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1

Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.  

PubMed

Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

2010-02-01

2

Effects of marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract on ethanol toxicity in male rats.  

PubMed

Natural dietary antioxidants are extensively studied for their ability to protect cells from miscellaneous damages. Marjoram volatile oil (Origanum majorana L., Lamiaceae) and grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L., Vitaceae) are potent antioxidants. Effects of administration of marjoram volatile oil or grape seed extract on oral administration of ethanol, simultaneously, daily for 10 weeks were studied through determining epididymal spermatozoal analysis, serum testosterone level, weight and histopathological examination of testis, liver and brain. Glutathione level and lipid peroxidation content as malondialdehyde in the testis, liver and brain were measured. The repeated intake of a great amount of ethanol (10 ml/kg body weight, 25% v/v) was followed by fertility disturbances with low sperm count, impaired sperm motility and decrease in serum testosterone level. Moreover, ethanol toxicity induced significant alterations in the histological structures of the testis, liver and brain. The results revealed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in the level of glutathione in the testis, liver and brain in the ethanol-treated group. However, co-administration of the extracts of protective plants resulted in minimizing the hazard effects of ethanol toxicity on male fertility, liver and brain tissues. It may be concluded that marjoram volatile oil and grape seed extract are useful herbal remedies, especially for controlling oxidative damages. PMID:17910615

El-Ashmawy, Ibrahim M; Saleh, Amal; Salama, Osama M

2007-11-01

3

Anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract of Punica granatum L. seed.  

PubMed

Objective: Various morphological parts of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) have extensively been used in the folk medicine to treat an array of human ailments. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the anticonvulsant potential of the ethanolic extract of P. granatum L. seed in chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. Method: The anticonvulsant activity of the ethanolic extract was investigated in strychnine (STR)-induced and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure models in mice. Diazepam was used as reference anticonvulsant drug. Ethanolic extract (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg per os, p.o.), diazepam (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally, i.p.), and distilled water (10 ml/kg, i.p.) were administered before induction of seizures by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or STR (2·5 mg/kg, i.p.). The latent time before the onset of convulsions, the duration of convulsions, the percentage of seizure protection, and mortality rate were recorded. Results: The seed ethanolic extract did not show any toxicity and did not protect the animals against seizures but demonstrated a significant increase in seizure latency at 300 and 600 mg/kg in both STR and PTZ seizure models (P < 0·001). It also showed a significant reduction in seizure duration at 300 mg/kg (P < 0·05) and 600 mg/kg (P < 0·001) in the STR seizure model and 600 mg/kg (P < 0·01) in the PTZ seizure model compared with the control group. Conclusion: Ethanol extract has dose-dependent anticonvulsant activity against STR- and PTZ-induced seizures. This activity might be due to its saponins, flavonoids, triterpenes, and alkaloids ingredients. PMID:25413687

Mehrzadi, Saeed; Sadr, Samir; Hosseinzadeh, Azam; Gholamine, Babak; Shahbazi, Ali; FallahHuseini, Hasan; Ghaznavi, Habib

2014-11-21

4

Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. ?-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes. PMID:23742045

Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

2013-07-17

5

FENUGREEK (TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM) SEED EXTRACT PREVENTS ETHANOL-INDUCED TOXICITY AND APOPTOSIS IN CHANG LIVER CELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of a polyphenolic extract of fenugreek seeds (FPEt) against ethanol (EtOH)-induced toxicity was investigated in human Chang liver cells. Cells were incubated with either 30 mM EtOH alone or together in the presence of seed extract for 24 h. Assays were performed in treated cells to evaluate the ability of seeds to prevent the toxic effects of

SUBRAMANIAN KAVIARASAN; NALINI RAMAMURTY; PALANI GUNASEKARAN; ELANGO VARALAKSHMI; CARANI VENKATRAMAN ANURADHA

6

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

7

Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from seeds in fresh Bokbunja (Rubus coreanus Miq.) and wine processing waste.  

PubMed

The antioxidant potential of ethanol extracts from defatted Bokbunja seed wastes generated during wine processing were estimated by radical scavenging abilities (DPPH(*), H(2)O(2), and O(2)(*-)), retardation of lipid oxidation, and iron ion-chelating characteristics. For comparison, ethanol extracts from seeds of fresh ripe Bokbunja fruits were also used. The ethanol extracts from the wine seed waste always showed higher scavenging activities against DPPH(*), H(2)O(2), and O(2)(*-) than those from the fresh seeds. The oxidation of linoleic acid in dimethylsulfoxide at 105 degrees C revealed that the kinetic behavior clearly obeyed pseudo-zero-order regardless of the linoleic acid concentration. The Fe(II)-chelating capacity was determined by the Freundlich isotherm. The results showed high potential and favorability of the two extracts for Fe(II) chelation. The Freundlich chelation capacities (mg(1-1/n)L(1/n)/g) of both ethanol extracts from seeds of fresh Bokbunja and wine processing wastes, tannic acid, and proanthocyanidin from Pinus radiata bark were 100, 224, 260, and 307, respectively. The Fe(III)-chelating properties of the ethanol extracts were considered to be deeply associated with its 3',4',5'-trihydroxyl (galloyl) group as with tannic acid. PMID:17931856

Ku, Chang Sub; Mun, Sung Phil

2008-07-01

8

Reproductive toxicity of Momordica charantia ethanol seed extracts in male rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Momordica charantia (M. charantia) seed has been supposed to have an antifertility property but mechanisms underlying the infertility effect have not been investigated. Objective: We investigated the antifertility effect of M. charantia ethanol seed extracts on reproductive toxicology and seminal and plasma testosterone in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The control group (I) was provided daily 1 ml dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and the experimental groups II and III were given daily 400 and 800 mg dry matter/kg body weight of the extracts dissolved in 1 ml DMSO via the esophageal route. All groups were administered for 42 days (day 42). Changes in body weight, fertility, reproductive characteristics, testicular histopathology and levels of seminal and plasma testosterone among three groups were compared. Results: On day 42, the extracts caused antifertility (p=0.001). The extracts demonstrated significant reductions in diameters of seminiferous tubules and epididymides, spermatid density, daily sperm production and caudal epididymal spermatozoa, sperm motility and viability (p=0.046). Pathological changes in seminiferous tubules revealed atrophy, desquamation, pyknosis nucleus and multinucleated giant cell. Plasma cells were evident in three parts of epididymides of rats treated with high dose of the extract. Furthermore, the high dose of the extract suppressed seminal testosterone level (p=0.001) and plasma testosterone level (p=0.002). Conclusion: Our data showed that high dose of M. Charantia seed extracts caused infertility in male rats. The interruption in their fertility was probably attributed to the direct toxic to seminiferous tubules, epididymis and the lowered testosterone level which might impact on sperm parameters. PMID:25469128

Tumkiratiwong, Panas; Ploypattarapinyo, Ravicha; Pongchairerk, Urai; Thong-asa, Wachiryah

2014-01-01

9

Effect of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seeds on gastric ulceration and secretion in rats.  

PubMed

Eugenia jambolana (Jamun) fruit has been reported to give soothing effect on human digestive system. Present study includes the effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of E. jambolana (EJE) against gastric ulcers induced by 2 h cold restraint stress (CRS), aspirin (ASP, 200 mg/kg, 4 h), 95% ethanol (EtOH, 1 ml/200 g, 1 h) and 4 h pylorus ligation (PL) in rats. To ascertain the mechanism of action of EJE, its effect was studied on mucosal offensive acid-pepsin secretion, lipid peroxidation (LPO, free radical) and defensive mucin secretion, cell proliferation, glycoprotein and glutathione (GSH, an antioxidant). Acute and subacute toxicity studies were also conducted for the safety profile of Eugenia jambolana. EJE 200 mg/kg, when administered orally for 10 days in rats was found to reduce the ulcer index in all gastric ulcer models. It tended to decrease acid-pepsin secretion, enhanced mucin and mucosal glycoprotein and decreased cell shedding but had no effect on cell proliferation. It showed antioxidant properties indicated by decrease in LPO and increase in GSH levels in the gastric mucosa of rats. Acute toxicity study indicated LD50 to be more than 10 times (>2000 mg/kg) of the effective ulcer protective dose while subactue toxicity study (>1000 mg/kg) indicated no significant change in the general physiological and haematological parameters, liver and renal function tests. The result of the present study indicates that E. jambolana seed has gastro-protective properties mainly through promotion of mucosal defensive factors and antioxidant status and decreasing lipid peroxidation. PMID:18175656

Chaturvedi, Aditi; Kumar, M Mohan; Bhawani, G; Chaturvedi, Harish; Kumar, Mohan; Goel, R K

2007-01-01

10

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed extract prevents ethanol-induced toxicity and apoptosis in Chang liver cells.  

PubMed

The protective effect of a polyphenolic extract of fenugreek seeds (FPEt) against ethanol (EtOH)-induced toxicity was investigated in human Chang liver cells. Cells were incubated with either 30 mM EtOH alone or together in the presence of seed extract for 24 h. Assays were performed in treated cells to evaluate the ability of seeds to prevent the toxic effects of EtOH. EtOH treatment suppressed the growth of Chang liver cells and induced cytotoxicity, oxygen radical formation and mitochondrial dysfunction. Reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was decreased significantly (P < 0.05) while oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration was significantly elevated in EtOH-treated cells as compared with normal cells. Incubation of FPEt along with EtOH significantly increased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner, caused a reduction in lactate dehydrogenase leakage and normalized GSH/GSSG ratio. The extract dose-dependently reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances formation. Apoptosis was observed in EtOH-treated cells while FPEt reduced apoptosis by decreasing the accumulation of sub-G1 phase cells. The cytoprotective effects of FPEt were comparable with those of a positive control silymarin, a known hepatoprotective agent. The findings suggest that the polyphenolic compounds of fenugreek seeds can be considered cytoprotective during EtOH-induced liver damage. PMID:16574673

Kaviarasan, Subramanian; Ramamurty, Nalini; Gunasekaran, Palani; Varalakshmi, Elango; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

2006-01-01

11

Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.  

PubMed

The hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract obtained from seeds of E. jambolana was investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Hypoglycaemic activity was assessed by reduction in fasting blood glucose (FBG) at 90min and also fall in peak blood glucose during glucose tolerance test (GTT) in sub-diabetic and mild diabetic (MD) rabbits, but in severe diabetic (SD) rabbits by reduction in FBG at 90min. Ethanolic extract (100mg/kg body weight) when given orally to sub-diabetic (AR) for 1 day, MD for 7 days and SD for 15 days showed significant fall in FBG at 90min (12% AR, 18.9% MD and 29% SD) and also produced 16.9% fall in peak blood glucose in AR and 21% in MD rabbits during GTT. When administered daily for 15 days to MD and SD rabbits, significant fall in FBG (41.3% MD, 31.6% SD) and glycosylated haemoglobin (GHb) levels (23.3% MD, 26.6% SD) were observed, while serum insulin level showed significant increase (32.8% MD, 26.9% SD). Liver and muscle glycogen content also increased. The ethanolic extract of seeds also exhibited significant hypolipidemic effect as evident from fall in total serum cholesterol (TC)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio, serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels and decreased activity of HMG-CoA reductase. The histopathological studies of liver, pancreas and aorta in alcoholic extract treated diabetic groups revealed almost normal appearance. PMID:12639741

Sharma, S B; Nasir, A; Prabhu, K M; Murthy, P S; Dev, G

2003-04-01

12

Crude ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola seeds Heckel (Guttiferae) prolong the lag phase of Helicobacter pylori: inhibitory and bactericidal potential.  

PubMed

Problems associated with current treatment regimens have generated a considerable interest in alternative approaches for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infections using phytochemical compounds. In an attempt to identify potential sources of such compounds, the antimicrobial activity of five solvent extracts of Garcinia kola seeds were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori and a standard control strain, NCTC 11638, using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the extracts tested exhibited anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 25 mm. The ethanol extract demonstrated considerable anti-H. pylori activity with a percentage susceptibility of 53.3% and minimum inhibitory concentration for 50% susceptibility (MIC??) values ranging from 0.63 to 5.0 mg/mL. Ranges of MIC?? values for amoxicillin and metronidazole were 0.01-0.63 mg/mL and 0.04-5.0 mg/mL, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the ethanol extract was similar to that of metronidazole (P?>?.05) as opposed to amoxicillin (P?extract caused a 12-hour extension of the lag phase of H. pylori at 1.25 mg/mL. The same observations were recorded when this concentration was doubled and quadrupled alongside a killing rate of 80.1% and 93.7%, respectively, after 24 hours and of 100% after 30 hours. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extract of G. kola may contain therapeutically useful compounds against H. pylori. PMID:21476930

Njume, Collise; Afolayan, Anthony J; Clarke, Anna M; Ndip, Roland N

2011-01-01

13

Ethanol Extract of Lepidium apetalum Seed Elicits Contractile Response and Attenuates Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Secretion in Beating Rabbit Atria  

PubMed Central

The seeds of Lepidium apetalum Willdenow (called “Tinglizi” in China and “Jungryukza” in Korea) have been used to discharge phlegm and improve dropsy in Oriental medicine. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract of the seeds of Lepidium apetalum (ELA) on atrial dynamics and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion in beating rabbit atria. ELA increased atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, and cAMP efflux, concomitantly attenuating ANP secretion in a dose-dependent manner. ELA-induced increases in atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, and cAMP levels and decrease in ANP secretion were not inhibited by pretreatment with staurosporine, a nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor, or diltiazem and verapamil, the L-type Ca2+ channel blockers, respectively. Helveticoside, a well-known digitalis-like cardiac glycosidic constituent of ELA, also increased atrial dynamics, including stroke volume and pulse pressure, without changing cAMP efflux and ANP secretion, and the effects of helveticoside were not inhibited by pretreatment with staurosporine, diltiazem, and verapamil. These results suggest that the ELA-induced positive inotropic activity in beating rabbit atria might, at least partly, be due to the digitalis-like activity of helveticoside rather than an increase in cAMP efflux. PMID:24288558

Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Hye Yoom; Lee, Yun Jung; Cui, Hao Zhen; Jang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Ho Sub

2013-01-01

14

Anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract of Bryonia laciniosa seeds and its saponins rich fraction in neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Context: Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. Aim: This study evaluated the anti-diabetic action of the ethanol extract of B. laciniosa seeds and saponin fraction of it through its effect on hyperglycemia, dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in neonatally streptozotocin (n-STZ)-induced diabetic rats (n-STZ diabetic rats). Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.), saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.) and standard drug glibenclamide (3 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats when the rats were 6 weeks old and continued for 10 consecutive weeks. Effects of ethanol extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Results: The treatment with ethanol extract and saponin fraction for 10 weeks decrease in the levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, serum urea, serum creatinine and diminished activities of aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. The anti-hyperglycemic nature of B. laciniosa is probably brought about by the extra- the pancreatic mechanism as evidenced from unchanged levels of plasma insulin. B. laciniosa modulated effect of diabetes on the liver malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity. Administration of ethanol extract and saponin fraction to diabetic rats showed a significant reversal of disturbed antioxidant status. Significant increase in SOD, CAT, and levels of GSH was observed in treated n-STZ diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of n-STZ diabetic rats.

Patel, Sandip B.; Santani, Devdas; Patel, Veena; Shah, Mamta

2015-01-01

15

Comparative study of the effect of ethanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni seeds with rosiglitazone on experimentally induced diabetes mellitus in rats.  

PubMed

The study was performed to compare the blood glucose lowering effect of Swietenia mahagoni seeds with an oral antidiabetic drug, rosiglitazone in experimentally induced diabetic rats. Twentyfour healthy Long Evans Norwegian strain of rats were included in the study and divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) comprising 6 rats each. Group A (control group) received standard rat food for 14 days. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of alloxan 120 mg/kg body weight in Group B, C and D. Group B was given standard food for 10 days and considered as diabetic control. Group C and D were treated with ethanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni seeds 1000 mg/kg and rosiglitazone 10 mg/kg orally respectively. Administration of ethanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni seeds in group C and rosiglitazone in group D produced a significant reduction in blood glucose level as compared to diabetic control (group B). Histological examination of pancreas showed destruction of beta cells in Islets of pancreas in group B whereas retaining of islets and few degranulations of beta cells of pancreas found in group C and group D. The observations and results of the present study provide information that ethanolic extract of Swietenia mahagoni seeds has hypoglycaemic effect in experimentally induced diabetic rats which requires further investigation. PMID:23923404

Hasan, S M M M A; Khan, M I; Umar, B U; Sadeque, M Z

2013-04-01

16

EXTRACTION OF LIPID COMPONENTS FROM HIBISCUS SEEDS BY SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE AND ETHANOL MIXTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extr...

