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Sample records for ethanolic seed extract

  1. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    PubMed

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

  2. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p < 0.001), with about 68.1% and 81% more milk being produced, respectively, than in the control group. The pups gained weight during the study period with the aqueous (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.05) and ethanolic (0.5 and 1 g/kg, p < 0.01) extracts. Thus, P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats. PMID:25151455

  3. Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

    2011-03-15

    This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

  4. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chvez-Quintal, Pedro; Gonzlez-Flores, Tania; Rodrguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintor, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625mgml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10mgml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

  5. Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W.; Bost, G.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

  6. Reproductive toxicity of Momordica charantia ethanol seed extracts in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Ploypattarapinyo, Ravicha; Pongchairerk, Urai; Thong-asa, Wachiryah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Momordica charantia (M. charantia) seed has been supposed to have an antifertility property but mechanisms underlying the infertility effect have not been investigated. Objective: We investigated the antifertility effect of M. charantia ethanol seed extracts on reproductive toxicology and seminal and plasma testosterone in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The control group (I) was provided daily 1 ml dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the experimental groups II and III were given daily 400 and 800 mg dry matter/kg body weight of the extracts dissolved in 1 ml DMSO via the esophageal route. All groups were administered for 42 days (day 42). Changes in body weight, fertility, reproductive characteristics, testicular histopathology and levels of seminal and plasma testosterone among three groups were compared. Results: On day 42, the extracts caused antifertility (p=0.001). The extracts demonstrated significant reductions in diameters of seminiferous tubules and epididymides, spermatid density, daily sperm production and caudal epididymal spermatozoa, sperm motility and viability (p=0.046). Pathological changes in seminiferous tubules revealed atrophy, desquamation, pyknosis nucleus and multinucleated giant cell. Plasma cells were evident in three parts of epididymides of rats treated with high dose of the extract. Furthermore, the high dose of the extract suppressed seminal testosterone level (p=0.001) and plasma testosterone level (p=0.002). Conclusion: Our data showed that high dose of M. Charantia seed extracts caused infertility in male rats. The interruption in their fertility was probably attributed to the direct toxic to seminiferous tubules, epididymis and the lowered testosterone level which might impact on sperm parameters. PMID:25469128

  7. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract prevents ethanol-induced toxicity and apoptosis in Chang liver cells.

    PubMed

    Kaviarasan, Subramanian; Ramamurty, Nalini; Gunasekaran, Palani; Varalakshmi, Elango; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2006-01-01

    The protective effect of a polyphenolic extract of fenugreek seeds (FPEt) against ethanol (EtOH)-induced toxicity was investigated in human Chang liver cells. Cells were incubated with either 30 mM EtOH alone or together in the presence of seed extract for 24 h. Assays were performed in treated cells to evaluate the ability of seeds to prevent the toxic effects of EtOH. EtOH treatment suppressed the growth of Chang liver cells and induced cytotoxicity, oxygen radical formation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration was significantly elevated in EtOH-treated cells as compared with normal cells. Incubation of FPEt along with EtOH significantly increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, caused a reduction in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and normalized GSH/GSSG ratio. The extract dose-dependently reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation. Apoptosis was observed in EtOH-treated cells while FPEt reduced apoptosis by decreasing the accumulation of sub-G1 phase cells. The cytoprotective effects of FPEt were comparable with those of a positive control silymarin, a known hepatoprotective agent. The findings suggest that the polyphenolic compounds of fenugreek seeds can be considered cytoprotective during EtOH-induced liver damage. PMID:16574673

  8. Influence of ethanol concentration on the extraction of color and phenolic compounds from the skin and seeds of Tempranillo grapes at different stages of ripening.

    PubMed

    Canals, R; Llaudy, M C; Valls, J; Canals, J M; Zamora, F

    2005-05-18

    The aim of this paper is to study how grape ripeness and ethanol concentration affect the extraction of color and phenolic compounds from skins and seeds during the maceration/fermentation process. Simulated maceration assays were carried out with the grapes at three stages of berry development (vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo) and different percentages of ethanol in the maceration media. Both ripeness and ethanol content have a considerable effect on the extraction of color and phenolic compounds. Of these two factors, ripeness increases the extractability most. The presence of ethanol in the medium facilitates anthocyanin and especially proanthocyanidin extraction, but it also decreases copigmentation phenomena, which can decrease the color intensity. The higher the ethanol concentration is in the maceration media, the higher the astringency of proanthocyanidins. PMID:15884833

  9. Vitis vinifera (Muscat Variety) Seed Ethanolic Extract Preserves Activity Levels of Enzymes and Histology of the Liver in Adult Male Rats with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Eswar Kumar, Kilari; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2015-01-01

    The effect of V. vinifera seeds on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and other enzymes of the liver in diabetes is currently unknown. We therefore investigated changes in the activity levels of these enzymes following V. vinifera seed extract administration to diabetic rats. Methods. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract (250 and 500?mg/kg/day) or glibenclamide (600??g/kg/day) was administered to streptozotocin-induced male diabetic rats for 28 consecutive days. At the end of treatment, liver was harvested and activity levels of various liver enzymes were determined. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured in liver homogenates and liver histopathological changes were observed. Results. V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract was able to prevent the decrease in ICDH, SDH, MDH, and G-6-PDH and the increase in LDH activity levels in liver homogenates. The seed extract also caused serum levels of ALT, AST, ALP, ACP, GGT, and total bilirubin to decrease while causing total proteins to increase. Additionally, the levels of ALT, AST, and TBARS in liver homogenates were decreased. Histopathological changes in the liver were reduced. Conclusion. Near normal activity levels of various enzymes and histology of the liver following V. vinifera seed ethanolic extract administration may be due to decrease in liver oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:25852767

  10. Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera Peach): Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Pulp, Peel and Seed Ethanolic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Núñez, Oscar; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Tundis, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    A comparative analysis of ethanol extracts from peel, pulp and seed of Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera peach) was done. The total phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid content as well as the antioxidant properties by using different in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, Fe-chelating, β-carotene bleaching test) were evaluated. Pulp extract was subjected to liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were identified as main constituents. Pulp extract was characterized by the highest total phytonutrients content and exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in all in vitro assays (IC(50) values of 2.2 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation by using β-carotene bleaching test and 2.9 μg/mL by using Fe-chelating assay). Overall, the obtained results suggest that P. persica var. platycarpa displays a good antioxidant activity and its consumption could be promoted. PMID:26138775

  11. Effect of coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) ethanol extract on insulin release from pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Eidi, Maryam; Eidi, Akram; Saeidi, Ali; Molanaei, Saadat; Sadeghipour, Alireza; Bahar, Massih; Bahar, Kamal

    2009-03-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is grown as a spice crop all over the world. The seeds have been used to treat indigestion, diabetes, rheumatism and pain in the joints. In the present study, an ethanol extract of the seeds was investigated for effects on insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus before and 1.5, 3 and 5 h after administration of the seed extract. Serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase method. To determine the insulin releasing activity, after extract treatment the animals were anaesthetized by diethyl ether, the pancreas was excised, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin for sectioning. Pancreatic sections of 5 microm were processed for examination of insulin-releasing activity using an immunocytochemistry kit. The results showed that administration of the ethanol extract (200 and 250 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose. Administration of streptozotocin decreased the number of beta cells with insulin secretory activity in comparison with intact rats, but treatment with the coriander seed extract (200 mg/kg) increased significantly the activity of the beta cells in comparison with the diabetic control rats. The extract decreased serum glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and increased insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas. PMID:19003941

  12. Anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract of Bryonia laciniosa seeds and its saponins rich fraction in neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sandip B.; Santani, Devdas; Patel, Veena; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    Context: Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. Aim: This study evaluated the anti-diabetic action of the ethanol extract of B. laciniosa seeds and saponin fraction of it through its effect on hyperglycemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in neonatally streptozotocin (n-STZ)-induced diabetic rats (n-STZ diabetic rats). Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.), saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.) and standard drug glibenclamide (3 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats when the rats were 6 weeks old and continued for 10 consecutive weeks. Effects of ethanol extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Results: The treatment with ethanol extract and saponin fraction for 10 weeks decrease in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, serum urea, serum creatinine and diminished activities of aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. The anti-hyperglycemic nature of B. laciniosa is probably brought about by the extra- the pancreatic mechanism as evidenced from unchanged levels of plasma insulin. B. laciniosa modulated effect of diabetes on the liver malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity. Administration of ethanol extract and saponin fraction to diabetic rats showed a significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status. Significant increase in SOD, CAT, and levels of GSH was observed in treated n-STZ diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of n-STZ diabetic rats. PMID:25598641

  13. EXTRACTION OF LIPID COMPONENTS FROM HIBISCUS SEEDS BY SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE AND ETHANOL MIXTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extr...

  14. Antidepressant effect and categorization of inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase type A and B of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Raheela; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Ahmed, Maryam; Kamil, Arfa

    2014-09-01

    Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn (Fabaceae) is an annual aromatic herb and no wit is cultivated globally like in Pakistan, Egypt, India, Middle East etc. Traditionally it was used in anorexia, as febrifuge, to soothe gastritis and gastric ulcers, as a galactagogue and as condiment, hypoglycemic agent and employed in various as nervous disorders. The study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum and underlying mechanism of action. For assessment of antidepressant activity Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), Monoamine (MAO) Assay and Locomotor Activity Test were studied. Acute toxicity, Rota Rod and Grip Strength Tests were also performed. The significant declining in immobility time as compared to control was shown in Forced swimming test as compared to tail suspension test. Considerable change was not found in open field test (OFT). EtOH extract of seeds of fenugreek represent maximum significant reduction which was 30 and 24.65% in MAO- A and B activity respectively in the rat's whole brain as compared to control animals in Monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay. All tested doses were found ineffective in impairment of muscle coordination in Rota rod and in grip strength related to muscle relaxant property. According to experimental findings it is revealed that ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum showed antidepressant effect by inhibiting the activity of MAO-A and B. PMID:25176235

  15. Grape Seed Extract

    MedlinePLUS

    ... References Common Name: grape seed extract Latin Name: Vitis vinifera Introduction This fact sheet provides basic information about ... naturaldatabase.com on June 25, 2009. Grape seed ( Vitis vinifera, Vitis coignetiae ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed ...

  16. Anticancer Potential of Aqueous Ethanol Seed Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Cancer Cell Lines and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Tulika; Khullar, Madhu; Bhatia, Aruna

    2011-01-01

    Ziziphus mauritiana (Lamk.) is a fruit tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases. In the present study, anticancer potential of seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana in vitro against different cell lines (HL-60, Molt-4, HeLa, and normal cell line HGF) by MTT assay as well as in vivo against Ehrich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice was investigated. The extract was found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells. Annexin and PI binding of treated HL-60 cells indicated apoptosis induction by extract in a dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis revealed a prominent increase in sub Go population at concentration of 20??g/ml and above. Agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells after 3 h incubation with extract. The extract also exhibited potent anticancer potential in vivo. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice with varied doses (100800?mg/kg b.wt.) of plant extract significantly reduced tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and improved haemoglobin content, RBC count, mean survival time, tumor inhibition, and percentage life span. The enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals was evident from decline in levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. PMID:20953391

  17. Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wenli; Li, Xiaona; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS? radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants. PMID:21788927

  18. Protective effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds in experimental ethanol toxicity.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukkarasu, V; Anuradha, C V; Viswanathan, P

    2003-08-01

    The study investigates the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in experimental ethanol toxicity in rats. The ability of the seed extract to prevent iron-induced lipid peroxidation in vitro was also investigated. Ethanol feeding for 60 days resulted in significant increases in the activities of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The levels of serum lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver and brain were also significantly elevated. Significantly lower activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase were observed in liver and brain accompanied by depletion in glutathione, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Activity of Ca(2+) ATPase in brain was significantly lowered. Simultaneous administration of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds with ethanol prevented the enzymatic leakage and the rise in lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant potential. The seeds exhibited appreciable antioxidant property in vitro which was comparable with that of reduced glutathione and alpha-tocopherol. Further, histopathological examination of liver and brain revealed that, aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds could offer a significant protection against ethanol toxicity. PMID:12916070

  19. Assessment of an ethanolic seed extract of Picralima nitida ([Stapf] Th. and H. Durand) on reproductive hormones and its safety for use

    PubMed Central

    Otoo, Lydia Francisca; Koffuor, George Asumeng; Ansah, Charles; Mensah, Kwesi Boadu; Benneh, Charles; Ben, Inemesit Okon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Picralima nitida seed extract (PNE) has aphrodisiac and contraceptive effect. Aim: To investigate the effect of PNE on reproductive hormones. Materials and Methods: The size and length of the combs of white leghorn day-old chicks treated with testosterone (0.5-1.5 mg/kg), cyproterone (3-30 mg/kg), or PNE (50-500 mg/kg) for 7 days, as well as cyproterone (10, and 30 mg/kg) on PNE-induced, and PNE (50-500 mg/kg) on testosterone-induced comb growth, were measured in the chick comb test. The effect of PNE the percentage change in an oviduct-chick weight ratio of Rhode Island Red layer day-old chicks treated with 17-β-estradiol (0.1-0.9 µg), PNE (30-300 mg/kg) or vehicle, for 6 days, was determined in the chick uterotrophic assay. Liver and kidney function was well lipid, and hematological profile tests were conducted to assess safety. Results: 7-day treatment with PNE and testosterone increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01-0.001) while cyproterone significantly decreased (P ≤ 0.001) comb growth dose-dependently. Qualitatively, testosterone and PNE treatment resulted in relatively brighter red combs. Cyproterone caused significant inhibition (P ≤ 0.001) of both testosterone and PNE-induced comb growth. Co-administration of testosterone and PNE suppressed comb growth significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Administration of 17-β estradiol and PNE increased (P ≤ 0.001) oviduct-chick weight ratio dose-dependently. No significant changes were observed in assessing liver and kidney function, lipid profile, and hematological parameters. Conclusion: PNE exhibits both androgenic (partial testosterone agonist) and estrogenic activity. It has no detrimental effects on the blood, liver, and kidney tissue with prolonged use. PMID:26649234

  20. Extraction and Analysis of Tomato Seed Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato seeds represent a very large waste by-product from the processing of tomatoes into products such as tomato juice, sauce and paste. One potential use for these seeds is as a source of vegetable oil. This research investigated the oil content of tomato seeds using several extraction technique...

  1. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    PubMed

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

  2. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  3. Chemically treated seed grain as an ethanol feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Egg, R.P.; Chiang, T.; Coble, C.G.; Mitchel, R.D.; O'Neal, H.P.

    1983-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three commonly used seed treatment chemicals: captan, heptachlor, and methoxychlor on methanol production from grain sorghum. Results indicated that none of these chemicals significantly affected ethanol yield. Captan was completely destroyed in the process. Heptachlor and methoxychlor carried over into the stillage wet solids at levels that could result in disposal problems.

  4. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Simone N M; Salazar, Marcela M; Pereira, Gonalo A G; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2-6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4-8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.Additional steps of extraction with 5M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol. PMID:26150956

  5. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Simone N.M.; Salazar, Marcela M.; Pereira, Gonalo A.G.; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [26]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [48]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.Additional steps of extraction with 5M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol. PMID:26150956

  6. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichlo coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 52 61 cm (WLD) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  7. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F; Klotz, J; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichlo coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 52 61 cm (W L D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  8. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  9. Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by ethanolic mango seed extract in cultured estrogen receptor positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 μg/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX), p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9) in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione) as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent. PMID:25664859

  10. Antifungal Effect of Brachyglottis repanda Ethanol Extract

    PubMed Central

    Yook, Chan Nam; Na, Young Soon; Choi, Hwa Jung; You, Il Soo; Baek, Jong Min

    2010-01-01

    The crude ethanol extract of B. repanda showed the cytotoxic activity against Polio virus (25% activity at 150 μg/disk) and the minor cytotoxic activity against BSC cells (African green monkey kidney) . However, the crude ethanol extract of B. repanda was non-toxic to murine leukaemia cells CCL 46 P388D1 (IC50, > 62,500 ng/ml) . Cytotoxic and antifungal activities were strongly shown by Fr. 64-3 which was eluted with 90% CH3CN/H2O, 100% CH3CN, and 50% CH3CN/H2O (SM 2 at 150 μg/disk) . The fraction 64-3 also showed the most cytotoxic activity against murine leukaemia cells (128 mg, IC50 10,051 ng/ml at 75 μg/disk) . These results suggest that this fraction has a potent antifungal activity against the dermatophytic fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes ATCC 28185. PMID:24278514

  11. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activity and functional components of the ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) from various growing regions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The variations in antioxidant activity and concentration of functional components in the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes based on the growing region and dryness were investigated. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and concentration of several specific flavonoids and alkaloids in the ethanol extracts of lotus were measured. Antioxidant activity and its correlative total phenolic content varied characteristically depending on the growing region and dryness. High-perfomance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds from Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City), raw rhizomes from Korea (Siheung), and dried rhizomes from Japan (Nigata) had the greatest specific flavonoid content. The ethanol extracts of seeds from China (Hubei), raw rhizomes from Japan (Nigata), and dried rhizomes from Korea (Siheung) had the greatest specific alkaloid content. Astragaline, rutin, isoquercetin, nuciferine, dauricine, isoliensinine, and neferine were identified in lotus rhizomes for the first time in this study. PMID:24932940

  12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of lupin seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Lampart-Szczapa, Eleonora; Siger, Aleksander; Trojanowska, Krystyna; Nogala-Kalucka, Ma?gorzata; Malecka, Maria; Pacholek, Bogdan

    2003-10-01

    Determination of influence of lupin natural phenolic compounds on antibacterial properties of its seeds was carried out. Raw material were seeds of Lupinus albus, L. luteus, and L. angustifolius. The methods included the determination of the content of proteins, total phenolic compounds, free phenolic acids, and tannins as well as antibacterial properties with ethanol extracts. The content of total phenolic compounds was smaller in testas than in cotyledons and the highest levels are observed in bitter cultivars of Lupinus albus cv. Bac and L. angustifolius cv. Mirela. Lupin tannins mainly occurred in cotyledons of the white lupin, predominantly in the bitter cultivar Bac. Free phenolic acids were mainly found in testas. Only extracts from the testas displayed antibacterial properties, which excludes the possibility of alkaloid influence on the results. The results suggest that inhibition of test bacteria growth depended mainly upon the content of the total phenolic compounds. PMID:14609081

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Shadi

    2015-02-01

    Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

  14. Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

    2010-04-01

    In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs. PMID:19904502

  15. A NEW METHOD OF SEPARATING ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of ethanol from corn has created a surplus of zein-rich byproducts, distillers' dried grains and corn gluten, which are increasingly difficult to sell but which must be sold to make ethanol plants viable. We have shown that zein extraction and sales can significantly reduce the overall co...

  16. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  17. Continuous ethanol production by immobilized yeast cells and ethanol recovery by liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sola, C.; Casas, C.; Godia, F.; Poch, M.; Serra, A.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    Contributions on ethanol fermentation by immobilized yeast cells and ethanol-water separation by liquid-liquid extraction are presented. The characterization of a packed-bed fermentor with yeast immobilized in carrageenan gel beads as well as its main operational features are reported, giving special emphasis to cell growth inside the beads during continuous fermentation experiments. A new separation process for dilute ethanol-water mixtures based on a solvent extraction step is proposed. The process development and solvent selection have been carried out. Although the first results are promising, the energy costs of the process are still too high.

  18. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from grape (Vitis vinifera) seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Kashif; Choi, Yong Hee; Jeon, Ju Yeong; Jo, In Hee

    2009-06-10

    Important functional components from Campbell Early grape seed were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technology. The experiments were carried out according to a five level, three variable central composite rotatable design (CCRD). The best possible combinations of ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, and extraction time with the application of ultrasound were obtained for the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanins from grape seed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables had significant effect on the extraction of functional components with extraction time being highly significant for the extraction of phenolics and antioxidants. The optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from grape seed include 53.15% ethanol, 56.03 degrees C temperature, and 29.03 min time for the maximum total phenolic compounds (5.44 mg GAE/100 mL); 53.06% ethanol, 60.65 degrees C temperature, and 30.58 min time for the maximum antioxidant activity (12.31 mg/mL); and 52.35% ethanol, 55.13 degrees C temperature, and 29.49 min time for the maximum total anthocyanins (2.28 mg/mL). Under the above-mentioned conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 5.41 mg GAE/100 mL, antioxidant activity was 12.28 mg/mL, and total anthocyanins were 2.29 mg/mL of the grape seed extract, which is well matched with the predicted values. PMID:19405527

  19. Extraction optimization and nanoencapsulation of jujube pulp and seed for enhancing antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Hye Jung; Lee, Ji-Soo; Park, Sun-Ah; Ahn, Jun-Bae; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize extraction conditions for jujube pulp and seed in order to obtain maximum active ingredient yield and antioxidant activity, as well as to prepare chitosan nanoparticles loaded with jujube pulp and seed extracts for enhancing stability. The extraction conditions, i.e. temperature, time, and ethanol concentration, were optimized at the following respective values: 61.2 C, 38 h, and 60.4% for pulp, and 58 C, 34 h, and 59.2% for seed. The jujube nanoparticle size significantly increased with a higher chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate ratio and extract concentration. Entrapment efficiency was greater than 80% regardless of preparation conditions. The stabilities of jujube pulp and seed extract in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were effectively enhanced by nanoencapsulation. In conclusion, jujube pulp and seed extracts prepared using optimal conditions could be useful as a natural functional food ingredient with antioxidant activity, and nanoencapsulation can be used to improve the stability of jujube extract. Therefore, these results could be used to promote the utilization of not only jujube pulp but also seed, by product. PMID:25911157

  20. Antiangiogenesis and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of Pithecellobium jiringa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis plays a critical role in embryonic development and various physiological processes. However, excessive angiogenesis is associated with several pathological conditions including cancer. Pithecellobium jiringa (Jack) Prain is a traditional medicinal plant from the family Leguminosae. It is native to the Southeast Asia, where it has been used traditionally for treatment of various ailments such as hypertension and diabetes. The present work is aimed to study antioxidant and antiangiogenesis activities of P. jiringa ethanol extracts. Methods P. jiringa fruit rinds were extracted with ethanol and 50% ethanol. The antioxidant property was analysed using, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical analysis was performed using thin layer chromatography and colorimetric methods. Then, cell growth inhibition was studied against a panel of human cell lines by MTT test. In vitro inhibition of angiogenesis was studied by the following assays: isolated rat aortic rings cell viability, colony formation, endothelial cell migration, endothelial tube formation on matrigel, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by endothelial cells. In vivo antiangiogenesis effect was studied by utilising fertilised chick embryos assay. The results were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. Results Ethanolic and 50% hydro-ethanolic extracts showed relatively high concentration of total phenolics associated with potent antioxidant activity. The rat aortic rings study conducted showed potent inhibition of the microvessels outgrowth with IC50s 5.27 0.81 ?g/ml (ethanolic) and 4.45 0.63 ?g/ml (50% hydro-ethanolic). Both extracts arrested the growth of human endothelial cells via down-regulation of VEGF expression, leading to inhibition of other angiogenesis cascades including migration of endothelial cells, and formation of capillary network on matrigel matrix. The extracts also inhibited the neovascularisation of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. Conclusions P. jiringa extracts inhibit angiogenesis by blocking the VEGF expression thus inhibiting endothelial cells proliferation, migration and differentiation most likely due to presence of the antioxidant phenolics. PMID:23126282

  1. Extraction of ethanol from aqueous solution. 2. A solvent more volatile than ethanol: Dichloromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz, F.; Gomis, V.; Botella, R.F.

    1988-04-01

    Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system water-ethanol-dichloromethane have been determined experimentally at 25/sup 0/C and correlated simultaneously with vapor-liquid equilibrium data by using the UNIQUAC model. A suitable extraction process for separating ethanol and water using dichloromethane as the solvent has been chosen, and the design calculations have been carried out to determine the energetic requirements. The properties that another solvent should offer to decrease these energetic requirements have been studied.

  2. Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-15

    Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700 ?mol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. PMID:25577085

  3. Ethanol production from carob extract by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Turhan, Irfan; Bialka, Katherine L; Demirci, Ali; Karhan, Mustafa

    2010-07-01

    Carob has been widely grown in the Mediterranean region for a long time. It has been regarded as only a forest tree and has been neglected for other economical benefits. However, in recent years, this fruit has gained attention for several applications. As petroleum has become depleted, renewable energy production has started to gain attention all over the world; including the production of ethanol from underutilized agricultural products such as carob. In this project, the optimum extraction conditions were determined for the carob fruit by using the response surface design method. The obtained extract was utilized for production of ethanol by using suspended Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation. The effect of various fermentation parameters such as pH, media content and inoculum size were evaluated for ethanol fermentation in carob extract. Also, in order to determine economically appropriate nitrogen sources, four different nitrogen sources were evaluated. The optimum extraction condition for carob extract was determined to be 80 degrees C, 2h in 1:4 dilution rate (fruit: water ratio) according to the result of response surface analysis (115.3g/L). When the fermentation with pH at 5.5 was applied, the final ethanol concentration and production rates were 42.6g/L and 3.37 g/L/h, respectively, which were higher than using an uncontrolled pH. Among inoculum sizes of 1%, 3%, and 5%, 3% was determined as the best inoculum size. The maximum production rate and final ethanol concentration were 3.48 g/L/h and 44.51%, respectively, with an alternative nitrogen source of meat-bone meal. Overall, this study suggested that carob extract can be utilized for production of ethanol in order to meet the demands of renewable energy. PMID:20189805

  4. In vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

    PubMed

    Chist, Renan Campos; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Gomes, Ana; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, Jos Lus Fontes da Costa; Bragagnolo, Neura

    2011-07-15

    Bixa orellana L. (annatto), from Bixaceae family, is a native plant of tropical America, which accumulates several carotenoids (including bixin and norbixin), terpenoids, tocotrienols and flavonoids with potential antioxidant activity. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated and compared to the bixin standard. Annatto extracts were obtained using solvents with different polarities and their phenolic compounds and bixin levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector. All annatto extracts were able to scavenge all the reactive species tested at the low ?g/mL range, with the exception of superoxide radical. The ethanol:ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate extracts of annatto seeds, which presented the highest levels of hypolaetin and bixin, respectively, were the extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity, although bixin standard presented the lowest IC(50) values. PMID:23140681

  5. Optimization of extraction conditions of areca seed polyphenols and evaluation of their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Huang, Wu-Yang; Chen, Wen-Xue; Han, Lin; Zhang, Hai-De

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenols are functional compounds in plants, which possess many bioactivities beneficial for humans. The aim of this study was to establish a highly efficient method for extracting polyphenol compounds from areca seeds and further to identify polyphenols and antioxidant properties of the seeds. A quadratic general rotary unitized design was used to determine the optimal extraction process. The polyphenols were identified using LC-TOF-MS. By comparison with ascorbic acid (Vc), the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extracts were evaluated using three complementary in vitro assays: inhibition of the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity, and reducing ability. The two major polyphenols obtained were epicatechin and syringic acid. The ethanol extracts of areca seeds showed significantly greater antioxidant activity (p < 0.05) than Vc using the DPPH and reducing power assay, but lower ability (p < 0.05) using the hydroxyl radical assay. The results indicate that the areca seed is an excellent food material with potential antioxidant properties. PMID:25314603

  6. Antinociceptive Activity of Ethanol Extract from Duguetia chrysocarpa Maas (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Arajo, Edignia Cavalcante da Cruz; Ribeiro, Luciano Augusto de Arajo; de Lima, Julianeli Tolentino; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Lcio, Ana Slvia Suassuna Carneiro; Agra, Maria de Ftima; Barbosa Filho, Jos Maria

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the fruits of Duguetia chrysocarpa was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The intraperitoneal administration of the ethanol extract (100, 200, and 400?mg/kg body weight) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhes. The extract also produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test in all doses tested and increased the reaction time in hot-plate test at dose of 200?mg/kg. The data obtained suggest that the antinociceptive effect of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The phytochemical investigation yielded the isolation of the benzenoid derivative 3-methoxy-4-ethoxy benzoic acid which is being reported for the first time in this genus. PMID:22645460

  7. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigation of Ethanol Extract of Cissampelos pareira

    PubMed Central

    Reza, H. M.; Shohel, M.; Aziz, Sadia B.; Pinaz, Farzana I.; Uddin, M. F.; Al-Amin, M; Khan, I. N.; Jain, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the ethanol extract of Cissampelos pareira has been evaluated. The extract was tested for analgesic properties using both hot plate and acetic acid-induced writhing methods. Antiinflammatory effect was investigated using two different doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight on Evans rats by carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The antipyretic activity was evaluated using Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in Wistar rats. The phytochemical screening of the extract of Cissampelos pareira exhibited the presence of several phytochemical compounds including saponins, gums and carbohydrates, reducing sugars, alkaloids and terpenoids. Ethanol extract of Cissampelos pareira exhibited significant analgesic, antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity in a dose-dependent manner. The results obtained from these studies confirm its therapeutic value against diseases caused by various pain and fever. PMID:25425762

  8. Hepatoprotective effect of Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) ethanol extract and its fraction.

    PubMed

    Suresh Kumar, S V; Mishra, S H

    2008-06-01

    Ethanol extract and its ethanol fraction from aerial parts of P. daemia exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, total protein and albumin in serum indicated hepatoprotective effect of the ethanol extract and its ethanol fraction. Histopathological examination of liver sections confirmed that, pre-treatment with ethanol extract and its ethanol fraction prevented hepatic damage induced by CCl4. The results were comparable with the standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin. The extract and its fraction showed no signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/kg. It is suggested that, the presence of flavonoids in ethanol extract and its ethanol fraction may be responsible for hepatoprotective properties. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography profile of flavonoids of bio-active extracts was developed using quercetin-3-glucoside as a marker. Results indicate hepatoprotective properties of ethanol extract of P. daemia. PMID:18697603

  9. Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum) polyphenols inhibit ethanol-induced collagen and lipid accumulation in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Kaviarasan, S; Viswanathan, P; Anuradha, C V

    2007-11-01

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with fatty liver and fibrosis characterized by collagen accumulation. Seeds of fenugreek, an annual herb, are reported to possess hepatoprotective activity. The study aims to investigate the effects of fenugreek seed polyphenol extract (FPEt) on liver lipids and collagen in experimental hepatotoxic rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in male albino Wistar rats by administrating ethanol (6 g/kg per day) for 30 days. Control rats were given isocaloric glucose solution. FPEt was co-administered with ethanol at a dose of 200 mg/kg per day for the next 30 days. Silymarin was used as a positive control. Ethanol treatment caused increase in plasma and liver lipids, together with alterations in collagen content and properties. Administration of FPEt to alcohol-fed rats significantly improved lipid profile and reduced collagen content, crosslinking, aldehyde content and peroxidation. The effects were comparable with that of silymarin. FPEt administration had a positive influence on both lipid profile and on the quantitative and qualitative properties of collagen in alcoholic liver disease. The protective effect is presumably due to the bioactive phytochemicals in fenugreek seeds. PMID:17453353

  10. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Hwee Wen; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

  11. Antioxidant activity of a Rhus verniciflua Stokes ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Lim, K T; Hu, C; Kitts, D D

    2001-03-01

    A fractionated ethanol extract derived from Rhus Verniciflua Stokes (RVS) was assessed in both organic and aqueous media for the purpose of characterizing the mechanisms of antioxidant activity. RVS, an indigenous plant to Korea, was initially extracted with ethanol and characterized to contain a 90 KDa-ABTS reactive protein possessing 0.662 ng/mg copper. This characterization suggested that a primary component of RVS was Laccase, an oxidase enzyme complex. RVS exhibited a significant (P < 0.01) concentration-dependent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in an emulsion system up to 48 hours of incubation. Free radical scavenging activity of both a stable radical (e.g DPPH) and hydroxyl (e.g. *OH) radical followed a concentration-dependent pattern in different model systems. Using a liposome model with peroxyl radicals generated by AAPH, a significant extension of both the lag phase and a reduction of peak propagation of peroxyl radicals by RVS over a concentration range of 1 to 10 microg/ml was observed. RVS ethanol extract was also found to protect human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidative modification, mediated by cupric ion at 37 degrees C. Finally, RVS was found to be effective at protecting against plasmid DNA strand breakage induced by peroxyl free radicals in an aqueous medium. Our findings show that the ethanol fraction derived from RVS contained significant antioxidant activity in both polar and non-polar mediums. PMID:11278054

  12. Effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. on tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Yarlagadda, Sanjyothi; Chintala, Saritha

    2015-05-01

    The effect of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum L. seeds (100, 200 mg/kg) was studied on tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia. Tacrine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) treated animals were observed for vacuous chewing movements (VCM), tongue protrusions (TP) and orofacial bursts (OB) for 1 h followed by observations for locomotor changes and cognitive dysfunction. Sub-chronic administration of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract (E-CS) (100, 200 mg/kg, p.o., for 15 days significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the tacrine induced VCM, TP and OB; and also significantly (P < 0.05), increased locomotion and cognition compared to the tacrine treated group. Biochemical analysis revealed that tacrine administration significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GSH) levels and also significantly (P < 0.05) increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) as an index of oxidative stress, whereas subchronic administration of E-CS significantly (P < 0.05) improved the antioxidant enzyme (i.e. SOD, CAT, and GSH) levels and also significantly (P < 0.05) decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO). The results have demonstrated the protective role of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum. L against tacrine induced orofacial dyskinesia. PMID:26040026

  13. Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Judith H.; Wernet, Mark P.

    1994-01-01

    Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. The technique is not limited to alumina/ethanol and is also demonstrated with an alumina/H2O system. Other ceramic powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(sub pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined.

  14. In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of coastal medicinal plants along Palk Strait against Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Inbaneson, Samuel Jacob; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Suganthi, Palavesam

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera), Acalypha indica (A. indica), Jatropha glandulifera (J. glandulifera) and Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus). Methods The A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were collected along Palk Strait and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 g/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. Results Of the selected plants species parts, the stem extract of A. indica showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50= 43.81g/mL) followed by stem extract of J. glandulifera (IC50= 49.14g/mL). The stem extract of A. aspera, leaf and root extracts of A. indica, leaf, root and seed extracts of J. glandulifera and leaf and stem extracts of P. amarus showed IC50 values between 50 and 100 g/mL. Statistical analysis revealed that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extract of all the tested plant extracts. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. Conclusions The ethanolic stem extracts of P. amarus and J. glandulifera possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs. PMID:23569931

  15. Production of 16.5% v/v ethanol from seagrass seeds.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Motoharu; Miyoshi, Tatsuo; Kaneniwa, Masaki; Ishihara, Kenji; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Urano, Naoto

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol fermentation on seeds of seagrass Zostera marina was studied. The seeds were collected from the annual plant colony of Z. marina at Hinase Bay, Okayama. The seeds contained 83.5% carbohydrates including 48.1% crude starch on a dry weight basis, which is comparable to cereals such as wheat flour and corns. The seeds were saccharified with glucoamylase (50C, 96 h) and 103.4 g/l concentration of glucose juice was obtained. The glucose juice was further fermented (23C-35C, 15 days) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains NBRC10217(T) and Kyokai 7-go, and ethanol was obtained at a 65.0 g/l (82.3 ml/l) level by monographic double-fermentation and at a 130.4 g/l (165.1 ml/l) level by parallel double-fermentation. Fermented products of seagrass seeds containing such a high ethanol concentration as the present study have potential to be utilized not only for biofuel but also for foods and beverages in the future. Culturing of seagrass seeds as a crop may enable development of a new marine fermentation industry. PMID:24969514

  16. Characterisation of Mediterranean grape pomace seed and skin extracts: polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes. PMID:25642834

  17. Full-press oil extraction of Cuphea (PSR23) seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid Cuphea hybrid, is being developed as a potential commercial alternative source of medium chain fatty acids. Recent seed increases in Cuphea had provided sufficient amounts of seeds to pursue an oil extraction study and, at the same time, produce m...

  18. EXTRACTING USEFUL PHYTOCHEMICALS FROM OIL SEED PROCESSING BY-PRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing a successful oil seed crop often requires the utilization of other products from seeds in order to become a viable economic commodity. The soybean is an exceptional example as not only is the oil used, but the protein and phytochemical extract has also become a commodity. The soy isofla...

  19. Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove

    PubMed Central

    Kamkar Asl, Mina; Nazariborun, Ashraf; Hosseini, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1) Saline, (2-4) Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7) Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9) Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE) in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s). PMID:25050273

  20. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψm) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  1. IMPROVIN PARTICLE SEPARATION FROM AN ETHANOL EXTRACT TO WATER: SETTLING DEPENDENCE ON FINE PARTICLE CONTENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Separating solid particles from ethanolic corn extracts by gravitational settling into a water layer has been studied as part of a project to develop a low cost method to extract ethanol-soluble protein from corn meal. During settling some of the liquid part of the extract (extract liquid) is entra...

  2. Demonstration of a stabilized alumina/ethanol colloidal dispersion technique for seeding high temperature air flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.

    1995-01-01

    Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.

  3. Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colorectal Carcinoma by Litchi Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Ping; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Chiu-Chen; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chou, Jyh-Ching; Tsia, Yu-Ting; Su, Jhih-Rou; Chung, Yuan-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    The Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit products possess rich amounts of flavanoids and proanthocyanidins. Its pericarp has been shown to inhibit breast and liver cancer cell growth. However, the anticolorectal cancer effect of Litchi seed extract has not yet been reported. In this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich Litchi seed ethanol extract (LCSP) on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two colorectal cancer cell lines Colo320DM and SW480 were examined. The results demonstrated that LCSP significantly induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle in G2/M in colorectal carcinoma cells. LCSP also suppressed cyclins and elevated the Bax?:?Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activity. This study provides in vitro evidence that LCSP serves as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer. PMID:23093841

  4. Evaluation of a ruminally dosed tall fescue seed extract as a model for fescue toxicosis in steers.

    PubMed

    Koontz, A F; Bush, L P; Klotz, J L; McLeod, K R; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

    2012-03-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) toxicosis research is often complicated by a reduction in intake of infected forage or seed, making treatment comparisons difficult. This study was conducted to develop a fescue toxicosis model that would allow for variations in DMI without altering the quantity of alkaloids consumed over the course of the experiment. Ground tall fescue seed and a tall fescue seed extract were used in two 2-period crossover experiments to determine the effectiveness of ruminal dosing of a tall fescue seed extract to induce fescue toxicosis. This experiment used 4 growing Holstein steers (BW = 337 24 kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Steers were maintained on a diet of endophyte-free fescue hay fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Endophyte-infected (E+; 4.1 mg/kg of ergovaline) and uninfected (E-; 0.0 mg/kg of ergovaline) KY-31 tall fescue seed was ground and dosed or extracted with ethanol, concentrated, and lyophilized before ruminal dosing. Ergovaline concentration of the final extract was 102 mg/kg. Animals were given a minimum of a 3-wk washout period between treatments. Physiological indicators were measured over 7 d at 22C (d 1 to 3) and 32C (d 4 to 7) during both seed and extract dosing. Seed and extract E+ dosing reduced serum prolactin concentrations such that they were not different from zero (P < 0.10). Treatment with E+ reduced feed intake (P < 0.05) and heart rate (P < 0.001), and increased respiration rate (P < 0.01) and core temperature (P < 0.05) during both seed and extract dosing. Increasing environmental temperature from 22 to 32C reduced total intake (P < 0.05) and increased core temperature (P < 0.001) and respiration rate (P < 0.001) during both seed and extract dosing. Diastolic blood pressure tended (P < 0.09) to be increased during E+ extract dosing and reduced during heat stress. These physiological alterations are consistent with those reported for cattle grazing or consuming seed from endophyte-infected tall fescue. These data indicate that a ruminally dosed ethanol extract of tall fescue seed is efficacious in inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. PMID:22064740

  5. The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume.

    PubMed

    Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Tze, Liong Min; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays. In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and tannin contents were also determined. Overall, the methanol extracts of the pod contained high concentration of phenolics and showed high antioxidant capacities compared to seed extracts. In addition, a positive correlation was found between total phenol and tannin versus antioxidant capacity. Results of the present study indicate pods and seeds of C. fairchildiana to possess rich amount of natural antioxidants, and can be further explored for their possible use as a natural additive in food or in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24425949

  6. Ethanol extracts of Serratia marcescens are compatible with Trichoderma isolates for control of damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmentally friendly control measures for soil-borne plant pathogens are needed that are effective in different soils when applied alone or as components of an integrated disease control strategy. Ethanol extracts of Serratia marcescens N4-5 when applied as a cucumber seed treatment effectively ...

  7. Characterization of Jamaican Delonix regia and Cassia fistula Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Raymond; Rattray, Vaughn; Williams, Ruth; Denny, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Delonix regia and Cassia fistula seed extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activity, total phenolics, ash, zinc and fatty acid content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized to assess the chemical functionalities present within the seeds. Antioxidant activity was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Total phenolics were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. Lipid extracts were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Zinc concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extracts from the seeds of C. fistula had a higher antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging activity, and phenolic content than D. regia. FTIR revealed that the seeds are a rich source of protein with small quantities of fat. C. fistula extracts contained a higher percentage of total fat than D. regia. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominant saturated fatty acid in both extracts. Oleic acid and linoleic acid were identified in smaller quantities. Seed extracts may be considered for use in food and nutraceutical applications.

  8. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM BLACK SEED HULLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New methodology has been developed for the preparative scale extraction and purification of anthocyanins from "black" seed coats and hulls. A combination of physical fractionation, extraction, flash chromatography and preparative chromatography has resulted in the isolation of gram quantities of pu...

  9. Antioxidant activities of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed as affected by extraction solvent, prior dechlorophyllisation and drying methods.

    PubMed

    Benjakul, Soottawat; Kittiphattanabawon, Phanat; Sumpavapol, Punnanee; Maqsood, Sajid

    2014-11-01

    Extracts of brown lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed prepared using different extraction solvents were determined for antioxidative activities using different assays. The highest yield (3.4-4.0%) was obtained when water was used as an extraction solvent, compared with all ethanolic extracts used (1.2-2.0 %) (P < 0.05). Much lower chlorophyll content was found in the water extract. When hot water was used, the resulting extract contained lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). In general, 60-80 % ethanolic extracts had higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and metal chelating activity than water extracts (P < 0.05). When brown lead seed was dechlorophyllised prior to extraction, the water extract had slightly increased yield with lower chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, prior chlorophyll removal resulted in the increase in antioxidative activities but lower total phenolic and mimosine contents (P < 0.05). Generally, phenolic compounds and mimosine were more released when water was used as the extraction solvent, while the lower amount of chlorophyll was extracted. Oven-drying exhibited the negative effect on antioxidative activities and mimosine content. The higher antioxidative activities with concomitant higher total phenolic and mimosine contents were found in water extract dried by freeze drying. Thus, extraction solvent, dechlorophyllisation and drying methods directly influenced the yield and antioxidative activity of lead seed extract. PMID:26396295

  10. Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.

    PubMed

    Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus. PMID:20645772

  11. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of soybean seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Malencić, Djordje; Maksimović, Zoran; Popović, Milan; Miladinović, Jegor

    2008-09-01

    The antioxidant activity and contents of various polyphenol classes in the seeds of 20 soybean hybrids were evaluated. Total polyphenols, tannins and proanthocyanidins were determined after extraction of plant material with 70% aqueous acetone. In addition, flavonoid content was determined. Antioxidant activity of seed extracts was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity and contents of total phenols, tannins and proanthocyanidins was established. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the extracts of hybrids which have higher levels of all polyphenol classes examined. The most of the single-cross hybrids were poor in tannins which recommend them as good source for ensiled livestock feed. Results suggested that polyphenol content should be considered as an important feature of the soybean seed. PMID:18155904

  12. Biological Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Phellinus baumii (Higher Basidiomycetes) Obtained by Different Fermentation Methods.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qian; Yang, Yan; Li, Tingting; Feng, Jie; Liu, Yanfang; Yan, Mengqiu; Zhu, Lina; Tang, Chuanhong

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus baumii was used for fermentation, and 3 corresponding ethanol extracts were obtained by 3 different methods: extract I, liquid fermentation; extract II, solid fermentation in polypropylene plastic bags with medium mainly consisting of sawdust and wheat bran; and extract III, solid fermentation in culture bottles with medium mainly consisting of rice. Ethanol extract I presented the best inhibition ability on HepG2 cell growth; inhibiting rates were 48.2% and 65.0% at doses of 10 and 100 g/mL, respectively. Ethanol extracts II and III had a better regeneration effect on injured PC12 neural cells than extract I. The superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide radical, and DPPH radical scavenging activities of ethanol extract III was better than those of the other 2 extracts. PMID:25954962

  13. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martnio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Ngila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vnia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (?) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32?mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15?mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73??g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51??g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9?g/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  14. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martnio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Ngila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vnia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 ? g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 ? g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 g/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  15. Syzygium cumini seed extract protects the liver against lipid peroxidation with concurrent amelioration of hepatic enzymes and lipid profile of alcoholic rats.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Shahdat; Chowdhury, Imrul Hasan; Basunia, Mafroz Ahmed; Nahar, Taslima; Rahaman, Asiqur; Choudhury, Bazlur Karim; Choudhuri, Shahabuddin Kabir; Mahmud, Ishtiaq; Uddin, Borhan

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro oxidative stress induced by ethanol/Fenton's reaction in rat liver homogenates decreased significantly in the presence of Syzygium cumini seed extract, suggesting the protective effect of the seed extract against the oxidative stress in liver. To corroborate the in vitro effects by an in vivo experiment, 24 rats were divided into four groups: control, S. cumini seed-extract-administered (SE), 15% ethanol-fed (Alc) and Alc+SE rats. The oral administration of the extract (400 mg/kg BW.day) for 7 weeks significantly decreased the levels of liver LPO in the Alc+SE rats, suggesting that S. cumini seed not only obstructed the in vitro free radical production and subsequent oxidative stress, but also inhibited their in vivo formation. The oral administration of extract also reduced the enzyme activities of serum gammaglutamyl transferase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase and the levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, serum/liver triglycerides and total cholesterol of the alcoholic rats. The levels of fecal cholesterol were increased by the extract. Fatty degenerations in liver and kidney were absent with S. cumini seed extract treatment. The results suggest that S. cumini seed may be a potential therapy for alcoholics and related dysfunctions by restraining oxidative stress. PMID:22754945

  16. Antioxidation and antiglycation of Fagopyrum tataricum ethanol extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Chen; Lee, Bao-Hong; Lai, Ying-Jang

    2015-02-01

    Fagopyrum tataricum is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of 75% ethanol extract of buckwheat (EEB) and rutin on carbohydrate-metabolized enzymes, including ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase, which are related to hyperglycemia. The rutin dosage (40?g/mL) was equivalent to that of EEB (200?g/mL). In addition, the antioxidant and antiglycation activities of EEB and rutin were investigated. Results showed that both EEB and rutin exerted free radical (DPPH and ABTS) scavenging activity. They also attenuated protein glycation to lower the generation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) through the suppression of fructosamine and ?-dicarbonyl compounds. Moreover, EEB and rutin also inhibited ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that EEB and rutin may reduce oxidative stress, AGEs formation, and carbohydrate-metabolized enzymes hence EEB may use as protection agent in diabetic patients. PMID:25694726

  17. Antinociceptive Activity of Melicope ptelefolia Ethanolic Extract in Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Mohd Padzil, Azyyati; Shaari, Khozirah; Khalid, Syamimi; Shaik Mossadeq, Wan Mastura; Mohamad, Azam Shah; Ahmad, Syahida; Akira, Ahmad; Israf, Daud; Lajis, Nordin

    2010-01-01

    Melicope ptelefolia is a medicinal herb commonly used in Malaysia to treat fever, pain, wounds, and itches. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the Melicope ptelefolia ethanolic extract (MPEE) using animal models of nociception. The antinociceptive activity of the extract was assessed using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot-plate, and formalin-induced paw licking tests. Oral administration of MPEE produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects when tested in mice and rats using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and on the second phase of the formalin-induced paw licking test, respectively. It was also demonstrated that MPEE had no effect on the response latency time to the heat stimulus in the thermal model of the hot-plate test. In addition, the antinociception produced by MPEE was not blocked by naloxone. Furthermore, oral administration of MPEE did not produce any effect in motor performance of the rota-rod test and in acute toxicity study no abnormal behaviors as well as mortality were observed up to a dose level of the extract of 5?g/kg. These results indicated that MPEE at all doses investigated which did not produce any sedative and toxic effects exerted pronounce antinociceptive activity that acts peripherally in experimental animals. PMID:21274262

  18. Extraction of proteins from pennycress seeds and press cake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to more fully utilize pennycress, a potentially viable bio-diesel source, the proteinaceous components were extracted from pennycress seed and press cake. The amino acid composition of the proteins present in pennycress was typical for proteins derived from plants, with glycine, glutamic ac...

