameters including dopamine level, oxidative stress, complex I activity and brain iron asymmetry ratio and locomotor activity including skeletal muscle co-ordination and degree of catatonia were assessed. Results: TCEE exhibited significant neuroprotection by increasing the dopamine levels (1.96 ± 0.20 and 2.45 ± 0.40 ng/mg of protein) and complex I activity (77.14 ± 0.89 and 78.50 ± 0.96 nmol/min/mg of protein) at 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively when compared with negative control group. Iron asymmetry ratio was also significantly attenuated by TCEE at 200 (1.57 ± 0.18) and 400 mg/kg (1.11 ± 0.15) when compared with negative control group. Neuroprotection by TCEE was further supported by reduced oxidative stress and restored locomotor activity in treatment groups. Conclusion: Results show that TCEE possess significant neuroprotection in 6-OHDA induced PD by protecting dopaminergic neurons and reducing the iron accumulation. PMID:24741189

  15. Ethanol and acetaldehyde production in germinating cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) seeds subjected to hypoxic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lehle, F.R.; Ahmed, O.K.

    1987-04-01

    Alcoholic fermentation in germinating cotton seeds in response to sudden hypoxic stress was characterized. Cotton seeds were imbibed in the dark for various intervals (typically 22-24 hr) in air at 32 C and then subjected to sudden hypoxic stress by exposing seeds in light or darkness to either pure carbon dioxide or nitrogen gas in sealed vials at 28 C. EtOH and acetaldehyde (AALD) were then separated via GLC from head-space samples. Results indicated that during the first 32 hr of imbibition at 32 C, maximum EtOH forming-capacity reached a peak at 16 hr and then fell off slightly. In contrast, AALD forming-capacity during the same interval gradually increases. EtOH production as induced by CO/sub 2/ was unaffected by light conditions during incubation and average 20 nmoles x seed/sup -1/ x hr/sup -1/. EtOH production as induced by N/sub 2/ was only 55% that of CO/sub 2/ stress. AALD production as induced by CO/sub 2/ was reduced 83% under dark as compared to light incubation conditions where it averaged 2.5 nmoles x seed/sup -1/ x hr/sup -1/. EtOH and AALD levels rapidly fell following hypoxic stress relief.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Carapa guianensis L. Leaf for Its Wound Healing Activity Using Three Wound Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Shivananda Nayak; Joel Kanhai; David Malcolm Milne; Lexley Pinto Pereira; William H. Swanston

    The leaves of Carapa guianensis have been used to treat ulcers, skin parasites, and skin problems. The ethanolic extract of C. guianensis leaf was evaluated for its antibacterial and wound healing activity using excision, incision and dead space wound models in rats. The animals were randomly divided into two groups (n Ľ 6) in all the models. In the excision

  17. Determination of Biomedicine Resource of Benzene\\/Ethanol Extractives of Flesh Eucalyptus Urophydis Chips by Py-GC\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Wan-xi; Wu Yi-qiang; Zhang Dang-quan; Wu Shu-bin; Tan Yang

    2008-01-01

    The extractives of Eucalyptus urophydis wood consumes more bleaching agents which seriously affect the quality of pulp and paper, and increases more difficulties on the treatments of wastewater and black-liquid from wood industry, especially pulp- and paper-making industry. Therefore, In order to solve the problem, Py-GC\\/MS was used to analyze the high- grade resource recovery of benzene\\/ethanol extractives of flesh

  18. Effect of ethanol extract of dried Chinese yam ( Dioscorea batatas ) flour containing dioscin on gastrointestinal function in rat model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong Ryae Jeon; Ji Seon Lee; Chu Hee Lee; Jong Yeon Kim; Soon Dong Kim; Doo Hyun Nam

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a 40% ethanol extract of Chinese yam flour (Dioscoreae rhizoma), containing 177±58 ?g\\/mL of dioscin, was tested in order to evaluate its pharmacological effects on the gastrointestinal\\u000a tracts of Sprague-Dawley rats. Via the ingestion of the Chinese yam extract, the secretion of gastric acid was suppressed\\u000a in the rats, and gastrointestinal motility increased by as much as

  19. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Characterization of Argentinean Chia Seed Oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanesa Y. Ixtaina; Facundo Mattea; Damián A. Cardarelli; Miguel A. Mattea; Susana M. Nolasco; Mabel C. Tomás

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of chia seed oil was performed with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). To investigate the effects of pressure and temperature on the oil solubility and yield, two isobaric (250 and 450 bar)\\u000a and two isothermal (40 and 60 °C) extraction conditions were selected. The global extraction yield of chia oil increased with\\u000a pressure enhancement, but temperature had a little influence on it.

  20. Antioxidant activity of grape seed ( Vitis vinifera) extracts on peroxidation models in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Jayaprakasha; R. P. Singh; K. K. Sakariah

    2001-01-01

    Antioxidant-rich fractions were extracted from grape seeds (Vitis vinifera) using various solvents, such as acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and mixtures of different solvents, such as ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water in 9:1, 17:3 and 4:1 ratios. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using a ?-carotene-linoleate model system and linoleic acid peroxidation method. At 100 ppm concentration, various extracts

  1. A toxicological investigation of a celery seed extract having anti-inflammatory activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Powanda; K. D. Rainsford

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims  An extract of the seed from celery (Apium graviolens) (CSE), and fractions thereof, have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity, gastro-protective activity, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. In view of the potential for employing these extracts for therapeutic use, toxicological investigations were undertaken\\u000a with an alcoholic extract (A-CSE) which has previously been shown to have the above pharmacological activities.

  2. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of various seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Negi; A. S. Chauhan; G. A. Sadia; Y. S. Rohinishree; R. S. Ramteke

    2005-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were successively extracted with chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol (MeOH) using a Soxhlet extractor for 8 h each. The crude extracts were screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The reducing power and antioxidant activities evaluated in various in vitro models (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine and liposome model system) showed the highest activity for MeOH extract. The MeOH

  3. Effect of methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seed on the immune response of mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Ifeanyichukwu Eze; Sunday Ndukwe

    The effect of the methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seed was evaluated in mice with regards to delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DTR), primary and secondary antibody response\\u000a and in vivo inflammatory leucocyte mobilization. The extract at 250 and 500 mg\\/kg produced significant (p?extract caused elevation of secondary SRBCs-specific\\u000a antibody titre

  4. Effects of the extraction conditions on the yield and composition of rice bran oil extracted with ethanol—A response surface approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramon Oliveira; Vinicius Oliveira; Keila Kazue Aracava; Christianne Elisabete da Costa Rodrigues

    Rice bran oil was obtained from rice bran by solvent extraction using ethanol. The influence of process variables, solvent hydration (0–24% of water, on mass basis), temperature (60–90°C), solvent-to-rice bran mass ratio (2.5:1 to 4.5:1) and stirrer speed (100–250rpm) were analysed using the response surface methodology.The extraction yield was highly affected by the solvent water content, and it varied from

  5. Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract on the experimental model against chronic ethanol toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Arulmozhi, Vadivel; Krishnaveni, Mani; Karthishwaran, Kandhan; Dhamodharan, Ganesan; Mirunalini, Sankaran

    2010-01-01

    The possible protective effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNFEt) was investigated for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity against ethanol-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental animals were intoxicated with 20% ethanol (7.9 g/kg/day) for 30 days via gastric intubation. SNFEt was administered at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight along with the daily dose of ethanol for 30 days. From the result it was observed that ethanol-induced rats showed a significant elevation in the levels of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which lowered the antioxidant defense systems, such as, reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamins C and E, when compared to the controls. In the lipid profiles, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), free fatty acids (FFA), and phospholipids were significantly elevated in the ethanol-induced group, whereas, the high density lipoproteins (HDL) were found to be reduced in the plasma, and the phospholipid levels were significantly decreased in the tissues. Supplementation of SNFEt improved the antioxidant status by decreasing the levels of TBARS and altering the lipid profiles to near normal. These activities were also compared to the standard drug silymarin (25 mg/kg body weight). Thus the findings of the present study indicated a significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Solanum nigrum fruits, which offered protection against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:20548935

  6. Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5?mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200?mg/kg) was administered to rats 2?h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000?mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23118790

  7. Anxiolytic-like effect of Griffonia simplicifolia Baill. seed extract in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Carnevale; V. Di Viesti; M. Zavatti; P. Zanoli

    2011-01-01

    The seeds of Griffonia simplicifolia Baill., a tropical shrub native to West Africa, are rich in 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a direct precursor in the synthesis of serotonin (5-HT). In spite of the modern therapeutic application of Griffonia simplicifolia seed extract in mood disorders, no scientific evidence has been provided till now. For this reason the aim of our study was to

  8. Extractability and chemical and enzymic degradation of psyllium ( Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk arabinoxylans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie Van Craeyveld; Jan A. Delcour; Christophe M. Courtin

    2009-01-01

    To assess the potential of arabinoxylan (AX)-rich psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk) seed husk (PSH) as a source for production of arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS), the parameters determining PSH AX extraction yield and the chemical and enzymic hydrolysis of PSH AX were investigated. The seed husk material had a high content of AX (62.5%) with an arabinose to xylose ratio of 0.41. The

  9. Standardization and in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of fruit and leaf of Piper sarmentosum.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Khalid; Ismail, Zhari; Sadikun, Amirin; Ibrahim, Pazilah

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate standardized ethanol extracts of fruit and leaves of Piper sarmentosum for their in vivo antioxidant activity in rats using a CCl (4)-induced oxidative stress model. The standardization was based on the quantification of the markers pellitorine, sarmentine and sarmentosine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and determination of total primary and secondary metabolites. The rats, divided into 7 groups each (n = 6), were used as follows: group 1 (CCl (4), negative control), group 2 (untreated, control), groups 3 and 4 (fruit extract 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), groups 5 and 6 (leaf extract 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively) and group 7 (vitamin-E 100 mg/kg, positive control). The doses were administered orally for 14 days; 4 h following the last dose, a single dose of CCl (4) (1.5 mg/kg) was given orally to all the groups except group 2, and after 24 h, blood and liver of each animal were obtained. Analysis of plasma and liver homogenate exhibited significant preservation of markers of antioxidant activity, total plasma antioxidant activity (TPAA), total protein (TP), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), in the pretreated groups as compared to the CCl (4) group (p < 0.05). Histology of the liver also evidenced the protection of hepatocytes against CCl (4) metabolites in the pretreated groups. The results of this study indicate the IN VIVO antioxidant activity of both extracts of the plant, which may be valuable to combat diseases involving free radicals. PMID:19862670

  10. The antiangiogenic activities of ethanolic crude extracts of four Salvia species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is one of cancer hallmarks that are required for both cancer progression and metastasis. In this study we examined the antiangiogenic properties of the ethanolic crude extracts of four Salvia species grown in Jordan. Methods The direct antiangiogenic activity was evaluated using various models: ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, in vitro assessment of HUVEC proliferation and migration, and in vivo CAM assay, while we used the changes in the expression of HIF-1? and VEGF in breast cancer cells (MCF 7) as an indicative for the indirect antiangiogenic activity. Results All four crude extracts showed a potential antiangiogenic activity in the rat aortic assay, however two species were found to be cytotoxic against Fibroblast cell line (PLF); the finding that caused the exclusion of these two extracts from further studies. Of the two remaining extracts, S. triloba showed very promising direct and indirect antiangiogenic activities. S. triloba inhibited the HUVEC proliferation with an IC50 of 90 ?g/mL and HUVEC migration by 82% at 150 ?g/mL. Furthermore, the in vivo CAM assay also illustrated the high impact of S. triloba against the newly formed vessel in the chicken embryonic membrane. Interestingly, the S. triloba inhibited the expression of VEGF at the mRNA and protein and the HIF-1? mRNA in the MCF 7 breast cancer cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusions Taken together, all these findings of the direct and indirect angiogenic investigations nominated S. triloba as a highly potent antiangiogenic plant that may have chemotherapeutic and/or chemoprevention potentials. PMID:24330494

  11. Cytotoxic Effects of Alcoholic Extract of Dorema Glabrum Seed on Cancerous Cells Viability

    PubMed Central

    Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemieh, Hosein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study cytotoxic effects of the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed on viability of WEHI-164 cells, mouse Fibrosarcoma cell line and L929 normal cells were compared with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol (anticancer and apoptosis inducer drug).Methods: To find out the plant extract cytotoxic effects, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay, the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis were performed on cultured and treated cells.Results: According to the findings the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed can alter cells morphology and because of chromatin condensation and other changes they shrink and take a spherical shape, and lose their attachment too. So the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time and dose dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA.Conclusion: Our data well established the anti-proliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro, but the mechanism of its activities remained unknown. These results demonstrated that Dorema Glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment in clinical practices. PMID:24312867

  12. Identification of the phenolic compounds contributing to antibacterial activity in ethanol extracts of Brazilian red propolis.

    PubMed

    Inui, Saori; Hatano, Ai; Yoshino, Megumi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Shimamura, Yuko; Masuda, Shuichi; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon; Tazawa, Shigemi; Araki, Yoko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the quantity and antibacterial activity of the individual phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis. Quantitative analysis of the 12 phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis was carried out using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The main phenolic compounds in Brazilian red propolis were found to be (3S)-vestitol (1), (3S)-neovestitol (2) and (6aS,11aS)-medicarpin (4) with quantities of 72.9, 66.9 and 30.8 mg g of ethanol extracts(- 1), respectively. Moreover, the antibacterial activities of each compound against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentrations. In particular, compound 4 exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity among all the assayed compounds against selected bacteria, indicating that 4 is the most active compound in Brazilian red propolis extracts. Thus, Brazilian red propolis may be used as food additives and pharmaceuticals to protect against bacteria. PMID:24666260

  13. Antistress Effects of the Ethanolic Extract from Cymbopogon schoenanthus Growing Wild in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Han, Junkyu; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Ksouri, Riadh; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antistress properties of the ethanol extract of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (CSEE), growing wild in the southern part of Tunisia. The effect of extracts on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Its effect on stress-induced in ICR mice was exposed to force swim and tail suspension, in concordance with heat shock protein expression (HSP27 and HSP90), corticosterone, and catecholamine neurotransmitters level. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CSEE at 1/2000, 1/1000, and 1/500?v/v dilutions significantly inversed H2O2-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, CSEE treatments significantly reversed heat shock protein expression in heat-stressed HSP47-transformed cells (42°C, for 90?min) and mRNA expression of HSP27 and HSP90 in H2O2-treated SH-SY5Y. Daily oral administration of 100?mg/kg and 200?mg/kg CSEE was conducted to ICR mice for 2 weeks. It was resulted in a significant decrease of immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. The effect of CSEE on animal behavior was concordant with a significant regulation of blood serum corticosterone and cerebral cortex levels of catecholamine (dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline). Therefore, this study was attempted to demonstrate the preventive potential of CSEE against stress disorders at in vitro and in vivo levels. PMID:24228063

  14. Effects of ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica L. on rat cognitive dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Fumaria indica L. in Ayurveda is known as Parpat and traditionally used to calm the brain. Due to lack of scientific validation, 50% ethanolic extract of F. indica L. (FI) was evaluated for putative cognitive function modulating effects. Suspension of FI in 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was orally administered to rats during the entire experimental period of 16 days at dose levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. Piracetam was used as standard nootropic. Behavioral models of learning and memory used were modified elevated plus-maze (M-EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests. Scopolamine (I mg/kg, s.c.), sodium nitrite (25 mg/kg, i.p.), and electroconvulsive shock (150 mA, 0.2 sec) were used to induce amnesia. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, muscarinic receptor density, oxidative status, and cytokine expressions [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-10] were also assessed. Piracetam (500 mg/kg/day)-like memory-enhancing and anti-amnesic activity of the extract was observed. FI showed dose-dependent decrease in brain AChE activity and increase in muscarinic receptor density, and such was also the case for its observed beneficial effects on the brain antioxidative status. FI also inhibited the scopolamine-induced overexpression of the three tested cytokines observed in rat's brain. FI possesses nootropic-like beneficial effects on cognitive functions. PMID:24696581

  15. Functional proteomics reveals the protective effects of saffron ethanolic extract on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tai-Long; Wu, Tung-Ho; Wang, Pei-Wen; Leu, Yann-Lii; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2013-08-01

    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a common clinical problem and ROS may be a contributing factor on IR injury. The current study evaluates the potential protective effect of saffron ethanol extract (SEE) in a rat model upon hepatic IR injury. Caspases 3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) results showed increased cell death in the IR samples; reversely, minor apoptosis was detected in the SEE/IR group. Pretreatment with SEE significantly restored the content of antioxidant enzymes (SOD1 and catalase) and remarkably inhibited the intracellular ROS concentration in terms of reducing p47phox translocation. Proteome tools revealed that 20 proteins were significantly modulated in protein intensity between IR and SEE/IR groups. Particularly, SEE administration could attenuate the carbonylation level of several chaperone proteins. Network analysis suggested that saffron extract could alleviate IR-induced ER stress and protein ubiquitination, which finally lead to cell apoptosis. Taken together, SEE could reduce hepatic IR injury through modulating protein oxidation and our results might help to develop novel therapeutic strategies against ROS-caused diseases. PMID:23696413

  16. Strychnos nux-vomica seeds: Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity

    PubMed Central

    Bhati, Rajesh; Singh, Anupama; Saharan, Vikas Anand; Ram, Veerma; Bhandari, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Strychnos nux-vomica, commonly known as kuchla, contains strychnine and brucine as main constituents. Minor alkaloids present in the seeds are protostrychnine, vomicine, n-oxystrychnine, pseudostrychnine, isostrychnine, chlorogenic acid, and a glycoside. Seeds are used traditionally to treat diabetes, asthma, aphrodisiac and to improve appetite. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the various pharmacognostical characters and antidiabetic activity of S. nux-vomica seed. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostical characters were performed as per the WHO guideline. Extraction was carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, hydroalcoholic, aqueous, and phytochemical constituents present in extracts were detected by different chemical tests. Among these extracts hydroalcoholic, aqueous extracts were evaluated for antidiabetic activity on the basis of extractive yield and phytoconstituents, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide as standard. Results: Various analytical values of S. nux-vomica extract were established. Phytoconstituents present in S. nux-vomica extracts were detected. Conclusion: S. nux-vomica extracts show antihyperglycemic activity in experimental animals. PMID:22707864

  17. Citrus limonoids and flavonoids: extraction, antioxidant activity and effects on hamster plasma cholesterol distribution

    E-print Network

    Yu, Jun

    2005-11-01

    ?C and 60 min with CO2 top feeding; and the limonin glucoside was extracted using SC-CO2 and ethanol as co-solvent from the defatted seeds with the yield of 0.73 mg/g seeds at 42 MPa, 52?C, 45% ethanol (XEth=0.45) and 40 min with CO2 top feeding...

  18. Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.