17

Ethanolic Extract of the Seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EEZS) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with EEZS. The behavioral tests were conducted using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in our present behavioral tasks without changes of locomotor activity. The ameliorating effect of EEZS on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was significantly reversed by a sub-effective dose of MK-801 (0.0125 mg/kg, s.c.). In addition, single administration of EEZS in normal naïve mouse enhanced latency time in the passive avoidance task. Western blot analysis was employed to confirm the mechanism of memory-ameliorating effect of EEZS. Administration of EEZS (200 mg/kg) increased the level of memory-related signaling molecules, including phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampal region. Also, the time-dependent expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by the administration of EEZS was markedly increased from 3 to 9 h. These results suggest that EEZS has memory-ameliorating effect on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, which is mediated by the enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system, in part, via NMDA receptor signaling, and that EEZS would be useful agent against cognitive dysfunction such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24244815

Lee, Hyung Eun; Lee, So Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Young Woo; Jung, Jun Man; Kim, Dong Hyun; Shin, Bum Young; Jang, Dae Sik; Kang, Sam Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2013-07-30

18

Ethanolic Extract of the Seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EEZS) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with EEZS. The behavioral tests were conducted using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in our present behavioral tasks without changes of locomotor activity. The ameliorating effect of EEZS on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was significantly reversed by a sub-effective dose of MK-801 (0.0125 mg/kg, s.c.). In addition, single administration of EEZS in normal naïve mouse enhanced latency time in the passive avoidance task. Western blot analysis was employed to confirm the mechanism of memory-ameliorating effect of EEZS. Administration of EEZS (200 mg/kg) increased the level of memory-related signaling molecules, including phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampal region. Also, the time-dependent expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by the administration of EEZS was markedly increased from 3 to 9 h. These results suggest that EEZS has memory-ameliorating effect on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, which is mediated by the enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system, in part, via NMDA receptor signaling, and that EEZS would be useful agent against cognitive dysfunction such as Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:24244815

Lee, Hyung Eun; Lee, So Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Young Woo; Jung, Jun Man; Kim, Dong Hyun; Shin, Bum Young; Jang, Dae Sik; Kang, Sam Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2013-01-01

19

Evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Ammi majus seeds in albino rats and mice.  

PubMed

Pharmacological and biochemical studies on the Ammi majus seeds L. (family Umbelliferae) grown in Egypt are limited. Furocoumarins are the major constituents in the plant seeds. In the present study, the evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities on albino rats and mice was done. After 2 months of administration, both the doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight [bwt], respectively) of the alcoholic extract of the A. majus seed result in a significant decrease in the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein and increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein. The extract was found to inhibit the rat paw edema at both the doses, which means that it exerts a significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with control-untreated groups at the intervals of 30 and 60 minutes posttreatment. The antipyretic effect of the extract was quite obvious; it showed that 100 mg/kg bwt was more potent in lowering body temperature starting after 1 hour of treatment than the lower dose (50 mg/kg bwt). It is worth to mention that the A. majus extract with its coumarin contents as well as the tested biological activities of the plant was investigated for the first time in the current study. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of the A. majus seeds had antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities that are dose dependant. PMID:22550046

Koriem, Khaled M M; Asaad, Gihan F; Megahed, Hoda A; Zahran, Hanan; Arbid, Mahmoud S

2012-06-01

20

Antidepressant effect and categorization of inhibitory activity of monoamine oxidase type A and B of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum Linn.  

PubMed

Trigonella foenum- graecum Linn (Fabaceae) is an annual aromatic herb and no wit is cultivated globally like in Pakistan, Egypt, India, Middle East etc. Traditionally it was used in anorexia, as febrifuge, to soothe gastritis and gastric ulcers, as a galactagogue and as condiment, hypoglycemic agent and employed in various as nervous disorders. The study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum and underlying mechanism of action. For assessment of antidepressant activity Forced Swimming Test (FST), Tail Suspension Test (TST), Monoamine (MAO) Assay and Locomotor Activity Test were studied. Acute toxicity, Rota Rod and Grip Strength Tests were also performed. The significant declining in immobility time as compared to control was shown in Forced swimming test as compared to tail suspension test. Considerable change was not found in open field test (OFT). EtOH extract of seeds of fenugreek represent maximum significant reduction which was 30 and 24.65% in MAO- A and B activity respectively in the rat's whole brain as compared to control animals in Monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay. All tested doses were found ineffective in impairment of muscle coordination in Rota rod and in grip strength related to muscle relaxant property. According to experimental findings it is revealed that ethanolic extract of seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum showed antidepressant effect by inhibiting the activity of MAO-A and B. PMID:25176235

Khursheed, Raheela; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Ahmed, Maryam; Kamil, Arfa

2014-09-01

21

Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats  

PubMed Central

The liver is vulnerable to alcohol-related injury because it is the primary site of alcohol metabolism. Additionally, a number of potentially dangerous by-products are generated as alcohol is broken down in the liver. However, dietary supplements may prevent or relieve some of alcohol's deleterious effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ethanol, pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Sesamum indicum, (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 28 days; two hours before, simultaneously with or two hours after ethanol exposure. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg bw) by oral gavage. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were then determined in the liver, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. The results revealed that ethanol administration led to significant elevation of TBARS level while depleting in the level of GSH as well as CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities. Similarly, TG level and ALT and AST activities were elevated. The SI pre-treated group significantly inhibited TBARS, restored GSH level, enhanced CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities and significantly decreased the elevated level of serum TG, ALT and AST activities. SI treatment (simultaneously with ethanol) exhibited similar effects to those of the SI pre-treated groups, while the SI post-treated group did not show the same protection as the Pre-treated group. S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites of ethanol. PMID:24611106

Nwozo, S.O.; Amah, G.H.; Awoyinka, A.O.; Ojo, O.A; Ajiboye, B.O.; Tijani, H.A.

2014-01-01

22

Ulcer healing properties of ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana seed in diabetic rats: study on gastric mucosal defensive factors.  

PubMed

Diabetes has been reported to cause an increase in offensive and decrease in defensive gastric mucosal factors, the imbalance of which can cause ulceration and delay the ulcer healing. Eugenia jambolana has been documented to have both antidiabetic and antiulcer activities. The present study evaluates the effects of ethanolic extract of E. jambolana on gastric ulcer healing and on rat gastric mucosal defensive factors in gastric ulcer with co-occurring diabetes. E. jambolana extract was administered orally in the dose of 200 mg/kg once daily for 10 days. E. jambolana extract increased mucin secretion, mucosal glycoprotein and glutathione levels and decreased the lipid peroxidation in gastric mucosa of diabetic rats. Its treatment also reversed the decrease in life span of gastric mucosal cells as indicated by decreased cell shedding in the gastric juice but found to have no effect on cell proliferation, indicating enhanced defensive status. E. jambolana extract was effective in reversing the delayed healing of gastric ulcer in diabetic rats near to the normal level. E. jambolana showed better ulcer healing effect than glibenclamide, because of its both antihyperglycemic and mucosal defensive actions. It could thus, be a better choice for treating gastric ulcers co-occurring with diabetes. PMID:19810572

Chaturvedi, Aditi; Bhawani, G; Agarwal, P K; Goel, Shalini; Singh, A; Goel, R K

2009-01-01

23

Effect of ethanol extract of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) seeds on Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in albino rats.  

PubMed

Trigonella foenum graecum is an Iranian medicinal plant used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial outcome of the plant T. foenum graecum on adjuvant-induced arthritis in albino rats. Ethanol extract of T. foenum graecum was tested against Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In the present study, paw volume was measured on the 4th, 8th, 14th and 21st day. On day 22, animals were anaesthetized, and blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin, white blood cells (WBC), differential white blood cells, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), red blood cells (RBC), interleukins (IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). The animals were sacrificed, and the cartilage tissue was isolated for estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH). Administration with both doses of T. foenum graecum (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the paw oedema and restored body weight. T. foenum graecum significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the differential WBC count, ESR and WBC (5.833 ± 0.703, 6.989 ± 58.5) content and also showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in RBC and Hb (4.783 ± 0.46, 15.46 ± 0.158) content. T. foenum graecum significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-? levels. It also significantly decreased the levels of LPO and increased the SOD and GSH levels in cartilage tissue. In this study, T. foenum graecum 400-mg/kg dose showed more prominent results compared to the 200-mg/kg dose of T. foenum graecum. The results obtained in this study suggest that anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of T. foenum graecum may be the possible reason behind the observed anti-arthritic activity. PMID:22395729

Suresh, P; Kavitha, Ch N; Babu, S Manohar; Reddy, V Prabhakar; Latha, A Kanaka

2012-08-01

24

Ethanol production by extractive fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

M. Minier; G. Goma

1982-01-01

25

Therapeutic effect of ferulic acid, an ethereal fraction of ethanolic extract of seed of Syzygium cumini against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male rat.  

PubMed

Diabetic therapeutic and antioxidative effects of an ethereal fraction of the ethanolic extract of the seed of Syzygium cumini was studied in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes resulted in a significant elevation in the fasting blood glucose level and in the activity of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase. There was diminution in the levels of glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscle along with diminution in the activities of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase and peroxidase in diabetic rats when compared with controls. Hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CD) were elevated in respect to control. Oral coadministration of the above fraction to diabetic rats resulted in significant protection in all these parameters. Histological studies of the pancreas showed a qualitative diminution in the area and volume of the islet's of Langerhans, but coadministration of the specific fraction resulted in a significant recovery of the islet's of Langerhans. Chromatography study revealed that the used fraction was ferulic acid (FA). Treatment with FA in normoglycemic rats did not show any significant change in the levels of the selected biosensors. The possible hypothesis for the therapeutic effect of FA against diabetes may be due to its pancreatic beta-cell regenerative effect and/or due to its antioxidant properties. PMID:18560627

Mandal, S; Barik, B; Mallick, C; De, D; Ghosh, D

2008-03-01

26

Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBP? and PPAR?. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis. PMID:23179316

Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

2013-07-01

27

Protective effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds in experimental ethanol toxicity.  

PubMed

The study investigates the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in experimental ethanol toxicity in rats. The ability of the seed extract to prevent iron-induced lipid peroxidation in vitro was also investigated. Ethanol feeding for 60 days resulted in significant increases in the activities of serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The levels of serum lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver and brain were also significantly elevated. Significantly lower activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and glutathione reductase were observed in liver and brain accompanied by depletion in glutathione, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Activity of Ca(2+) ATPase in brain was significantly lowered. Simultaneous administration of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds with ethanol prevented the enzymatic leakage and the rise in lipid peroxidation and enhanced the antioxidant potential. The seeds exhibited appreciable antioxidant property in vitro which was comparable with that of reduced glutathione and alpha-tocopherol. Further, histopathological examination of liver and brain revealed that, aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds could offer a significant protection against ethanol toxicity. PMID:12916070

Thirunavukkarasu, V; Anuradha, C V; Viswanathan, P

2003-08-01

28

Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

2010-11-16

29

Effect of neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) seeds and leaves extract on some plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

In this study plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were chosen to study the effect of ethanolic, hexane and methanolic extracts of neem seeds and leaves. Antifungal effects of neem leave and seed extracts obtained by ethanol, hexane and ptrolium ether were examined separately in vitro against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results indicated that seeds and leaves extracts could cause growth inhibition of tested fungi, although the rate of inhibition of tested fungi varied with different extracts and concentrations. But all these extracts and concentrations of extract inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi at a significant level. Azadirachtin, nimonol and expoxyazdirodione were detected from neem extract by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We can conclude that neem leave and seed extracts were effective as antifungal against all tested fungi but F. oxysporum and R. solani were the most sensitive fungi. PMID:19947185

Moslem, M A; El-Kholie, E M

2009-07-15

30

Chemically treated seed grain as an ethanol feedstock  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine the effects of three commonly used seed treatment chemicals: captan, heptachlor, and methoxychlor on methanol production from grain sorghum. Results indicated that none of these chemicals significantly affected ethanol yield. Captan was completely destroyed in the process. Heptachlor and methoxychlor carried over into the stillage wet solids at levels that could result in disposal problems.

Egg, R.P.; Chiang, T.; Coble, C.G.; Mitchel, R.D.; O'Neal, H.P.

1983-12-01

31

Protein changes during ethanol induced seed germination in Aconitum heterophyllum.  

PubMed

Aconitum heterophyllum is a high altitude medicinal plant that has become endangered due to overexploitation for their aconitins. The most effective, conventional propagation method for any plant species is by seed. However, in Aconitum seed germination is erratic, and seedling survival is low. In the present study results have been discussed on the possible implication of ethanol treatment on removal of barriers on radical emergence in terms of protein changes. Eighty seven percent of seed germination was achieved in Aconitum with ethanol treatment. Comparative 2-DE analysis of ethanol treated and untreated seed protein profiles in Phase II of germination revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins. Twenty-seven out of 40 proteins were induced, 5 were increased and 8 were repressed. Mass spectrometry and subsequent identification confirmed that these proteins were involved in metabolism, DNA regulation, stress tolerance and plasmamembrane/cell wall biosynthesis/extension processes. These protein changes might be responsible for physiological and physical changes, respectively, resulted in increase in germination percentage. Further, characterization of these proteins will be of great help in understanding the molecular mechanism lying behind enhanced germination in response to ethanol treatment. PMID:23199684

Rana, Bindu; Sreenivasulu, Yelam

2013-01-01

32

Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).  

PubMed

The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

2013-01-01

33

Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass)  

PubMed Central

The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

2013-01-01

34

Oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis induced by ethanolic mango seed extract in cultured estrogen receptor positive breast cancer mcf-7 cells.  

PubMed

Breast cancer has become a global health issue requiring huge expenditures for care and treatment of patients. There is a need to discover newer cost-effective alternatives for current therapeutic regimes. Mango kernel is a waste product with potential as a source of anti-cancer phytochemicals, especially since it is non-toxic towards normal breast cell lines at concentrations for which it induces cell death in breast cancer cells. In this study, the anti-cancer effect of mango kernel extract was determined on estrogen receptor-positive human breast carcinoma (MCF-7) cells. The MCF-7 cells were cultured and treated with 5, 10 and 50 ?g/mL of mango kernel extract for 12 and 24 h. In response to treatment, there were time- and dose-dependent increases in oxidative stress markers and pro-apoptotic factors; Bcl-2-like protein 4 (BAX), p53, cytochrome c and caspases (7, 8 and 9) in the MCF-7 cells treated with the extract. At the same time, there were decreases in pro-survival markers (Bcl-2 and glutathione) as the result of the treatments. The changes induced in the MCF-7 cells by mango kernel extract treatment suggest that the extract can induce cancer cell apoptosis, likely via the activation of oxidative stress. These findings need to be evaluated further to determine whether mango kernel extract can be developed as an anti-breast cancer agent. PMID:25664859

Abdullah, Al-Shwyeh Hussah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Rasedee, Abdullah; Mirghani, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed

2015-01-01

35

Extraction and Analysis of Tomato Seed Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato seeds represent a very large waste by-product from the processing of tomatoes into products such as tomato juice, sauce and paste. One potential use for these seeds is as a source of vegetable oil. This research investigated the oil content of tomato seeds using several extraction technique...

36

Antihyperglycaemic effect and acute toxicity of Securigera Securidaca L. seed extracts in mice.  

PubMed

The antihyperglycaemic activity of a Securigera securidaca aqueous infusion and an ethanol maceration extract of seeds was studied in normoglycaemic, glucose-induced hyperglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The acute toxicity of the ethanol extract was more than that of the aqueous one. The phytochemical analysis showed that the seed extracts were rich in flavonoids. The intraperitoneal and oral administration of the aqueous and ethanol extracts significantly reduced blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In normoglycaemic and glucose-induced hyperglycaemic mice, the blood glucose levels were not significantly different from the control. Glibenclamide was not able to lower blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, while it significantly lowered the blood sugar in normoglycaemic mice. The results indicate that S. securidaca seed extracts significantly reduce blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic mice by a mechanism different from that of sulfonylurea agents. PMID:12458478

Hosseinzadeh, H; Ramezani, M; Danaei, A R

2002-12-01

37

Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids  

PubMed Central

Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F.; Klotz, J.; Bush, Lowell

2014-01-01

38

Oenanthe javanica extract accelerates ethanol metabolism in ethanol-treated animals.  