  19. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    PubMed

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88% of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60C, 80% ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6mg GAE/100g dry weight (dw), 25.0mg quercetin equiv./100g dw and 28.6% DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95% confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants. PMID:26139905

  20. Nanoemulsion of ethanolic extracts of propolis and its antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauludin, R.; Primaviri, D. S.; Fidrianny, I.

    2015-09-01

    Propolis contains several antioxidant compounds which can be used in topical application to protect skin against free radical and prevent skin cancer and skin aging. Ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) provided the greatest antioxidant activity but has very small solubility in water thus was prepared in nanoemulsion (NE). EEP contains steroid/triterpenoid, flavonoid, and saponin. EEP had the value of DPPH scavenging activity 61.14% and IC50 0.41629 ppm. The best NE formulation consisted of 26.25% Kolliphor RH40; 8.75% glycerin; 5% rice bran oil; and 3% EEP. NE was transparent, had particle size of 23.72 nm and polydispersity index of 0.338. Based on TEM morphology, NE was almost spherical and has particle size below 50 nm. NE propolis revealed to be physically stable after stability test within 63 days at 25°C and passed 6 cycles of Freeze and Thaw test without separated. NE propolis reduced around 58% of free radical DPPH similar to antioxidant activity of the original extracts. Antioxidant activity of NE propolis is relatively stable after stored for 6 weeks. NE propolis was proven to be safe by primary irritation test with the value of primary irritation index (OECD) was 0.

  1. Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol.

    PubMed

    Sen, M; Bhattacharyya, D K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed protein fraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissue lipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile of rats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50 +/- 1 degree C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residual chlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed the sunflower seed protein fraction had a similar body weight gain and food efficiency ratios in comparison to those fed casein. Rats fed SSPF in contrast had a significantly higher growth and food efficiency ratio than the rats fed sunflower meal (SM), extracted with hexane. However, dietary proteins exerted a separate effect on plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio and triglyceride content. Sunflower seed protein fraction resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) levels compared to the casein fed rats. Membrane phospholipid profile also showed a marked variation with the type of dietary protein. Rats fed SSPF and SM did not show much variation in plasma lipids, plasma proteins, liver and brain lipids and membrane phospholipid concentrations. Protein content, liver and brain lipid profile of the groups fed SSPF and casein were comparable, suggesting that the nutritional value of SSPF is better than SM and equivalent to that of casein. PMID:11030480

  2. Toxicity of anthraquinones: differential effects of rumex seed extracts on rat organ weights and biochemical and haematological parameters.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rabigul; Mamat, Yultuz; Ismayil, Ilyar; Yan, Ming; Kadir, Mahsutjan; Abdugheny, Abdujilil; Rapkat, Haximjan; Niyaz, Mardan; Ali, Yusupjan; Abay, Sirapil

    2015-05-01

    The genus Rumex and related species such as Rheum and Polygonum are widely used as medicinal herbs and foods. They contain anthraquinones (AQ) such as emodin and chrysophanol as active ingredients, and there is concern about the toxicity of these compounds. This study evaluated the chronic effects of Rumex patientia seed aqueous and ethanolic extracts, in male and female rats separately, on organ weights and over 30 haematological, biochemical and histological parameters, immediately after 14-week administration and after a further period of 15?days without drug treatment. Adverse changes were associated with long-term AQ administration, and these focussed on the liver, lung and kidney, but after 15-day convalescence, most had reverted to normal. In general, male rats appeared to be more susceptible than female rats at similar doses. The water extract produced no irreversible changes, which may reflect the lower dose of the AQ constituents or the presence of different ancillary compounds, and supports the traditional method of extracting Rumex seeds with water. In conclusion, ethanolic extracts of R. patientia caused irreversible pathological changes at very high doses (4000mg/kg), but lower doses and aqueous extracts produced either non-significant or reversible changes. Long-term administration of high doses of AQ extracts over a long period of time should be avoided until further assurances can be given, and given other existing reports of reproductive toxicity, should be avoided altogether during pregnancy. PMID:25753342

  3. Studies on the mechanism of efficient extraction of tea components by aqueous ethanol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ci-Jie; Gao, Ying; Liu, Yang; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong; Lu, Jian-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Effect of solvent on the extraction yield and its relevant mechanism have been studied in this paper. Compared with extraction by water, catechins and caffeine could be easily extracted from green tea by aqueous ethanol, but hardly at all by absolute ethanol. Results of the vacuum-assisted extraction, solubility determination of EGCG and caffeine, as well as swelling ratio analysis of the infused leaves, indicated that an excellent leaf-matrix-swelling effect and high solubility of tea components might be the key mechanisms for high extraction efficiency by the aqueous ethanol. These mechanisms were further confirmed by the pre-swelling extraction. This is a first report on the mechanism of efficient extraction by aqueous organic solvent. Application of pre-swelling extraction is also discussed. PMID:26471560

  4. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.).

    PubMed

    Howlader, Md Amran; Alam, Mahmudul; Ahmed, Kh Tanvir; Khatun, Farjana; Apu, Apurba Sarker

    2011-10-01

    The ethanol leaf extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) was evaluated for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) body weight, exerted the analgesic activity by observing the number of abdominal contractions and anti-inflammatory activity against Carrageenin induced paw edema in mice by measuring the paw volume. The ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of percentage of writhing of 33.57 and 61.31% at 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) oral dose, respectively, when compared to negative control. The Ethanolic plant extract also showed significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent reduction of mean increase of formation of paw edema. The results of the experiment and its statistical analysis showed that the ethanolic plant extract had shown significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities when compared to the control. PMID:22518936

  5. Effects of Cymbidium Root Ethanol Extract on Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Cha, Hae-Sim; Lee, Myung-Hun; Kim, Sun-Young; Kim, Seo Ho; Kim, Tack-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Cymbidium has known antibacterial and antiedema activity and has been used as an ingredient in cosmetics and fragrances. The effects of Cymbidium ethanol extract (CYM) on allergic response and the underlying mechanisms of action have not been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CYM on allergic responses. Topical application of CYM was effective against immunoglobulin E (IgE)/dinitrophenyl-conjugated bovine serum albumin- (DNP-BSA-) induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells and anaphylaxis in ICR mice. An allergic dermatitis-like mouse model was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CYM in vivo. Continuous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) not only induced dermatitis in ICR mice but also aggravated the skin lesioning. However, the application of CYM decreased skin lesion severity, scratching behavior, and IgE levels. In addition, CYM downregulated the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- (IL-) 4, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. Studies of signal transduction pathways showed that CYM suppressed the phosphorylation of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), an upstream molecule. It also inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt, phospholipase C- (PLC-) γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MEKK). These results indicate that CYM may be effective in preventing and reducing allergic response and may have therapeutic potential as an antiallergic agent in disorders such as atopic dermatitis. PMID:26981139

  6. Genotoxic, antigenotoxic and phytochemical assessment of Terminalia actinophylla ethanolic extract.

    PubMed

    Pdua, P F M R; Dihl, R R; Lehmann, M; de Abreu, B R R; Richter, M F; de Andrade, H H R

    2013-12-01

    Terminalia actinophylla has been used for anti-diarrheic and haemostatic purposes in Brazil. The fly spot data obtained after exposure of marker-heterozygous Drosophila melanogaster larvae to T. actinophylla ethanolic extract (TAE) in the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses revealed that TAE did not induce any statistically significant increment in any spot categories. Differences between the two crosses are related to cytochrome P450 (CYPs) levels. In this sense, our data pointed out the absence of TAE-direct and indirect mutagenic and recombinagenic action in the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART). When the anti-genotoxicity of TAE was analyzed, neither mitomycin C (MMC) nor ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) genotoxicity was modified by the post-exposure to TAE, which suggests that TAE has no effect on the mechanisms involved in the processing of the lesions induced by both genotoxins. In the mwh/flr(3) genotype, co-treatment with TAE may lead to a significant protection against the genotoxicity of MMC and a weak but significant effect in the toxic genetic action of EMS. The overall findings suggested that the favorable modulations by TAE could be, at least in part, due to its antioxidative potential. PMID:24071477

  7. Solvent screening study and conceptual extractive distillation process to produce anhydrous ethanol from fermentation broth

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, F-M.; Pahl, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    This solvent screening study indicates that glycols are very selective solvents for producing anhydrous ethanol from fermentation broth by extractive distillation. The promising solvents are glycerin, ethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, and triethylene glycol. An improved extractive distillation process for producing anhydrous ethanol was conceptually developed which was based on the analysis of the experimental solvent screening data. The basic idea of this process is to add an extractive solvent only to the ethanol-rich portion of the fractionator to eliminate the ethanol-water azeotrope and to change the undesirable shape of the vapor-liquid equilibrium curve to one more favorable for distillation. With a suitable solvent, such as ethylene glycol, anhydrous ethanol could be produced from the fermentation broth in a column with only 18 theoretical trays. A low reflux ratio of 1.5 and a low solvent-to-feed ratio of 0.27 (based on fermentation broth) would be needed for the separation.

  8. Ultrasound induced green solvent extraction of oil from oleaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline Abert; Fine, Frédéric; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction of rapeseed oil was investigated and compared with conventional extraction for energy efficiency, throughput time, extraction yield, cleanness, processing cost and product quality. A multivariate study enabled us to define optimal parameters (7.7W/cm(2) for ultrasonic power intensity, 40°C for processing temperature, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1/15) for ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil from oilseeds to maximize lipid yield while reducing solvent consumption and extraction time using response surface methodology (RSM) with a three-variable central composite design (CCD). A significant difference in oil quality was noted under the conditions of the initial ultrasound extraction, which was later avoided using ultrasound in the absence of oxygen. Three concepts of multistage cross-current extraction were investigated and compared: conventional multistage maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration and a combination, to assess the positive impact of using ultrasound on the seed oil extraction process. The study concludes that ultrasound-assisted extraction of oil is likely to reduce both economic and ecological impacts of the process in the fat and oil industry. PMID:26964955

  9. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  10. In vitro antibacterial activity in seed extracts of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica.

    PubMed

    Kothari, Vijay; Seshadri, Sriram

    2010-01-01

    Extracts prepared from seeds of Manilkara zapota, Anona squamosa, and Tamarindus indica were screened for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Acetone and methanol extracts of T. indica seeds were found active against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. MIC values of potent extracts against susceptible organisms ranged from 53-380 μg/mL. Methanol extract of T. indica and acetone extract of M. zapota seeds were found to be bactericidal. PMID:21031260

  11. Induction of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and heat shock protein expression by ethanol and modulation by fenugreek seed polyphenols in Chang liver cells.

    PubMed

    Kaviarasan, S; Ramamurthy, Nalini; Gunasekaran, P; Varalakshmi, E; Anuradha, C V

    2009-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of fenugreek seed polyphenolic extract (FPEt) on ethanol-induced protein expression in Chang liver cells. Cells were incubated with either 30 mM EtOH alone or together in the presence of FPEt for 24 h. Cells were harvested and assessed for expression of alcohol metabolizing enzymes-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH(2) isoform), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH(2) isoform), cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), the electron transport component (cytochrome-c), and the heat shock proteins. The expression of ADH(2), ALDH(2), and CYP2E1 were upregulated, whereas the expression of cytochrome-c was downregulated in the ethanol-treated cells. The expression of cellular heat shock proteins-HSP70, HSC70, HSC92, and mitochondrial protein mtHSP70 were induced in ethanol-treated Chang liver cells. FPEt modulated the protein expression changes induced by ethanol and had no effect when incubated with normal Chang liver cells. FPEt might exert cytoprotective action on ethanol-induced liver cell damage, possibly by enhancing cellular redox status. PMID:19778255

  12. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  13. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  14. Liquefaction of cotton seed in sub-critical water/ethanol with modified medical stone for bio-oil.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaomin; Wang, Baofeng; Zhang, Jinjun

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated thermal liquefaction of cotton seed in an autoclave. The effects of solvent (ethanol/water, water and ethanol), temperature and some additives on product distribution were investigated. The results showed that using ethanol/water as solvent could get higher total conversion. The highest liquid oil yield (38.4%) was obtained at 300C, 2MPa and 30min in ethanol/water with Mo/MS (medical stone). The highest hydrogen content in gas also was obtained when adding Mo/MS, and then followed by that when adding Co-Mo/MS. (1)H NMR analysis indicated that the use of additives (except MS) could increase the aliphatic content in liquid oil. (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR showed that the liquefied oil from liquefaction of cotton seed mainly obtained aliphatic compounds, and adding the additives only changed the amount of compounds and did not alter the type of compounds obtained in the oil. PMID:26318931

  15. Efficacy of Trigonella foenum-graecum Seed Extract in Reducing Metabolic and Inflammatory Alterations Associated With Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Abedinzade, Mahmood; Nasri, Sima; Jamal Omodi, Masome; Ghasemi, Elham; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several experimental and clinical studies support beneficial effects of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) in the management of metabolic diseases and inflammatory disorders. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of T. foenum-graecum seed extract in reducing the metabolic and inflammatory alternations associated with menopause. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 49 rats were divided into seven groups: (I) sham-control, (II) ovariectomized-control, (III and IV) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum seed ethanolic extract, (V and VI) ovariectomized treated with 50 and 150 mg/kg of T. foenum-graecum hexanic extract, (VII) ovariectomized-positive control treated with 10 µg/kg of estradiol. The extracts were injected intraperitoneally one day after ovariectomy and the treatments were lasted for 42 days. Results: Fasting blood glucose and body weight gain increased significantly in the ovariectomized-control group compared with that in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Administration of estradiol and T. foenum-graecum (50 and 150 mg/dL of hexanic extract and 150 mg/kg of ethanolic extract) significantly diminished the increase in glucose and body weight (P < 0.05). The serum level of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the ovariectomized control group was significantly higher than those in the sham animals (P < 0.05). Both hexanic and ethanolic extracts as well as estradiol were able to decrease level of these cytokines in the serum of ovariectomized rats (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results of the present study show that administration of T. foenum-graecum corrects metabolic and inflammatory alterations associated with ovariectomy and has a potential for the management of menopause. PMID:26732240

  16. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Francisco Segovia; Sánchez, Sara Peiró; Gallego Iradi, Maria Gabriela; Mohd Azman, Nurul Aini; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill) has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed) is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM), the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC) and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC). In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), were analyzed. The RSM model has an R2 of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%. PMID:26784880

  17. Avocado Seeds: Extraction Optimization and Possible Use as Antioxidant in Food.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Francisco Segovia; Sánchez, Sara Peiró; Iradi, Maria Gabriela Gallego; Azman, Nurul Aini Mohd; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill) has increased worldwide in recent years. Part of this food (skin and seed) is lost during processing. However, a high proportion of bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, remain in this residue. The primary objective of this study was to model the extraction of polyphenols from the avocado pits. In addition, a further objective was to use the extract obtained to evaluate the protective power against oxidation in food systems, as for instance oil in water emulsions and meat products. Moreover, the possible synergy between the extracts and egg albumin in the emulsions is discussed. In Response Surface Method (RSM), the variables used are: temperature, time and ethanol concentration. The results are the total polyphenols content (TPC) and the antiradical power measured by Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC). In emulsions, the primary oxidation, by Peroxide Value and in fat meat the secondary oxidation, by TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), were analyzed. The RSM model has an R² of 94.69 for TPC and 96.7 for ORAC. In emulsions, the inhibition of the oxidation is about 30% for pure extracts and 60% for the combination of extracts with egg albumin. In the meat burger oxidation, the formation of TBARS is avoided by 90%. PMID:26784880

  18. Immunomodulatory Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Thyphonium flagelliforme (Lodd) Blume in Rats Induced by Cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Nurrochmad, Arief; Ikawati, Muthi; Sari, Ika Puspita; Murwanti, Retno; Nugroho, Agung Endro

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract of Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd) Blume in cyclophosphamide-treated rats. The immunomodulatory effects were determined by lymphocytes proliferation, phagocytic activity of macrophages, plasma cytokines of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1α, interleukin-10 levels, and killer T cells (CD8+ T cells) counts. The results showed that the administration of ethanolic extract of T flagelliforme reduced immunosupessive effect on lymphocyte proliferation, increase the number and phagocytic activity of macrophages in cyclophosphamide-treated rats. Moreover, the ethanolic extract of T flagelliforme also significantly (P < .05) improved the immune system activities especially the proliferation of CD8+T cells and reduced the suppressive effects on cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1α. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of T flagelliforme has immunomodulatory properties in cyclophosphamide-treated rats. The results suggest that T flagelliforme can reduce immunosuppresive effect caused by a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:25613330

  19. Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts of Propolis on Alpha-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcheng; Wang, Guangxin; Beta, Trust; Dong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of various extracts of propolis on alpha-glucosidase from baker's yeast and mammalian intestine. Inhibitory activities of aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis were determined by using 4-nitrophenyl-D-glucopyranoside, sucrose and maltose as substrates, and acarbose as a positive reference. All extracts were significantly effective in inhibiting α-glucosidase from baker's yeast and rat intestinal sucrase in comparison with acarbose (P < 0.05). The 75% ethanol extracts of propolis (75% EEP) showed the highest inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase and sucrase and were a noncompetitive inhibition mode. 50% EEP, 95%, EEP and 100% EEP exhibited a mixed inhibition mode, while water extracts of propolis (WEP) and 25% EEP demonstrated a competitive inhibition mode. Furthermore, WEP presented the highest inhibitory activity against maltase. These results suggest that aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis may be used as nutraceuticals for the regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25767553

  20. Antioxidant and SGC-7901 cell inhibition activities of Rhizoma Dioscoreae bulbiferae. ethanol extracts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Wu, Shu-hui; Zeng, Xiao-bing; Jiang, Xu-wei; Chen, Xiao-ping; Yuan, Jie; Lu, Bao-hua; Li, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the pharmacology of Dioscorea bulbifera L. on antioxidant and anticancer activity. Alcohol extracts of Dioscorea bulbifera L. were made out by different concentration alcohol; they were tested by Hydroxyl radical scavenging test, reducing capacity test and total antioxidant capacity test. In the anticancer test, MTT test was used to study the inhibition rate. The results told that 70% ethanol extracts could scavenge most DPPH· at 2 mg/ml. The rate was 55.2%; 80% ethanol extract could clear the most ·OH. The clearance rate was 51.2%. 80% ethanol crude extracts possessed the strongest reducing ability per gram of the extract equal to 49.3 µmol Fe(2 +). Different concentrations of the extracts could inhibit the proliferation of line SGC-7901, and with the concentration increased, the inhibition rate was gradually increased. PMID:24311834

  1. Molecular docking studies and anti-snake venom metalloproteinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.

    PubMed

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

    2009-01-01

    Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the binding pockets of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The phenolic principles could form hydrogen bonds with the three histidine residues in the conserved zinc-binding motif and could chelate the Zn(2+) atom of the SVMPs, which could potentially result in inhibition of the venom enzymatic activities and thereby inhibit tissue necrosis. PMID:19783918

  2. Characterization and rheological study of the galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Barros, Wilson; Santos, Gustavo R C; Correia, Maria T S; Mouro, Paulo A S; Teixeira, Jos A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2014-04-15

    Galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation, presented a yield of 36 8%. The polysaccharide has a constant mannose/galactose ratio (2.44:1). Methylation analysis, one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy confirmed that the polysaccharide has a central core composed of 4-linked ?-mannose units, with branches of galactose, linked to the carbohydrate core through ?(1-6) linkage. The amorphous nature of the galactomannan was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Rheological characterization exhibited Newtonian plateaus followed by shear-thinning zones characteristic of polymer solutions up to 1.5% (w/v) and above this value the system exhibited yield stress associated with a weak gel. Adjusting stress-strain curves confirmed a 1.6% (w/v) as the galactomannan concentration value for the sol-gel transition. These results indicate that the galactomannan extracted from C. grandis seeds presents rheological characteristics suitable for applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic and food industries. PMID:24607169

  3. Feasibility of incorporating cotton seed extract in Clostridium strain P11 fermentation medium during synthesis gas fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kundiyana, Dimple K; Huhnke, Raymond L; Maddipati, Prasanth; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Wilkins, Mark R

    2010-12-01

    Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. To make this process more economical, the complexity of media should be reduced while using less costly components. In this study, the feasibility of incorporating cotton seed extract (CSE) as a media component for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was evaluated. A factorial experiment was conducted to screen and evaluate the effect of different media components, in relation to CSE, on ethanol production. Also, different CSE concentrations as well as the presence of MES buffer were tested to determine their effect on ethanol production. Bottle fermentations with media containing only 1.0 gL(-1) CSE produced more ethanol after 15 d (1.17 gL(-1)) than fermentation using any other media. Further bottle experiments showed that media containing only 0.5 gL(-1) CSE produced more ethanol after 15 days (2.67 gL(-1)) than a control media (0.6 gL(-1)) and media containing only 1.0 gL(-1) CSE (2.16 gL(-1)). Fermentations in 5- and 7.5-L stirred fermentors with 0.5 gL(-1) CSE media achieved ethanol concentrations similar to those observed in bottle studies. These results indicate that CSE can replace all the vitamin and mineral media components generally used for fermentation of syngas to ethanol by Clostridium strain P11, thereby improving the process economics. PMID:20696571

  4. Inhibitory effect of mammea E/BB from Mammea siamensis seed extract on Wilms' tumour 1 protein expression in a K562 leukaemic cell line.

    PubMed

    Rungrojsakul, Methee; Saiai, Aroonchai; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2016-02-01

    Mammea siamensis is used in traditional Thai medicine. This study was designed to extract and isolate an active compound from the M. siamensis seeds and to investigate its activity on Wilms' tumour 1 (WT1) protein expression in K562 cells. WT1 is a transcription factor that stimulates cell proliferation. The ethanol saraphi seed (ESS) extract was fractionated using n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water to obtain n-hexane saraphi seed (HSS), ethyl acetate saraphi seed (EASS), n-butanol saraphi seed (BSS), and water saraphi seed (WSS) extracts, respectively. The ESS, HSS and EASS extracts had strong cytotoxic effects on K562 cells in the MTT assay. All three fractions decreased WT1 protein levels and decreased total cell numbers. The HSS extract decreased the WT1 protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. HPLC and NMR analyses indicated that the active compound of HSS was mammea E/BB. M. siamensis seeds are thus identified as a promising source of bioactive compounds for potential inhibition of WT1 protein expression. PMID:25738951

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae) is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2?g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100?mg/kg). Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200?mg/kg and 400?mg/kg body weight daily for 7?days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200?mg/kg body weight and 400?mg/kg body weight) had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100?mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol?induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:22607721

  6. Optimization of the Ethanol Recycling Reflux Extraction Process for Saponins Using a Design Space Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 7982%, extraction time of 6.17.1 h, and RES of 0.0390.040 min?1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met. PMID:25470598

  7. A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes.

    PubMed

    Ramavandi, Bahman; Hashemi, Seyedenayat; Kafaei, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1-3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na(+) and K(+)), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: According to the Hardy-Schulze rule, we applied the Fe(3+) ions instead of Na(+) and K(+) for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds.The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction).Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes. PMID:26150999

  8. A novel method for extraction of a proteinous coagulant from Plantago ovata seeds for water treatment purposes

    PubMed Central

    Ramavandi, Bahman; Hashemi, Seyedenayat; Kafaei, Raheleh

    2015-01-01

    Several chemicals have been applied in the process of coagulant extraction from herbal seeds, and the best extraction has been obtained in the presence of KCl or NaNO3[1], [2], [3], and NaCl [4]. However, the main challenge posed to these methods of coagulant extraction is their relatively low efficiency for water treatment purposes and the formation of dissolved organic matter during the treatment process. In these methods the salts, which have a one-valance metal (Na+ and K+), are deposited in the internal structure and the pore of the coagulant, and may be useful for the coagulation/flocculation process. In this research, we found that modified methods produced more dense protein. Therefore, the modified procedure was better than the older one for removal of turbidity and harness from the contaminated water. Here we describe a method where: • According to the Hardy–Schulze rule, we applied the Fe3+ ions instead of Na+ and K+ for the extraction of protein from Plantago ovata seeds. • The method was narrowed to extract protein by ethanol (defatting) and ammonium acetate and CM-Sepharose (protein extraction). • Two consecutive elutriations of crude extract was directly performed using 0.025-M FeCl3 and 0.05-M FeCl3 according to the basis of the ion-exchange processes. PMID:26150999

  9. Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato seeds resulting from tomato processing by-product have not been effectively utilized as value-added products. This study investigated the kinetics of oil extraction from tomato seeds and sought to optimize the oil extraction conditions. The oil was extracted by using hexane as solvent for 0 t...

  10. The influence of propolis ethanol extract on liver microsomal enzymes and glutathione after chronic alcohol administration.

    PubMed

    Lin, S C; Chung, C Y; Chiang, C L; Hsu, S H

    1999-01-01

    Propolis designates a series of gums, resins and balms of viscous consistency, which are gathered by honeybees from certain parts, mainly the buds and barks of plants, especially those found on coniferous trees. Bees bring propolis back to the hive, where it is modified and mixed with other substances including the bees' own wax and salivary secretions. In this study, the influences of propolis ethanol extract on chronic alcohol induced liver microsomal enzyme changes were investigated. Three grams of alcohol was added to rats' daily diet for four weeks to induce chronic alcohol liver injuries, and two different doses of propolis ethanol extract were p.o. administrated three times per day on the 28th, 29th, and 30th day. During the period of propolis administration, the ethanol diet was continued. After sacrifice, the rat livers were excised for assay of microsomal enzymes activity, glutathione (GSH) concentration, glutathione-S-transferase (GSTase) and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCSase) activity. It was found that 30 mg/kg of propolis ethanol extract significantly prevented the elevations of total cytochrome P-450 enzymes, NADPH-dependent cytochrome C reductase, aniline hydroxylation, 7-ethoxyresorufin hydroxylation (7-ERH), 7-penthoxyresorufin hydroxylation (7-PRH), and lipid peroxidation induced by chronic ethanol administration. Additionally, propolis ethanol extract (100 mg/kg) also induced GSTase and gamma-GCSase activities and decreased glutathione levels in the liver. PMID:10354820

  11. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Emily R.; Oberhofer, Martina; Leyte-Lugo, Martha; Moody, Ashley N.; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Grubbs, Laura F.; Juzumaite, Monika; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Faeth, Stanley H.; Laster, Scott M.; Cech, Nadja B.

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can originate from endophytic bacteria. Together, our findings indicate that ethanolic E. purpurea extracts contain multiple constituents that differentially regulate cytokine production by macrophages. PMID:25933416

  12. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Todd, Daniel A; Gulledge, Travis V; Britton, Emily R; Oberhofer, Martina; Leyte-Lugo, Martha; Moody, Ashley N; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Grubbs, Laura F; Juzumaite, Monika; Graf, Tyler N; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Faeth, Stanley H; Laster, Scott M; Cech, Nadja B

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can originate from endophytic bacteria. Together, our findings indicate that ethanolic E. purpurea extracts contain multiple constituents that differentially regulate cytokine production by macrophages. PMID:25933416

  13. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Peir, Sara; Gordon, Michael H.; Blanco, Mnica; Prez-Llamas, Francisca; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano, Mara Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols was optimal at 65 C, the maximum antioxidant capacity was achieved with an extraction temperature of 90 C. This study has identified the optimal conditions for the extraction of tea liquor with the best antioxidant properties. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin were extracted from white tea at concentrations up to 29.6 10.6, 5.40 2.09, 5.04 0.20 and 2.48 1.10 mg/100 g. PMID:26785234

  14. Extraction of ethanol with higher alcohol solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a solvent extraction screening study, several beta-branched alcohols in the 16 20 carbons range show improved extractive performance to recover ethanol from aqueous solutions compared to commonly studied solvents such as oleyl alcohol and 1-dodecanol. These beta-branched alcohols were selected ...

  15. Wheat proteins extracted from flour and batter with aqueous ethanol at subambient temperatures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contact of wheat flour proteins with aqueous ethanol may enrich protein by starch displacement and/or deplete protein by extraction depending (1) on the concentration and temperature of the applied solvent and (2) the form of the contacted substrate. Generally, extraction at sub-ambient temperatures...

  16. Sorghum Protein Extraction by Sonication and Its Relationship to Ethanol Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this research were to develop a rapid method for extracting proteins from mashed and non-mashed sorghum meal using sonication (ultrasound), and to determine the relationships between the levels of extractable proteins and ethanol fermentation. Nine grain sorghum samples with a bro...

  17. Antioxidant properties of extracts from fermented and cooked seeds of Polish cultivars of Lathyrus sativus.

    PubMed

    Starzy?ska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bo?ena; Jamrz, Ma?gorzata

    2008-07-15

    Antiradical and total antioxidant activities of extracts from raw, prepared for inoculation, fermented (tempeh) and cooked seeds of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus Krab and Derek cultivars) were measured. Tempeh fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus resulted in higher scavenging activity towards DPPH and ABTS(+) radicals which correlated well with the content of total phenols. In Derek cultivar, fermentation caused a significant inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation by methanol extracts. In buffer extracts the highest TAA values were observed in raw seeds. Cooking of seeds lowered RSA values as compared to fermentation, especially for the DPPH assay. Methanol and buffer extracts from cooked seeds showed prooxidant activity towards linoleic acid. PMID:26003349

  18. Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96%?v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Results Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30?days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Conclusions Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue. PMID:24761774

  19. Biological activity of ethanolic extract fractions of Dracaena arborea against infestation of stored grains by two storage insect pests.

    PubMed

    Epidi, T T; Udo, I O

    2009-07-01

    As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link (Dragon tree; Dracaenaceae) dissolved in distilled water and partitioned between equal volumes of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol was assessed in the laboratory against infestation by Sitophillus zeamais Motsch. and Callosobruchus maculatus Walp. in stored maize and cowpea, respectively. One hundred grams each of maize grains and cowpea seeds were treated with 400 mg kg(-1) of each extract fraction to evaluate contact toxicity, damage assessment, effect on eggs and immature stages and progeny production in both insect species. Contact toxicity by topical application, toxicity upon filter paper application and repellency using area preference method were carried out on the two insect species. Results showed that the extract fraction caused significant (p < or = 0.05) mortality of both insect pests with a high residual contact activity against S. zeamais. Grain damage was significantly (p < or = 0.01) reduced, while progeny production and development of eggs within grains were inhibited. The extract fractions evoked a strong repellent action against S. zeamais but moderate action against C. maculatus. The full potentials of using extract fractions of D. arborea as grain protectant against infestation by insect pests is discussed. PMID:19817125

  20. Potential of crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens L., against the mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Choochote, Wej; Tuetun, Benjawan; Kanjanapothi, Duangta; Rattanachanpichai, Eumporn; Chaithong, Udom; Chaiwong, Prasong; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2004-12-01

    Crude seed extract of celery, Apium graveolens, was investigated for anti-mosquito potential, including larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue haemorrhagic fever. The ethanol-extracted A. graveolens possessed larvicidal activity against fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti with LD50 and LD95 values of 81.0 and 176.8 mg/L, respectively. The abnormal movement observed in treated larvae indicated that the toxic effect of A. graveolens extract was probably on the nervous system. In testing for adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited a slightly adulticidal potency with LD50 and LD95 values of 6.6 and 66.4 mg/cm2, respectively. It showed repellency against Ae. aegypti adult females with ED50 and ED95 values of 2.03 and 28.12 mg/cm2, respectively. It also provided biting protection time of 3 h when applied at a concentration of 25 g%. Topical application of the ethanol-extracted A. graveolens did not induce dermal irritation. No adverse effects on the skin or other parts of the body of human volunteers were observed during 3 mo of the study period or in the following 3 mo, after which time observations ceased. A. graveolens, therefore, can be considered as a probable source of some biologically active compounds used in the development of mosquito control agents, particularly repellent products. PMID:15707293

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and solvent extraction of papaya seed oil: yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile.

    PubMed

    Samaram, Shadi; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Tan, Chin Ping; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the current work was to evaluate the suitability of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the recovery of oil from papaya seed as compared to conventional extraction techniques (i.e., Soxhlet extraction (SXE) and solvent extraction (SE)). In the present study, the recovery yield, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil obtained from different extraction methods and conditions were compared. Results indicated that both solvent extraction (SE, 12 h/25 C) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) methods recovered relatively high yields (79.1% and 76.1% of total oil content, respectively). Analysis of fatty acid composition revealed that the predominant fatty acids in papaya seed oil were oleic (18:1, 70.5%-74.7%), palmitic (16:0, 14.9%-17.9%), stearic (18:0, 4.50%-5.25%), and linoleic acid (18:2, 3.63%-4.6%). Moreover, the most abundant triacylglycerols of papaya seed oil were triolein (OOO), palmitoyl diolein (POO) and stearoyl oleoyl linolein (SOL). In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the triacylglycerol profile of papaya seed oil, but no significant differences were observed in the fatty acid composition of papaya seed oil extracted by different extraction methods (SXE, SE and UAE) and conditions. PMID:24152670

  2. Protective action of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in gastric ulcer prevention induced by ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Guilherme Pires; de Carvalho, Nelson Rodrigues; Barcelos, Rmulo Pillon; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Portella, Rafael de Lima; da Silva, Michele Hinerasky; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; da Luz, Snia Cristina Almeida; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Villetti, Marcos Antonio; Antunes Soares, Flix Alexandre; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2013-05-01

    The pathology of a gastric ulcer is complex and multifactorial. Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and its development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (eeRo); this plant, more commonly known as rosemary, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its numerous pharmacological properties and their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we tested the preventive effects of eeRo against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol in male Wistar rats. In addition, we aimed to clarify the mechanism involved in the preventive action of the eeRo in gastric ulcers. Based on the analysis of markers of oxidative damage and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, the measurement of nitrite and nitrate levels and the assessment of the inflammatory response, the eeRo exhibited significant antioxidant, vasodilator and antiinflammatory properties. PMID:23279841

  3. An efficient extraction method to enhance analysis of low abundant proteins from soybean seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large amounts of the major seed storage proteins, such as -conglycinin and glycinin, in soybean (Glycine max) seeds hinder the isolation and characterization of less abundant seed proteins. We investigated whether isopropanol extraction could facilitate resolution of the less abundant proteins fro...

  4. Evaluation of acute and subacute oral toxicity of the ethanol extract from Antidesma acidum Retz.

    PubMed

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Thamaree, Sopit; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Vannasiri, Supaporn; Khonsung, Parirat; Singhalak, Tipaya; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity tests of 95% ethanol extract of the root of Antidesma acidum were studied in male and female rats. The oral acute toxicity test at 5,000 mg/kg revealed that the ethanol extract did not produce toxic effects on signs, general behavious, mortality and gross appearance of internal organs of rats. Furthermore, the oral sub-acute toxicity test at the dose of 1,000 mg/kg/day displayed no significant changes in body and internal organs' weights, normal hematological and clinical blood chemistry values. Histological examination also showed normal architecture of all internal organs. In conclusion, the ethanol extract of Antidesma acidum did not produce any toxicity in oral acute and suba-cute toxicity studies. PMID:23983382

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Aframomum melegueta on ethanol-induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Nwozo, Sarah O; Oyinloye, Babatunji E

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there have been remarkable developments in the prevention of diseases, especially with regards to the role of free radicals and antioxidants. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to be one mechanism by which ethanol causes liver injury. The protective effect of aqueous plant extract of Aframomum melegueta on ethanol-induced toxicity was investigated in male Wistar rats. The rats were treated with 45 % ethanol (4.8 g/kg b.w.t.) for 16 days to induce alcoholic diseases in the liver. The activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and triglyceride were monitored and the histological changes in liver examined in order to evaluate the protective effects of the plant extract. Hepatic malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione, as well as superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were determined for the antioxidant status. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in a statistically significant elevation of serum alanine aminotransferases and triglyceride levels, as well as a decrease in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase which was dramatically attenuated by the co-administration of the plant extract. Histological changes were related to these indices. Co-administration of the plant extract suppressed the elevation of lipid peroxidation, restored the reduced glutathion, and enhanced the superoxide dismutase activity. These results highlight the ability of Aframomum melegueta to ameliorate oxidative damage in the liver and the observed effects are associated with its antioxidant activities. PMID:21887409

  6. Effect of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Adwan, Ghaleb; Salameh, Yousef; Adwan, Kamel

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium (E. elaterium) fruits alone against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains and Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains, or in combination with penicillin against Staphylococcus areus strains. Methods Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity or synergy interaction was carried out using microdilution method. Results The results showed that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and C. albicans. This extract showed a significant decrease in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin against both MRSA and MSSA strains. Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC) between penicillin and ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits against these test strains was less than 0.5. Conclusions This study suggests that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and C. albicans and there is a possibility of concurrent use of penicillin and E. elaterium extract in combination in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA and MSSA strains. A wider study is needed to identify the effective components, the mode of action and the possible toxic effect in vivo of these ingredients. PMID:23569813

  7. Improved method for extraction of castor seed for toxin determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effort to identify castor seeds with low ricin content is considered to be a key to increasing cultivation of the castor plant for industrial applications. The procedure used to obtain soluble protein from the seed is a limiting factor for screening large numbers of seeds. Usually, the seed is...

  8. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

    2013-01-01

    Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this article: Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, Saujanya KP, Patil AK, Kakde DD. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):61-6 . PMID:24453446

  9. Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed is a second product of the cotton plant that accounts for between 15 and 25% of the crop value. The seed is extracted for oil, producing meal, hulls, and linters as co-products, or it is used whole as a protein feed ingredient for ruminant animals. The oil fraction is the most valuable ...

  10. Curcuma aromatica Water Extract Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastritis via Enhancement of Antioxidant Status

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Jin, Seong Eun; Ha, Hyekyung

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW) in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p < 0.01, resp.) and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p < 0.01) and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p < 0.01, resp.). CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol. PMID:26483844

  11. Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii by Water-soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot and cold water-soluble muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) seed extracts and their polar and polyphenol fractions from two Muscadine cultivars (Ison, purple and Carlos, bronze) were investigated for their inhibition of Enterobacter sakazakii. The heat treatment on each seed extract not only incre...

  12. Stepwise ethanolic precipitation of sugar beet pectins from the acidic extract.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Meng, Hecheng; Zhu, Siming; Tang, Qiang; Pan, Runquan; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-20

    A stepwise ethanol-precipitation (SEP) procedure was developed for the purification of sugar beet pectins (SBP) from a pectin-containing aqueous extract. Five fractions of different chemical and molecular characteristics were produced by stepwise elevating the alcohol concentration of the precipitation medium from 50% to 80% v/v. Comparison of chemical and macromolecular features between the obtained fractions indirectly suggested that the ability of pectin to solubilize in the ethanol-water binary mixture depended greatly on the polymer structure. Fractions rich in neutral sugars were precipitated at relatively high ethanol concentrations, probably due to the enhanced interactions generated between pectin side chains and solvent molecules. Furthermore, the obtained fractions displayed different surface activities. Results obtained in this work indicate that the SEP procedure is more selective with respect to pectin structural features and surface properties than the one-step ethanolic precipitation. PMID:26572361

  13. Protective effect of propolis ethanol extract on ethanol-induced renal toxicity: an in-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chi-Feng; Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Yun-Ho; Chen, Chin-Fa; Lin, Song-Chow

    2005-01-01

    Acute p.o. administration of absolute ethanol (10 ml/kg) to fasted mice would produce extensive renal failure. Pretreatment with p.o. administration of propolis ethanol extract (PEE) could prevent such renal failure effectively and dose dependently. This renal protective effect of PEE may be contributed, at least in part, to its antioxidative activity. The maximal antioxidative effect against absolute ethanol (AE)-induced renal failure could be observed 1 hour after PEE administration. In order to further investigate the renal protective mechanism of PEE, lipid peroxidation and superoxide scavenging activity were conducted in vivo. PEE exhibited dose-dependent antioxidative effects on lipid peroxidation in mice renal homogenate. Results indicated that mice with acute renal failure have higher malonic dialdehyde (MDA) levels compared with those in PEE administered mice. It was concluded that the renal protective mechanism of PEE could be contributed, at least in part, to its prominent superoxide scavenging effect; hence, it could protect, indirectly, the kidney from superoxide-induced renal damages. PMID:16265990

  14. Jodina rhombifolia leaves lyophilized aqueous extract decreases ethanol intake and preference in adolescent male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Roberto Teves, Mauricio; Wendel, Graciela Hayde; Pelzer, Lilian Eugenia

    2015-11-01

    The leaves of Jodina rhombifolia (Hook. & Arn.) Reissek (Santalaceae) are utilized as anti-alcoholic in Argentine folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-alcohol properties in adolescent male Wistar rats (postnatal day 29; 83-105 g of weight). We utilized the "self-administration model", which ethanol was offered in the standard home-cage through two-bottle free-choice regimen between an ethanolic solution (20% in tap water, v/v) and tap water with unlimited access for 24h per day for 10 consecutive days. The results obtained show that repeated administration of J. rhombifolia lyophilized extract, markedly reduced ethanol voluntary intake on dose dependent bases. The magnitude in reduction of daily ethanol intake was approximately 29%, 44% and 68%, for the rat groups treated with 62.5, 125 and 250 mg/kg of extract, respectively. Ethanol preference (proportion of ethanol intake versus total fluid intake) was significantly reduced: 21.37% 0.79 (0 mg/kg); 15.83% 0.93 (62.5 mg/kg); 15.22% 1.30 (125 mg/kg) and 9.38% 0.57 (250 mg/kg). Daily food intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the group treated with 250 mg/kg of JRLE in comparison with vehicle-dose group; the reduction in ethanol intake was associated with a compensatory increase in food intake, probably because in the control group animals a part of the total caloric intake was supplied by ethanol. Treatment was very well tolerated by all animals and without apparent side-effects. These results contribute to the scientific validation of the antialcoholic indication of this botanic species in Argentine folk medicine. PMID:26253580

  15. New ethanol extraction improves the anti-obesity effects of black tea.

    PubMed

    Park, Bongju; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Bonggyeong; Kim, Ingyum; Baek, Namjoon; Lee, Tae Ho; Lee, Seok-Yong; Son, Miwon; Park, Hyunsung

    2016-03-01

    Black tea has been reported to have anti-obesity effects in both rodents and humans. Gallic acid, an active component of black tea, decomposes quickly into pyrogallol in high-temperature solutions. This study introduced a new, aqueous ethanol extraction of black tea, which resulted in extracts with higher concentrations of gallic acid than conventional black tea extracts prepared by hot-water extraction or hot-ethanol extraction. We confirmed that, compared with the hot-water extract of black tea, the cold-ethanol extract of black tea (CE-BTE) had greater effects on reducing body weight and body fat, improving fatty liver, regulating blood glucose, and reducing blood cholesterol in the high-fat diet-induced obese mouse model. Nonetheless, although CE-BTE significantly reduced fat content, it did not reduce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) protein in epididymal fat tissue of HFD mice. We also showed that CE-BTE did not inhibit the function of PPARγ protein to drive adipogenesis of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Considering that PPARγ is a master transcription factor not only for adipocyte differentiation, but also for adipose tissue function, such as glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, these results suggest that CE-BTE reduced fat mass and body weight without dampening fat cell homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. PMID:26604105

  16. A Novel Extraction Method and Some Physicochemical Properties of Extractives of Irvingia Gabonensis seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ogaji, Ikoni J; Nan, Anjan; Hoag, Stephen W

    2012-01-01

    The plant Irvingia gabonensis contains lipids and polymer extractives that can be a good source of excipients for oral pharmaceutical formulations. These constituents are usually extracted from the seeds with the aid of either organic solvents or enzymes. The purpose of this paper was to describe a novel, simpler, cheaper, and safer method for the simultaneous extraction of lipids and gum from I. gabonensis. A 100.0 g of seeds of I. gabonensis in 200 mL deionized water was heated at 78°C in the presence of 2.0 g sodium chloride for 1 h, and the mixture was allowed to stand for the lipids to be separated and removed by filtration. The samples were air dried at 25–30°C. The liquid fraction was centrifuged at 3445 rpm for 30 min, and the supernatant portion containing the gum was freeze dried. The samples were investigated for their true, bulk, and tapped densities as well as particle size and particle size distributions. The rheological, and near infrared absorption spectra as well as thermal behavior of the samples were also studied. The lipid and the polymeric components of I. gabonensis seeds were successfully extracted simultaneously. The true densities of the fatty and gum components were, respectively, 1.000 and 1.544 g/cm3. The melting point of the fat was 40°C and Tg of the gum was 232°C. These values were similar to those described in the literature for the components using the traditional method, demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of this simple novel method. PMID:22754256

  17. Hot water extraction and steam explosion as pretreatments for ethanol production from spruce bark.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Katariina; Inkinen, Jenni; Uusitalo, Jaana; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina; Siika-aho, Matti

    2012-08-01

    Spruce bark is a source of interesting polyphenolic compounds and also a potential but little studied feedstock for sugar route biorefinery processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of spruce bark sugars to ethanol were studied after three different pretreatments: steam explosion (SE), hot water extraction (HWE) at 80 °C, and sequential hot water extraction and steam explosion (HWE+SE), and the recovery of different components was determined during the pretreatments. The best steam explosion conditions were 5 min at 190 °C without acid catalyst based on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the material. However, when pectinase was included in the enzyme mixture, the hydrolysis rate and yield of HWE bark was as good as that of SE and HWE+SE barks. Ethanol was produced efficiently with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the pretreated and hydrolysed materials suggesting the suitability of spruce bark to various lignocellulosic ethanol process concepts. PMID:22613888

  18. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract. PMID:26071101

  19. Assessment of the antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts of some Colombian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M F; Puebla, P; Carrn, R; Martn, M L; Arteaga, L; Romn, L San

    2002-04-01

    The antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts prepared from Calea glomerata Klatt, Croton schiedeanus Schlecht, Curatella americana L., Lippia alba (Mill)n N.E.Br. and Lupinus amandus, which are medicinal plants used in Colombian folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, were assayed both in SHR and Wistar rats and in rat isolated aortic rings. At a dose of 20 mg/kg, intravenous bolus administration of the ethanolic extracts, from C. schiedeanus, C. americana and L. amandus showed significant antihypertensive activity in SHR, C. schiedeanus being the most active. C. schiedeanus elicited dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate (5-100 mg/kg, i.v.) in SHR but 200 mg/kg administered orally did not show any significant effects, even after 3 h of observation. In intact rat aortic rings, ethanolic extracts from C. schiedeanus and Calea glomerata relaxed the contractions induced by KCl (80 mM) and phenylephrine (10(-6) M) in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-6)-3x10(-4) g/ml), with IC(50) of 6.5x10(-5) (7.3-5.8) g/ml and 7.1x10(-5) (7.9-6.4) g/ml, respectively. Bioguided phytochemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract from C. schiedeanus was started. More than one active principle seems to be present, flavonoids and terpenoids compounds were detected. PMID:11891085

  20. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of industrial sweetpotatoes for ethanol production and anthocyanins extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) system was studied for ethanol production in flour industrial sweetpotato (ISP) feedstocks (lines: white DM02-180 and purple NC-413) as an integrated cost saving process, and to examine the feasibility of extracting anthocyanins from flour purple IS...

  1. Challenges of cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corncobs are commonly used for xylose production at industrial scale, and the xylose-extracted corncob residue (X-ER), as a byproduct, is abundant and can serve as a potential energy resource. The X-ER is cellulose-rich and efforts to convert the cellulose fraction into ethanol have been attempted; ...

  2. Challenges of cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylose production using corncobs is an established industrial practice. The cellulose-rich xylose-extracted corncob residue (X-ER), as a byproduct, is a potential energy resource. Efforts to convert the cellulose fraction of X-ER to ethanol have been unsatisfactory due to a lack of understanding of ...