    PubMed

    Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano

    2007-01-01

    American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed. PMID:20411504

  19. Hepatoprotective effects of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Oyagbemi, A A; Odetola, A A

    2010-02-15

    The study was designed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on paracetamol poisoning in rats. Twenty five male Wistar rats were used in this study. They were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats. Groups I and II received normal saline (0.9% physiological saline). Animal in groups III-V were administered Cnidoscolus aconitifolius at 100, 500 and 1,000 mg kg(-1), respectively for 7 days. All animal in groups II-V were given paracetamol at 3 g kg(-1) by gastric gavage on days 8 and 9. Animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on day 10 after an overnight fast. Paracetamol overdose caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the plasma Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), triglycerides (TAG) with total cholesterol (TC) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) and significant (p<0.05) decrease Total Protein (TP) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) in rats treated with paracetamol alone when compared with rats pre-treated with extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius. Pre-treatment with ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius led to significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum ALT, ALP, AST, LDL and BUN when compared with the paracetamol treated rats in dose-dependent manner. The extract also similarly caused significant (p<0.05) increase in HDL values compared with paracetamol treated group. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated that Cnidoscolus aconitifolius can ameliorate paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Significant hepato-protective activity was observed in rats treated with the dose of 1000 mg kg(-1) b.wt. PMID:20437682

  20. Extraction of oil from chia seeds with supercritical CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Antonio Rocha Uribe; Jorge Ivan Novelo Perez; Henry Castillo Kauil; Gabriel Rosado Rubio; Carlos Guillermo Alcocer

    2011-01-01

    Chia (Salvia Hispanic, L.) is a crop that was used as food, medicine and paints by the Aztec Indians in Mexico before 1492, and now has a promissory future in several countries. Chia seeds oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly omega-3 linolenic acid (54–67%) and omega-6 linoleic acid (12–21%) which pose great benefits for human and animal health.The

  1. Antihyperlipidemic effect of methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Esquivel, Obed; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Garduńo-Siciliano, Leticia; Alvarez, Valente B; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of a methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds fed to mice in a hypercholesterolemic diet. Acute toxicity of the methanolic extract was investigated by an established method. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and DPPH, respectively. The total phenolic content of Opuntia joconostle seeds was 47.85?±?1.29 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The main phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin, rutin, and cafeic acid. Percent inhibition of DPPH? was 49.76?±?0.49 %. The oral LD?? for the methanolic extract from the Opuntia joconostle seeds was >5,000 mg/kg BW. Mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for six days exhibited significantly (P???0.001) higher plasma lipid levels than mice fed a normal diet. Remarkably, supplementation with methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle at doses of 1, 2, and 5 g/kg body weight significantly (P???0.001) prevented the increase in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides level, and atherogenic index. Similar concentrations of the HDL cholesterol were observed in both treated and control groups. A significant dose-dependent reduction in lipid levels was noted for treated groups compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. We attribute this result to the seeds' phenolic composition. This methanolic extract has potential to be included in short-term hypercholesterolemia treatment regimens as it exhibits hypolipidemic activity with no apparent toxic manifestations. PMID:23135897

  2. Effects of aqueous extracts of Paeonia decomposita seeds on germination and some metabolic activities associated with growth of wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Song, Hui-Xing; Liu, Guang-Li; Chen, Qi-Bing

    2012-09-01

    Paeonia decomposita is a perennial deciduous shrub with great ornamental and medicinal values. Unfortunately, the distribution region, population size and individual numbers of P. decomposita rapidly decrease in the wild. It is a particularly rare, highly endangered, protective plant endemic to Southwest China. To understand the causes of seed dormancy of P. decomposita, the effects of aqueous extracts of the seed coat, endosperm of P. decomposita on germination, seedling growth and amylases activities of wheat seeds were examined in this paper. The results showed that the seed, especially the endosperm tissue of P. decomposita contained substances that strongly suppressed seed germination. The crude extract of endosperm of P. decomposita, which significantly reduced the activities of ? and ?-amylase, showed a more significant inhibition than that of seed coat at the same dose. It was concluded that the presence of inhibitory substances in seed, especially in endosperm tissue, seem to be responsible for P. decomposita seed dormancy. PMID:22963917

  3. Ethanolic Extract of Marsdenia condurango Ameliorates Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Lung Cancer of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Sourav; Mukherjee, Avinaba; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Condurango is widely used in various systems of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) against oesophageal and stomach ailments including certain types of cancer. However, until now no systematic study has been conducted to verify its efficacy and dose with proper experimental support. Therefore, we examined if ethanolic extract of Condurango could ameliorate benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced lung cancer in rats, in vivo to validate its use as traditional medicine. Methods Fifteen male and 15 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated with 0.28 mg/kg of Sweet Bee Venom (SBV) (high-dosage group) and the same numbers of male and female SD rats were treated with 0.2 mL/kg of normal saline (control group) for 13 weeks. We selected five male and five female SD rats from the high-dosage group and the same numbers of male and female SD rats from the control group, and we observed these rats for four weeks. We conducted body-weight measurements, ophthalmic examinations, urinalyses and hematology, biochemistry, histology tests. Results: A histological study revealed gradual progress in lung tissue-repair activity in Condurango-fed cancer-bearing rats, showing gradual tissue recovery after three months of drug administration. Condurango has the capacity to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may contribute to a reduction in anti-oxidative activity and to an induction of oxidative stress-mediated cancer cell-death. Condurango-activated pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, p53, cytochrome-c, apaf-1, ICAD and PARP) and down-regulated antiapoptotic-Bcl-2 expression were noted both at mRNA and protein levels. Studies on caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage by western blot analysis revealed that Condurango induced apoptosis through a caspase-3-dependent pathway. Conclusion: The anticancer efficacy of an ethanolic extract of Condurango for treating BaP-induced lung cancer in rats lends support for its use in various traditional systems of medicine. PMID:25780694

  4. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  5. The Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Cardiovascular Risk Markers: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harm H. H. Feringa; Dayne A. Laskey; Justine E. Dickson; Craig I. Coleman

    2011-01-01

    Recent animal studies have suggested that grape seed extract has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Randomized trials in human beings have yielded conflicting results. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of grape seed extract on changes in blood pressure, heart rate, lipid levels, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We searched MEDLINE (January 1, 1950,

  6. Role of an Ethanolic Extract of Crotalaria juncea L. on High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinakaran Sathis; David, Banji; Harani, Avasarala; Vijay, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic effects of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) by performing in vivo studies. Methods The effects of oral administration of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) in rats fed with a high-fat diet were investigated by evaluating parameters like food consumption, weight gain, fecal fat excretion, serum and liver lipids, and biochemical profiles as well as by histopathological studies. The results were compared to animals fed with the standard diet and animals fed with a high-fat diet and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg BW). Results The animal group administered with the ethanolic extract for 35 days showed decreased levels of TC, LDL, VLDL, TG, HDL+VLDL, VLDL+LDL, LDL/TC, AI, SGOT, SGPT, and elevated levels of HDL, HDL/TC, significantly (p<0.01 & p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The evaluation of liver tissues of the animal groups treated with the herbal extract and standard had shown increased levels of SOD, GSH, and catalase, whereas levels of SGOT, SGPT, total glucose, HMG-CoA, lipase, amylase, and the percentage of malon-dialdehyde were decreased when compared with the high-fat diet-fed rats. Body weight and food intake in the treated groups were significantly lower than that in the model control. Conclusion The present study showed that an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea L. influences several blood lipid and metabolic parameters in rats, suggesting a potential benefit as an antihypercholesterolemic agent. PMID:24959408

  7. Response surface optimization of mucilage aqueous extraction from flixweed (Descurainia sophia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Golalikhani, Mahshid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Khosravi, Azin

    2014-09-01

    The effects of four factors of pH (4-8), temperature (50-95°C), weed-seed ratio (W/S, 15-45), and time (1-4 h) on the yield of mucilage extraction of Descurainia sophia seeds were investigated using response surface methodology-Box-Behnken design (RSM-BBD). Results showed that a second-order model for the studied response was adequately fitted with a coefficient of determination of 98.7% (p<0.0001). The optimum conditions to achieve the highest yield (10.45%) were extraction time of 2.9 h, extraction temperature of 94.32°C, pH of 7.55 and the W/S ratio of 44.2. The extracted mucilage at the optimal point effectively scavenged DPPH free radical, and more concentrations of this polysaccharide indicated potent antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:25036599

  8. Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Oyeleye, Idowu S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v) and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and quinolinic acid (QA)) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 ?g/mL) and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 ?g/mL) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat's brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P < 0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications. PMID:25506036

  9. Gastroprotective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats

    PubMed Central

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mazen M; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Fouad, Mustafa; Golbabapour, Shahram; Talaee, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background and AimCorchorus olitorius is a medicinal plant traditionally utilized as an antifertility, anti-convulsive, and purgative agent. This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of C.?olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in adult Sprague Dawley rats. MethodsThe rats were divided into seven groups according to their pretreatment: an untreated control group, an ulcer control group, a reference control group (20?mg/kg omeprazole), and four experimental groups (50, 100, 200, or 400?mg/kg of extract). Carboxymethyl cellulose was the vehicle for the agents. Prior to the induction of gastric ulcers with absolute ethanol, the rats in each group were pretreated orally. An hour later, the rats were sacrificed, and gastric tissues were collected to evaluate the ulcers and to measure enzymatic activity. The tissues were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. ResultsCompared with the extensive mucosal damage in the ulcer control group, gross evaluation revealed a marked protection of the gastric mucosa in the experimental groups, with significantly preserved gastric wall mucus. In these groups, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased (P?ethanolic extract of C.?olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats. PMID:23611708

  10. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Gómez-Ortíz; I. A. Vázquez-Maldonado; A. R. Pérez-Espadas; G. J. Mena-Rejón; J. A. Azamar-Barrios; G. Oskam

    2010-01-01

    We have explored the application of natural dyes extracted from the seeds of the achiote shrub (Bixa orellana L.) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The main pigments are bixin and norbixin, which were obtained by separation and purification from the dark-red extract (annatto). The dyes were characterized using 1H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and UV–Vis spectrophotometry. Solar cells were prepared using TiO2

  11. Ascorbate, green tea and grape seed extracts increase the shelf life of low sulphite beef patties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sancho Bańón; Pedro Díaz; Mariano Rodríguez; María Dolores Garrido; Alejandra Price

    2007-01-01

    Green tea (GTE) and grape seed (GSE) extracts are proposed as preservatives for increasing the shelf life of low sulphite raw beef patties. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both extracts were compared with ascorbate. Five groups were established for the patties: Control (with no additives), S (100 SO2), SA (100 SO2+400 sodium ascorbate), ST (100 SO2+300 GTE) and SG

  12. SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF THE SEED OF COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Tsai Liang; Chia-Chen Liang; Wen-Hao Wu; Ling-Yea Wang; Chia-Yen Ho; Chun-Hao Chena; Jer-Yi Liaoa

    In this work, the oil and fat in a mixture of the hull and the testa of the seed of Coix Lachryma-Jobi L. is extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. The investigated temperature and pressure ranges from 35 to 50 o C and from 20.7 to 48.3 MPa. It is found that the weight fraction of extractable oil and fat in

  13. Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract inhibits mouse skin papillomagenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anjali Singh; Satya Prakash Singh; Ramesh Bamezai

    1998-01-01

    The present study was designed to elucidate the inhibitory potential of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract on mouse skin papillomagensis with the modulatory influence of biotransformation system enzymes. Topical application of Momordica whole fruit extract (100 ?l\\/animal per day) during the peri-initiation stage (1 week before and 2 weeks after initiation) by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)

  14. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>?-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

  15. Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from Moringa oleifera seed by salt solution.

    PubMed

    Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

    2001-02-01

    It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The active component was isolated and purified from the crude extract through a sequence of steps that included salting-out by dialysis, removal of lipids and carbohydrates by homogenization with acetone, and anion exchange. Specific coagulation activity of the active material increased up to 34 times more than the crude extract after the ion exchange. The active component was not the same as that of water extract. The molecular weight was about 3000 Da. The Lowry method and the phenol-sulfuric acid method indicated that the active component was neither protein nor polysaccharide. The optimum pH of the purified active component for coagulation of turbidity was pH 8 and above. Different from the conventional water extracts, the active component can be used for waters with low turbidity without increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration. PMID:11228992

  16. A new seeded region growing technique for retinal blood vessels extraction.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

    2014-07-01

    Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation. PMID:25298931

  17. Syzigium cumini seed extracts reduce tissue damage in diabetic rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Stanely Mainzen Prince; N. Kamalakkannan; Venugopal P. Menon

    2003-01-01

    Syzigium cumini commonly known as Jamun, is widely used in different parts of India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of an aqueous Jamun seed extract (JSEt) for 6 weeks caused a significant decrease in lipids, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase in catalase and superoxide dismutase in the brain of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral

  18. Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debasis Bagchi; Chandan K Sen; Sidhartha D Ray; Dipak K Das; Manashi Bagchi; Harry G Preuss; Joe A Vinson

    2003-01-01

    Free radicals and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases including congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. We have demonstrated that IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) provides superior antioxidant efficacy as compared to Vitamins C, E and ?-carotene. A series of studies were

  19. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kourt Chatelain; Spencer Phippen; Jonathan McCabe; Christopher A. Teeters; Susan O'Malley; Karl Kingsley

    2008-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell

  20. Characterization and bioavailability of neuroprotective grape seed extract in an animal model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Kathleen Lobo

    2010-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is a rich source of biologically active phenolics acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) that are associated with neuroprotective effects. The proposed use of GSE for prevention and\\/or amelioration of Alzheimer disease (AD) has stimulated interest in understanding the bioavailability and metabolism of individual bioactive phenolic components from crude preparations. The objective of these studies was to characterize

  1. Oral Grape Seed Extract Inhibits Prostate Tumor Growth and Progression in TRAMP Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Komal Raina; Rana P. Singh; Rajesh Agarwal; Chapla Agarwal

    Prostate cancer chemoprevention is an alternative and potential strategy to control this malignancy. Herein, we evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) against prostate cancer in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice where animals were fed with GSE by oral gavage at 200 mg\\/kg body weight dose during 4 to 28 weeks of age. Our results

  2. The effects of grape seed extract fortification on the antioxidant activity and quality attributes of bread

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaofang Peng; Jinyu Ma; Ka-Wing Cheng; Yue Jiang; Feng Chen; Mingfu Wang

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activity change of breads added with grape seed extract (GSE) was investigated. The results showed that bread with the addition of GSE had stronger antioxidant activity than that of blank bread, and increasing the level of GSE addition further enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the bread. However, thermal processing caused antioxidant activity of GSE added to bread to

  3. Effect of grape seed extract on descriptive sensory analysis of ground chicken during refrigerated storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Brannan

    2009-01-01

    Descriptive sensory analysis, instrumental color, yield, pH, water activity, and binding strength were determined on ground chicken breast and thigh with or without grape seed extract (GSE) during refrigerated storage. In chicken breast, GSE inhibited the intensity of musty and rancid odor, and rancid flavor compared to control patties, but GSE caused significantly darker (L?), redder (a?), and less yellow

  4. Effect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brahmesh Sivaprakasapillai; Indika Edirisinghe; Jody Randolph; Francene Steinberg; Tissa Kappagoda

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether grape seed extracts (GSE) that contain powerful vasodilator phenolic compounds lower blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. The subjects were randomized into 3 groups—(a) placebo, (b) 150 mg GSE per day, and (c) 300 mg GSE per day—and treated for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose were measured at the

  5. Grape Seed Extract Is an Aromatase Inhibitor and a Suppressor of Aromatase Expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikuko Kijima; Sheryl Phung; Gene Hur; Sum-Ling Kwok; Shiuan Chen

    2006-01-01

    Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen. It is expressed at higher levels in breast cancer tissues than normal breast tissues. Grape seed extract (GSE) contains high levels of procyanidin dimers that have been shown in our laboratory to be potent inhibitors of aromatase. In this study,GSE was found to inhibit aromatase activity in a dose- dependent manner

  6. Grape Seed Extract Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manjinder Kaur; Reinuka Mandair; Rajesh Agarwal; Chapla Agarwal

    2008-01-01

    One approach to control colorectal cancer (CRC) is its preventive intervention by dietary agents or those consumed as supplements. However, because most of these products are often consumed by patients as an complementary and alternative medicine practice, a scientific base such as efficacy, mechanism, and standardized preparation needs to be developed. Grape seed extract (GSE) is one such supplement widely

  7. Haematopoetic effect of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (grape fruit) in Wistar rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Adeneye

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the blood-forming effects of (100% methanol seed extract) of Citrus paradisi Macfad in adult Wistar rats for 30 days as a way of evaluat- ing its traditional use in the treatment of blood deficiencies. Acute oral toxicity study was also conducted using limit dose test of the Up and Down Procedure statistical program

  8. Antioxidant activity of various extracts and fractions of Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus spp. seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Yawadio Nsimba; Hiroe Kikuzaki; Yotaro Konishi

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidant potency of various extracts and fractions from Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus sp. was evaluated using three established methods, specifically the DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP, and ?-carotene bleaching assays. Satisfying results were obtained, which lead to expect the use of these seeds as health-promoting ingredients. The antioxidant activity was less correlated to the phenolics content suggesting that non-phenolic compounds

  9. Antitumor activity of methanolic extract of Cassia fistula L. seed against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Gupta; U. K Mazumder; N Rath; D. K Mukhopadhyay

    2000-01-01

    Effects of methanolic extract (ME) of Cassia fistula seed on the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and on the life span of tumor bearing mice were studied. ME treatment showed an increase of life span, and a decrease in the tumor volume and viable tumor cell count in the EAC tumor hosts. Cytological studies have revealed a reduction in

  10. Dehulling of Cuphea PSR23 Seeds to Reduce Color of the Extracted Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil extracted from the seeds Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid hybrid from C. viscosissima x C. lanceolata, by screw-pressing contained 200-360 ppm of chlorophyll. A high amount of bleaching clay was needed during refining to remove the chlorophyll in the oil. In this paper, dehu...

  11. PUBLISHED VERSION Extracted H ion current enhancement due to caesium seeding at different plasma grid

    E-print Network

    PUBLISHED VERSION Extracted H ion current enhancement due to caesium seeding at different plasma=pdfcov Published by the AIP Publishing This article is copyrighted as indicated in the article. Reuse of AIP Kingdom (Presented 10 September 2013; received 4 September 2013; accepted 26 September 2013; published

  12. Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerio Spinosi; Primula Semprini; Vincenzo Langella; Giampiero Scortichini; Silvano Calvarese

    Summary American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Li-Wen; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Wang, Shih-Wei; Houng, Jer-Yiing

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with ?-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by blocking the degradation of I?B-?. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-?B-dependent pathways. PMID:25328884

  14. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.