PubMed

The effect of water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica DC) extract in eliminating ethanol was evaluated in New Zealand white rabbit and ICR mice. When a hot-water extract of water dropwort extract and ethanol was injected into New Zealand white rabbit, the plasma ethanol level was rapidly reduced, similar to metadoxine treatment. Specifically, the n-butanol fraction of hot-water extract was the strongest in eliminating plasma alcohol in ICR mice. When ethanol was orally ingested, administration of the hot-water extract eliminated up to 44% of the plasma ethanol in mice while the n-butanol fraction eliminated around 70%. Alcohol removal behaved in a dose-dependent manner in response to 50-200 mg/kg of n-butanol fraction. These data show O. javanica extract is effective in overcoming alcohol intoxication by the accelerating ethanol metabolism. PMID:19712583

Kim, Jong Yeon; Kim, Ki-Hoon; Lee, Youn Ju; Lee, Seung Ho; Park, Jong Cheol; Nam, Doo Hyun

2009-08-31

39

Supercritical fluid extraction of vegetable oil seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from canola seeds using supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The basic equations which govern\\u000a the oil extraction from a bed of seeds were derived from first principles. The equations can be solved by standard numerical\\u000a techniques using experimentally determined parameters for the concentration of oil in the solvent in equilibrium with seeds\\u000a having a known oil

N. R. Bulley; M. Fattori; A. Meisen; L. Moyls

1984-01-01

40

Fenugreek seed ( Trigonella foenum graecum ) polyphenols inhibit ethanol-induced collagen and lipid accumulation in rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic alcoholism is associated with fatty liver and fibrosis characterized by collagen accumulation. Seeds of fenugreek,\\u000a an annual herb, are reported to possess hepatoprotective activity. The study aims to investigate the effects of fenugreek\\u000a seed polyphenol extract (FPEt) on liver lipids and collagen in experimental hepatotoxic rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in\\u000a male albino Wistar rats by administrating ethanol (6 g\\/kg per

S. Kaviarasan; P. Viswanathan; C. V. Anuradha

2007-01-01

41

Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells. PMID:7378060

Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

1980-01-01

42

Insecticidal activity of raw ethanolic extracts from Magnolia dealbata Zucc on a tephritid pest.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts from Magnolia dealbata (Zucc.) (Magnoliaceae); leaves, bark, seeds, sarcotesta and flowers were evaluated for insecticidal activity against adults of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using feeding bioassays composed from sugar-extract mixtures, only the extract from sarcotesta indicated insecticidal activity against the flies. The extracts from the other four plant tissues (leaves, bark, seeds and flowers) did not manifest any biological activity. The most effective extract was obtained from oven-dried sarcotesta, whereas extracts from fresh sarcotesta were inactive. Our results suggest that M. dealbata sarcotesta contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against A. ludens adults. These metabolites are as potent as natural pyrethins and represent a potential substance for controlling this type of pest. PMID:23581691

Flores-Estévez, Norma; Vasquez-Morales, Suria G; Cano-Medina, Tomás; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

2013-01-01

43

Effect of meliaceous seed extracts on growth and survival ofSpodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith).  

PubMed

Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds from 10 plant species (including neem-Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) of the family Meliaceae were incorporated into artificial diet at various doses and fed to fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] larvae in nochoice tests. All produced significant mortality, reduced larval growth rate, increased time to pupation, or all three, at some concentration. The two highest doses of all of the ethanol extracts caused 100% mortality before pupation, but the hexane extracts tended to be less effective.Aglaia cordata Hiern. ethanol extract was as potent as the comparable neem seed extract at virtually all levels, and its hexane extract was active at much lower concentrations than the neem extract was. The sublethal effects (slower growth and increased time to pupation) were usually detectable at lower doses of extract than mortality was. PMID:24271431

Mikolajczak, K L; Zilkowski, B W; Bartelt, R J

1989-01-01

44

Toxicity of neem (Azadirachta Indica) seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents, on the spider chiracanthium mildei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of neem seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents against the predatory spider,Chiracanthium mildei L. Koch, was investigated. The order of toxicity of the 4% extracts was pentane < acetone < ethanol << methanol = water (nontoxic).\\u000a All extracts were nontoxic at 2.5%.

F. A. Mansour; K. R. S. Ascher; N. Omari

1986-01-01

45

Prevention of Action of Far-Red-Absorbing Phytochrome in Rumex crispus L. Seeds by Ethanol  

PubMed Central

Phytochrome-enhanced germination of curled dock (Rumex crispus L.) seeds is further stimulated by pretreatments in solutions of 0.5 to 2 molar methanol and 0.03 to ? 0.3 molar 2-propanol during a 2-day 20°C imbibition. Similar pretreatments in 0.1 molar ethanol, acetaldehyde, and n-propanol inhibit phytochrome-enhanced germination. If exposure to ethanol is delayed until 16 hours after a red irradiation, seeds escape the ethanol inhibition indicating a mechanism other than toxicity. The rate of escape from ethanol inhibition roughly parallels the escape from phytochrome control in seeds held in water only, indicating possible ethanol effects on phytochrome. It was found that ethanol pretreatment prevents the far-red absorbing form of phytochrome (Pfr) from acting but does not accelerate dark decay or prevent transformation. Ethanol inhibition may be prevented if ethanol pretreatment is at 10°C instead of 20°C, or may be overcome by transferring ethanol-pretreated seeds to 10°C in water. Similarly, ethanol inhibition can be overcome by a 2-hour 40°C temperature shift concluding the pretreatment. It is proposed that the ethanol causes perturbations at a membrane which prevent Pfr from acting. PMID:16663401

Taylorson, Ray B.

1984-01-01

46

Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples  

SciTech Connect

The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

2004-10-03

47

Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.  

PubMed

In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs. PMID:19904502

Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

2010-04-01

48

Evaluation of antioxidant and antiradical properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) seed and defatted seed extracts.  

PubMed

Pomegranate seeds are byproducts of the Pomegranate juice industries that contains functional compounds such as phenols. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of solvents on extraction from Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed and to measure the yield extract and phenolic content and antioxidant properties. For this purpose, the seeds and defatted seeds were directly isolated from fruits and seeds by cold pressing respectively, then were crushed and extracted with different solvents, including water, Methanol, Acetone, Ethyl acetate and Hexane and finally the extracts of them were evaluted. Phenolic compounds, ferric reducing-antioxidant power and radicals scavenging property of extracts were measured. The results showed the highest extraction efficiencies were for Hexane and Acetone solvents in extraction of seed and defatted seed respectively. The highest phenolic content was obtained from Methanol seed extract. Reducing activity test proved that the Methanol extracts of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed had the highest reducing strength. Results of radical scavenging activity were similar to reducing activity results. The order of antioxidant capacity of Pomegranate seed and Pomegranate defatted seed were found to be Methanol > Water > Acetone > Butanol > Ethyl acetate > Hexane. It can be concluded Pomegranate seed, which possesses high levels of polyphenols, can be one of the sources of the natural antioxidants. The Methanol extract had a higher antioxidant efficiency than seed and defatted seed extracts. PMID:25694727

Basiri, Shadi

2015-02-01

49

Iteratively Estimating Pattern Reliability and Seed Quality With Extraction Consistency *  

E-print Network

Iteratively Estimating Pattern Reliability and Seed Quality With Extraction Consistency * Yi extraction, semi-supervised approach, seed quality 1 Introduction The rapid growth of the World Wide Web has extraction patterns to bootstrap. Kozareva and Hovy (2010) mentioned that seed selection plays an important

Hsu, Wen-Lian

50

Biological and chemical evaluation of chick pea seed proteins as affected by germination, extraction and ?-amylase treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of germination, extraction (double extraction with 70% ethanol and water at isoelectric point) and a-amylase treatments of chick pea seed flours on crude protein, total carbohydrate, protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological value (BV), true digestibility (TD), net protein utilization (NPU), essential amino acid composition, in-vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) and actual amino acid indices (essential amino acid index or

E. H. Mansour

1996-01-01

51

Phytopharmacological evaluation of ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia L. roots  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the phytochemical screening (group determination) and selected pharmacological activities (antioxidant, antimicrobial and analgesic activity) of the plant Sida cordifolia Linn (S. cordifolia). Methods Eighty percent concentrated ethanol extract of the roots was used. To identify the chemical constituents of plant extract standard procedures were followed. In phytochemical screening the crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups like reducing sugar, tannins, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, gums, alkaloids and glycosides. The antioxidant property of ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia was assessed by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Analgesic activity of the extract was tested using the model of acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Diclofenac sodium is used as reference standard drug for the analgesic activity test. Antibacterial activity of plant extract was carried out using disc diffusion method with five pathogenic bacteria comparison with kanamycin as a standard. Results Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia indicated the presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins. In DPPH scavenging assay the IC50 value was found to be 50 µg/mL which was not comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. The crude extract produced 44.30% inhibition of writhing at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight which is statistically significant (P>0.001). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the ethanol extract of the roots of S. cordifolia showed no antimicrobial activity against five types of microorganisms. The experiment was conducted only with five species of bacteria as test species, which do not at all indicate the total inactivity against micro-organisms. Conclusions The obtained results provide a support for the use of this plant in traditional medicine but further pharmacological studies are required. PMID:24144125

Momin, Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Bellah, Sm Faysal; Rahman, Sarder Mohammad Raussel; Rahman, Ahmed Ayedur; Murshid, Gazi Mohammad Monjur; Emran, Talha Bin

2014-01-01

52

Inhibitory Effect of Helicteres gardneriana Ethanol Extract on Acute Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana (Nees) Castiglioni was assayed in experimental models of pleurisy and microcirculation in situ. Treatment of animals with 500?mg/kg body weight reduced the exudate volume (35% reduction) induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan and the migration of polymorphonuclear cells into the inflamed pleural cavity of rats (40%). Additionally, rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the number of leukocytes that migrated toward the perivascular space in response to the carrageenan injection were decreased by the extract (500?mg/kg). These data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana and imply that inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions is important in the extract's mechanism of action. PMID:22028731

de Melo, Juliana Oliveira; de Arruda, Laura Lícia Milani; Baroni, Silmara; Truiti, Maria da Conceição Torrado; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

2012-01-01

53

Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa leaf ethanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity and acute toxicity of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) leaf ethanolic extract in animal models. Methods Anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was studied on stress induced ulcer animal models. Ranitidine was used as standard. The anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa was evaluated with the help of ulcer area and histopatholgical examination. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and acute toxicity studies of F. religiosa also carried out. Results Results showed that the extract treatments prevented ulcer area and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of 2?000 mg/kg extract did not show any acute toxicity in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis identified the presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of F. religiosa. Conclusions The extract is non-toxic even at relatively high concentrations. The anti-ulcer activity is probably due to the presence of flavanoids. PMID:23836366

Gregory, Marslin; Divya, B.; Mary, Revina Ann; Viji, M. M. Hipolith; Kalaichelvan, V. K.; Palanivel, V.

2013-01-01

54

Near-critical extraction of sage, celery, and coriander seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-critical extraction of coriander seed, Dalmatian sage, and celery was performed on a pilot-scale extraction apparatus. Sage and celery were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide to obtain oleoresins. Coriander seed was extracted at 250 bar and 40°C. Coriander extract was fractionated into triglycerides and essential oils by using two separation stages at different pressures. Extractions were carried out using a

Bruce M. Smallfield; J GREY

1996-01-01

55

Phytochemical screening and evaluation of Monechma ciliatum (black mahlab) seed extracts as antimicrobial agents  

PubMed Central

Objective: Tribes in Nubia Mountains regions of Sudan used Monechma ciliatum seeds for common cold and other chest allergic conditions as a traditional medicine. The aim of this paper is to validate this traditional practice scientifically. Materials and Methods: Monechma ciliatum seeds were screened for major phytochemical groups using standard methods. Different extracts were bioassayed in- vitro for their bioactivity to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Results: Phytochemical screening results showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpens, and anthraquinones. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be sensitive to both water extract with zones of inhibition 22 – 26 mm at concentrations of 50 and 100mg/ml and ethanol extract 17 mm at concentration of 100 mg/ml. The growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae was inhibited by ethanol extract with zones of inhibition equal to 16, 26, and 33 mm at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/ml, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was insensitive to all extracts used. Similarly, all used fungi were found to be insensitive to extracts used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts against microorganisms were ranged from 12.5 to 25 mg/ml. Conclusion: The findings of the current study support the traditional uses of the plant's seed in the therapy of respiratory tract infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. PMID:25050266

Ahmed Oshi, Murtada; Mohmmed Abdelkarim, Abdelkarim

2013-01-01

56

Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.  

PubMed

Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700?mol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts. PMID:25577085

Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

2015-05-15

57

Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum) polyphenols inhibit ethanol-induced collagen and lipid accumulation in rat liver.  

PubMed

Chronic alcoholism is associated with fatty liver and fibrosis characterized by collagen accumulation. Seeds of fenugreek, an annual herb, are reported to possess hepatoprotective activity. The study aims to investigate the effects of fenugreek seed polyphenol extract (FPEt) on liver lipids and collagen in experimental hepatotoxic rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced in male albino Wistar rats by administrating ethanol (6 g/kg per day) for 30 days. Control rats were given isocaloric glucose solution. FPEt was co-administered with ethanol at a dose of 200 mg/kg per day for the next 30 days. Silymarin was used as a positive control. Ethanol treatment caused increase in plasma and liver lipids, together with alterations in collagen content and properties. Administration of FPEt to alcohol-fed rats significantly improved lipid profile and reduced collagen content, crosslinking, aldehyde content and peroxidation. The effects were comparable with that of silymarin. FPEt administration had a positive influence on both lipid profile and on the quantitative and qualitative properties of collagen in alcoholic liver disease. The protective effect is presumably due to the bioactive phytochemicals in fenugreek seeds. PMID:17453353

Kaviarasan, S; Viswanathan, P; Anuradha, C V

2007-11-01

58

In vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.  

PubMed

Bixa orellana L. (annatto), from Bixaceae family, is a native plant of tropical America, which accumulates several carotenoids (including bixin and norbixin), terpenoids, tocotrienols and flavonoids with potential antioxidant activity. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated and compared to the bixin standard. Annatto extracts were obtained using solvents with different polarities and their phenolic compounds and bixin levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector. All annatto extracts were able to scavenge all the reactive species tested at the low ?g/mL range, with the exception of superoxide radical. The ethanol:ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate extracts of annatto seeds, which presented the highest levels of hypolaetin and bixin, respectively, were the extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity, although bixin standard presented the lowest IC(50) values. PMID:23140681

Chisté, Renan Campos; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Gomes, Ana; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, José Luís Fontes da Costa; Bragagnolo, Neura

2011-07-15

59

Economic evaluation of a multicompartment bioreactor for ethanol production using in situ extraction of ethanol  

SciTech Connect

We have previously described a multicompartment reactor that can be used with yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for ethanol production from a starch hydrolysate. By separating a solvent layer (tri-normal-butylphosphate, or TBP) from a cell layer, ethanol was extracted in situ and phase toxicity was prevented. Pressure cycling of the gas phase can be used to reduce significantly mass-transfer limitations that often limit entrapped-cell systems. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that with TBP the multicompartment reactor is generally more economically favorable at low volumes, and the traditional system is more favorable at high volumes. Improved solvents can increase economic viability at high volumes (10{sup 8} L/yr of 95% ethanol).

Shuler, M.L.; Steinmeyer, D.E.; Togna, A.P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [and others

1991-12-31

60

Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity  

PubMed Central

In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students’ ‘t’ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

Kannur, Dayanand M.; Paranjpe, Mukta P.; Sonavane, Lalit V.; Dongre, Prerana P.; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R.

2012-01-01

61

Antioxidant and Antilipid Peroxidation Potential of Supercritical Fluid Extract and Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Vitex Negundo Linn.  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extract and ethanol extract of Vitex negundo Linn. were subjected to the chromatographic evaluation for identification of their constituents. Free radical scavenging activity of both extracts was studied by subjecting them to DPPH assay. IC50 values of ethanol and supercritical fluid extract of Vitex negundo indicate that ethanol extract has stronger reducing potential and ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to the supercritical fluid extract. The in vivo effect of extracts on lipid peroxidation was studied using ethanol induced oxidative stress model in rat. Ingestion of extracts for 14 days exhibited significant reduction in plasma MDA level of stressed animals. Ethanol extract exhibited higher in vivo antilipid peroxidation potential as compared to supercritical fluid extract which correlated well with radical scavenging potential of extract. PMID:22707827

Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

2011-01-01

62

In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of coastal medicinal plants along Palk Strait against Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera), Acalypha indica (A. indica), Jatropha glandulifera (J. glandulifera) and Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus). Methods The A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were collected along Palk Strait and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. Results Of the selected plants species parts, the stem extract of A. indica showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50= 43.81µg/mL) followed by stem extract of J. glandulifera (IC50= 49.14µg/mL). The stem extract of A. aspera, leaf and root extracts of A. indica, leaf, root and seed extracts of J. glandulifera and leaf and stem extracts of P. amarus showed IC50 values between 50 and 100 µg/mL. Statistical analysis revealed that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extract of all the tested plant extracts. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. Conclusions The ethanolic stem extracts of P. amarus and J. glandulifera possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs. PMID:23569931

Inbaneson, Samuel Jacob; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Suganthi, Palavesam

2012-01-01

63

Trigonella foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed extract as an antineoplastic agent.  