  3. Spermicidal activity of the crude ethanol extract of Sedum praealtum in mice.

    PubMed

    Silva-Torres, Rafael; Montellano-Rosales, Hortensia; Ramos-Zamora, Delfina; Castro-Mussot, M Eugenia; Cerda-Garca-Rojas, Carlos M

    2003-03-01

    Ethanol extract of Sedum praealtum in intravaginal doses of 10, 20, 40, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight showed a toxic effect in spermatozoa viability after 24h of administration. Spermatozoa viability was 94, 83, 58 and 24%, respectively, for extract doses of 10, 20, 40 and 50mg/kg body weight, while only dead spermatozoa were found in the vagina of the treated female mice with doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight. PMID:12576197

  4. Antioxidant Studies on Ethanol Extracts from Two Selected Genera of Indian Lamiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, G.; Dhanabal, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is targeted to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of Plectranthus mollis and Salvia officinalis belonging to family Lamiaceae using nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and lipid peroxidation methods. The results of the study indicate that the leaf extracts of both the plants possess in vitro antioxidant activity. The higher amount of flavanoids and phenolic compounds may correspond to their greater antioxidant activity.

  5. Ethanol.

    PubMed Central

    McIntire, Steven L

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely used drug whose mechanism of action, despite intensive study, remains uncertain. Biochemical and electrophysiological experiments have identified receptors and ion channels whose functions are altered at physiological concentrations of ethanol. Yet, the contribution of these potential targets to its intoxicating or behavioral effects is unclear. Unbiased forward genetic screens for resistant or hypersensitive mutants represent an attractive means of identifying the relevant molecular targets or biochemical pathways mediating the behavioral effects of neuroactive compounds. C. elegans has proven to be a particularly useful system for such studies. The behavioral effects of ethanol occur at equivalent tissue concentrations in mammals and in C. elegans, suggesting the existence of conserved drug targets in the nervous system. This chapter reviews the results of studies directed toward determining the mechanisms of action of ethanol. Studies of the neural adaptations that occur with prolonged drug exposure are also discussed. The methods used to characterize the actions of ethanol should be applicable to the characterizations of other compounds that affect the behavior of C. elegans. PMID:20432508

  6. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Analysis of Cichoriumintybus Seeds Extract and Various Organic Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Nasir; Zuba?r, Muhammad; R?zwan, Komal; Rasool, Nas?r; Shahid, Muhammad; Uddin Ahmad, Viqar

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant effectiveness of methanolic extract and different fractions (n-butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of C.intybus seeds. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against a panel of microorganisms (four bacterial strains, i.e. P. multocida, E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureus and three fungal strains, i.e A. flavus, A. niger and R. solani). The results indicated that seeds extract and fractions of C. intybus showed moderate activity as antibacterial agent. While Antifungal activity of C. intybus seeds extract/fractions was very low against A. flavus and A. niger while mild against R. solani. The C.intybus seeds extract/fractions contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (50.8-285 GAE mg/100g of Dry plant matter) and total flavonoid contents (43.3-150 CE mg/100g of Dry plant matter). The C. intybus seed extract/fractions also exhibited good DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 ranging from 21.28-72.14 ?g/mL. Of the C .intybus seeds solvent extract/fractions tested, 100% methanolic extract and ethylacetate fraction exhibited the maximum antioxidant activity. The results of the present investigation demonstrated significant (p < 0.01) variations in the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of C. intybus seeds solvent extract/fractions. PMID:24250548

  7. Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Arajo, Larissa Cardoso Corra; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleo, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgnia Barreto; Barros, Andr Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, MarliaCavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonalves; Paiva, Patrcia Maria Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 g/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 g/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1?. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1? levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the immunosuppressive potential of the extract. PMID:24349164

  8. Intrinsic anticarcinogenic effects of Piper sarmentosum ethanolic extract on a human hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Wan Omar, Wan Haifa Haryani; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah; Safian, Muhd Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

    2009-01-01

    Background Piper sarmentosum, locally known as kaduk is belonging to the family of Piperaceae. It is our interest to evaluate their effect on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) for the potential of anticarcinogenic activity. Results The anticarcinogenic activity of an ethanolic extract from Piper sarmentosum in HepG2 and non-malignant Chang's liver cell lines has been previously determined using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assays, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. The ethanolic extract that showed anticarcinogenic properties in HepG2 cells had an IC50 of 12.5 ?g mL-1, while IC50 values in the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line were greater than 30 ?g mL-1. Apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed using an inverted microscope and showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies following May-Grunwald-Giemsa's staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells in the overall population (apoptotic index) showed a continuously significant increase (p < 0.05) in 12.5 ?g mL-1 ethanolic extract-treated cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours compared to controls (untreated cells). Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with 10, 12 and 14 ?g mL-1 of ethanolic extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells. Molecular analysis of DNA fragmentation was used to examine intrinsic apoptosis induced by the ethanolic extracts. These results showed a typical intrinsic apoptotic characterisation, which included fragmentation of nuclear DNA in ethanolic extract-treated HepG2 cells. However, the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line produced no DNA fragmentation. In addition, the DNA genome was similarly intact for both the untreated non-malignant Chang's liver and HepG2 cell lines. Conclusion Therefore, our results suggest that the ethanolic extract from P. sarmentosum induced anticarcinogenic activity through an intrinsic apoptosis pathway in HepG2 cells in vitro. PMID:19257877

  9. Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Janet P.-C.; Wijaya, Sumi; Ting, Kang-Nee; Wiart, Christophe; Mustafa, Kamarul'Ain; Shipton, Fiona; Khoo, Teng-Jin

    2014-01-01

    If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500 μg/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223 μg/mL of pravastatin (control) showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate : methanol (95 : 5), gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A). Fraction 7A at 150 μg/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s), working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:24839451

  10. Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Bahekar, Satish E.; Kale, Ranjana S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking. Objective: The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively. Results: MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats. PMID:25878462

  11. Comparison of extraction methods for exploitation of grape skin residues from ethanol distillation.

    PubMed

    Peralbo-Molina, ngela; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Dolores Luque de Castro, Mara

    2012-11-15

    Four extraction techniques-namely, conventional maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and superheated liquid extraction (SHLE)-have been compared to evaluate their suitability to obtain valuable compounds from a raw material traditionally of scant interest: grape skin residues from ethanol-distillation. With this aim, red- and white-grape skins were separated from the rest of the pomace residue and subjected to extraction with 1:1 ethanol-acidic water as extractant in order to obtain the largest possible number of valuable compounds from this material, which has so far been used only as a heat source. The resulting extracts were characterized by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power tests and by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS). The composition of the extracts under each of the optimal conditions was studied by LC-TOF/MS, and the information thus obtained compared by Venn diagrams. These diagrams, together with the extracted base peak chromatograms, were used to assess the optimal working conditions. Tentative identification of compounds was conducted using open-free databases. Grape skins from distillation industries are a source of compounds of interest for the food and nutraceutical fields. PMID:23158325

  12. Comparison of the chemical composition of extracts from Scutellaria lateriflora using accelerated solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction versus standard hot water or 70% ethanol extraction.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Chantal; Gafner, Stefan; Clausen, Edgar; Carrier, Danielle J

    2005-04-20

    The aqueous extract of American skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L. (S. lateriflora), Lamiaceae) has been traditionally used by North American Indians as a nerve tonic and for its sedative and diuretic properties. Recent reports stated that flavonoids and possibly amino acids are responsible for the anxiolytic activity. As a part of our search for environmentally friendly solvents to extract the active components from medicinal plants, we used S. lateriflora in a comparison of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using water, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 and 10% EtOH as modifier, at different temperatures. Flavonoids and amino acids were quantified by HPLC-UV and HPLC-MS, respectively. The flavonoid content was compared with conventional extraction methods (hot water extraction and 70% ethanol). The use of ASE at 85 degrees C with water as solvent gave the best results for flavonoid glycosides and amino acids, whereas SFE gave higher yields of flavonoid aglycones. However, the results obtained for total flavonoids were not significatively superior to hot water extraction or 70% aqueous EtOH extract. PMID:15826062

  13. Broccoli seed extract: Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Yang, Hui; Li, Yongning; Lynch, B; Jia, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    Potential health benefits have been attributed to broccoli consumption. Hence, there is potential for use of broccoli seed extract (BSE) in food or for use as a dietary supplement. To assess the potential safety of a BSE product, three genotoxicity experiments, including an Ames, in vivo mouse micronucleus, and in vivo mouse sperm abnormality assay, were carried out. BSE was subject to an acute oral toxicity test and was evaluated in a 30-day feeding study in rats. BSE showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames assay and no evidence of genotoxic potential in the in vivo assays at doses up to 10 g/kg body weight (bw). The LD50 of BSE in rats was >10 g/kg bw/d. In the 30-day feeding study, in which BSE was administered in the diet to provide doses of 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg bw/d, no toxicological significant effects were noted on body weight, body weight gain, organ weights, or on the results of hematological, clinical chemistry and histopathological evaluations. The no-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 3.0 g/kg bw/d, the highest dose tested. Collectively, these results support the safe use of BSE as a food ingredient or product. PMID:26271574

  14. Ethanolic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata bark and leaf attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Uma Mahesh, Bandari; Shrivastava, Shweta; Kuncha, Madhusudhana; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Swamy, Challa Veerabhadra; Pragada, Rajeswara Rao; Naidu, V G M; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the potential protective effect of ethanolic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata (BO) bark and leaf against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Ethanolic extracts of BO bark (400 mg/kg) and leaves (250 mg/kg) were given orally to mice for 9 consecutive days and DOX (15 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered on the seventh day. Extract protected against DOX-induced ECG changes. It significantly inhibited DOX-provoked glutathione depletion and accumulation of malondialdehyde. The decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase in cardiac tissue were significantly (p<0.05) mitigated after treatment with BO bark and leaf extracts. Pretreatment with BO significantly (p<0.05) restored the levels of DOX-induced rise of SGPT, SGOT, serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB levels. These findings suggest that ethanolic extract of BO has protective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:23981374

  15. Sedative and anxiolytic effects of ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Irfan Newaz; Sarker, Md. Mominul Islam; Ajrin, Marzina

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate possible anxiogenic activity, sedative property and anxiolytic potential of crude ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves. Methods The anxiogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves was evaluated using standard animal behavioral models, such as hole cross and open field; sedative property and anxiolytic potential were evaluated by conducting thiopental sodium induced sleeping time tests and elevated plus-maze test. Results The crude ethanolic extract exhibited a significant (P<0.05, P<0.001) decrease of motor activity and exploratory behavior in hole cross and open field tests. The extract also markedly increased both the number of visits to and time spent in the corners of the open field. The extract treated rats spent more time in the open arm of elevated plus-maze, showing its antianxiety activity. There was a decrease in the locomotor activity. Conclusions The obtained results provide support for the use of this species in traditional medicine and warrant further investigation to isolate the specific components that are responsible for the sedative and anxiolytic effects. Components from this plant may have a great potential value as medicinal agents, as leads or model compounds for synthetic or semi synthetic structure modifications and optimization, and as neuropharmacological probes. PMID:25183117

  16. Effects of Danshen Ethanol Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Furong; Zeng, Jin; Liu, Songcan; He, Min; Zhu, Leilei; Ye, Yujie; Miao, Ping; Shen, Shujiao; Jiang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. A sequential, open-label, two-period pharmacokinetic interaction design was used. 12 healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose of fexofenadine (60?mg) followed by danshen ethanol extract (1?g orally, three times a day) for 10 days, after which they received 1?g of the danshen extract with fexofenadine (60?mg) on the last day. The plasma concentrations of fexofenadine was measured by LC-MS/MS. After 10 days of the danshen extract administration, the mean AUC and Cmax? of the fexofenadine was decreased by 37.2% and 27.4% compared with the control, respectively. The mean clearance of fexofenadine was increased by 104.9%. The in vitro study showed that tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone could induce MDR1 mRNA. This study showed that multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract could increase oral clearance of fexofenadine. The increased oral clearance of fexofenadine is attributable to induction of intestinal P-glycoprotein. PMID:25538791

  17. Effects of danshen ethanol extract on the pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Furong; Zeng, Jin; Liu, Songcan; He, Min; Zhu, Leilei; Ye, Yujie; Miao, Ping; Shen, Shujiao; Jiang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. A sequential, open-label, two-period pharmacokinetic interaction design was used. 12 healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose of fexofenadine (60?mg) followed by danshen ethanol extract (1?g orally, three times a day) for 10 days, after which they received 1?g of the danshen extract with fexofenadine (60?mg) on the last day. The plasma concentrations of fexofenadine was measured by LC-MS/MS. After 10 days of the danshen extract administration, the mean AUC and C max? of the fexofenadine was decreased by 37.2% and 27.4% compared with the control, respectively. The mean clearance of fexofenadine was increased by 104.9%. The in vitro study showed that tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone could induce MDR1 mRNA. This study showed that multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract could increase oral clearance of fexofenadine. The increased oral clearance of fexofenadine is attributable to induction of intestinal P-glycoprotein. PMID:25538791

  18. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pradeep; Khosa, Ratan L.; Mishra, Garima; Jha, Keshri K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the present investigation, ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus (EECR) rhizomes was evaluated for antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic swiss mice. Materials and Methods: After administration of EECR extract for 3 weeks, the body weight, blood glucose, biomarker enzymes (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase [SGPT] and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT]), and plasma lipid levels were measured in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Results: The ethanolic extract at dose levels of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight revealed significant antidiabetic activity, improvement in body weight, and reduction in elevated biochemical parameters such as SGPT, SGOT, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Conclusion: These experimental findings seemed to indicate the use of this plant in traditional Indian medicine for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:26681885

  19. In vivo antimalarial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis

    PubMed Central

    Okokon, Jude E.; Ettebong, Ette; Antia, Bassey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of the ethanol leaf extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis in the treatment of various ailment in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic leaf extract of Stachytarpheta cayennensis (90-270 mg/kg/day) was screened for blood schizonticidal activity against chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei in mice. The schizonticidal effect during early and established infections was investigated. Result: Stachytarpheta cayennensis (90-270 mg/kg/day) exhibited significant (P< 0.05) blood schizonticidal activity both in 4-day early infection test and in established infection with a considerable mean survival time comparable to that of the standard drug, chloroquine, 5 mg/kg/day. Conclusion: The leaf extract possesses significant (P< 0.05) antiplasmodial activity which confirms it's use in folkloric medicine in the treatment of malaria. PMID:20040937

  20. Non-destructive high-throughput DNA extraction and genotyping methods for cotton seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiuting; Hoegenauer, Kevin A; Maeda, Andrea B V; Wang, Fei; Stelly, David M; Nichols, Robert L; Jones, Don C

    2015-05-01

    Extensive use of targeted PCR-based genotyping is precluded for many plant research laboratories by the cost and time required for DNA extraction. Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) as a model for plants with medium-sized seeds, we report here manual procedures for inexpensive non-destructive high-throughput extraction of DNA suitable for PCR-based genotyping of large numbers of individual seeds and seedlings. By sampling only small amounts of cotyledon tissue of ungerminated seed or young seedlings, damage is minimized, and viability is not discernibly affected. The yield of DNA from each seed or seedling is typically sufficient for 1000 or 500 PCR reactions, respectively. For seeds, the tissue sampling procedure relies on a modified 96-well plate that is used subsequently for seed storage. For seeds and seedlings, the DNA is extracted in a strongly basic DNA buffer that is later neutralized and diluted. Extracts can be used directly for high-throughput PCR-based genotyping. Any laboratory can thus extract DNA from thousands of individual seeds/seedlings per person-day at a very modest cost for consumables (~$0.05 per sample). Being non-destructive, our approach enables a wide variety of time- and resource-saving applications, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), before planting, transplanting, and flowering. PMID:25967902

  1. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Almciga-Daz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel. PMID:19748936

  2. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic extract of Pandanus odoratissimus root against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Garima; Khosa, R. L.; Singh, Pradeep; Jha, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pandanus odoratissimus (Pandanaceae) is popular in the indigenous system of medicines like Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy. In the traditional system of medicine various plant parts such as leaves, root, flowers, and oils are used as anthelmintic, tonic, stomachic, digestive and in the treatment of jaundice and various liver disorders. Objective: The aim was to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of the root of P. odoratissimus against paracetamol (PCM) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Hepatotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rat by PCM (2 g/kg b.w. p.o. for 7 days). The ethanolic extract of P. odoratissimus root was administered at the dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w. orally for 7 days and silymarin (100 mg/kg b.w. p.o.) as standard drug was administered once daily for a week. The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was evaluated by assessment of biochemical parameters such as serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total and direct bilirubin and triglycerides. Histopathological study of rat liver was also done. Results: Experimental findings revealed that the extract at dose level of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of b.w. showed dose dependant hepatoprotective effect against PCM induced hepatotoxicity by significantly restoring the levels of serum enzymes to normal that was comparable to that of silymarin, but the extract at dose level of 400 mg/kg was found to be more potent when compared to that of 200 mg/kg. Besides, the results obtained from histopathological study also support the study. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that ethanolic extract of the root of P. odoratissimus afforded significant protection against PCM induced hepatotoxicity in rats. PMID:25709336

  3. Seed oil polyphenols: rapid and sensitive extraction method and high resolution-mass spectrometry identification.

    PubMed

    Koubaa, Mohamed; Mhemdi, Houcine; Vorobiev, Eugne

    2015-05-01

    Phenolic content is a primary parameter for vegetables oil quality evaluation, and directly involved in the prevention of oxidation and oil preservation. Several methods have been reported in the literature for polyphenols extraction from seed oil but the approaches commonly used remain manually handled. In this work, we propose a rapid and sensitive method for seed oil polyphenols extraction and identification. For this purpose, polyphenols were extracted from Opuntia stricta Haw seed oil, using high frequency agitation, separated, and then identified using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. Our results showed good sensitivity and reproducibility of the developed methods. PMID:25747847

  4. Structure and rheological properties of a xyloglucan extracted from Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril seeds.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Isabel R S; Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Santos, Gustavo R C; Silva, Alexandre G; Mouro, Paulo A S; Correia, Maria T S; Vicente, Antnio A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

    2015-02-01

    Hymenaea courbaril var courbaril seed xyloglucan was efficiently extracted with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation (yield=725% w/w). Its amorphous structure was identified by the pattern of X-ray diffraction. The monosaccharide composition was determined by GC/MS analysis of the alditol acetates and showed the occurrence of glucose:xylose:galactose:arabinose (40:34:20:6). One-(1D) and two-dimensional-(2D) NMR spectra confirmed a central backbone composed by 4-linked ?-glucose units partially branched at position 6 with non-reducing terminal units of ?-xylose or ?-galactose-(1?2)-?-xylose disaccharides. The xyloglucan solution was evaluated by dynamic light scattering and presents a polydisperse and practically neutral profile, and at 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) the solutions behave as a viscoelastic fluid. The polysaccharide did not show significant antibacterial or hemolytic activities. Overall our results indicate that xyloglucan from H. courbaril is a promising polysaccharide for food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25450047

  5. ?-Sitosterol: supercritical carbon dioxide extraction from sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sajfrtov, Marie; Lickov, Ivana; Wimmerov, Martina; Sovov, Helena; Wimmer, Zdenek

    2010-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15-60 MPa and temperatures of 40-80 degrees C. Oil and ?-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of ?-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of ?-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 degrees C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 degrees C. Both ?-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide. PMID:20480045

  6. Toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Milletia ferruginea (Hochst) seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Bishaw, D; Mulat, T

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the toxic effects of traditional Ethiopian fish poisoning plant Birbira [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Milletia ferruginea] seed extract on aquatic macroinvertebrates, Baetidae (Mayflies) and Hydropsychidae (Caddisflies), under laboratory conditions. In Ethiopia, toxic plant; Milletia ferruginea pulverized seeds have been used for fish poisoning since time immemorial. Macroinvertebrates are important biological indicators of alteration in the natural water sources. Milletia ferruginea seed extract was applied at concentrations of 125, 250, 500 1000 and 2000 ppm on Hydropsychididae whereas Baetidae were exposed at various concentrations viz., 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 & 500 ppm. Milletia ferruginea seeds crude extract of lethal doses (LCso and LC90) required for Baetidae 49.29 mg/l and 172.52 mg/l were respectively and the respective doses (LC50 and LC90) against Hydropsychidae were 679.64 mg/l and 2383.93 mg/l. The present investigation end result demonstrated that Milletia ferruginea seed extracts were extremely toxic to Baetidae than Hydropsychididae. As a result, application of Milletia ferruginea seed extracts into the rivers/streams for fish poisoning possibly leads to contamination and disruption of food chain in the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, the concerned authorities should launch appropriate awareness campaign among the local inhabitants and fisherman about adverse effect of Birbira seed extracts. Furthermore, providing alternative ecofriendly techniques for fish harvesting may possibly bring constructive out come in the near future. PMID:19673168

  7. Protective Effect of Areca catechu Leaf Ethanol Extract Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcers in ICR Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Pa; Choi, Nan Hee; Sudjarwo, Giftania Wardani; Ahn, Sang-Hyun; Park, In-Sik; Lee, Sang-Rak; Hong, Heeok

    2016-02-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common digestive disorder that results in considerable suffering. Hence, this digestive pathology has been the focus of a number of recent studies. Although numerous drugs have been developed to treat gastric ulcers, therapeutic approaches for many of the complications associated with these drugs remain to be identified. For this reason, many natural compounds have been explored as alternatives for these drugs. In this study, we have investigated the effectiveness of Areca catechu leaf ethanol extract (ACE) for treating ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in mice. We performed histological as well as immunohistochemical examinations to explore the therapeutic properties of ACE. We also examined the levels of inflammatory signaling molecules to confirm the anti-inflammatory effects of ACE. The histochemical data demonstrate that ACE can protect the mucosal epithelium as well as the vascular supply in the gastric tract. Furthermore, ACE significantly reduced the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B). Taken together, these data suggest that ACE administration may have the potential as an alternative treatment for gastric ulcer because of its cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects and ability to promote the rejuvenation and revascularization of the damaged gastric epithelium. PMID:26540449

  8. Effect of Verbascum thapsus ethanol extract on induction of apoptosis in Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kashan, Zohreh F; Arbabi, Mohsen; Delavari, Mahdi; Hooshyar, Hossein; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Joneydy, Zeynab

    2015-01-01

    Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a tiny parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. Metronidazole is used as routine treatment of disease. Some reports have confirmed the potential carcinogenic and teratogenic effects of this drug on fetus and indication of drug resistance. Verbascum thapsus belongs to the family of Scorphulariaceae. Its antiinflammatory properties, disinfectant and skin healing effects are well known. This plant has been used to treat diarrhea and genitourinary infection in traditional medicine. Effects of different concentrations of the Verbascum thapsus extract were tested on the growth and motility of T. vaginalis trophozoites. To evaluate the toxicity of extract, their effects on mice macrophages were measured by MTT([3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazolyl-2)- 2,5-diphenyle tetrazolium bromide ])assay. In this experimental study the effect of Verbascum thapsus ethanol extract on induction apoptosis in T. vaginalis was determined by Flow Cytometry. Results were analyzed by Flow Jo software and the degree of apoptosis was determined. Toxicity percentage of 25-800 ?g/ml concentrations of Verbascum thapsus alcoholic extract for mice macrophages was observed between 0.17-0.25 after 12 hours and they were between 0.25-0.42 and0.45-0.95 after 24 and 48h respectively. IC50 (inhibitory concentration, 50%) of Verbascum thapsus ethanol extract and metronidazole after 24h was 39.17 and 0.0326 ?g/ml respectively. Flow cytometry results showed the percent of apoptosis following treatment of trophozoites with different concentrations of Verbascum thapsus ethanol extract (25, 50,100,200,400 ?g/ml), were 20.7, 37.04, 47.5, 62.72 and 86.35 respectively, while in control group was 2.9. According to this study, Verbascum thapsus extract induces programmed death in T. vaginalis. It is recommended that Verbascum thapsus extract can be considered as a suitable choice for Medical Studies. PMID:26239850

  9. Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

  10. Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

    2010-09-01

    To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3 ~ 12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9 ~ 2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

  11. Inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach L. leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistiyani; Safithri, Mega; Puspita Sari, Yoana

    2016-01-01

    Development of α-glucosidase inhibitor derived from natural products is an opportunity for a more economic management of diabetes prevention. The objective of this study was to test the activity of α-glucosidase with or without potential inhibitor compounds. By in vitro method, α-glucosidase hydrolizes p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopiranoside to glucose and the yellow of p-nitrophenol which can be determined with spectrophotometry at 400 nm. The ability of ethanolic leaf extract of Melia azedarach L. as a-glucosidase inhibitor was compared with that of commercial acarbose (Glucobay®). Acarbose showed strong inhibitory activity against a-glucosidase with IC50 values of 2.154 µg/mL. The crude ethanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach, however, showed less inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 3, 444.114 µg/mL. Total phenolics of M. azedarach leaves EtOH extract showed 17.94 µg GAE/mg extract and flavonoids total compound of 9.55 µg QE/mg extract. Based on the published wide range of IC50 values of extracts reported as a-glucosidase inhibitor which were between 10, 000 ppm-0.66 ppm, our result suggests that extract of M.azedarach leaves is potential candidate for development of anti-hyperglycemic formulation.

  12. Hydnophytum formicarum Jack ethanol extract modulates quorum sensing-controlled pathogenicity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Hertiani, Triana; Pratiwi, Sylvia Utami Tunjung

    2015-09-01

    The discovery of new mechanism to control microbial pathogenicity by quorum sensing modulation has generated the search for quorum sensing inhibitor from natural resources. The objective of this research was to evaluate the ability of Hydnophytum formicarum Jack (Rubiaceae) ethanol extract to antagonize cell-to cell communication. Pulverized H. formicarum tuber was macerated in ethyl alcohol 96% and evaporated to yield ethanol extract. A dillution technique using Luria-Bertani (LB) medium was used to observe the capability of the extract to reduce the violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum. Samples in two-fold dilution were prepared to obtain 2 - 0.0625 mg/mL concentration. The effects on swimming, swarming and twitching motility as well as the formation of biofilm towards Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were recorded over control. All experiments were done in triplicate. The architecture of Ps. aeruginosa biofilm treated with samples was examined by CLSM (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) . Our results suggested that the ethanol extract of H. formicarum caused violacein production inhibition. Furthermore, inhibition of Ps. aeruginosa motility and biofilm formation were recorded to be significant over control in a concentration dependent manner. H. formicarum serves as a potential source for new QS-based antibacterial drugs towards Ps. aeruginosa. PMID:26408889

  13. Extraction of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed oil by full pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennycress is currently being developed as an oilseed crop for biofuel production. Pennycress seeds harvested from a field near Peoria, IL, provided our first opportunity to conduct an oil extraction study on a pilot scale. The goals of this study were to determine the effects of seed moisture and c...

  14. Production of ethanol by immobilized Saccharomyces bayanus in an extractive fermentation system

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, M.R.A.; Cabral, J.M.S.; Novais, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    An extractive fermentation system using immobilized yeast cells was developed to study the ethanol production at high sugar concentrations. Organic acids were used as extracting solvents of ethanol and their toxicity was tested in free and k-carrageenan entrapped cell preparations. Immobilization seems to protect cells against solvent toxicity, when long-chain organic acids, e.g., oleic acid, were used, probably due to steric and diffusional limitations, the free cells not being viable at high oleic acid concentrations. The entrapped cells also present a high metabolic activity than their free counterparts at high glucose concentrations. A solution of 300 g/L of glucose was totally fermented by the immobilized yeast cells, which when free cannot normally convert more than 200 g/L. In situ recovery of ethanol by oleic acid in a batch immobilized cell system led to higher ethanol productivities and to the fermentation of 400 g/L, when an oleic acid/medium ratio of 5 was used.

  15. Full-Press Oil Extraction of Extruded Lesquerella Seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesquerella fendleri is a winter annual oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family that is native to the desert Southwestern United States. The seed has 30% oil, which contains 55-64% lesquerolic and auricolic acids (hydroxy FA). The seeds contain glucosinolates that, upon hydrolysis by thi...

  16. Oil extraction from lesquerella seeds by dry extrusion and expelling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole Lesquerella seeds with 6% (as is) and 12% moisture were extruded at different residence times by varying screw speeds and feed rates. The temperature of the extrudate was recorded and its moisture content was determined. The extent of seed cooking was evaluated by measuring the protein solub...

  17. Extraction of Field Pennycress Seed Oil by Full Pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pennycress (Thlasphi arvense L., Brassicaceae) is a winter annual that grows widely in the temperate North America. Its seeds contain up to 36% oil (db) with the major fatty acid as erucic acid (38%). With an estimated seed production of 1,700 2,200 kg/ha, pennycress can be a major source of...

  18. Optimization of mechanical extraction conditions for producing grape seed oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, over 150 thousand metric tons of dried grape seeds containing 13-19% of oil are produced every year, as a byproduct from processing of about 5.8 million metric tons of grapes. The health promoting properties of grape seed oil is due to the presence of many bioactive components ...

  19. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

  20. Effect of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) seed extract on stability of olive oil.

    PubMed

    zcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the antioxidant effect of date (Phoenix dactylifera L., Arecaceae) seed extracts at different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) on the oxidative stability of olive oil at 60C was determined. Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was used as positive control in the experiment. All extracts exhibited antioxidant activity compared to BHA up to 21days. When antioxidant effect of extract concentrations were compared with BHA, the effect of 0.5% extract concentration was more remarkable for olive oil up to 21days. After 14days of assay, all of seed extracts was effective at 60C in comparison with control. On the other hand, an important increase was observed in both the peroxide and free fatty acidity values during the experiment period. It concluded that date seed extract could be used as a oxidative inhibitor agent in oil and oil products. PMID:25694743

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, and Corylus Rostrata (Hazel) Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Madhaven, N

    2001-01-01

    These ingredients are all derived from hazelnut trees. The two seed oils are expressed from the nuts of the hazelnut tree of the particular species identified. Most current reported cosmetic uses are of the seed oils. The seed extracts are the extract of the nuts of the identified species tree. There is one current report of use of seed extract in cosmetics. The leaf extracts are the extract from the leaves of the particular species tree. There are no current reports of use of these extracts in cosmetics. Analysis of seed oil from one species identified Oleic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Eicosaenoic Acid, Docosenoic Acid, Eicosanoic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Stearic Acid, and Tetraeicosanoic Acid. Little information is available to characterize the extracts, however. The functions of most of these ingredients in cosmetics are not reported. In studies of hazelnuts from Spain and Egypt, aflatoxin was reported as a possible contaminant. Aflatoxins are considered carcinogenic in humans. Virtually no safety test data are available on these ingredients. Negative results in one comedogenicity study using a seed oil are reported. Cross-sensitivity to proteins in peanuts and those in hazelnuts are reported, but the presence or absence of protein in nut extract and plant extract from hazelnut trees is not known. Additional data were provided regarding concentration of use, method of extraction and contaminants, comedogenicity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorption, but these data related to nut oil from only one species, and were not overall sufficient to resolve questions about irritation, sensitization, and photosensitization. Because of the absence of data, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic products. Because of the limited information that characterizes any of these oils or extracts, data are needed on each (except that items 1, 2, and 3 below are not needed for Hazel [Corylus Avellana] Nut Oil). The additonal data needs include: (1) current concentration of use; (2) method of extraction/manufacture and quality control (i.e., chemical analyses); (3) contaminants and methods of extraction (especially pesticides and heavy metals); (4) dermal irritation and sensitization; (5) UV absorption; if there is significant absorption, then a photosensitization study will be needed; (6) 28-day dermal toxicity; (7) reproductive and developmental toxicity; and (8) two genotoxicity assays, one in a mammalian system; if positive, then a 2-year dermal carcinogenesis study using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods may be needed. PMID:11358108

  2. Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.

    PubMed

    Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

    2012-01-01

    Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as indicators of the presence or high levels of anti-oxidants in the oils. PMID:22530436

  3. Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chvez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patio, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

  4. Recovery of oil components of okara by ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    PubMed

    Quitain, Armando T; Oro, Kazuyuki; Katoh, Shunsaku; Moriyoshi, Takashi

    2006-09-01

    Recovery of the oil components of okara by ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was investigated at 40-80 degrees C temperature and 12-30 MPa pressure. In a typical run (holding period of 2 h, continuous flow extraction of 5 h), results indicated that the oil component could be best obtained with a recovery of 63.5% at relatively low temperature of 40 degrees C and mild pressure of 20 MPa in the presence of 10 mol% EtOH as entrainer. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the extracts consisted mainly of fatty acids and phytosterols, and traces of decadienal. Folin-Ciocalteau estimates of total phenols showed that addition of EtOH as entrainer increased the yield and the amount of phenolic compounds in the extracts. The amounts of two primary soy isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, in the extracts also increased with increasing amount of EtOH. PMID:16099646

  5. Characterization and Benzo[a]pyrene Content Analysis of Camellia Seed Oil Extracted by a Novel Subcritical Fluid Extraction.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jianyin; Che, Ke; Xi, Ruchun; He, Liping; Chen, Xuexiang; Guan, Xiaosheng; Zhuang, Xueying; Wen, Xiujun; Cao, Yong

    2013-01-01

    A novel continuous subcritical n-butane extraction technique for Camellia seed oil was explored. The fatty acid composition, physicochemical properties, and benzo[a]pyrene content of Camellia seed oil extracted using this subcritical technique were analyzed. Orthogonal experiment design (L9(3(4))) was adopted to optimize extraction conditions. At a temperature of 45C, a pressure of 0.5MPa, a time of 50min and a bulk density of 0.7kg/L, an extraction yield of 99.120.20% was obtained. The major components of Camellia seed oil are oleic acid (73.120.40%), palmitic acid (10.380.05%), and linoleic acid (9.150.03%). Unsaturated fatty acids represent 83.780.03% of the total fatty acids present. Eight physicochemical indexes were assayed, namely, iodine value (83.000.21gI/100g), saponification value (154.812.00mgKOH/g), freezing-point (-8.000.10C), unsaponifiable matter (5.000.40g/kg), smoke point (215.001.00C), acid value (1.240.03mgKOH/g), refrigeration test (transparent, at 0C for 5.5h), and refractive index (1.460.06, at 25C). Benzo[a]pyrene was not detected in Camellia seed oil extracted by continuous subcritical n-butane extraction. In comparison, the benzo[a]pyrene levels of crude Camellia seed oil extracted by hot press extraction and refined Camellia seed oil were measured at26.550.70 and 5.690.04?g/kg respectively. PMID:24098057

  6. Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ishnava, Kalpesh B; Shah, Pankit P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria. Materials and Methods: The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract. Results: The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36?g/ml and 182.19?g/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50) value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein. Conclusion: Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria. PMID:25628685

  7. The effect of topical ethanol extract of Cotinus coggygria Scop. on cutaneous wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Halil; Sancar, Mesut; Sen, Ali; Okuyan, Betul; Bitis, Leyla; Uras, Fikriye; Akakin, Dilek; Cevik, Ozge; Kultur, Sukran; İzzettin, Fikret Vehbi

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the cutaneous wound healing effects of the ethanol extract of Cotinus coggygria leaves in rats by excision wound model to provide scientific evidence for the traditional use of C. coggygria Scop. The levels of malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione and hydroxyproline were investigated in wound tissues. Histopathological examination was also performed. The hydroxyproline content of the granulation tissue and the glutathione levels were both significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (p < 0.05 for both); while the malondialdehyde levels were significantly lower in the treatment group (p < 0.05). These results were supported with histological results. The ethanol extract of C. coggygria Scop could be considered as an effective agent in wound healing in accordance with its traditional use. PMID:25775378

  8. Susceptibility of Tetranychus urticae Koch to an ethanol extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Numa, S; Rodrguez, L; Rodrguez, D; Coy-Barrera, E

    2015-01-01

    One of the main pests of commercial rose crops in Colombia is the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. To manage this pest, synthetic chemicals have traditionally been used, some of which are well known to be potentially toxic to the environment and humans. Therefore, alternative strategies for pest management in greenhouse crops have been developed in recent years, including biological control with natural enemies such as parasitoids, predators and entomopathogenic microorganisms as well as chemical control using plant extracts. Such extracts have shown toxicity to insects, which has positioned them as a common alternative in programs of integrated pest management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an unfractionated ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves on adult females of T. urticae under laboratory conditions. The extract was chemically characterized by recording its metabolic profile via liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, along with tentative metabolite identification. The immersion technique and direct application to rose leaves were used to evaluate the effects of seven doses (10-2,000g/mL) of the ethanol extract of C. aconitifolius leaves on T. urticae females under laboratory conditions. The mortality and oviposition of individuals were recorded at 24, 48 and 72h. It was found that the C. aconitifolius leaf extract reduced fertility and increased mortality in a dose-dependent manner. The main metabolites identified included flavonoid- and sesquiterpene-type compounds, in addition to chromone- and xanthone-type compounds as minor constituents with potential acaricidal effects. PMID:26185740

  9. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, H.; Asghari, G.; Farahnaki, F.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 ?M) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 18 ?g/ml), ACh (IC50=118 18 ?g/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 51 ?g/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 108 ?g/ml), ACh (IC50=365 61 ?g/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 92 ?g/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  10. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Farahnaki, F

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 ?M) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 18 ?g/ml), ACh (IC50=118 18 ?g/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 51 ?g/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 108 ?g/ml), ACh (IC50=365 61 ?g/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 92 ?g/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  11. Hypoglycemic activity of Nymphaea stellata leaves ethanolic extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Dhanabal, S P; Raja, M K Mohan Maruga; Ramanathan, M; Suresh, B

    2007-06-01

    The ethanolic extract of leaves of Nymphaea stellata given by oral route to diabetic rats at dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for seven days reduced significantly by 31.6 and 42.6 % the plasma glucose level increased by intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/day of alloxan. Moreover, the treatment significantly affected the plasma level of cholesterol and triglyceride. PMID:17498889

  12. Fenugreek seed extract treats peripheral neuropathy in pyridoxine induced neuropathic mice

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Farshad Homayouni; Vakili-Zarch, Behzad; Shafiee, Mohammad; Mirjalili, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum commonly known as Fenugreek exerts normoglycemic and insulinotropic effects in humans by compounds from its seed and leaf extracts. Some studies reported that treating pregnant mice with fenugreek seed could cause toxic effects on the nervous system of its pubs during developmental growth, while in some other studies neuroprotective properties were considered for it. Safety of anti-diabetic drugs for nervous system is very important because peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes and hazardous drugs could worsen it. In this study, the effect of treatment with fenugreek seed extract on the function of sciatic nerves of neuropathic mice was evaluated. Neuropathy was induced in male mice by pyridoxine intoxication. After that, animals were treated with 0.2, 2 and 20 mg/kg of hydro-alcoholic extract of fenugreek seeds for 10 days, tail flick, electrophysiological and histological assays were performed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed extract on function of the peripheral nerves. Our data showed that fenugreek has anti neuropathic effect and restores the function of nerve fibers. Results of electrophysiological recordings stated that the highest rate of healing was occurred in 20 mg/kg fenugreek extract treated animals. In conclusion, findings of the present study demonstrate that treatment with fenugreek seed extract can potentially facilitate healing from pyridoxine induced peripheral neuropathy in mice. PMID:26417231

  13. Physical and Oxidative Stability of Uncoated and Chitosan-Coated Liposomes Containing Grape Seed Extract

    PubMed Central

    Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan. PMID:24300515

  14. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75 wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  15. Amelioration of nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity by the ethanol extract of the herb Euphorbia hirta

    PubMed Central

    Suganya, Subramanian; Sophia, Dominic; Raj, Chinthamony Arul; Rathi, Muthaiyan Ahalliya; Thirumoorthi, Lakshmanan; Meenakshi, Periyasamy; Kumar, Dugganaboyana Guru; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniyapan

    2011-01-01

    Background: Euphorbia hirta (L.) (Euphorbiaceae) is a very popular herb amongst practitioners of traditional medicine and used in the treatment of female disorders, respiratory ailments, tumors, jaundice, digestive problems, wounds, etc. We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of E. hirta against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The nephroprotective activity of the ethanol extract of E. hirta (400 mg/kg body weight) was studied in nitrobenzene-induced albino rats (1000 mg/kg body weight). The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiols and vitamin C in the kidney tissues were determined. Histopathologic investigation was performed in the kidney tissue samples. Results: Nitrobenzene administration significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced the lipid peroxidation and significantly (P < 0.05) depleted the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, total thiols and vitamin C. Treatment with the ethanol extract of E. hirta significantly normalized the antioxidant levels. The nephroprotective activity was also supported by histopathologic studies of kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results indicate that the ethanol extract of E. hirta ameliorates renal dysfunction and could be used as an effective protector against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity, primarily through its antioxidant capacity. PMID:22022170

  16. Effect of Ethanol/Water Solvents on Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Properties of Beijing Propolis Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chunli; Wu, Zhengshuang; Wang, Ziyan; Zhang, Hongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is a natural substance known to be beneficial for human health and used as a folk medicine in many parts of the world. In this study, phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracted by different ethanol/water solvents were analyzed. Our results reveal that phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of propolis extracts were significantly dependent on the concentration of ethanol/water solvents. Totally, 29 phenolic compounds were identified: 12 phenolic acids, 13 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acid esters. In particular, 75?wt.% ethanol/water solvent may be the best for the highest extraction yield and the strongest antioxidant properties. Caffeic acid, benzyl caffeate, phenethyl caffeate, 5-methoxy pinobanksin, pinobanksin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin-3-O-acetate, chrysin, and galangin were the characteristic compounds of Beijing propolis, and these compounds seem to verify that Beijing propolis may be poplar-type propolis. In addition, the presence of high level of pinobanksin-3-O-acetate in Chinese propolis may be a novel finding, representing one-third of all phenolics. PMID:26351514

  17. Diuretic Activity of Ethanolic Root Extract of Mimosa Pudica in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    SL, Shruthi; PS, Vaibhavi; VH, Pushpa; AM, Satish; Sibgatullah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introducation Diuretics are the drugs which increase the urine output. This property is useful in various pathological conditions of fluid overload. The presently available diuretics have lot of adverse effects. Our study has evaluated the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica as an alternative/new drug which may induce diuresis. Aim To evaluate the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudicaa in albino rats. Materials and Methods Ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica (EEMP) was prepared using soxhlet’s apparatus. Albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Group-I (Control) received distilled water 25ml/kg orally. Group-II (Standard) received Furosemide 20mg/kg orally. Group-III received EEMP 100 mg/kg, Group-IV received EEMP 200 mg/kg and Group-V received EEMP 400 mg/kg. The urine samples were collected for all the groups upto 5 hours after dosing and urine volume was measured. Urine was analysed for electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-). ANOVA, Dunnet’s test and p-values were measured and data was analysed. Results EEMP exhibited significant diuretic activity by increasing urine volume and also by enhancing elimination of Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Chloride (Cl-) at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg. Conclusion EEMP possesses significant diuretic activity and has a beneficial role in volume overload conditions. PMID:26870704

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts on Gram-Negative Food-borne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

    2012-01-01

    Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were prepared from different solvents, water (TW), ethanol (TE), and n-hexane (TH), and assessed for their antimicrobial activities against six gram-negative food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli KCTC 1039, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895, Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 3311, Salmonella Typhimurium KCCM 11862, Shigella sonnei KCTC 2518, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802). Among the tested TSEs, TE and TH showed a slight inhibition activity on V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802, but a good growth inhibition activity on Sal. Typhimurium KCCM 11862. TH and TE showed steady growth inhibition activity with increasing growth time after 6 hr when compared to the control (p<0.05). From these results, we confirmed the possibility of TH and TE as antimicrobial materials. PMID:24471089

  19. Mathematical model for ethanol production by extractive fermentation in a continuous stirred tank fermentor

    SciTech Connect

    Kollerup, F.; Daugulis, A.J.

    1985-09-01

    Extractive fermentation is a technique that can be used to reduce the effect of end product inhibition through the use of a water-immiscible phase that removes fermentation products in situ. This has the beneficial effect of not only removing inhibitory products as they are formed (thus keeping reaction rates high) but also has the potential for reducing product recovery costs. We have chosen to examine the ethanol fermentation as a model system for end product inhibition and extractive fermentation and have developed a computer model predicting the productivity enhancement possible with this technique together with other key parameters such as extraction efficiency and residual glucose concentration. The model accommodates variable liquid flow rates entering and leaving the system, since it was found that the aqueous outlet flow rate could be up to 35% lower than the inlet flow rate during extractive fermentation of concentrated glucose feeds due to the continuous removal of ethanol from the fermentation broth by solvent extraction. The model predicts a total ethanol productivity of 82.6 g/L h if a glucose feed of 750 g/L is fermented with a solvent having a distribution coefficient of 0.5 at a solvent dilution rate of 5.0 h/sup -1/. This is more than 10 times higher than for a conventional chemostat fermentation of a 250 g/L glucose feed. The model has furthermore illustrated the possible trade-offs that exist between obtaining a high extraction efficiency and a low residual glucose concentration.

  20. Combination pulsed electric field with ethanol solvent for Nannochloropsis sp. extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nafis, Ghazy Ammar; Mumpuni, Perwitasari Yekti; Indarto, Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, energy is one of human basic needs. As the human population increased, energy consumption also increased. This condition causes energy depletion. In case of the situation, alternative energy is needed to replace existing energy. Microalgae is chosen to become one of renewable energy resource, especially biodiesel, because it contains high amount of lipid instead of other feedstock which usually used. Fortunately, Indonesia has large area of water and high intensity of sunlight so microalgae cultivation becomes easier. Nannochloropsis sp., one of microalgae species, becomes the main focus because of its high lipid content. Many ways to break the cell wall of microalgae so the lipid content inside the microalgae will be released, for example conventional extraction, ultrasonic wave extraction, pressing, and electrical method. The most effective way for extraction is electrical method such as pulsed electric field method (PEF). The principal work of this method is by draining the electrical current into parallel plate. Parallel plate will generate the electrical field to break microalgae cell wall and the lipid will be released. The aim of this work is to evaluate two-stage procedure for extraction of useful components from microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. The first stage of this procedure includes pre-treatment of microalgae by ethanol solvent extraction and the second stage applies the PEF extraction using a binary mixture of water and ethanol solvent. Ethanol is chosen as solvent because it's safer to be used and easier to be handled than other solvent. Some variables that used to study the most effective operation conditions are frequency and duty cycle for microalgae. The optimum condition based on this research are at frequency 1 Hz and duty cycle 13%.