    PubMed

    Ali, Adam; Shyum Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Gauhar, Shahnaz; Saeed, Rehana

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intensity of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Sphaeranthus indicus on albino mice and rat of either sex. The flowers of S. indicus are an important herb used in folk eastern medicines. In this study, the ethanolic extract of S. indicus in doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg was used. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by measuring the mean decrease in hind paw volume after the sub planter injection of carrageenan. The analgesic activity was tested against acetic acid induced writhing response using albino rats. Result of the study shows that at the end of one hour the inhibition of paw edema was 42.66 and 50.5% respectively and the percentage of protection from writhing was 62.79 and 68.21 respectively. S. indicus possesses several important pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties. The current study describes that flower of S. indicus has significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Conclusion of the study is that this herbal medicine can be used as an alternative therapy for the treatment of minor to moderate types of inflammation and as a painkiller. PMID:21715276

  15. Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseńor, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 ± 0.1304 ppm (mean ± Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 ± 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid. PMID:25118563

  16. Anti-allergic activity of an ethanol extract from Salviae miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ju Hye; Son, Kun Ho; Son, Jong Keun; Chang, Hyeun Wook

    2008-12-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation aimed at the discovery of novel bioactive medicinal herbs with anti-inflammatory properties, the effects of an ethanolic extract from the parts of Salviae miltiorrhiza Bunge (ESM) were evaluated using in vitro and in vivo animal model analysis. ESM inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and COX-1-dependent phases of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) generation in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 3.96 microg/mL and 21.54 microg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, ESM inhibited leukotriene C4 (LTC4) production with an IC50 value of 2.6 microg/mL. These results clearly demonstrated the dual COX-2 selective/5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity that ESM possessed. ESM strongly inhibited a degranulation reaction in a dose dependent manner within a BMMC system, with an IC50 value of 22.4 microg/mL. Additionally, ESM was tested in a rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction assay by oral administration (25 to 100 mg/kg). ESM dose-dependently inhibited the PCA reaction, which was activated by anti-dinirophenyl (DNP) IgE. These results suggested that ESM might be beneficial in regulating various allergic reactions. PMID:19099230

  17. LC-MS N-alkylamide profiling of an ethanolic Anacyclus pyrethrum root extract.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Jente; Sharma, Vikas; Dixit, Vinod Kumar; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2012-11-01

    An N-alkylamide profiling from an ethanolic Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. root extract was performed using a gradient reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography/UV/electrospray-ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/UV/ESI-MS) method on an embedded polar column. MS1 and MS2 fragmentation data were used for identification purposes while UV was used for quantification. Thirteen N-alkylamides (five N-isobutylamides, three N-methyl isobutylamides, four tyramides and one 2-phenylethylamide) were detected. Six of them, identified as undeca-2E,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, undeca-2E,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid N-methyl isobutylamide, tetradeca-2E,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid tyramide, deca-2E,4E-dienoic acid N-methyl isobutylamide, tetradeca-2E,4E,XE/Z-trienoic acid tyramide and tetradeca-2E,4E,XE/Z,YE/Z-tetraenoic isobutylamide, are novel compounds which have never been reported before from Anacyclus pyrethrum. PMID:23047251

  18. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Taxillus tsaii Chiu in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Yu; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Kuo, Chao-Lin; Chien, Tzu-Mei; Wu, Lung-Yuan; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2015-06-01

    Preclinical Research This study was conducted to investigate the analgesic activities and mechanism of anti-inflammatory activities of a 50% ethanol extract of Taxillus tsaii (ETT) in vivo using the acetic acid induced writhing test and formalin induced paw licking in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of ETT was evaluated using a mouse model of ?-carrageenan (Carr)-induced paw edema. ETT reduced the writhing in the acetic acid assay test at a dose 1.0 g/kg po and reduced the licking time in the late phase of the formalin test at doses of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg po). Carr-induced paw edema was reduced when ETT (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg po) was administered 3-5 h after Carr injection. ETT (1.0 g/kg po) reduced the level of malondialdehyde in the edemic paw by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, e.g., superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase, in the liver and reducing TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 activity in the edemic paw. This study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ETT, thus verifying its application in traditional Chinese medicine. Drug Dev Res 76 : 176-184, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26077892

  19. An ethanolic extract of Angelica gigas improves atherosclerosis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja Young; Kim, Jihyun; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Tae-Su; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Park, Sung Kyeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2014-06-01

    The effects of an ethanolic extract of Angelica gigas (EAG) on the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were investigated. Rat aortic VSMCs were stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (25 ng/mL) for the induction of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. EAG (1-10 µg/mL) significantly inhibited both the thymidine incorporation and cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding male New Zealand white rabbits with 0.5% cholesterol in diet for 10 weeks, during which EAG (1% in diet) was given for the final 8 weeks after 2-week induction of hypercholesterolemia. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits exhibited great increases in serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) levels, and finally severe atheromatous plaque formation covering 28.4% of the arterial walls. EAG significantly increased high-density lipoproteins (HDL), slightly decreased LDL, and potentially reduced the atheroma area to 16.6%. The results indicate that EAG attenuates atherosclerosis not only by inhibiting VASC proliferation, but also by increasing blood HDL levels. Therefore, it is suggested that EAG could be an alternative or an adjunct therapy for the improvement of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:24999363

  20. Ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss.) causing apoptosis by ROS upregulation in Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Niladri; Saini, Prasanta; Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Roy, Priya; Gayen, Prajna; Babu, Santi P Sinha

    2014-10-01

    Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the Canine family. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (EEA) against the microfilaria (mf) of D. immitis in vitro. EEA was evaluated for different compound classes through HPTLC. Relative motility, mortality and morphological alterations were observed in the mf after exposure to EEA. The effect of EEA on redox status in the treated mf was evaluated by some key enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters. An enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the treated mf along with altered redox status was evident. DNA fragmentation and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) confirmed apoptosis. In addition, western blotting revealed down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, the microfilaricidal activity of EEA can be attributed to its capacity to inflict oxidative stress culminating in apoptosis. PMID:25092478

  1. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Polish Propolis against Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyczka, Robert D.; K?pa, Ma?gorzata; Idzik, Danuta; Kaba?a-Dzik, Agata; W?sik, Tomasz J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Polish propolis (EEPP) against biofilm-forming CoNS strains in vitro. Our results revealed that EEPP displayed varying degrees of activity against CoNS with MIC values ranging from 1.56 to 0.78?mg/mL. The average MIC was 1.13 ± 0.39?mg/mL while calculated MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.78?mg/mL and 1.56?mg/mL, respectively. The biofilm formation ability by all tested S. epidermidis strains was inhibited at EEPP concentrations ranging from 0.39 to 1.56?mg/mL. The degree of reduction of AlamarBlue was directly associated with the proliferation of S. epidermidis strains. The increased proliferation of S. epidermidis strains was observed after 12 and 24 hours of incubation in the presence of EEPP concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 0.39?mg/mL. These results suggest that antimicrobial activities of EEPP against S. epidermidis expressed as the reduction of bacterial growth, reduction of biofilm formation ability, and the intensity of proliferation were significantly affected by incubation time and EEPP concentration used as well as the interactions between these factors. PMID:23662143

  2. Effect of ethanolic extract of Rubia peregrina L. (Rubiaceae) on monoamine-mediated behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kasture, Sanjay; Pawar, Anupama; Kasture, Ameya; Foddis, Caterina; Frau, Maria Assunta; Maxia, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    In the traditional system of medicine in Sardinia, Rubia peregrina (RP) is reported as an aphrodisiac herb. Since aphrodisiacs may also have dopaminergic activity, and there can be a reciprocal relationship between dopaminergic and serotonergic functions in the central nervous system, the aim here was to study the effect of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of R. peregrina on monoamine-mediated behaviour. The RP (100 and 200?mg?kg(-1) intraperitoneally) significantly inhibited haloperidol (1?mg?kg(-1) i.p.) induced catalepsy in mice (p?

  3. Anti-adipogenic effect of mulberry leaf ethanol extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Soo Jin; Park, Na-Young

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Adipogenesis is part of the cell differentiation process in which undifferentiated fibroblasts (pre-adipocytes) become mature adipocytes with the accumulation of lipid droplets and subsequent cell morphological changes. Several transcription factors and food components have been suggested to be involved in adipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry leaf ethanol extract (MLEE) affects adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of MLEE for 8 days starting 2 days post-confluence. Cell viability, fat accumulation, and adipogenesis-related factors including CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), PPAR? coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and adiponectin were analyzed. RESULTS Results showed that MLEE treatments at 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml had no effect on cell morphology and viability. Without evident toxicity, all MLEE treated cells had lower fat accumulation compared with control as shown by lower absorbances of Oil Red O stain. MLEE at 50 and 100 µg/ml significantly reduced protein levels of PPAR?, PGC-1?, FAS, and adiponectin in differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, protein level of C/EBP? was significantly decreased by the treatment of 100 µg/ml MLEE. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that MLEE treatment has an anti-adipogenic effect in differentiated adipocytes without toxicity, suggesting its potential as an anti-obesity therapeutic. PMID:25489399

  4. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa on thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatology research has focused on developing traditional therapies as pharmacological medicines to treat liver cirrhosis. Thus, this study evaluated mechanisms of the hepatoprotective activity of Curcuma longa rhizome ethanolic extract (CLRE) on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods The hepatoprotective effect of CLRE was measured in a rat model of thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis over 8 weeks. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 and serum levels of TGF-?1 and TNF-? were evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured by malondialdehyde, urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine levels. The protective activity of CLRE free-radical scavenging mechanisms were evaluated through antioxidant enzymes. Protein expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in animal blood sera was studied and confirmed by immunohistochemistry of Bax, Bcl2 proteins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and liver biochemistry were significantly lower in the Curcuma longa-treated groups compared with controls. CLRE induced apoptosis, inhibited hepatocytes proliferation but had no effect on hepatic CYP2E1 levels. Conclusion The progression of liver cirrhosis could be inhibited by the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of CLRE and the normal status of the liver could be preserved. PMID:23496995

  5. Gynura procumbens ethanolic extract suppresses osteosarcoma cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HENG; ZHOU, JI WEN; FU, DA HUA; ZHOU, YANG; CHENG, WEN ZHAO; LIU, ZHI-LI

    2013-01-01

    Gynura procumbens is a traditional herb used for the treatment of inflammation, rheumatism and viral infections, although the antitumor effect and its potential mechanisms of action remain unclear. In the present study, the antitumor effect of Gynura procumbens ethanolic extract (GPE) on the osteosarcoma (OS) cell line, U2-OS, was investigated in vitro. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays, respectively. Transwell invasion and wound healing assays were performed to investigate the invasion and migration of the U2-OS cells. The results showed that GPE was able to inhibit U2-OS cell proliferation and metastasis and induce cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of the NF-?Bp65 protein was detected by western blotting to evaluate the effects of GPE on the nuclear transfer of NF-?B. It was demonstrated that the expression of the NF-?Bp65 protein was significantly decreased by GPE. This indicated that GPE was able to inhibit the nuclear transfer of NF-?B. The study shows that GPE is able to induce apoptosis and suppress proliferation and metastasis in U2-OS cells via the inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. PMID:23946787

  6. Ethanol extract from portulaca oleracea L. attenuated acetaminophen-induced mice liver injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Shi, Hong-Guang; Tang, Gu-Sheng; Wang, Wan-Yin; Zhou, Juan; Dong, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen-induced liver injury represents the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure in the world. Portulaca oleracea L., a widely distributed weed, has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Previously, we reported that the ethanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of PO on acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity. The results demonstrated that PO was an effective anti-oxidative agent, which could, to some extent, reverse APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver of mice. At the same time, PO treatment significantly decreased mice serum levels of IL-6 and TNF? and their mRNA expression in liver tissue IL-? and TNF? play an important role during APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, PO inhibited APAP and TNF?-induced activation of JNK, whose activation play an important effect during APAP induced liver injury. These findings suggested that administration of PO may be an effective strategy to prevent or treat liver injury induced by APAP. PMID:25901199

  7. Ethanol extract from portulaca oleracea L. attenuated acetaminophen-induced mice liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Shi, Hong-Guang; Tang, Gu-Sheng; Wang, Wan-Yin; Zhou, Juan; Dong, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen-induced liver injury represents the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure in the world. Portulaca oleracea L., a widely distributed weed, has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Previously, we reported that the ethanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of PO on acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity. The results demonstrated that PO was an effective anti-oxidative agent, which could, to some extent, reverse APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver of mice. At the same time, PO treatment significantly decreased mice serum levels of IL-6 and TNF? and their mRNA expression in liver tissue IL-? and TNF? play an important role during APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, PO inhibited APAP and TNF?-induced activation of JNK, whose activation play an important effect during APAP induced liver injury. These findings suggested that administration of PO may be an effective strategy to prevent or treat liver injury induced by APAP. PMID:25901199

  8. The Ethanol Extract of Zingiber zerumbet Attenuates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2013-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (EEZZR) has been indicated to possess an insulin-like property by ameliorating hyperglycemia in diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether EEZZR exerts an ameliorative effect on renal damage in diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic rats were treated orally with EEZZR (200 and 300?mg?kg?1 per day) or metformin (100?mg?kg?1 per day) for 8 weeks. The plasma glucose, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen as well as urine protein levels and the ratio of kidney weight to body weight were significantly elevated in diabetic rats. EEZZR displayed similar characteristics to those of metformin in reducing hyperglycemia and renal dysfunction in diabetic rats. The histological examinations revealed amelioration of diabetes-induced glomerular pathological changes following the treatment with EEZZR. In addition, the protein expressions of renal nephrin and podocin in diabetic rats were significantly increased following the treatment with EEZZR. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein phosphorylation and expression levels were remarkably reduced in diabetic renal tissues. EEZZR treatment significantly rescued the AMPK phosphorylation compared to nontreated diabetic group. This study suggested that the renoprotective effects of EEZZR may be similar, with the action of metformin, to the prevention of AMPK dephosphorylation and upregulate the expressions of renal nephrin and podocin. PMID:23476687

  9. Sutherlandia frutescens Ethanol Extracts Inhibit Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses in Neurons and Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jinghua; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Zong, Yijia; Patel, Jayleenkumar; Brownstein, Korey; Lei, Wei; Lu, Chi-Hua; Simonyi, Agnes; Gu, Zezong; Cui, Jiankun; Rottinghaus, George E.; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Folk, William R.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2014-01-01

    Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R.Br. (SF) is a medicinal plant indigenous to southern Africa and used in folk and contemporary remedies for stress, chronic diseases, cancer, and HIV/AIDS. While previous studies have focused on physiological effects of SF on cellular and systemic abnormalities associated with these diseases, little is known about its effects in the brain and immune cells in the central nervous system. Results of this study indicate that ethanol extracts of SF (SF-E) suppress NMDA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, and LPS- and IFN?-induced ROS and nitric oxide (NO) production in microglial cells. SF-E’s action on microglial cells appears to be mediated through inhibition of the IFN?-induced p-ERK1/2 signaling pathway which is central to regulating a number of intracellular metabolic processes including enhancing STAT1? phosphorylation and filopodia formation. The involvement of SF in these pathways suggests the potential for novel therapeutics for stress and prevention, and/or treatment of HIV/AIDS as well as other inflammatory diseases in the brain. PMID:24587007

  10. Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jung; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Peng, Wen-Huang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Pao, Li-Heng; Cheng, Hao-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacological properties of ethanol extracted from Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata stems (MOSEtOH). The pharmacological properties included antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. The protoberberine alkaloid content of the MOSEtOH was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that three alkaloids, berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, could be identified. Moreover, the MOSEtOH exhibited antioxidative activity using the DPPH assay (IC50, 0.743 mg/mL). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of MOSEtOH was five times higher that that of vitamin C. MOSEtOH was also found to inhibit pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, and carrageenan inflammation. Treatment with MOSEtOH (100 and 500 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) decreased the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels compared with the CCl4-treated group. Histological evaluation showed that MOSEtOH reduced the degree of liver injury, including vacuolization, inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effect of MOSEtOH were found to be related to the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver and decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and nitric oxide (NO) contents. Our findings suggest that MOSEtOH has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. These effects support the use of MOSEtOH for relieving pain and inflammation in folk medicine. PMID:23364614

  11. Ethanolic Extracts of Pluchea indica Induce Apoptosis and Antiproliferation Effects in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chiu-Li; Cho, Joshua; Lee, Ya-Zhe; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Chien, Chih-Yen; Hwang, Chung-Feng; Hong, Yi-Ren; Tseng, Chao-Neng; Cho, Chung-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Pluchea indica is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of lumbago, ulcer, tuberculosis and inflammation. The anti-cancer activities and the underlying molecular mechanisms of the ethanolic extracts of P. indica root (PIRE) were characterized in the present study. PIRE strongly inhibited the viability of the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC-TW 01 and NPC-TW 04) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Migration of cancer cells was also suppressed by PIRE. In addition, PIRE significantly increased the occurrence of the cells in sub-G1 phase and the extent of DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner, which indicates that PIRE significantly increased apoptosis in NPC cells. The apoptotic process triggered by PIRE involved up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, consequently increasing the ratios of Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels. Moreover, the p53 protein was up-regulated by PIRE in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, PIRE could induce the apoptosis-signaling pathway in NPC cells by activation of p53 and by regulation of apoptosis-related proteins. PMID:26111179

  12. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root

    PubMed Central

    Phuneerub, Pravaree; Limpanasithikul, Wacharee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-01-01

    Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae) has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE) dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-?, and PGE2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root. PMID:25878973

  13. Ethanol extract and saponin of Platycodon grandiflorum ameliorate scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice.

    PubMed

    Moon, Mi-Kyeong; Ahn, Ji-Yun; Kim, Suna; Ryu, Shi-Yong; Kim, Young-Sub; Ha, Tae-Youl

    2010-06-01

    This study was carried out to examine the effects of ethanol extract (EXPG) and saponin (SAP) from Platycodon grandiflorum on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. Fifty male ICR mice were assigned to five groups--normal (normal diet + saline), control (normal diet + scopolamine), EXPG 0.2% (normal diet + 0.2% EXPG + scopolamine), EXPG 0.5% (normal diet + 0.5% EXPG + scopolamine), and SAP 0.02% (normal diet + 0.02% SAP + scopolamine)--and fed each diet ad libitum. After 4 weeks of feeding the appropriate diet, scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was given to mice 45 minutes before the passive avoidance and Morris water maze tasks. Both the EXPG groups and the SAP group exhibited significant amelioration of scopolamine-induced amnesia as measured in both the passive avoidance task and the Morris water maze task. Moreover, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) in the serum and brain of the EXPG groups were lower than those of the control group. These results suggest that EXPG may improve the cognitive deficit caused by scopolamine and that these effects might be due to EXPG mediated by inhibition of AChE activity and inhibition of TBARS. PMID:20521984

  14. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-04-01

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4.3H2O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  15. Characteristics and anticancer properties of bacterial cellulose films containing ethanolic extract of mangosteen peel.

    PubMed

    Taokaew, Siriporn; Nunkaew, Natthawut; Siripong, Pongpun; Phisalaphong, Muenduen

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) films containing an ethanolic extract of mangosteen peel were prepared and their physical, chemical, and anticancer properties were characterized. The cumulative absorption and release profiles of bioactive compounds in the films were determined based on total phenolic and ?-mangostin content. The BC films were filled with total phenolic compounds expressed as gallic acid equivalent varying from 4.72 to 275.91?mg/cm3 dried film, and ?-mangostin varying from 2.06 to 248.20?mg/cm3 dried film. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy evaluation showed that there were weak interactions between the functional groups of the extract and the BC. Decreases in the water absorption capacity and water vapor transmission rate of the modified films were detected. Release studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. In a non-transdermal system, the release of bioactive compounds from the films depended on concentration, immersion time, and the pH of the dissolution medium. A transdermal diffusion study showed that 59-62% of total phenolic compounds that were initially loaded were released from the films and more than 95% of bioactive compounds released from the films were adsorbed into pig skin. Only very small amount of the bioactive compounds penetrated through pig skin and into phosphate and acetate buffers. In studies of anticancer abilities, the release of 2.0??g/ml ?-mangostin from the BC films could suppress the growth of B16F10 melanoma (approximately 31% survival). With the release of ?-mangostin at greater than 17.4-18.4??g/ml, less than 15 and 5% survival of B16F10 melanoma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, respectively, was observed. PMID:24802115

  16. Induction of apoptosis by ethanol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum in human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kyung-Jun; Han, Min-Ho; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Kim, Byung-Woo; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Yoon, Hyun-Min; Choi, Yung-Hyun

    2010-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum, a well-known medicinal mushroom, is highly valued and commonly used in Oriental medicine. Although recent experimental data has revealed the proapoptotic potency of G. lucidum extracts, the underlying mechanisms of this apoptotic activity have not yet been studied in detail. In the present study, the effects of ethanol extracts of G. lucidum (EGL) on the growth of an AGS human gastric carcinoma cell line were investigated. We found that EGL treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependent significant decrease in the viability of AGS cells. This decreased viability was caused by apoptotic cell death, with observed chromatin condensation and an accumulation of apoptotic fraction. EGL treatment induced the expression of death receptor-related proteins such as death receptor 5 and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, which further triggered the activation of caspase-8 and the cleavage of Bid. In addition, the increase in apoptosis that was induced by EGL was correlated with activation of caspase-9 and -3, downregulation of IAP family proteins such as XIAP and survivin, and concomitant degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover the activity of Akt was downregulated in EGL-treated cells, and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/ Akt inhibitor LY294002 sensitized the cells to EGL-induced apoptosis. The results indicated that EGL induces the apoptosis of AGS cells through a signaling cascade of death receptor-mediated extrinsic, as well as mitochondria-mediated intrinsic, caspase pathways which are associated with inactivation of the Akt signal pathway. PMID:20633512

  17. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Ethanol Extract of Mikania Cordata (Burm.F.) B.L. Robinson Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Md. Sekendar; Islam, Md. Saiful; Rahman, Md. Masudur; Islam, Md. Rabiul; Sayeed, Mohammed Aktar; Islam, Md. Rafikul

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study to examine the antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of ethanol extract of leaves of Mikania cordata (Burm.f.) B.L. Robinson. To determine antibacterial activities, the extract was tested against four Gram positive and six Gram negative bacteria at three concentrations (500, 800, 1000 ?g disc-1) through disc diffusion method. The extract showed moderate antibacterial actions and that was increased by increasing the concentration of the sample. The maximum antimicrobial potential was obtained against Shigella flexneri and no sen sitivity was found for Klebsiella sp. Comparatively gram-positive bacteria demonstrated more susceptibility to the extract than gram-negative bacteria. Cytotoxic property of the sample was done using Brine shrimp lethality bioassay where it did not show noticeable toxicity. So, our present study reveals that the leaves extract of M. cordata possess considerable antibacterial properties along with lesser amount of cytotoxicity PMID:24826008

  18. Anti-Inflammatory and Antihyperalgesic Activities of Ethanolic Extract and Fruticulin A from Salvia lachnostachys Leaves in Mice.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Ana Claudia; Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, Diana; Morato, Priscila Neder; Kuraoka-Oliveira, Angela Midori; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Dos Santos, Elide Pereira; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the ethanolic extract (SLEE) and fruticulin A from the leaves of Salvia lachnostachys were evaluated in mice, using experimental models of inflammation (paw oedema and pleurisy induced by carrageenan injection) and hyperalgesia (electronic Von Frey). Oral administration of SLEE (30, 100, and 300?mg/kg) and fruticulin A (0.3 and 3.0?mg/kg) decreased the total leucocytes number in pleural lavage, protein extravasation, and paw oedema. SLEE (100?mg/kg) and fruticulin A (3?mg/kg) also exhibited antihyperalgesic activity in carrageenan induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In addition, fruticulin A (3?mg/kg) prevented mechanical hyperalgesia, inhibiting TNF but not L-DOPA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In conclusion, SLEE and fruticulin A display anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Therefore, fruticulin A is at least partially responsible for the activity observed in the ethanolic extract of Salvia lachnostachys. PMID:25435893

  19. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves.