PubMed

The antineoplastic effect of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract has been evaluated in the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in Balb-C mice. Intra-peritoneal administration of the alcohol extract of the seed both before and after inoculation of EAC cell in mice produced more than 70% inhibition of tumour cell growth with respect to the control. Treatment with the extract was found to enhance both the peritoneal exudate cell and macrophage cell counts. The extract also produced a significant antiinflammatory effect. We report here the antiinflammatory and antineoplastic effects, of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extract. PMID:11351364

Sur, P; Das, M; Gomes, A; Vedasiromoni, J R; Sahu, N P; Banerjee, S; Sharma, R M; Ganguly, D K

2001-05-01

64

Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, ? -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15?min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20?mg/100?g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22?mg/100?g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry. PMID:24592184

Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

65

Growth-disrupting, larvicidal and neurobehavioral toxicity effects of seed extract of Seseli diffusum against Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

Plant extracts that kill, deform the post-embryonic molting stages of mosquitoes could be a valuable approach in integrated vector management programmes to replace synthetic chemical pesticides, containing persistent toxic substances. Crude ethanolic seed extract was obtained by maceration of seeds of Indian celery, Seseli diffusum (Apiaceae). The ethanolic seed extract induced strong neurobehavioral toxicity against the 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti which resulted in a high level of larval knock-down with EC(50) of 238.15 ppm, after 4h of treatment. The extract at concentration of 200 ppm exhibited a potent larvicidal effect against 4th instar A. aegypti, produced 88% and 96% mortality, after 24 and 48 h of treatment with LC(50) of 126.13 ppm and LC(50) of 112.53 ppm, respectively. The ethanolic seed extract at higher concentration (>400 ppm) produced 100% mortality, after 24 h and 48 h of treatment. At lower concentration of 100 ppm, extract induced a high level of morphological deformities in larvae, after 48 h of treatment. A high level of growth and/or molting disrupting effect of extract against larvae was also observed which resulting in the formation of larval-pupal intermediates, after 48 h of treatment. At concentrations of 200-300 ppm, ethanolic seed extract induced morphological deformities in dead pupae, after 72 h of treatment. The results showed that S. diffusum is a promising candidate for the development of new botanical biopesticide having multiple potentials for controlling insect pest of medical and agricultural importance. PMID:23357563

Kabir, Khondkar Ehteshamul; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmed, Shakil; Tariq, Rajput Muhammed

2013-04-01

66

Antifungal activity in seed coat extracts of woodland plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extracts from seeds of four woodland ground flora species (Hyacinthoides non-scripta, Allium ursinum, Digitalis purpurea and Hypericum pulchrum) were tested for antifungal activity using a petriplate technique. Four species of fungi were investigated. The growth of three of these (Trichoderma viride, Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.) was not affected by any of the seed coat extracts. The growth of

Susan J. Warr; Ken Thompson; Martin Kent

1992-01-01

67

Production of 16.5% v/v ethanol from seagrass seeds.  

PubMed

Ethanol fermentation on seeds of seagrass Zostera marina was studied. The seeds were collected from the annual plant colony of Z. marina at Hinase Bay, Okayama. The seeds contained 83.5% carbohydrates including 48.1% crude starch on a dry weight basis, which is comparable to cereals such as wheat flour and corns. The seeds were saccharified with glucoamylase (50°C, 96 h) and 103.4 g/l concentration of glucose juice was obtained. The glucose juice was further fermented (23°C-35°C, 15 days) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains NBRC10217(T) and Kyokai 7-go, and ethanol was obtained at a 65.0 g/l (82.3 ml/l) level by monographic double-fermentation and at a 130.4 g/l (165.1 ml/l) level by parallel double-fermentation. Fermented products of seagrass seeds containing such a high ethanol concentration as the present study have potential to be utilized not only for biofuel but also for foods and beverages in the future. Culturing of seagrass seeds as a crop may enable development of a new marine fermentation industry. PMID:24969514

Uchida, Motoharu; Miyoshi, Tatsuo; Kaneniwa, Masaki; Ishihara, Kenji; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Urano, Naoto

2014-12-01

68

Kinetics of ethanol production from carob pods extract by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of ethanol production from carob pods extract by immobilizedS. cerevisiae cells in static and shake flask fermentation have been investigated. Shake flask fermentation proved to be a better fermentation\\u000a system for the production of ethanol than static fermentation. The optimum values of ethanol concentration, ethanol productivity,\\u000a ethanol yield, and fermentation efficiency were obtained at pH range 3.5–6.5 and temperature

Triantafyllos Roukas

1994-01-01

69

Microwave-assisted extraction kinetics of terpenes from caraway seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with microwave-assisted extraction have been studied with respect to microwave power, radiation dose and extraction time in order to obtain the secondary metabolites selectively. Using classical solid–liquid extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were

Smain Chemat; Hamid Aït-Amar; Ahcène Lagha; D. C. Esveld

2005-01-01

70

Antioxidant activity of combined ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba and Piper longum Linn.  

PubMed

The in-vitro free radical scavenging efficacy of the combined ethanolic Biherbal extract (BHE) from equal quantities of the leaves of Eclipta alba and seeds of Piper longum was investigated. This was compared with its individual preparation of ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba (EAE) and ethanolic extract of Piper longum (PLE). The 1, 1, diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), super oxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and reducing power from BHE, EAE, and PLE were investigated employing various established in vitro systems. Total phenolic and flavonoid content were also determined. The results revealed that BHE has notable activity in quenching of DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals when compared to its individual preparation of EAE and PLE. The BHE at 1000?g/ml showed maximum scavenging of DPPH (88.75%) super oxide (84.78%) nitric oxide (89.02%) and hydroxyl (82.82%) against the scavenging of EAE and PLE which showed DPPH (81.77%,83.54%) super oxide (79.88 ± 1.84, 80.88 ± 1.44%) nitric-oxide (76.14 ± 1.80, 77.2 ± 1.18%) and hydroxyl (79.86%, 74.64%) radicals respectively at the same concentration. A linear correlation between BHE and reducing power was also observed. The quantitative estimation of the extract revealed the considerable amount of phenols and flavonoids. The results of this study strongly indicate that the BHE has more potent antioxidant potential action than its individual preparation EAE or PLE. PMID:22718673

Ramesh, Vasuki; Hari, Rajeswary; Pandian, Samudram; Arumugam, Geetha

2011-01-01

71

Characterisation of mediterranean grape pomace seed and skin extracts: polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Grape pomace seeds and skins from different Mediterranean varieties (Grenache [GRE], Syrah [SYR], Carignan [CAR], Mourvèdre [MOU] and Alicante [ALI]) were extracted using water and water/ethanol 70% in order to develop edible extracts (an aqueous extract [EAQ] and a 70% hydro-alcoholic extract [EA70]) for potential use in nutraceutical or cosmetic formulations. In this study, global content (total polyphenols, total anthocyanins and total tannins), flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins were assessed using HPLC-UV-Fluo-MSn. In addition, extract potential was evaluated by four different assays: Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential assay (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) or ABTS assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. As expected, seed pomace extracts contained higher amounts of polyphenols then skin pomace extracts. Indeed, seeds from Syrah contained a particularly important amount of total polyphenols and tannins in both type of extract (up to 215.84 ± 1.47 mg of gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/g dry weight (DW) and 455.42 ± 1.84 mg/g DW, respectively). These extracts also expressed the highest antioxidant potential with every test. For skins, the maximum total phenolic was found in Alicante EAQ (196.71 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g DW) and in Syrah EA70 (224.92 ± 0.18 mg GAE/g DW). Results obtained in this article constitute a useful tool for the pre-selection of grape pomace seed and skin extracts for nutraceutical purposes. PMID:25642834

Ky, Isabelle; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

2015-01-01

72

ALTERATION OF WHEAT FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES BY EXTRACTIVE AND NON-EXTRACTIVE CONTACT WITH ETHANOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of low temperature ethanol to the technical separation of wheat protein and starch alters the functionality of the protein. These changes may arise by extraction or redistribution of soluble components within the flour/batter matrix. This study was conducted to describe changes to ...

73

Ethanolic extract of Ferula gummosa is cytotoxic against cancer cells by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.  

PubMed

Ferula gummosa Boiss. has medicinal applications in treating a wide range of diseases including cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative activities of the seed and gum extracts of F. gummosa as well as to study the effect of the potent extract on the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Our results demonstrated that the ethanolic extract had the lowest IC50 value at 72 h (0.001 ± 1.2 mg/mL) in BHY cells. Moreover, flowcytometry and annexin-V analysis revealed that the ethanolic extract induced apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in BHY cells at G1/S phase. In addition, colorimetric methods exhibited the highest amount of total phenolics and flavonoids in the aqueous and gum extracts (0.12 ± 0.037, 0.01 ± 2.51 mg/g of dry powder). Generally, the results obtained indicate that F. gummosa ethanol extract may contain effective compounds which can be used as a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:25142312

Gudarzi, Hoda; Salimi, Mona; Irian, Saeed; Amanzadeh, Amir; Mostafapour Kandelous, Hirsa; Azadmanesh, Keyhan; Salimi, Misha

2015-03-01

74

Temperature-dependent kinetics of grape seed phenolic compounds extraction: experiment and model.  

PubMed

The kinetics of a batch solid-liquid extraction of total phenolic compounds (PC) from milled grape seed (Vitis vinifera L. cv. "Frankovka") using 50% ethanol at different extraction temperatures (25-80°C) was studied. The maximum yield of PC was 0.13 kg(GAE)/kg(db) after 200 min of extraction in agitated vessel at 80°C. A new model based on the assumptions of a first order kinetics mechanism for the solid-liquid extraction and a linear equilibrium at the solid-liquid interface was developed. The model involves the concept of broken and intact cells in order to describe two successive extraction periods: a very fast surface washing process followed by slow diffusion of phenolic compounds from grape seeds to the solvent. The proposed model is suited to fit experimental data and to simulate the extraction of phenolic compounds, which was confirmed by the correlation coefficient (r?0.965), the root mean square error (RMSE?0.003 kg(GAE)/kg(db)) and the mean relative deviation modulus (E?2.149%). The temperature influenced both equilibrium partition coefficients of phenolic compounds and transport properties, which is manifested by a relatively high value of activation energy (23-24) kJ/mol and by values of effective diffusivity in seed particles. PMID:23194505

Buci?-Koji?, Ana; Sovová, Helena; Planini?, Mirela; Tomas, Sre?ko

2013-02-15

75

Antidepressant activity of ethanolic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinenesis Linn.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to assess the antidepressant effect of crude ethanolic extract of floral part of Hibiscusrosa sinensis (HRS) at doses 100mg/kg, 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg using three parameters which are forced induced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and open field test(OFT). Flouxetine (15mg/kg, body weight) was used as standard. Significant dose dependent decline in immobility time was observed in all the three doses in FST and TST while in case of OFT none of the dose of HRS exhibited effectual results. To determine MAO"A" and MAO"B" activity HRS extract was used and the results revealed that each dose of this plant exhibited marked effect on MAO"A", while on MAO"B" only 250mg/kg dose was found significant. PMID:25176367

Khalid, Leena; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Sultana, Viqar; Zahid, Hina; Khursheed, Raheela; Shareef, Huma

2014-09-01

76

The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume.  

PubMed

We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays. In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and tannin contents were also determined. Overall, the methanol extracts of the pod contained high concentration of phenolics and showed high antioxidant capacities compared to seed extracts. In addition, a positive correlation was found between total phenol and tannin versus antioxidant capacity. Results of the present study indicate pods and seeds of C. fairchildiana to possess rich amount of natural antioxidants, and can be further explored for their possible use as a natural additive in food or in pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24425949

Annegowda, H V; Bhat, Rajeev; Tze, Liong Min; Karim, A A; Mansor, S M

2013-06-01

77

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

78

Chemopreventive effect of Cousinia shulabadensis Attar & Ghahraman ethanol extract.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play an important role in several pathologic processes such as malignancy in which they facilitate invasion and metastasis and can be targets for anticancer therapies. Here, in this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity effect of Cousinia shulabadensis Attar & Ghahraman extract as well as its impact on MMPs activity using a model of cell line (Fibrosarcoma-Wehi164). To assess anti-invasiveness potentials, a modified zymoanalysis method was used to measure MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the conditioned-media. The concentration necessary to produce 50% cell death was >80 microg/ml for ethanol extract of Cousinia shulabadensis, while a 23 microg/ml concentration of the diclofenac sodium produced the same effect. The invasion of WEHI 164 cells was considerably inhibited at concentrations > 20 microg/ml by total plant extract. The total extract of the plant did not show high toxicity at all tested concentrations, but demonstrated significant inhibition of MMP activity in dose-response fashion. PMID:20162067

Shahverdi, Ahmad R; Khoramizadeh, Mohammad R; Ghahramani, Mohammad H; Golyaee, Ardeshir; Attar, Farideh; Ghahraman, Ahmad

2006-01-01

79

The Antiinflammatory and Antiarthritic Properties of Ethanol Extract of Hedera helix.  

PubMed

The ethanol Hedera helix plant extract was tested for its antiinflammatory properties. Intraperitoneal injections of 7.5 ml/kg wt ethanol extract showed antiinflammatory activity with 88.89% inhibition as compared to reference drug diclofenac, which showed 94.44% inhibition in formalin-induced paw oedema. As formalin-induced paw oedema closely resembles human arthritis, the antiarthritic property of ethanol extract of Hedera helix was also investigated. The visible reduction in arthritic symptoms by extract of Hedera helix suggests the potential of the plant extract against inflammation and arthritis. PMID:23901168

Rai, Anuradha

2013-01-01

80

Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-hyperlipidemic Effects of Bryonia Laciniosa Seed Extract and its Saponin Fraction in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats.  

PubMed

Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. This investigation was carried out to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract of seeds of B. laciniosa Linn. and its saponin fraction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.) and saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats and standard drug insulin (5 IU/kg; i.p.) to the group serving as a positive control. Effects of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's t-test. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction for 28 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of blood glucose and improved the levels of plasma insulin. The levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, urea, and creatinine were markedly altered in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction restored all these biochemical parameters to near control levels. This study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of diabetes and its associated complications. PMID:23112536

Patel, Sb; Santani, D; Shah, Mb; Patel, Vs

2012-07-01

81

Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.  

PubMed

The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus. PMID:20645772

Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

2010-07-01

82

Study of the antiproliferative potential of seed extracts from Northeastern Brazilian plants.  

PubMed

This study assessed the antiproliferative and cytotoxic potential against tumor lines of ethanolic seed extracts of 21 plant species belonging to different families from Northeastern Brazil. In addition, some underlying mechanisms involved in this cytotoxicity were also investigated. Among the 21 extracts tested, the MTT assay after 72 h of incubation demonstrated that only the ethanolic extract obtained from Myracrodruon urundeuva seeds (EEMUS), which has steroids, alkaloids and phenols, showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells, being 2-fold more active on leukemia HL-60 line [IC(50) value of 12.5 (9.5-16.7) ?g/mL] than on glioblastoma SF-295 [IC(50) of 25.1 (17.3-36.3) ?g/mL] and Sarcoma 180 cells [IC(50) of 38.1 (33.5-43.4) ?g/mL]. After 72h exposure, flow cytometric and morphological analyses of HL-60-treated cells showed that EEMUS caused decrease in cell number, volume and viability as well as internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent way, suggesting that the EEMUS triggers apoptotic pathways of cell death. PMID:21779655

Ferreira, Paulo Michel P; Farias, Davi F; Viana, Martônio P; Souza, Terezinha M; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Soares, Bruno M; Pessoa, Cláudia; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Moraes, Manoel O; Carvalho, Ana F U

2011-09-01

83

IDENTIFICATION OF BENZALKONIUM CHLORIDE IN COMMERCIAL GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS), and element...

84

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract.  

PubMed

The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2013-01-01

85

Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 ? g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 ? g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

2013-01-01

86

Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (?) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32?mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15?mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73??g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51??g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9?µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

2013-01-01

87

Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).  

PubMed

Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. PMID:24128509

Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

2014-02-15

88

Antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and phenolics of different solvent extracts from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.  

PubMed

This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC(50) value, 3.21 ?g/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50-6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18-4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52-0.65 mg/100 g DW) as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22466852

Sajid, Zahid Iqbal; Anwar, Farooq; Shabir, Ghulam; Rasul, Ghulam; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

2012-01-01

89

Antiulcerogenic effect of Securigera securidaca L. seed extract on various experimental gastric ulcer models in rats.  

PubMed

Securigera securidaca belongs to the family Fabaceae is used in Iranian folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the Securigera securidaca seed hydroalcoholic extract (SSE) and its subfractions for their gastroprotective effect in rat. Acute gastric ulceration in rats was produced by oral administration of ethanol (100%; 1 mL/200 g of body weight) or water immersion restraint-stress (5 h, water immersion restraint stress at 20-22 degrees C). Ranitidine (100 mg kg(-1), p.o.) was used as the reference antiulcer drug. After ethanol administration, the gastric wall mucus was examined. Chronic gastric ulceration was produced by injection of acetic acid in rat gastric subserosa. The antisecretory effect of the extract and its subfractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and aqueous fractions) were investigated in pylorus-ligated rats. Administration of SSE significantly inhibited gastric mucosa damage induced by ethanol, water immersion restraint-stress and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. In pylorus ligature rats, SSE and its subfractions significantly reduced the basal gastric acid secretion and total acidity; moreover, it inhibited the increase in total acidity induced by carbachol. However, the antisecretory effect of the chloroform fraction was more potent than two other fractions. Administration of SSE did not affect the gastric mucus production. The results obtained in the present study indicate that the SSE has gastroprotective and antisecretory effects on gastric mucosa in rats. PMID:19630213

Mard, S A; Bahari, Z; Eshaghi, N; Farbood, Y

2008-12-01

90

Anti-allergic activity of a platycodon root ethanol extract.  