  1. Protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Liang, Yu-Chih; Chao, Jane CJ; Tsai, Li-Hsueh; Chang, Chun-Chao; Wang, Chia-Chi; Pan, Shiann

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the preventive effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. METHODS: Female Wistar albino rats were used for the studies. We randomly divided the rats for each study into five subgroups: normal control, experimental control, and three experimental groups. The gastric ulcers were induced by instilling 1 mL 50% ethanol into the stomach. We gave GbE 8.75, 17.5, 26.25 mg/kg intravenously to the experimental groups respectively 30 min prior to the ulcerative challenge. We removed the stomachs 45 min later. The gastric ulcers, gastric mucus and the content of non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), malondialdehyde (MDA), c-Jun kinase (JNK) activity in gastric mucosa were evaluated. The amount of gastric juice and its acidity were also measured. RESULTS: The findings of our study are as follows: (1) GbE pretreatment was found to provide a dose-dependent protection against the ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats; (2) the GbE pretreatment afforded a dose-dependent inhibition of ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus, NP-SH contents and increase in the lipid peroxidation (increase MDA) in gastric tissue; (3) gastric ulcer induced by ethanol produced an increase in JNK activity in gastric mucosa which also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with GbE; and (4) GbE alone had no inhibitory effect on gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. CONCLUSION: The finding of this study showed that GbE significantly inhibited the ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. We suggest that the preventive effect of GbE may be mediated through: (1) inhibition of lipid peroxidation; (2) preservation of gastric mucus and NP-SH; and (3) blockade of cell apoptosis. PMID:15968732

  2. Measurement of ethanol concentration using solvent extraction and dichromate oxidation and its application to bioethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Oh-Kyu; Ha, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan

    2009-02-01

    A method for measuring the ethanol concentration in a yeast culture broth was developed using both microtubes and a 96-deepwell microplate. The strategy involved first the solvent extraction of ethanol from the yeast culture broth and measurements of the ethanol concentration using the dichromate oxidation method. Particular focus was made on selecting the extraction solvent as well as determining the measurable range of ethanol concentrations using this solvent extraction-dichromate oxidation method. This method was developed as an assay format in 2.0-ml microtubes and 1.2-ml 96-deepwell microplates, and the ethanol concentration in the batch cultures and fed-batch fermentations was measured. Tri-n-butyl phosphate [non-alcoholic solvent, density = 0.9727, solubility in water = 0.028% (w/v)] was used for solvent extraction when measuring the ethanol concentration from the yeast culture broth. The maximum detectable ethanol concentration was 8% (v/v) when 10 g potassium dichromate in 100 ml of 5 M sulfuric acid was used. The concentrations determined from the solvent extraction-dichromate oxidation methods were remarkably similar to those of gas chromatography in which samples were prepared from seven experiments, such as four batch cultures and three fed-batch fermentations. PMID:18989713

  3. Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

  4. Anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant activity of the ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. F.) in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sinoriya, Pooja; Irchhaiya, R.; Sharma, Bhawna; Sahu, Gayatri; Kumar, Santosh

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the anticonvulsant and muscle relxant activity of ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata in mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of stems of D. falcata (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect on maximal electroshock-induced seizures and muscle relaxant activity at the same dose level using rota rod and traction test in mice. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. D. falcata ethanolic extract (DFEE) (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.001) inhibited seizures induced by MES, reduced the duration of Hind limb tonic extensor phase (HLTE) and a decline in motor coordination. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and muscle relaxant activity. PMID:22144780

  5. A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco. This PHA (Gibco) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

  6. Effect of ethanolic extracts of Justicia neesii Ramam. against experimental models of pain and pyrexia

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Nimmakayala; Lakshmi, Duggirala Suguna; Goverdhan, Puchchakayala

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of ethanolic extracts of Justicia neesii Ramam. by different experimental models. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of plant extract was evaluated against thermal and chemical stimulus induced by Eddy's hot plate and acetic acid respectively in mice. Brewer's yeast induced pyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity in rats and TAB vaccine induced pyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity in rabbits. Results: In the hot plate model 400 mg/kg p.o. dose of J. neesii has shown its maximal effect at 3 h. The results are significant (P < 0.05) and comparable to the values of standard drug pentazocine (30 mg/kg i.p.). In acetic acid induced writhing model 400 mg/kg p.o. of plant extracts have shown highly significant activity (P < 0.001) and better than standard drug indomethacin (10 mg/kg p.o.). The 400 mg/kg p.o. dose of plant extract has given significant results against both yeast induced pyrexia and TAB vaccine induced pyrexia (P< 0.01 and 0.05 respectively). These values are comparable to that of paracetamol 100 mg/kg p.o. standard dose. Conclusion: This study shows that the ethanol extract of J. neesii has significant analgesic and antipyretic activity. PMID:25878377

  7. Phytochemical Screening and Anti-nociceptive Properties of the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Trema Cannabina Lour

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Islam, Howlader Sariful; Kanti, Dey Shubhra; Arpona, Hira; Arif, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the anti-nociceptive activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Trema cannabina Lour (family: Cannabaceae) in experimental animal models. Methods: The anti-nociceptive action was carried out against two types of noxious stimuli, thermal (hot plate and tail immersion tests) and chemical (acetic acid-induced writhing) in mice. Results: Phytochemical analysis of crude extract indicated the presence of reducing sugar, tannins, steroid and alkaloid types of secondary metabolites. Crude extract of T. cannabina (500 mg/kg dose) showed maximum time needed for the response against thermal stimuli (6.790.15 seconds) which is comparable to diclofenac sodium (8.260.14 seconds) in the hot plate test. Hot tail immersion test also showed similar results as in hot plate test. At the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, the extract showed significantly and in a dose-dependent (p<0.001) reduction in acetic acid induced writhing in mice with a maximum effect of 47.56% reduction at 500 mg/kg dose comparable to that of diclofenac sodium (67.07%) at 25 mg/kg. Conclusion: The obtained results tend to suggest the Anti-nociceptive activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Trema cannabina and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant part as a remedy for pain. PMID:24312820

  8. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  9. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  10. Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Laxmi; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Rajak, H.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated. Results: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of ?-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:21808555

  11. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P.; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albariño, Caiño, Godello, Loureiro, Torrontés, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtzträminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  12. Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Vazquez, Alberto; Lamas, Juan P; Pajaro, Marta; Alvarez-Casas, Marta; Lores, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Grape seeds represent a high percentage (20% to 26%) of the grape marc obtained as a byproduct from white winemaking and keep a vast proportion of grape polyphenols. In this study, seeds obtained from 11 monovarietal white grape marcs cultivated in Northwestern Spain have been analyzed in order to characterize their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity. Seeds of native (Albario, Caio, Godello, Loureiro, Torronts, and Treixadura) and non-native (Chardonnay, Gewurtztrminer, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, and Riesling) grape varieties have been considered. Low weight phenolics have been extracted by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and further analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The results showed that PLE extracts, whatever the grape variety of origin, contained large amounts of polyphenols and high antioxidant activity. Differences in the varietal polyphenolic profiles were found, so a selective exploitation of seeds might be possible. PMID:26783956

  13. Identification of COX inhibitors in the hexane extract of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

    2007-07-01

    Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seed extract inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), but its active constituents have not been identified. In the present study, COX inhibitors were isolated from the hexane extract of this seed by means of 4 steps of liquid chromatography and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The COX inhibitors in the extract of Japanese horse chestnut seeds were identified as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic acid. Their efficacies were in the following order: linolenic acid = linoleic acid > oleic acid. These active constituents are C18 unsaturated fatty acids; stearic acid, a C18 saturated fatty acid, had no activity. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid had high selectivity toward COX-2 (selectivity index = 10), whereas oleic acid had no selectivity. Considering the efficacy and yield of each fatty acid, linoleic acid may be the principal COX inhibitor in this seed. PMID:17675801

  14. Grape seed extract for foodborne virus reduction on produce.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H

    2013-05-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have antibacterial properties with few current studies on antiviral activity. Recently, we reported the effects of GSE against foodborne viral surrogates in vitro. This study evaluated the application of GSE (commercial Gravinol-S) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus surrogates, feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1), on model produce. Washed and air-dried lettuce (3 × 3 cm(2)) and jalapeno peppers (25-30 g) were inoculated with FCV-F9, MNV-1, or HAV at high (∼7 log10 PFU/ml) or low (∼5 log10 PFU/ml) titers, and treated with 0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/ml GSE or water for 30 s to 5 min. Treatments were stopped/diluted with cell-culture media containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum and evaluated using plaque assays. At high titers, FCV-F9 was reduced by 2.33, 2.58, and 2.71 log10 PFU on lettuce; and 2.20, 2.74, and 3.05 log10 PFU on peppers after 1 min using 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively. Low FCV-F9 titers could not be detected after 1 min at all three GSE concentrations. Low titer MNV-1 was reduced by 0.2-0.3 log10 PFU on lettuce and 0.8 log10 PFU on peppers, without reduction of high titer. GSE at 0.25-1 mg/ml after 1 min caused 0.7-1.1 and 1-1.3 log10 PFU reduction for high and low HAV titers, respectively on both commodities. Instrumental color analysis showed no significant differences between treated and untreated produce. GSE shows potential for foodborne viral reduction on produce as part of hurdle technologies. PMID:23498171

  15. Grape Seed Extract for Control of Human Enteric Viruses ?

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H.

    2011-01-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ?7 log10 PFU/ml or ?5 log10 PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (?7 log10 PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log10 PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log10 PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 37C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. GSE treatment of low titers (?5 log10 PFU/ml) at 37C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety. PMID:21498749

  16. Anticonvulsant potential of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from Flemingia strobilifera root

    PubMed Central

    Gahlot, Kavita; Lal, Vijay Kumar; Jha, Shivesh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Flemingia strobilifera (FS) R.Br. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant. In wealth of India it has been reported that roots of FS are used by santals in epilepsy, hysteria, insomnia, and to relieve pain. In Burma also the roots of F. strobilifera are used to treat epilepsy. Objective: To investigate anticonvulsant potential of 95% ethanol extract and four subsequent fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the roots of FS against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) induced convulsions. Material and Methods: All the fractions and crude ethanol extract were administered (i.e., 200, 400, 600 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days and at the end of the treatment convulsions were induced experimentally using pentylenetetrazole and Maximal electroshock Test. Diazepam and phenytoin (4 mg/kg, i.p. and 20 mg/kg, i.p., respectively) were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs against experimentally induced convulsions. The latency of tonic convulsions and the numbers of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results: High doses (200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) of ethyl acetate fraction and 95% ethanol crude extract (400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the duration of seizure induced by maximal electroshock (MES). The same dose also protected from pentylenetetrzole-induced tonic seizures and significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures. However, pet, ether, chloroform, and aqueous fraction at any of the doses used (i.e., 100, 200, 300 mg/kg, p.o.) did not show any significant effect on PTZ and MES induced convulsions. The treatment with crude ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction caused signs of central nervous system depressant action in the locomotor activity test, confirmed by the potentiation of sodium pentobarbital sleeping time. Both did not cause disturbance in motor coordination assessed by rotarod test. Conclusion: The data suggest that crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of roots of Flemingia strobilifera have a central nervous system depressant action and behave as a potential anticonvulsant. It may produce its anticonvulsant effect via non-specific mechanism since it reduced the duration of seizures produced by maximal electroshock as well as delayed the latency of seizures produced by pentylenetetrazole. PMID:24174820

  17. Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

  18. Biological Activities of Ethanolic Extracts from Deep-Sea Antarctic Marine Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Tom; Ambrožič Avguštin, Jerneja; Batista, Urška; Strugar, Gašper; Kosmina, Rok; Čivović, Sandra; Janussen, Dorte; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Sepčić, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    We report on the screening of ethanolic extracts from 33 deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges for different biological activities. We monitored hemolysis, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity towards normal and transformed cells and growth inhibition of laboratory, commensal and clinically and ecologically relevant bacteria. The most prominent activities were associated with the extracts from sponges belonging to the genus Latrunculia, which show all of these activities. While most of these activities are associated to already known secondary metabolites, the extremely strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential appears to be related to a compound unknown to date. Extracts from Tetilla leptoderma, Bathydorus cf. spinosus, Xestospongia sp., Rossella sp., Rossella cf. racovitzae and Halichondria osculum were hemolytic, with the last two also showing moderate cytotoxic potential. The antibacterial tests showed significantly greater activities of the extracts of these Antarctic sponges towards ecologically relevant bacteria from sea water and from Arctic ice. This indicates their ecological relevance for inhibition of bacterial microfouling. PMID:23549284

  19. Activity antifungal of the essential oils; aqueous and ethanol extracts from Citrus aurantium L.

    PubMed

    Metoui, N; Gargouri, S; Amri, I; Fezzani, T; Jamoussi, B; Hamrouni, L

    2015-01-01

    Our study is about the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. in Tunisia and its plant extract. The yield of this essential oil is 0, 56% but the yield of the extract of plant was 17.1% for the aqueous extract ant 18.3% for the ethanolic extract. The analysis of chemical composition by using GC and GC/MS showed the essential oil of C. aurantium L. species to be rich in monoterpenes such as α-terpineol, lianolyl acetate, linalool and limonene. The antifungal activity of this oil showed us an inhibition of the germination of mushrooms, in the same way we could note that the biologic activities are generally assigned to the chemotypes high content in oxygenated monoterpene. PMID:26207731

  20. Characterization of co-products from producing ethanol by sequential extraction processing of corn

    SciTech Connect

    Hojilla-Evangelista, M.P.; Johnson, L.A.; Pometto, A.L. III; Svendsen, L.K.

    1996-12-31

    Sequential Extraction Processing (SEP) is a new process for ethanol production that has potential to produce more valuable co-products than alternative processes. Previous work determined the yields of oil and protein and evaluated their chemical and functional properties. The properties of the crude fiber and spent solids, however, have yet to be studied. This research was conducted to evaluate the potential of SEP corn fiber to increase ethanol conversion and as replacement for gum arabic, and evaluate the potential of SEP starch and fiber to be fermented to ethanol. SEP hemicellulose from crude fiber was readily dispersible in water and its solution (5%) gave low viscosity despite having high solids content. These properties indicated potential utilization as stabilizers, thickeners, and adhesive for coatings and batters in food and industrial products. Enzyme hydrolysis studies and batch fermentation of SEP starch/fiber indicated that SEP crude fiber was more readily accessible to the action of cellulases. More ethanol (about 10%) was produced from the fermentation of SEP starch/fiber than from undegermed or degermed soft dent corn, particularly when the hemicellulose fraction was absent from the SEP fiber.

  1. Antioxidant and antiulcer potential of aqueous leaf extract of Kigelia africana against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Matheus M; Olaleye, Mary T; Ineu, Rafael P; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Barbosa, Nilda BV; Rocha, Joo Batista Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotanical claims regarding Kigelia africana reported antiulcer properties as part of its medicinal application. In this work, aqueous leaf extract from K. africana was investigated for its phytochemical constituents and antiulcer potential against ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. The participation of oxidative stress on ethanol-induced ulcer and the potential protective antioxidant activity of K. africana extracts were investigated by determining vitamin C and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) contents in the gastric mucosa of rats. The HPLC analysis showed the presence of gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and also the flavonoids rutin, quercetin and kaempferol in the aqueous plant extract. Oral treatment with K. africana extract (1.75; 3.5; 7 and 14 mg/kg) one hour after ulcer induction with ethanol decreased in a dose dependent manner the ulcer index. Ethanol increased significantly stomachal TBARS levels and decreased vitamin C content when compared to the control animals. K. africana blunted the ethanol-induced oxidative stress and restored vitamin C content to the control levels. The present results indicate that the aqueous leaf extract from K. africana possesses antiulcer potential. The presence of flavonoids in plant extract suggests that its antiulcerogenic potential is associated with antioxidant activity. Of particular therapeutic potential, K. africana was effective against ethanol even after the induction of ulcer, indicating that it can have protective and curative effects against gastric lesion. PMID:26417263

  2. The anti-candidal activity of Satureja khuzistanica ethanol extract against clinical isolates of C. albicans.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, M; Kazempour, N

    2016-03-01

    Candida albicans is the common cause of some infectious diseases such as vaginal candidiasis or candidemia. Due to the emergence of drug resistant isolates of C. albicans, finding a new anti-Candida agent is a new strategy for current treatments. This study evaluated the anti-candidal activity of Satureja khuzistanica ethanol extract against clinical isolates of C. albicans. S. khuzistanica ethanol extract from aerial parts of plant at full flowering stage was evaluated against 30 clinical isolates and two ATCC reference strains of C. albicans by disc diffusion and micro-broth dilution assay. Also, in this study we evaluated the synergistic effects of amphotericin B, clotrimazole and ketoconazole with S. khuzistanica ethanol extract. The means of MIC and MFC of S. khuzistanica ethanol extract against clinical isolates were 299.4 and 722.6 (μg/mL), respectively. S. khuzistanica ethanol extract increased the anti-candidal effect of amphotericin B and ketoconazole, while it had no synergistic effect on clotrimazole against clinical isolates of C. albicans. Therefore, S. khuzistanica ethanol extract can be introduced as a new source of anti-candidal agent against clinical isolates of C. albicans. PMID:26849903

  3. Ethanol production from nonsterilized carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using fed-batch culture

    SciTech Connect

    Roukas, T. . Dept. of Food Science and Technology)

    1994-02-05

    The production of ethanol from carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in batch and fed-batch culture was investigated. Fed-batch culture proved to be a better fermentation system for the production of ethanol than batch culture. In fed-batch culture, both free and immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave the same maximum concentration of final ethanol at an initial sugar concentration of 300 g/L and F = 167 mL/h. The maximum ethanol productivity was obtained with both free and immobilized cells at a substrate concentration of 300 g/L and F = 334 mL/h. In repeated fed-batch culture, immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave a higher overall ethanol concentration compared with the free cells. The immobilized S. cerevisiae cells in Ca-alginate beads retained their ability to produce ethanol for 10 days.

  4. Hepatoprotective potential of Lavandula coronopifolia extracts against ethanol induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtsam S; Al-Oqail, Mai M; Hassan, Wafaa H B; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

    2015-08-01

    The present investigations were carried out to study the protective potential of four extracts (namely petroleum ether extract (LCR), chloroform extract (LCM), ethyl acetate extract (LCE), and alcoholic extract (LCL)) of Lavandula coronopifolia on oxidative stress-mediated cell death induced by ethanol, a known hepatotoxin in human hapatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cells were pretreated with LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts (10-50 ?g/ml) of L. coronopifolia for 24 h and then ethanol was added and incubated further for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red uptake assays and morphological changes in HepG2 cells were studied. Pretreatment with various extracts of L. coronpifolia was found to be significantly effective in countering the cytotoxic responses of ethanol. Antioxidant properties of these L. coronopifolia extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels induced by ethanol were investigated. Results show that pretreatment with these extracts for 24 h significantly inhibited ROS generation and LPO induced and increased the GSH levels reduced by ethanol. The data from the study suggests that LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts of L. coronopifolia showed hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced damage in HepG2 cells. However, a comparative study revealed that the LCE extract was found to be the most effective and LCL the least effective. The hepatoprotective effects observed in the study could be associated with the antioxidant properties of these extracts of L. coronopifolia. PMID:23546397

  5. Effect of Garden Cress Seeds Powder and Its Alcoholic Extract on the Metabolic Activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.

    PubMed

    Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Thukair, Areej A; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Abbas, Fawkeya A; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

    2014-01-01

    The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:24711855

  6. EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTHOCYANINS FROM PIGMENTED FLOWERS AND BLACK SEED HULLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New methodology has been developed for the preparative scale extraction and purification of anthocyanins from "black" seed coats and hulls. A combination of physical fractionation, extraction, flash chromatography and preparative chromatography has resulted in the isolation of gram quantities of pu...

  7. Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

  8. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Parveen, S; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Katoch, M; Khajuria, J K; Kaur, D; Ganai, A; Verma, P K; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, N K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum using the adult immersion test (AIT), egg hatchability test and larval packet test (LPT), respectively. Four concentrations of the extract (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in all the bioassays. In AIT, the mortality rates at 2.5, 5 and 10% were significantly different (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control group; however, at 20%, it was similar to the positive control group. Maximum mortality of 86.7% was recorded at 20%. The LC50 and LC95 values were calculated as 6.51 and 55.43%, respectively. The oviposition was reduced significantly by 36.8 and 59.1% at concentrations of 10 and 20%, respectively. Egg hatchability was reduced significantly at all concentrations (2.5-20%) in comparison to the control. In LPT, the extract caused 100% mortality of larvae at all the concentrations after 24 h. The results show that ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of A. absinthium has acaricidal properties and could be useful in controlling H. anatolicum. PMID:25039005

  9. Ethanol and water extract of purple sweet potato exhibits anti-atherosclerotic activity and inhibits protein glycation.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Lee, Joon-Seol; Lee, Hwahyung; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2010-02-01

    It is well known that extracts of purple sweet potato (PSP) have potent antioxidant activity. However, it has not been established whether extracts of PSP inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or protein glycation. LDL oxidation and protein glycation are well-known risk factors for chronic metabolic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus. Chopped and sliced PSP and yellow sweet potato (YSP) were extracted individually at a concentration of 1 g of PSP tuber/mL using either ethanol or water for 6 hours. The PSP ethanol extract (100-fold diluted) showed stronger radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) scavenging activity than the water extract of PSP and the ethanol extract of YSP (up to a sixfold higher activity). The ethanol extract of PSP also exhibited the highest increase in ferric reducing ability among all extracts. Cupric ion-mediated LDL oxidation was strongly inhibited by the ethanol extract of PSP, with similar potency to vitamin C treatment (final concentration, 10 mM). The PSP extract strongly inhibited fructose-mediated protein glycation as determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. The PSP extract-treated apolipoprotein (apo) A-I showed a decreased multimerization pattern on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, whereas glycated apoA-I showed the strongest multimeric band. PSP extract treatment also inhibited the uptake of oxidized LDL into human macrophage cells with suppression of malondialdehyde production in the cell culture medium. In conclusion, these results suggest that the extract of PSP can be used as a putative anti-atherosclerotic and antidiabetic agent with strong antioxidant functions. This is the first report to show the biological functions of PSP extract to treat hyperlipidemic and hyperglycemic disorders. PMID:20136441

  10. In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Marie-Magdeleine, C; Hoste, H; Mahieu, M; Varo, H; Archimede, H

    2009-04-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and adult worm motility (AWM) assay. The highly significant (P<0.001) ability to stop larval development (inhibition>90% for each extract) and the negative effect of the dichloromethane and methanolic extracts on adult worm motility (inhibition of motility >59.2% after 24h of incubation) compared to the negative controls, suggest anthelmintic properties of C. moschata seed against H. contortus. The active principles responsible for the activity could be secondary metabolites such as amino acid compounds or terpenoid compounds present in the extracts. PMID:19135803

  11. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  12. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds.

    PubMed

    Zuk, M; Dymi?ska, L; Kulma, A; Boba, A; Prescha, A; Szopa, J; M?czka, M; Zaj?c, A; Szo?tysek, K; Hanuza, J

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis. PMID:21237701

  13. Spectroscopic parameters of the cuticle and ethanol extracts of the fluorescent cave isopod Mesoniscusgraniger (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Giurginca, Andrei; ustr, Vladimr; Tajovsk, Karel; Giurginca, Maria; Matei, Iulia

    2015-01-01

    The body surface of the terrestrial isopod Mesoniscusgraniger (Frivaldsky, 1863) showed blue autofluorescence under UV light (330-385 nm), using epifluorescence microscopy and also in living individuals under a UV lamp with excitation light of 365 nm. Some morphological cuticular structures expressed a more intense autofluorescence than other body parts. For this reason, only the cuticle was analyzed. The parameters of autofluorescence were investigated using spectroscopic methods (molecular spectroscopy in infrared, ultraviolet-visible, fluorescence, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy) in samples of two subspecies of Mesoniscusgraniger preserved in ethanol. Samples excited by UV light (from 350 to 380 nm) emitted blue light of wavelengths 419, 420, 441, 470 and 505 nm (solid phase) and 420, 435 and 463 (ethanol extract). The results showed that the autofluorescence observed from living individuals may be due to some ?-carboline or coumarin derivatives, some crosslinking structures, dityrosine, or due to other compounds showing similar excitation-emission characteristics. PMID:26261444

  14. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extract of Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bemth. in Paracetamol-induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Parvati B.; Patel, T. K.; Shah, P.; Baxi, Seema N.; Sharma, H. O.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of leaves of Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bemth. (Family: Celastraceous) against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats was induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of 500 mg/kg of paracetamol and studied by comparing parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and histopathological examination of liver. Pre and post-treatment with ethanol extract of Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bemth. at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg was studied by comparing the above mentioned parameters with silymarin (100 mg/kg) as standard. Both doses of ethanol extract of Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bemth. were found to be hepatoprotective. Extract at the dose of 100 mg/kg produced effects comparable to those of silymarin. The present study indicates that alcohol extract of Gymnosporia montana (Roth) Bemth. possessed significant hepatoprotective activity. PMID:21188056

  15. Effects of Ethanol Addition on the Efficiency of Subcritical Water Extraction of Proteins and Amino Acids from Porcine Placenta

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, hydrolysates of porcine placenta were obtained and the extraction efficiency for proteins and amino acids was compared between sub- and super-critical water extraction systems; optimum efficiency was found to be achieved using subcritical water (170℃, 10 bar). In this study, the effects of adding ethanol to the subcritical water system were investigated. The lowest-molecular-weight extraction product detected weighed 434 Da, and the efficiency of extraction for low-molecular-weight products was increased when either the concentration of ethanol was decreased, or the extraction time was lengthened from 10 min to 30 min. The highest concentration of free amino acids (approximately 8 mM) was observed following 30 min extraction using pure distilled water. The concentration of free amino acids was significantly lower when ethanol was added or a shorter extraction time was used (p<0.05). Color change of the solution following extraction was measured. There were no significant differences in color between lysates produced with different extraction times when using distilled water (p>0.05); however, using different extraction times produced significant differences in color when using 20% or 50% ethanol solution for subcritical extraction (p<0.05). The range of pH for the hydrolysate solutions was 6.4-7.5. In conclusion, the investigated extraction system was successful in the extraction of ≤ 500 Da hydrolysates from porcine placenta, but addition of ethanol did not yield higher production of low-molecular-weight hydrolysates than that achieved by DW alone. PMID:26761837

  16. Effects of Ethanol Addition on the Efficiency of Subcritical Water Extraction of Proteins and Amino Acids from Porcine Placenta.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hee; Kim, Jae-Hyeong; Min, Sang-Gi; Jo, Yeon-Ji; Chun, Ji-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, hydrolysates of porcine placenta were obtained and the extraction efficiency for proteins and amino acids was compared between sub- and super-critical water extraction systems; optimum efficiency was found to be achieved using subcritical water (170?, 10 bar). In this study, the effects of adding ethanol to the subcritical water system were investigated. The lowest-molecular-weight extraction product detected weighed 434 Da, and the efficiency of extraction for low-molecular-weight products was increased when either the concentration of ethanol was decreased, or the extraction time was lengthened from 10 min to 30 min. The highest concentration of free amino acids (approximately 8 mM) was observed following 30 min extraction using pure distilled water. The concentration of free amino acids was significantly lower when ethanol was added or a shorter extraction time was used (p<0.05). Color change of the solution following extraction was measured. There were no significant differences in color between lysates produced with different extraction times when using distilled water (p>0.05); however, using different extraction times produced significant differences in color when using 20% or 50% ethanol solution for subcritical extraction (p<0.05). The range of pH for the hydrolysate solutions was 6.4-7.5. In conclusion, the investigated extraction system was successful in the extraction of ? 500 Da hydrolysates from porcine placenta, but addition of ethanol did not yield higher production of low-molecular-weight hydrolysates than that achieved by DW alone. PMID:26761837

  17. Comparative study on hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts of fenugreek seeds.

    PubMed

    Belguith-Hadriche, Olfa; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Jamoussi, Kamel; Simmonds, Monique S J; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Makni-Ayedi, Fatma

    2013-06-01

    The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts (water, methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, dichloro-methane) of fenugreek seeds were investigated in cholesterol-fed rats. Only the ethyl acetate extract reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet (HCD). Furthermore, the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver, heart and kidney decreased significantly after oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The phenolic and flavonod contents were highest in the methanol and the ethyl acetate extracts. These results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of the fenugreek seeds had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect and antioxidant activity in cholesterol-fed rats, whether this is partly due to the presence of flavonods in the extract needs further study. PMID:23411266

  18. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  19. Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Zaleya decandra in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Meenakshi, Periasamy; Bhuvaneshwari, Rajendran; Rathi, Muthaiyan Ahalliya; Thirumoorthi, Lakshmanan; Guravaiah, Dugganaboyana Chinna; Jiji, Muthedath Janardhanan; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

    2010-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder that disturbs the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Medicinal plants play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Zaleya decandra roots on alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of the root (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days restored the levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, urea, creatinine, lipid peroxidation level, and antioxidant enzymes significantly in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies showed significant changes like necrosis and degeneration in the liver and pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Also these histopathological abnormalities were found to be normalized after treatment with Z. decandra extract. The efficacy of the root extract was found to be equivalent when compared to the standard hypoglycemic drug glibenclamide (1.25 mg/kg body weight/day, orally) in diabetic rats. PMID:19957208

  20. Antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanol extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. against dermatophytes

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Atiqur; Al-Reza, Sharif M.; Siddiqui, Shah Alam; Chang, Taehyun; Kang, Sun Chul

    2014-01-01

    The antifungal potential of essential oil and ethanolic leaf extracts of Lonicera japonica Thunb. was evaluated for controlling the growth of dermatophytes. The oil (1,000 ppm) and extracts (1,500 ppm) of L. japonica revealed 55.170.3 % and 40.165.5 % antidermatophytic effect against Microsporum canis KCTC 6348, 6349, 6591, Trichophyton rubrum KCTC 6345, 6352, 6375, Trichophyton mentagrophytes KCTC 6077 and 6085, respectively, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 62.5-500 and 125-1,000 g/ml. Also, the oil had strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested dermatophytes as well as concentration and time-dependent kinetic inhibition of M. canis KCTC 6348. The results demonstrated that L. japonica oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect human and animals from fungal infections. PMID:26417269

  1. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee

    2014-01-01

    A ?-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract?Rd?F2?compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively. PMID:25346602

  2. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts derived from Australian fungi inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Karren D; Ulrich, Rahel; Grice, I Darren; Uddin, Shaikh J; Blake, Tony B; Wood, Kyle A; Steele, Jules; Iu, Fontaine; May, Tom W; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    Fifteen Australian macrofungi were investigated for cytotoxic activity. Ethanol, cold and hot water extracts of each species were screened for cytotoxic activity against normal mouse fibroblast cells (NIH/3T3), healthy human epithelial kidney cells (HEK-293), four cancer cell lines, gastric adenocarcinoma cells (AGS), two mammary gland adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF7) and colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) with a validated MTT assay. Most extracts derived from Omphalotus nidiformis, Cordyceps cranstounii and Cordyceps gunnii demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity toward a variety of cancer cell lines. In contrast only some extracts from Coprinus comatus, Cordyceps hawkesii, Hypholoma fasciculare, Lepista nuda, Leratiomyces ceres and Ophiocordyceps robertsii displayed significant cytotoxic activity, which was usually selective for only one or two cancer cell lines tested. The least cytotoxic species evaluated in this study were Agaricus bitorquis, Coprinopsis atrametaria, Psathyrella asperospora, Russula clelandii, Tricholoma sp. AU2 and Xerula mundroola. PMID:21262985

  3. Antiangiogenic Effect of Ethanol Extract of Vigna angularis via Inhibition of Phosphorylation of VEGFR2, Erk, and Akt.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Jeong, Myoung Seok; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Though dietary azuki bean (Vigna angularis) seed containing antioxidant proanthocyanidins was known to have multibiological activities including antioxidant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities, the antiangiogenic activity of ethanol extract of Vigna angularis (EVA) was never reported so far. In the present study, the antiangiogenic mechanism of EVA was examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). EVA showed weak cytotoxicity in HUVECs, while it significantly suppressed the VEGF induced proliferation of HUVECs. Consistently, wound healing assay revealed that EVA inhibited the VEGF induced migration of HUVECs. Also, EVA abrogated the VEGF induced tube formation of HUVECs in a concentration dependent fashion. Furthermore, Matrigel plug assay showed that EVA significantly reduced the hemoglobin level of Matrigel plug in mice compared to untreated control. Of note, EVA effectively attenuated the phosphorylation of VEGFR2, Erk, and Akt in VEGF-treated HUVECs. Overall, our findings suggest that EVA inhibits angiogenesis in VEGF-treated HUVECs via inhibition of phosphorylation of VEGFR2, ERK, and Akt. PMID:26357521

  4. Antiangiogenic Effect of Ethanol Extract of Vigna angularis via Inhibition of Phosphorylation of VEGFR2, Erk, and Akt

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Oh Sung; Jeong, Myoung Seok; Kim, Bonglee; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Though dietary azuki bean (Vigna angularis) seed containing antioxidant proanthocyanidins was known to have multibiological activities including antioxidant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities, the antiangiogenic activity of ethanol extract of Vigna angularis (EVA) was never reported so far. In the present study, the antiangiogenic mechanism of EVA was examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). EVA showed weak cytotoxicity in HUVECs, while it significantly suppressed the VEGF induced proliferation of HUVECs. Consistently, wound healing assay revealed that EVA inhibited the VEGF induced migration of HUVECs. Also, EVA abrogated the VEGF induced tube formation of HUVECs in a concentration dependent fashion. Furthermore, Matrigel plug assay showed that EVA significantly reduced the hemoglobin level of Matrigel plug in mice compared to untreated control. Of note, EVA effectively attenuated the phosphorylation of VEGFR2, Erk, and Akt in VEGF-treated HUVECs. Overall, our findings suggest that EVA inhibits angiogenesis in VEGF-treated HUVECs via inhibition of phosphorylation of VEGFR2, ERK, and Akt. PMID:26357521

  5. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Enomfon J; Okokon, Jude E; Offong, Emem

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fraction of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods M. scandens leaf extract/fractions (37111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of 7 hours for acute study and 14 days for prolonged study. Lipid profiles of the treated diabetic rats were determined after the period of treatment. Results Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting bloodglucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. The extract/fractions exerted a significant reduction in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL of extract with increases in HDL levels of the diabetic rats. Conclusions These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes. PMID:23569963

  6. Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. PMID:19854235

  7. Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is wide spread interest in drugs derived from plants as green medicine is believed to be safe and dependable, compared with costly synthetic drugs that have adverse effects. Methods We have attempted to evaluate the antioxidant, In vitro thrombolytic, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Clausena heptaphylla (Rutaceae) stem bark extract ethanol extract. Results Ethanolic stem bark extract of Clausena heptaphylla (CHET) contains flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and steroids but it lacks tannins, anthraquinones and resins. Phenol content of the extract was 13.42 mg/g and flavonoid content was 68.9 mg/g. CHET exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 3.11 μg/ml. Reducing power of CHET was also moderately stronger. In the cytotoxicity assay, LC50 and Chi-square value of the ethanolic extract against brine shrimp nauplii were 144.1461 μg/ml and 0.8533 demonstrating potent cytotoxic effect of the extract. In vitro thrombolytic activity of CHET is significant with 45.38% clot lysis capability compared to that of Streptokinase (65.78%). In antibacterial screening, moderate zone of inhibition (6.5-9.0 mm in diameter) was observed against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 842 and Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13578 and less promising zone of inhibition (3.0-4.5 mm in diameter) against gram-negative Salmonella typhi ATCC 65154, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Shigella sonnei ATCC 8992 did not show any sensitivity. The MIC values against these bacteria were ranged from 2,000 to 3,500 μg/ml. The extract showed significant zone of inhibition against Rhizopus oryzae DSM 2200, Aspergillus niger DSM 737 and Aspergillus ochraceus DSM 824 in antifungal assay. Conclusions Further advanced research is necessary to isolate and characterize the chemical components responsible for the therapeutic properties of the plant. PMID:23181593

  8. Gastroprotective Effects of Glutinous Rice Extract against Ethanol-, Indomethacin-, and Stress-induced Ulcers in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong Up; Jang, Mi Sun; Kim, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Hyun Joong; Chay, Kee Oh; Joo, Young Eun; Jung, Young Do; Yang, Sung Yeul

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of an orally administered aqueous extract of glutinous rice (GRE) to protect against acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by ethanol, indomethacin, and water immersion restraint stress in rats and to characterize the active substances responsible for the protection. GRE was shown to dose-dependently prevent the gastric lesions induced by the above ulcerogenic treatments at doses of 30 to 300 mg/kg. GRE treatment increased the gastric mucin content and partially blocked the ethanol-induced depletion of the gastric mucus layer. Also, it increased the nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration in the gastric mucosa. The gastroprotective action of GRE was markedly enhanced by co-treatment with 4-8 mg/kg tea extracts. The activity of GRE was completely lost by heat treatment at 80? for 3 min or treatment with 0.01% pepsin at 37? for 1 h. Protein extraction studies indicated that prolamins are involved in the gastroprotective activity of GRE. Our results suggest that glutinous rice proteins are useful for the prevention and treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer. PMID:24855601

  9. Effects of Asparagus officinalis extracts on liver cell toxicity and ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, B-Y; Cui, Z-G; Lee, S-R; Kim, S-J; Kang, H-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, D-B

    2009-09-01

    Asparagus officinalis is a vegetable that is widely consumed worldwide and has also long been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Although A. officinalis is generally regarded as a supplement for the alleviation of alcohol hangover, little is known about its effects on cell metabolism. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the constituents of the young shoots and the leaves of asparagus and to compare their biochemical properties. The amino acid and inorganic mineral contents were found to be much higher in the leaves than the shoots. In addition, treatment of HepG2 human hepatoma cells with the leaf extract suppressed more than 70% of the intensity of hydrogen peroxide (1 mM)-stimulated DCF fluorescence, a marker of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular toxicities induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or tetrachloride carbon (CCl(4)) were also significantly alleviated in response to treatment with the extracts of A. officinalis leaves and shoots. Additionally, the activities of 2 key enzymes that metabolize ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, were upregulated by more than 2-fold in response to treatment with the leaf- and shoot extracts. Taken together, these results provide biochemical evidence of the method by which A. officinalis exerts its biological functions, including the alleviation of alcohol hangover and the protection of liver cells against toxic insults. Moreover, the results of this study indicate that portions of asparagus that are typically discarded, such as the leaves, have therapeutic use. PMID:19895471

  10. Ethanol Extract of Ulmus pumila Root Bark Inhibits Clinically Isolated Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    You, Yong-Ouk; Kim, Kang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    In this study, root bark of Ulmus pumila (U. pumila) was extracted with ethanol, and then the antimicrobial effects were tested on clinically isolated 12 MRSA strains and 1 standard MRSA strain. U. pumila showed antibacterial activities against all MRSA strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of U. pumila root bark against all MRSA strains revealed a range from 125 to 250??g/mL. These results may provide the scientific basis on which U. pumila root bark has traditionally been used against infectious diseases in Korea. In real-time PCR analysis, the sub-MIC (64125??g/mL) concentrations of U. pumila root bark extract showed the inhibition of the genetic expressions of virulence factors such as mecA, sea, agrA, and sarA in standard MRSA. Phytochemical analyses of U. pumila root bark showed relatively strong presence of phenolics, steroids, and terpenoids. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of U. pumila root bark may have antibacterial activity against MRSA, which may be related to the phytochemicals such as phenolics, steroids, and terpenoids. Further studies are needed to determine the active constituents of U. pumila root bark responsible for such biomolecular activities. PMID:24228058

  11. The incorporation effects of methanolic extracts of some plant seeds on the stability of phosphatidylcholine liposomes.

    PubMed

    Atrooz, Omar M

    2007-05-15

    The antioxidant activity and the polyphenols and flavonoids contents of methanolic extracts of plant seeds of Canna indica, Hordium sativum and Capsicum annuum were investigated. These extracts were found to exhibit strong scavenging effects on 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryle-hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and have significant amounts of flavonoids and polyphenols. The effects of these extracts on Phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes also were studied. It was found that the extractable materials have varying inhibitory effects on oxidation of PC liposomes and their aggregation. These effects were significant and illustrated that addition of these extractable materials to liposomes can enhance their stability by preventing liposome oxidation and aggregation. PMID:19086511

  12. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of oil, fatty acids and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ben Rahal, Naila; Barba, Francisco J; Barth, Danielle; Chevalot, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The optimal conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) (160-220 bars, 40-80 °C) technology combined with co-solvent (ethanol), to recover oil, flavonolignans (silychristin, silydianin and silybinin) and fatty acids from milk thistle seeds, to be used as food additives and/or nutraceuticals, were studied. Moreover, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the SC-CO2 oil seeds extracts were evaluated in Caco-2 carcinoma cells. Pressure and temperature had a significant effect on oil and flavonolignans recovery, although there was not observed a clear trend. SC-CO2 with co-solvent extraction at 220 bars, 40 °C was the optimum treatment to recover oil (30.8%) and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds. Moreover, linoleic (47.64-66.70%), and oleic (19.68-24.83%) acids were the predominant fatty acids in the oil extracts recovered from milk thistle under SC-CO2. In addition, SC-CO2 extract showed a high antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS tests. Cytotoxic activities of silychristin, silydianin and silybinin and the obtained SC-CO2 extract (220 bars, 40 °C) were evaluated against Caco-2 cells. The SC-CO2 extract inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-responsive manner and induced the highest percentage of mortality of Caco-2 cells (from 43 to 71% for concentrations from 10 up to 100 μg/ml of SC-CO2 oil seeds). PMID:26172510

  13. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of oil, fatty acids and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds: Evaluation of their antioxidant and cytotoxic activities in Caco-2 cells.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Ben Rahal N; Barba FJ; Barth D; Chevalot I

    2015-09-01

    The optimal conditions of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) (160-220 bars, 40-80 °C) technology combined with co-solvent (ethanol), to recover oil, flavonolignans (silychristin, silydianin and silybinin) and fatty acids from milk thistle seeds, to be used as food additives and/or nutraceuticals, were studied. Moreover, the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the SC-CO2 oil seeds extracts were evaluated in Caco-2 carcinoma cells. Pressure and temperature had a significant effect on oil and flavonolignans recovery, although there was not observed a clear trend. SC-CO2 with co-solvent extraction at 220 bars, 40 °C was the optimum treatment to recover oil (30.8%) and flavonolignans from milk thistle seeds. Moreover, linoleic (47.64-66.70%), and oleic (19.68-24.83%) acids were the predominant fatty acids in the oil extracts recovered from milk thistle under SC-CO2. In addition, SC-CO2 extract showed a high antioxidant activity determined by DPPH and ABTS tests. Cytotoxic activities of silychristin, silydianin and silybinin and the obtained SC-CO2 extract (220 bars, 40 °C) were evaluated against Caco-2 cells. The SC-CO2 extract inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells in a dose-responsive manner and induced the highest percentage of mortality of Caco-2 cells (from 43 to 71% for concentrations from 10 up to 100 μg/ml of SC-CO2 oil seeds).

  14. Cytotoxic Effects of Alcoholic Extract of Dorema Glabrum Seed on Cancerous Cells Viability

    PubMed Central

    Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemieh, Hosein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study cytotoxic effects of the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed on viability of WEHI-164 cells, mouse Fibrosarcoma cell line and L929 normal cells were compared with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol (anticancer and apoptosis inducer drug).Methods: To find out the plant extract cytotoxic effects, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay, the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis were performed on cultured and treated cells.Results: According to the findings the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed can alter cells morphology and because of chromatin condensation and other changes they shrink and take a spherical shape, and lose their attachment too. So the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time and dose dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA.Conclusion: Our data well established the anti-proliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro, but the mechanism of its activities remained unknown. These results demonstrated that Dorema Glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment in clinical practices. PMID:24312867

  15. Investigating Apoptotic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema glabrum Seed on WEHI-164 Cells.

    PubMed

    Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment. PMID:23956872

  16. Investigating Apoptotic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema glabrum Seed on WEHI-164 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment. PMID:23956872

  17. Superheated liquid and supercritical denatured ethanol extraction of antioxidants from Crimson red grape stems.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Jonathan; Samaniego, Cheryl Storer; Wang, Lihua; Nelson, La'Shyla; Ketchum, Korrine; Ammerman, Michelle; Zand, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Grapes are widely known for health benefits due to their antioxidant content. In wine production, grape stems are often discarded, though they has a higher content of antioxidants than the juice. The effectiveness of using an environmentally friendly solvent, ethanol, as a superheated liquid and supercritical fluid to extract antioxidant compounds from grape stems of organically grown Crimson Seedless grapes was evaluated. The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) assay and the Total Phenolic Content (TPC), or Folin-Ciocalteu assay, were used to quantify the antioxidant power of grape stem extracts. The extractions were performed at temperatures between 160°C and 300°C at constant density. It was found that the optimal extraction temperature was 204°C, at superheated liquid conditions, with a FRAP value of 0.670 mmol Trolox Equivalent/g of dry grape stem. The FRAP values were higher than other studies that extracted antioxidants from grape stems using single-pass batch extraction. PMID:26788298

  18. Effects of ethanol extract of Artemisia annua L. against monogenean parasites of Heterobranchus longifilis.

    PubMed

    Ekanem, Albert P; Brisibe, Ebiamadon Andi

    2010-04-01

    Ethanol extract of Artemisia annua was effective in the dislodgement and mortality of monogenean parasites of juvenile Heterobranchus longifilis at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg/l. Five hundred 1-week-old juvenile fish were stocked in hapa in earthen pond for 7 days to accumulate parasites. The approximate number of parasites per fish was confirmed by counting the number of parasites attached to body surfaces and the gills with a stereo-microscope before being exposed to the extract under in vivo conditions. The bioactivity of the extract was conducted in plastic Petri dishes with three replications and controls. The results obtained from A. annua extract were matched against those produced by pure artemisinin and artesunate powder, respectively, under similar experimental conditions. There was a faster effect of pure artemisinin crystals on the parasites as compared to A. annua extract and artesunate. Coagulation of parasite cells was observed with artemisinin treatment, whereas parasites were merely dislodged from their attachment organs and killed some hours later in the same concentration of A. annua. There were positive correlations between the number of parasites dislodged/killed and the concentration of A. annua extract, artemisinin, and artesunate powder, respectively, as well as the duration of exposure of affected fish to the substances. This led to the conclusion that A. annua contains substances that are effective against helminthes parasites of H. longifilis. PMID:20165872

  19. Uncaria tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract triggers an immunomodulation toward a Th2 cytokine profile.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Alexandre; Sartori, Alexandrina; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Golim, Marjorie Assis; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

    2011-08-01

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC (Rubiaceae) is a large woody vine that is native to the Amazon and Central American rainforests and is used widely in traditional medicine for its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activities. The present work used in vivo immunotoxic and in vitro immunomodulatory experiments to investigate the effects of a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid extract from U. tomentosa bark on lymphocyte phenotype, Th1/Th2 cytokine production, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity. For the in vivo immunotoxicity testing, BALB/c male mice were treated once a day with 125, 500 or 1250?mg/kg of U. tomentosa extract for 28?days. For the in vitro protocol, lymphocytes were cultured with 10-500??g/mg of the extract for 48?h. The extract increased the cellularity of splenic white pulp and the thymic medulla and increased the number of T helper lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Also, a large stimulatory effect on lymphocyte viability was observed. However, mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations of U. tomentosa extract. Furthermore, an immunological polarization toward a Th2 cytokine profile was observed. These results suggest that the U. tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract was not immunotoxic to mice and was able to modulate distinct patterns of the immune system in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:21656603

  20. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Chinese sufu (fermented tofu) ethanol-extract.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Quan, Ming-hai; Cheng, Yong-qiang; Sun, Jian; Li, Li-te

    2012-10-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of commercial sufu and self-produced sufu were investigated in this experiment. The anti-AChE activities of commercial sufu samples of 15 brands, sourcing from various parts of China, and self-produced sufu, fermented with Actinomucor elegans 3.118, were measured. The results indicated that ethanol extract of Chinese sufu exhibited significant inhibitory activity against AChE in vitro. The inhibitory activity of No. 5 sufu was the strongest (IC₅₀, 0.191 mg/ml), while the pre-fermented sufu showed the highest inhibitory activity during sufu manufacturing. In addition, soybean extracts and potato extracts were used to culture A. elegans 3.118 in order to estimate which culture was preferable for the production of these AChE inhibitors. The soybean extracts, after fermentation by A. elegans 3.118, showed higher anti-AChE activity than did the potato extracts. The IC₅₀ of the soybean extracts was 1.29 μg/ml. PMID:25005942

  1. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; da Silva, Danielle Figuerêdo; Brandão, Hugo Neves; da Rocha, José Luiz Carneiro; Dellagostin, Odir Antônio; Henriques, João Antônio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  2. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Extraction and Ethanolic Extraction of Brown, Green and Red Propolis Derived from Different Geographic Regions in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Silva, Rejane Pina Dantas; Barreto, Gabriele de Abreu; Costa, Samantha Serra; Silva, Danielle Figuerdo da; Brando, Hugo Neves; Rocha, Jos Luiz Carneiro da; Dellagostin, Odir Antnio; Henriques, Joo Antnio Pegas; Umsza-Guez, Marcelo Andres; Padilha, Francine Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    The variations in the chemical composition, and consequently, on the biological activity of the propolis, are associated with its type and geographic origin. Considering this fact, this study evaluated propolis extracts obtained by supercritical extraction (SCO2) and ethanolic extraction (EtOH), in eight samples of different types of propolis (red, green and brown), collected from different regions in Brazil. The content of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS), Artepillin C, p-coumaric acid and antimicrobial activity against two bacteria were determined for all extracts. For the EtOH extracts, the anti-proliferative activity regarding the cell lines of B16F10, were also evaluated. Amongst the samples evaluated, the red propolis from the Brazilian Northeast (states of Sergipe and Alagoas) showed the higher biological potential, as well as the larger content of antioxidant compounds. The best results were shown for the extracts obtained through the conventional extraction method (EtOH). However, the highest concentrations of Artepillin C and p-coumaric acid were identified in the extracts from SCO2, indicating a higher selectivity for the extraction of these compounds. It was verified that the composition and biological activity of the Brazilian propolis vary significantly, depending on the type of sample and geographical area of collection. PMID:26745799

  3. Inhibition of triiodothyronine production by fenugreek seed extract in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Panda, S; Tahiliani, P; Kar, A

    1999-11-01

    The effects of fenugreek seed extract on the alterations in serum thyroid hormone concentrations were studied in adult male mice and rats. Simultaneously, hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were examined. Administration of methi seed extract (0.11 g kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) for 15 days) to both mice and rats significantly decreases serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentration and T(3)/T(4) ratio, but increases thyroxine (T(4)) levels and body weight. While hepatic LPO and CAT activities were not altered, a significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in both the animal models. These findings suggest that fenugreek seed extract induced inhibition in T(4)to T(3) conversion is not peroxidation-mediated and the inhibition in SOD activity could be the result of a decrease in the protein anabolic hormone, T3. PMID:10527654

  4. SUBCRITICAL (HOT) WATER/ETHANOL EXTRACTION OF NONYLPHENOL POLYETHOXY CARBOXYLATES IN INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL SLUDGES. (R821195)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subcritical (hot) water with ethanol as modifier was used
    to extract nonylphenol polyethoxy carboxylates (NPECs)
    with 1-4 ethoxy groups from sludge samples. Quantitative
    recovery of native NPECs from sludge was accomplished
    by extracting 0.25 g samples for 20 min w...