    PubMed

    Biswas, D; Yoganandam, G P; Dey, A; Deb, L

    2013-03-01

    To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16(th) days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

  20. Saffron (Crocus sativus) ethanolic extract and its constituent, safranal, inhibits morphine-induced place preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghoshooni, H; Daryaafzoon, M; Sadeghi-Gharjehdagi, S; Zardooz, H; Sahraei, H; Tehrani, S P; Noroozzadeh, A; Bahrami-Shenasfandi, F; Kaka, G H; Sadraei, S H

    2011-10-15

    The effects of saffron ethanolic extract and its constituent, safranal, on the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced place preference (CPP) in male Swiss Webster mice (20-25 g) were investigated in the present study. An unbiased place conditioning method was applied for assessment of morphine reward properties. The saffron extract and safranal were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) during (acquisition) or after induction (expression) of morphine CPP. In a pilot study, the extract and safranal were alone administered to the animals to assess if they have any reward properties. Subcutaneous (s.c.) of morphine (4 and 8 mg kg(-1)) and extract (50 mg kg(-1); i.p.) induced CPP. Extract (10, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1); i.p.) reduced the acquisition and expression of morphine CPP. The same results were obtained when safranal (1, 5 and 10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was used. It may be concluded that both ethanolic saffron extract and safranal can inhibit the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced CPP in the mice. PMID:22514895

  1. Antibacterial and antispasmodic activities of a dichloromethane fraction of an ethanol extract of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum

    PubMed Central

    N’Guessan, Benoit Banga; Dosso, Kassim; Gnangoran, Boua Narcisse; Amoateng, Patrick; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac Julius; Yapo, Angoue Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study presents the antispasmodic and antibacterial properties of an ethanol extract and fractions the of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum. Materials and Methods: The antispasmodic effects of the extract and its fractions were performed on isolated rabbit duodenum. The antibacterial properties were determined as minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of the extract and fractions of P. reticulatum on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella tiphymurium. Results: The ethanol extract of P. reticulatum and fractions (except for heptane) produced concentration-dependent relaxant effects on isolated duodenum preparations. The IC50 of the extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions are 0.88452, 0.2453, 0.2909, 0.3946 and 0.3231 mg/ml respectively. The extract was found to significantly antagonize acetylcholine-induced contraction. The susceptible strains E. coli and V. cholerae were the most inhibited by the dichloromethane fraction at 60 mg/mL, as shown by their diameter of inhibition of 13.2 ± 0.76 and 13.3 ± 0.67 mm respectively. Conversely, the dichloromethane fraction, the most active antibacterial fraction, did not inhibit the resistant strains S. dysenteriae and S. tiphymurium. Conclusion: The results showed that P. reticulatum stem bark possesses spasmolytic and antibacterial properties and this may contribute to its traditional medicinal use for the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:25883517

  2. Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mominur; Habib, Md. Razibul; Hasan, Md. Anayet; Al Amin, Mohammad; Saha, Ayan; Mannan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 ± 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and C. frutescens (26.66667 ± 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent) respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard. Conclusion: Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment. PMID:24497740

  3. Improvement of depression-like behavior and memory impairment with the ethanol extract of Pleurotus eryngii in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Minami, Akira; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Horii, Yuuki; Ieno, Daisuke; Matsuda, Yukino; Saito, Masakazu; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Ohyama, Yuriko; Wakatsuki, Akihiko; Takeda, Atsushi; Hidari, Kazuya I P J; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Suzuki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol extract of Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) QUÉL has estrogen-like activities that protect against bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. In the present study, we investigated the effect of P. eryngii on depression-like behavior and memory impairment in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Immobility time during a forced swimming test was significantly longer for OVX rats than for sham-operated rats. The depression-like behavior in OVX rats was improved by long-term administration of the ethanol extract of P. eryngii (500?mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/d). Spatial memory impairment in OVX rats assessed by the Morris water maze test was also improved by P. eryngii extract without any effect on motility. These results suggested that P. eryngii extract has estrogen-like improvement activity against depression-like behavior and memory impairment in OVX rats. Additionally, increase in the amount of synaptosomal zinc after ovariectomy was inhibited by P. eryngii extract. Since zinc in synaptic vesicles is important for memory function and is linked to the pathophysiology of depression, normalization of zinc signaling would be involved in the beneficial effect of P. eryngii extract on neurological disorders after ovariectomy. PMID:24292057

  4. “High in omega-3 fatty acids” bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Izaskun Berasategi; Sheila Legarra; Mikel García-Íńiguez de Ciriano; Sheyla Rehecho; Maria Isabel Calvo; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Íńigo Navarro-Blasco; Diana Ansorena; Iciar Astiasarán

    2011-01-01

    A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed.The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6\\/?-3 ratio from

  5. Effects of a plum (Prunus mume Siebold and Zucc.) ethanol extract on the immune system in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Ryohei; Koizumi, Hideki; Fujiwara, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a plum ethanol extract (PEE) on immunity was analyzed. An oral administration of PEE increased the interleukin (IL)-12p40 concentration in the serum and T-cell ratio in the spleen. In vitro studies revealed that PEE stimulated IL-12p70 production in peritoneal macrophages and natural killer activity. These findings suggest that PEE enhanced the immune function by stimulating innate immune cells. PMID:21979085

  6. Antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic extracts of Nymphaea Stellata flowers in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Rajagopal; K. Sasikala

    2008-01-01

    The antidiabetic effect of hydro-ethanolic extract (HEE) of Nymphaea stellata Willd flower was investigated in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In the present study, the animals were divided in to normal control, diabetic control, diabetic treated and control treated group (n = 6). Effect of oral administration of HEE (300 mg\\/kg) for 30 days on the level of blood glucose,

  7. GC\\/MS Determination of Bioactive Constituents of Benzene\\/Ethanol Extractive of Leaves of Two Eucalyptus Cultivars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qi-Mei Liu; Yin-She Luo; Hong Wang; Wan-Xi Peng; Yi-Qiang Wu; Shui-Ping Yin; Dang-Quan Zhang; Qing-Zhi Ma

    2008-01-01

    In order to better utilize and recover the productive wastewater from the Eucalyptus oil and hence decrease its pollution to water environment, we used GC\\/MS to analyze the possible top value-added components of benzene\\/ethanol extractives of leaves of two Eucalyptus cultivars, i.e. E. camaldulensis and E. citriodora . Relative content of each component was determined by area normalization. 22 compounds

  8. Dietary effect of Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immune gene expression in white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Jang, Yeoung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kang, Bong-Jo; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of a Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immunostimulatory response in white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Shrimps with an average initial weight of 0.5 ± 0.04 g were collected and acclimatized for 10 days. Four experimental diets including a control diet, a probiotic diet and 0.25 and 0.5% of R. coreanus ethanolic extract (RcEE) diets were used to feed the shrimps. After 8 weeks of culture, shrimp fed with probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet had showed significant enhancement in the growth while shrimp fed with 0.5% RcEE diet showed significantly increased expression of immune genes and antioxidant enzymes activities. One week of challenge experiments for all the four diets fed shrimps showed decreased cumulative mortality in the 0.5% RcEE diets fed shrimps, when compared with the probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet fed shrimp groups. The results indicates that R. coreanus ethanolic extract could be used as a herbal immunostimulant for shrimps to increase its immunity and disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus. PMID:23811352

  9. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swarnamoni; Kanodia, Lalit; Mukherjee, Apurba; Hakim, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24130378

  10. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on methanolic seeds' extract of Dolichos biflorus.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Sharif, Sadaf; Mehjabeen; Sharif, Hina; Jahan, Noor; Naqvi, Ghazala Raza

    2014-03-01

    The Dolichos biflorus is a well known medicinal plant in folklore for its medicinal properties. In herbal medicine the seeds of it are mainly used as tonic, astringent, diuretic, and are also recommended in asthma, bronchitis, urinary discharges, hiccoughs, ozoena, heart trouble and other diseases of brain. The main purpose of this study is to explore and to provide experimental data on the traditional use of plant Dolichos biflorus. For this purpose we investigated the plant seed extract phytochemically and pharmacologically. Phytochemical analysis was performed on extract and powder form of the drug. Procedure use for evaluation were Identification of chemical constituent by color reaction, Fluorescence analysis of powder drug, pH (in powder and extract forms), loss on drying, Thin layer chromatography, Infrared spectroscopy, acid and saponification values. In pharmacological studies (diuretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities) were tested on the extract of plant seed. The tests were carried out over albino mice taking different concentration of seed extract. Seeds extract of Dolichos biflorus has exhibited mild analgesic activity, the results were (84.6±6.68) at dose 300mg/kg and (92.2±6.81) at dose 500mg/kg which were not much significant as compared to reference drug Aspirin (300mg/kg) having result (36.4±2.27). While seed extract of Dolichos biflorus exhibited remarkable diuretic activity, the values at 300 mg/kg was (1.33±0.13) and at 500 mg/kg were (2.66±0.31) which are highly significant as compared to drug Lasix (20mg /kg) having result (2.38±0.23). Anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract of Dolichos biflorus obtained at 0.06mg/kg and 01mg/kg were (26.6±2.96) and (36±1.67) respectively. While the value for aspirin as standard drug (300mg/kg) were (17.44±1.59).This study provides a platform for further investigation for the isolation of active principles responsible for biological activity. PMID:24577923

  11. Characterization and Functional Properties of Macela ( Achyrocline satureioides ) Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction Using Mixtures of CO 2 Plus Ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thais M. Takeuchi; M. Laura Rubano; M. Angela A. Meireles

    2010-01-01

    Samples of approximately 30 g of dried and comminuted flowers of Achyrocline satureioides, a species popularly known as macela, were subjected to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 with ethanol as a modifier or co-solvent (20% v\\/v). The effects of variations in the pressure (10, 20, or 30 MPa) and temperature (303 or 318 K) on the SFE performance were\\u000a evaluated. The functional

  12. In vitro antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect, on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis, of fractions and subfractions from oat (Avena sativa L.) ethanol extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol and the extract was successively isolated by liquid-liquid partition to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water layers. Among these extractions the ethyl acetate (EA) layer exhibited the highest total phenolic content (TPC), t...

  13. An ethanolic extract of black cohosh causes hematological changes but not estrogenic effects in female rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C.; Witt, Kristine L. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Granville, Courtney A.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A.; Ryan, Michael J. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)] [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M.; Vallant, Molly K. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Stout, Matthew D., E-mail: StoutM@niehs.nih.gov [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. -- Highlights: ? Mice and rats were dosed with black cohosh extract for 90 days starting at weaning. ? Hematological changes were consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia. ? Peripheral micronucleated red blood cell frequencies increased. ? Puberty was delayed 2.9 days in rats. ? No estrogenic/anti-estrogenic activity was seen in the uterotrophic assay.

  14. Syzigium cumini seed extracts reduce tissue damage in diabetic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Stanely Mainzen Prince, P; Kamalakkannan, N; Menon, Venugopal P

    2003-02-01

    Syzigium cumini commonly known as Jamun, is widely used in different parts of India for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of an aqueous Jamun seed extract (JSEt) for 6 weeks caused a significant decrease in lipids, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase in catalase and superoxide dismutase in the brain of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of an alcoholic JSEt for 6 weeks brought back all the parameters to near normal. The effect of alcoholic JSEt (100 mg/kg) was better than aqueous JSEt (5 g/kg). The effect of both these extracts was better than glibenclamide (600 microg/kg). Thus, our study shows that S. cumini seed extracts reduce tissue damage in diabetic rat brain. PMID:12648817

  15. Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars.

    PubMed

    Gözlekçi, Sadiye; Saraço?lu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

    2011-04-01

    The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars ("Lefan," "Katirbasi," "Cekirdeksiz-IV," and "Asinar") was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. "Lefan" displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested. PMID:21716925

  16. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  17. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu’s stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy. PMID:25678797

  18. Comparative antidiarrheal and antiulcer effect of the aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of Tinospora cordifolia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Mohanjit; Singh, Amarjeet; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2014-07-01

    Tinospora cordifolia is indigenous to the tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. The use of plant as remedy for diarrhea and ulcer is well-documented in Ayurvedic system of medicine. However, pharmacological evidence does not exist to substantiate its therapeutic efficacy for the same. The aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and antiulcer activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia in rats. The antidiarrheal activity of T. cordifolia extracts was evaluated by castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea using parameters such as onset of diarrhea, number of wet stools, total number of stool and weight of total number of stools. The antiulcer activity of extracts was investigated using ethanol and pylorus ligation-induced ulcer. Furthermore, tissue antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation level were also investigated. Tinospora cordifolia extracts were more efficacious in reducing number of total stools in both the models of diarrhea and showed a dose-dependent antidiarrheal effect. The antiulcer activity of the extracts was confirmed by a reduction in ulcer index along with the decrease in gastric volume, total acidity, and an increase in pH of gastric content in both the models. The obtained results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folkloric use of the T. cordifolia as antidiarrhoeal and antiulcer agent. PMID:25126533

  19. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu's stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy. PMID:25678797

  20. Selective induction of apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) by an ethanol extract of Lentinula edodes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu-Huan; Belury, Martha A

    2005-03-18

    The effects of ethanol extracts from four species of mushroom fruiting bodies, mushroom spores and mushroom cultured broth, were assessed for modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) and non-tumorigenic epidermal cells (C50). While extracts from mycelia of Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, or from spores of G. lucidum exerted little, if any, effect on proliferation, the ethanol-soluble extract of Lentinula edodes (L. edodes) significantly decreased cell proliferation of CH72 cells. There were no changes in the proliferative response of the non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line, C50, to any of the mushroom extracts tested. To analyze cell proliferation and apoptosis, fluorescent DNA-microscopy with ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining of cells revealed L. edodes reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in time- and dose-dependent manners in carcinoma cells but had no effect in non-tumorigenic cells (C50). Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that L. edodes extract induced a transient G(1) arrest, with no changes observed in the non-tumorigenic cells (C50). PMID:15737684

  1. ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALE L. STEM BARK IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ramnik

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of adults with diabetes in the world is estimated to rise 300 millions in the year 2025 and this leads to increasing search for better anti-diabetic drug. The effects of the ethanol extract (1.25 g/kg) and fractions (Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol in the dose of 1 g/kg) of Anacardium occidentale stem bark on the blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced types 1 and 2 diabetic rats at different prandial states were studied. The ethanol extract of A. occidentale had no hypoglycemic effect in type 1 diabetic rats in fasting and postprandial glucose load conditions and, in type 2 diabetic rats in fasting condition. However, the extract, significantly lowered blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic rats when fed simultaneously with glucose. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant opposing effect in serum glucose rise after administration of glucose. Additionally, its dichloromethane extract also exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose level compared to control after glucose administration while its butanol fraction was devoid of this activity. These findings conclude that the active principles responsible for the antihyperglycaemic effect might be concentrated in the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions of the extract. PMID:25206248

  2. Antihyperglycemic effect of ethanolic extract and fractions of anacardium occidentale L. Stem bark in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ramnik

    2009-12-01

    The numbers of adults with diabetes in the world is estimated to rise 300 millions in the year 2025 and this leads to increasing search for better anti-diabetic drug. The effects of the ethanol extract (1.25 g/kg) and fractions (Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and butanol in the dose of 1 g/kg) of Anacardium occidentale stem bark on the blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced types 1 and 2 diabetic rats at different prandial states were studied. The ethanol extract of A. occidentale had no hypoglycemic effect in type 1 diabetic rats in fasting and postprandial glucose load conditions and, in type 2 diabetic rats in fasting condition. However, the extract, significantly lowered blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic rats when fed simultaneously with glucose. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant opposing effect in serum glucose rise after administration of glucose. Additionally, its dichloromethane extract also exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose level compared to control after glucose administration while its butanol fraction was devoid of this activity. These findings conclude that the active principles responsible for the antihyperglycaemic effect might be concentrated in the ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions of the extract. PMID:25206248

  3. Effect of heat treatment of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the antioxidant potential of their extracts.

    PubMed

    Terpinc, Petra; Polak, Tomaz; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Abramovic, Helena

    2011-08-24

    The effect of different heat treatments of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of their hydrolyzed extracts was investigated. The results showed that total phenol contents increased in thermally treated seeds. Heat treatment affected also the quantities of individual phenolic compounds in extracts. Phenolics in unheated camelina seeds existed in bound rather than in free form. A temperature of 160 °C was required for release of insoluble bound phenolics, whereas lower temperatures were found to be optimal to liberate those present as soluble conjugates. The best reducing power and alkyl peroxyl radical scavenging activity in the emulsion was expressed by phenolics which were bound to the cell wall, whereas the best iron chelators and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavengers were found to be those present in free form. The heat treatment of seeds up to 120 °C increased the reducing power and DPPH• radical scavenging ability of extracts, but negatively affected iron chelating ability and their activity in an emulsion against alkyl peroxyl radicals. PMID:21744787

  4. Water extracts of Brazilian leguminous seeds as rich sources of larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Cavalheiro, Mariana G; Viana, Martônio P; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Rocha-Bezerra, Lady C B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Morais, Selene M; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the toxicity of seed water extracts of 15 leguminous species upon Aedes aegypti larvae. A partial chemical and biochemical characterization of water extracts, as well as the assessment of their acute toxicity in mice, were performed. The extracts of Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum and Piptadenia moniliformis caused 100% of mortalit y after 1 to 3 h of exposure. They showed LC(50) and LC(90) values ranging from 0.43 ± 0.01 to 9.06 ± 0.12 mg/mL and from 0.71 ± 0.02 to 13.03 ± 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Among the secondary metabolite constituents, the seed water extracts showed tannins, phenols, flavones, favonols, xanthones, saponins and alkaloids. The extracts also showed high soluble proteins content (0.98 to 7.71 mg/mL), lectin (32 to 256 HU/mL) and trypsin inhibitory activity (3.64 = 0.43 to 26.19 = 0.05 gIT/kg of flour) The electrophoretic profiles showed a great diversity of protein bands, many of which already described as insecticide proteins. The extracts showed low toxicity to mice (LD(50) > 0.15 = 0.01 g/kg body weight), but despite these promising results, further studies are necessary to understand the toxicity of these extracts and their constituents from primary and secondary metabolism upon Ae. aegypti. PMID:21562687

  5. Hepatoprotective activity of Peganum harmala against ethanol-induced liver damages in rats.

    PubMed

    Bourogaa, Ezzeddine; Jarraya, Raoudha Mezghani; Damak, Mohamed; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the protective effects of Peganum harmala seeds extract (CPH) against chronic ethanol treatment. Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by administrating ethanol 35% (4?g/kg/day) for 6 weeks. CPH was co-administered with ethanol, by intraperitonial (IP) injection, at a dose of 10?mg/kg bw/day. Control rats were injected by saline solution (NaCl 9‰). Chronic ethanol administration intensified lipid peroxidation monitored by an increase of TBARS level in liver. Ethanol treatment caused also a drastic alteration in antioxidant defence system; hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. A co-administration of CPH during ethanol treatment inhibited lipid peroxidation and improved antioxidants activities. However, treatment with P. harmala extract protects efficiently the hepatic function of alcoholic rats by the considerable decrease of aminotransferase contents in serum of ethanol-treated rats. PMID:25974007

  6. Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

    2014-01-01

    One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 ?g/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 ?g/ml) and ?-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 ?g/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 ?M) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 ?g/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic. PMID:24602819

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activities of Morinda citrifolia seed extract and its constituents in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether a 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) of the seeds of Morinda citrifolia (noni) and its constituents have matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity in UVA-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The MCS-ext (10 ?g/mL) inhibited MMP-1 secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, without cytotoxic effects, at 48 h after UV exposure. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of MCS-ext was the most potent inhibitor of MMP-1 secretion. Among the constituents of the fraction, a lignan, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), inhibited the MMP-1 secretion at a concentration of 0.3 ?M without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 1 (0.3 ?M) reduced the level of intracellular MMP-1 expression. Other constituents, namely americanin A (2), quercetin (3) and ursolic acid (4), were inactive. To elucidate inhibition mechanisms of MMP-1 expression and secretion, the effect of 1 on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation was examined. Western blot analysis revealed that 1 (0.3 ?M) reduced the phosphorylations of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that 1 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression, and consequent secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, by down-regulation of MAPKs phosphorylation. PMID:22293351

  8. Antinociceptive Activity of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Aggregatin D Isolated from Sinningia aggregata Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Geórgea V.; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L.; Frois, Gisele R. A.; Ribas, Joăo L. C.; Verdan, Maria H.; Kassuya, Cândida A. L.; Stefanello, Maria E.; Zampronio, Aleksander R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa), fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction) reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs. PMID:25719394

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. resin.