PubMed

Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae) is used as traditional medicine in Asian countries. In Korean traditional medicine, Platycodon root has been widely used since ancient times as a traditional drug to treat cold, cough and asthma. However, its effects on bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC)-mediated allergy and inflammation mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the biological effect of Platycodon root ethanol extract (PE) was evaluated in BMMC after induction of allergic mediators by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulation. The effect of PE on the production of several allergic mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)), beta-Hexosaminidase (beta-Hex) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, was investigated. The results demonstrate that PE inhibits PMA + A23187 induced production of IL-6, PGD(2), LTC(4), beta-Hexosaminidase and COX-2 protein. Taken together, these results indicate that PE has the potential for use in the treatment of allergy. PMID:20717534

Oh, You-Chang; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Choi, Jang-Gi; Lee, Young-Seob; Brice, Obiang-Obounou; Jung, Hyun Ju; Hong, Seung-Heon; Lee, Young-Mi; Shin, Dong-Won; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

2010-01-01

91

Hypolipidaemic and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract from Flos populi.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to evaluate antihyperlipidaemic and in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Flos populi (EFP). The results demonstrated that EFP contains 78.5% flavonoids and 10.4% phenolics, and it exhibited free radical-scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 36.40 ± 0.62 ?g/mL) and high reducing power (EC50 206.32 ± 1.6l ?g/mL) under in vitro chemical assays. And irrespective of prophylactic administration or remedial administration, in high fat diet-induced hyperlipidaemic mice, oral treatment with EFP produced a decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In a word, in high fat diet-fed hyperlipidaemic mice, EFP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly altered the plasma lipid levels to near normal. These results support a potential effect of EFP in cardiovascular disease. PMID:24730759

Zhao, Yan; Tang, Guosheng; Cai, Enbo; Liu, Shuangli; Zhang, Lianxue; Wang, Shijie

2014-01-01

92

Genotoxic, antigenotoxic and phytochemical assessment of Terminalia actinophylla ethanolic extract.  

PubMed

Terminalia actinophylla has been used for anti-diarrheic and haemostatic purposes in Brazil. The fly spot data obtained after exposure of marker-heterozygous Drosophila melanogaster larvae to T. actinophylla ethanolic extract (TAE) in the standard (ST) and high bioactivation (HB) crosses revealed that TAE did not induce any statistically significant increment in any spot categories. Differences between the two crosses are related to cytochrome P450 (CYPs) levels. In this sense, our data pointed out the absence of TAE-direct and indirect mutagenic and recombinagenic action in the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART). When the anti-genotoxicity of TAE was analyzed, neither mitomycin C (MMC) nor ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) genotoxicity was modified by the post-exposure to TAE, which suggests that TAE has no effect on the mechanisms involved in the processing of the lesions induced by both genotoxins. In the mwh/flr(3) genotype, co-treatment with TAE may lead to a significant protection against the genotoxicity of MMC and a weak but significant effect in the toxic genetic action of EMS. The overall findings suggested that the favorable modulations by TAE could be, at least in part, due to its antioxidative potential. PMID:24071477

Pádua, P F M R; Dihl, R R; Lehmann, M; de Abreu, B R R; Richter, M F; de Andrade, H H R

2013-12-01

93

Anti-Allergic Activity of a Platycodon Root Ethanol Extract  

PubMed Central

Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae) is used as traditional medicine in Asian countries. In Korean traditional medicine, Platycodon root has been widely used since ancient times as a traditional drug to treat cold, cough and asthma. However, its effects on bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC)-mediated allergy and inflammation mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the biological effect of Platycodon root ethanol extract (PE) was evaluated in BMMC after induction of allergic mediators by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulation. The effect of PE on the production of several allergic mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), leukotriene C4 (LTC4), ?-Hexosaminidase (?-Hex) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, was investigated. The results demonstrate that PE inhibits PMA + A23187 induced production of IL-6, PGD2, LTC4, ?-Hexosaminidase and COX-2 protein. Taken together, these results indicate that PE has the potential for use in the treatment of allergy. PMID:20717534

Oh, You-Chang; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Choi, Jang-Gi; Lee, Young-Seob; Brice, Obiang-Obounou; Jung, Hyun Ju; Hong, Seung-Heon; Lee, Young-Mi; Shin, Dong-Won; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

2010-01-01

94

Induction of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and heat shock protein expression by ethanol and modulation by fenugreek seed polyphenols in Chang liver cells.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of fenugreek seed polyphenolic extract (FPEt) on ethanol-induced protein expression in Chang liver cells. Cells were incubated with either 30 mM EtOH alone or together in the presence of FPEt for 24 h. Cells were harvested and assessed for expression of alcohol metabolizing enzymes-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH(2) isoform), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH(2) isoform), cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), the electron transport component (cytochrome-c), and the heat shock proteins. The expression of ADH(2), ALDH(2), and CYP2E1 were upregulated, whereas the expression of cytochrome-c was downregulated in the ethanol-treated cells. The expression of cellular heat shock proteins-HSP70, HSC70, HSC92, and mitochondrial protein mtHSP70 were induced in ethanol-treated Chang liver cells. FPEt modulated the protein expression changes induced by ethanol and had no effect when incubated with normal Chang liver cells. FPEt might exert cytoprotective action on ethanol-induced liver cell damage, possibly by enhancing cellular redox status. PMID:19778255

Kaviarasan, S; Ramamurthy, Nalini; Gunasekaran, P; Varalakshmi, E; Anuradha, C V

2009-02-01

95

Recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds: effect of extraction time and solid-liquid ratio.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to study the recovery of phenolic compounds from grape seeds, by-products from winemaking industries, using ethanolic solid-liquid extraction. For such a purpose, the combined effects of the extraction time (9, 19 and 29?h) and the solid-liquid ratio (0.10, 0.20 and 0.30?gdw?mL(-1)), were investigated (where dw?=?dry waste). Results demonstrated that Pinot Noir seeds had high levels of both total polyphenols (73.66?mg(Gallic Acid Equivalent)?gdw(-1)) and flavonoids (30.90?mg(Catechin Equivalent)?gdw(-1)), being the optimum extraction time 19?h approximately. The main phenolic compounds analysed with high performance liquid chromatography were catechin and quercetin with a maximum extraction yield obtained at 29?h (362.23 and 339.35?mg/100?gdw, respectively). Concentration of the polyphenols and their antiradical powers are demonstrated to have a significant linear correlation. PMID:21707256

Casazza, Alessandro A; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Perego, Patrizia

2011-10-01

96

The effect of seed extraction methods on seed quality of two cultivar's tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).  

PubMed

In order to compare of different methods and identify the optimum condition for tomato seed extraction, factorial experiments with 3 replications was conducted. In the first experiment, pulp of two tomato cultivars (Faraon, Dominator) were fermented at two temperatures (25, 35 degrees C) and six periods (24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 h). The germination of seeds in laboratory as well as seedling emergence and preliminary growth in greenhouse were studied and measured. The results showed that effect of cultivar on traits (except of seedling emergence) was significant. Also the effect of temperature of fermentation, duration of fermentation and also interaction effects of them on seed germination were significant. Totally seed quality decreased with increasing temperature and duration of fermentation and the fermentation duration from 24 to 48 h at temperature 25 degrees C, is recommended. In the second experiment, tomato seeds were extracted by HCL (pH was arranged to 1, 2, 3 for 10, 20, 30 min), H2SO4 (pH was arranged to 1, 2, for 15, 30 min), Sodium carbonate (5, 10% for 24 and 48 h) and fermentation. Percentage germination, germination rate, length of radicle and length of plumule were used for seed quality assessment. The results showed that interaction effect between pH and duration of HCL treatments was significant for seed germination (percentage and rate) and there was an interaction effect between concentration and duration for germination rate in alkali treatments. Different extraction methods had not detrimental effect on percentage germination, but acid treatments produce very bright clean seeds in compare to other treatments. PMID:21313905

Nemati, H; Nazdar, T; Azizi, M; Arouiee, H

2010-09-01

97

Extractives of seeds of the meliaceae: Effects onSpodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith),Acalymma vittatum (F.), andArtemia salina Leach.  

PubMed

Hexane and ethanol extracts of seeds from 22 species of plants of the family Meliaceae from a number of countries were prepared. The extracts were submitted to antifeedant and toxicity bioassays utilizing fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae and striped cucumber beetle [Acalymma vittatum (F.)] (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults. Toxicity tests were also performed with brine shrimp,Anemia salina Leach. Feeding inhibition and mortality produced by some of these extracts were comparable to and, in certain cases, slightly greater than the effects produced by comparable neem (Azadiracta indica A. Juss.) seed preparations. Brine shrimp toxicity data do not extrapolate to insect activity, and vice versa. PMID:24301362

Mikolajczak, K L; Reed, D K

1987-01-01

98

Wound healing activity of embelin isolated from the ethanol extract of leaves of Embelia ribes Burm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol extract of the leaves of Embelia ribes Burm. (Myrsinaceae) and its isolated quinone compound embelin were screened for wound healing activity by excision, incision and dead space wound models on Swiss Albino Rats. Significant wound healing activity was observed in both ethanol crude extract (30mg\\/ml) and the constituent treated groups. In embelin treated groups (4mg\\/ml of 0.2% sodium alginate

H. M. Kumara Swamy; V. Krishna; K. Shankarmurthy; B. Abdul Rahiman; K. L. Mankani; K. M. Mahadevan; B. G. Harish; H. Raja Naika

2007-01-01

99

Anthelmintic effects of citrus peels ethanolic extracts against Ascaridia galli.  

PubMed

The use of phytogenic bioactive compounds to control poultry helminthes is increasing in different production systems. In vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of citrus peels against Ascaridia galli was investigated. Ethanolic extracts of three citrus peels species were suspended in 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to form an experimental composition (EC). EC was mainly composed of Limonene (96%), followed by ?-Pinene (1.5%), ?-Pinene (0.5%), and Sabinene (0.3%). For in vitro investigation, adult A. galli worms (n=225) were collected from naturally infected chickens and distributed to 3 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were exposed to Fenbendazole (0.5mg/ml), EC (50mg/ml), and 0.5% DMSO, respectively. For in vivo investigation, 200 Lohmann Selected Leghorns chicks were infected at 1-day old with 250 embryonated A. galli eggs. At 6 weeks of age, 150 A. galli infected birds were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were treated with 300, 600, and 1200 mg EC kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Group 4 was treated with Fenbendazole (50 mg kg(-1)). Group 5 was left as control. Birds were euthanized 2-weeks post-treatment, and all worms were collected from their intestines. EC possessed significant (P<0.001) in vitro anthelmintic properties on live worms. No significant (P>0.05) difference was quantified between number of motile worms exposed either to EC or Fenbendazole 7h post-exposure. A significant (P<0.0001) reduction in fecal egg count was observed 14 days post-treatment with 1200 mg kg(-1) EC. No significant differences were observed in worm burden of the 300 mg EC-treated group compared to the controls. In contrast, the 600 and 1200 mg EC-treated groups showed significant (P<0.0001) reduction in worm burden. Fenbendazole was the most effective in reducing A. galli burden (Efficacy=97%) followed by 1200 mg EC kg(-1) (68%), 600 mg EC kg(-1) (66%), and 300 mg EC kg(-1) (5%). It is concluded that citrus peels extracts have potential anthelmintic properties against A. galli. PMID:22463876

Abdelqader, Anas; Qarallah, Bassam; Al-Ramamneh, Diya; Da?, Gürbüz

2012-08-13

100

Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents. PMID:25183127

Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

2014-01-01

101

Optimization of the Ethanol Recycling Reflux Extraction Process for Saponins Using a Design Space Approach  

PubMed Central

A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79–82%, extraction time of 6.1–7.1 h, and RES of 0.039–0.040 min?1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met. PMID:25470598

Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

2014-01-01

102

Optimization of the ethanol recycling reflux extraction process for saponins using a design space approach.  

PubMed

A solvent recycling reflux extraction process for Panax notoginseng was optimized using a design space approach to improve the batch-to-batch consistency of the extract. Saponin yields, total saponin purity, and pigment yield were defined as the process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Ethanol content, extraction time, and the ratio of the recycling ethanol flow rate and initial solvent volume in the extraction tank (RES) were identified as the critical process parameters (CPPs) via quantitative risk assessment. Box-Behnken design experiments were performed. Quadratic models between CPPs and process CQAs were developed, with determination coefficients higher than 0.88. As the ethanol concentration decreases, saponin yields first increase and then decrease. A longer extraction time leads to higher yields of the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rd. The total saponin purity increases as the ethanol concentration increases. The pigment yield increases as the ethanol concentration decreases or extraction time increases. The design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with an acceptable probability of 0.90. Normal operation ranges to attain process CQA criteria with a probability of more than 0.914 are recommended as follows: ethanol content of 79-82%, extraction time of 6.1-7.1 h, and RES of 0.039-0.040 min-1. Most of the results of the verification experiments agreed well with the predictions. The verification experiment results showed that the selection of proper operating ethanol content, extraction time, and RES within the design space can ensure that the CQA criteria are met. PMID:25470598

Gong, Xingchu; Zhang, Ying; Pan, Jianyang; Qu, Haibin

2014-01-01

103

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic Acid bacteria.  

PubMed

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72-h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. PMID:16347053

Schaffner, D W; Beuchat, L R

1986-05-01

104

Nutrional value and antinutritional components of whole and ethanol extracted Moringa oleifera leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical constituents, organic matter digestibility, gross and metabolizable energy, rumen degradable and undegradable nitrogen, amino acid composition, digestion kinetics (leaves, their neutral-detergent fiber and cell solubles), and antinutritional factors were determined in extracted (80% aqueous ethanol; the extract is used as a source of growth promoting factors) and unextracted Moringa oleifera leaves. The metabolizable energy and organic matter digestibility predicted

H. P. S. Makkar; K. Becker

1996-01-01

105

Hypocholesterolaemic effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypocholesterolaemic effect of ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) was investigated using albino rats. Hypercholesterolaemia was induced in the animals by feeding with egg yolk fortified diet for 14 days. The plant extract was administered orally to two groups, doses of 200 and 100 mg\\/kg body weight respectively for 7 days. Physical activities, food and water intake

Agbafor KN; Akubugwo EI

106

Biocide activity of Annona coriacea seeds extract on Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).  

PubMed

The use of synthetic insecticides for insect control may lead to different kind of problems, such as vector resistance to insecticides. To avoid these problems, a new research area to study botanical products as possible disease vectors controls, has become a feasible alternative. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biocide activity of the ethanol extract of seeds of Annona coriacea on Rhodnius neglectus (Chagas disease vector) nymphs and adults. For this, different concentrations extracts were evaluated: 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/ mL, and water in DMSO (20%) was used as control. The experimental design was completely randomized and we conducted the bioassay with nymphs and adults, with 10 nymphs and 10 adults (five males and five females) per treatment. Extract action was evaluated in both bioassays, in order to identify possible effects of mortality and life cycle interruption of nymphs and adults during a 28-day-period. The results obtained showed that the extract of A. coriacea was able to disrupt the development of nymphs and adults of R. neglectus, with a mortality rate of more than 90%, 36% and 100%, at the highest concentrations, respectively. There was also molting inhibition in nymphs, lower reproductive capacity in females, feeding deterrence and morphological changes in nymphs and adults. We concluded that the extract of A. coriacea has insecticide action on nymphs and adults of R. neglectus. PMID:23894992

Carneirol, Angela Pinheiro; Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa; Galbiati, Carla

2013-03-01

107

Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of flavonoids compounds (FC) from hawthorn seed (HS).  

PubMed

Hawthorn seed (HS), an important by-product of the Hawthorn industry, is rich in potentially health-promoting flavonoids compounds. In this paper, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of FC from HS was investigated. Important variables and their levels were obtained using Plackett-Burman (PB) design and Box-Behnken (BB) design. A mathematical model was developed to show the effects of each variable and their combinatorial interactions on extraction yield of FC. A high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 91.26%) indicated good agreement between the experimental and predicted values of FC yield. The optimum levels of these significant parameters were determined using response surface methodology (RSM), which revealed these as follows: ultrasound temperature 65 °C, ultrasonic time 37 min, extraction temperature 91 °C, extraction time 1.5h, solid-liquid ratio of 1:18, and 72% ethanol. Under the optimum condition, the UAE rate of FC was up to 91.7%, and the yield of FC was 16.45 ± 0.02 mg/g (P<0.05) that was 1.32-fold the yield of conventional reflux extraction (CRE). PMID:22142939

Pan, Guangyan; Yu, Guoyong; Zhu, Chuanhe; Qiao, Julin

2012-05-01

108

UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

109

Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96%?v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Results Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30?days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Conclusions Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue. PMID:24761774

2014-01-01

110

Antinociceptive action of ethanolic extract obtained from roots of Humirianthera ampla Miers.  