  5. Pharmacological Proprieties of the Ethanol Extract of Muehlenbeckia platyclada (F. Muell.) Meisn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Fagundes, Leopoldina Leonor; Vieira, Glauciemar Del-Vechio; de Pinho, José de Jesus R. G.; Yamamoto, Célia Hitomi; Alves, Maria Silvana; Stringheta, Paulo César; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2010-01-01

    Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the Muehlenbeckia platyclada leaves’ ethanol extract were investigated in animal models. The extract (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid by 21.57% (400 mg/kg). After intraplantar injection of formalin, a dose of 400 mg/kg (p.o.) inhibited the time spent paw licking in the first phase (26.43%), while the second phase was inhibited by 10.90 and 36.65% at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at a dose of 400 mg/kg (32.68 and 40.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by extract (p.o.) at doses of 100 (15.46 and 16.67%), 200 (22.68 and 25.64%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50 and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of carrageenan application, respectively. Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h after the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (11.28, 21.54 and 45.13%), while leukocyte migration was reduced by 21.21 and 29.70% at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. These results indicate that the ethanol extract from M. platyclada may constitute a potential target for the discovery of new molecules with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities that can be explored for their therapeutic use. PMID:21152311

  6. Ethanolic Extracts of California Mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) Are Cytotoxic against Normal and Cancerous Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Somaweera, Himali; Lai, Gary C.; Blackeye, Rachel; Littlejohn, Beverly; Kirksey, Justine; Aguirre, Richard M.; LaPena, Vince; Pasqua, Anna; Hintz, Mary McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) is used by many tribes throughout California to treat a variety of conditions, including colds, allergies, and pain. California mugwort is also utilized as womens medicine. Its use is on the rise outside of Native communities, often without the guidance of a traditional healer or experienced herbalist. Because it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity against plant and animal cells, we investigated whether California mugwort extracts have an effect on normal human cells as well as estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor negative (ER?) human breast cancer cells. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of A. douglasiana leaves were tested for cytotoxicity against unstimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC), as well as against an ER+ human breast cancer cell line (BT-474) and an ER? human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). An ethanolic leaf extract killed hPBMC, BT-474, and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 23.6 0.3, 27 5, and 37 4 ?g/ml, respectively. An aqueous extract killed hPBMC with an IC50 value of 60 10 ?g/ml, but had no effect on the two cancer cell lines at concentrations up to 100 ?g/ml. The results of this study indicate that the cytotoxicity of California mugwort extends to normal human cells, as well as cancerous cells. Therefore, until further is known about the safety of this medicine, caution should be taken when consuming extracts of California mugwort, whether as a tincture or as a tea. PMID:24073389

  7. Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

    2012-03-01

    The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

  8. Strychnos nux-vomica seeds: Pharmacognostical standardization, extraction, and antidiabetic activity

    PubMed Central

    Bhati, Rajesh; Singh, Anupama; Saharan, Vikas Anand; Ram, Veerma; Bhandari, Anil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Strychnos nux-vomica, commonly known as kuchla, contains strychnine and brucine as main constituents. Minor alkaloids present in the seeds are protostrychnine, vomicine, n-oxystrychnine, pseudostrychnine, isostrychnine, chlorogenic acid, and a glycoside. Seeds are used traditionally to treat diabetes, asthma, aphrodisiac and to improve appetite. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the various pharmacognostical characters and antidiabetic activity of S. nux-vomica seed. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostical characters were performed as per the WHO guideline. Extraction was carried out in petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, hydroalcoholic, aqueous, and phytochemical constituents present in extracts were detected by different chemical tests. Among these extracts hydroalcoholic, aqueous extracts were evaluated for antidiabetic activity on the basis of extractive yield and phytoconstituents, in alloxan-induced diabetic rats using gliclazide as standard. Results: Various analytical values of S. nux-vomica extract were established. Phytoconstituents present in S. nux-vomica extracts were detected. Conclusion: S. nux-vomica extracts show antihyperglycemic activity in experimental animals. PMID:22707864

  9. Antimicrobial effect of water-soluble muscadine seed extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Kim, T J; Weng, W L; Stojanovic, J; Lu, Y; Jung, Y S; Silva, J L

    2008-07-01

    Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157: H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43), total phenolics (2.21 to 3.49 mg/ml), tartaric acid (5.6 to 10.7 mg/ml), tannic acid (5.7 to 8.1 mg/ml), and gallic acid (0.33 to 0.59 mg/ml) than did the Carlos extracts. Heat treatment on both extracts increased antimicrobial activity, possibly because of increased acidity, tartaric acid, total phenolics, and individual phenolics. Heating of Ison extracts increased ellagic acid up to 83%. Up to 10.7 mg/ml tartaric acid alone was not as effective against E. coli O157:H7 as were water-soluble seed extracts. This finding suggests the involvement of other factors, such as tannic and gallic acids, in inactivation of this pathogen. Water-soluble muscadine seed extracts may be useful for incorporation into juice and other beverage products as natural preservatives. PMID:18680948

  10. Gastroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract from Neoglaziovia variegata (Arruda) Mez (Bromeliaceae) in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Machado, Flvia Danniele F; Silva, Francilene V; Fernandes, Hlio B; Freitas, Flvia Franceli B P; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Lima, Julianeli T; Almeida, Jackson Roberto G S; Oliveira, Francisco A; Oliveira, Rita C M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the gastroprotective effect of a crude ethanolic extract of Neoglaziovia variegata (Arruda) Mez (Bromeliaceae), designated Nv-EtOH, in experimental models of gastric ulcer. In the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model, Nv-EtOH showed gastroprotection at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight (BW) (57.0% and 79.7%, respectively). Nv-EtOH also significantly reduced the formation of gastric lesions induced by ethanol/HCl (31.6% and 63.5%), ibuprofen (70.0% and 74.3%), or ischemia/reperfusion in rats (65.0% and 87.0%) at 200 and 400 mg/kg BW when compared with the vehicle group. In the antioxidant activity assessment, Nv-EtOH (400 mg/kg BW) increased the catalase activity and sulfhydryl groups (SH) levels, respectively. Moreover, gastroprotection against ethanol damage was decreased after ibuprofen pretreatment. Nv-EtOH (400 mg/kg BW) promoted a significant increase in the content of gastric wall mucus. The Nv-EtOH effect was significantly reduced in mice pretreated with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) or glibenclamide, inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase and K(ATP) channel activation, respectively, suggesting the involvement of these mechanisms in the Nv-EtOH-induced gastroprotective effect. Nv-EtOH decreased the total acidity, but did not modify other gastric juice parameters. Nv-EtOH was also effective in promoting the healing process in chronic gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid in rats. PMID:23819304

  11. Antitumor Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Dendrobium formosum in T-Cell Lymphoma: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Ritika; Koch, Biplob

    2014-01-01

    Dendrobium, a genus of orchid, was found to possess useful therapeutic activities like anticancer, hypoglycaemic, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities. The study was aimed to evaluate the anticancer property of the ethanolic extract of Dendrobium formosum on Dalton's lymphoma. In vitro cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay, apoptosis was determined by fluorescence microscopy, and cell cycle progression was analysed using flow cytometry; in vivo antitumor activity was performed in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract was obtained at 350??g/mL in Dalton's lymphoma cells. Fluorescence microscopy analysis showed significant increase in apoptotic cell death in dose- and time-dependent manner which was further confirmed through the resulting DNA fragmentation. Further, flow cytometry analysis showed that the ethanolic extract arrests the cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The in vivo anticancer activity study illustrates significant increase in the survival time of Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice on treatment with ethanolic extract when compared to control. These results substantiate the antitumor properties of ethanolic extract of Dendrobium formosum and suggest an alternative in treatment of cancer. Further studies are required regarding the isolation and characterization of bioactive components along with the analysis of molecular mechanism involved. PMID:24959588

  12. Production of cellulosic ethanol from sugarcane bagasse by steam explosion: Effect of extractives content, acid catalysis and different fermentation technologies.

    PubMed

    Neves, P V; Pitarelo, A P; Ramos, L P

    2016-05-01

    The production of cellulosic ethanol was carried out using samples of native (NCB) and ethanol-extracted (EECB) sugarcane bagasse. Autohydrolysis (AH) exhibited the best glucose recovery from both samples, compared to the use of both H3PO4 and H2SO4 catalysis at the same pretreatment time and temperature. All water-insoluble steam-exploded materials (SEB-WI) resulted in high glucose yields by enzymatic hydrolysis. SHF (separate hydrolysis and fermentation) gave ethanol yields higher than those obtained by SSF (simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation) and pSSF (pre-hydrolysis followed by SSF). For instance, AH gave 25, 18 and 16gL(-1) of ethanol by SHF, SSF and pSSF, respectively. However, when the total processing time was taken into account, pSSF provided the best overall ethanol volumetric productivity of 0.58gL(-1)h(-1). Also, the removal of ethanol-extractable materials from cane bagasse had no influence on the cellulosic ethanol production of SEB-WI, regardless of the fermentation strategy used for conversion. PMID:26943936

  13. Oviposition deterrent activities of Pachyrhizus erosus seed extract and other natural products on Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Basukriadi, Adi; Wilkins, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    An extract of a rotenone-containing plant yam bean, Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban, seeds was tested against the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) in a greenhouse to determine its potential as an oviposition deterrent and compared with coumarin and rutin, known as diamondback moth oviposition deterrent compounds, rotenone, and an extract of Peruvian cube root, at a concentration of 0.5% (w/v). Oviposition deterrent index (ODI) was used to determine effects of extracts or compounds in inhibiting oviposition of diamondback moth. Coumarin showed a stronger deterrent effect than the yam bean seed extract with a higher ODI value. On the contrary, rotenone, rutin, and the cube root extract, containing 6.7% (w/w) of rotenone, showed no significant deterrent effects having low or negative ODI values, suggesting that the deterrent effect of the yam bean seed extract is not due to rotenone content of the yam bean seeds. The extract of yam bean seed and coumarin partially deterred the moth from laying eggs on treated leaves in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentration for 50% deterrency of coumarin and the yam bean seed extract were 0.11 and 0.83% (w/v), respectively. However, the yam bean seed extract showed a residual deterrent effect on the moth even at 3 d after the treatment and is probably because of its low volatile nature. A long-term deterrency of the yam bean seed extract is an advantage over coumarins. Both the yam bean seed extract and coumarin deterred diamondback moth from laying eggs in total darkness, indicating their nonvisual deterrent effect. This made the extract an effective deterrence to diamondback moth in light and in darkness. To conclude, this study revealed the potential of the crude extract of the yam bean seed to prevent diamondback moth from ovipositing on its plant host. PMID:25525107

  14. The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee; Shin, Kwang-Soo

    2014-09-01

    A β-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract→Rd→F2→compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively. PMID:25346602

  15. Neuropharmacological profile of an ethanol extract of Ruta chalepensis L. in mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Trujano, M E; Carrera, D; Ventura-Martinez, R; Cedillo-Portugal, E; Navarrete, A

    2006-06-15

    The effects of an ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Ruta chalepensis on the central nervous system (CNS) and LD(50) determination were studied in mice. A crude extract was given systemically and its effects were tested on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis, exploratory activity, anxiety and nociception. Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1) a delay in the onset of seizures and a dose-dependent suppression in the tonic phase and mortality induced by PTZ; (2) a prolongation of the time of sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis; (3) a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response and (4) a reduction in the licking time and shaking behavior in the formalin-induced nociception test. The sedative-hypnotic potentiation, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and antinociceptive effects suggest that Ruta chalepensis induces a depressant activity on the CNS. PMID:16442764

  16. The antifungal activity of Sarcococca saligna ethanol extract and its combination effect with fluconazole against different resistant Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Mollazadeh Moghaddam, Kamyar; Arfan, Mohammad; Rafique, Jamal; Rezaee, Sassan; Jafari Fesharaki, Parisa; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2010-09-01

    Microbial resistance is a major drawback in chemotherapy of microbial or fungal infection disease. In this study, the antifungal activity of ethanol extract of a selected plant (Sarcococca saligna) has been investigated against clinical isolates of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus treus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Also, the enhancement of the antifungal activity of fluconazole by this extract was further evaluated against mentioned test strains. Conventional disk diffusion method was used to assay the antifungal activity of S. saligna ethanol extract in the absence and presence of fluconazole. The highest antifungal activity was observed against A. treus. The ethanol extract of S. saligna enhanced the antifungal activity of fluconazole against A. niger and A. treus and A. flavus. At the highest tested contents (4 mg/disk), 1.15-, 0.64-, and 2.47-fold increases in inhibition zone surface area were observed for A. niger, A. treus, and A. flavus, respectively. However, no enhancing effect was observed for this plant extract against Aspergillus fumigates at tested contents (0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/disk). In a separate experiment, the general cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of S. saligna was examined with brine shrimp assay. This plant extract showed low cytotoxicity against Artemia salina (LC(50) = 186 microg/ml). PMID:19685213

  17. Quantification of polyphenols and pharmacological analysis of water and ethanol-based extracts of cultivated agarwood leaves.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tetsuro; Kakino, Mamoru; Tazawa, Shigemi; Watarai, Tatsuya; Oyama, Masayoshi; Maruyama, Hiroe; Araki, Yoko; Hara, Hideaki; Iinuma, Munekazu

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin (3) and genkwanin 5-O-?-primeveroside (5) are the two major bioactive polyphenols with laxative property present in the extracts of agarwood (Aquilaria sinensis) leaves (AL). Here we developed an HPLC method to determine these bioactive components and four other major polyphenols in AL extracts and evaluated the pharmacological equivalence of organic and water extracts. Using mobile phase gradient conditions combined with UV detection at 330 nm, all six compounds were separated and we determined the relative extraction ratios of the six compounds present in A. sinensis extracts that were prepared under different conditions and compared the contents of the two laxative polyphenols present in the 60% ethanol extracts of A. sinensis and A. crassna. The polyphenols present in water extracts of 13 commercially cultivated A. crassna plants have also been analyzed. The laxative properties of 60% ethanol and four water extracts of A. crassna were evaluated by the frequency and weight of stools in loperamide-induced constipation model mice. The pharmacological equivalence of 60% ethanol extract and hot water (95C) extract was identified in mice. PMID:22790572

  18. Protective effects of grape seed extract against oxidative and nitrative damage of plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Michał; Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal Blazej; Saluk, Joanna; Nowak, Paweł

    2012-10-01

    Oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of our in vitro study was to examine the antioxidative properties of grape seed extract, and its potential protective effect on the haemostatic function of human fibrinogen under oxidative stress conditions, induced by peroxynitrite (100 μM). The preincubation of plasma with the tested extract (0.5-50 μg/ml or 0.5-300 μg/ml) reduced the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and diminished oxidation of thiol groups in plasma proteins. The low concentrations (0.5-50 μg/ml) of grape seed extract also decreased the level of carbonyl groups, however at higher concentrations (100-300 μg/ml) this effect was not observed. Furthermore, grape seed extract counteracted the inhibitory effect of peroxynitrite on human plasma clotting. The results obtained in this study indicate that components of the grape seed extract posses antioxidative properties and may be promising substances for the creation of new dietary supplements. PMID:22584076

  19. Mechanistic Study of Silver Nanoparticle's Synthesis by Dragon's Blood Resin Ethanol Extract and Antiradiation Activity.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Murtaza; Iqbal, Javed; Awan, Umer; Saeed, Yasmeen; Ranran, Yuan; Liang, Yanli; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2015-02-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is best way to avoid exposure of hazardous materials as compared to chemical manufacturing process which is a severe threat not only to biodiversity but also to environment. In present study, we reported a novel method of finding antiradiation compounds by bioreducing mechanism of silver nanoparticles formation using 50% ethanol extract of Dragons blood, a famous Chinese herbal plant. Color change during silver nanoparticles synthesis was observed and it was confirmed by ultra violet (UV) visible spectroscopy at wave length at 430 nm after 30 min of reaction at 60 C. Well dispersed round shaped silver nanoparticles with approximate size (4 nm to 50 nm) were measured by TEM and particle size analyser. Capping of biomolecules on Ag nanoparticles was characterized by FTIR spectra. HPLC analysis was carried out to find active compounds in the extract. Furthermore, antiradiation activity of this extract was tested by MTT assay in vitro after incubating the SH-SY5Y cells for 24 h at 37 C. The results indicate that presence of active compounds in plant extract not only involves in bioreduction process but also shows response against radiation. The dual role of plant extract as green synthesis of nanoparticles and exhibit activity against radiation which gives a new way of fishing out active compounds from complex herbal plants. PMID:26353649

  20. Evaluation of anti-Bothrops asper venom activity of ethanolic extract of Brownea rosademonte leaves.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Marcos; Chrigo, Lilia; Acosta, Hildaura; Otero, Rafael; Martnez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    Significant inhibition of the coagulant and hemorrhagic effects of Bothrops asper venom was demonstrated by ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Brownea rosademonte. In vitro experiments preincubating 5.5 mg of extract kg-1 b.m. for 30 min with a minimum hemorrhagic dose of venom (273.8 16.1 ?g of venom kg-1 b.m.) lowered the hemorrhagic activity of the venom alone in CD-1 mice by 51.5 2.6 %. Additionally, 1.7 mg extract L-1 plasma prolonged 5.1 times the plasma coagulation time. Fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two compounds: ononitol (1) and quercetrin (2). The structure of compounds 1 and 2 was established by spectroscopic analyses, including APCI-HRMS and NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC and COSY). A quercetrin concentration of 0.11 ?mol L-1 prolonged the plasma coagulation time 2.6 times demonstrating that this compound was one of the active constituents of the Brownea rosademonte extract. PMID:25531787

  1. Acaricidal activity of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla ethanolic extracts against Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies.

    PubMed

    El Zalabani, Soheir M; El-Askary, Hesham I; Mousa, Ola M; Issa, Marwa Y; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2012-02-01

    The acaricidal (miticidal) activity of 90% ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla were tested against Varroa destructor mite. Four concentrations were used over two different time intervals under laboratory and field conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on mortality and LC(50) of all tested extracts against the Varroa mite was concentration and time dependant. The acaricidal action against Varroa mites was relatively the least for the S. macrophylla stem bark extract at 500 ppm concentration after 48 h while it reached 100% and 95% in case of S. mahogani bark and S. macrophylla leaves, respectively. The% infestation with Varroa in colonies treated with the different extracts at various time intervals showed that the rate of infestation decreased to 0.0% after 12 days from the beginning of treatments with 500 ppm of S. mahogani leaves extract compared to 0.79% decrease after treatment with Mitac, a reference drug (60 mg/colony). The rate of infestation in case of treatments with S. mahogani bark, S. macrophylla leaves and S. macrophylla bark was decreased to 0.11%, 2.41% and 1.08%, respectively. The highest reduction was observed with S. mahogani leaves extract followed by S. mahogani bark. All the tested extracts showed less or no effect on honey bees at the different concentrations and at different bioassay times. This study suggested that the use of natural plant extracts or their products as ecofriendly biodegradable agents could be of high value for the control of Varroa mite. PMID:22101075

  2. Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    AlRashdi, Ahmed S.; Salama, Suzy M.; Alkiyumi, Salim S.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Abdelwahab, Siddig I.; Taha, Manal M.; Hussiani, Jamal; Asykin, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20 mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as compared with omeprazole or extract which shows significant protection towards gastric mucosal injury the plant promotes ulcer protection as it shows significant reduction of ulcer area grossly, and histology showed marked reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared with ulcer group. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of Hsp70 protein and downexpression of Bax protein in rats pretreated with extract. Significant increased in the pH, mucus of gastric content and high levels of PGE2, SOD and reduced amount of MDA was observed. PMID:22550543

  3. Protein extraction method for the proteomic study of Zymomonas mobilis during production of ethanol and levans.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, D R; Malafaia, C B; Silva, T D; Santos, B S; Calazans, G M T; Silva, M V

    2015-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis has aroused considerable interest owing to its rapid metabolism and efficiency in producing ethanol and by-products such as levans, sorbitol, and gluconic acid from simple sugars. We performed a proteomic analysis of Z. mobilis UFPEDA241 to provide a global profile of regulatory proteins. The choice of the methods of extraction and cell lysis are fundamental steps and of great importance for the detection and identification of intra- and extracellular proteins of a proteome. Strains were subjected to protein extraction methods using three different reagents: TRIzol, lysis buffer, and phenol. The optimum method was taken to be the one that produced the greatest quantity and quality of proteins in one dimension for further analysis in two dimensions during the production of ethanol and levans over 72 h. The results showed that the greatest amount of protein was obtained by the phenol method (1.44 0.07 mg/mL), which was significantly different (P < 0.05) to the TRIzol (1.11 0.01 mg/mL), and lysis buffer (0.93 0.01 mg/mL) methods (both with P > 0.05). Fermentation at 20C produced the highest level of levans, and using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry it was possible to identify 34 differentially expressed spots. PMID:26600500

  4. Evaluation of Sedative and Hypnotic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Md.; Atikur Rahman, Md.; Ferdous, Afia

    2015-01-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn. (SD) is a perennial herb that has been well studied for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and hepatoprotective effects. However, scientific information on SD regarding the neuropharmacological effect is limited. This study evaluated the sedative and hypnotic effect of the ethanolic extract of whole plants of Scoparia dulcis (EESD). For this purpose, the whole plants of S. dulcis were extracted with ethanol following maceration process and tested for the presence of phytochemical constituents. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then investigated using hole cross, open field, hole-board, rota-rod, and thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time determination tests in mice at the doses of 50, 100, and 200?mg/kg of EESD. Diazepam at the dose of 1?mg/kg was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. We found that EESD produced a significant dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests (P < 0.05). Besides, it also decreased rota-rod performances and the number of head dips in hole-board test. Furthermore, EESD significantly decreased the induction time to sleep and prolonged the duration of sleeping, induced by thiopental sodium. Taken together, our study suggests that EESD may possess sedative principles with potent hypnotic properties. PMID:25861372

  5. Reactive Nitrogen Species Scavenging Capacity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts from Galinsoga parviflora and G. quadriradiata Herbs.

    PubMed

    Rogowska, Marta; Srecec, Sinisa; Bazylko, Agnieszka

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the scavenging capacity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts derived from the herb of two species of Galinsoga against NO and ONOO-. In both tests the aqueous extracts of both Galinsoga species were more active than the ethanolic extracts. The highest scavenging activity against NO, and also against ONOO- was shown by G. quadriradiata aqueous extract (SC50 ± SD = 1.54 ± 0.32, and 2.10 ± 1.98, respectively). The study showed that the activity of the extracts from both Galinsoga species is related not only to the presence of flavonoids but also to caffeic acid derivatives and caffeic acid. The results of this study partly explain the beneficial effects of Galinsoga herb extracts in the treatment of skin diseases. PMID:26749807

  6. Toxicity profile of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica stem bark in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom; Orekoya, Latifat Olubukola; Yakubu, Musa Toyin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxic implications of ethanolic stem bark extract of Azadirachta indica (A. indica) at 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Methods Fifty male rats of Wistar strains were randomly grouped into five (A-E) of ten animals each. Animals in Group A (control) were orally administered 1 mL of distilled water on daily basis for 21 days while those in Groups B-E received same volume of the extract corresponding to 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight. Results The extract did not significantly (P>0.05) alter the levels of albumin, total protein, red blood cells and factors relating to it whereas the white blood cell, platelets, serum triacylglycerol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly (P<0.05). In contrast, the final body weights, absolute weights of the liver, kidney, lungs and heart as well as their organ-body weight ratios, serum globulins, total and conjugated bilirubin, serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and computed atherogenic index increased significantly. The spleen-body weight ratio, alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases, sodium, potassium, calcium, feed and water intake were altered at specific doses. Conclusions Overall, the alterations in the biochemical parameters of toxicity have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the organs of the animals. Therefore, the ethanolic extract of A. indica stem bark at the doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight may not be completely safe as an oral remedy and should be taken with caution if absolutely necessary. PMID:23569852

  7. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-12-18

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611} high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H2PtCl6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells. PMID:26585310

  8. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611} high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H2PtCl6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  9. Detection of ethanol and acetaldehyde released from cabbage seeds of different quality: Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy versus FTIR and headspace gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicanic, D.; Persijn, S.; Taylor, A.; Cozijnsen, J.; van Veldhuyzen, B.; Lenssen, G.; Wegh, H.

    2003-01-01

    Detecting early ageing stages of seeds in storage is of great concern to vegetable seed companies. Despite their reliability conventional germination tests are destructive and time consuming. One alternative towards assessing the quality of seed is to monitor the concentration of certain volatiles (acting as biological markers) evolved from the seeds; examples are ethanol (EtOH), acetaldehyde, ethane, methanol, etc. Most of the presently used methods have only moderate insensitivity and are therefore not suitable for the on-line measurements. In this work CO laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) was used to investigate the on-line evolution of EtOH and acetaldehyde from the imbibed nonaged and aged seeds of cabbage. The overall performance of LPAS was superior to that of Fourier transform infrared and of gas chromatography.

  10. Production of maize tortillas and cookies from nixtamalized flour enriched with anthocyanins, flavonoids and saponins extracted from black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seed coats.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio O; Perez-Carrillo, Esther

    2016-02-01

    Ethanolic extract from black beans coat is a source of flavonoids, saponins and antocyanins. Nixtamalized maize flours (NF) are used for the preparation of products such as tortillas, tortillas chips, cookies among others. The objective of this research was to study the effect on textural parameters and color after adding flavonoids, saponins and anthocyanins from black bean seed coat in NF used for the production of tortillas and gluten-free cookies. Furthermore, the retention of bioactive compounds after tortilla and gluten-free-cookie preparation was assessed. Ethanolic extracts of black bean seed coats were added (3g/kg or 7 g/kg) to NF in order to prepare corn tortillas and gluten free cookies characterized in terms of dimensions, color and texture. Addition of 7 g/kg affected the color of cookies and tortillas without effect on texture and dimensions. It was possible to retain more than 80% and 60% of bioactives into baked tortillas and cookies, respectively. PMID:26304324

  11. Comparison of chemical composition of Aerva javanica seed essential oils obtained by different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Samejo, Muhammad Qasim; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

    2013-07-01

    Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult. seed essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and dry steam distillation (SD) extracting methods and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Twenty and eighteen components representing 90.5% and 95.6% of the seed essential oil were identified, using hydrodistillation and dry steam distillation, respectively. The major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by HD were heptacosane (25.4%), 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (14.1%), pentacosane (12.1%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentade-canone (7.9%), nonacosane (7.1%), tricosane (3.6%), ?-farnesene (3.5%), dodecanal (2.7%) and octacosane (2.1%). Whereas the major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by SD were heptacosane (41.4%), pentacosane (21.2%), nonacosane (14.8%), tricosane (6.3%), octacosane (4.2%) and tetracosane (3.0%). PMID:23811454

  12. Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of an ethanol extract of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana from Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Din, Wardah M; Chu, Jessica; Clarke, Garry; Jin, Khoo T; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Fry, Jeff R; Wiart, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    In the annals of biomedical theory perhaps no single class of natural product has enjoyed more ingenious speculation than antioxidants formally aimed at counteracting oxidative insults which are involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, skin ageing and wound healing. In pursuing our study of Malaysian traditional medicines with antioxidant properties, we became interested in Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort., used traditionally to heal wounds. To examine whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. could suppress oxidation an ethanol extract was tested by conventional chemical in vitro assays i.e., ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay (FRAP), DPPH scavenging assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. To explore whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. protected cells against oxidative injuries, we exposed human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). In all the aforementioned experiments, the ethanol extracts elicited potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. To gain a better understanding of the phytochemical nature of the antioxidant principle involved, five fractions (F1-F5) obtained from the ethanol extract were tested using FRAP, DPPH and BCB assays. Our results provided evidence that F5 was the most active fraction with antioxidant potentials equal to 2.090 +/- 0.307 microg/mL, 0.532 +/- 0.041 microg/mL, 0.032 +/- 0.025 microg/mL in FRAP, DPPH and BCB assay, respectively. Interestingly, F5 protected HepG2 against t-BHP oxidative insults. To further define the chemical identity of the antioxidant principle, we first performed a series of phytochemical tests, followed by liquid-chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) profiling which showed that the major compound contained in F5 was geraniin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the wound healing property of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. is mediated by a geraniin containing extract. Furthermore, our data leads us to conclude that geraniin could be used as a potential pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic topical agent. PMID:23678815

  13. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10100?mg/L A. montana and 10500?mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10?mg/L A. montana and 10300?mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders. PMID:22958433

  15. Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab.; Tayyab, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5 mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20 mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5 mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2 g/kg and 5 g/kg). PMID:24783203

  16. Development of a fescue toxicosis model using a fescue seed extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to examine the efficacy of a fescue seed extract for inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. Four growing Holstein steers (BW = 30936kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas were utilized in a four phase crossover design experiment. The basal diet consisted of endophyte fr...

  17. Umami taste amino acids produced by hydrolyzing extracted protein from tomato seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...

  18. Grape Seed Extract to Improve Liver Function in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Change

    PubMed Central

    Khoshbaten, Manouchehr; Aliasgarzadeh, Akbar; Masnadi, Koorosh; Farhang, Sara; Tarzamani, Mohammad K.; Babaei, Hosain; Kiani, Javad; Zaare, Maryam; Najafipoor, Farzad

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim: Therapeutic interventions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are limited, while antioxidative materials have shown benefi ts in animal models. This study aimed to evaluate grape seed extract as an anti-oxidative material in this process. Therapeutic effects of grape seed extract were evaluated in comparison to vitamin C in a double-blind setting. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients were enrolled in each group. Liver function tests were done; also, grade of steatosis and pattern of echogenicity of the liver were determined. Patients were followed up by the same evaluation repeated in first, second and third months. Results: Mean age ± standard deviation was 43.2 ± 10.3 years. Grape seed extract (GSE) significantly improved the grade of fatty liver change; and resulted in significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase in patients receiving the concentrate compared to those receiving vitamin C independently, from the initial grade of steatosis. Conclusions: This study describes the beneficial effect of using grape seed extract for three months in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. These results may improve with a longer period of follow-up. PMID:20616415

  19. Nigella sativa (Black Cumin) Seed Extract Alleviates Symptoms of Allergic Diarrhea in Mice, Involving Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, Swantje C.; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA) -sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa- (U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFN?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy. PMID:22768141

  20. Dehulling of Cuphea PSR23 Seeds to Reduce Color of the Extracted Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil extracted from the seeds Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid hybrid from C. viscosissima x C. lanceolata, by screw-pressing contained 200-360 ppm of chlorophyll. A high amount of bleaching clay was needed during refining to remove the chlorophyll in the oil. In this paper, dehu...

  1. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>α-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

  2. Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava) Root

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Rakhi; Saluja, Daman; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.; Chopra, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava) roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol?:?chloroform fraction (BDF 5) had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48?h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200??g?mL?1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant. PMID:21869896

  3. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

  4. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Rados?aw; Zieli?ski, Henryk; Ciesio?ka, Danuta; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

    2006-03-01

    The antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the Uncaria tomentosa bark were evaluated. The analysis included trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOD) and quantitation of total tannins (TT) and total phenolic compounds (TPC). The obtained results indicate high antioxidant capacity of the studied materials in comparison to the other extracts of fruits, vegetables, cereals and medicinal plants. Higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of the alcoholic preparations -- TEAC=0.57 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.52 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.39 U/mg than of the aqueous preparation -- TEAC=0.34 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.19 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.10 U/mg were observed. These results might suggest higher medical suitability of alcoholic extracts. However, the highly elevated level of tannins in alcoholic extracts may cause undesirable gastric effects. PMID:16202551

  5. Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Riadh Ben; Jilani, Imtinen Ben Haj; Bouaziz, Mohammed; Gargouri, Bochra; Elloumi, Nésrine; Attia, Hamadi; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb; Lassoued, Saloua

    2016-01-01

    Caper plant (Capparis spinosa) extracts have been associated with diverse biological activities including anti-oxidant properties. In this work, we characterized the hydro-ethanolic extract obtained from C. spinosa leaves [hydroethanolic extract of C. spinosa (HECS)] by analyzing the content in anti-oxidant compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Further, we evaluated HECS antioxidant activities in vitro using bleaching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ABTS test as well as by pretreatment of HeLa cells exposed to Fe(2+) or H2O2. Our findings indicate that HECS contains high amount of total phenolic compounds and high levels of flavonoids and anthocyanins. Furthermore, HECS exhibited antioxidant activity in both chemical and biological tests. Specially, pretreatment of HeLa cells with different concentrations of the extract conferred protection against lipid peroxidation and modulated activities of two antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase. These results revealed HECS antioxidant effects and suggest that C. spinosa leaves are a potential source of natural antioxidant molecules with possible applications in industry and medicine. PMID:25377263

  6. Antibacterial activity of clove, gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448

    PubMed Central

    Mirpour, Mirsasan; Gholizadeh Siahmazgi, Zohreh; Sharifi Kiasaraie, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial compounds from herbal sources have good therapeutic potential. In this study, the antibacterial effects of clove and gall nut, methanolic and ethanolic extractions, were evaluated for their effect on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448, as both the two cause oral diseases. Method The clove and gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts were prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated for S. mutans and S. salivarius in the base of inhibition zone diameter using agar diffusion method. In this part minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed. Results These extracts showed effective antibacterial activity on bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of clove was more than that of ethanolic extract, and ethanolic extracts of gall nut had antibacterial activity more than that of methanolic extracts. MIC and MBC results for clove methanolic extract were 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml for S. mutans and 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for clove ethanolic extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. MIC and MBC results for gall nut methanolic extract were 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. mutans and 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for gall nut ethanolic extracts were 3.1 mg/ml and 6.2 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. Discussion The results showed effective antibacterial activity using clove and gall nut methanolic extracts. If other properties such as tolerance of tissue can also be studied, these extracts can be used as a mouthwash. PMID:25853041

  7. Preparation and characterization of nano liposomes of Orthosiphon stamineus ethanolic extract in soybean phospholipids

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background O. stamineus is a medicinal herb with remarkable pharmacological properties. However, poor solubility of the active principles limits its medicinal value. This study sought to prepare nano liposomes of OS ethanolic extract in unpurified soybean phospholipids in order to improve its solubility and permeability. OS liposomes were prepared by the conventional film method, and were characterized for solubility, entrapment efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size and zeta potential, release, absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs, and DPPH scavenging effect. Results OS liposomes showed substantial enhancement of extract’s solubility from 956 ± 34 to 3979 ± 139 μg/ml, with entrapment efficiency of 66.2 ± 0.9%. FTIR study indicates interaction between soybean phospholipids and OS extract. TEM and dynamic light scattering showed presence of round anionic nano liposomes with particle size and zeta potential of 152.5 ± 1.1 nm and −49.8 ± 1.0 mV, respectively. A study using the fluorescent probe pyrene showed the critical micellar concentration is 9.2 ± 2.9 μg/ml. Release studies showed 94 ± 0.1% release in non-formulated extract and 62.4 ± 0.1% in OS liposomes. Released extract from OS liposomes showed improvement in DPPH scavenging effect, IC50 = 23.5 ± 1.1 μg/ml compared to 32.4 ± 0.5 μg/ml in non-formulated extract. OS liposomes were stable at pH 5.5 and 7.4, but showed reversible agglomeration at pH 1.6. Absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs showed substantial improvement in permeability of 3′-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4″-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, eupatorin, and 3 other unknown compounds. Conclusions Enhanced solubility, absorption and antioxidant effect may improve the overall pharmacological effects and medicinal value of OS ethanolic extract. PMID:24674107

  8. Ethanol production from syngas by Clostridium strain P11 using corn steep liquor as a nutrient replacement to yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Maddipati, Prasanth; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Bellmer, Danielle D; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2011-06-01

    The feasibility of replacing yeast extract (YE) by corn steep liquor (CSL), a low cost nutrient source, for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was investigated. About 32% more ethanol (1.7 g L(-1)) was produced with 20 g L(-1) CSL media in 250-mL bottle fermentations compared to media with 1 g L(-1) YE after 360 h. Maximum ethanol concentrations after 360 h of fermentation in a 7.5-L fermentor with 10 and 20 g L(-1) CSL media were 8.6 and 9.6 g L(-1), respectively, which represent 57% and 60% of the theoretical ethanol yields from CO. Only about 6.1 g L(-1) of ethanol was obtained in the medium with 1 g L(-1) YE after 360 h, which represents 53% of the theoretical ethanol yield from CO. The use of CSL also enhanced butanol production by sevenfold compared to YE in bottle fermentations. These results demonstrate that CSL can replace YE as the primary medium component and significantly enhance ethanol production by Clostridium strain P11. PMID:21474306

  9. Apparatus used for small-scale volatile extraction from ethanol-supplemented low-salt miso and GC-MS characterization of the extracted flavors.

    PubMed

    Ku, K L; Chen, T P; Chiou, R Y

    2000-08-01

    An extraction apparatus was equipped with a nitrogen-flushing vessel to purge volatiles from a 10-g miso prepared solution at 40 degrees C, a reflux condenser to recover water, a coiled cold-trap to separate ethanol in advance, and a glass-lined stainless (GLS) trap filled with Tenax TA for flavor adsorption. Volatiles in the GLS tube were released with a thermal desorption device and condensed with a Micro-cryo trap prior to connection with GC and GC-MS for characterization. After analysis, a broad volatile profile comprising 9 categories of functional group and 97 identified compounds was achieved. As affected by ethanol supplementation for miso fermentation, most volatiles except alcohols and acetals in the low-salt products fermented with 5% NaCl and 7.5% ethanol were higher than those in the control products fermented with 9% NaCl and 0% ethanol and the high-ethanol supplemented products fermented with 5% NaCl and 15% ethanol. It reveals that supplementation of ethanol in miso at an appropriate level not only enabled a low-salt miso fermentation but also enhanced flavor formation. PMID:10956140

  10. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on methanolic seeds' extract of Dolichos biflorus.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Sharif, Sadaf; Mehjabeen; Sharif, Hina; Jahan, Noor; Naqvi, Ghazala Raza

    2014-03-01

    The Dolichos biflorus is a well known medicinal plant in folklore for its medicinal properties. In herbal medicine the seeds of it are mainly used as tonic, astringent, diuretic, and are also recommended in asthma, bronchitis, urinary discharges, hiccoughs, ozoena, heart trouble and other diseases of brain. The main purpose of this study is to explore and to provide experimental data on the traditional use of plant Dolichos biflorus. For this purpose we investigated the plant seed extract phytochemically and pharmacologically. Phytochemical analysis was performed on extract and powder form of the drug. Procedure use for evaluation were Identification of chemical constituent by color reaction, Fluorescence analysis of powder drug, pH (in powder and extract forms), loss on drying, Thin layer chromatography, Infrared spectroscopy, acid and saponification values. In pharmacological studies (diuretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities) were tested on the extract of plant seed. The tests were carried out over albino mice taking different concentration of seed extract. Seeds extract of Dolichos biflorus has exhibited mild analgesic activity, the results were (84.66.68) at dose 300mg/kg and (92.26.81) at dose 500mg/kg which were not much significant as compared to reference drug Aspirin (300mg/kg) having result (36.42.27). While seed extract of Dolichos biflorus exhibited remarkable diuretic activity, the values at 300 mg/kg was (1.330.13) and at 500 mg/kg were (2.660.31) which are highly significant as compared to drug Lasix (20mg /kg) having result (2.380.23). Anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract of Dolichos biflorus obtained at 0.06mg/kg and 01mg/kg were (26.62.96) and (361.67) respectively. While the value for aspirin as standard drug (300mg/kg) were (17.441.59).This study provides a platform for further investigation for the isolation of active principles responsible for biological activity. PMID:24577923

  11. Application of response surface methodology to optimize microwave-assisted extraction of silymarin from milk thistle seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several parameters of Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) including extraction time, extraction temperature, ethanol concentration and solid-liquid ratio were selected to describe the MAE processing. The silybin content, measured by an UV-Vis spectrophotometry, was considered as the silymarin yield....

  12. Antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Diospyros lotus seeds.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bigdellou, Rata; Mohammadzadeh, Sakineh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective effects of Diospyros lotus seeds extract in experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant potential of Diospvyos lotus seeds extract was examined by employing seven in vito models i.e., DPPH, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activity, iron ion chelating, reducing power and lipid peroxidation through linoleic acid. Antihemolytic activity of extract was examined against hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocytes hemolysis. Also, nephroprotective effect of extract against gentamicin (GM)-induced renal injury was evaluated. Renal injury was achieved by injecting 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) of GM in normal saline. Extracts were administrated i.p. in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood samples were examined for serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after 10 consecutive days of treatment. Results show that extract showed different level of antioxidant and antihemolytic activity in the studied models. Also, results show that GM-induced nephrotoxic animal model was successfully constructed. Extract attenuated the gentamicin-induced increase in level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. The present study shows that the extract offered significant biological action compared with standard compound. PMID:22876611

  13. Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effect and Antioxidative Activities of Fermented and Ethanol Extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuh-Shuen; Liou, Hua-Chian

    2013-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae). Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values) on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10?mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073?mg/ml) and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207?mg/ml) were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics. PMID:24307875

  14. The entrapment ability of aqueous and ethanolic extract of teucrium polium: glucose diffusion into the external solution.

    PubMed

    Qujeq, Durdi; Babazadeh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Some plant extracts showed the ability to retard the diffusion of glucose across the dialysis tube. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Teucrium polium (T. polium) on glucose movement across the dialysis tube. The T. polium powder was dissolved in ethanol and distilled water. Then glucose was added to make a final concentration of 0.2 - 0.8 g/l glucose with aqueous or ethanolic extract of Teucrium Polium. Fifteen milliliter of each concentration (0.2 - 0.8 g/l) of glucose was dialyzed against 50 ml of distilled water at 20 (?)C in a dialysis tubing cellulose membrane (molecular weight cut off = 10000 Da) every 4 h for 24 hours under rotationally shaking. The released glucose was determined by glucose oxidase kit. Aqueous extract of T. polium did not show any significant effect on the glucose movement. But, ethanolic extract of T. polium was found to exhibit a significant stimulation on glucose movement from dialysis tube to the external medium. Our findings suggest the possible importance of other factors besides viscosity in determining the anti- diabetic behavior of T. polium. PMID:24551797

  15. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 g/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 g/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 g/ml) with the IC50=119.7 g/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.750.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.250.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.250.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  16. Evaluation of Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum verum Leaf Galls for Potential Antioxidant and Analgesic activity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Minakshi; Chandra, D R

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, ethanol and aqueous extracts of leaf galls of Cinnamomum verum were prepared to evaluate the antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and superoxide radical scavenging assay with ascorbic acid as a standard, and analgesic activity by tail immersion test and acetic acid-induced writhing test methods using diclofenac sodium as the reference drug. Swiss albino mice maintained under standard laboratory conditions were used for analgesic tests. In the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay it was found that the aqueous and the ethanol extract possessed almost equal capacity to inhibit free radicals (IC50=13.3 and 13.53 g/ml) but found less than ascorbic acid (IC50=9.96 g/ml). And in superoxide assay the ethanol extract was found to be more potent in scavenging super oxide radicals when compared to ascorbic acid and the aqueous extract (IC50=237.1 and 197.8 g/ml) with the IC50=119.7 g/ml. For analgesic activity, ethanol extract showed the maximum time required for response against thermal stimuli (6.750.47 s) and maximum % of writhing inhibition (44.57%) when compared to aqueous extract (5.250.48 s and 32.61%), whereas diclofenac showed response in 7.250.25 s 67.39% inhibition in tail immersion and writhing tests, respectively. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extracts of leaf galls possessed high antioxidant and analgesic activity. PMID:26009661

  17. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

    2013-06-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  18. Assessment of Pb and Cd in seed oils and meals and methodology of their extraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Hongliang; Peng, Liang; Chen, Zhipeng; Zeng, Qingru

    2016-04-15

    Oil seed, which is a secondary product in phytoremediation, contaminated with heavy metals should be disposed of in an appropriate fashion. In this study, heavy metal concentrations found in oilseed rape and peanut oils were below 0.1 mg kg(-1) after extractions, being found most of the heavy metals in meals rather in oils. Extraction experiments were carried out to determine the optimum methodology for the removal of Pb and Cd from seed meals using K3C6H5O7, K2C4H4O6 and (NH4)2EDTA. The highest extraction of the Pb and Cd in the seed meals was achieved using 30 mM extractant solutions at 30°C for 24 h and a three-step extraction procedure. K3C6H5O7 and K2C4H4O6 had less impact on the removal of nutrients than (NH4)2EDTA. PMID:26616978

  19. An enzymatic extraction of proanthocyanidins from Pas grape seeds and skins.

    PubMed

    Fernndez, Katherina; Vega, Marco; Asp, Estrella

    2015-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) from the skins and seeds of Pas grapes were obtained by enzymatic extraction by using three enzymes (pectinase, cellulase and tannase) and an enzymatic blend to increase the phenol concentrations and reduce the PA molecular size. The total phenol concentrations (as indicated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent), mean degree of polymerisation (mDP), galloylation percentage (%G) and structural proportion (phloroglucinolysis) were analysed, in addition to the extract's capacity to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On grape skins, pectinase had the greatest effective on the release of total phenols, to 0.01g/ml solid/liquid (S/L) and 1% enzyme/substrate (E/S). On grape seed, the three enzymes were effective in increasing the phenolic extraction (p<0.05). The effects of enzymes on the mDP and %G of the extracts were related to their enzymatic activity. All the extracts inhibited ACE, but ACE inhibition was thought to be improved by the increased number of terminal units in the seed samples. PMID:25172676

  20. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  1. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cydonia oblong seed extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, Faria; Ghafoor, Nida; Iqbal, Mudassir; Mehboob, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    The green synthesis of nanoparticles has emerged as a cost-effective and environmentally benign technique. The present study describes the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a seed extract of Cydonia oblonga. The conditions were optimized by adjusting pH, temperature, time and amount of seed extract. The nanoparticles produced were characterized by different techniques, namely UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of Ag-NPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic analysis. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the biomolecules, which played a key role in the reduction of Ag+ ions. XRD confirmed that the silver nanoparticles possessed face-centered cubic structure. The green chemistry approach has proven that Ag-NPs can be synthesized by using plant extract in which biomolecules effectively act as capping and reducing agent.

  2. Anticoagulant effect of polyphenols-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.

    PubMed

    Bijak, Michał; Bobrowski, Mateusz; Borowiecka, Marta; Podsędek, Anna; Golański, Jacek; Nowak, Paweł

    2011-09-01

    Blood coagulation consists of a series of zymogens that can be converted by limited proteolysis to active enzymes leading to the generation of thrombin. Fresh plasma and human thrombin was incubated with extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5; 5; 50 μg/ml). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts prolonged clotting time and decreased the maximal velocity of fibrin polymerization in human plasma. Moreover thrombin incubation with both extracts results in the inhibition of amidolytic activity of this enzyme. It gives hopes for development of diet supplements, which may be preventing thrombosis in pathological states. PMID:21596108

  3. Bioinspired reduced graphene oxide nanosheets using Terminalia chebula seeds extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddinedi, Sireesh Babu; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Vankayala, Raviraj; Kalluru, Poliraju; Pamanji, Sreedhara Reddy

    2015-06-01

    A green one step facile synthesis of graphene nanosheets by Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) extract mediated reduction of graphite oxide (GO) is reported in this work. This method avoids the use of harmful toxic reducing agents. The comparative results of various characterizations of GO and T. chebula reduced graphene oxide (TCG) provide a strong indication of the exclusion of oxygen containing groups from graphene oxide and successive stabilization of the formed reduced graphene oxide (RGO). The functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with the oxidized polyphenols causes their stability by preventing the aggregation. We also have proposed how the oxidized polyphenols are accountable for the stabilization of the formed graphene sheets.