    PubMed

    Wani, T A; Chandrashekara, H H; Kumar, D; Prasad, R; Sardar, K K; Kumar, D; Tandan, S K

    2012-12-01

    Shorea robusta Gaertn. f. (Sal) is one of the most important traditional Indian medicinal plants. The resin of the plant has been used in the treatment of inflammation in folklore medicine. In the present study, ethanolic extract (70%) of S. robusta resin (SRE) was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities. Acute inflammation was produced by carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and sub-acute by cotton pellet-induced granuloma in male Wistar rats. The antipyretic activity of SRE was studied using Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The rats were divided into five groups with five animals in each group. Group I was treated with vehicle i.e. 1% v/v Tween-80 and served as control. Groups II to IV were treated with three different doses of SRE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg orally). Group V was treated with standard drug etoricoxib (10 mg/kg orally). The anti-inflammatory activity of SRE was assessed by per cent reduction in edema volume of carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and by per cent decrease in granuloma formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test. SRE (100 and 300 mg/kg) produced a significant reduction in edema volume and decrease in granulation tissue formation in rats. Significant reduction in pyrexia was observed at all the dose levels of SRE i.e. 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The results of the present study demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of S. robusta resin and supported its traditional therapeutic use in painful inflammatory conditions and fever. PMID:23350282

  10. Bioinspired reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using Terminalia chebula seeds extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Pamanji, Sreedhara Reddy

    2015-06-01

    A green one step facile synthesis of graphene nanosheets by Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) extract mediated reduction of graphite oxide (GO) is reported in this work. This method avoids the use of harmful toxic reducing agents. The comparative results of various characterizations of GO and T. chebula reduced graphene oxide (TCG) provide a strong indication of the exclusion of oxygen containing groups from graphene oxide and successive stabilization of the formed reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with the oxidized polyphenols causes their stability by preventing the aggregation. We also have proposed how the oxidized polyphenols are accountable for the stabilization of the formed graphene sheets.

  11. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 ?m/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 ?m/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 ?m/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

  12. Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Onoja, Samuel Okwudili; Omeh, Yusuf Ndukaku; Ezeja, Maxwell Ikechukwu; Chukwu, Martins Ndubuisi

    2014-01-01

    Aframomum melegueta Schum (Zingiberaceae) is a perennial herb widely cultivated for its valuable seeds in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of methanolic seed extract of A. melegueta. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay and in vivo serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay method. The extract (25–400??g/mL concentration) produced concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay. The extract (400?mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the control group. The extract (400?mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the seed of A. melegueta has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement. PMID:24955096

  13. Antiulcer effect of the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica seeds in different experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Pankaj; Sharma, Sunil; Suman; Kumar, Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Peptic ulcer is a global health problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion which occurs due to due to an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Objective: The present study was carried out with methanolic extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica Linn. to evaluate its antiulcer potential on ibuprofen, alcohol and pyloric ligation induced gastric lesions. Materials and Methods: Doses of 100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract wre administered orally to rats of different groups. Ranitidine at a dose of 50 mg/kg was used as a standard drug for these gastric ulcer models. The gastric content was collected and the volume was measured. The ulceration index was determined by examining the inner lining of each stomach. Furthermore, the effect was assessed by free acidity, pepsin activity, total carbohydrate (TC), protein content (PK). Result: The result showed that the methanolic extract of seed coats of Tamarindus indica significantly reduce the total volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity of gastric secretion (P < 0.01) in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model as is comparable with the standard drug ranitidine. There was also a significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.01) as compared to control group. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of seed coat of Tamarindus indica can be used as a new source of antiulcer agent in animals. PMID:21687352

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Nuruk on Oxidative Stress, Melanogenesis, and Photo-Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Cho, Sung-Won; Kwon, Yi-Young; Kwon, Hee-Suk

    2012-01-01

    Nuruk contributes to the unique characteristics of Korean alcoholic beverages. In this study, the effects of nuruk extracts (NE) on anti-oxidant characters, melanogenesis, and anti-photoaging activity were investigated. NEs were obtained from the 70% ethanol extracts of six types of nuruk, which have been used in brewing of fermented alcohol beverages in Korea. First, various antioxidant characteristics were identified in terms of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiozoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression, and inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. NE#4 exhibited potent ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 19.51 µg/mL). Compared with NE#4, relatively lower levels of activity were observed for NE#3 and NE#6, with IC50 values of 90.99 and 76.88 µg/mL, respectively. According to results of western blot analysis for determination of SOD expression in H2O2-treated HepG2 cells, NE#5 and NE#6 induced a dramatic increase in the expression ratio of SOD, compared to the group treated with H2O2 only. Activity of xanthine oxidase, which converts xanthine into uric acid, generating superoxide ions, was inhibited by NE#4 and NE#6 in a dose-dependent manner. NE#4 induced significant inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity. A reduction in cellular melanin contents of 80% was observed in B16F1 melanocytes treated with NE#5 and NE#6; these effects were similar to those of arbutin at 100 µM. In addition, gelatin zymography and reverse transcription-PCR analysis were performed for assessment of anti-photoaging activity of Nuruk. Treatment with NE#6 resulted in dramatically inhibited activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/-9, suppressed expression of MMP-1, and increased expression of type-1 procollagen. Results of gelatin zymography for NE#4 and NE#5 were similar, to a slightly lesser degree. These results suggest the potential of NE#4 and NE#6 as natural ingredients for use in functional foods and cosmetics. PMID:22870054

  15. Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria] [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    1999-08-01

    Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

  16. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Leite, Joăo Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2009-01-01

    The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. PMID:19448924

  17. Effect of ethanol extract of dried Chinese yam (Dioscorea batatas) flour containing dioscin on gastrointestinal function in rat model.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jeong Ryae; Lee, Ji Seon; Lee, Chu Hee; Kim, Jong Yeon; Kim, Soon Dong; Nam, Doo Hyun

    2006-05-01

    In this study, a 40% ethanol extract of Chinese yam flour (Dioscoreae rhizoma), containing 177 +/- 58 microg/mL of dioscin, was tested in order to evaluate its pharmacological effects on the gastrointestinal tracts of Sprague-Dawley rats. Via the ingestion of the Chinese yam extract, the secretion of gastric acid was suppressed in the rats, and gastrointestinal motility increased by as much as 10%. The fecal quantity of rats fed on the Chinese yam extract also increased, by more than 40% as compared with that of the controls. The Chinese yam extract was found not to affect the growth of normal intestinal bacteria. However, a great deal of lactose-fermenting bacteria was observed in the fecal samples of rats fed for 6 weeks on 2% Chinese yam extract. This finding would appear to suggest that Chinese yam extract not only induces an improvement in digestive capability, but also affects the conversion of some intestinal flora to helpful bacteria. Our serochemical analyses indicated that serum glucose, neutral lipid, and total cholesterol levels were reduced to some degree by long-term feeding on Chinese yam extract. This finding bolsters the notion that Chinese yam extract may prove helpful as a digestion-aiding agent for patients suffering from hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia. PMID:16756078

  18. Ethanolic extract of Allium cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Pal, Savita; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-02-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects and the molecular mechanism of the standardized ethanolic extract of Allium cepa (onion) on the glucose transport for controlling diabetes mellitus. A. cepa stimulates glucose uptake by the rat skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes) in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This effect was shown to be mediated by the increased translocation of glucose transporter typ 4 protein from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane as well as the synthesis of glucose transporter typ 4 protein. The effect of A. cepa extract on glucose transport was stymied by wortmannin, genistein, and AI˝. In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that, like insulin, A. cepa extract also enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-?, insulin receptor substrate-1, and the serine phosphorylation of Akt under both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions without affecting the total amount of these proteins. Furthermore, it is also shown that the activation of Akt is indispensable for the A. cepa-induced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings provide ample evidence that the ethanolic extract of A. cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4 translocation-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt dependent pathway. PMID:25654406

  19. Phenolic content, antioxidant and astroprotective response to oxidative stress of ethanolic extracts of Mentha longifolia from Sinai.

    PubMed

    Eissa, Tarek F; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2014-10-01

    The aerial parts ofMentha longifolia L. are used as herbal remedies for curing different diseases through traditional Bedouin medicine. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts of M longifolia was investigated measuring peroxyl radical-scavenging activity by ORAC assay, with Trolox (a water-soluble analogue of ?-tocopherol) employed as reference compound. In addition, the total content of phenolic compounds estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and the identification of the polyphenols using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) have been performed. Furthermore, the effect of these extracts on cell viability and intracellular ROS production was assayed using the U373-MG human astrocytoma cell line in a H2O2-induced oxidative stress model. Results showed that the major type of polyphenols found were benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, flavones and flavanones. The total phenolic content was 37.7 mg gallic acid/g sample and the ORAC value was 1.355 .mol TE/mg sample. The data obtained in cellular assays demonstrated that these ethanolic extracts protected H2O2-induced astrocyte damage by increasing cell viability and inhibiting production of intracellular ROS. These results suggest that the investigated extracts obtained from the aerial parts of M longifolia have antioxidant potential related to their phenol content which have important beneficial health effects, especially in those disease associated with ROS. PMID:25522540

  20. Optimization of process parameters for supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Passiflora seed oil by response surface methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shucheng Liu; Feng Yang; Chaohua Zhang; Hongwu Ji; Pengzhi Hong; Chujin Deng

    2009-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the process parameters of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of the passion fruit seed oil. The effects of temperature, pressure and extraction time on the oil yield were investigated. Results showed that the data were adequately fitted into the second-order polynomial model. The linear and quadratic of independent variables, temperature, pressure and extraction

  1. Pepper seed extract suppresses invasion and migration of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon-A; Kim, Min-Sook; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Yoo Kyeong

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the antimetastatic activities of chili pepper seed on human breast cancer cells. The water extract of chili pepper seeds was prepared and it contained a substantial amount of phenols (131.12 mg%) and no capsaicinoids. Pepper seed extract (PSE) suppressed the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 10, 25, and 50 ?g/ml (MDA-MB-231: IC50 = 20.1 ?g/ml, MCF-7: IC50 = 14.7 ?g/ml). PSE increased the expression level of E-cadherin up to 1.2-fold of the control in MCF-7 cells. PSE also decreased the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells at the concentration of 25 and 50 ?g/ml. PSE treatment significantly suppressed the invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The motility of cancer cells was apparently retarded in the wound healing assay by the PSE treatment. Although our data collectively demonstrate that PSE inhibits invasion and migration of breast cancer cells, further study is needed to identify specific mechanisms and bioactive components contributing to antimetastatic effects of chili pepper seed. PMID:24341783

  2. Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Kishalay; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Ghosh, Abhinandan; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae) using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and ?-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC50 value 157.4 ?g/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC50 value 61.9 ?g/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC50 value 64.32 ?g/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC50 value 58.87 ?g/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract). Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22247894

  3. Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions. PMID:23743034

  4. Optimised amylases extraction from oat seeds and its impact on bread properties.

    PubMed

    Ben Halima, Nihed; Borchani, Maha; Fendri, Imen; Khemakhem, Bassem; Gosset, David; Baril, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Ayadi, Mohamed-Ali; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Statistical approaches were employed for the optimisation of the extraction of amylolytic activity from oat (Avena sativa) seeds. The application of the response surface methodology allows us to determine a set of optimal conditions (ratio seed weight/buffer volume 0.1, germination days 10 days, temperature 20 °C and pH 5.6). Experiments carried out under these conditions led to amylase production yield of 91 U/g. Its maximal activity was in the pH 5.6 and at 55 °C. Study of the incorporation of the optimised oat extract into the bread formulation revealed an improvement of the sensory quality and the textural properties of fresh and stored bread. Three-dimensional elaborations of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) images were performed on crumb of the different breads to evaluate the influence of amylase activity on microstructure. The result showed improved baking characteristics as well as overall microscopic and macroscopic appearance. PMID:25453287

  5. Gastroprotective potentials of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomathy, G; Venkatesan, D; Palani, S

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of Mukia maderaspatana against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Gastric ulceration was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of indomethacin (30 mg/kg b.wt.). M. maderaspatana extract produced significant reduction in gastric mucosal lesions, malondialdehyde and serum tumour necrosis factor-? associated with a significant increase in gastric juice mucin content and gastric mucosal catalase, nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 levels. The volume and acidity of the gastric juice decreased in pretreated rats. The plant extract was evaluated in the gastric juice of rats, untreated has showed near normal levels in pretreated rats. The M. maderaspatana was able to decrease acidity and increase the mucosal defence in the gastric area, therefore justifying its use as an antiulcerogenic agent. Ranitidine significantly increased pH value and decreased pepsin activity and gastric juice free and total acidity. The anti-ulcer effect was further confirmed histologically. PMID:25471339

  6. Physical and antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract, nisin, and EDTA incorporated soy protein edible films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sivarooban; N. S. Hettiarachchy; M. G. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    The physical and antimicrobial properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) films containing grape seed extract (GSE 1% w\\/w), nisin (10,000IU\\/g), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA 0.16% w\\/w), and their combinations were evaluated. The incorporation of GSE significantly increased the thickness, puncture, and tensile strengths compared to the control film. The SPI film containing combinations of GSE, nisin, and EDTA had a thickness

  7. Effect of Grape Seed Extracts on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Corn Chips during Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taha M. Rababah; Sevil Yücel; Khalil I. Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Wade Yang; Khalid Ismaeal

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of grape seed extracts (GSE) on lipid oxidation of corn chips stored for 90 days in\\u000a comparison to tert-butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate chemical analysis results showed that corn chips contained low moisture contents (less\\u000a than 2%) and also that no significant differences were found in the dry matter values in ash, fat, protein, and fiber. Antioxidant\\u000a activity

  8. Effect of grape seed extract on puromycin-aminonucleoside-induced nephrosis in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tej K. Mattoo; Larisa Kovacevic

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that an excessive production of oxidants plays an important role in the pathogenesis of glomerular disease. Grape seed extract (GSE) is a potent antioxidant, and the aim of this pilot study was to evaluate its effect on puromycin-aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced nephrosis in rats. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 rats received water

  9. Mechanism of the endothelium-dependent relaxation evoked by a grape seed extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Indika Edirisinghe; Britt Burton-Freeman

    2008-01-01

    GSEs (grape seed extracts) which contain polyphenolic compounds cause an endothelium- dependent relaxation of blood vessels. The aim of the present study was to examine the mech- anisms involved in this response. A well-characterized GSE was applied to rabbit aortic rings sus- pended in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit buffer maintained at 37 ?C. In aortic rings pre-contacted with noradrenaline (norepinephrine),

  10. In vitro remineralization effects of grape seed extract on artificial root caries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian Xie; Ana Karina Bedran-Russo; Christine D. Wu

    2008-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) contains proanthocyanidins (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96h at

  11. Dietary Feeding of Grape Seed Extract Prevents Intestinal Tumorigenesis in APCmin\\/+ Mice1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balaiya Velmurugan; P. Singh; Rajesh Agarwal; Chapla Agarwal

    Chemopreventive effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE) against intestinal\\/colon cancer de- velopment are largely unknown. Herein, we investigated GSE efficacy against intestinal tumorigenesis in APCmin\\/+ mice. Female APCmin\\/+ mice were fed control or 0.5% GSE (wt\\/wt) mixed AIN-76A diet for 6 weeks. At the end of the experiment, GSE feeding decreased the total number of intestinal polyps

  12. Inhibitory effects of guarana seed extract on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and mast cell degranulation.

    PubMed

    Jippo, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Yuko; Sato, Harumi; Hattori, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Shigekawa, Munekazu

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of guarana seed extract (GSE) on an anti-allergic mechanism. GSE orally administered inhibited the anti-dinitrophenol IgE-induced passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction in mice. Furthermore, it inhibited the degranulation of rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. It had no cytotoxicity on RBL-2H3 cells. These results show that GSE is a candidate for effective therapeutic material for allergic diseases. PMID:19734657

  13. Phytosterol content of sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil: Extraction and identification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas S. C. Li; Thomas H. J. Beveridge; John C. G. Drover

    2007-01-01

    Phytosterols in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed oil extracted by cold pressing, hexane, and supercritical carbon dioxide were identified by GC–MS and FID. Compounds identified were campesterol, clerosterol, lanosterol, sitosterol, ?-amyrin, sitostanol, ?5-avenasterol, ?24(28)-stigmasta-en-ol, ?-amyrin, ?5,24(25)-stigmastadienol, lupeol, gramisterol, ?7-sitosterol, cycloartenol, cycloeucalenol, ?7-avenasterol, 28-methylobtusifoliol, 24-methylenecycloartanol, erythrodiol, citrostadienol, uvaol, and oleanol aldehyde. Sitosterol and ?5-avenasterol were, quantitatively, the most important phytosterols.

  14. Protective role of extracts of neem seeds in diabetes caused by streptozotocin in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Gupta; M Kataria; P. K Gupta; S Murganandan; R. C Yashroy

    2004-01-01

    Effect of petroleum ether extracts of kernel (NSK) and husk (NSH) of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Meliaceae) seeds on the prevention of oxidative stress caused by streptozotocin (STZ) was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in adult male Wistar rats after administration of STZ (55mg\\/kg b.wt., i.p., tail vein).The effect of NSK (2gm\\/kg, b.wt.) and NSH (0.9gm\\/kg, b.wt.) orally for

  15. Efficacy of neem seed extract shampoo on head lice of naturally infected humans in Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Margit Semmler

    2007-01-01

    Sixty heavily lice-infested male and female children (4–15 years) were selected and subjected to the treatment with a neem seed extract shampoo. Twenty to thirty milliliter of the shampoo were thoroughly mixed with completely wet hair and rubbed in to reach the skin of the scalp. After 5, 10, 15 and 30 min, the shampoo was washed out and the hair basically

  16. Evaluation of grapefruit seed extract as natural fungicide to control apple scab in organic apple growing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Trapman

    C-pro, an experimental fungicide based on grapefruit seed extract was compared to copper oxychloride for the control of apple scab in a field trial. Efficacy and possible phytotoxic effects where accessed. The C-pro formulation was analysed for possible chemical additives by HPTLC. C-pro proved tot be more effective in controlling apple scab then the standard rate of 300 gram copper

  17. C-Pro (grapefruit seed extract) as supplement or replacement against rose- and cucumber powdery mildew

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brita Toppe; Arne Stensvand; Maria-Luz Herrero; Hans Ragnar Gislerřd

    2007-01-01

    Numerous fungicide applications are often needed to control powdery mildews in greenhouse-grown crops, and consequently there is an increasing demand for alternative means to control them. In commercial greenhouses, attack of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii in cucumbers and P. pannosa in cut roses was controlled by weekly sprays of C-Pro CE601, a dilution of grapefruit seed extract (GSE).