PubMed

Humirianthera ampla Miers is a member of the Icacinaceae family and presents great amounts of di and triterpenoids. These chemical constituents in roots of Humirianthera ampla sustain not only the ethnopharmacological use against snake venom, but also some anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the plant. In this study we investigated the antinociceptive action of the ethanolic extract (EE) from roots of the Humirianthera ampla in chemical and thermal models of pain in mice. The oral treatment with ethanolic extract dose-dependently inhibited glutamate-, capsaicin- and formalin-induced licking. However, it did not prevent the nociception caused by radiant heat on the tail-flick test. The ethanolic extract (30 mg/kg) caused marked inhibition of the nociceptive biting response induced by glutamate, (+/-)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and substance P. The antinociception caused by ethanolic extract was significantly attenuated by naloxone, l-arginine, WAY100635, ondansetron or ketanserin, but not by caffeine or naloxone methiodide. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract from roots of Humirianthera ampla produces antinociception against neurogenic and inflammatory models of nociception. The mechanisms of antinociception involve nitric oxide, opioid, serotonin and glutamate pathways. Therefore, our results support the ethnopharmacological use of the Humirianthera ampla against inflammatory and painful process caused by snake venom. PMID:17900839

Luiz, Ana Paula; Moura, Janaína D'Avila; Meotti, Flavia C; Guginski, Giselle; Guimarães, Cesar L S; Azevedo, Mariangela S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Santos, Adair R S

2007-12-01

111

Effects of fenugreek seed extract in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

It was found that fenugreek seed extract reduced the body weight gain induced by a high-fat diet in obese mice. The extract decreased plasma triglyceride gain induced by oil administration. The major component of the extract, 4-hydroxyisoleucine, also decreased plasma triglyceride gain. Consequently, fenugreek seed extract is expected to prevent the obesity induced by a high-fat diet. PMID:15973051

Handa, Toshiaki; Yamaguchi, Kohji; Sono, Yoshikatsu; Yazawa, Kazunaga

2005-06-01

112

Efficient Extraction of Thioreodoxin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thioredoxin, an antioxidant protein, is a promising molecule for development of functional foods because it protects the gastric mucosa and reduces the allergenicity of allergens. To establish a method for obtaining an ample amount of yeast thioredoxin, we found here that thioredoxin is released from Saccharomyces cerevisiae by treatment with 20% ethanol. We also found that Japanese sake contains a

Yoshiharu Inoue; Wataru Nomura; Yoko Takeuchi; Takumi Ohdate; Shogo Tamasu; Atsushi Kitaoka; Yoshifumi Kiyokawa; Hiroshi Masutani; Kazuo Murata; Yoshinori Wakai; Shingo Izawa; Junji Yodoi

2007-01-01

113

Characterization and rheological study of the galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis.  

PubMed

Galactomannan extracted from seeds of Cassia grandis with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation, presented a yield of 36 ± 8%. The polysaccharide has a constant mannose/galactose ratio (2.44:1). Methylation analysis, one and two dimensional NMR spectroscopy confirmed that the polysaccharide has a central core composed of 4-linked ?-mannose units, with branches of galactose, linked to the carbohydrate core through ?(1-6) linkage. The amorphous nature of the galactomannan was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Rheological characterization exhibited Newtonian plateaus followed by shear-thinning zones characteristic of polymer solutions up to 1.5% (w/v) and above this value the system exhibited yield stress associated with a weak gel. Adjusting stress-strain curves confirmed a 1.6% (w/v) as the galactomannan concentration value for the sol-gel transition. These results indicate that the galactomannan extracted from C. grandis seeds presents rheological characteristics suitable for applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, cosmetic and food industries. PMID:24607169

Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Barros, Wilson; Santos, Gustavo R C; Correia, Maria T S; Mourão, Paulo A S; Teixeira, José A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

2014-04-15

114

In Vivo Antioxidant and Antiulcer Activity of Parkia speciosa Ethanolic Leaf Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The current study was carried out to examine the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Sprague Dawley rats were separated into 7 groups. Groups 1–2 were orally challenged with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC); group 3 received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and groups 4–7 received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract, respectively. After 1 h, CMC or absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2–7. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Then, the injuries to the gastric mucosa were estimated through assessment of the gastric wall mucus, the gross appearance of ulcer areas, histology, immunohistochemistry and enzymatic assays. Group 2 exhibited significant mucosal injuries, with reduced gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa, whereas reductions in mucosal injury were observed for groups 4–7. Groups 3–7 demonstrated a reversal in the decrease in Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining induced by ethanol. No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. Conclusion Treatment with the extract led to the upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Significant increases in the levels of the antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the gastric mucosal homogenate were observed, whereas that of a lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) was significantly decreased. Significance was defined as p<0.05 compared to the ulcer control group (Group 2). PMID:23724090

Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mazen M.; Abdualkader, Abdualrahman Mohammed; Hadi, Hamid A.; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

2013-01-01

115

Evaluation of analgesic effect of Datura fastuosa leaves and seed extracts.  

PubMed

The aqueous extracts of Datura fastuosa leaves and seeds were evaluated for the analgesic effect on acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate reaction in mice. According to the results, D. fastuosa leaves and seeds extracts at oral doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg are effective as analgesic. The analgesic activity of leaf extract is reduced by naloxone but not that of seed extract. PMID:12837368

Abena, A A; Miguel, L M; Mouanga, A; Hondi Assah, Th; Diatewa, M

2003-07-01

116

Anti-inflammatory studies on Adenanthera pavonina seed extract.  

PubMed

A methanol extract of the seeds of Adenanthera pavonina was evaluated for pharmacological effects in animal models. The extract (50-200 mg/kg) produced statistically significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in the rat, as well as the acetic-acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. At doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, pleurisy induced with carrageenan was also inhibited. The extract (50-200 mg/kg) exhibited a dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.05) analgesic activity in the acetic-induced writhing in mice. In addition, both early and late phases of the formalin-induced paw licking in mice was inhibited by the extract. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the extract produced reduced motor activity. The LD50 value of the extract was found to be 1.36 g/kg. This study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of A. pavonina extract. PMID:15265320

Olajide, Olumayokun A; Echianu, Chinonye A; Adedapo, Aduragbemi D A; Makinde, Janet M

2004-01-01

117

Converting carbohydrates extracted from marine algae into ethanol using various ethanolic Escherichia coli strains.  

PubMed

Marine algae, which make up about 80% of the world's living organisms, contain many energy sources, such as sugars and lipids. Therefore, the possibility of utilizing structural carbohydrates from marine algae for bioethanol production has been studied. In order to obtain monosaccharides, Undaria pinnatifida, Chlorella vulgaris, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were used for the saccharification experiments. The pretreatment was carried out by dilute acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment. To find the optimal conditions, experiments were performed at several temperatures, acid concentrations, pH conditions and durations. To test bioethanol production, several ethanolic E. coli W3110 strains, which were developed previously, were used. The maximum yield of bioethanol, 0.4 g ethanol/g biomass, was achieved with pretreated C. vulgaris and E. coli SJL2526, derived from wild-type E. coli W3110 and which includes the adhB, pdc, galP, and glk genes. PMID:21286944

Lee, Soojin; Oh, Younghoon; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Doyeon; Lee, Choulgyun; Lee, Jinwon

2011-07-01

118

Antioxidant, Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Schott.).  

PubMed

Extracts obtained from the leaves of various Alocasia species have been used in India as folk remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments including rheumatism and bruise. The ethanolic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica Schott. was evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical. The antinociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response, hot plate method, and tail flick method in albino rats. The anti-inflammatory potential of gels of ethanolic extract has been determined by using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, formalin-induced paw edema assay, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema assay, and xylene-induced ear edema assay. The extract showed remarkable antioxidant activity in all models, comparable to the standard reference drug ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extract of Alocasia indica and its gels produced dose-dependent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. This finding suggests that ethanolic extract of A. indica possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity possibly due to its free radical scavenging properties. PMID:21264115

Mulla, Wa; Kuchekar, Sb; Thorat, Vs; Chopade, Ar; Kuchekar, Bs

2010-04-01

119

Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods  

PubMed Central

Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65? was the highest, at 17.48%. Color was not different based on the extraction method, but the b-value increased as the roasting time for compression extraction was increased. The b-values of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction were 3.54 to 15.6 and those following compression extraction after roasting treatment at 200? for 30 min, were 20.49, which was the highest value. The result of the phenolic compounds composition showed the presence of gentisic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid in the ginseng seed oil. No differences were detected in phenolic acid levels in ginseng seed oil extracted by compression extraction or solvent extraction, but vanillic acid tended to decrease as extraction pressure and temperature were increased for seed oil extracted by a supercritical fluid extraction method. The fatty acid composition of ginseng seed oil was not different based on the extraction method, and unsaturated fatty acids were >90% of all fatty acids, among which, oleic acid was the highest at 80%. Phytosterol analysis showed that ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol were detected. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction was 100.4 to 135.5 mg/100 g, and the phytosterol content following compression extraction and solvent extraction was 71.8 to 80.9 mg/100 g. PMID:24235861

Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

2013-01-01

120

Acaricidal effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf ethanolic extract against Rhipicephlaus (Boophilus) annulatus.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the acaricidal properties of crude ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula leaves for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus based on adult immersion test (AIT). The percentage of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of ova laid were studied at different concentrations of the extract ranging from 50 to 100 mg / ml. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA. The extract produced complete inhibition of hatching of eggs at concentrations above 80 mg / ml of the extract. Mortality of adult engorged female ticks and inhibition of fecundity were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of extract against R. (B.) annulatus was 97.1 mg / ml. PMID:23959488

Sunil, A R; Amithamol, K K; Juliet, S; Nair, S N; Ajithkumar, K G; Soorya, V C; Divya, T M; Jyothymol, G; Ghosh, S; Ravindran, R

2013-06-01

121

Evaluation of immunomodulatory potential of ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera rhizomes in mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of present study was to evaluate immunomodulatory potential of ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera (Zingiberaceae) rhizomes by using delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and carbon clearance method in comparison to standard established immunosuppressant drug, cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice. Material and Methods: The extract was comprised to acute toxicity (OECD-423 guideline), DTH and carbon clearance method for their immunomodulatory potential. Ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera rhizomes administered orally at doses 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, p.o. to mice. Result and Conclusion: Result of our study revealed that, the foot pat thickness of ethanolic extract group (P<0.05) significantly enhanced the production of circulating antibody titre in response to Sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and phagocytic functions of mononuclear macrophages and non-specific immunity. Result were also supported by serological and haematological tests data. Hence, the present investigation reveals that, ethanolic extract of Roscoea procera rhizomes possesses immunostimulant properties. Further studies to identify the active moieties and elucidation of the mechanism of action are recommended. PMID:21180470

Sahu, Mahesh S.; Mali, Prashant Y.; Waikar, Shekhar B.; Rangari, Vinod D.

2010-01-01

122

Stable-isotope dilution GC-MS method for ethanol in vapour ethanol and microdialysis systems based on carbonate-catalyzed extractive pentafluorobenzoylation.  

PubMed

Common ethanol detection methods are not applicable to cell culture media and microdialysates due to interference with medium constituents including amino acids and pH indicators. We present a novel GC-MS method for the accurate and precise analysis of ethanol in cell cultures and microdialysates. The method is based on the carbonate-catalyzed extractive pentafluorobenzoylation of ethanol and deuterium-labelled ethanol serving as the internal standard and on their GC-MS analysis in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode. The method was used to optimize experimental conditions in a custom-made ethanol vapour system utilized for studies examining ethanol influences on neuronal cell lines and in microdialysis. PMID:22454834

Haschemi Nassab, Mani; Mitschke, Anja; Suchy, Maria-Theresia; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Zoerner, Alexander A; Rhein, Mathias; Hillemacher, Thomas; Frieling, Helge; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

2012-05-21

123

Study of optimal extraction conditions for achieving high yield and antioxidant activity of tomato seed oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tomato seeds resulting from tomato processing by-product have not been effectively utilized as value-added products. This study investigated the kinetics of oil extraction from tomato seeds and sought to optimize the oil extraction conditions. The oil was extracted by using hexane as solvent for 0 t...

124

Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya linn. seeds in male rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contraceptive efficacy and reversibility of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in adult male rabbits were investigated. Eighteen adult male rabbits were divided into three groups of six animals each; Group I—control, Group II—administered chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya at 20 mg\\/animal\\/d for 150 d by gavage, and Group III—administered the seed extract

Nirmal K Lohiya; N Pathak; Pradyumna K Mishra; B Manivannan

1999-01-01

125

Effects of an ethanolic extract of Desmodium adscendens on central nervous system in rodents.  

PubMed

This study investigates some pharmacological effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Desmodium adscendens (Papillionaceae), a medicinal plant in the African traditional medicine, on the central nervous system. The plant extract induced hypothermia and had analgesic effect in mice. D. adscendens suppressed the tonic phase of convulsion and mortality induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in mice. In addition, the plant extract delayed the onset of PTZ forelimb clonus, and generalized limbic seizures induced by kainic acid. In contrast, the plant extract did not affect either tonic convulsion induced by maximal electroshock in mice or the progression of limbic seizures towards the status epilepticus in rats. PMID:8735451

N'gouemo, P; Baldy-Moulinier, M; Nguemby-Bina, C

1996-06-01

126

Application of carboxyphenylboronic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for extracting nucleic acid from seeds.  

PubMed

Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles functionalized with 4-carboxyphenylboronic acid (CPBA-MNPs) were developed for extracting genomic DNA, total RNA and nucleic acids from seeds. The seed samples were genetically-modified maize seeds and unmodified soybean seeds infected by bean pod mottle virus and tobacco ringspot virus. The total nucleic acids, genomic DNA, and RNA could be separately extracted from these seeds with high qualities using CPBA-MNPs under different conditions. Furthermore, the results of real-time quantitative qPCR and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that the nucleic acids extracted from these seeds using CPBA-MNPs were suitable for the detection of genetically-modified seeds and seed-borne viruses. PMID:25214223

Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Ge, Guanglu; Xia, Qiang

2015-01-01

127

Ethanolic leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) inhibits buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.  

PubMed

We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract in the initiation and post-initiation phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei as well as the concentrations of lipid peroxides, ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of the GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas that showed diminished lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status associated with increased frequencies of bone marrow micronuclei. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of tumours in the initiation phase and reduced tumour incidence in the post-initiation phase. In addition, ethanolic neem leaf extract modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes and reduced the incidence of bone marrow micronuclei. The results of the present study, demonstrate that ethanolic neem leaf extract inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP tumours by protecting against oxidative stress. PMID:15473007

Subapriya, R; Bhuvaneswari, V; Ramesh, V; Nagini, S

2005-01-01

128

Evaluation of the Wound-Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. The primary indigenous use of this plant appears to be of the leaves, as a topical treatment for wound healing. The ethanol extract of noni leaves (150 mg kg1 day1) was used to evaluate the wound-healing activity on rats, using excision and dead space wound models.

B. Shivananda Nayak; Steve Sandiford; Anderson Maxwell

2009-01-01

129

Fructolysis effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) in seminal vesicles of rat.  

PubMed

50% ethanolic extract of Mentha arvensis Linn. (leaves) has been found to reduce the fructose synthesis in seminal vesicles; as a result of which the viability of spermatozoa seems to be altered. Fertility testing revealed sterile matings till 30 days of last treatment. PMID:1844325

Mathur, R

1991-01-01

130

Anti-hypoxic activity of the ethanol extract from Portulaca oleracea in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyTo investigate the effects of the ethanol extract from Portulaca oleracea (EEPO) on hypoxia models mice and to find the possible mechanism of its anti-hypoxic actions so as to elucidate the anti-hypoxia activity and provide scientific basis for the clinical use of Portulaca oleracea.