  4. Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and DNA protective capacity of Chenopodium album's ethanolic leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Elif Korcan, S; Aksoy, Onur; Erdo?mu?, S Feyza; Ci?erci, ? Hakk?; Konuk, Muhsin

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the antibacterial effects of Chenopodium album's ethanolic leaf extract (CAE) on all the Gram (+) and Gram (-) microorganisms and evaluated the protective effects of CAE on both yeast and human mononuclear leukocytes' genomic DNA upon oxidative shock. Antibacterial activity was recorded on Bacillus subtilis with 13 mm of inhibition zone. Total oxidative status (TOS) and the total antioxidative status (TAS) levels were determined to evaluate the antioxidant activity of CAE. Results indicated that there was a good correlation between dose of CAE and TAS levels. We also observed that CAE protect the DNA of both yeast and mononuclear leukocytes against the damaging effect of hydrogen peroxide. The comet assay, applied on both Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 (MATa his3?1 leu2?0 met15?0 ura3?0) and human leukocytes, results suggested that there was statistically significant correlation between CAE dilutions and antigenotoxic activity. PMID:22897836

  5. Vasorelaxant effect of Cinnamomi ramulus ethanol extract via rho-kinase signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yun Hwan; Shin, Heung Mook

    2011-01-01

    The Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is substantially involved in vascular contraction. This study investigated the vasodilatory effects and possible mechanisms of Cinnamomi ramulus ethanol extract (CRE), with the hypothesis that the CRE vasodilatory effect involves RhoA and the ROCK signaling pathway in rat aortic preparations. CRE (0.05-1 mg/ml) dose-dependently relaxed the vascular contraction induced by phenylephrine and calpeptin in an endothelium-independent manner. Measurement of the expression levels of ROCK-related signaling molecules in response to calpeptin revealed that CRE completely inhibited RhoA and ROCK2 protein expressions. Furthermore, CRE dephosphorylated the subsequent downstream targets myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT-1), protein kinase C potentiated phosphatase inhibitor protein-17 kDa (CPI-17) and myosin light chain 20 kDa (MLC20). We conclude that the vasorelaxation effect of CRE occurs via downregulation of ROCK signal molecules. PMID:21905278

  6. Antioxidant synergism between ethanolic Centella asiatica extracts and ?-tocopherol in model systems.

    PubMed

    Thoo, Yin Yin; Abas, Faridah; Lai, Oi-Ming; Ho, Chun Wai; Yin, Jie; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Skibsted, Leif H; Tan, Chin Ping

    2013-06-01

    The synergistic antioxidant effects of ethanolic extracts of Centella asiatica (CE), and ?-tocopherol have been studied. The types of interactions exhibited by CE and ?-tocopherol combined at different ratios were measured using three assays: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity, the ?-carotene bleaching system and liposome peroxidation assays. Fixed-fraction isobolographic analysis was used to detect any inducement of the antioxidant activity compared with the individual activities of CE and ?-tocopherol. Of all synergistic combinations of CE and ?-tocopherol, only fraction 2/3 showed the synergistic combination that fits well in three different assays and can be explained by the regeneration of ?-tocopherol by CE despite the interaction effect of ?-carotene present in the analytical assay. This phenomenon involved complex interactions between CE and ?-tocopherol to exhibit different degrees of interactions that eventually increased antioxidant activity. PMID:23411234

  7. Acutely administered grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract acts as a satiating agent.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Joan; Casanova-Mart, ngela; Gil-Cardoso, Katherine; Blay, M Teresa; Terra, Ximena; Pinent, Montserrat; Ardvol, Anna

    2016-01-20

    Grape-seed proanthocyanidins' role as stimulators of active GLP-1 in rats suggests that they could be effective as satiating agents. Wistar rats were used to study the effects of proanthocyanidins on food intake with different doses, administration times and proanthocyanidin extract compositions. A dose of 423 mg of phenolics per kg body weight (BW) of grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) was necessary to decrease the 12-hour cumulative food intake by 18.7 3.4%. Proanthocyanidins were effective when delivered directly into the gastrointestinal tract one hour before, or simultaneously at the start of the feeding period. Proanthocyanidins without galloyl forms, such as those from cocoa extract, were not as effective as grape-seed derived forms. GSPE increased the portal levels of active GLP-1 and total ghrelin and decreased the CCK levels, simultaneously with a decrease in gastric emptying. In conclusion, grape-seed proanthocyanidins could be useful as a satiating agent under the conditions defined in this study. PMID:26514231

  8. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia morrisonensis Hayata in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shen-Chieh; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Ying-Chih; Wu, Chung-Hao; Chao, Chien-Ti; Chang, Ching-Wen; Peng, Wen-Huang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the ethanolic extract of A. morrisonensis Hayata (AMEtOH). Two models were employed for evaluation of the analgesic effects: acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results demonstrated that AMEtOH decreased writhing response for both the acetic acid assay and the licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by paw edema of mice induced by ?-carrageenan. AMEtOH significantly decreased induced paw edema three to four hours after ?-carrageenan injection. Additionally, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of AMEtOH may be due to the declined levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the edematous paw. Furthermore, AMEtOH decreased the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, leading to the reduction of prostaglandins and subsequently alleviated edema. Isolation and purification of the AMEtOH extract determined p-hydroxyacetophenone to be a major component at 130?mg/g of extract. No mortality was observed in the acute toxicity test given at the dose of 10?g/kg. This study demonstrated the possible mechanisms for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of AMEtOH for mice and provided evidence for the ethnobotanical uses of A. morrisonensis in treating inflammatory diseases. PMID:23346188

  9. Ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa protects Fe(II) induced lipid peroxidation in rat's brain, kidney and liver homogenates.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Khalil, ShafqatUllah; Hussain, Arshad; Rehman, Shakilla; Sajjad, Shagufta; Rahman, Ataur; daRocha, Joao Bt

    2016-01-01

    The study describes the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa against Fe(II) induced lipid peroxidation. Basal and Fe(II) induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production was significantly inhibited by the ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa at25-200 μg/ml. Our data revealed that the extract has high DPPH radical scavenging activity at highest tested concentrations. The extract significantly chelated Fe(II) and scavenged hydroxyl (OH) radical at 25-200μg/ml concentration. The nutritional analysis was performed and carbohydrate, fats, fiber, protein, moisture and ash content were measured in the studied extract. The phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate & sugar, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, protein and amino acid, phytosterols, tannins, gum and mucilage. The extract also showed significant antimicrobial activities against 10 bacterial strains i.e. Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escheria coli, Xanthomonas, Salmonella heidelberg, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium and Escheria coli (human) and 5 fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Entomola, Asper gillusflavus, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium. This study confirms the potential antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa which can be considered not only as a diet supplement but can be used against a variety of free radical induced damage diseases. PMID:26826815

  10. In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens

    PubMed Central

    Olugbami, J. Olorunjuwon; Gbadegesin, Michael A.; Odunola, Oyeronke A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in various pathological conditions. Synthetic antioxidants have adverse health effects, while many medicinal plants have antioxidant components that can prevent the harmful effects of ROS. Objectives: This study quantitatively determined the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens (EESTG). Materials and Methods: The objectives were achieved based on in vitro assays. Data were analyzed by Sigma Plot (version 11.0). Results: Using gallic acid as the standard compound, TPC value obtained was 596.57 ?g GAE/mg extract. TFC content of EESTG, determined as quercetin equivalent was 129.58 ?g QE/mg extract. Furthermore, EESTG significantly (P < 0.001) displayed higher reducing power activity than the standard compounds (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]). Total antioxidant capacity assay, measured by phosphomolybdate method, was 358.33 5.77 ?g butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg extract. ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching method affirmed the potency of EESTG because of its significantly (P < 0.001) higher anti-oxidant activity when compared with quercetin and BHT. Based on DPPH assay, EESTG displayed significantly (P < 0.001) higher activity than BHT, while the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of BHT and quercetin significantly (P < 0.001) exceeded that of the extract, although EESTG still displayed a high level of activity obtained as 83.77% in comparison to 92.80% of the standard compounds. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate the presence of promisingly potent phytoconstituents in EESTG that have the capability to act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. PMID:25598635

  11. New mixes based on collagen extracts with bioactive properties, for treatment of seeds in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate. PMID:24372268

  12. Effect of yeast extract and vitamin B sub 12 on ethanol production from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Honnami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi )

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B{sub 12}, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B{sub 12} alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

  13. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. ethanol extract and rhodomyrtone: a potential strategy for the treatment of biofilm-forming staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Saising, Jongkon; Ongsakul, Metta; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2011-12-01

    The anti-staphylococcal activity of an ethanol extract of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa and its pure compound, rhodomyrtone, as well as their effects on staphylococcal biofilm formation and biofilm-grown cells were assessed. MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration values of the ethanol extract and rhodomyrtone against planktonic cultures and biofilms of five clinical strains each of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains of both species, were 32-512 and 0.25-2 g ml(-1), respectively. Results from time-kill studies indicated that rhodomyrtone at a concentration of 4 MIC could reduce the number of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 cells by 99.9% within 3 and 13 h, respectively. The ability of rhodomyrtone and the ethanol extract to prevent biofilm formation and kill mature biofilms was assessed: both demonstrated better activity than vancomycin at inhibiting staphylococcal biofilm formation. In addition, the viability of 24 h and 5-day staphylococcal biofilm-grown cells decreased after treatment with the ethanol extract and rhodomyrtone. The ability to reduce biofilm formation and kill mature biofilms occurred in a dose-dependent manner. Scanning electron microscopy clearly confirmed that treatment with rhodomyrtone at 16 MIC could reduce 24 h biofilm formation and the numbers of staphylococci, whilst at 64 MIC this compound destroyed the organisms in the 5-day established biofilm. These results suggest that rhodomyrtone has the potential for further drug development for the treatment of biofilm-forming staphylococcal infections. PMID:21816945

  14. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Salvadora oleoides in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, J.P.; Saini, Sushila; Kalia, A.N.; Dangi, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To find out the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of an ethanolic extract of the aerial part of Salvadora oleoides Decne in euglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Normal as well as diabetic albino rats were divided into groups (n = 6) receiving different treatments: vehicle (control), ethanolic extract (1 g and 2 g/kg b.w), and standard antidiabetic drug tolbutamide (0.5 g/kg b.w.). Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and were analyzed for blood glucose and lipid profile on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: The ethanolic extract of S oleoides produced significant reduction (P < 0.001) in blood glucose and also had beneficial effects (P < 0.001) on the lipid profile in euglycemic as well as alloxan-induced diabetic rats at the end of the treatment period (21st day). However, the reduction in the blood glucose and improvement in lipid profile was less than that achieved with the standard drug tolbutamide. Conclusion: We concluded that an ethanolic extract of S oleoides is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and improves lipid profile in euglycemic as well as diabetic rats. PMID:21264157

  15. Ulex seed extracts: lymphocyte growth inhibition and the anti-H hemagglutinins.

    PubMed

    Pirofsky, B; Ingebo, K R; August, A V; Hefeneider, S H

    1982-01-01

    Extracts produced from the seeds of Ulex europaeus are commonly used for their ability to react with the H basic substance present on erythrocytes and secreted in body fluids. Such extracts were found to also contain a potent inhibitor of human and murine lymphocyte growth. Inhibition of growth does not result from cytotoxicity and is easily reversible. Ulex seed extract (USE) solutions were modified in various ways to produce reagents in which the anti-H hemagglutinins were either retained or removed. The fractionated solutions were then analyzed for hemagglutination and lymphocyte growth-inhibiting activity. Such studies clearly indicated that these two biological functions resulted from the action of different materials. The lymphocyte growth inhibitor is not a glycoprotein lectin. It does not mediate its effect through the H basic substance and is a heat-stable, small molecule. The data suggest that plant seed extracts employed for their lectin content may contain an additional class of biologically active agents potentially useful in man. PMID:7113109

  16. Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-09-15

    Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp. PMID:25212152

  17. Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

  18. Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells.

    PubMed

    Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

  19. Hepatoprotective potential of extracts from seeds of Areca catechu and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria.

    PubMed

    Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Nithitanakool, Saruth; Bavovada, Rapepol

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from seeds of Areca catechu L. (Arecaceae) (AC) and nutgalls of Quercus infectoria Oliv. (Fagaceae) (QI) were investigated for their hepatoprotective potential by studying their antioxidant capacity using four different methods, by determining their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity against 5-lipoxygenase, and by evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. AC and QI extracts exhibited potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Treatment of rats with AC and QI extracts reversed oxidative damage in hepatic tissues induced by CCl(4). It is suggested that extracts rich in either condensed or hydrolysable tannins and known for their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, may potentially confer protection against oxidative stress-induced liver injury. These data should contribute to evidence-based traditional medicines for anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects of both extracts. PMID:20032872

  20. The antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of different plant seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Atrooz, Omar M

    2009-08-01

    Different plant seeds extracts of Citrus sinensis, Hordeum sativum, Triticum sativum, Canna indica, Citrullus vulgaris and Capsicum annuum were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by the following methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycril-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, RBCs hemolysis and linoleic acid oxidation, a long with the determination of total phenolic and flavonoids contents. All the methanolic extracts showed high antioxidant activity and have high contents of phenolic and flavonoid. The Canna indica extract exhibited strong antioxidant as a reducing power and as DPPH radical-scavenging (3.61 absorbance, 87.12%, respectively), while the Hordeum sativum extract exhibited highest inhibitory effect on RBCs hemolysis (59.55%) and the Capsicum annuum extract has highest inhibitory effect on linoleic acid peroxidation (65.06%). PMID:19943462

  1. Simultaneous extraction of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds with subcritical water.

    PubMed

    Ravber, Matej; Knez, eljko; kerget, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the subcritical water extraction is proposed as an alternative and greener processing method for simultaneous removal of oil- and water-soluble phase from sunflower seeds. Extraction kinetics were studied at different temperatures and material/solvent ratios in a batch extractor. Degree of hydrothermal degradation of oils was observed by analysing amount of formed free fatty acids and their antioxidant capacities. Results were compared to oils obtained by conventional methods. Water soluble extracts were analysed for total proteins, carbohydrates and phenolics and some single products of hydrothermal degradation. Highest amount of oil was obtained at 130 C at a material/solvent ratio of 1/20 g/mL after 30 min of extraction. For all obtained oils minimal degree of hydrothermal degradation could be identified. High antioxidant capacities of oil samples could be observed. Water soluble extracts were degraded at temperatures ?100 C, producing various products of hydrothermal degradation. PMID:25053062

  2. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.

    PubMed

    Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 ?m/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 ?m/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 ?m/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

  3. A case of beta-carboline alkaloid intoxication following ingestion of Peganum harmala seed extract.

    PubMed

    Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Zancanaro, Flavio; Fazzin, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2008-08-01

    Beta-carboline alkaloids harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of amine neurotransmitters, or by direct interaction with specific receptors; they are found in numerous plants, including Peganum harmala, Passiflora incarnata and Banisteriopsis caapi, and in the entheogen preparation Ayahuasca, which is traditionally brewed using B. caapi to enhance the activity of amine hallucinogenic drugs. The ingestion of plant preparations containing beta-carboline alkaloids may result in toxic effects, namely visual and auditory hallucinations, locomotor ataxia, nausea, vomiting, confusion and agitation. We report a case of intoxication following intentional ingestion of P. harmala seed infusion; P. harmala seeds were bought over the Internet. The harmala alkaloids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the seed extract and the patient's urine. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of P. harmala intoxication corroborated by toxicological findings. PMID:18603389

  4. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2009-01-01

    The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. PMID:19448924

  5. The antiangiogenic activities of ethanolic crude extracts of four Salvia species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis is one of cancer hallmarks that are required for both cancer progression and metastasis. In this study we examined the antiangiogenic properties of the ethanolic crude extracts of four Salvia species grown in Jordan. Methods The direct antiangiogenic activity was evaluated using various models: ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, in vitro assessment of HUVEC proliferation and migration, and in vivo CAM assay, while we used the changes in the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in breast cancer cells (MCF 7) as an indicative for the indirect antiangiogenic activity. Results All four crude extracts showed a potential antiangiogenic activity in the rat aortic assay, however two species were found to be cytotoxic against Fibroblast cell line (PLF); the finding that caused the exclusion of these two extracts from further studies. Of the two remaining extracts, S. triloba showed very promising direct and indirect antiangiogenic activities. S. triloba inhibited the HUVEC proliferation with an IC50 of 90 μg/mL and HUVEC migration by 82% at 150 μg/mL. Furthermore, the in vivo CAM assay also illustrated the high impact of S. triloba against the newly formed vessel in the chicken embryonic membrane. Interestingly, the S. triloba inhibited the expression of VEGF at the mRNA and protein and the HIF-1α mRNA in the MCF 7 breast cancer cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusions Taken together, all these findings of the direct and indirect angiogenic investigations nominated S. triloba as a highly potent antiangiogenic plant that may have chemotherapeutic and/or chemoprevention potentials. PMID:24330494

  6. Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M.; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M.

    1999-08-01

    Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

  7. Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5 mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered to rats 2 h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000 mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23118790

  8. Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract on the experimental model against chronic ethanol toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Arulmozhi, Vadivel; Krishnaveni, Mani; Karthishwaran, Kandhan; Dhamodharan, Ganesan; Mirunalini, Sankaran

    2010-01-01

    The possible protective effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNFEt) was investigated for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity against ethanol-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental animals were intoxicated with 20% ethanol (7.9 g/kg/day) for 30 days via gastric intubation. SNFEt was administered at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight along with the daily dose of ethanol for 30 days. From the result it was observed that ethanol-induced rats showed a significant elevation in the levels of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which lowered the antioxidant defense systems, such as, reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamins C and E, when compared to the controls. In the lipid profiles, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), free fatty acids (FFA), and phospholipids were significantly elevated in the ethanol-induced group, whereas, the high density lipoproteins (HDL) were found to be reduced in the plasma, and the phospholipid levels were significantly decreased in the tissues. Supplementation of SNFEt improved the antioxidant status by decreasing the levels of TBARS and altering the lipid profiles to near normal. These activities were also compared to the standard drug silymarin (25 mg/kg body weight). Thus the findings of the present study indicated a significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Solanum nigrum fruits, which offered protection against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:20548935

  9. The impact of seed extraction on the population dynamics of Pinus maximartinezii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lpez-Mata, Lauro

    2013-05-01

    Pinus maximartinezii is a rare, endemic, threatened species known from a single small population in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Among the pine species that produce edible nuts, it produces one of the largest and most nutritious seeds. The seeds of P. maximartinezii have historically been used for human consumption. The cones are harvested directly from the trees, and the seeds are sold illegally in local, national and international markets. However, the effects of seed extraction must be thoroughly evaluated to determine the potential impacts on population stability. To assess the impact of different rates of seed harvesting on the demography of this species, a 2-yr study of population dynamics was conducted in three 0.1-ha plots. A 9 9 size-structured matrix model was used to simulate changes in population growth over time in conjunction with increasing stepwise reductions in fecundity. The population growth rate (?) of P. maximartinezii was 1.1175, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.1008 to 1.1321, and it was relatively insensitive to changes in fecundity and growth. Under a seed extraction intensity of 99%, ? decreased to 1.0241, with a CI from 1.0177 to 1.0361. Elasticity analysis was then performed to identify the combined effects of proportional changes in fecundities and the largest stasis elements on ?. The results suggest that a sound conservation strategy should focus on improving the survival of juveniles and adults during their first reproductive events and on the largest adults, as well as on protecting the habitat of this threatened endemic species.

  10. Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant acitivity of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.

    PubMed Central

    Parimala, Mabel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.

  11. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Duraisamy; Kalaiselvi, Manokaran; Ravikumar, Ganesan; Devaki, Kanakasabapathi; Uma, Chandrasekar

    2015-02-01

    Medicinal plants are at great interest to the researcher in the field of biotechnology, as most of the drug industries depend in medicinal plants for the production of pharmaceutical compounds. Plants are the traditional sources for many chemicals used as pharmaceutical biochemicals, fragrances, food colours and flavours in different countries especially in India. Most herbal medicines and their derivative products were often prepared from crude plant extracts, which comprise a complex mixture of different phytochemical constituents (plant secondary metabolites). The chemical features of these constituents differ considerably among different species. GC-MS method used for the analysis of the obtained extracts can be an interesting tool for testing the amount of some active principles in herbs used in cosmetic, drugs, pharmaceutical or food industry. The aim of this study was to carry out for identification of bioactive compounds from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides by Gas chromatography and Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). GCMS analysis of ethanolic extract was done by standard protocol using the equipment Thermo GC-Trace Ultra Version: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of various compounds like piperine, octodeconoic acids, hexadecanoic acid and squalene in the ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides. Hence, the Evolvulus alsinoides may have chemopreventive, anticancer, anti-microbial activity, antioxidant and antidiabetic activity due to the presence of secondary metabolites in the ethanolic extract. Due to the presence of esters which can be used as a flavoring agent in food industries. These findings support the traditional use of Evolvulus alsinoides in various disorders. Further studies are needed to isolate active principle of the extract as well as to elucidate their exact mechanism of action in various disorders. PMID:25694742

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activities of Morinda citrifolia seed extract and its constituents in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether a 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) of the seeds of Morinda citrifolia (noni) and its constituents have matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity in UVA-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The MCS-ext (10 ?g/mL) inhibited MMP-1 secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, without cytotoxic effects, at 48 h after UV exposure. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of MCS-ext was the most potent inhibitor of MMP-1 secretion. Among the constituents of the fraction, a lignan, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), inhibited the MMP-1 secretion at a concentration of 0.3 ?M without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 1 (0.3 ?M) reduced the level of intracellular MMP-1 expression. Other constituents, namely americanin A (2), quercetin (3) and ursolic acid (4), were inactive. To elucidate inhibition mechanisms of MMP-1 expression and secretion, the effect of 1 on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation was examined. Western blot analysis revealed that 1 (0.3 ?M) reduced the phosphorylations of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that 1 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression, and consequent secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, by down-regulation of MAPKs phosphorylation. PMID:22293351

  13. Cytochalasin H, an active anti-angiogenic constituent of the ethanol extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Yi, Jin-Mu; Kim, Haejin; Lee, You Jin; Park, Jong-Shik; Bang, Ok-Sun; Kim, No Soo

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the process of new vessel formation from the pre-existing blood vasculature, is critical for continuous tumor growth and is considered to be a validated antitumor target. The results of our previous study demonstrate the anti-angiogenic potential of an extract of Gleditsia sinensis thorns, which has been traditionally used in Korean medicine to remedy diverse diseases, including tumors. In the present study, we attempted to identify the active anti-angiogenic constituents of the ethanol extract of G. sinensis thorns (EEGS). By virtue of in vitro activity-guided fractionation using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) primary endothelial cells, chromatographic separation, and NMR spectral analyses, we isolated and identified the potent active constituent, cytochalasin H, a biologically active secondary metabolite of fungi. This unexpected active constituent may have originated from the endophytic fungi, Chaetomium globosum, which naturally populate G. sinensis, the identity of which was determined by analysis of fungal community. Cytochalasin H isolated from the EEGS showed in vitro anti-angiogenic activities such as suppressed cell growth and mobility in HUVEC, and inhibited the pro-angiogenic protein-induced formation of new blood vessels in vivo. The anti-angiogenic effect of cytochalasin H was in part due to reduced expression of pro-angiogenic factor, such as endothelin-1. This is the first report regarding the isolation and identification of cytochalasin H, as an active anti-angiogenic constituent of G. sinensis thorns. PMID:24172060

  14. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Ethanol Extract from Vernonia polyanthes Leaves in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Temponi, Vanessa dos Santos; da Silva, Juclia Barbosa; Alves, Maria Silvana; Ribeiro, Antnia; de Jesus Ribeiro Gomes de Pinho, Jos; Yamamoto, Clia Hitomi; Pinto, Miriam Aparecida Oliveira; Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extract from Vernonia polyanthes leaves (EEVP) was investigated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects at the doses (p.o.) of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg in animal models. The extract reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 16.75% and 31.44% at a dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The results obtained showed that EEVP exerted a significant antinociceptive effect in the two phases of formalin. The EEVP increased the reaction time on a hot plate at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg after 90 min of treatment. The paw edema was reduced by EEVP at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg after 4 h of application of carrageenan. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, significantly reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74%, respectively) and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95%, respectively). These results suggest that V. polyanthes can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:22489187

  15. Influence of the toothpaste with brazilian ethanol extract propolis on the oral cavity health.

    PubMed

    Skaba, Dariusz; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Mertas, Anna; Bobela, El?bieta; Szliszka, Ewelina; Skucha-Nowak, Ma?gorzata; Dawiec, Monika; Yamamoto, Rindai; Ishiai, Shinobu; Makita, Yuki; Redzynia, Ma?gorzata; Janoszka, Beata; Niedzielska, Iwona; Krl, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis-based therapeutic agents represent this potential for the development of new drugs in dental care. The aim of a clinical-cohort study was to determine the influence of application of toothpaste enriched with Brazilian extract of propolis (EEP) on health status of oral cavity. Laboratory analysis was conducted in order to assess the chemical composition of EEP including total phenolic compounds, the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. Clinical research involved two groups of subjects comprising 32 adult patients, with assessment based on the preliminary evaluation of the state of their marginal periodontium. The investigation of oral health indices API, OHI, and SBI and microbiological examination of oral microflora were also carried out. Results obtained indicated time-dependent microbial action of EEP at 50?mg/L concentration, with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The total decrease of API, OHI, and SBI mean values was observed. Hygienic preparations with 3% content of Brazilian ethanol extract of green propolis (EEP) efficiently support removal of dental plaque and improve the state of marginal periodontium. PMID:23861699

  16. Influence of the Toothpaste with Brazilian Ethanol Extract Propolis on the Oral Cavity Health

    PubMed Central

    Skaba, Dariusz; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Bobela, El?bieta; Skucha-Nowak, Ma?gorzata; Dawiec, Monika; Yamamoto, Rindai; Makita, Yuki; Redzynia, Ma?gorzata; Janoszka, Beata; Niedzielska, Iwona; Krl, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Propolis-based therapeutic agents represent this potential for the development of new drugs in dental care. The aim of a clinical-cohort study was to determine the influence of application of toothpaste enriched with Brazilian extract of propolis (EEP) on health status of oral cavity. Laboratory analysis was conducted in order to assess the chemical composition of EEP including total phenolic compounds, the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. Clinical research involved two groups of subjects comprising 32 adult patients, with assessment based on the preliminary evaluation of the state of their marginal periodontium. The investigation of oral health indices API, OHI, and SBI and microbiological examination of oral microflora were also carried out. Results obtained indicated time-dependent microbial action of EEP at 50?mg/L concentration, with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The total decrease of API, OHI, and SBI mean values was observed. Hygienic preparations with 3% content of Brazilian ethanol extract of green propolis (EEP) efficiently support removal of dental plaque and improve the state of marginal periodontium. PMID:23861699

  17. Analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta resin in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Kumar, Dhirendra; Prasad, Raju; Verma, Pawan Kumar; Sardar, Kaustuk K.; Tandan, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Shorea robusta (Sal), an important traditional Indian medicinal plant used in various ailments and rituals and the indigenous use of the resin of this plant as a medicament for treatment of various inflammatory conditions is well documented in literature. In the present study, ethanolic extract of S. robusta resin (SRE) was evaluated for its analgesic activity by making use of different central and peripheral pain models. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of SRE was assessed by employing different pain models such as, i) hot plate and tail flick tests for central analgesia, ii) acetic acid- induced writhing (peripheral analgesic model), iii) formalin-induced hind paw licking (both central and peripheral model), iv) carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia (peripheral analgesic model) and v) post-surgical pain (peripheral analgesic model). Results: The extract produced significant central and peripheral analgesic effects, as is evident from increase in reaction time in hot plate and tail flick tests, inhibition in writhing counts in acetic acid-induced writhing test, inhibition of licking time in formalin-induced hind paw licking, increased pain threshold in paw withdrawal latency in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and increased paw withdrawal threshold in post-surgical pain. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate marked antinociceptive effects of SRE. PMID:23087512

  18. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects Triggered by Grape Seed Extract (GSE) versus Epigallocatechin and Procyanidins on Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dinicola, Simona; Cucina, Alessandra; Pasqualato, Alessia; DAnselmi, Fabrizio; Proietti, Sara; Lisi, Elisabetta; Pasqua, Gabriella; Antonacci, Donato; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Grape seed extract has been proven to exert anticancer effects on different tumors. These effects are mainly ascribed to catechin and procyanidin content. Analytical studies demonstrated that grape seed extract composition is complex and it is likely other components could exert biological activities. Using cell count and flow cytometry assays, we evaluated the cytostatic and apoptotic effects produced by three different grape seed extracts from Italia, Palieri and Red Globe cultivars, on Caco2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells. These effects were compared to those induced by epigallocatechin and procyanidins, alone or in association, on the same cell lines. All the extracts induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in Caco2 and HCT-8 cells, along the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. On both cell lines, growth inhibition induced by Italia and Palieri grape seed extracts was significantly higher than that it has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. In Caco2 cells, the extract from Red Globe cultivar was less effective in inducing growth inhibition than procyanidins alone and in association with epigallocatechin, whereas, in HCT-8 cells, only the association of epigallocatechin and procyanidins triggers a significant proliferation decrease. On both cell lines, apoptosis induced by Italia, Palieri and Red Globe grape seed extracts was considerably higher than has been recorded with epigallocatechin, procyanidins and their association. These data support the hypothesis by which other compounds, present in the grape seed extracts, are likely to enhance the anticancer effects. PMID:22312277

  19. Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (2090 min), temperature (3545 C) and pressure (5090 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  20. Fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) seed oil extracted by optimized supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

    2011-01-01

    Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20-90 min), temperature (35-45 C) and pressure (50-90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO(2) extraction conditions (45 C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO(2) is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO(2) is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

  1. Optimised amylases extraction from oat seeds and its impact on bread properties.

    PubMed

    Ben Halima, Nihed; Borchani, Maha; Fendri, Imen; Khemakhem, Bassem; Gosset, David; Baril, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Ayadi, Mohamed-Ali; Abdelkafi, Slim

    2015-01-01

    Statistical approaches were employed for the optimisation of the extraction of amylolytic activity from oat (Avena sativa) seeds. The application of the response surface methodology allows us to determine a set of optimal conditions (ratio seed weight/buffer volume 0.1, germination days 10 days, temperature 20 C and pH 5.6). Experiments carried out under these conditions led to amylase production yield of 91 U/g. Its maximal activity was in the pH 5.6 and at 55 C. Study of the incorporation of the optimised oat extract into the bread formulation revealed an improvement of the sensory quality and the textural properties of fresh and stored bread. Three-dimensional elaborations of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) images were performed on crumb of the different breads to evaluate the influence of amylase activity on microstructure. The result showed improved baking characteristics as well as overall microscopic and macroscopic appearance. PMID:25453287

  2. Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N

    2013-10-01

    The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions. PMID:23743034

  3. Optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in a stirred tank bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Yatmaz; Irfan, Turhan; Mustafa, Karhan

    2013-05-01

    In this study, optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract was carried out by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results showed that Ca-alginate concentration and the amount of immobilized cells had significant effects on yield. Optimum conditions for ethanol fermentation were determined to be 2% Ca-alginate concentration, 150 rpm agitation rate, 5% yeast cells entrapped in beads and pH 5.5. After validation experiments; ethanol concentration, yield, production rate and sugar utilization rate were respectively 40.10 g/L, 46.32%, 3.19 g/L/h and 90.66%; and the fermentation time was decreased to 24 h. In addition, the immobilized cells were shown to be reusable for five cycles, though a decrease in yield was observed. Finally, carob pod extract was used for ethanol fermentation by controlled and uncontrolled pH without any enrichment, and the results suggest that carob extract can be utilized effectively by immobilized-cell fermentation without the use of enrichments to facilitate yeast growth. PMID:23010212

  4. Genoprotectivity of methanol and ethanol extracted leaf sap of Trigonella foenum-graecum in Allium cepa root assay.

    PubMed

    Mekki, Laila

    2014-03-01

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) of Fabacecae family is widely distributed throughout the world and used as an old medicinal plant and traditional food. The present study deals with the investigation of the anti-genotoxic potential of methanol (MTG) and ethanol (ETG) extracted leaf sap of fenugreek on Allium cepa root tip cells, which were treated with cadmium sulfate (CdSO(4)). Three types of treatments were applied. First, roots were treated with different concentrations of methanolic and ethanolic extracts (0.1%, 0.5% and 1%) separately for 3 h each, followed by CdSO(4) treatment (at 250 ppm, for 3 h). Second, roots were first treated with CdSO(4) followed by extracts treatment. Third, root tips were treated with CdSO(4) with extracts treatments at the same time. For controls, roots with CdSO(4) (250 ppm) and distilled water served as positive and negative control, respectively. The results showed that the methanol and ethanol extracts of fenugreek modulated the genotoxic and clastogenic aberrations, which were induced by CdSO(4). The protection activity of MTG (1%) was 50% in the first treatment, 70% in the second treatment and 82% in the third treatment and 61%, 68% and 88% of ETG (1%), respectively. DNA rearrangements were also observed by revealing new RAPD bands in the total DNS samples isolated from Allium roots after treatmenst. PMID:24561897

  5. Effects of the serjania erecta and zeyheria montana ethanol extracts in experimental pulpitis in rats: A histological study

    PubMed Central

    Nossa, Patrícia M.; Guenka, Leandro C.; Couto, Lucélio B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by the semi-quantitative histological analysis, the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extracts of Serjania erecta e Zeyheria Montana, in experimental pulpits in rats. Study Design: In order to induce pulp inflammation, cavities were performed on the occlusal surface of the mandibular first molars of 45 male rats, without pulp exposure. The animals were distributed into 4 groups: GI, teeth without cavities; GII, single dose of saline solution via intraperitoneal (IP); GIII, single dose (IP) of 300mg/Kg of ethanolic extract of Zeyheria montana; GIV, single dose (IP) of 300mg/Kg of ethanolic extract of Serjania erecta. After 6, 12 and 24 hours, 5 animals of each group were killed by anesthetic overdose. The histological analyses of the pulp tissue were performed and the data analyzed by Dunn´s multiple test, at significance of 5%. Results: After 12 h, the GIII presented score statistically lower (p<0.05) than positive control group. After 24 h, GIII presented inflammatory index statistically lower than the positive control (p<0.01) and Serjania erecta (p<0.05) groups. Conclusion: The Zeyheria montana extract presented better anti-inflammatory activity than positive control group and Serjania erecta extract, which did not show anti-inflammatory effect in the analyzed periods. Key words:Anti-inflammatory effect, experimental pulpitis, histological analysis, phytotherapy, rats. PMID:23229264

  6. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Harshal A.; Lalitha, K. G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w). The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568 dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198 kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability. PMID:26640490

  7. Anti-microbial effect of Nigella sativa seed extract against staphylococcal skin Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rafati, Shiva; Niakan, Mohammad; Naseri, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of microbial resistance to the existing anti-microbial agents has become a real challenge and a serious problem facing patients suffering from skin infections. Seeds of Nigella sativa have been used for a long time in folk medicine for the treatment of skin infections. Production of new potent agents is urgently needed, especially for hospitals and health care centers. This study is designed to explore anti-microbial effect of extract from the Nigella sativa seeds against skin pustules infection. Methods: The in vivo anti-microbial effect of the Nigella sativa seeds extract at a concentration of 33% on pustules staphylococcal Skin Infections was assessed and compared with standard drug mupirocin on 40 neonates .All neonates were divided and examined into two experimental and control groups randomly. Recovery times were compared between two groups. Results: The mean of recovery time in experimental group was 75/1 with SD= 12, and the mean of recovery time in control group was 69/4 with SD = 8/7.There was no significant difference in recovery time between two groups (p value = 0/131). Conclusion: In clinical practice, the agent of Nigella Sativa recovered as pustular from tissues of all patients. While the extract was as nearly effective as the standard drug, mupirocin, no side effect was observed. PMID:25405108

  8. Evaluation of tocolytic activity of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Ficus capensis Thunb. (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Owolabi, Omonkhelin J; Nworgu, Zulekhai A; Falodun, Abiodun; Ayinde, Buhiyamin A; Nwako, Charles N

    2009-01-01

    Ficus capensis, a wild fig tree is used in herbal medicines to treat pregnancy related ailment and most especially as a remedy for threatened abortion. The purpose of this study was to investigate this claim with view to validating scientifically the ethno-medicinal usage. The ethanolic extract obtained by maceration technique was subjected to pharmacological testing in vitro on a piece of isolated rat uterus previously pretreated with stilbestrol, suspended in De Jalon at 37 degrees C. Concentrations used were 40 mg/mL and 80 mg/mL. The higher concentration (80 mg/mL) significantly (p < 0.05) exerted smooth muscle relaxant activity on the uterus (a reduction of oxytocin, ergometrin and acetylcholine induced contractions as well as an increase of the EC50 was observed for all the agonists tested in the presence of the extract). Evaluation of the data also indicated that the effect of the 40 mg/mL concentration was statistically insignificant, although a lowering of the dose response curve was observed for oxytocin, acetylcholine and ergometrin. Its relaxant activity at 80 mg/mL was 40 and 50% of the inhibitory effects produced by salbutamol (0.002 microg/mL) and atropine (0.02 microg/mL) on oxytocin and acetylcholine induced contractions, respectively. The results indicate the presence of active principles in the bark extract of Ficus capensis which may be responsible for some of the applications in traditional medicines as an anti-abortifacient and as a remedy against threatened abortion. PMID:19645329

  9. Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Stem Ethanolic Extract Liberates Reactive Oxygen Species and Induces Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in KB Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Saba; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Dhasmana, Anupam; Safia; Haque, Ejazul; Kamil, Mohammed; Lohani, Mohtashim; Arshad, Mohammad; Mir, Snober Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ) commonly known as Hadjod (Family: Vitaceae) is usually distributed in India and Sri Lanka and contains several bioactive compounds responsible for various metabolic and physiologic effects. Objective: In this study, the biological effects of CQ ethanolic extract were evaluated by in vitro and supported by in silico analysis on KB oral epidermoid cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: Anti-cancer potential of ethanolic extract of CQ stem against KB oral epidermoid cancer cells was evaluated in terms of morphological analysis, nuclei staining, liberation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and p53 and Bcl-2 protein expression which reveal the induction of apoptosis along with supporting in silico analysis. Results: Ethanolic extract of CQ stem contains various bioactive compounds responsible for cancer cell morphological alterations, liberation of ROS, G1 phase cell cycle arrest and decreased MMP along with up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. By employing in silico approach, we have also postulated that the CQ extract active constituents sequester Bcl-2 with higher affinity as compared to p53, which may be the reason for induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in KB cells. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the CQ extract has a remarkable apoptotic effect that suggests that it could be a viable treatment option for specific types of cancers. SUMMARY Cissus quadrangularis stem ethanolic extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phaseIt liberates (ROS) and mitochondria mediated apoptosisIt upregulates p53 and down-regulates Bcl-2 protein expressionIn silico studies indicates that the active constituents of CQ binds Bcl-2 with higher affinity as compared to p53. PMID:26929569

  10. Coffea arabica Seed Extract Stimulate the Cellular Immune Function and Cyclophosphamide-induced Immunosuppression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Rafiul Haque, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid Hussain; Rashikh, Azhar

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the immunostimulatory effects of alcoholic extract of the coffee seed on cell-mediated immune response and cyclophosphamide-induced (CP) immunosuppressed mice. The assessment of cellular immune function was carried out by the measurement of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. According to the literature survey, cyclophosphamide has only suppressing effect on the lymphoid organ, white blood cell (WBC) and other parts of humoral immunity. Humoral immunity was assessed by the hemagglutination antibody titre. Mice were treated with three doses of extract (50, 150 and 250 mg/Kg body weight per os). Relative organ weight and WBC counts were also studied in these animals. At doses of 50 and 150, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in relative organ weight of spleen and thymus was observed but there was no effect on kidney and liver weights. WBC counts was also increased significantly (p < 0.001) in all doses of the plant extract. Coffea arabica extract elicited a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the DTH response at doses of 50 and 150 mg/Kg, but the change at higher dose of 250 mg/Kg was not statistically significant. In the HT test, plant extract also showed modulatory effect at all doses groups. Over all, coffee seed showed the stimulatory effect on cellular immune function and cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression in mice. PMID:24250577

  11. Comparison of fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential of extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds.

    PubMed

    Plastina, Pierluigi; Fazio, Alessia; Gabriele, Bartolo

    2012-01-01

    The extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds have been compared regarding fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) was found to contain the highest oil amount (34%), while the Poncirus trifoliata cultivars contained the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (84-87%). In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts from defatted seeds have been evaluated by measuring their radical scavenging activity against 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The highest antioxidant activities were observed in the case of the acetone extract of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle (76% and 75%, respectively), at a concentration of 0.17?mg?mL(-1). Moreover, the total phenolic content of the extracts, determined using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, was found to be correlated with the radical scavenging activity results. The acetone extracts of sour orange and Citrumelo Swingle exhibited the highest phenolic content [112.3 and 103.4?mg gallic acid equivalent?g(-1) dry sample weight, respectively]. PMID:22236049

  12. Detoxification of Abrus precatorius L. seeds by Ayurvedic Shodhana process and anti-inflammatory potential of the detoxified extract

    PubMed Central

    Dhoble, Sagar B.; Majumdar, Anuradha S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abrus precatorius seeds traditionally used for the treatment of sciatica and alopecia contains the toxic protein, abrin, a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. Ayurveda recommends the use of Abrus seeds after the Shodhana process (detoxification). Objective: The current study was aimed at performing the Shodhana process, swedana (boiling) of Abrus precatorius seeds using water as a medium and to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of seed extract post detoxification. Materials and Methods: Non-detoxified and detoxified extracts were prepared and subsequently subjected to various in vitro and in vivo assays. In hemagglutination assay, the non-detoxified extract shows higher agglutination of RBCs than detoxified extract indicating riddance of toxic hemagglutinating proteins by Shodhana. This was confirmed by the SDSPAGE analysis of detoxified extract revealing the absence of abrin band in detoxified extract when compared to non-detoxified extract. Results: The cytotoxicity assay in HeLa cell line expresses a higher reduction in growth percentage of the cells with non-detoxified extract as compared to detoxified extract indicating successful detoxification. Brine shrimp lethality test indicated the reduction in toxicity index of detoxified extract as compared to non-detoxified extract. Further, the whole body apoptosis assay in zebrafish revealed that percentage of viable cells were greater for detoxified extract than non-detoxified extract. The anti-inflammatory studies using carrageenan induced paw edema model in rats was carried out on the extracts with doses of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, per oral, where the detoxified extract exhibited significant inhibition of rat paw edema at both the doses comparable to that of Diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Absence of toxicity and the retention of the anti-inflammatory activity of detoxified Abrus seed extract confirmed that the Swedana process is effective in carrying out the detoxification without affecting its therapeutic potential. PMID:25336846

  13. Identification and quantitative determination of carbohydrates in ethanolic extracts of two conifers using 13C NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Duquesnoy, Emilie; Castola, Vincent; Casanova, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    We developed a method for the direct identification and quantification of carbohydrates in raw vegetable extracts using (13)C NMR spectroscopy without any preliminary step of precipitation or reduction of the components. This method has been validated (accuracy, precision and response linearity) using pure compounds and artificial mixtures before being applied to authentic ethanolic extracts of pine needles, pine wood and pine cones and fir twigs. We determined that carbohydrates represented from 15% to 35% of the crude extracts in which pinitol was the principal constituent accompanied by arabinitol, mannitol, glucose and fructose. PMID:18299126

  14. Effect of Early Seed Removal During Fermentation on Proanthocyanidin Extraction in Red Wine: A Commercial Production Example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) were made by a commercial winery to examine the effects of seed removal at ~10 °Brix on the extraction of proanthocyanidins during fermentation. Seeds were removed at the point when they fell to the bottom of the fermentor, and were thus easily removed during reg...

  15. The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Fori?, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

    2009-05-01

    Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund MareBM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as ?Eq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co ?-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with ?-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37 C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

  16. Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Akter, A.; Neela, F. A.; Khan, M. S. I.; Islam, M. S.; Alam, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract. PMID:21188055

  17. LiDAR Segmentation using Suitable Seed Points for 3D Building Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, S. M.; Awrangjeb, M.; Lu, G.

    2014-08-01

    Effective building detection and roof reconstruction has an influential demand over the remote sensing research community. In this paper, we present a new automatic LiDAR point cloud segmentation method using suitable seed points for building detection and roof plane extraction. Firstly, the LiDAR point cloud is separated into "ground" and "non-ground" points based on the analysis of DEM with a height threshold. Each of the non-ground point is marked as coplanar or non-coplanar based on a coplanarity analysis. Commencing from the maximum LiDAR point height towards the minimum, all the LiDAR points on each height level are extracted and separated into several groups based on 2D distance. From each group, lines are extracted and a coplanar point which is the nearest to the midpoint of each line is considered as a seed point. This seed point and its neighbouring points are utilised to generate the plane equation. The plane is grown in a region growing fashion until no new points can be added. A robust rule-based tree removal method is applied subsequently to remove planar segments on trees. Four different rules are applied in this method. Finally, the boundary of each object is extracted from the segmented LiDAR point cloud. The method is evaluated with six different data sets consisting hilly and densely vegetated areas. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method offers a high building detection and roof plane extraction rates while compared to a recently proposed method.

  18. Role of an Ethanolic Extract of Crotalaria juncea L. on High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinakaran Sathis; David, Banji; Harani, Avasarala; Vijay, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic effects of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) by performing in vivo studies. Methods The effects of oral administration of 50 mg/kg BW and 100 mg/kg BW per day of an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea Linn (whole plant) in rats fed with a high-fat diet were investigated by evaluating parameters like food consumption, weight gain, fecal fat excretion, serum and liver lipids, and biochemical profiles as well as by histopathological studies. The results were compared to animals fed with the standard diet and animals fed with a high-fat diet and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg BW). Results The animal group administered with the ethanolic extract for 35 days showed decreased levels of TC, LDL, VLDL, TG, HDL+VLDL, VLDL+LDL, LDL/TC, AI, SGOT, SGPT, and elevated levels of HDL, HDL/TC, significantly (p<0.01 & p<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. The evaluation of liver tissues of the animal groups treated with the herbal extract and standard had shown increased levels of SOD, GSH, and catalase, whereas levels of SGOT, SGPT, total glucose, HMG-CoA, lipase, amylase, and the percentage of malon-dialdehyde were decreased when compared with the high-fat diet-fed rats. Body weight and food intake in the treated groups were significantly lower than that in the model control. Conclusion The present study showed that an ethanolic extract of Crotalaria juncea L. influences several blood lipid and metabolic parameters in rats, suggesting a potential benefit as an antihypercholesterolemic agent. PMID:24959408

  19. Gastroprotective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats

    PubMed Central

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mazen M; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Fouad, Mustafa; Golbabapour, Shahram; Talaee, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background and AimCorchorus olitorius is a medicinal plant traditionally utilized as an antifertility, anti-convulsive, and purgative agent. This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of C. olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in adult Sprague Dawley rats. MethodsThe rats were divided into seven groups according to their pretreatment: an untreated control group, an ulcer control group, a reference control group (20 mg/kg omeprazole), and four experimental groups (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract). Carboxymethyl cellulose was the vehicle for the agents. Prior to the induction of gastric ulcers with absolute ethanol, the rats in each group were pretreated orally. An hour later, the rats were sacrificed, and gastric tissues were collected to evaluate the ulcers and to measure enzymatic activity. The tissues were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. ResultsCompared with the extensive mucosal damage in the ulcer control group, gross evaluation revealed a marked protection of the gastric mucosa in the experimental groups, with significantly preserved gastric wall mucus. In these groups, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) and reduced (P < 0.05), respectively. In addition to the histologic analyses (HE and periodic acid-Schiff staining), immunohistochemistry confirmed the protection through the upregulation of Hsp70 and the downregulation of Bax proteins. The gastroprotection of the experimental groups was comparable to that of the reference control medicine omeprazole. ConclusionsOur study reports the gastroprotective property of an ethanolic extract of C. olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats. PMID:23611708

  20. The safety and efficacy of 3% Cannabis seeds extract cream for reduction of human cheek skin sebum and erythema content.