  18. Effect of Early Seed Removal During Fermentation on Proanthocyanidin Extraction in Red Wine: A Commercial Production Example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) were made by a commercial winery to examine the effects of seed removal at ~10 °Brix on the extraction of proanthocyanidins during fermentation. Seeds were removed at the point when they fell to the bottom of the fermentor, and were thus easily removed during reg...

  19. In vitro study of antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity on oral anaerobes of a grape seed extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aurelie Furiga; Aline Lonvaud-Funel; Cecile Badet

    2009-01-01

    Grape seeds are considered rich sources of polyphenolic compounds that show antioxidant or antimicrobial effects. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of a grape seed extract (GSE) on two oral anaerobes closely associated with periodontal diseases and its antioxidant action.The antimicrobial activity was determined using the macro dilution broth technique and also tested on a

  20. Phenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Contraceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salsola imbricata Forssk. in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shehab, Naglaa Gamil

    2014-01-01

    Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330?nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500?mg/kg b. wt.), over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692%) followed by coumaric acid (4.251%). Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P < 0.01) in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin. PMID:25587346

  1. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi (black Zeera) seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Muhammad Rashad; Sadiq, Soban; Nayak, Salma; Tahir, Muhammad Usman

    2012-04-01

    Medicinal plants play a key role in preventing various diseases. Hyperlipidemia is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi seeds in diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats. 2% cholesterol diet were given to rats for six weeks and rats showed high lipid levels were included in the study. Then all rats were divided into, normal control group (A), hyperlipidemia positive control group (B), and the remaining two groups (C and D) served as experimental groups. Group C hyperlipidemic experimental rats received aqueous dried extract of Carum carvi seeds at 60 mg/kg of body weight for eight weeks on daily basis. On the other hand group D rats received simvastatin at 1.0 mg/kg body weight for eight weeks. Blood samples were collected after eight weeks. The hyperlipidemic positive control group rats showed variable increase in serum triglycerides, LDL and total cholesterol levels. Serum HDL levels decreased in hyperlipidemic positive control groups. Carum carvi and simvastatin significantly decreased the levels of these parameters in rats. On comparison Carum carvi reduced lipid levels more, effectively than the simvastatin. Carum carvi constituents, especially flavonoids and carvone have strong anti-oxidant activity which might be involved in hypolipidemia. In conclusion, Carum carvi aqueous seeds extract decrease lipid levels in diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:22459457

  2. Grape seed and tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates are potent inhibitors of ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity.

    PubMed

    Yilmazer-Musa, Meltem; Griffith, Anneke M; Michels, Alexander J; Schneider, Erik; Frei, Balz

    2012-09-12

    This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of plant-based extracts (grape seed, green tea, and white tea) and their constituent flavan-3-ol monomers (catechins) on ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, two key glucosidases required for starch digestion in humans. To evaluate the relative potency of extracts and catechins, their concentrations required for 50 and 90% inhibition of enzyme activity were determined and compared to the widely used pharmacological glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose. Maximum enzyme inhibition was used to assess relative inhibitory efficacy. Results showed that grape seed extract strongly inhibited both ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, with equal and much higher potency, respectively, than acarbose. Whereas tea extracts and catechin 3-gallates were less effective inhibitors of ?-amylase, they were potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase. Nongallated catechins were ineffective. The data show that plant extracts containing catechin 3-gallates, in particular epigallocatechin gallate, are potent inhibitors of ?-glucosidase activity and suggest that procyanidins in grape seed extract strongly inhibit ?-amylase activity. PMID:22697360

  3. Coffea arabica Seed Extract Stimulate the Cellular Immune Function and Cyclophosphamide-induced Immunosuppression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rafiul Haque, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid Hussain; Rashikh, Azhar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the immunostimulatory effects of alcoholic extract of the coffee seed on cell-mediated immune response and cyclophosphamide-induced (CP) immunosuppressed mice. The assessment of cellular immune function was carried out by the measurement of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. According to the literature survey, cyclophosphamide has only suppressing effect on the lymphoid organ, white blood cell (WBC) and other parts of humoral immunity. Humoral immunity was assessed by the hemagglutination antibody titre. Mice were treated with three doses of extract (50, 150 and 250 mg/Kg body weight per os). Relative organ weight and WBC counts were also studied in these animals. At doses of 50 and 150, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in relative organ weight of spleen and thymus was observed but there was no effect on kidney and liver weights. WBC counts was also increased significantly (p < 0.001) in all doses of the plant extract. Coffea arabica extract elicited a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the DTH response at doses of 50 and 150 mg/Kg, but the change at higher dose of 250 mg/Kg was not statistically significant. In the HT test, plant extract also showed modulatory effect at all doses groups. Over all, coffee seed showed the stimulatory effect on cellular immune function and cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression in mice. PMID:24250577

  4. Antifertility effect of aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula in female rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R; Jain, G C

    1999-01-01

    Oral administration of aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula to mated female rats from day 1-5 of pregnancy at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight resulted in 57.14% and 71.43% prevention of pregnancy, respectively, whereas 100% pregnancy inhibition was noted at 500 mg/kg bw. In the uterine bioassay test carried out in immature bilaterally ovariectomized female rats, aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula (100 mg/kg bw) increased the uterine wet weight (p<0.05) and luminal epithelial cell height (p<0.001) but did not induce premature opening of the vagina. This suggests a mild estrogenic activity of the extract. However, when the extract was administered conjointly with estradiol valerate (EDV, 0.1 mg/kg bw), it significantly (p<0.001) prevented the estrogen-induced uterotrophic effect, thus showing an antiestrogenic nature of the extract in the presence of a strong estrogen. PMID:11145371

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic Caesalpinia sappan extract in human chondrocytes and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengqian Q; Otero, Miguel; Unger, Frank M; Goldring, Mary B; Phrutivorapongkul, Ampai; Chiari, Catharina; Kolb, Alexander; Viernstein, Helmut; Toegel, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Caesalpinia sappan is a common remedy in Traditional Chinese Medicine and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with an inflammatory component that drives the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix. In order to provide a scientific basis for the applicability of Caesalpinia sappan in arthritic diseases, the present study aimed to assess the effects of an ethanolic Caesalpinia sappan extract (CSE) on human chondrocytes and macrophages. Materials and Methods Primary human chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage specimens of OA patients. Primary cells, SW1353 chondrocytes and THP-1 macrophages were serum-starved and pretreated with different concentrations of CSE prior to stimulation with 10 ng/ml of interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Following viability tests, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) were evaluated by Griess assay and ELISA, respectively. Using validated real-time PCR assays, mRNA levels of IL-1ß, TNF-?, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were quantified. SW1353 cells were cotransfected with a COX-2 luciferase reporter plasmid and nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-?B) p50 and p65 expression vectors in the presence or absence of CSE. Results CSE dose-dependently inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß and TNF-? in IL-1ß-stimulated chondrocytes and LPS-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. CSE further suppressed the synthesis of NO in primary OA chondrocytes by blocking iNOS mRNA expression. The inhibition of COX-2 transcription was found to be related with the CSE inhibition of the p65/p50-driven transactivation of the COX-2 promoter. Conclusions The present report is first to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of CSE in an in vitro cell model of joint inflammation. CSE can effectively abrogate the IL-1ß-induced over-expression of inflammatory mediators at the transcriptional level in human chondrocytes and macrophages, most likely by inhibiting NF-?B (p65/p50) signaling. Blockade of IL-1ß-induced NF-?B signaling and its downstream pro-inflammatory targets by CSE may be beneficial for reducing cartilage breakdown in arthritis. PMID:21963554

  6. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Fori?, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare—BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as ?Eq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co ?-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with ?-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  7. Effects of defatted safflower seed extract and phenolic compounds in diet on plasma and liver lipid in ovariectomized rats fed high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hee; Lee, Hyang-Rim; Kim, Tae-Hee; Choi, Sang-Won; Lee, Won-Jung; Choi, Youngsun

    2004-02-01

    Six polyphenolic compounds were isolated from ethylacetate extract secondary to 80% ethanol extraction of defatted safflower seeds. They were categorized into three types: lignans, flavones and serotonin derivatives. Female Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 163.4 +/- 6.3 g were ovariectomized (Ovx) and fed either ethylacetate extract at a level of 1% (w/w) or three types of safflower polyphenolic compounds at a level of 200 mg/kg in a diet containing 0.5% (w/w) cholesterol for four wk. The sham and Ovx control groups were fed the same diet without safflower components. Plasma GOT and GPT levels did not differ among the six experimental groups. The plasma levels of total cholesterol were reduced in the four safflower groups by 20-30% as compared to the Ovx control. The plasma level of HDL-cholesterol was higher in the Ovx+ethylacetate extract group or appeared to be in the three Ovx+safflower polyphenolic groups than in the Ovx control. The level of plasma triglyceride was also significantly lower in the Ovx+lignan group than in the Ovx control. The liver level of cholesterol was significantly reduced in the Ovx+ethylacetate extract group. Fecal excretion of cholesterol increased by the safflower lignans and flavones, whereas that of bile acid was not significantly changed by the safflower polyphenols. Matairesinol and acacetin isolated from safflower seeds reduced the cholesterol content in cultured HepG2 cells at a concentration of 0.01-0.1 microM and all three safflower polyphenolics decreased triglyceride content at the concentration of 0.1 microM. These results suggest that safflower polyphenols have the effect of improving blood lipid status via increasing HDL-cholesterol formation and cholesterol excretion without significant uterotropic action in estrogen-deficient animals. PMID:15228215

  8. Antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptotic by ethanolic extract of Alpinia galanga rhizhome in human breast carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the potential of galangal rhizomes to induce cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in the cultured human breast carcinoma cell line, (MCF-7) in compare with the non-malignant (MRC-5) cells. Methods Both cells were cultured in DMEM medium and treated with galangal rhizomes for three consecutive days. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate. Results The results showed that the ethanolic extract of galangal rhizomes decreased cell viability in the malignant cells as a concentration- and time- dependent manner. The IC50 values against MCF-7 were determined at 400.0?±?11.7 and 170.0?±?5.9 ?g/ml after 48 and 72 h respectively. The morphology of MCF-7 cells treated with the ethanolic extract confirmed the cell proliferation assay results. Alpinia galanga induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as determined by flow cytometry. Conclusions We concluded that the extract of Alpinia galanga exerts pro-apoptotic effects in a breast cancer-derived cell line and could be considered as a potential chemotherapeutic agent in breast cancer. PMID:24935101

  9. Ethanol Extract of Persimmon Tree Leaves Improves Blood Circulation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ri; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byeongseok; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Dong Gun; Ryoo, ZaeYoung; Park, Yong Bok; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2015-07-01

    The leaves of the persimmon tree (PL) are known to have beneficial effects on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We recently demonstrated that PL had antithrombotic properties in vitro. However, little is known about the antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties of PL in vivo. Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA)-containing fish oil has been widely prescribed to improve blood circulation. This study compared the effects of dietary supplementation with an ethanol extract of PL or n-3 FA on blood coagulation, platelet activation, and lipid levels in vivo. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with either PL ethanol extract (0.5% w/w) or n-3 FA (2.5% w/w) for 9 weeks. Coagulation was examined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time. We examined plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2), serotonin, and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels. The aPTT was significantly prolonged in the PL and n-3 FA supplement groups. PL also attenuated the TXB2 level and lowered arterial serotonin transporter mRNA expression, although it did not alter plasma serotonin or sP-selectin levels. C-reactive protein and leptin levels were significantly reduced by PL and n-3 FA supplementation. In addition, PL decreased plasma total- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as did n-3 FA treatment. These results indicated that the PL ethanol extract may have the potential to improve circulation by inhibiting blood coagulation and platelet activation and by reducing plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:26061228

  10. Grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) partially reverses high fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL\\/6J mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Su-Hui Park; Tae-Sun Park; Youn-Soo Cha

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplement in C57BL\\/6J mice. Thirty mice were divided into three groups; normal diet control group (ND), high fat diet control group (HD) and high fat diet plus grape seed extract supplemented group (HD+GSE). Results were as follows: 1. GSE supplement reduced the weight

  11. Interaction between a plant-derived smoke extract, light and phytohormones on the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Staden; A. K. Jäger; A. Strydom

    1995-01-01

    Plant-derived smoke extracts mimics the effect of red light on germination in light-sensitive lettuce seeds and partially overcomes the inhibitory effect of far-red light. Interaction between a smoke extract and gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethephon was investigated. Smoke acted synergistically with GA3 and increased the sensitivity of the lettuce seeds to ABA. It seems likely that smoke affects membrane

  12. In vitro antioxidant activity and GC-MS analysis of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of Cissus cornifolia (Baker) Splanch (Vitaceae) parts.

    PubMed

    Chipiti, Talent; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; KOoorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    The study was intended to explore the antioxidant potential and phytochemical content of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaf and root samples of Cissus cornifolia (Baker) Splanch (Vitaceae) across a series of four in vitro models. The results showed that all the extracts had reducing power (Fe(3+) - Fe2+) and DPPH, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities to varying extents. However, the ethanol root extract had more potent antioxidant power in all the experimental models than other extracts and possessed a higher total phenol content of 136.1 ± 6.7 mg/g. The GC-MS analysis of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the roots indicated the presence of the common aromatic phenolic compounds, pyrogallol, resorcinol and catechol, a fatty acid, n-hexadecanoic acid and an aldehyde, vanillin. Data from this study suggest that both the leaves and roots of C. cornifolia possessed anti-oxidative activities with the best anti-oxidant activity being exhibited by the ethanolic extract of the root. The antioxidant properties of the root extracts can be attributed to the phenolic compounds present in the extracts. PMID:25850207

  13. Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Archana Sachdewa; L. D Khemani

    2003-01-01

    Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41–46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed

  14. Batch solvent extraction of flavanolignans from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertner).

    PubMed

    Wallace, Sunny N; Carrier, Danielle J; Clausen, Edgar C

    2005-01-01

    Seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertner) contain silymarins and ca. 25% (w/w) of oil. A pre-treatment step involving refluxing with petroleum ether is usually performed before extraction of the silymarins using organic solvents. This paper compares the extraction of whole and defatted milk thistle seeds in various solvents as a function of temperature. The extraction of whole seeds of milk thistle with water at 50, 70 and 85 degrees C was also examined: the yield of silymarin increased with increasing water temperature. In most cases, ethanol at 60 degrees C recovered the largest quantities of silymarins. However, boiling water proved to be an efficient extraction solvent for the more polar silymarins such as taxifolin and silychristin, even when using whole seeds. Extractions of defatted seed meal with boiling ethanol returned maximum yields of 0.62, 3.89, 4.04, and 6.86 mg/g defatted seed of taxifolin, silychristin, silybinin A and silybinin B, respectively. When extracting defatted seed meal with ethanol, yields of taxifolin, silybinin A and silybinin B were, respectively, 6.8-, 0.95-, 1.7- and 1.6-fold higher than when extracting whole seeds. When extracting with boiling water, the yields of silychristin, silybinin A, and silybinin B were 380, 47 and 50% higher for whole seeds compared with defatted seeds. PMID:15688950

  15. The safety and efficacy of 3% Cannabis seeds extract cream for reduction of human cheek skin sebum and erythema content.

    PubMed

    Ali, Atif; Akhtar, Naveed

    2015-07-01

    Escalated sebum fabrication is seen with an unattractive look and adds to the growth of acne. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 3% Cannabis seeds extract cream on human cheek skin sebum and erythema content. For this purpose, base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract and base (control) were prepared for single blinded and comparative study. Healthy males were instructed to apply the base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract and base twice a day to their cheeks for 12 weeks. Adverse events were observed to determine skin irritation. Measurements for sebum and erythema content were recorded at baseline, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th week in a control room with Sebumeter and Mexameter. Base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract was found to be safe in volunteers. Measurements demonstrated that skin sebum and erythema content of base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract treated side showed significant decrease (p<0.05) compared with base treated side. Base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract showed safety. It was well tolerated for the reduction of skin sebum and erythema content. Its improved efficacy could be suggested for treatment of acne vulgaris, seborrhea, papules and pustules to get attractive facial appearance. PMID:26142529

  16. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Petchi, Ramesh R.; Parasuraman, S.; Vijaya, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The whole plant of T. procumbens was collected in different regions of Madurai districts, Tamil Nadu. The air dried whole plant of T. procumbens was extracted with ethanol (95%) in a Soxhlet apparatus for 72 h. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (50 mg/jk, i.p.) and nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p) injection. The dry mass of the extract was used for preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological analysis. Diabetic rats were treated with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg, p.o.) or T. procumbens extract (250 and 500 mg/k, p.o.) for 21 consecutive days. The blood samples were collected at regular intervals to access hypoglycemic effect of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens. At the end of the experiment, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes levels were analyzed for all the experimental animals and compared with diabetic control. Results: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and phenolic compounds. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg has significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities. The diabetic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals. T. procumbens inhibited streptozotocin-induced weight loss and significantly alter the lipid levels. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens showed significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. PMID:24808679

  17. Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts

    PubMed Central

    Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Bellakhdar, Wafaa; Belkacem, Nacera; Kadiata, Marcel; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2?000 µg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 µg/mL as compared to 1.1 µg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant. PMID:23570014

  18. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625?mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2?h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  19. Antithrombin effect of polyphenol-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Micha?; Saluk, Joanna; Ponczek, Micha? B?a?ej; Nowak, Pawe?

    2013-01-01

    Thrombin is a serine protease that cleaves the peptide bonds in proteins located on the carboxyl side of arginine. Thrombin plays a central role in thromboembolic diseases, which are the major cause of mortality. The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of plant extracts on proteolytic properties of thrombin. Thrombin was incubated with polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5, 5, 50 µg/mL) and with polyphenols ((+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B1, cyanidin, cyanidin 3-glucoside, quercetin). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts in all used concentrations inhibited proteolytic activity of thrombin observed as inhibition of thrombin-induced fibrinogen polymerization, stabilized fibrin formation, and platelet aggregation. Moreover, thrombin amidolytic activity was inhibited by polyphenols belonging to the flavonoid class. Results presented in this study indicate that polyphenol-rich extracts from berries of A.?melanocarpa and seeds of V.?vinifera may become promising dietary supplements in the prevention of thrombotic states. PMID:22473647

  20. Ethanol Extract of Perilla frutescens Suppresses Allergen-Specific Th2 Responses and Alleviates Airway Inflammation and Hyperreactivity in Ovalbumin-Sensitized Murine Model of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Li-Shiuan; Lin, Bi-Fong

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of different fractions of Perilla frutescens (Pf) leaves extracted by water or ethanol on asthma. BALB/c mice sensitized intraperitoneally and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) were divided into six groups. Each group of mice was tube-feeding with 0 (control), 80??g (PfWL), or 320??g (PfWH) water extracts or 80??g (PfEL) or 320??g (PfEH) ethanol extracts of perilla leaves daily for 3 weeks. A negative control group (PBS) was neither sensitized nor treated with Pf. The effects of perilla leave extracts on allergic immune response were evaluated. The results showed that OVA-specific IL-5 and IL-13 secretions from OVA-stimulated splenocytes were significantly suppressed in the ethanol extract groups PfEL and PfEH. Serum level of anti-OVA IgE tended to be lower in the PfEH group. The inflammatory mediators, such as eotaxin and histamine, and total cells, particularly eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), were also decreased in the PfEL and the PfEH groups. Therefore, the PfEL and the PfEH groups had significantly lower methacholine-induced hyperresponsiveness (AHR). In conclusion, ethanol extracts, rather than water extract, of perilla leaves could significantly suppress Th2 responses and airway inflammation in allergic murine model of asthma.