Cheng-Jie Chen; Wan-Yin Wang; Xiao-Li Wang; Li-Wei Dong; Yi-Tian Yue; Hai-Liang Xin; Chang-Quan Ling; Min Li

2009-01-01

131

In vitro anti oxidant activity and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia paniculata bark ethanolic extract on Sprague Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T. paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1?000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25182554

Mopuri, Ramgopal; Meriga, Balaji

2014-01-01

132

Flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract and evaluation of its neuroprotective effect.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the flavonoid profile of Lupinus mexicanus germinated seed extract (PE) and to evaluate its effect as a phytoestrogen on the morphometric parameters of CA3 hippocampal neurons of ovariectomized rats (OVX). L. mexicanus seeds, germinated for 48 h, were homogenized and macerated using an 80% ethanol solution. The extract was analyzed by HPLC/MS-MS. Thirty young Wistar strain female rats (200±10 g) were randomly distributed into four groups: sham operated (S) treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle); ovariectomized and treated with 1250 ?g of PE extract (OVX-PE); ovariectomized and treated with 5 ?g estradiol benzoate (OVX-EB); and ovariectomized and vehicle treated (OVX). All substances were injected subcutaneously daily for 28 days. On day 29, the animals were sacrificed, perfused, and fixed to obtain the brains for histological processing. Each brain was cut and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The thickness of the stratum oriens (SO), the nuclear diameter, and the neuronal density were measured in the hippocampus CA3 area. Nine different flavonoids and one non-identified compound were detected. The histological analysis demonstrated that the thickness of the SO was higher in the OVX-EB and S groups than in the OVX-PE and OVX groups (p?0.05); in addition, the nuclear diameters of the neurons in the OVX-EB and S groups were higher compared with the other groups (p?0.05). The OVX group had the highest cellular density among groups (p?0.05). Based on our results, the PE obtained did not have beneficial effects on CA3 hippocampal neurons. PMID:24723146

Uribe-Gómez, José de Jesús; Zamora-Natera, Juan Francisco; Bañuelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Kachlicki, Piotr; Stobiecki, Maciej; García-López, Pedro Macedonio

2014-11-01

133

Intrinsic anticarcinogenic effects of Piper sarmentosum ethanolic extract on a human hepatoma cell line  

PubMed Central

Background Piper sarmentosum, locally known as kaduk is belonging to the family of Piperaceae. It is our interest to evaluate their effect on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) for the potential of anticarcinogenic activity. Results The anticarcinogenic activity of an ethanolic extract from Piper sarmentosum in HepG2 and non-malignant Chang's liver cell lines has been previously determined using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assays, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. The ethanolic extract that showed anticarcinogenic properties in HepG2 cells had an IC50 of 12.5 ?g mL-1, while IC50 values in the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line were greater than 30 ?g mL-1. Apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed using an inverted microscope and showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies following May-Grunwald-Giemsa's staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells in the overall population (apoptotic index) showed a continuously significant increase (p < 0.05) in 12.5 ?g mL-1 ethanolic extract-treated cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours compared to controls (untreated cells). Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with 10, 12 and 14 ?g mL-1 of ethanolic extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells. Molecular analysis of DNA fragmentation was used to examine intrinsic apoptosis induced by the ethanolic extracts. These results showed a typical intrinsic apoptotic characterisation, which included fragmentation of nuclear DNA in ethanolic extract-treated HepG2 cells. However, the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line produced no DNA fragmentation. In addition, the DNA genome was similarly intact for both the untreated non-malignant Chang's liver and HepG2 cell lines. Conclusion Therefore, our results suggest that the ethanolic extract from P. sarmentosum induced anticarcinogenic activity through an intrinsic apoptosis pathway in HepG2 cells in vitro. PMID:19257877

Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Wan Omar, Wan Haifa Haryani; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah; Safian, Muhd Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

2009-01-01

134

Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia  

PubMed Central

If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500??g/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223??g/mL of pravastatin (control) showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate?:?methanol (95?:?5), gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A). Fraction 7A at 150??g/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s), working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:24839451

Wong, Janet P.-C.; Wijaya, Sumi; Ting, Kang-Nee; Wiart, Christophe; Mustafa, Kamarul'Ain; Shipton, Fiona; Khoo, Teng-Jin

2014-01-01

135

Screening of SdiA inhibitors from Melia dubia seeds extracts towards the hold back of uropathogenic E.coli quorum sensing-regulated factors.  

PubMed

Plants have always been a supreme source of drugs and India is endowed with a wide variety of them with high medicinal values. The Quorum Sensing (QS) quenching efficiency of various solvent extracts of Melia dubia seeds was investigated against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to screen the competitive inhibitor of SdiA, a transcriptional activator of quorum sensing in E. coli. In this study, potentiality of five different extracts of Melia dubia seeds for quorum sensing inhibitory activity was investigated against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Assays such as cell density, swarming motility, protein, protease, hemolysis, hemagglutination, hydrophobicity and biofilm inhibition were performed. Biofilm, hemolysis and swarming motility were found to be inhibited by 92.1%, 20.9 % and 48.52% respectively, when the medium was supplemented with 30 mg/ml of the ethanolic extract. GC-MS spectrum of the ethanolic extract showed an array of 27 structurally unlinked compounds with natural ligand C8HSL. The docking against QS transcriptional regulator SdiA was predicted by in silico studies and the ligand C6 showed significant activity with -10.8 GScore. In vitro and in silico docking analysis showed fairly a good correlation, suggesting that the ethanolic extract showed potency to attenuate quorum sensing of uropathogenic E. coli. Further studies by in vitro and in vivo strategies are necessary to foresee the quorum quenching effect of the ligands. PMID:23210902

Ravichandiran, Vinothkannan; Shanmugam, Karthi; Solomon, Adline Princy

2013-09-01

136

Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Background: E. faecalis is the predominant micro-organism recovered from root canal of the teeth where previous endodontic treatment has failed. Thorough debridement and complete elimination of micro-organisms are objectives of an effective endodontic treatment. For many years, intracanal irrigants have been used as an adjunct to enhance antimicrobial effect of cleaning and shaping in endodontics. The constant increase in antibiotic-resistant strains and side-effects of synthetic drugs has promoted researchers to look for herbal alternatives. For thousands of years humans have sought to fortify their health and cure various illnesses with herbal remedies, but only few have been tried and tested to withstand modern scientific scrutiny. The present study was aimed to evaluate alternative, inexpensive simple and effective means of sanitization of the root canal systems. The antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives as endodontic irrigants is evaluated and compared with the standard irrigant sodium hypochlorite. Materials & Methods: Neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts, 3% Sodium hypochlorite, absolute ethanol, Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) cultures, Brain heart infusion media. The agar diffusion test was performed in brain heart infusion media and broth. The agar diffusion test was used to measure the zone of inhibition. Results: Neem leaf extracts and grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition suggesting that they had anti-microbial properties. Neem leaf extracts showed significantly greater zones of inhibition than 3% sodium hypochlorite. Also interestingly grape seed extracts showed zones of inhibition but were not as significant as of neem extracts. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, it was concluded that neem leaf extract has a significant antimicrobial effect against E. faecalis. Microbial inhibition potential of neem leaf extract observed in this study opens perspectives for its use as an intracanal medication. How to cite this article: Ghonmode WN, Balsaraf OD, Tambe VH, Saujanya KP, Patil AK, Kakde DD. Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis – An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):61-6 . PMID:24453446

Ghonmode, Wasudeo Namdeo; Balsaraf, Omkar D; Tambe, Varsha H; Saujanya, K P; Patil, Ashishkumar K; Kakde, Deepak D

2013-01-01

137

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

2014-01-01

138

Protective effects of aqueous extract of Hammada scoparia against hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol in the rat.  

PubMed

Aqueous extract (AE) of Hammada scoparia leaves was chemically characterized and its hepatoprotective activities were investigated in vivo in rat model. Wistar rats were treated daily with 35% ethanol solution (3 g/kg/day) during 4 weeks and fed with basal diet or basal diet containing AE (200 mg/kg/day). Control rats were treated with saline solution and fed with basal diet. The bioactivity of AE against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver was studied in order to explore its hepatoprotective effects. H. scoparia extract used at 200 mg/kg body weight significantly prevented the effects of ethanol, which induced a hepatic pathological damage and increased the levels of the serum markers of the enzymes such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Concomitantly, with these changes, this extract also prevented ethanol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver as evidenced by the decreased lipid peroxidation level, a considerable decrease in the activities of AST, ALT and ALP and restoring the activities of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. These biochemical changes were consistent with histopathological observations suggesting marked hepatoprotective effect of the AE of H. scoparia. PMID:22778112

Bourogaa, Ezzeddine; Jarraya, Raoudha Mezghani; Nciri, Riadh; Damak, Mohamed; Elfeki, Abdelfattah

2014-03-01

139

Hypolipidemic Effects of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Urtica Dioica in Rats 1,2 2 3 2  

E-print Network

Abstract: Lipid profile changes can be seen in metabolic syndrome and especially diabetes mellitus. The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of ethanolic and aqueous leave extracts of this plant on serum lipid level in diabetic animal model. This study was carried out on 45 Wistar rats randomly distributed in 3 groups rats. Treatment groups received 150 mg/kg of alloxan intraperitoneally. Then rats were fed ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica leave in 50 mg/kg/day doses, for two weeks. After treatment, the serum lipids level were measured. Our studies showed significantly lower levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C in both of groups of rats that were treated with ethanolic or aqueous extracts of leave Urtica dioica as compared with the control group of rat, ( pUrtica dioica leave extracts improve lipid tolerance in alloxan induced diabetic rat. Key words: Aqueous extracts Ethanolic extracts Lipid Rat Urtica dioica

Soleiman Mahjoub; Saied Davari; Zolieka Moazezi; Durdi Qujeq

140

DNA extraction from rice endosperm (including a protocol for extraction of DNA from ancient seed samples).  

PubMed

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from endosperm can be effectively used for rapid genotyping using seed tissue, to evaluate seed quality from packaged grains and to determine the purity of milled grains. Methods outlined here are optimal procedures to isolate DNA from endosperm tissue of modern rice grains and of aged rice remains preserved between 50 and 100 years. The extracted DNA can be used to amplify regions of chloroplast genomic DNA (ctDNA), mitochondrial genomic DNA (mtDNA), and nuclear genomic DNA using standard PCR protocols. In addition, we describe an optimal procedure to process archaeological grain specimens, aged for a couple of thousand years, to isolate DNA from these ancient samples, referred to here as ancient DNA (aDNA). The aDNA can be successfully amplified by PCR using appropriate primer pairs designed specifically for aDNA amplification. PMID:24243191

Mutou, Chiaki; Tanaka, Katsunori; Ishikawa, Ryuji

2014-01-01

141

Androgenic and spermatogenic activity of alkylamide-rich ethanol solution extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC.  

PubMed

Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum) has been used as Vajikaran Rasayana (aphrodisiac) in traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine to treat male sexual dysfunction, including infertility. Aphrodisiac activity may be due to an increase in the production or effect of androgens, so this study sought to evaluate the androgenic and spermatogenic potential of the alkylamide-rich ethanol solution extract. Male Wistar strain rats weighing between 150 and 180?g were completely randomized divided into five groups. The ethanol solution extract of A. pyrethrum was administered to groups of rats in 50, 100, and 150?mg/kg doses for a period of 28?days, and the action was compared with control and testosterone-treated rats. Thirteen N-alkylamides were detected in the extract by using HPLC/UV/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. Extract administration at all the doses produced significant increase in body weight, sperm count, motility, and viability along with serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Histoarchitecture of testis revealed increased spermatogenic activities. Seminal fructose content was also significantly increased after 28?days of treatment. Our results suggest that the ethanol solution extract of the roots of A. pyrethrum has androgenic potential and may improve male fertility by enhancing spermatogenesis. PMID:22473789

Sharma, Vikas; Boonen, Jente; Spiegeleer, Bart De; Dixit, V K

2013-01-01

142

Effects of Danshen Ethanol Extract on the Pharmacokinetics of Fexofenadine in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effect of multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract on fexofenadine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. A sequential, open-label, two-period pharmacokinetic interaction design was used. 12 healthy male volunteers received a single oral dose of fexofenadine (60?mg) followed by danshen ethanol extract (1?g orally, three times a day) for 10 days, after which they received 1?g of the danshen extract with fexofenadine (60?mg) on the last day. The plasma concentrations of fexofenadine was measured by LC-MS/MS. After 10 days of the danshen extract administration, the mean AUC and Cmax? of the fexofenadine was decreased by 37.2% and 27.4% compared with the control, respectively. The mean clearance of fexofenadine was increased by 104.9%. The in vitro study showed that tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone could induce MDR1 mRNA. This study showed that multidose administration of danshen ethanol extract could increase oral clearance of fexofenadine. The increased oral clearance of fexofenadine is attributable to induction of intestinal P-glycoprotein.

Qiu, Furong; Zeng, Jin; Liu, Songcan; He, Min; Zhu, Leilei; Ye, Yujie; Miao, Ping; Shen, Shujiao; Jiang, Jian

2014-01-01

143

Effect of ethanolic extract of Capsicum frutescens L. on adult female of Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodidae).  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of ethanol extract of Capsicum frutescens L. (Solanaceae), colloquially known as malagueta pepper, on egg production and hatching rate of larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus. Plant samples were collected in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Selected mature fruits were washed, dehydrated in a forced air oven at 40 ± 5 °C to constant weight. The material was incubated in absolute ethanol during 10 days, and the extract was filtered, dried, and stored in amber vials under refrigeration at 4 °C. Engorged adult female ticks were immersed in 10 ml solutions of ethanol extracts at 25, 50, 75, 100, or 150 mg ml(-1) dry matter, solubilized in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at 1% v/v. These concentrations were compared to distilled water or 1% v/v DMSO in distilled water as negative controls and a commercial product as positive control. The extract resulted in significantly lower oviposition at all tested concentrations when compared to the negative controls. On days 2 and 3 posttreatment, mortality rates of female ticks ?55% were observed for concentrations ?75 mg ml(-1). These concentrations resulted in a significantly lower hatchability mean, and the LC90 on hatching inhibition of R. microplus, estimated by probit analysis, was 91.8 mg ?ml(-1). High acaricidal in vitro effect was verified, and toxicological tests and analyses in vivo are important to determine appropriate dosages and frequency of the application necessary to promote this extract as safe and effective alternative for control of R. microplus. PMID:24496493

Vasconcelos, Viviane O; Martins, Maria Alice D; de Oliveira, Neide J F; Duarte, Eduardo R

2014-04-01

144

Sedative and anxiolytic effects of ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae) leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate possible anxiogenic activity, sedative property and anxiolytic potential of crude ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves. Methods The anxiogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves was evaluated using standard animal behavioral models, such as hole cross and open field; sedative property and anxiolytic potential were evaluated by conducting thiopental sodium induced sleeping time tests and elevated plus-maze test. Results The crude ethanolic extract exhibited a significant (P<0.05, P<0.001) decrease of motor activity and exploratory behavior in hole cross and open field tests. The extract also markedly increased both the number of visits to and time spent in the corners of the open field. The extract treated rats spent more time in the open arm of elevated plus-maze, showing its antianxiety activity. There was a decrease in the locomotor activity. Conclusions The obtained results provide support for the use of this species in traditional medicine and warrant further investigation to isolate the specific components that are responsible for the sedative and anxiolytic effects. Components from this plant may have a great potential value as medicinal agents, as leads or model compounds for synthetic or semi synthetic structure modifications and optimization, and as neuropharmacological probes. PMID:25183117

Khan, Irfan Newaz; Sarker, Md. Mominul Islam; Ajrin, Marzina

2014-01-01

145

Toxicity of ethanolic extracts from Lippia origanoides and Gliricidia sepium to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

Botanical compounds with insecticidal and acaricidal activities have been used in pest management with different levels of success. Toxicity of ethanolic extracts obtained from wild oregano (Lippia origanoides) and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) were evaluated. Mite population was collected from black bean plants growing in Urachiche Municipality, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ethanolic extracts of wild oregano and gliricidia leaves were evaluated at different concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20%) using the leaf disk immersion technique. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins, essential oils and saponins was verified in the plant material used in our study. Tetranychus cinnabarinus oviposition decreased at a rate of 43.7% or 57% when 5% oregano or gliricidia extracts were used, respectively. Also, 10% oregano or gliricidia extracts caused 42.2% or 72.5% of mortality to T. cinnabarinus, respectively. Ethanolic extracts showed acaricidal effects on T. cinnabarinus, as evidenced by maximum mortality (96.6% and 100% caused by wild oregano and gliricidia, respectively) when used at a concentration of 20%. Our results showed that gliricidia and wild oregano are promising for the management of T. cinnabarinus, although their field efficacy remains to be evaluated. PMID:21710033

Sivira, A; Sanabria, M E; Valera, N; Vásquez, C

2011-01-01

146

Ethanolic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata bark and leaf attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the potential protective effect of ethanolic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata (BO) bark and leaf against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Ethanolic extracts of BO bark (400 mg/kg) and leaves (250 mg/kg) were given orally to mice for 9 consecutive days and DOX (15 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered on the seventh day. Extract protected against DOX-induced ECG changes. It significantly inhibited DOX-provoked glutathione depletion and accumulation of malondialdehyde. The decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase in cardiac tissue were significantly (p<0.05) mitigated after treatment with BO bark and leaf extracts. Pretreatment with BO significantly (p<0.05) restored the levels of DOX-induced rise of SGPT, SGOT, serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB levels. These findings suggest that ethanolic extract of BO has protective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:23981374

Uma Mahesh, Bandari; Shrivastava, Shweta; Kuncha, Madhusudhana; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Swamy, Challa Veerabhadra; Pragada, Rajeswara Rao; Naidu, V G M; Sistla, Ramakrishna

2013-11-01

147

In vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of ethanolic extract from Tecomella undulata  

PubMed Central

This study was undergone to evaluate the in-vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tecomella undulata Seem. on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 60?mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 minutes after the i.p administration of 110?mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide. The extract has shown significant blood glucose lowering effect in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The blood glucose level, cholesterol, glycogen contents, glycosylated hemoglobin, and antioxidant parameters (Malondialdehyde and Glutathione level) were estimated from the blood plasma by using standard kits to demonstrate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect in treated animals. The data showed that the extract have significant influence on the above biochemical parameters. Thus ethanolic fraction of the plant Tecomella undulata can be used as new candidate for antihyperglycemic and antioxidant. PMID:22769229

2012-01-01

148

Evaluation of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of Euphorbia hirta ethanolic extract.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of a Euphorbia hirta L. extract. The antioxidant activities of whole E. hirta ethanol extract were determined by electron spin resonance spectrophotometric analysis of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and alkyl radical levels and by using an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay. The E. hirta ethanol extract (0.5 mg/mL) exhibited DPPH-scavenging activity of 61.19% ± 0.22%, while the positive control (0.5 mg/mL ascorbic acid) had 100% ± 0.22% activity. The concentration of the extract required to trap 50% of DPPH (IC50) was 0.205 mg/mL. Online HPLC analysis of the extract also showed strong antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the E. hirta extract was assessed in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity was highest in the presence of 200 µg/mL E. hirta extract, and nitric oxide production was decreased significantly (p < 0.05). The extract also showed selective anticancer activity at a concentration of 100 µg/mL (p < 0.05). These results indicated that E. hirta may warrant further investigation for the development of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer herbal medications. PMID:25225720

Sharma, Neelesh; Samarakoon, Kalpa W; Gyawali, Rajendra; Park, Yang-Ho; Lee, Sung-Jin; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Jeong, Dong Kee

2014-01-01

149

Optimization of seed production for a simultaneous saccharification cofermentation biomass-to-ethanol process using recombinant Zymomonas.  