    PubMed

    Ali, Atif; Akhtar, Naveed

    2015-07-01

    Escalated sebum fabrication is seen with an unattractive look and adds to the growth of acne. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 3% Cannabis seeds extract cream on human cheek skin sebum and erythema content. For this purpose, base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract and base (control) were prepared for single blinded and comparative study. Healthy males were instructed to apply the base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract and base twice a day to their cheeks for 12 weeks. Adverse events were observed to determine skin irritation. Measurements for sebum and erythema content were recorded at baseline, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th week in a control room with Sebumeter and Mexameter. Base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract was found to be safe in volunteers. Measurements demonstrated that skin sebum and erythema content of base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract treated side showed significant decrease (p<0.05) compared with base treated side. Base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract showed safety. It was well tolerated for the reduction of skin sebum and erythema content. Its improved efficacy could be suggested for treatment of acne vulgaris, seborrhea, papules and pustules to get attractive facial appearance. PMID:26142529

  1. Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

    2003-04-01

    Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment. PMID:14994812

  2. Influence of ethanol-diesel blended fuels on diesel exhaust emissions and mutagenic and genotoxic activities of particulate extracts.

    PubMed

    Song, Chong-Lin; Zhou, Ying-Chao; Huang, Rui-Jing; Wang, Yu-Qiu; Huang, Qi-Fei; L, Gang; Liu, Ke-Ming

    2007-10-22

    This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of ethanol addition on diesel exhaust emissions and the toxicity of particulate extracts. The experiments were conducted on a heavy-duty diesel engine and five fuels were used, namely: E0 (base diesel fuel), E5 (5%), E10 (10%), E15 (15%) and E20 (20%), respectively. The regulated emissions (THC, CO, NOx, PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were measured, and Ames test and Comet assay, respectively, were used to investigate the mutagenicity and genotoxicity of particulate extracts. From the point of exhaust emissions, the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel could result in higher brake specific THC (BSTHC) and CO (BSCO) emissions and lower smoke emissions, while the effects on the brake specific NOx (BSNOx) and particulate matters (BSPM) were not obvious. The PAH emissions showed an increasing trend with a growth of ethanol content in the ethanol-diesel blends. As to the biotoxicity, E20 always had the highest brake specific revertants (BSR) in both TA98 and TA100 with or without metabolizing enzymes (S9), while the lowest BSR were found in E5 except that of TA98-S9. DNA damage data showed a lower genotoxic potency of E10 and E15 as a whole. PMID:17513038

  3. In vitro antilisterial properties of crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds.

    PubMed

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  4. In Vitro Antilisterial Properties of Crude Methanol Extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Penduka, Dambudzo; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2012-01-01

    Crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds were screened for their antilisterial activities against 42 Listeria bacteria isolated from wastewater effluents. The extract had activity against 45% of the test bacteria and achieved minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging between 0.157 and 0.625 mg/mL. The rate of kill of the extract was determined against four representative Listeria species in the study, and the results showed that the highest percentage of bacteria cells were killed after the maximum exposure time of 2 h at the highest concentration of 4 × MIC value, with the maximum number of bacteria cells killed being for L. ivanovii (LEL 30) 100%, L. monocytogenes (LAL 8) 94.686%, L. ivanovii (LEL 18) 60.330%, and L. grayi (LAL 15) 56.071% We therefore conclude that the nature of inhibition of the crude methanol extracts of Garcinia kola seeds can be either bactericidal or bacteriostatic depending on the target Listeria species and can also differ among same species as evidenced by L. ivanovii strains LEL 30 and LEL 18. PMID:22927786

  5. Proteomic identification of Syzygium cumini seed extracts by MALDI-TOF/MS.

    PubMed

    Binita, Kumari; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Veena; Yadav, Savita

    2014-02-01

    Syzygium cumini is traditionally used medicinal plant. The different part of the plant such as bark, leaves, seed and fruits are widely used as an alternative medicine in various diseases. Although the scientific community has a strong interest on S. cumini seed biochemistry focusing on metabolite composition, proteins have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we have applied a proteomic approach to study the proteome of the S. cumini seed using phenol extraction method for protein isolation, which were never analysed before. Fifteen brightly silver stained protein spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry after resolving on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These proteins have been found to involve in various functions such as antifungal, sulphur metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, fruit ripening and softening, dormancy breaking and seed germination, hormone signalling, secondary metabolite transport, defence and stress response, nitrogen metabolism, synthesis and stabilization. Amongst the identified protein, lactoferrin was a mammalian origin protein with high nutritious and pharmaceutical value, which was purified by different types of chromatographic techniques and confirmed by western blotting. The antibacterial activity of lactoferrin was assessed by disc diffusion assay. We suggest that the protein constituents of S. cumini may have role in various functions required for plant physiology and its dietary values. PMID:24338207

  6. Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extract under drought.

    PubMed

    Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Zakhama, Nesrine; Karoui, Iness Jabri; Marzouk, Brahim

    2012-06-01

    This research evaluated the effect of drought on total and individual polyphenol contents as well as the antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds of 2 geographic origins, Tunisia (TCS) and India (ICS). Plants were treated with different levels of water deficit: control. Our results indicated that, in both varieties, moderate water deficit (MWD) improved the number of umbels per plant as well as the number of umbellets per umbel and the seed yield, in comparison to the control, but it decreased under severe water deficit (SWD). Besides, total phenolic contents were higher in the treated seeds and drought increased the level of total and individual polyphenols. This increase was appreciably more important in TCS than in ICS. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by 4 different test systems, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ?-carotene/linoleic acid chelating, and reducing power assays, and showed that treated seeds exhibited the highest activity, for both TCS and ICS. PMID:22671525

  7. Sutherlandia frutescens Ethanol Extracts Inhibit Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses in Neurons and Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jinghua; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Zong, Yijia; Patel, Jayleenkumar; Brownstein, Korey; Lei, Wei; Lu, Chi-Hua; Simonyi, Agnes; Gu, Zezong; Cui, Jiankun; Rottinghaus, George E.; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Folk, William R.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2014-01-01

    Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R.Br. (SF) is a medicinal plant indigenous to southern Africa and used in folk and contemporary remedies for stress, chronic diseases, cancer, and HIV/AIDS. While previous studies have focused on physiological effects of SF on cellular and systemic abnormalities associated with these diseases, little is known about its effects in the brain and immune cells in the central nervous system. Results of this study indicate that ethanol extracts of SF (SF-E) suppress NMDA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, and LPS- and IFN?-induced ROS and nitric oxide (NO) production in microglial cells. SF-Es action on microglial cells appears to be mediated through inhibition of the IFN?-induced p-ERK1/2 signaling pathway which is central to regulating a number of intracellular metabolic processes including enhancing STAT1? phosphorylation and filopodia formation. The involvement of SF in these pathways suggests the potential for novel therapeutics for stress and prevention, and/or treatment of HIV/AIDS as well as other inflammatory diseases in the brain. PMID:24587007

  8. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Polish Propolis against Biofilm Forming Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyczka, Robert D.; Kępa, Małgorzata; Idzik, Danuta; Kabała-Dzik, Agata; Wąsik, Tomasz J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to examine the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Polish propolis (EEPP) against biofilm-forming CoNS strains in vitro. Our results revealed that EEPP displayed varying degrees of activity against CoNS with MIC values ranging from 1.56 to 0.78 mg/mL. The average MIC was 1.13 ± 0.39 mg/mL while calculated MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.78 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL, respectively. The biofilm formation ability by all tested S. epidermidis strains was inhibited at EEPP concentrations ranging from 0.39 to 1.56 mg/mL. The degree of reduction of AlamarBlue was directly associated with the proliferation of S. epidermidis strains. The increased proliferation of S. epidermidis strains was observed after 12 and 24 hours of incubation in the presence of EEPP concentrations ranging from 0.025 to 0.39 mg/mL. These results suggest that antimicrobial activities of EEPP against S. epidermidis expressed as the reduction of bacterial growth, reduction of biofilm formation ability, and the intensity of proliferation were significantly affected by incubation time and EEPP concentration used as well as the interactions between these factors. PMID:23662143

  9. Ethanol Extract of Chinese Propolis Facilitates Functional Recovery of Locomotor Activity after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Masaki; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Soumiya, Hitomi; Furukawa, Shoei

    2011-01-01

    An ethanol extract of Chinese propolis (EECP) was given intraperitoneally to rats suffering from hemitransection of half of their spinal cord (left side) at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebra to examine the effects of the EECP on the functional recovery of locomotor activity and expression of mRNAs of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and neurotrophic factors in the injury site. Daily administration of EECP after the spinal cord injury ameliorated the locomotor function, which effect was accompanied by a reduced lesion size. Furthermore, the EECP suppressed iNOS gene expression, thus reducing NO generation, and also increased the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNAs in the lesion site, suggesting that the EECP reduced the inflammatory and apoptotic circumstances through attenuation of iNOS mRNA expression and facilitation of mRNA expression of neurotrophins in the injured spinal cord. These results suggest that Chinese propolis may become a promising tool for wide use in the nervous system for reducing the secondary neuronal damage following primary physical injury. PMID:20953390

  10. Hepatoprotective and Pancreatoprotective Properties of the Ethanolic Extract of Nigerian Propolis

    PubMed Central

    Babatunde, Ibrahim Ridwan; Abdulbasit, Amin; Oladayo, Mustafa Ibrahim; Olasile, Onanuga Ismail; Olamide, Folarin Roehan; Gbolahan, Balogun Wasiu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Increased oxidative stress is associated with the progression of diabetic mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract of Nigerian propolis (N. propolis) on markers of oxidative stress, histology of the liver and pancreas and glycaemia in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Alloxan-induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats were treated with either metformin (150 mg/kg/d) or N. propolis (200 mg/kg/d and 300 mg/kg/d) for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were sacrificed; blood was collected for biochemical analysis while their pancreases and liver were excised and processed for histological studies. Results: Serum oxidative stress markers and blood glucose concentration were compared between the treated and control rats. In contrast to the non-treated diabetic rats, blood glucose concentration were not significantly different between treated rats and control (P < 0.05) at 28 days of treatment with N. propolis and metformin. Serum malondialdehyde levels was reduced while superoxide dismutase levels were elevated in the N. propolis group; these levels were converse in the diabetic group, these differences are statistically significant (P<0.05) when compared with the control. Histologically, there was improvement in the treated group compared to the untreated group. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the N. propolis confers protection against hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress in both liver and pancreas of adult Wistar rats. PMID:26401394

  11. Ethanolic Extracts of Pluchea indica Induce Apoptosis and Antiproliferation Effects in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chiu-Li; Cho, Joshua; Lee, Ya-Zhe; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Chien, Chih-Yen; Hwang, Chung-Feng; Hong, Yi-Ren; Tseng, Chao-Neng; Cho, Chung-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Pluchea indica is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of lumbago, ulcer, tuberculosis and inflammation. The anti-cancer activities and the underlying molecular mechanisms of the ethanolic extracts of P. indica root (PIRE) were characterized in the present study. PIRE strongly inhibited the viability of the human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC-TW 01 and NPC-TW 04) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Migration of cancer cells was also suppressed by PIRE. In addition, PIRE significantly increased the occurrence of the cells in sub-G1 phase and the extent of DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner, which indicates that PIRE significantly increased apoptosis in NPC cells. The apoptotic process triggered by PIRE involved up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein, consequently increasing the ratios of Bax/Bcl-2 protein levels. Moreover, the p53 protein was up-regulated by PIRE in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, PIRE could induce the apoptosis-signaling pathway in NPC cells by activation of p53 and by regulation of apoptosis-related proteins. PMID:26111179

  12. Ethanolic extract of dandelion (Taraxacum mongolicum) induces estrogenic activity in MCF-7 cells and immature rats.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Min; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Lee, Yong Hwa; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2015-11-01

    Plants of the genus Taraxacum, commonly known as dandelions, are used to treat breast cancer in traditional folk medicine. However, their use has mainly been based on empirical findings without sufficient scientific evidence. Therefore, we hypothesized that dandelions would behave as a Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and be effective as hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in the postmenopausal women. In the present study, in vitro assay systems, including cell proliferation assay, reporter gene assay, and RT-PCR to evaluate the mRNA expression of estrogen-related genes (pS2 and progesterone receptor, PR), were performed in human breast cancer cells. Dandelion ethanol extract (DEE) significantly increased cell proliferation and estrogen response element (ERE)-driven luciferase activity. DEE significantly induced the expression of estrogen related genes such as pS2 and PR, which was inhibited by tamoxifen at 1 ?molL(-1). These results indicated that DEE could induce estrogenic activities mediated by a classical estrogen receptor pathway. In addition, immature rat uterotrophic assay was carried out to identify estrogenic activity of DEE in vivo. The lowest concentration of DEE slightly increased the uterine wet weight, but there was no significant effect with the highest concentration of DEE. The results demonstrate the potential estrogenic activities of DEE, providing scientific evidence supporting their use in traditional medicine. PMID:26614455

  13. Phenolic derivatives from soy flour ethanol extract are potent in vitro quinone reductase (QR) inducing agents.

    PubMed

    Bolling, Bradley W; Parkin, Kirk L

    2008-11-26

    The fractionation of soy flour directed by a cellular bioassay for induction of phase 2 detoxification enzymes was used to identify quinone reductase (QR) inducing agents. A phospholipid-depleted, 80% methanol-partitioned isolate from a crude ethanol extract of soy flour was resolved using normal phase medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC). Early eluting fractions were found to be the most potent QR inducing agents among the separated fractions. Fraction 2 was the most potent, doubling QR at <2 mug/mL. Further fractionation of this isolate led to the identification of several constituents. Fatty acids and sn-1 and sn-2 monoacylglycerols were identified, but were not highly potent QR inducers. Benzofuran-3-carbaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldeyde, 4-ethoxybenzoic acid, 4-ethoxycinnamic acid, benzofuran-2-carboxylic ethyl ester, and ferulic acid ethyl ester (FAEE) were also identified as QR inducing constituents of this fraction. FAEE was the most potent of the identified constituents, doubling QR specific activity at 3.2 muM in the cellular bioassay. PMID:18956872

  14. Ethanol extract from portulaca oleracea L. attenuated acetaminophen-induced mice liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Shi, Hong-Guang; Tang, Gu-Sheng; Wang, Wan-Yin; Zhou, Juan; Dong, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen-induced liver injury represents the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure in the world. Portulaca oleracea L., a widely distributed weed, has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Previously, we reported that the ethanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of PO on acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity. The results demonstrated that PO was an effective anti-oxidative agent, which could, to some extent, reverse APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver of mice. At the same time, PO treatment significantly decreased mice serum levels of IL-6 and TNFα and their mRNA expression in liver tissue IL-α and TNFα play an important role during APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, PO inhibited APAP and TNFα-induced activation of JNK, whose activation play an important effect during APAP induced liver injury. These findings suggested that administration of PO may be an effective strategy to prevent or treat liver injury induced by APAP. PMID:25901199

  15. Ethanol extract from portulaca oleracea L. attenuated acetaminophen-induced mice liver injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Feng; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Shi, Hong-Guang; Tang, Gu-Sheng; Wang, Wan-Yin; Zhou, Juan; Dong, Li-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen-induced liver injury represents the most frequent cause of drug-induced liver failure in the world. Portulaca oleracea L., a widely distributed weed, has been used as a folk medicine in many countries. Previously, we reported that the ethanol extracts of Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) exhibited significant anti-hypoxic activity. In the present study, we investigated the role of PO on acetaminophen (APAP) induced hepatotoxicity. The results demonstrated that PO was an effective anti-oxidative agent, which could, to some extent, reverse APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by regulating the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the liver of mice. At the same time, PO treatment significantly decreased mice serum levels of IL-6 and TNF? and their mRNA expression in liver tissue IL-? and TNF? play an important role during APAP-induced liver injury. Furthermore, PO inhibited APAP and TNF?-induced activation of JNK, whose activation play an important effect during APAP induced liver injury. These findings suggested that administration of PO may be an effective strategy to prevent or treat liver injury induced by APAP. PMID:25901199

  16. The Ethanol Extract of Zingiber zerumbet Attenuates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2013-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (EEZZR) has been indicated to possess an insulin-like property by ameliorating hyperglycemia in diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether EEZZR exerts an ameliorative effect on renal damage in diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic rats were treated orally with EEZZR (200 and 300 mg kg−1 per day) or metformin (100 mg kg−1 per day) for 8 weeks. The plasma glucose, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen as well as urine protein levels and the ratio of kidney weight to body weight were significantly elevated in diabetic rats. EEZZR displayed similar characteristics to those of metformin in reducing hyperglycemia and renal dysfunction in diabetic rats. The histological examinations revealed amelioration of diabetes-induced glomerular pathological changes following the treatment with EEZZR. In addition, the protein expressions of renal nephrin and podocin in diabetic rats were significantly increased following the treatment with EEZZR. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein phosphorylation and expression levels were remarkably reduced in diabetic renal tissues. EEZZR treatment significantly rescued the AMPK phosphorylation compared to nontreated diabetic group. This study suggested that the renoprotective effects of EEZZR may be similar, with the action of metformin, to the prevention of AMPK dephosphorylation and upregulate the expressions of renal nephrin and podocin. PMID:23476687

  17. The Ethanol Extract of Zingiber zerumbet Attenuates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

    2013-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith (EEZZR) has been indicated to possess an insulin-like property by ameliorating hyperglycemia in diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether EEZZR exerts an ameliorative effect on renal damage in diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Diabetic rats were treated orally with EEZZR (200 and 300 mg kg(-1) per day) or metformin (100 mg kg(-1) per day) for 8 weeks. The plasma glucose, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen as well as urine protein levels and the ratio of kidney weight to body weight were significantly elevated in diabetic rats. EEZZR displayed similar characteristics to those of metformin in reducing hyperglycemia and renal dysfunction in diabetic rats. The histological examinations revealed amelioration of diabetes-induced glomerular pathological changes following the treatment with EEZZR. In addition, the protein expressions of renal nephrin and podocin in diabetic rats were significantly increased following the treatment with EEZZR. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein phosphorylation and expression levels were remarkably reduced in diabetic renal tissues. EEZZR treatment significantly rescued the AMPK phosphorylation compared to nontreated diabetic group. This study suggested that the renoprotective effects of EEZZR may be similar, with the action of metformin, to the prevention of AMPK dephosphorylation and upregulate the expressions of renal nephrin and podocin. PMID:23476687

  18. Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on Relaxation in Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Son, Su Bin; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-01-01

    Aims of study. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (ESB) relaxes penile corpus cavernosum muscle in organ bath experiments. Materials and methods. Changes in tension of cavernous smooth muscle strips were determined by penile strip chamber model and in penile perfusion model. Isolated endothelium-intact rabbit corpus cavernosum was precontracted with phenylephrine (PE) and then treated with ESB. Results. ESB relaxed penile smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner, and this was inhibited by pre-treatment with NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, and 1H-[1, 2, 4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-?]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. ESB-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA), a nonselective K+ channel blocker, and charybdotoxin, a selective Ca2+-dependent K+ channel inhibitor. ESB increased the cGMP levels of rabbit corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner without changes in cAMP levels. In a perfusion model of penile tissue, ESB also relaxed penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion. Taken together, these results suggest that ESB relaxed rabbit cavernous smooth muscle via the NO/cGMP system and Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels in the corpus cavernosum. PMID:22235229

  19. Gynura procumbens ethanolic extract suppresses osteosarcoma cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HENG; ZHOU, JI WEN; FU, DA HUA; ZHOU, YANG; CHENG, WEN ZHAO; LIU, ZHI-LI

    2013-01-01

    Gynura procumbens is a traditional herb used for the treatment of inflammation, rheumatism and viral infections, although the antitumor effect and its potential mechanisms of action remain unclear. In the present study, the antitumor effect of Gynura procumbens ethanolic extract (GPE) on the osteosarcoma (OS) cell line, U2-OS, was investigated in vitro. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays, respectively. Transwell invasion and wound healing assays were performed to investigate the invasion and migration of the U2-OS cells. The results showed that GPE was able to inhibit U2-OS cell proliferation and metastasis and induce cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of the NF-?Bp65 protein was detected by western blotting to evaluate the effects of GPE on the nuclear transfer of NF-?B. It was demonstrated that the expression of the NF-?Bp65 protein was significantly decreased by GPE. This indicated that GPE was able to inhibit the nuclear transfer of NF-?B. The study shows that GPE is able to induce apoptosis and suppress proliferation and metastasis in U2-OS cells via the inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. PMID:23946787

  20. In vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum paniculatum root

    PubMed Central

    Phuneerub, Pravaree; Limpanasithikul, Wacharee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2015-01-01

    Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Family Verbenaceae) has been used as an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drug in traditional Thai medicine. This present study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the ethanolic extract of C. paniculatum (CPE) dried root collected from Sa Kaeo Province of Thailand. Murine macrophage J774A.1 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in the anti-inflammatory test while the mutagenic and antimutagenic potential was performed by the Ames test. The outcome of this study displayed that the CPE root significantly inhibited LPS-induced NO, TNF-?, and PGE2 production in macrophage cell line. In addition, the CPE root was not mutagenic toward Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 and TA100 with and without nitrite treatment. Moreover, it inhibited the mutagenicity of nitrite treated 1-aminopyrene on both strains. The findings suggested the anti-inflammatory and antimutagenic potentials of CPE root. PMID:25878973

  1. Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseor, Irene M

    2015-01-01

    Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 0.1304 ppm (mean Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid. PMID:25118563

  2. Hepatoprotective effects of zataria multiflora ethanolic extract on liver toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide in mice.

    PubMed

    Shokrzadeh, M; Chabra, A; Ahmadi, A; Naghshvar, F; Habibi, E; Salehi, F; Assadpour, S

    2015-04-01

    Although cyclophosphamide (CP), an alkylating agent, has been extensively used in chemotherapy, it possesses a wide spectrum of adverse effects including hepatotoxicity. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Zataria multiflora against hepatic damage induced by CP in mice.Mice were orally (gavages) pretreated with the ethanolic extract aerial parts of Zataria at doses of 50, 100, 200, or 400?mg/kg for 7 consecutive days before a single intraperitoneal injection of 200?mg/kg CP. After 24?h, animals were anesthetized, blood samples and hepatic tissues were collected and used for biochemical and histological examination.Serum levels of hepatic markers were significantly increased after only CP treated animals but restored in Zataria pretreated groups. A single dose of CP administration also markedly induced abnormality in the levels of several biomarkers associated with oxidative stress in liver tissues homogenates. However, pretreatment with Zataria significantly inhibited the abnormality of antioxidant enzymes defense system in the liver tissues. In addition, histopathological studies proved that CP causes damage to the liver, and this was evidenced by the induced dilated and congested sinusoidal space, lymphocytic infiltration between hepatocytes, portal space with moderate to severe inflammation and necrotic hepatocyte with absence of nuclei. Zataria effectively protected animals against CP-induced hepatic tissue damages.Our results reveal that Zataria produces a potent hepatoprotective role and could be a potent candidate to use concomitantly as a supplement agent against hepatotoxicity of CP for the patients undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:24696425

  3. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Adenanthera pavonina

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, Md.; Khatun, Ambia; Imam, Mohammad Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Adenanthera pavonina is a deciduous tree commonly used in the traditional medicine to treat inflammation and rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive activity of ethanol extract of leaves of A. pavonina (EEAP). EEAP was investigated using various nociceptive models induced thermally or chemically in mice including hot plate and tail immersion test, acetic acid-induced writhing, and glutamate- and formalin-induced licking tests at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight (p.o.). In addition, to assess the possible mechanisms, involvement of opioid system was verified using naloxone (2 mg/kg) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling pathway by methylene blue (MB; 20 mg/kg). The results have demonstrated that EEAP produced a significant and dose-dependent increment in the hot plate latency and tail withdrawal time. It also reduced the number of abdominal constrictions and paw lickings induced by acetic acid and glutamate respectively. EEAP inhibited the nociceptive responses in both phases of formalin test. Besides, the reversal effects of naloxone indicated the association of opioid receptors on the exertion of EEAP action centrally. Moreover, the enhancement of writhing inhibitory activity by MB suggests the possible involvement of cGMP pathway in EEAP-mediated antinociception. These results prove the antinociceptive activity of the leaves of A. pavonina and support the traditional use of this plant. PMID:26346723

  4. Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Hepatoprotective Effects of the Ethanol Extract of Mahonia oiwakensis Stem

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jung; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Peng, Wen-Huang; Lee, Meng-Shiou; Pao, Li-Heng; Cheng, Hao-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pharmacological properties of ethanol extracted from Mahonia oiwakensis Hayata stems (MOSEtOH). The pharmacological properties included antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. The protoberberine alkaloid content of the MOSEtOH was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that three alkaloids, berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine, could be identified. Moreover, the MOSEtOH exhibited antioxidative activity using the DPPH assay (IC50, 0.743 mg/mL). The DPPH radical scavenging activity of MOSEtOH was five times higher that that of vitamin C. MOSEtOH was also found to inhibit pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, and carrageenan inflammation. Treatment with MOSEtOH (100 and 500 mg/kg) or silymarin (200 mg/kg) decreased the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels compared with the CCl4-treated group. Histological evaluation showed that MOSEtOH reduced the degree of liver injury, including vacuolization, inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes. The anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effect of MOSEtOH were found to be related to the modulation of antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver and decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and nitric oxide (NO) contents. Our findings suggest that MOSEtOH has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. These effects support the use of MOSEtOH for relieving pain and inflammation in folk medicine. PMID:23364614

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa on thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatology research has focused on developing traditional therapies as pharmacological medicines to treat liver cirrhosis. Thus, this study evaluated mechanisms of the hepatoprotective activity of Curcuma longa rhizome ethanolic extract (CLRE) on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods The hepatoprotective effect of CLRE was measured in a rat model of thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis over 8 weeks. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 and serum levels of TGF-β1 and TNF-α were evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured by malondialdehyde, urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine levels. The protective activity of CLRE free-radical scavenging mechanisms were evaluated through antioxidant enzymes. Protein expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in animal blood sera was studied and confirmed by immunohistochemistry of Bax, Bcl2 proteins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and liver biochemistry were significantly lower in the Curcuma longa-treated groups compared with controls. CLRE induced apoptosis, inhibited hepatocytes proliferation but had no effect on hepatic CYP2E1 levels. Conclusion The progression of liver cirrhosis could be inhibited by the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of CLRE and the normal status of the liver could be preserved. PMID:23496995

  6. Antioxidant Activity and Anti-wrinkle Effects of Aceriphyllum rossii Leaf Ethanol Extract

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Bi Gyeon; Park, Min Ah; Lee, Chae Myoung

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the antioxidant activity and anti-wrinkle effects of Aceriphyllum rossii leaf ethanol extract (ARLEE) in vitro using human dermal fibroblasts. The total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of ARLEE were 578.6 and 206.3 mg/g, respectively. At a concentration of 250 μg/mL, the electron-donating ability of ARLEE was 87.1%. In comparison with the vehicle, ARLEE treatment at 100 μg/mL significantly increased type I procollagen synthesis (p < 0.01) by 50.7%. In vitro ARLEE treatment (10 mg/mL) inhibited collagenase and elastase activity by 97.1% and 99.2%, respectively. Compared with the control, ascorbic acid treatment at 100 μg/mL significantly decreased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 protein expression (p < 0.01) by 37.0%. ARLEE treatment at 50 μg/mL significantly decreased MMP-1 protein expression (p < 0.01) by 46.1%. Ascorbic acid and ARLEE treatments at 100 μg/mL significantly decreased MMP-1 mRNA expression (p < 0.01) by 26.1% and 36.1%, respectively. From these results, we conclude that ARLEE has excellent antioxidant activity and even better anti-wrinkle effects than ascorbic acid in human dermal fibroblasts. These results suggest that ARLEE could be used in functional cosmetics for the prevention or alleviation of skin wrinkles induced by ultraviolet rays. PMID:26877839

  7. An Ethanolic Extract of Black Cohosh Causes Hematological Changes but Not Estrogenic Effects in Female Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C.; Witt, Kristine L.; Granville, Courtney A.; Hejtmancik, Milton; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A.; Ryan, Michael J.; Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M.; Vallant, Molly K.; Stout, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. PMID:22687605

  8. An ethanolic extract of black cohosh causes hematological changes but not estrogenic effects in female rodents.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C; Witt, Kristine L; Granville, Courtney A; Hejtmancik, Milton R; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A; Ryan, Michael J; Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M; Vallant, Molly K; Stout, Matthew D

    2012-09-01

    Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. PMID:22687605

  9. Characteristics and anticancer properties of bacterial cellulose films containing ethanolic extract of mangosteen peel.

    PubMed

    Taokaew, Siriporn; Nunkaew, Natthawut; Siripong, Pongpun; Phisalaphong, Muenduen

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) films containing an ethanolic extract of mangosteen peel were prepared and their physical, chemical, and anticancer properties were characterized. The cumulative absorption and release profiles of bioactive compounds in the films were determined based on total phenolic and ?-mangostin content. The BC films were filled with total phenolic compounds expressed as gallic acid equivalent varying from 4.72 to 275.91?mg/cm3 dried film, and ?-mangostin varying from 2.06 to 248.20?mg/cm3 dried film. A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy evaluation showed that there were weak interactions between the functional groups of the extract and the BC. Decreases in the water absorption capacity and water vapor transmission rate of the modified films were detected. Release studies were performed using Franz diffusion cells. In a non-transdermal system, the release of bioactive compounds from the films depended on concentration, immersion time, and the pH of the dissolution medium. A transdermal diffusion study showed that 59-62% of total phenolic compounds that were initially loaded were released from the films and more than 95% of bioactive compounds released from the films were adsorbed into pig skin. Only very small amount of the bioactive compounds penetrated through pig skin and into phosphate and acetate buffers. In studies of anticancer abilities, the release of 2.0??g/ml ?-mangostin from the BC films could suppress the growth of B16F10 melanoma (approximately 31% survival). With the release of ?-mangostin at greater than 17.4-18.4??g/ml, less than 15 and 5% survival of B16F10 melanoma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, respectively, was observed. PMID:24802115

  10. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-04-01

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4.3H2O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  11. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2015-04-24

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  12. Effect of sugar concentration in Jerusalem artichoke extract on Kluyveromyces marxianus growth and ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Margaritis, A.; Bajpai, P.

    1983-02-01

    The effect of inulin sugars concentration on the growth and ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus UCD (FST) 55-82 was studied. A maximum ethanol concentration of 102 g/liter was obtained from 250 g of sugars per liter initial concentration. The maximum specific growth rate varied from 0.44 h/sup -1/ at 50 g of sugar per liter to 0.13 h/sup -1/ at 300 g of sugar per liter, whereas the ethanol yield remained almost constant at 0.45 g of ethanol per g of sugars utilized.

  13. Effect of Sugar Concentration in Jerusalem Artichoke Extract on Kluyveromyces marxianus Growth and Ethanol Production

    PubMed Central

    Margaritis, Argyrios; Bajpai, Pratima

    1983-01-01

    The effect of inulin sugars concentration on the growth and ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus UCD (FST) 55-82 was studied. A maximum ethanol concentration of 102 g/liter was obtained from 250 g of sugars per liter initial concentration. The maximum specific growth rate varied from 0.44 h?1 at 50 g of sugar per liter to 0.13 h?1 at 300 g of sugar per liter, whereas the ethanol yield remained almost constant at 0.45 g of ethanol per g of sugars utilized. PMID:16346222

  14. Fast microwave-assisted extraction of rotenone for its quantification in seeds of yam bean (Pachyrhizus sp.).

    PubMed

    Lauti, Emmanuelle; Rasse, Catherine; Rozet, Eric; Mourgues, Claire; Vanhelleputte, Jean-Paul; Quetin-Leclercq, Jolle

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find if fast microwave-assisted extraction could be an alternative to the conventional Soxhlet extraction for the quantification of rotenone in yam bean seeds by SPE and HPLC-UV. For this purpose, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal conditions of the microwave extraction. Then the values of the quantification on three accessions from two different species of yam bean seeds were compared using the two different kinds of extraction. A microwave extraction of 11 min at 55C using methanol/dichloromethane (50:50) allowed rotenone extraction either equivalently or more efficiently than the 8-h-Soxhlet extraction method and was less sensitive to moisture content. The selectivity, precision, trueness, accuracy, and limit of quantification of the method with microwave extraction were also demonstrated. PMID:23341347

  15. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    PubMed

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

  16. Blood pressure lowering, vasodilator and cardiac-modulatory potential of Carum roxburghianum seed extract.

    PubMed

    Khan, Munasib; Khan, Arif-ullah; Najeeb-ur-Rehman; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2015-01-01

    In current study, we describe blood pressure (BP)-lowering, endothelium-dependent, and independent vasodilator and cardio-modulatory actions of Carum roxburghianum seed. The crude extract of C. roxburghianum seed (Cr.Cr) induced dose-dependent (10-100?mg/kg) fall in arterial BP of anaesthetized rats. In isolated rabbit aorta, Cr.Cr (0.3-10?mg/mL) inhibited high K+ (80?mM) and phenylephrine (PE, 1?M)-induced contractions, like verapamil and papaverine. In endothelium-intact rat aortic preparations, N?-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride-sensitive vasodilator activity was observed with Cr.Cr, which also relaxed endothelium-denuded aorta tissues. In guinea-pig atria, Cr.Cr initially caused mild cardiac stimulation, followed by inhibition, as shown by papaverine. These results reveal that cardiovascular effects of C. roxburghianum seed extract are mediated possibly through combination of Ca++ antagonist, nitric oxide modulating and phosphodiesterase inhibitory mechanisms, though further in-depth studies are required for elucidating precise mode of action. PMID:24785464

  17. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid ?-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid ? (A?) peptide. A? is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on A? (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the FolinCiocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against A?-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on A?-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in A?-induced HIPN. RESULTS: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from A? treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the A?-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. CONCLUSION: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against A?-mediated cell death. PMID:23833520

  18. Anti-Inflammatory and Antihyperalgesic Activities of Ethanolic Extract and Fruticulin A from Salvia lachnostachys Leaves in Mice.

    PubMed

    Piccinelli, Ana Claudia; Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, Diana; Morato, Priscila Neder; Kuraoka-Oliveira, Angela Midori; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Dos Santos, Elide Pereira; Stefanello, Maria lida Alves; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Kassuya, Cndida Aparecida Leite

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the ethanolic extract (SLEE) and fruticulin A from the leaves of Salvia lachnostachys were evaluated in mice, using experimental models of inflammation (paw oedema and pleurisy induced by carrageenan injection) and hyperalgesia (electronic Von Frey). Oral administration of SLEE (30, 100, and 300?mg/kg) and fruticulin A (0.3 and 3.0?mg/kg) decreased the total leucocytes number in pleural lavage, protein extravasation, and paw oedema. SLEE (100?mg/kg) and fruticulin A (3?mg/kg) also exhibited antihyperalgesic activity in carrageenan induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In addition, fruticulin A (3?mg/kg) prevented mechanical hyperalgesia, inhibiting TNF but not L-DOPA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In conclusion, SLEE and fruticulin A display anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Therefore, fruticulin A is at least partially responsible for the activity observed in the ethanolic extract of Salvia lachnostachys. PMID:25435893

  19. Anti-Inflammatory and Antihyperalgesic Activities of Ethanolic Extract and Fruticulin A from Salvia lachnostachys Leaves in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Piccinelli, Ana Claudia; Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, Diana; Morato, Priscila Neder; Kuraoka-Oliveira, Ângela Midori; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; dos Santos, Élide Pereira; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite

    2014-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the ethanolic extract (SLEE) and fruticulin A from the leaves of Salvia lachnostachys were evaluated in mice, using experimental models of inflammation (paw oedema and pleurisy induced by carrageenan injection) and hyperalgesia (electronic Von Frey). Oral administration of SLEE (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) and fruticulin A (0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg) decreased the total leucocytes number in pleural lavage, protein extravasation, and paw oedema. SLEE (100 mg/kg) and fruticulin A (3 mg/kg) also exhibited antihyperalgesic activity in carrageenan induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In addition, fruticulin A (3 mg/kg) prevented mechanical hyperalgesia, inhibiting TNF but not L-DOPA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In conclusion, SLEE and fruticulin A display anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Therefore, fruticulin A is at least partially responsible for the activity observed in the ethanolic extract of Salvia lachnostachys. PMID:25435893

  20. The effect of black seed (Nigella sativa) extract on FOXO3 expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Haas, Michael J; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Naem, Emad; Arnold, Alexis; Rohrbaugh, Nathcelly; Flowers, Megan; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2014-06-01

    Black seed extracts are known to alter cellular metabolism through multiple signaling pathways. Since Forkhead box transcription factor 3 (FOXO3) has a significant role in regulating cellular metabolism, the effect of lipid extracts of black seed (Sativa nigella) on FOXO3 levels and AKT and 5-AMP activated protein kinase ? (AMPK?) signaling was measured in HepG2 hepatoma cells. FOXO3 levels, phosphorylation, and nuclear exclusion were measured by Western blot, as were AKT and AMPK expression and activity using phosphorylation-specific antibodies. Apolipoprotein A-I expression, a black seed-responsive gene, was measured by Western blot. Treatment with black seed extract increased FOXO3 phosphorylation and decreased its expression. In contrast to control cells where FOXO3 was located primarily in the nucleus, in black seed-treated HepG2 cells, FOXO3 was localized primarily to the cytoplasm. These changes in FOXO3 phosphorylation, expression, and localization were accompanied by increased AKT activity. Black seed also decreased AMPK? activity but increased AMPK? expression. Lipid extracts from black seeds inhibit FOXO3 activity and thereby modulate the expression of FOXO3-dependent genes. PMID:24123556

  1. Comparative assessment on in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Mominur; Habib, Md. Razibul; Hasan, Md. Anayet; Al Amin, Mohammad; Saha, Ayan; Mannan, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Averrhoa bilimbi, Gymnema sylvestre and Capsicum frutescens are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Ethanolic extract of A. bilimbi, G. sylvestre and C. frutescens. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts were evaluated using total phenolic and flavonoid contents, ferric reducing power and the free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Results: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were higher in G. sylvestre (53.63636 0.454545 mg/g gallic acid equivalent) and C. frutescens (26.66667 2.081666 mg/g quercetin equivalent) respectively. Reducing power of the crude ethanol extracts increased with the concentrations of the extracts and all the extracts showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against DPPH. The plant extract displayed moderate phenolic and flavonoid contents compared to gallic acid and quercetin equivalent respectively, whereas also exhibited significant scavenging of DPPH radical and reducing power compared with ascorbic acid as standard. Conclusion: Our study suggests that G. sylvestre has significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant compound of this plant might be a therapeutic candidate against oxidative stress related diseases. Different sub-fraction of A. bilimbi and C. frutescens should be studied further to assess the effect. Further study is necessary for isolation and characterization of the active antioxidant agents for better treatment. PMID:24497740

  2. Antibacterial and antispasmodic activities of a dichloromethane fraction of an ethanol extract of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum

    PubMed Central

    N’Guessan, Benoit Banga; Dosso, Kassim; Gnangoran, Boua Narcisse; Amoateng, Patrick; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac Julius; Yapo, Angoue Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study presents the antispasmodic and antibacterial properties of an ethanol extract and fractions the of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum. Materials and Methods: The antispasmodic effects of the extract and its fractions were performed on isolated rabbit duodenum. The antibacterial properties were determined as minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of the extract and fractions of P. reticulatum on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella tiphymurium. Results: The ethanol extract of P. reticulatum and fractions (except for heptane) produced concentration-dependent relaxant effects on isolated duodenum preparations. The IC50 of the extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions are 0.88452, 0.2453, 0.2909, 0.3946 and 0.3231 mg/ml respectively. The extract was found to significantly antagonize acetylcholine-induced contraction. The susceptible strains E. coli and V. cholerae were the most inhibited by the dichloromethane fraction at 60 mg/mL, as shown by their diameter of inhibition of 13.2 ± 0.76 and 13.3 ± 0.67 mm respectively. Conversely, the dichloromethane fraction, the most active antibacterial fraction, did not inhibit the resistant strains S. dysenteriae and S. tiphymurium. Conclusion: The results showed that P. reticulatum stem bark possesses spasmolytic and antibacterial properties and this may contribute to its traditional medicinal use for the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:25883517

  3. Effects of an aqueous-ethanolic extract of ginger on cytochrome P450 enzyme-mediated drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, I S; Kim, S Y; Yoo, H H

    2012-12-01

    Ginger has been extensively used as a herbal medicine for thousands of years in Asia; it has also been used as a seasoning agent in several foods and beverages worldwide. In this study, the effect of an aqueous-ethanolic extract of ginger on CYP450-mediated drug metabolism was investigated in vitro to elucidate the herb-drug interactions. A CYP450-specific substrates mixture was incubated with an aqueous-ethanolic extract of ginger in human liver microsomes fortified with an NADPH-generating system, and the metabolites generated from each of the CYP450-specific metabolic reactions were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The ginger extracts were tested at concentrations of 0.05-5 microg/mL. The resulting data showed that the ginger extract inhibited CYP2C19-mediated drug metabolism in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 3.8 microg/mL. When the ginger extract was pre-incubated and assessed, the inhibition pattern did not change, indicating that the inhibition of CYP2C19 was competitive rather than mechanism-based. The effects on other CYP isozyme activity were negligible at the concentrations tested. In conclusion, this inhibitory effect of ginger extract could affect the pharmacokinetics and lead to interactions with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2C19. PMID:23346764

  4. Antioxidant effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract on deep fried oil quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Solati, Zeinab; Baharin, Badlishah Sham

    2015-06-01

    Effect of supercritical CO2 extracted Nigella sativa L. seed extract (NE) on frying performance of sunflower oil and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein was investigated at concentrations of 1.2 % and 1.0 % respectively. Two frying systems containing 0 % N. sativa L. extract (Control) and 0.02 % butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used for comparison. Physicochemical properties such as fatty acid composition (FAC), Peroxide Value (PV), Anisidine Value (AV), Totox Value (TV), Total Polar Content (TPC), C18:2/C16:0 ratio and viscosity of frying oils were determined during five consecutive days of frying. Results have shown that N. sativa L. extract was able to improve the oxidative stability of both frying oils during the frying process compared to control. The stabilizing effect of antioxidants were in the order of BHT > NE. RBD palm olein was found to be more stable than sunflower oil based on the ratio of linoleic acid (C18:2) to palmitic acid (C16:0) and fatty acid composition. PMID:26028729

  5. Inhibitory effect of a novel combination of Salvia hispanica (chia) seed and Punica granatum (pomegranate) fruit extracts on melanin production.

    PubMed

    Diwakar, Ganesh; Rana, Jatinder; Saito, Lisa; Vredeveld, Doug; Zemaitis, Dorothy; Scholten, Jeffrey

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, dietary fatty acids have been extensively evaluated for nutritional as well as cosmetic benefits. Among the dietary fats, the omega-3 (ω3) and omega-6 (ω6) forms of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been found to exhibit many biological functions in the skin such as prevention of transepidermal water loss, maintenance of the stratum corneum epidermal barrier, and disruption of melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes. In this study, we examined the effect of chia seed extract, high in ω3 (linolenic acid) and ω6 (linoleic acid) PUFAs, for its capacity to affect melanogenesis. Chia seed extract was shown to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in Melan-a cells; however, linoleic and α-linolenic acids alone did not effectively reduce melanin content. Further investigation demonstrated that chia seed extract in combination with pomegranate fruit extract had a synergistic effect on the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis with no corresponding effect on tyrosinase activity. Investigation of the possible mechanism of action revealed that chia seed extract downregulated expression of melanogenesis-related genes (Tyr, Tyrp1, and Mc1r), alone and in combination with pomegranate fruit extract, suggesting that the inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a novel combination of chia seed and pomegranate fruit extracts is possibly due to the downregulation of gene expression of key melanogenic enzymes. PMID:24909999

  6. High-antibacterial activity of Urtica spp. seed extracts on food and plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Krpe, Didem Aksoy; ??er?, zlem Darcansoy; Sahin, Feride Iffet; Cabi, Evren; Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate antibacterial activities of methanol (MetOH) and aqueous (dw) leaf (L), root (R) and seed (S) extracts of Urtica dioica L. (Ud; stinging nettle) and Urtica pilulifera L. (Up; Roman nettle) on both food- and plant-borne pathogens, with total phenolic contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities (DRSA). MetOH extracts of leaves and roots of U. dioica had the highest DRSA. Extracts with high antibacterial activity were in the order Up-LMetOH (13/16) >Ud-SMetOH (11/16) >Up-SMetOH (9/16). Results obtained with Up-SMetOH against food spoiling Bacillus pumilus, Shigella spp. and Enterococcus gallinarum with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in 128-1024?g/ml range seem to be promising. Up-SMetOH also exerted strong inhibition against Clavibacter michiganensis with a considerably low MIC (32?g/ml). Ud-SMetOH and Up-LMetOH were also effective against C. michiganensis (MIC=256 and 1024?g/ml, respectively). Ud-SMetOH and Ud-RMetOH had also antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas vesicatoria (MIC=512 and 1024?g/ml, respectively). Results presented here demonstrate high-antibacterial activity of U. pilulifera extracts and U. dioica seed extract against phytopathogens for the first time, and provide the most comprehensive data on the antibacterial activity screening of U. pilulifera against food-borne pathogens. Considering limitations in plant disease control, antibacterial activities of these extracts would be of agricultural importance. PMID:23067263

  7. Extraction and purification of human interleukin-10 from transgenic rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Aiki, Yasuhiko; Yang, Lijun; Takaiwa, Fumio; Kosaka, Akemi; Tsuji, Noriko M; Shiraki, Kentaro; Sekikawa, Kenji

    2010-07-01

    Recombinant protein production system using transgenic rice grain offers many advantages in higher accumulation, preservation, lower production cost, ease of scale up and low risk of contamination by toxic materials. We developed a transgenic rice strain whose seeds accumulate human interleukin (IL)-10, a cytokine that suppresses inflammation-related immune responses. We also developed a method of extracting and purifying IL-10 from rice seeds. A biochemical crosslinking method was used to detect the biologically active noncovalent dimer of IL-10. This method was useful for developing efficient methods of refolding and purification. The purified IL-10 comprised only noncovalent dimers and showed higher activity than the commercial IL-10. The purified IL-10 had very low endotoxin contamination and is expected to have broad clinical application. PMID:20159041

  8. Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) as a salt-tolerant feedstock for production of biodiesel and ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) is a non-invasive perennial nonclonal halophytic oilseed-producing dicot that was investigated as a feedstock for production of biodiesel from seeds and ethanol from residual stem biomass. Seashore mallow seeds contained 19.3 mass % oil, which after extract...

  9. Optimized H - extraction in an argon-magnesium seeded magnetized sheet plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguera, Virginia R.; Blantocas, Gene Q.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2008-06-01

    The enhancement and optimization of H- extraction through argon and magnesium seeding of hydrogen discharges in a magnetized sheet plasma source are reported. The paper first presents the modification of the production chamber into a hexapole multicusp configuration resulting in decreased power requirements, improved plasma confinement and longer filament lifetime. By this, a wider choice of discharge currents for sustained quiescent plasmas is made possible. Second, the method of adding argon to the hydrogen plasma similar to the scheme in Abate and Ramos [Y. Abate, H. Ramos, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 (10) (2000) 3689] was performed to find the optimum conditions for H- formation and extraction. Using an E × B probe, H- yields were investigated at varied argon-hydrogen admixtures, different discharge currents and spatial points relative to the core plasma. The optimum H- current density extracted at 3.0 cm from the plasma core using 3.0 A plasma current with 10% argon seeding increased by a factor of 2.42 (0.63 A/m2) compared to the measurement of Abate and Ramos [Y. Abate, H. Ramos, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 (10) (2000) 3689]. Third, the argon-hydrogen plasma at the extraction chamber is seeded with magnesium. Mg disk with an effective area of 22 cm2 is placed at the extraction region's anode biased 175 V with respect to the cathode. With Mg seeding, the optimum H- current density at the same site and discharge conditions increased by 4.9 times (3.09 A/m2). The enhancement effects were analyzed vis-à-vis information gathered from the usual Langmuir probe (electron temperature and density), electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and the ensuing dissociative attachment (DA) reaction rates at different spatial points for various plasma discharges and gas ratios. Investigations on the changes in the effective electron temperature and electron density indicate that the enhancement is due to increased density of low-energy electrons in the volume, conducive for DA reactions. With Mg, the density of electrons with electron temperature of about 3 eV increased 3 orders of magnitude from 2.76 × 1012 m-3 to 2.90 × 1015m-3.