  1. Effect of plant extracts on in vitro methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feed in rumen liquor of buffalo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Patra; D. N. Kamra; Neeta Agarwal

    2006-01-01

    The extracts of pods of Acacia concinna (Shikakai), seed pulp of Terminalia chebula (harad), Terminalia belerica (bahera), Emblica officinalis (amla) and seed kernel of Azadirachta indica (neem seed) in different solvents (ethanol, methanol and water) were evaluated for their effect on methane production, enzymes activities and rumen fermentation in in vitro gas production test. Gas production per gram dry matter

  2. Study on the diuretic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S; Murugesan, T; Maiti, K; Ghosh, L; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    2001-11-01

    Methanol extract of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seeds (SPSE) was evaluated for its diuretic activity in Wistar albino rats. The SPSE was administered at the graded doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight. The parameters which were taken into account during the experimental on each rat were: total urine volume (corrected for water intake during the test period), body weight before and after the experiment, and the concentration of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions in urine. The total urine volumes of the SPSE (600 mg/kg)-treated rats were evaluated nearly two and half fold then compared with the control (saline treated) group. Excretion of cations (sodium and potassium ions) and anions (chloride ions) also increased significantly with respect to the control group. The diuretic effect was comparable with that of the standard drug Furosemide. The increase of cations in the urine on treatment with Strychnospotatorum seed extract (SPSE) was dose-dependent. This effect supports the use of the Strychnos potatorum seeds as a diuretic in folk remedies. PMID:11824523

  3. Blood pressure lowering, vasodilator and cardiac-modulatory potential of Carum roxburghianum seed extract.

    PubMed

    Khan, Munasib; Khan, Arif-ullah; Najeeb-ur-Rehman; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    In current study, we describe blood pressure (BP)-lowering, endothelium-dependent, and independent vasodilator and cardio-modulatory actions of Carum roxburghianum seed. The crude extract of C. roxburghianum seed (Cr.Cr) induced dose-dependent (10-100?mg/kg) fall in arterial BP of anaesthetized rats. In isolated rabbit aorta, Cr.Cr (0.3-10?mg/mL) inhibited high K+ (80?mM) and phenylephrine (PE, 1?µM)-induced contractions, like verapamil and papaverine. In endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations, N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-sensitive vasodilator activity was observed with Cr.Cr, which also relaxed endothelium-denuded aorta tissues. In guinea-pig atria, Cr.Cr initially caused mild cardiac stimulation, followed by inhibition, as shown by papaverine. These results reveal that cardiovascular effects of C. roxburghianum seed extract are mediated possibly through combination of Ca++ antagonist, nitric oxide modulating and phosphodiesterase inhibitory mechanisms, though further in-depth studies are required for elucidating precise mode of action. PMID:24785464

  4. In vitro, in situ and in vivo studies on the anticandidal activity of Cassia fistula seed extract.

    PubMed

    Jothy, Subramanion L; Zakariah, Zuraini; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Cassia fistula seeds have many therapeutic uses in traditional medicine practice. The present investigation was undertaken to demonstrate the anticandidal activity of the C. fistula seed extract at ultra-structural level through transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. The effect of seed extract on the growth profile of the Candida albicans was examined via time-kill assays and in vivo efficacy of the extract was tested in an animal model. In addition, the anticandidal effect of seed extract was further evaluated by microscopic observations using SEM and TEM to determine any major alterations in the ultrastructure of C. albicans. The complete inhibition of C. albicans growth was shown by C. fistula seed extract at 6.25 mg/mL concentration. The time-kill assay suggested that C. fistula seed extract had completely inhibited the growth of C. albicans and also exhibited prolonged anti-yeast activity. The SEM and TEM observations carried out to distinguish the metamorphosis in the morphology of control and C. fistula seed extract-treated C. albicans cells revealed the notable effect on the outer cell wall and cytoplasmic content of the C. albicans and complete collapse of yeast cell exposed to seed extract at concentration 6.25 mg/mL at 36 h. The in vitro time-kill study performed using the leaf extract at 1/2, 1 or 2 times of the MIC significantly inhibited the yeast growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD) of yeast culture, thus confirming the fungicidal effect of the extract on C. albicans. In addition, in vivo antifungal activity studies on candidiasis in mice showed a 6-fold decrease in C. albicans in kidneys and blood samples in the groups of animals treated with the extract (2.5 g/kg body weight). The results suggested that the C. fistula seed extract possessed good anticandidal activity and is a potential candidate for the development of anticandidal agents. PMID:22678414

  5. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid ?-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid ? (A?) peptide. A? is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds’ aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on A? (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against A?-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on A?-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in A?-induced HIPN. RESULTS: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from A? treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the A?-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. CONCLUSION: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against A?-mediated cell death. PMID:23833520

  6. Antioxidant effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract on deep fried oil quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Solati, Zeinab; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2015-06-01

    Effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract (NE) on frying performance of sunflower oil and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein was investigated at concentrations of 1.2 % and 1.0 % respectively. Two frying systems containing 0 %?N. sativa L. extract (Control) and 0.02 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used for comparison. Physicochemical properties such as fatty acid composition (FAC), Peroxide Value (PV), Anisidine Value (AV), Totox Value (TV), Total Polar Content (TPC), C18:2/C16:0 ratio and viscosity of frying oils were determined during five consecutive days of frying. Results have shown that N. sativa L. extract was able to improve the oxidative stability of both frying oils during the frying process compared to control. The stabilizing effect of antioxidants were in the order of BHT > NE. RBD palm olein was found to be more stable than sunflower oil based on the ratio of linoleic acid (C18:2) to palmitic acid (C16:0) and fatty acid composition. PMID:26028729

  7. Fructus ligustri lucidi ethanol extract improves bone mineral density and properties through modulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin; Lyu, Ying; Wu, Zhenghao; Fang, Yuehui; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Pengling; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing peak bone mass in early life is one of key preventive strategies against osteoporosis. Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal formulas to alleviate osteoporosis. Previously, FLL extracts have been shown to have osteoprotective effect in aged or ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FLL ethanol extract on bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in growing male rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male weaning Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups and orally administrated for 4 months an AIN-93G formula-based diet supplementing with different doses of FLL ethanol extract (0.40, 0.65, and 0.90 %) or vehicle control, respectively. Then calcium balance, serum level of Ca, P, 25(OH)2D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin (OCN), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), and parathyroid hormone, bone microarchitecture, and calcium absorption-related genes expression in duodenum and kidney were analyzed. The results demonstrated that FLL ethanol extract increased BMD of growing rats and improved their bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties. FLL ethanol extract altered bone turnover, as evidenced by increasing a bone formation maker, OCN, and decreasing a bone resorption maker, CTX-I. Intriguingly, both Ca absorption and Ca retention rate were elevated by FLL ethanol extract treatment, possibly through the mechanisms of up-regulating the transcriptions of calcitropic genes in kidney (1?-hydroxylase) and duodenum (vitamin D receptor, calcium transporter calbindin-D9k, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6). In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract increased bone mass gain and improved bone properties via modulating bone turnover and up-regulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum, which could then activate 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent calcium transport in male growing rats. PMID:24343527

  8. Repellency of the oily extract of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) against Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    PubMed

    González-Gómez, Rebeca; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Villanueva-Jiménez, Juan A; Peńa-Valdivia, Cecilia Beatriz; Santizo-Rincón, José Antonio

    2012-03-01

    A crude oil extract of neem seed (Azadirachta indica, Sapindales: Meliaceae) was evaluated for repellency on Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman. Burgerjon's tower was used to spray worker bee pupae with 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, 1.3, 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract concentrations. Sprayed pupae were attached to observation arenas and incubated at 32 ± 2°C and 70 ± 10% RH. The ability of V. destructor to locate and feed on treated and untreated pupae was monitored from 30 min to 72 h after spray. Higher and more stable repellency was achieved with 2.6, 5.3, 10.6 and 21.1% neem extract. At the highest concentration, 98% of V. destructor were prevented to settle on bee pupae, resulting in 100% V. destructor mortality at 72 h. PMID:22270115

  9. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) replication by Warscewiczia coccinea (Vahl) Kl. (Rubiaceae) ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Quintero, A; Fabbro, R; Maillo, M; Barrios, M; Milano, M B; Fernández, A; Williams, B; Michelangeli, F; Rangel, H R; Pujol, F H

    2011-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to search for natural products capable of inhibiting hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication. The research design, methods and procedures included testing hydro-alcoholic extracts (n?=?66) of 31 species from the Venezuelan Amazonian rain forest on the cell line HepG2 2.2.15, which constitutively produces HBV. The main outcomes and results were as follows: the species Euterpe precatoria, Jacaranda copaia, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Senna silvestris, Warscewiczia coccinea and Vochysia glaberrima exerted some degree of inhibition on HBV replication. The leaves of W. coccinea showed a significant antiviral activity: 80% inhibition with 100?µg?mL?ą of extract. This extract also exerted inhibition on covalently closed circular deoxyribonucleic acid (cccDNA) production and on HIV-1 replication in MT4 cells (more than 90% inhibition with 50?µg?mL?ą of extract). Initial fractionation using organic solvents of increasing polarity and water showed that the ethanol fraction was responsible for most of the antiviral inhibitory activities of both the viruses. It was concluded that Warscewiczia coccinea extract showed inhibition of HBV and HIV-1 replication. Bioassay-guided purification of this fraction may allow the isolation of an antiviral compound with inhibitory activity against both viruses. PMID:21827337

  10. In vivo antimalarial activities of ethanolic crude extracts and fractions of leaf and root of Carpolobia lutea.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Jude E; Effiong, Imaobong A; Ettebong, Ette

    2011-01-01

    Carpolobia lutea (leaves and root) is used traditionally as malarial remedy by the Ibibios of Niger Delta of Nigeria and Benin. This study was aimed to investigate the antiplasmodial potentials of the crude leaf and root extracts of this plant as well as their fractions in vivo in Plasmodium berghei berghei-infected mice to give scientific proof to the ethnobotanical claims and correlate with the reported in vivo activity. The ethanolic extracts of Carpolobia lutea leaf (245-735 mg/kg/day) and root (7-21 mg/kg/day) were screened for blood plasmocidal activity against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium berghei in mice. The antimalarial activity in 4-day and curative tests was evaluated. Carpolobia lutea leaf extract (245-735 mg/kg/day) and fractions exhibited significant (p<0.05-0.01) antiplasmodial activity both in 4-day early infection test and in established infection with a considerable mean survival time which was incomparable to that the standard drug, chloroquine (5 mg/kg/day). The root extract (7-21 mg/kg/day) and fractions also demonstrated a promising blood schizontocidal activity in early and established infections. These plant extracts and fractions possess considerable antiplasmodial activities which justify their use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in the control of malaria. PMID:21190920

  11. Identification of phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic rooibos extracts (Aspalathus linearis) by HPLC-ESI-MS (TOF/IT).

    PubMed

    Iswaldi, Ihsan; Arráez-Román, David; Rodríguez-Medina, Inmaculada; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Joven, Jorge; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2011-07-01

    Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) is a rich source of polyphenols and used to make a mild-tasting tea containing no caffeine, is low in tannins compared to green or black teas, and has antioxidant and antimutagenic/antitumoral properties. In vivo results show that rooibos has beneficial effects upon the lipid profile by decreasing serum triglycerides and cholesterol. In this sense, we have developed a simple and rapid method to separate and characterize simultaneously the polyphenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic rooibos extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-TOF-MS) and ion trap multiple mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-IT-MS(2)). The phenolic compounds were separated on a C(18) column (4.6?×?150 mm, 1.8 ?m) with 1% formic acid in water/acetonitrile 90:10 v/v and acetonitrile as mobile phases. The accuracy mass data generated by TOF-MS together with the fragmentation pattern obtained by IT-MS(2) experiments confirmed the presence of 25 and 30 phenolic compounds in the aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. PMID:21509483

  12. Rapid Antidepressant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Is Associated with Upregulation of BDNF Expression in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailou; Xue, Wenda; Wu, Runjie; Gong, Tong; Tao, Weiwei; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Nan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Chang; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol extract of Yueju pill, a Traditional Chinese Medicine herbal formula widely used to treat mood disorders, demonstrates rapid antidepressant effects similar to ketamine, likely via instant enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. Here we investigated ethanol extracts of the constituent herbs of Yueju responsible for rapid antidepressant effects. Screening with tail suspension test in Kunming mice at 24 hours after a single administration of five individual constituent herbs of Yueju, we found that only Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJ) showed a significant effect. The antidepressant response started at 2 hours after GJ administration. Similar to Yueju and ketamine, a single administration of GJ significantly reduced the number of escape failures in the learned helplessness test. Furthermore, GJ decreased latency of food consumption in the novelty suppressed-feeding test. Additionally, starting from 2 hours and continuing for over 20 hours after GJ administration, BDNF expression in the hippocampus was upregulated, temporally linked with the antidepressant response. These findings suggest that GJ has rapid antidepressant effects, which are associated with the elevated expression of BDNF in the hippocampus. In Yueju formula, Yue represents GJ, as thus our study demonstrates the primary role of GJ in rapid antidepressant efficacy of Yueju. PMID:25878718

  13. Rapid Antidepressant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Is Associated with Upregulation of BDNF Expression in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hailou; Xue, Wenda; Wu, Runjie; Gong, Tong; Tao, Weiwei; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Jingjing; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Nan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Chang; Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol extract of Yueju pill, a Traditional Chinese Medicine herbal formula widely used to treat mood disorders, demonstrates rapid antidepressant effects similar to ketamine, likely via instant enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. Here we investigated ethanol extracts of the constituent herbs of Yueju responsible for rapid antidepressant effects. Screening with tail suspension test in Kunming mice at 24 hours after a single administration of five individual constituent herbs of Yueju, we found that only Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJ) showed a significant effect. The antidepressant response started at 2 hours after GJ administration. Similar to Yueju and ketamine, a single administration of GJ significantly reduced the number of escape failures in the learned helplessness test. Furthermore, GJ decreased latency of food consumption in the novelty suppressed-feeding test. Additionally, starting from 2 hours and continuing for over 20 hours after GJ administration, BDNF expression in the hippocampus was upregulated, temporally linked with the antidepressant response. These findings suggest that GJ has rapid antidepressant effects, which are associated with the elevated expression of BDNF in the hippocampus. In Yueju formula, Yue represents GJ, as thus our study demonstrates the primary role of GJ in rapid antidepressant efficacy of Yueju. PMID:25878718

  14. Preparation of the Branch Bark Ethanol Extract in Mulberry Morus alba, Its Antioxidation, and Antihyperglycemic Activity In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Fang, Meng; Ma, Yong-Lei

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of the branch bark ethanol extract (BBEE) in the mulberry Morus alba L. were investigated. The determination of active component showed that the flavonoids, phenols, and saccharides are the major components of the ethanol extract. The BBEE had a good scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with around 100??g/mL of IC50 value. In vitro assay revealed that the BBEE strongly inhibited both ?-glucosidase and sucrase activities whose IC50 values were 8.0 and 0.24??g/mL, respectively. The kinetic analysis showed that the BBEE as a kind of ?-glucosidase inhibitor characterized a competitive inhibition activity. Furthermore, the carbohydrate tolerance of the normal mice was obviously enhanced at 0.5?h (P < 0.05) and 1.0?h (P < 0.05) after the BBEE intragastric administration as compared to negative control. At 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0?h after the intragastric administration with starch, the postprandial hyperglycemia of the type 2 diabetic mice can be significantly decreased (P < 0.01) by supplying various concentrations of the BBEE (10–40?mg/kg body weight). Therefore, the BBEE could effectively inhibit the postprandial hyperglycemia as a novel ?-glucosidase activity inhibitor for the diabetic therapy. PMID:24587809

  15. Comparisons of ethanol extracts of chinese propolis (poplar type) and poplar gums based on the antioxidant activities and molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianglin; Cao, Xueping; Ping, Shun; Wang, Kai; Shi, Jinhu; Zhang, Cuiping; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang

    2015-01-01

    The biological activities of propolis are varied from plant sources and the prominent antioxidant effects of Chinese propolis (poplar type) have been extensively reported. Oxidative stress is associated with inflammation and induces many diseases. In the study, to evaluate antioxidant capacities and clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of ethanol extracts of Chinese propolis (EECP) and ethanol extracts of poplar gums (EEPG), we analyzed their compositions by HPLC, evaluating their free radical scavenging activities and reducing power by chemical analysis methods. Moreover, we studied the roles of EECP and EEPG on the elimination of ROS and expressions of antioxidant genes (HO-1, TrxR1, GCLM, and GCLC) in RAW264.7 cells. We further investigated the effects of MAPKs on the antioxidant genes expression by specific inhibitors. The nucleus translocation effects of Nrf2 were also measured by confocal microscopy analysis. The results indicated that EECP had higher TPC and FDC values but regarding TFC values were not significant. EECP also possessed more contents of 11 compounds than EEPG. Both phytochemical analysis and cell experiment reflected that EECP exerted stronger antioxidant activities than EEPG. EECP and EEPG enhanced endogenous antioxidant defenses by eliminating reactive oxygen species directly and activating Erk-Nrf2-HO1, GCLM, and TrxR1 signal pathways. PMID:25802536

  16. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Körpe, Didem Aksoy; ??er?, Özlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) > Ud-SMetOH (11/16) > Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024 ?g/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32 ?g/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC = 256 and 1024 ?g/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC = 512 and 1024 ?g/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance. PMID:23067263

  17. [Survey of synthetic disinfectants in grapefruit seed extract and its compounded products].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Ken-Ichi

    2008-02-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MCAF.), is listed as a natural food additive in Japan. Products containing GSE are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after Japanese researchers found that GSE prevents the growth of norovirus. On the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial GSE products. To confirm the quality of commercial GSE products available in Japanese markets, we carried out comprehensive research to identify the major constituents of commercial GSE products which are used as food additives (13 products from 6 manufacturers), dietary supplements (5 products from 4 manufacturers), cosmetic materials (16 products from 10 manufacturers) and disinfectant or deodorant sprays (7 products from 7 manufacturers). By means of NMR and LC/MS analysis, synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium salts were detected in most of the commercial GSE products. PMID:18344660

  18. Antitumor activity of methanolic extract of Cassia fistula L. seed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Rath, N; Mukhopadhyay, D K

    2000-09-01

    Effects of methanolic extract (ME) of Cassia fistula seed on the growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and on the life span of tumor bearing mice were studied. ME treatment showed an increase of life span, and a decrease in the tumor volume and viable tumor cell count in the EAC tumor hosts. Cytological studies have revealed a reduction in the mitotic activity, and the appearance of membrane blebbing and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in the treated tumor cells. Improvement in the hematological parameters following ME treatment, like hemoglobin content, red blood cell count and bone marrow cell count of the tumor bearing mice have also been observed. The results of the present study suggest that ME of C. fistula seed has an antitumor activity. PMID:10967466

  19. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identification of proanthocyanidins in rat plasma after oral administration of grape seed extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeevan K. Prasain; Ning Peng; Yanying Dai; Ray Moore; Alireza Arabshahi; Landon Wilson; Stephen Barnes; J. Michael Wyss; Helen Kim; Ray L. Watts

    2009-01-01

    Proanthocyanidin rich plant extracts derived from grape seed extract (GSE), hawthorn and cranberry are on markets for their preventive effects against cardiovascular diseases and uroinfections in woman. However, the importance of these health beneficial effects of these botanicals remains elusive due to incomplete understanding of uptake, metabolism and bioavailability of proanthocyanidins in vivo. In the present study rats were given

  20. Bioefficacy assessment of Melia azedarach (L.) seed extract on tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somnath Roy; Ananda Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous seed extract of Melia azedarach (L.) was evaluated against tea red spider mite, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner), in relation to mortality of adult mites, viability of eggs and subsequent adult emergence and oviposition deterrence in the laboratory, and the extract underwent field evaluation in terms of per cent reduction of the mite population. Direct spray methods were used in the

  1. Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of local olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Dub, Abdallah M; Dugani, Aisha M

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thromboembolic diseases is increasing, and they are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mediterranean diet is known for its high content of olive products, especially olive oil, which has known cardiovascular health benefits, including those on blood pressure, cholesterol level, and thrombogenesis. All previous animal and clinical studies investigating the beneficial antithrombotic effects of olives have focused on olive oil and a few on olive leaves (OLEs). In this study, the ethanolic extract of OLE was evaluated for its antithrombotic activity in the rabbit model of thrombosis induced by ligature of the vena cava and intravenous administration of tissue thromboplastin. Pre-treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg per day of the ethanolic extract for 8 weeks significantly prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) in comparison to the control group (12.10 ± 0.35 sec and 14.38 ± 0.29 sec vs. 10.8 ± 0.32 sec, p < 0.05 and 0.001, respectively). In comparison to the control group, the same doses had no statistically significant effect on thrombus weight (16.85 ± 0.67 mg, 16.32 ± 0.35 mg, and 17.81 ± 0.75 mg; p = 0.18 and 0.06) or on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (19.17 ± 0.33 sec, 19.12 ± 0.73 sec, and 18.97 ± 0.41 sec; p = 0.36 and 0.43, respectively). One important finding in this study concerns thrombus morphology. In the extract treatment groups, the thrombus was filament-like and did not adhere to blood vessel walls, whereas in the control group the thrombus was thick and almost completely occluded the vein. Therefore, these results suggest that OLE ethanolic extract can modify the extrinsic coagulation pathway as evidenced by the prolongation of PT and changes in thrombus morphology, enough to justify further research to evaluate its possible antithrombotic effects. PMID:23702352

  2. Aqueous and Ethanolic Valeriana officinalis Extracts Change the Binding of Ligands to Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Cordero-Hernández, José M; González-Medina, Giselle; Ramos-Vélez, Igmeris; Berríos-Cartagena, Nairimer; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Ortíz, José G

    2011-01-01

    The effects of two valerian extracts (aqueous and hydroalcoholic) were investigated through [(3)H]Glutamate ([(3)H]Glu) and [(3)H]Fluorowillardine ([(3)H]FW) receptor binding assays using rat synaptic membranes in presence of different receptor ligands. In addition, the extract stability was monitored spectrophotometrically. Both extracts demonstrated interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). However, the extracts displayed considerable differences in receptor selectivity. The hydroalcoholic extract selectively interacted with quisqualic acid (QA), group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) ligand, while the aqueous extract did not alter the binding of QA. The stability of the extracts was examined during several weeks. Freshly prepared extract inhibited 38-60% of [(3)H]FW binding (AMPA). After 10 days, the aqueous extract inhibited 85% of [(3)H]FW binding while the hydroalcoholic extract markedly potentiated (200%) [(3)H]FW binding to AMPA receptors. Thus, our results showed that factors such as extraction solvent and extract stability determine the selectivity for glutamate receptor (GluR) interactions. PMID:21151614

  3. In Vitro Remineralization Effects of Grape Seed Extract on Artificial Root Caries

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qian; Bedran-Russo, Ana Karina; Wu, Christine D.