  10. Influence of chemical extraction conditions on the physicochemical and functional properties of polysaccharide gum from durian (Durio zibethinus) seed.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Hamed; Amid, Bahareh Tabatabaee

    2012-01-01

    Durian seed is an agricultural biomass waste of durian fruit. It can be a natural plant source of non-starch polysaccharide gum with potential functional properties. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the effect of chemical extraction variables (i.e., the decolouring time, soaking temperature and soaking time) on the physicochemical properties of durian seed gum. The physicochemical and functional properties of chemically-extracted durian seed gum were assessed by determining the particle size and distribution, solubility and the water- and oil-holding capacity (WHC and OHC). The present work revealed that the soaking time should be considered as the most critical extraction variable affecting the physicochemical properties of crude durian seed gum. PMID:22643356

  11. Modeling of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Basil seeds (Ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by process variables.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Tadayyon, Ali; Arabameri, Fatemeh

    2015-08-01

    Basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) has practical amounts of gum with good functional properties. In this work, extraction of gum from Basil seed was studied. Effect of pH, temperature and water/seed ratio on the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters; entropy, enthalpy and free energy of extraction were investigated. The maximum gum yield was 17.95% at 50C for pH=7 and water/seed ratio 30:1. In this study, the experimental data were fitted to a mathematical model of mass transfer and equations constants were obtained. The kinetic of Basil seed gum extraction was found to be a first order mass transfer model. Statistical results indicated that the model used in this study will be able to predict the gum extraction from Basil seed adequately. It also found that ?H and ?S were positive and ?G was negative indicating that the extraction process was spontaneous, irreversible and endothermic. The ?H, ?S and ?G values were 0.26-7.87kJ/mol, 8.12-33.2J/molK and 1.62-4.42kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:26243945

  12. Evaluation of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of an ethanol extract of Brazilian classified propolis on strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Pamplona-Zomenhan, Lucila Coelho; Pamplona, Beatriz Coelho; da Silva, Cely Barreto; Marcucci, Maria Cristina; Mimica, Lycia Mara Jenné

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most frequent causes of hospital acquired infections. With the increase in multiple drug resistant strains, natural products such as propolis are a stratagem for new product discovery. The aims of this study were: to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of an ethanol extract of propolis; to define the MIC50 and MIC90 (Minimal Inhibitory Concentration – MIC) against 210 strains of S. aureus; to characterize a crude sample of propolis and the respective ethanol extract as to the presence of predetermined chemical markers. The agar dilution method was used to define the MIC and the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used to characterize the samples of propolis. MIC results ranged from 710 to 2,850 µg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 for the 210 strains as well as the individual analysis of American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains of Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were both 1,420 µg/mL. Based on the chromatographic analysis of the crude sample and ethanol extracted propolis, it was concluded that propolis was a mixture of the BRP (SP/MG) and BRP (PR) types. The results obtained confirm an antimicrobial activity in relation to the strains of the S. aureus tested. PMID:24031749

  13. Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, Geetika

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

  14. Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, V.; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C. D.; Khanna, Geetika

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

  15. Dietary effect of Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immune gene expression in white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Jang, Yeoung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kang, Bong-Jo; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of a Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immunostimulatory response in white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Shrimps with an average initial weight of 0.5 0.04 g were collected and acclimatized for 10 days. Four experimental diets including a control diet, a probiotic diet and 0.25 and 0.5% of R. coreanus ethanolic extract (RcEE) diets were used to feed the shrimps. After 8 weeks of culture, shrimp fed with probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet had showed significant enhancement in the growth while shrimp fed with 0.5% RcEE diet showed significantly increased expression of immune genes and antioxidant enzymes activities. One week of challenge experiments for all the four diets fed shrimps showed decreased cumulative mortality in the 0.5% RcEE diets fed shrimps, when compared with the probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet fed shrimp groups. The results indicates that R. coreanus ethanolic extract could be used as a herbal immunostimulant for shrimps to increase its immunity and disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus. PMID:23811352

  16. An ethanolic extract of black cohosh causes hematological changes but not estrogenic effects in female rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C.; Witt, Kristine L.; Granville, Courtney A.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A.; Ryan, Michael J.; Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M.; Vallant, Molly K.; Stout, Matthew D.

    2012-09-01

    Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. -- Highlights: ► Mice and rats were dosed with black cohosh extract for 90 days starting at weaning. ► Hematological changes were consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia. ► Peripheral micronucleated red blood cell frequencies increased. ► Puberty was delayed 2.9 days in rats. ► No estrogenic/anti-estrogenic activity was seen in the uterotrophic assay.

  17. Mathematical modeling of sunflower seed extraction by supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Perrut, M.; Clavier, J.Y.; Poletto, M.; Reverchon, E.

    1997-02-01

    Extraction of oil from crushed sunflower seeds with supercritical CO{sub 2} was performed at 280 bar and 40 C on a laboratory apparatus of 0.15 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3} volume and on a pilot plant of 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} m{sup 3} volume. CO{sub 2} flow rate ranged between 5 and 45 kg/h. To study the influence of the vegetable matrix on the extraction rate, a re-extraction experiment on the extraction product was also performed on the pilot scale apparatus. A mathematical model of the supercritical extraction process was developed on the basis of the experimental evidence. The equilibrium between the solids and the fluid phase appeared to be the controlling step during the extraction process. A simplified form of a sigmoidal-shaped equilibrium curve was adopted to fit the experimental data in the whole range of CO{sub 2} flow rates explored. The meaning of this nonlinear equilibrium relationship was also discussed.

  18. Extraction, purification, and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor from cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Li, Xiaona; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Hao; Liu, Jing; Li, Qing X; Li, Ji; Xu, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Protease inhibitors against trypsin were extracted from cowpea seeds, purified, and characterized. After the seed powder was defatted with hexane, the cowpea trypsin inhibitor (CpTI) was extracted with 0.15M NaCl for 30min. The crude extracts were then heated at 90C for 10min, followed by precipitation with 40-65% saturation ammonium sulfate, by which the protein purity increased approximately 15-fold. The CpTI had approximate 88-fold and 186-fold purification after anion-exchange chromatography (Super-Q) and gel filtration (Sephadex G-200), respectively. A broad band of the purified CpTI on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicates a degree of heterogeneity and partial denaturation of CpTI, having a molecular mass of ?8000kD. Multiple peaks between 7451 and 8898 by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy also suggest heterogeneity. The purified CpTI was stable at 90C for 60min, pH 5-10, and 0-3.0% of NaCl. The purification method described here can be used to obtain highly purified CpTI for its studies such as risk assessment of CpTI genetically modified foods. PMID:24117148

  19. Dose- and time-dependent effects of Garcinia kola seed extract on sexual behaviour and reproductive parameters in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sewani-Rusike, C R; Ralebona, N; Nkeh-Chungag, B N

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a crude extract of Garcinia kola on male sexual function after subchronic and chronic treatment periods at different sublethal doses. Adult male Wistar rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) of a 70% ethanolic extract of G. kola daily for 56 days. Sexual behaviour studies were performed on days 28 and 50. At termination on day 56, organ weights, sperm count, reproductive hormone levels and testicular histology were assessed. Subchronic and chronic treatment of normal male rats with G. kola extract resulted in overall increase in components of libido, erection and ejaculation in treated rats - with lower doses being more efficient than the higher dose. There was a slight reduction in some components of sexual behaviour with prolonged time of treatment. G. kola treatment at all doses resulted in increased testicular weights, increased sperm count with no change in motility and increased serum testosterone levels with no change in gonadotropin levels. Gross testicular histology was not affected by treatment. We conclude that G. kola seed extract possesses potent aphrodisiac activity in male albino rats with resultant increase in sperm count and testosterone levels. PMID:26123866

  20. In vitro antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect, on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis, of fractions and subfractions from oat (Avena sativa L.) ethanol extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol and the extract was successively isolated by liquid-liquid partition to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water layers. Among these extractions the ethyl acetate (EA) layer exhibited the highest total phenolic content (TPC), t...

  1. Comparison of the chemical composition and pharmacological effects of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts from a Tibetan "Snow Lotus" (Saussurea laniceps) herb.

    PubMed

    Yi, Tao; Lo, Hongwing; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Yu, Zhiling; Yang, Zhijun; Chen, Hubiao

    2012-01-01

    To understand the impacts of different processing methods on the composition and effects of the herb Saussurea laniceps (SL), the present study report the first comparison of the chemical constituents of aqueous and ethanolic SL extracts using chromatographic analysis, and to compare their pharmacological effects in a mouse anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive model and an in vitro anti-oxidant test. Chemical comparison demonstrated that the types of chemicals in the two extracts were identical, but the contents of the main constituents in the aqueous extract were lower than those of the ethanolic extract. A transesterification of dicaffeoylquinic acids took place in the aqueous extract during boiling. As for pharmacological effects, oral administration of aqueous and ethanolic SL extracts significantly inhibited croton oil-induced mice ear edema, and significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced mice writhings, respectively. In the DPPH anti-oxidant activity test, the IC50 values were calculated as 409.6 mg/L and 523.4 mg/L for the ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The inhibitory effects of the ethanolic extract were more potent than those of the aqueous extract in all pharmacological tests, although there was no significant difference. This study suggests that the two preparations should be distinguished when used. PMID:22692242

  2. In vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extracts of Daucus carota seeds in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kamlesh; Singh, Nisha; Chandy, Anish; Manigauha, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the In vivo antioxidFant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Daucus carota (D. carota) seeds in experimental animals. Methods Methanolic extracts of D. carota seeds is used for hepatoprotection assessment. Oxidative stress were induced in rats by thioacetamide 100 mg/kg s.c, in four groups of rats (two test, standard and toxic control). Two test groups received D. carota seeds extract (DCSE) at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Standard group received silymarin (25 mg/kg) and toxic control received only thioacetamide. Control group received only vehicle. On the 8th day animals were sacrificed and liver enzyme like serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were estimated in blood serum and antioxidant enzyme like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated in liver homogenate. Results A significant decrease in SGPT, SGOT and ALP levels was observed in all drug treated groups as compared to thioacetamide group (P < 0.001) and in case of antioxidant enzyme a significant (P < 0.001) increase in SOD, CAT, GRD, GPX and GST was observed in all drug treated groups as compared with thioacetamide group. But in case of LPO a significant (P < 0.001) reduction was observed as compared to toxic control group. Conclusions DCSE has contributed to the reduction of oxidative stress and the protection of liver in experimental rats. PMID:23569935

  3. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and the healing action of the ethanol extract of Calotropis procera bark against surgical wounds

    PubMed Central

    Tsala, David Emery; Nga, Nnanga; Thiery, Bella Ndzana Martin; Bienvenue, Mballa Therese; Theophile, Dimo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant potential and the wound healing effect of the ethanolic extract of the bark of Calotropis procera. The antioxidant study was evaluated in vitro, using 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and deoxyribose degradation assays. Wound healing was studied using excision and incision wound on normal and dexamethasone-suppressed wound healing rodent models. Alkaloids, flavonoids, proteins and phenols were screened in the extract used whereas saponins and true tannins were absent. The extract contains only 12.5 gallic acid equivalent and 399.54 rutin equivalent. It was found to inhibit DPPH and deoxyribose oxidation (IC50 = 24.24 and 5.40 respectively). In vivo study demonstrated a significant reduction in the epithelialization time (P < 0.001) to 17-18 days in normal and dexamethasone treated rats following the ethanolic extract of the bark of C. procera application. The same extract also significantly increased the breaking strength in dexamethasone treated rats. Histological examination of incision wounds of treated group showed matured extracellular matrix, numerous fibroblasts. This study illustrated an excellent potential of the bark of C. procera therapy on dermal wound healing, with a tentative mechanism of action related to improved collagen deposition and reduced inflammatory reaction. PMID:26401387

  4. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves in rodents.

    PubMed

    Abdulmalik, I A; Sule, M I; Musa, A M; Yaro, A H; Abdullahi, M I; Abdulkadir, M F; Yusuf, H

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400 mg kg(-1), i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and hot plate test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using carrageenan induced paw oedema in rats. The ethanol extract at 100 mg kg(-1), 200 mg kg(-1), and 400 mg kg(-1) significantly (P< 0.05) inhibited acetic acid induced writhes by 1.50 0.43, 3.0 0.82 and 1.0 0.82 respectively. It also exhibited significantly (P< 0.05) anti-inflammatory by 0.11 0.02, 0.11 0.03, 0.08 0.01 respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, tannins and saponins while the effect of flavonoids, steroids and tannins on analgesic and inflammatory has been reported. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD(50)) value of the extract was found to be 3807.8 mgkg(-1) body weights. The result obtained from this study shows that the extract of Ficus iteophylla contained phytochemical constituents with analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities, therefore the leaf part of the plant could be used in the management of pain and inflammatory conditions. PMID:22654227

  5. Comparative antidiarrheal and antiulcer effect of the aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of Tinospora cordifolia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Mohanjit; Singh, Amarjeet; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2014-01-01

    Tinospora cordifolia is indigenous to the tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. The use of plant as remedy for diarrhea and ulcer is well-documented in Ayurvedic system of medicine. However, pharmacological evidence does not exist to substantiate its therapeutic efficacy for the same. The aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and antiulcer activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia in rats. The antidiarrheal activity of T. cordifolia extracts was evaluated by castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea using parameters such as onset of diarrhea, number of wet stools, total number of stool and weight of total number of stools. The antiulcer activity of extracts was investigated using ethanol and pylorus ligation-induced ulcer. Furthermore, tissue antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation level were also investigated. Tinospora cordifolia extracts were more efficacious in reducing number of total stools in both the models of diarrhea and showed a dose-dependent antidiarrheal effect. The antiulcer activity of the extracts was confirmed by a reduction in ulcer index along with the decrease in gastric volume, total acidity, and an increase in pH of gastric content in both the models. The obtained results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folkloric use of the T. cordifolia as antidiarrhoeal and antiulcer agent. PMID:25126533

  6. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu’s stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy. PMID:25678797

  7. Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu's stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy. PMID:25678797

  8. Comparation of Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida Fruit in High-Fat Emulsion-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Feng; Gu, Lifei; Chen, Huijuan; Liu, Ronghua; Huang, Huilian; Ren, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is a Chinese medicinal plant traditionally used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Recently, studies indicated free radical scavenging was one of the major pathways to alleviate hyperlipidemia. Moreover, hawthorn fruit is a rich source of phenols, which quench free radical and attenuate hyperlipidemia. However, the phenols vary with processing methods, especially solvent type. Objective: Our aim was to compare hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of hawthorn fruit in hyperlipidemia rats. Materials and Methods: After a 4-week treatment of high-fat emulsion, lipid profile levels and antioxidant levels of two extracts were determined using commercial analysis. Total phenols content in the extract of hawthorn fruit was determined colorimetrically by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Results: Both ethanol and aqueous extracts of hawthorn fruit possessed hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Simultaneously, stronger activities were observed in ethanol extract. Besides, total phenols content in ethanol extract from the same quality of hawthorn fruit was 3.9 times more than that in aqueous extract. Conclusion: The obvious difference of hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects between ethanol extract and aqueous extract of hawthorn fruit was probably due to the presence of total phenols content, under the influence of extraction solvent. SUMMARY Ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit exhibited more favorable hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects than aqueous extract. The higher effects could be due to the higher content of total phenols that varies with extraction solvent. Abbreviations used: TC: Total cholesterol, TG: Triglyceride, LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, GSH-Px: Glutathione peroxidase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, MDA: Malondialdehyde, CAT: Catalase, NO: Nitric oxide, NOS: Nitric oxide synthase, SR-BI: Scavenger receptor Class B Type I

  9. Antimicrobial activities of various fractions of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. Fen Ke) seed extract.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Huang-Chung; Wu, Wan-Ting; Huang, Ho-Shin; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2014-08-01

    The antimicrobial activities of longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. Fen ke) seed extracts were investigated using a disc diffusion method and also determining the minimal inhibitory concentration. The DL-P01-SI01 fraction showed that the strongest activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus at MIC 64??g/mL, which was found to be due to the phenolic compounds. The HPLC analysis showed that the major phenolic compounds are gallic acid, corilagin, ethyl gallate and ellagic acid. PMID:24533783

  10. Contents of constituents and antioxidant activity of seed and pulp extracts of Annona coriacea and Annona sylvatica.

    PubMed

    Benites, R S R; Formagio, A S N; Argandoña, E J S; Volobuff, C R F; Trevizan, L N F; Vieira, M C; Silva, M S

    2015-08-01

    The antioxidant potential of fruit pulp and seeds of extracts of the Annona coriacea, and A. sylvatica(Annonaceae) were investigated, as well contents total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and ascorbic acid. Was used to determine the antioxidant activity the 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching and ABTS radical cation method. The total phenol, total flavonoid, condensed tannin, and ascorbic acid contents were measured spectrophotometrically. In this study, the pulp and seeds of the fruits were extracted using methanol/water (8:2) for maceration. The seed extracts of A. coriacea demonstrated a moderate antioxidant effect with free radical scavenging activity of 31.53%, by the DPPH test, 51.59% by the β-carotene bleaching test and 159.50 µM trolx/g of extract in the ABTS assay. We found that the hydromethanolic seed extract of A. coriacea had high total phenol (147.08 ± 4.20 mg of GAE/g of extract) and flavonoid (131.18 ± 2.31 mg of QE/g of extract) content. This indicated that the antioxidant activity of the extracts was related to the contents of these constituents. PMID:26421762

  11. Hawthorn ethanolic extracts with triterpenoids and flavonoids exert hepatoprotective effects and suppress the hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei-Golmisheh, Ali; Malekinejad, Hassan; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Farshid, Amir Abbas; Akbari, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The current study was aimed to determine the bioactive constituents and biological effects of the Crataegus monogyna ethanolic extracts from bark, leaves and berries on hypercholesterolemia. Materials and Methods: Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, quercetin and lupeol concentrations were quantified by HPLC. Total phenol content and radical scavenging activity of extracts were also measured. The hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects of the extracts were examined in hypercholesterolemic rats and compared with orlistat. Results: The highest phenol content, oleanolic acid, quercetin and lupeol levels and free radical scavenging potency were found in the bark extract, and the highest ursolic acid level was found in the berries extract. Orlistat and extracts significantly (P<0.05) lowered the hypercholesterolemia-increased serum level of hepatic enzymes and lipid peroxidation level. Hawthorn’s extracts protected from hepatic thiol depletion and improved the lipid profile and hepatic damages. Conclusion: Data suggested that hawthorn’s extracts are able to protect from hypercholesterolemia-induced oxidative stress and hepatic injuries. Moreover, the hypocholesterolemic effect of extracts was found comparable to orlistat. PMID:26361538

  12. Application of ultrasound in the dissolution of potential antiophidian compounds from two ethanolics extracts of two species of Heliconias.

    PubMed

    Estrada, G Sebastin; Jimnez, Silvia L; Alarcon, P Juan C; Vargas, Leidy J

    2010-06-01

    This study evaluates the favorable effects of using ultrasound during the dissolution process of ethanolic extracts of Heliconia psittacorum and Heliconia rostrata (Heliconiaceae), a family of plants reported to have antiophidic activities. The extracts were subjected to an ultrasound treatment before incubation with venom, and carbohydrate and protein contents were calculated. The ultrasound-treated extracts delayed the clotting effect of venom by up to 45.59 s compared to the positive control (venom). The metabolites content increased to 296.6% and 61.6% in protein and carbohydrate content, respectively. Ultrasound increases the amount of primary and secondary metabolites (potentially antiophidics) released from the extract into the media, and thereby enhances the anticoagulant activity of these plants against the Bothrops asper (mapan X) venom. PMID:20189865

  13. Antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory properties of the ethanolic extract of Combretum duarteanum in rodents.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Marcos G S; Xavier, Maria A; Barreto, André S; Gelain, Daniel P; Santos, João P A; Araújo, Adriano A S; Silva, Francilene A; Quintans, Jullyana S; Agra, Maria F; Cabral, Analúcia G S; Tavares, Josean F; Silva, Marcelo S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2011-11-01

    The antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Combretum duarteanum (EEC) were assessed in rodents through in vitro tests. The antioxidant activity was investigated by using thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), hydroxyl radical-scavenging, and scavenging activity of nitric oxide assays. The antinociceptive activity was investigated by using acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, and hot-plate tests in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in rats by using the carrageenan-induced hind-paw edema test and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema test. EEC possesses a strong antioxidant potential according to the TBARS, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays; it also presented scavenger activity in all in vitro tests. After intraperitoneal injection, EEC (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of writhes (38.1%, 90.6%, and 97.8%, respectively) in a writhing test and the number of paw licks during phase 1 (30.5% and 69.5%, higher doses) and phase 2 (38.1%, 90.6%, and 97.8%, all doses) of a formalin test when compared with the control group. Naloxone (1.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) antagonized the antinociceptive action of EEC (400 mg/kg), and this finding suggests participation of the opioid system. Administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) of EEC exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenin test, which was based on interference with prostaglandin synthesis. This finding was confirmed by the arachidonic acid test. Together, these results indicate that properties of EEC might be further explored in the search for newer tools to treat painful inflammatory conditions, including those related to pro-oxidant states. PMID:21663477

  14. Ethanolic extract of propolis inhibits atherosclerosis in ApoE-knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects and underlying mechanism of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE?/? mice. Methods Eight-week-old male ApoE?/? mice fed a high-fat diet were treated with EEP (160mg/kg/d) or vehicle (the same dose) respectively for 14weeks. The serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined by enzymatic methods. Non-HDL-C was calculated as TC minus HDL-C. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-17 (IL-17), endothelin (ET), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Nitric oxide (NO) content was measured with an enzymatic nitrate reductase assay. Analyses of atherosclerotic lesions in whole aorta and aortic root sections were performed with plaque staining using Oil Red O. Results Compared with the vehicle-treated group, serum contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and non-HDL-C reduced significantly by 31.88%, 21.01%, and 27.11% respectively in the EEP-treated group. Administration of EEP decreased the level of IL-6 and increased the level of IL-17 in ApoE?/? mice with a high-fat diet. Compared with the vehicle-treated group,EEP significantly reduced the levels of ET and VEGF,and showed a trend to increase NO and inhibit iNOS. In the ApoE?/? mice fed a high-fat diet, EEP significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion development in the aortic root and whole aorta. Conclusion EEP can inhibit atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE?/? mice fed a high-fat diet possibly through modulating cholesterol, regulating inflammatory reaction,inhibiting ET and VEGF, and protecting vascular endothelial cells. PMID:23941539

  15. The ethanol extract of Zingiber zerumbet rhizomes mitigates vascular lesions in the diabetic retina.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tang-Yao; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Liu, I-Min

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common diabetic eye disease which is well-known as the result of microvascular retinal changes. Although the ethanol extract from Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith rhizome (EEZZR) has been indicated to ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetes, its protective effect on DR remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of EEZZR on DR in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were treated orally with EEZZR (200, 300mg/kg per day) or calcium dobesilate (CD; 500mg/kg per day) for 12weeks. EEZZR displayed similar characteristics to CD in reducing blood-retinal barrier permeability in diabetic rats. Retinal histopathological observation showed that retinal vessels were decreased in EEZZR-treated diabetic rats. EEZZR decreased the increased retinal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and upregulate the expressions of renal pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in diabetic rats. Retinal mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic proteins-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were all decreased in EEZZR-treated diabetic rats. Moreover, EEZZR could attenuate phosphorylation of nuclear factor Kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 as well as inhibit the nuclear translocation of pNF-κB p65 induced by diabetes. In conclusion, restoring the balance between stimulators and inhibitors of angiogenesis may be associated with the protective effect of EEZZR on DR. In addition, EEZZR can ameliorate retinal inflammation via transrepression of NF-κB and inhibition of ERK1/2 signaling pathway. PMID:26319672

  16. Antinociceptive Activity of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Aggregatin D Isolated from Sinningia aggregata Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Geórgea V.; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L.; Frois, Gisele R. A.; Ribas, João L. C.; Verdan, Maria H.; Kassuya, Cândida A. L.; Stefanello, Maria E.; Zampronio, Aleksander R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa), fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction) reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs. PMID:25719394

  17. Antinociceptive activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions, and aggregatin D isolated from Sinningia aggregata tubers.

    PubMed

    Souza, Gergea V; Simas, Alex S; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L; Frois, Gisele R A; Ribas, Joo L C; Verdan, Maria H; Kassuya, Cndida A L; Stefanello, Maria E; Zampronio, Aleksander R

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa), fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction) reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs. PMID:25719394

  18. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark and the involvement of phenolic compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antioxidant compounds like phenols and flavonoids scavenge free radicals and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to control degenerative and other diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activity in vitro, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in ethanol extracts and fractions of Crescentia cujete leaves and stem bark. Methods Crescentia cujete leaves and bark crude ethanol extract (CEE) and their partitionates petroleum ether (PEF), chloroform (CHF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and aqueous (AQF) were firstly prepared. Different established testing methods, such as 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, ferric reducing power (FRP), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Further, the total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of CEE and all the fractions were determined. Ethanol extracts of both leaves and stem bark were also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to detect the presence of secondary metabolites, using standard phytochemical methods (Thin layer chromatography and spray reagents). Results Phytochemical screening of crude ethanol extract of both leaves and stem bark revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and terpenoids. All the fractions and CEE of leaves and bark exhibited antioxidant activities, however, EAF of leaves showing the highest antioxidant activity based on the results of DPPH, FRP and TAC assay tests. The above fraction has shown the significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 = 8.78 μg/ml) when compared with standard ascorbic acid (IC50 =7.68 μg/ml). The TAC and FRP activities increased with increasing crude extract/fractions content. The TPC (371.23 ± 15.77 mg GAE/g extract) and TFC (144.64 ± 5.82 mg QE/g extract) of EAF of leaves were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions for both leaves and bark. TPC were highly correlated with the antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.9268 and 0.8515 in DPPH test for leaves and bark, respectively). Conclusion The results of the study show that leaves of C. cujete possesses significant free radical scavenging properties compared with stem bark and a clear correlation exists between the antioxidant activity and phenolic content. PMID:24495381

  19. Antioxidative and anticancer activities of various ethanolic extract fractions from crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Chiu; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2014-11-01

    Many studies currently researching marine invertebrates to determine the therapeutic potential of their bioactive materials have been showing very promising results. The crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, an Echinodermata of the class Asteroidea, is infamous as the unique venomous starfish and as a destroyer of coral reefs. Starfish possesses many useful pharmacological and biological characteristics. In this study, A. planci was extracted with 70% ethanol and lyophilized to obtain an ethanol fraction. The ethanol fraction was dissolved with water and defatted with petroleum ether to obtain a non-polar fraction. The residual solution was successively partitioned with ethylacetate and butanol to obtain an ethylacetate fraction and butanol fraction, respectively. Four fractions were used to examine the antioxidant and anticancer properties. The ethanol fraction of A. planci contained the highest antioxidant effects such as ABTS, DPPH, Fe(2+) chelating activity and reducing power when compared with four fractions. Among the four fractions, the butanol fraction was especially shown to inhibit human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells' proliferation, which is involved in the apoptotic progression. This fraction could induce apoptosis and even necrosis in A375.S2 cells as evidenced by double staining with an Annexin V-FITC and PI assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. These results indicated that the starfish A. planci is a good resource for obtaining the biologically active substances for antioxidant and anticancer effects. PMID:25305737

  20. Inhibitory Effects of Ethanol Extracts from Nuruk on Oxidative Stress, Melanogenesis, and Photo-Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Cho, Sung-Won; Kwon, Yi-Young; Kwon, Hee-Suk

    2012-01-01

    Nuruk contributes to the unique characteristics of Korean alcoholic beverages. In this study, the effects of nuruk extracts (NE) on anti-oxidant characters, melanogenesis, and anti-photoaging activity were investigated. NEs were obtained from the 70% ethanol extracts of six types of nuruk, which have been used in brewing of fermented alcohol beverages in Korea. First, various antioxidant characteristics were identified in terms of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiozoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression, and inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity. NE#4 exhibited potent ABTS radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 19.51 µg/mL). Compared with NE#4, relatively lower levels of activity were observed for NE#3 and NE#6, with IC50 values of 90.99 and 76.88 µg/mL, respectively. According to results of western blot analysis for determination of SOD expression in H2O2-treated HepG2 cells, NE#5 and NE#6 induced a dramatic increase in the expression ratio of SOD, compared to the group treated with H2O2 only. Activity of xanthine oxidase, which converts xanthine into uric acid, generating superoxide ions, was inhibited by NE#4 and NE#6 in a dose-dependent manner. NE#4 induced significant inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity. A reduction in cellular melanin contents of 80% was observed in B16F1 melanocytes treated with NE#5 and NE#6; these effects were similar to those of arbutin at 100 µM. In addition, gelatin zymography and reverse transcription-PCR analysis were performed for assessment of anti-photoaging activity of Nuruk. Treatment with NE#6 resulted in dramatically inhibited activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/-9, suppressed expression of MMP-1, and increased expression of type-1 procollagen. Results of gelatin zymography for NE#4 and NE#5 were similar, to a slightly lesser degree. These results suggest the potential of NE#4 and NE#6 as natural ingredients for use in functional foods and cosmetics. PMID:22870054

  1. In vitro lethal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seed on hydatid cyst protoscoleces

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudvand, Hossein; Asadi, Arash; Harandi, Majid Fasihi; Sharififar, Fariba; Jahanbakhsh, Sareh; Dezaki, Ebrahimm Saedi

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): There are several scolicidal agents for inactivation of hydatid cyst protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects such as sclerosing cholangitis and liver necrosis. The present study was aimed to evaluate scolicidal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seeds against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst in an in vitro model. Materials and Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of the different extracts of N. sativa (5 to 50 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining. Results: The findings exhibited that methanolic extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 10 min of incubation, and aqueous extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation can kill 100% of protoscoleces. In addition, all of experiments revealed dose-dependent and also time-dependent scolicidal effect of various extracts of N. sativa on the protoscoleces of hydatid cyst. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that N. sativa may be a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be required to evaluate scolicidal effects of N. sativa in the in vivo model. PMID:25859304

  2. Enhancement of gastric ulcer healing and angiogenesis by cochinchina Momordica seed extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Mook; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Bongcheol; Kim, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Bong-Yong; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Hye Seung; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

    2010-06-01

    Cochinchina momordica seed is the dried ripe seed of Momordica cochinchinensis, a perennial vine. The antiulcer effect of an extract from cochinchina momordica seeds (SK-MS10) was evaluated in a rat model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Gastric ulcers were produced by subserosal injection of acetic acid. SK-MS10 (200 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered orally once per day for 14 days after the acetic acid injection. The stomach was removed and the ulcer size measured at day 7 and 14 of the treatment. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was assessed by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, the microvasculature density (MVD) adjacent to the ulcer margin was examined by immunohistochemistry. The treatment with SK-MS10 for 7 and 14 days significantly accelerated ulcer healing and increased the expression of mRNA (at day 7) as well as VEGF protein (at day 14) compared to the vehicle-treated rats. The MVD for factor VIII was also higher in the SK-MS10 treatment group compared to the vehicle-treated rats; however, these differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that SK-MS10 treatment accelerates the healing of gastric ulcers via upregulation of VEGF and angiogenesis in an acetic acid rat model. PMID:20514308

  3. Hypoglycaemic and Tissue-Protective Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Persea Americana Seeds on Alloxan-Induced Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    EZEJIOFOR, Anthonet Ndidi; OKORIE, Abednego; ORISAKWE, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Background: The tissue-protective potential of Persea americana necessitated a look into the histopathological effects of the plant extract on the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. The hypoglycaemic and tissue-protective effects of hot aqueous Persea americana (avocado pear) seed extracts on alloxan-induced albino rats were investigated. Methods: Persea americana seeds were extracted using hot water, and different concentrations of the extract were prepared. The effects of different concentrations (20, 30, 40 g/L) of the hot aqueous P. americana seed extract on alloxan-induced Wistar albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, glibenclamide. The glucose level of the rats was measured daily, and the weight of the animal was monitored on a weekly basis for 21 days. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, and the histopathologies of the liver, kidneys, and pancreas were investigated. Phytochemical analysis of P. americana seed extracts indicated the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Results: The results showed that the extract possessed a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.05) effect and reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, comparable to the effects glibenclamide. The seeds of P. americana also had anti-diabetic and protective effects on some rat tissues such as the pancreas, kidneys, and liver. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the folkloric use of the hot-water extract of P. americana seeds in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24643349

  4. Process modeling and analysis of pulp mill-based integrated biorefinery with hemicellulose pre-extraction for ethanol production: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hua-Jiang; Ramaswamy, Shri; Al-Dajani, Waleed Wafa; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Pulp and paper mills represent a major platform to use more effectively an abundant, renewable bio-resource - wood. Modification of the modern day pulp mills into integrated forest biorefineries (IFBR) presents an excellent opportunity to produce, in addition to valuable cellulose fiber, co-products including fuel grade ethanol and additional energy, thus resulting in increased revenue streams and profitability and potentially lower the greenhouse gas emissions. A process model to simulate the integrate forest biorefinery manufacturing pulp and other co-products has been developed. This model has been used to compare three integrated biorefinery scenarios: the conventional Kraft pulping process, the pulp mill-based IFBR with hemicelluloses extraction prior to pulping for ethanol production, and the pulp mill-based IFBR with both pre-extracted hemicelluloses and the short fiber for ethanol production. Based on a fixed feedstock throughput of 2000 dry Mg wood/day, results show that the pulp mill-based IFBR with both pre-extracted hemicelluloses and the short fiber cellulose converted to ethanol can produce 0.038 MM m(3) (10.04 MM gal) ethanol per year at a minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) of $491/m(3) ($1.86/gal). The economic feasibility of IFBR can be further improved by using further improvements in the pre-extraction process, other biomass such as corn stover for producing ethanol, and taking advantage of the economies of scale. PMID:19767201

  5. Inhibition by Seeds of Phalaris canariensis Extracts of Key Enzymes Linked to Obesity.

    PubMed

    Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Madrigales Ahuatzi, Diana; Cruz Victoria, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Context Obesity and its associated diseases are an increasing problem around the world. One hyperglycemic remedy is reduction of glucose absorption performed by suppressing digestion of carbohydrates and lipids through the use of inhibitors. Phalaris canariensis (P canariensis) is a species belonging to the Graminaceae family and is used in traditional medicine in Mexico for treatment of diabetes and obesity. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of different extracts of the seeds of P canariensis on enzymes metabolizing fat and carbohydrates, obtained using 3 solvents. Design The seeds of P canariensis were extracted using hexane (ALH), chloroform (ALC), and methanol (ALM) and were investigated for their antiobesity potential. Setting This research was conducted in the Laboratory of Research of Natural Products in the School of Chemical Engineering at the National Polytechnic Institute and in the Research Laboratory of Enzymology in the National School of Biological Sciences. Outcome Measures Different concentrations of the extracts were used to study the inhibition of enzymatic activity by porcine pancreatic ?-amylase, with carbose as a positive control. The inhibitory activity of ?-glucosidase was determined using the standard method with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Pancreatic lipase (PL) activity was measured by absorbance at 412 nm, and the data obtained were compared with orlistat. The PL activity was assessed using a second method measuring the rate of release of oleic acid from triolein. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was measured by released (3H)-oleic acid. Lipolytic activity in cultured, mouse, 3T3-Ll adipocytes was used as a measure of hormone-sensitive lipase activity. The inhibitory activity of rat intestinal sucrase was determined by measuring the glucose released. A Caco-2 cell assay determined the content of free glucose.Results The ALH extract of P canariensis showed potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 2.13 and 1.25 mg/mL as compared with ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase, respectively, and produced inhibition in rat intestinal sucrose. Further, the ALM extract showed significantly inhibitory effects against PL, LPL, and lipolysis of 3T3-LI adipocytes. Conclusions The results provide evidence for the effects of the seeds of P canariensis for a retarded absorption of carbohydrates and lipids through the inhibition of enzymes that are related to obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2. PMID:26773316

  6. Effect of ethanol extract of dried Chinese yam (Dioscorea batatas) flour containing dioscin on gastrointestinal function in rat model.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jeong Ryae; Lee, Ji Seon; Lee, Chu Hee; Kim, Jong Yeon; Kim, Soon Dong; Nam, Doo Hyun

    2006-05-01

    In this study, a 40% ethanol extract of Chinese yam flour (Dioscoreae rhizoma), containing 177 +/- 58 microg/mL of dioscin, was tested in order to evaluate its pharmacological effects on the gastrointestinal tracts of Sprague-Dawley rats. Via the ingestion of the Chinese yam extract, the secretion of gastric acid was suppressed in the rats, and gastrointestinal motility increased by as much as 10%. The fecal quantity of rats fed on the Chinese yam extract also increased, by more than 40% as compared with that of the controls. The Chinese yam extract was found not to affect the growth of normal intestinal bacteria. However, a great deal of lactose-fermenting bacteria was observed in the fecal samples of rats fed for 6 weeks on 2% Chinese yam extract. This finding would appear to suggest that Chinese yam extract not only induces an improvement in digestive capability, but also affects the conversion of some intestinal flora to helpful bacteria. Our serochemical analyses indicated that serum glucose, neutral lipid, and total cholesterol levels were reduced to some degree by long-term feeding on Chinese yam extract. This finding bolsters the notion that Chinese yam extract may prove helpful as a digestion-aiding agent for patients suffering from hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia. PMID:16756078

  7. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mossa, Abdel-Tawab H.; Ibrahim, Faten M.; Mohafrash, Samia M. M.; Abou Baker, Doha H.; El Gengaihi, Souad

    2015-01-01

    The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity. PMID:26265923

  8. Ethanolic extract of Allium cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of insulin signaling.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Sudeep; Pal, Savita; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-02-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects and the molecular mechanism of the standardized ethanolic extract of Allium cepa (onion) on the glucose transport for controlling diabetes mellitus. A.cepa stimulates glucose uptake by the rat skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes) in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This effect was shown to be mediated by the increased translocation of glucose transporter typ 4 protein from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane as well as the synthesis of glucose transporter typ 4 protein. The effect of A.cepa extract on glucose transport was stymied by wortmannin, genistein, and AI. In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that, like insulin, A.cepa extract also enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-?, insulin receptor substrate-1, and the serine phosphorylation of Akt under both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions without affecting the total amount of these proteins. Furthermore, it is also shown that the activation of Akt is indispensable for the A.cepa-induced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings provide ample evidence that the ethanolic extract of A.cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4 translocation-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt dependent pathway. PMID:25654406

  9. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Annona muricata L. Leaves in Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Orlando Vieira; Vieira, Glauciemar Del-Vechio; de Jesus R. G. de Pinho, José; Yamamoto, Célia Hitomi; Alves, Maria Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg) and 41.41% (400 mg/kg). Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o) inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: first phase (23.67% and 45.02%) and the second phase (30.09% and 50.02%), respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04%) and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o.) at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74%) and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95%) significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:20559502

  10. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of Annona muricata L. leaves in animal models.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Orlando Vieira; Vieira, Glauciemar Del-Vechio; de Jesus R G de Pinho, Jos; Yamamoto, Clia Hitomi; Alves, Maria Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated in animal models. The extract delivered per oral route (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions by 14.42% (at a dose of 200 mg/kg) and 41.41% (400 mg/kg). Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o) inhibited both phases of the time paw licking: first phase (23.67% and 45.02%) and the second phase (30.09% and 50.02%), respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at doses of 200 (30.77% and 37.04%) and 400 mg/kg (82.61% and 96.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by the ethanol extract (p.o.) at doses of 200 (23.16% and 29.33%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50% and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of application of carrageenan, respectively. Doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h before the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (29.25 and 45.74%) and leukocyte migration (18.19 and 27.95%) significantly. These results suggest that A. muricata can be an active source of substances with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:20559502

  11. Anticonvulsant Effect of Hydroalcoholic Seed Extract of Croton Tiglium in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mudium, Raghunandan; Kolasani, Bhanuprakash

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The study was aimed to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of hydro-alcoholic seed extract of croton tiglium in rats and mice. Materials and Methods: Forty -eight each of rats and mice of either sex were randomised into four groups and subjected to seizures induced by electroconvulsiometer and pentylenetetrazole. The hydroalcoholic seed extract of croton tiglium (250 and 500mg/kg) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect using sodium valproate (200mg/kg) as standard and distilled water as control. The parameters observed were time for onset of HLE (Hind Limb Extension) and duration of HLE in electrically induced seizures, and time for onset of convulsions and duration of convulsions in chemically induced seizures. Mortality of the animals over 24 hours was observed in both the models. For testing statistical significance between various groups unpaired student t-test was used. Observations and Results: In electrically induced seizures croton tiglium produced dose dependant prolongation of time for onset of HLE and a reduction in duration of HLE and in chemically induced convulsions, it prolonged time for onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of convulsions indicating its anticonvulsant effect in both models. However, anticonvulsant effect was less compared to sodium valproate. There was a higher percentage of mortality in croton tiglium group in chemically induced convulsions when compared to sodium valproate. Conclusion: Croton tiglium has dose dependant anticonvulsant effect in electrically induced seizures, while in pentylenetetrazole induced-seizures the protection is very minimal. PMID:24783071

  12. Antioxidant properties of raspberry seed extracts on micronucleus distribution in peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Godevac, Dejan; Tesevi?, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka; Milosavljevi?, Slobodan; Stankovi?, Miroslava

    2009-11-01

    This study addresses in vitro effects of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) seed extracts (RSE) on the frequency of micronuclei. We evaluated the effects of three different extracts (50%, 80%, and 100% methanol) in doses of 1.4, 4.2, and 8.4 microg/mL, per 5 mL culture using cytochalasin-B micronucleus (CBMN) assay in peripheral human lymphocytes. The frequency of MN was scored in binucleated (BN) cells. The nuclear proliferation index was also calculated. The distribution of polyphenolic compounds in RSEs was determined using LC/UV/ESI-TOF MS. The identified 37 compounds comprised flavanol monomers and oligomers, as well as varieties of ellagitannin components. Treatment of lymphocytes with RSEs induced a significant decrease in the frequency of micronuclei by 80%. These results demonstrate that the constituents of RSEs may be important in the prevention of oxidative lymphocyte damage by reactive oxygen species and may also reduce the level of DNA damage. These findings support the potential benefits of polyphenolic compounds from raspberry seeds as efficient antioxidants. PMID:19748543

  13. The therapeutic applications of celery oil seed extract on the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate toxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Shinnawy, Nashwa A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the impact of two doses, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg, of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and studied the possible therapeutic dose of celery oil seed extract for 6weeks on some atheroscelerogenic, obesogenic, antioxidant and liver functions in rats. Both doses of DEHP caused over-expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) messenger RNA with significant increase in liver weights, relative liver weights, serum cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein Chol, liver total lipids, along with an increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, serum endothelin 1 and liver tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Additionally, DEHP administration to rats resulted in significant decrease in final body weights, serum total protein, albumin, liver total protein and serum total nitric oxide. Our study confirmed the role of oral combination of Apium graveolens (celery) oil seed extract at small cumulative doses (50l/kg for 6weeks) with DEHP in ameliorating the toxicological effects of DEHP, which was revealed in reducing the expression of PPAR?, lipid profile, with restoring liver functions, vascular oxidative stress and inhibition of TBARS activity. PMID:23377116

  14. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  15. Retardation of lipid oxidation using gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract compared with BHT.

    PubMed

    Sai-Ut, Samart; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to apply the gelatin films with different levels of longan seed extract (LS) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retardation of lipid oxidation in soybean oil. The films incorporated with various concentrations of aqueous LS (0, 50, 100, 300, and 500ppm) or BHT (50, and 100ppm) were developed. The films had transmittance percentages of 60-80% at 570nm and showed good light barrier properties when the concentration of LS or BHT increased. About 97% protein solubility and 41 to 54% water solubility were obtained for the developed films. Antioxidative activity of gelatin films incorporated with LS increased markedly with increasing storage time as indicated by the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity (41-50%) (P??0.05). According to these findings, gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract or BHT could be used as a tool to prolong the shelf-life of oily foods. PMID:26344999

  16. Remineralization of artificial caries in primary teeth by grape seed extract: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mirkarimi, Mahkameh; Eskandarion, Solmauz; Bargrizan, Majid; Delazar, Abbas; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Promoting remineralization is the ultimate goal of clinical prevention of caries lesion. The present in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on artificial enamel caries in primary human teeth. Materials and methods. Seventeen human sound primary incisors were sectioned mesiodistally. The tooth slices were placed in a demineralizing solution for 96 hours at 37C and 50% relative humidity to create lesions. The demineralized fragments of each tooth were randomly divided into two case (immersed in GSE solution in phosphate buffer for 8 days) and control (immersed in distilled water) groups. The samples were subsequently evaluated using a scanning electron microscope and a micro-hardness tester. Data were analyzed using independent t-test. Results. The mean SD micro-hardness values for the case and control groups were 358.683.42 and 296.51 69.41, respectively. Grape seed extract significantly increased the micro-hardness of the lesions (P=0.03). The morphology of GSE treated enamel was clearly different from that in the control group, and there were deposits of scaffolding insoluble complexes on the enamel surface. Conclusion. GSE enhanced the remineralization process of artificial enamel lesions of primary teeth, and thus, might be considered an effective natural agent in non-invasive dentistry. PMID:24578818

  17. Biological effects of hydrolyzed quinoa extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    PubMed

    Meneguetti, Quele Adriana; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Batista, Marcia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Garcia Cortez, Digenes Aparcio

    2011-06-01

    An extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), termed hydrolyzed quinoa (HQ), was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from seeds of the quinoa variety BRS-Piabiru. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of quinoa and HQ showed that the hydrolyzed extract is rich in essential amino acids, particularly those with branched chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). In addition, we evaluated the biological effects of HQ, particularly the toxicological potential. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to four groups: (1) sedentary supplemented group, which received HQ (2,000?mg/kg); (2) sedentary control group, non-supplemented; (3) exercised supplemented group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise that received HQ [2,000?mg/kg]); and (4) exercised control group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise, non-supplemented). After 30 days, all groups were analyzed for levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and urea and activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Body weight gain, dietary intake, and lipid deposition were also analyzed. The results showed no hepatic and renal toxicity of HQ. Moreover, decreased food intake, body weight, fat deposition, and blood triacylglycerol level were observed in the supplemented groups (sedentary and exercised supplemented groups). These results suggest a potential use of HQ in human nutrition. PMID:21480793

  18. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) on sexual behaviour of normal male rats

    PubMed Central

    Tajuddin; Ahmad, Shamshad; Latif, Abdul; Qasmi, Iqbal Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6) once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders. PMID:15530165

  19. Antithrombotic effect of repeated doses of the ethanolic extract of local olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Dub, Abdallah M.; Dugani, Aisha M.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of thromboembolic diseases is increasing, and they are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Mediterranean diet is known for its high content of olive products, especially olive oil, which has known cardiovascular health benefits, including those on blood pressure, cholesterol level, and thrombogenesis. All previous animal and clinical studies investigating the beneficial antithrombotic effects of olives have focused on olive oil and a few on olive leaves (OLEs). In this study, the ethanolic extract of OLE was evaluated for its antithrombotic activity in the rabbit model of thrombosis induced by ligature of the vena cava and intravenous administration of tissue thromboplastin. Pre-treatment with 100 or 200 mg/kg per day of the ethanolic extract for 8 weeks significantly prolonged the prothrombin time (PT) in comparison to the control group (12.100.35 sec and 14.380.29 sec vs. 10.80.32 sec, p<0.05 and 0.001, respectively). In comparison to the control group, the same doses had no statistically significant effect on thrombus weight (16.850.67 mg, 16.320.35 mg, and 17.810.75 mg; p=0.18 and 0.06) or on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) (19.170.33 sec, 19.120.73 sec, and 18.970.41 sec; p=0.36 and 0.43, respectively). One important finding in this study concerns thrombus morphology. In the extract treatment groups, the thrombus was filament-like and did not adhere to blood vessel walls, whereas in the control group the thrombus was thick and almost completely occluded the vein. Therefore, these results suggest that OLE ethanolic extract can modify the extri