    2008-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) contains Proanthocyanidin (PA), which has been reported to strengthen collagen-based tissues by increasing collagen cross-links. We used an in vitro pH-cycling model to evaluate the effect of GSE on the remineralization of artificial root caries. Sound human teeth fragments obtained from the cervical portion of the root were stored in a demineralization solution for 96 hr at 37°C to induce artificial root caries lesions. The fragments were then divided into three treatment groups including: 6.5% GSE, 1,000 ppm fluoride (NaF), and a control (no treatment). The demineralized samples were pH-cycled through treatment solutions, acidic buffer and neutral buffer for 8 days at 6 cycles per day. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a microhardness tester; polarized light microscopy (PLM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher’s tests (p<0.05). GSE and fluoride significantly increased the microhardness of the lesions (p<0.05) when compared to a control group. PLM data revealed a significantly thicker mineral precipitation band on the surface layer of the GSE treated lesions when compared to the other groups (p>0.05), which was confirmed by CLSM. We concluded that grape seed extract positively affects the demineralization and/or remineralization processes of artificial root caries lesions, most likely through a different mechanism than that of Fluoride. Grape seed extract may be a promising natural agent for non-invasive root caries therapy. PMID:18819742

  4. Grape seed extract as antioxidant in cooked, cold stored turkey meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Mielnik; E. Olsen; G. Vogt; D. Adeline; G. Skrede

    2006-01-01

    Efficiency of four concentrations of grape seed extract (0.0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6g\\/kg) in retarding oxidative rancidity was tested with cooked turkey breast meat. Development in lipid oxidation during 13 days of refrigerated storage was evaluated by means of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile compound formation. Hexanal, pentanal, octanal, 2-octenal, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-octen-1-ol, and 1-penten-3-ol showed high correlations (r>0.95) with

  5. Preparative isolation of procyanidins from grape seed extracts by high-speed counter-current chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Köhler; V. Wray; P. Winterhalter

    2008-01-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) has been applied to the separation of grape seed procyanidins. The isolation of dimeric to tetrameric procyanidins is achieved after removing the polymeric compounds by solvent precipitation. An additional clean-up by solid-phase extraction on polyamide improved the purities of the isolated compounds. The solvent systems ethyl acetate\\/2-propanol\\/water (40:1:40, v\\/v\\/v), ethyl acetate\\/2-propanol\\/water (20:1:20, v\\/v\\/v), and ethyl acetate\\/1-butanol\\/water

  6. Antimicrobial activities of various fractions of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. Fen Ke) seed extract.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Huang-Chung; Wu, Wan-Ting; Huang, Ho-Shin; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2014-08-01

    The antimicrobial activities of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. Fen ke) seed extracts were investigated using a disc diffusion method and also determining the minimal inhibitory concentration. The DL-P01-SI01 fraction showed that the strongest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus at MIC 64??g/mL, which was found to be due to the phenolic compounds. The HPLC analysis showed that the major phenolic compounds are gallic acid, corilagin, ethyl gallate and ellagic acid. PMID:24533783

  7. Adverse effects by artificial grapefruit seed extract products in patients on warfarin therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Brandin; Olle Myrberg; Torgny Rundlöf; Ann-Kristin Arvidsson; Gunilla Brenning

    2007-01-01

    Objective  Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a natural product with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The aim of this\\u000a study was to investigate the composition of some commercially available GSE products and evaluate their effect in vitro on\\u000a two cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A couple on lifelong treatment with warfarin and continuous regular follow-ups took some drops of

  8. Ethanolic extract of Rubia peregrina L. (Rubiaceae) inhibits haloperidol-induced catalepsy and reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Maxia, Andrea; Frau, Maria Assunta; Foddis, Caterina; Lancioni, Maria Cristina; Kasture, Veena; Kasture, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    In the traditional Sardinian system of medicine, Rubia peregrina L. (Rubiaceae) is reported as an aphrodisiac herb. Since the aphrodisiacs may also have antioxidant and dopaminergic activities, the aim of this study was to study the effect of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of R. peregrina for the scavenging of free DPPH radicals and the inhibition of haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice and reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats. The extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity in a free radical DPPH assay with IC(50)?=?55.6?µg?mL(-1), which was very close to IC(50) of ascorbic acid. The extract of R. peregrina (100 and 200?mg?kg(-1) intraperitoneally, i.p.) significantly inhibited haloperidol (1?mg?kg(-1) i.p.) - induced catalepsy in mice (p?extract (200?mg?kg(-1) i.p.) significantly (p?

  9. The Antidepressant-like Effect of Ethanol Extract of Daylily Flowers ( J?n Zh?n Hu?) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Hang; Chang, Hui-Chi; Chen, Pei-Ju; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Su, Kuan-Pin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2013-01-01

    According to the prediction of the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) report, depression will be the highest burden disease by the year 2030. Daylily flower ( J?n Zh?n Hu? ; the flower of Hemerocallis fulva) is traditionally used for soothing in Chinese dietary therapy. The major flavonoid of daylily flowers, rutin, is also characterized to be an antidepressant. In this study, we investigated the antidepressant effects of ethanol extract of daylily flowers (DFEtoH) and rutin by forced swimming test (FST) and neurotransmitter metabolism of brain regions (frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and amygdala). Results show that either short- or long-term tests, the extract and rutin significantly reduce the immobility time and increased swimming time of FST, which are compared with the vehicle (P < 0.05). The extract and rutin also increase the serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine concentration of these brain regions (P < 0.05). In long-term tests, the daylily flowers extract markedly increased serotonin concentration and reduced serotonin turnover rate in these brain regions but not frontal cortex. In conclusion, present data illustrated that DFEtoH does have antidepressant-like effects possibly via the regulation of serotonergic system. Moreover, rutin might be playing a very important role in the antidepressant-like effects of DFEtoH. PMID:24716156

  10. The Antidepressant-like Effect of Ethanol Extract of Daylily Flowers (??? J?n Zh?n Hu?) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Hang; Chang, Hui-Chi; Chen, Pei-Ju; Hsieh, Ching-Liang; Su, Kuan-Pin; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2013-01-01

    According to the prediction of the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) report, depression will be the highest burden disease by the year 2030. Daylily flower (??? J?n Zh?n Hu? ; the flower of Hemerocallis fulva) is traditionally used for soothing in Chinese dietary therapy. The major flavonoid of daylily flowers, rutin, is also characterized to be an antidepressant. In this study, we investigated the antidepressant effects of ethanol extract of daylily flowers (DFEtoH) and rutin by forced swimming test (FST) and neurotransmitter metabolism of brain regions (frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and amygdala). Results show that either short- or long-term tests, the extract and rutin significantly reduce the immobility time and increased swimming time of FST, which are compared with the vehicle (P < 0.05). The extract and rutin also increase the serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine concentration of these brain regions (P < 0.05). In long-term tests, the daylily flowers extract markedly increased serotonin concentration and reduced serotonin turnover rate in these brain regions but not frontal cortex. In conclusion, present data illustrated that DFEtoH does have antidepressant-like effects possibly via the regulation of serotonergic system. Moreover, rutin might be playing a very important role in the antidepressant-like effects of DFEtoH. PMID:24716156

  11. In Vitro effect of the ethanolic extract of Tephrosia Vogelii on Rhipicephalus Sanguineus in Abomey-Calavi

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Dougnon Tossou; Safiou, Adéhan; Jédirfort, Houessionon; Souaďbou, Farougou

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Ticks are vectors of several diseases, of which many are zoonosis transmissible to humans. The use of Tephrosia leafs’ extract as a low cost acaricide is spreading among farmers in central Kenya. Materials and Methods: The present study’s aim is to inventory endogenous control methods against dogs’ ticks among which Rhipicephalus sanguineus, in the Municipality of Abomey-Calavi. From September to October 2013, a survey was made on forty randomly selected breeders and ticks samples were collected on forty dogs. The web platform, www.epicollect.net, was used for the survey. In total, 77.5% (n=40) of examined dogs were infested with ticks Results: Three species of ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leachi, and Amblyomma variegatum. They were found on 77.5%, 17.5%, and 15% of examined dogs, respectively. The numerical abundance of the three species was 87.06%, 11.9%, and 1.03%, respectively. The average number of ticks per animal was 16.83±5.04, 2.3±1.64, and 0.2±0.08 for Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Haemaphysalis leachi, and Amblyomma variegatum, respectively. Farmers used manual diptank (67.5%), plant ash (37.5%), petroleum (12.5%), motor oil (2.50 %), and sea water (7.5%) to fight against ticks. Conclusion: The phytochemical screening of the leafy stem’s powder of Tephrosia vogelii revealed the presence of catechol tannins, saponins, sugars, leuco-anthocyanins, polyterpenes, and sterols. A 100% larval mortality was observed at the concentration of 20% the ethanolic extract of the leafy stem of Tephrosia vogelii. The LC50 of this ethanolic extract against Rhipicephalus sanguineus larvae was equal to 2.6%.

  12. Free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative activities of an ethanol-soluble pigment extract prepared from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiang Ping; Fan, Chong; Dong, Wen Min; Gao, Bin; Yuan, Wei; Gong, Jia Shun

    2013-09-01

    An ethanol-soluble pigment extract was separated from fermented Zijuan Pu-erh tea. The compositions of the ethanol soluble pigment extract were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). The extract was prepared into a series of ethanol solutions and analyzed for free radical-scavenging activities (against two free radicals: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxyl (TEMPO)) and in vitro anti-oxidative properties. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy showed that the peaks of DPPH and TEMPO decreased with increasing extract concentration, suggesting that the extract had excellent free radical-scavenging activities. In vitro cell culture suggested that, at 50-200 mg/L, the extract had no measurable effect on the viability of vascular endothelial cells (ECV340) but produced significant protective effects for cells that underwent oxidative injuries due to hydrogen peroxide (H?O?) treatment. Compared with the H?O? treatment alone cells group, 200 mg/L of the extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cells by 397.3%, and decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of lactate acid dehydrogenase (LDH) by 47.8% and 69.6%, respectively. These results suggest that the extract has excellent free radical scavenging and anti-oxidative properties. PMID:23831194

  13. Protective effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. aerial parts on H2O2-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes by comet assay.

    PubMed

    Behravan, Javad; Mosafa, Fatemeh; Soudmand, Negar; Taghiabadi, Elahe; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2011-09-01

    The comet assay is a standard method for measuring DNA damage. In this study, the protective effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (P. oleracea) on human lymphocyte DNA lesions were evaluated with the comet assay. Lymphocytes were isolated from blood samples taken from healthy volunteers. Human lymphocytes were incubated in H(2)O(2) (50,100, and 200 ?M), aqueous extract (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/ml), and ethanolic extracts (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2.5mg/ml) of P. oleraceae aerial parts alone with a combination of H(2)O(2) (100 ?M) with either 1 or 2.5mg/ml of both extracts at 4°C for 30 minutes. The extent of DNA migration was measured using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis approach assay, and DNA damage was expressed as percentage tail DNA. We found that the aqueous extract of P. oleracea significantly inhibited DNA damage, while there was no effect of the ethanolic extract. These data suggest that the aqueous extract of P. oleracea can prevent oxidative DNA damage to human lymphocytes, which is likely due to antioxidant constituents in the extract. PMID:21981871

  14. Rapid method for the determination of 16 organochlorine pesticides in sesame seeds by microwave-assisted extraction and analysis of extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Emmanouil N; Vryzas, Zisis; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2006-09-15

    A method for the multiresidue analysis of 16 organochlorine insecticides in sesame seeds has been developed. The method is based on the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of the sesame seeds by the use of a water-acetonitrile mixture followed by Florisil clean-up of the extracts and subsequent analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. MAE operational parameters (extraction solvent, temperature and time, extractant volume) were optimized with respect to extraction efficiency of the target compounds from sesame seeds with 46% oil content. Recoveries >80% with relative standard deviations (RSD) <12% were obtained for all compounds under the selected parameters. The Florisil clean-up step proved sufficient for the removal of co-extracted substances so that no adverse effect on the chromatographic system was observed. Limit of quantification (LOQ) values were in the range of 5-10 microg/kg. The proposed method was applied in the analysis of sesame seed samples imported to Greece. PMID:16797565

  15. Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil) ethanolic leaf extract protects against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and imbalance in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, P; Murugan, R Senthil; Abbas, H; Abraham, S K; Nagini, S

    2007-09-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of ethanolic Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced genotoxicity, oxidative stress, and imbalance in xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Four different concentrations of ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg of body weight) were administered to Wistar rats by intragastric intubation for five consecutive days followed by intraperitoneal injection of DMBA (35 mg/kg of body weight) 90 minutes after the final dose of the extract. Administration of DMBA increased bone marrow micronuclei, phase I enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl formation. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the activities of phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidants in the liver, erythrocytes, and bone marrow. Pretreatment with ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract at a concentration of 300 mg/kg of body weight significantly reduced micronuclei formation and phase I enzymes as well as lipid and protein oxidation with enhanced antioxidant and phase II enzyme activities. The results of the present study suggest that ethanolic O. sanctum leaf extract inhibits DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by modulating xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, reducing the extent of lipid and protein oxidation and up-regulating antioxidant defenses. PMID:17887944

  16. Extraction and characterization of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates from rape seed meal.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Shota; Maruyama, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Yukihiro; Hara, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    While some isothiocyanate (ITCs) are attractive targets for the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries, the presence of goitrin and ITCs has hampered the widespread utilization of rapeseed meal. ITCs are the products of the myrosinase-mediated hydrolysis of glucosinolate (GSLs). As such, a study was conducted in order to gain a better understanding into the identity of the GSLs contained in rapeseed meal. Extraction of the GSLs was carried out with 20% ethanol, affording 3.0% GSL content. The resulting GSL extracts were purified via silica gel column chromatography resulting in the isolation of main three pure GLSs (GSL A, B, and C) and a final GSL content of 39.8%. The indirect-identification of the GSLs in rapeseed meal was also carried out via GC/MS analysis of ITCs. The GSLs, progoitrin and gluconapin, were present in the highest concentration in these extracts. Interestingly, only goitrin was produced when GSL A was the substrate for the defatted rapeseed meal mediated hydrolysis reaction. This indicates GSL A is a progoitrin. Conversely, 3-butenyl ITC was produced only when GSL B was used as substrate, indicating GSL B is gluconapin. These results will be helpful for opening the doors for the use of rapeseed meal in the agricultural or pharmaceutical sectors. PMID:24492379

  17. Ripening stage and extraction method effects on physical properties, polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Kefi, Sarra; Bourgou, Soumaya; Ouerghemmi, Ines; Ksouri, Riadh; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Marzouk, Brahim

    2014-12-01

    The effects of two extraction methods, used at three ripening stages on the total polyphenol contents and the antioxidant activities of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extracts were studied. The ripening stage effect on some physical properties of cumin seed was significant. The increase of dry matter (from 10.3 to 87.5%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that of moisture content (from 89.7 to 12.5%). Besides results showed that the full ripe seeds were richer on polyphenols and condensed tannin than unripe ones, and consequently exhibited higher antioxidant activities. However, the unripe seeds had a higher total flavonoid content compared to those of half ripe and full ripe ones. The comparison of two extraction methods showed that soxhlet extracts contained the greatest amount of polyphenols and flavonoids, while maceration samples exhibited higher antiradical and bleaching power assay. Total phenolic contents and IC50 (concentration required to cause a 50% DPPH inhibition) values in cumin seed during their maturation allowed to conclude that antioxidant activity does not depend only on the high content of total phenolics but also on the phenolic composition. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were successfully identified by HPLC analysis during the ripening of cumin seeds. Rosmarinic acid was the major phenolic acid for the unripe seeds. Furthermore, half ripe and full ripe seeds were dominated by p-coumaric acid. These compounds might be considered as interesting bioactive natural substances that may be used in several fields, such as nutraceuticals, cosmetics and agro-food industry. PMID:25277369

  18. The cytotoxic effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on cultured human cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Ye; R. L. Krohn; W. Liu; S. S. Joshi; C. A. Kuszynski; T. R. McGinn; M. Bagchi; H. G. Preuss; S. J. Stohs; D. Bagchi

    1999-01-01

    Grape seed proanthocyanidins are natural antioxidants which possess a broad spectrum of chemoprotective properties against free radicals and oxidative stress. In this study, we have assessed the cytotoxicity of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, A-427 human lung cancer cells, CRL-1739 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and K562 chronic myelogenous leukemic cells at

  19. Composition and antioxidative activities of supercritical CO 2-extracted oils from seeds and soft parts of northern berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baoru Yang; Markku Ahotupa; Petri Määttä; Heikki Kallio

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the composition and the antioxidative activities of oils from the seeds and the soft parts of a range of northern berries extracted by supercritical CO2. The seed oils of the species of Rubus, Vaccinium, Empetrum, Fragaria and Hippophaë were rich in linoleic (18:2n-6, 34–55% of total fatty acids) and ?-linolenic (18:3n-3, 29–45% of total) acids with

  20. The therapeutic applications of celery oil seed extract on the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Shinnawy, Nashwa A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of two doses, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg, of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and studied the possible therapeutic dose of celery oil seed extract for 6 weeks on some atheroscelerogenic, obesogenic, antioxidant and liver functions in rats. Both doses of DEHP caused over-expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) messenger RNA with significant increase in liver weights, relative liver weights, serum cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein Chol, liver total lipids, along with an increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum endothelin 1 and liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Additionally, DEHP administration to rats resulted in significant decrease in final body weights, serum total protein, albumin, liver total protein and serum total nitric oxide. Our study confirmed the role of oral combination of Apium graveolens (celery) oil seed extract at small cumulative doses (50 µl/kg for 6 weeks) with DEHP in ameliorating the toxicological effects of DEHP, which was revealed in reducing the expression of PPAR?, lipid profile, with restoring liver functions, vascular oxidative stress and inhibition of TBARS activity. PMID:23377116