PubMed

The five-carbon sugar D-xylose is a major component of hemicellulose and accounts for roughly one-third of the carbohydrate content of many lignocellulosic materials. The efficient fermentation of xylose-rich hemicellulose hydrolyzates (prehydrolyzates) represents an opportunity to improve significantly the economics of large-scale fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is currently investigating a simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) process for ethanol production from biomass that uses a dilute-acid pretreatment and a metabolically engineered strain of Zymomonas mobilis that can coferment glucose and xylose. The objective of this study was to establish optimal conditions for cost-effective seed production that are compatible with the SSCF process design.Two-level and three-level full factorial experimental designs were employed to characterize efficiently the growth performance of recombinant Z. mobilis CP4:pZB5 as a function of nutrient level, pH, and acetic acid concentration using a synthetic hardwood hemicellulose hydrolyzate containing 4% (w/v) xylose and 0.8% (w/v) glucose. Fermentations were run batchwise and were pH-controlled at low levels of clarified corn steep liquor (cCSL, 1-2% v/v), which were used as the sole source of nutrients. For the purpose of assessing comparative fermentation performance, seed production was also carried out using a "benchmark" yeast extract-based laboratory medium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of experimental results was performed to determine the main effects and possible interactive effects of nutrient (cCSL) level, pH, and acetic acid concentration on the rate of xylose utilization and the extent of cell mass production. Results indicate that the concentration of acetic acid is the most significant limiting factor for the xylose utilization rate and the extent of cell mass production; nutrient level and pH exerted weaker, but statistically significant effects. At pH 6.0, in the absence of acetic acid, the final cell mass concentration was 1.4 g dry cell mass/L (g DCM/L), but decreased to 0.92 and 0.64 g DCM/L in the presence of 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) acetic acid, respectively. At concentrations of acetic acid of 0.75 (w/v) or lower, fermentation was complete within 1.5 d. In contrast, in the presence of 1.0% (w/v) acetic acid, 25% of the xylose remained after 2 d. At a volumetric supplementation level of 1.5-2.0% (v/v), cCSL proved to be a cost-effective single-source nutritional adjunct that can support growth and fermentation performance at levels comparable to those achieved using the expensive yeast extract-based laboratory reference medium. PMID:18576087

Lawford, H G; Rousseau, J D; McMillan, J D

1997-01-01

150

Eclosion blocking effect of ethanolic extract of Leucas aspera (Lamiaceae) on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus.  

PubMed

The crude ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Leucas aspera was tested for its acaricidal properties against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. The per cent adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of laid ova were studied at concentrations of 1.56, 3.13, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100mg/ml. Adult tick mortality was significant at the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of fecundity of treated groups differed significantly from control and was concentration dependent. L. aspera extract also produced complete failure of eclosion of eggs from the treated ticks even at lower dilutions of the extract. PMID:21440993

Ravindran, Reghu; Juliet, Sanis; Sunil, A R; Kumar, K G Ajith; Nair, Suresh N; Amithamol, K K; Shynu, M; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh; Ghosh, Srikanta

2011-06-30

151

Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from moringa oleifera seed by salt solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

152

Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii by Water-soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hot and cold water-soluble muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) seed extracts and their polar and polyphenol fractions from two Muscadine cultivars (‘Ison’, purple and ‘Carlos’, bronze) were investigated for their inhibition of Enterobacter sakazakii. The heat treatment on each seed extract not only incre...

153

Extraction of coriander seed oil by CO 2 and propane at super- and subcritical conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil extraction from coriander seed was studied with carbon dioxide and propane as solvents, under sub- and supercritical conditions. The ratio of solvent to seed (g\\/g) required to achieve a complete oil extraction was between 20 and 40 using CO2 at pressures of 200 and 300 bar and temperature of 35°C. A complete oil recovery could be attained with propane

V. Illés; H. G. Daood; S. Perneczki; L. Szokonya; M. Then

2000-01-01

154

Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although

Rohan Kermanshai; Brian E McCarry; Jack Rosenfeld; Peter S Summers; Elizabeth A Weretilnyk; George J Sorger

2001-01-01

155

Steroid saponins from fenugreek seeds: Extraction, purification, and pharmacological investigation on feeding behavior and plasma cholesterol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) are traditionally assumed to have restorative properties. We have recently shown that a fenugreek seed extract containing steroid saponins increased food consumption and induced hypocholesterolemia in rats. This study aims to investigate the specific role of purified steroid saponins in these properties. For this purpose, an original technique for extraction and purification

Pierre R. Petit; Yves D. Sauvaire; Dominique M. Hillaire-Buys; Olivier M. Leconte; Yves G. Baissac; Gabriel R. Ponsin; Gérard R. Ribes

1995-01-01

156

Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract protects neurons from apoptosis and mitigates brain swelling in experimental cerebral malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Cerebral malaria is a rapidly developing encephalopathy caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Drugs currently in use are associated with poor outcome in an increasing number of cases and new drugs are urgently needed. The potential of the medicinal plant Azadirachta indica (Neem) for the treatment of experimental cerebral malaria was evaluated in mice. Methods Experimental cerebral malaria was induced in mice by infection with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Infected mice were administered with Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract at doses of 300, 500, or 1000 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) in experimental groups, or with the anti-malarial drugs chloroquine (12 mg/kg, i.p.) or artemether (1.6 mg/kg, i.p.), in the positive control groups. Treatment was initiated at the onset of signs of brain involvement and pursued for five days on a daily basis. Mice brains were dissected out and processed for the study of the effects of the extract on pyramidal cells’ fate and on markers of neuroinflammation and apoptosis, in the medial temporal lobe. Results Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract mitigated neuroinflammation, decreased the severity of brain oedema, and protected pyramidal neurons from apoptosis, particularly at the highest dose used, comparable to chloroquine and artemether. Conclusions The present findings suggest that Azadirachta indica ethanolic extract has protective effects on neuronal populations in the inflamed central nervous system, and justify at least in part its use in African and Asian folk medicine and practices. PMID:23984986

2013-01-01

157

Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in Sprague Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the anti-arthritic effect of whole plant ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats using the Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) model. Materials and Methods: The plant was collected from different regions of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, and the phytoconstituents were identified through chemical tests. Ethanol (95%) was used to obtain the whole plant extraction through Soxhlet extractor. Female SD rats were used for anti-arthritic screening. Arthritis was induced using FCA, and the anti-arthritic effect of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, the liver enzyme levels were determined and a radiological examination was carried out. Result: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the FCA-induced arthritis in the rats. This was manifested by as a decrease in the paw volume. The arthritic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals without arthritis. T. procumbens animals showed dose dependent reduction in decrees in body weight and arthritis. At the same time, T. procumbens significantly altered the biochemical and haematological changes induced by FCA (P < 0.05). The anti-arthritic effect of T. procumbens was comparable with that of indomethacin. Conclusion: The whole plant extract of T. procumbens showed significant anti-arthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female SD rats. PMID:23798886

Petchi, R Ramesh; Vijaya, C; Parasuraman, S

2013-01-01

158

Ethanol production from nonsterilized carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using fed-batch culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of ethanol from carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in batch and fed-batch culture was investigated. Fed-batch culture proved to be a better fermentation system for the production of ethanol than batch culture. In fed-batch culture, both free and immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave the same maximum concentration of final ethanol at an initial

T. Roukas

1994-01-01

159

Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages.  

PubMed

Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

Chávez Enciso, N A; Coy-Barrera, E D; Patiño, O J; Cuca, L E; Delgado, Gabriela

2014-05-01

160

Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:25035529

Chávez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patiño, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

2014-01-01

161

Use of grape seed and its natural polyphenol extracts as a natural organic coagulant for removal of cationic dyes.  

PubMed

Natural organic coagulants (NOCs) such as chitosan and Moringa oleifera seeds have been extensively characterized for potential application in water treatment as an alternative to metal-based coagulants. However, the action of both chitosan and M. oleifera seeds is mainly restricted to anionic organic pollutants because of their cationic functional groups affording poor cationic pollutant coagulation by electrostatic repulsion. In this study, we employed ethanolic grape seed extract (GSE) and grape seed-derived polyphenols such as tannic acid and catechin in an effort to find novel NOCs showing stable anionic forms for removal of cationic organic pollutants. The target substances tested were malachite green (MG) and crystal violet (CV), both mutagenic cationic dyes. Polyphenol treatment induced fast decolorization followed by gradual floc formation concomitant with red or blue shifts in maximum absorbance wavelengths of the cationic dyes. Liquid chromatography analysis of flocs formed by polyphenols directly showed that initial supramolecular complexes attributed mainly to electrostatic attraction between polyphenol hydroxyphenyl groups and cationic dyes further progressed into stronger aggregates, leading to precipitation of dye-polyphenol complexes. Consistent with the results obtained using catechin and tannic acid, use of GSE also resulted in effective decolorization and coagulation of soluble MG and CV in aqueous solutions. Screening of several organic GSE components for NOC activity strongly suggested that natural polyphenols are the main organic ingredients causing MG and CV removal via gradual floc formation. The treatment by natural polyphenols and GSE decreased toxicity of MG- or CV-contaminated water. PMID:19786292

Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Young-Mo; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

2009-11-01

162

Wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. leaf--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The extract of K. pinnata was evaluated for its wound healing activity by using excision wound model in rats. On day 11, animals treated with the ethanolic leaf extract exhibited 86.33% reduction in the wound area, compared to petroleum jelly treated control (69.36%) and the mupirocin treated standard (85.49%). The hydroxyproline content of extract treated animals was higher, as compared to control and the standard groups. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that K. pinnata leaf extract exhibits significant wound healing potential. The increased rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the extract treated animals supports the claims made by traditional healers of the benefits obtained from the medicinal use of K. pinnata. PMID:20882759

Nayak, B Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin

2010-06-01

163

Effect of ethanol on the chemical structure of the soot extractable material of an ethylene inverse diffusion flame  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fuel-side ethanol addition on the chemical structure of the soot extractable material generated in an ethylene inverse diffusion flame was evaluated by means of average structural parameters. The results indicate that the ethanol effect on the aromatic components was more pronounced, with an increase of about 40% in the average number of aromatic fused rings (R{sub a})

Alexander Santamaria; Fanor Mondragon; Eric G. Eddings

2007-01-01

164

Effect of ethanol on the chemical structure of the soot extractable material of an ethylene inverse diffusion flame  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fuel-side ethanol addition on the chemical structure of the soot extractable material generated in an ethylene inverse diffusion flame was evaluated by means of average structural parameters. The results indicate that the ethanol effect on the aromatic components was more pronounced, with an increase of about 40% in the average number of aromatic fused rings (Ra) as

Alexander Santamaría; Eric G. Eddings; Fanor Mondragón

2007-01-01

165

Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

2013-11-01

166

Capillary electrophoretic analysis of flavonoids in single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) ethanolic extracts.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are an important group of natural compounds, which can prevent coronary heart disease and have antioxidant properties. Hawthorn is a well known and widely used medicinal plant due to its cardiotonic activity. Previous studies refer mostly to the HPLC analysis of the flavonoids: vitexin, quercetin, hyperoside, oligomeric procyanidins, which appear to be primarily responsible for the cardiac action of the plant. Aqueous ethanolic extracts of single-styled hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna Jacq., f.: Rosaceae Juss.) leaves and sprouts were analyzed by means of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Influence of vegetation period on the extract qualitative composition and flavonoids quantities was evaluated. Sample preparation by extraction using different concentration of aqueous ethanol (40-96%, v/v) and the influence of extractant composition on the recovery of flavonoids are discussed in detail. The results obtained using CZE are compared to the results of spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis of the extracts. The effect of storage conditions of extracts (solar irradiation, temperature and duration) on degradation of flavonoids was investigated. PMID:16443232

Urbonavici?te, A; Jakstas, V; Kornysova, O; Janulis, V; Maruska, A

2006-04-21

167

A Novel Extraction Method and Some Physicochemical Properties of Extractives of Irvingia Gabonensis seeds  

PubMed Central

The plant Irvingia gabonensis contains lipids and polymer extractives that can be a good source of excipients for oral pharmaceutical formulations. These constituents are usually extracted from the seeds with the aid of either organic solvents or enzymes. The purpose of this paper was to describe a novel, simpler, cheaper, and safer method for the simultaneous extraction of lipids and gum from I. gabonensis. A 100.0 g of seeds of I. gabonensis in 200 mL deionized water was heated at 78°C in the presence of 2.0 g sodium chloride for 1 h, and the mixture was allowed to stand for the lipids to be separated and removed by filtration. The samples were air dried at 25–30°C. The liquid fraction was centrifuged at 3445 rpm for 30 min, and the supernatant portion containing the gum was freeze dried. The samples were investigated for their true, bulk, and tapped densities as well as particle size and particle size distributions. The rheological, and near infrared absorption spectra as well as thermal behavior of the samples were also studied. The lipid and the polymeric components of I. gabonensis seeds were successfully extracted simultaneously. The true densities of the fatty and gum components were, respectively, 1.000 and 1.544 g/cm3. The melting point of the fat was 40°C and Tg of the gum was 232°C. These values were similar to those described in the literature for the components using the traditional method, demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of this simple novel method. PMID:22754256

Ogaji, Ikoni J; Nan, Anjan; Hoag, Stephen W

2012-01-01

168

Apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from some Apiaceae on human leukaemia cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apiaceae are a family of medicinal plants widely used in traditional medicine. The apoptotic activities of seven ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae, Eryngium planum, Archangelica officinalis, Pastinaca sativa, Heracleum sibiricum, Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Levisticum officinale against ML-1—human acute myeloblastic leukaemia, J-45.01—human acute T cell leukaemia, EOL—human eosinophilic leukaemia, HL-60—human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia, 1301—human T cell

A. Bogucka-Kocka; H. D. Smolarz; J. Kocki

2008-01-01

169

Superoxide radical scavenging and antibacterial activities of different fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentha spicata is a well-known spice that has a variety of biological properties and is abundantly available throughout the world. This\\u000a study was designed to investigate the superoxide radical scavenging and antibacterial properties of different fractions (hexane,\\u000a chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous) of the ethanol extract of Mentha spicata. In addition, xanthine oxidase generated uric acid inhibition, reducing potential and

Ponnan Arumugam; Rajenderan Murugan; Mahalingam Subathra; Arabandi Ramesh

2010-01-01

170

Adjuvant effect of ethanol extract of Semen Cuscutae on the immune responses to ovalbumin in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol extract of Semen Cuscutae (EESC) was evaluated for its adjuvant potentials on the cellular and humoral immune responses of ICR mice against ovalbumin (OVA). ICR mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA 100?g alone or with OVA 100?g dissolved in saline containing aluminum hydroxide gel (Alum) (200?g), Quil A (10 or 50?g) or EESC (100, 200 or 400?g) on

Hang-Jun Pan; Hong-Xiang Sun; Yuan-Jiang Pan

2005-01-01

171

ANTICONVULSANT EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF CROCUS SATIVUS L. STIGMAS IN MICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background-Crocus sativus L. stigma (CSS) has sedative properties and is used in traditional medicine for its anticonvulsant property. Objective-We studied the anticonvulsant activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of CSS in mice in order to evaluate the traditional use of this plant. Methods-The pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) tests were used for assessing the anticonvulsive effects

Hossein Hosseinzadeh; Vahid Khosravan

172

Ethanolic Extract of Propolis Augments TRAIL-Induced Apoptotic Death in Prostate Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer in men. The ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and its phenolic compounds possess immunomodulatory, chemopreventive and antitu- mor effects. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL\\/APO2L) is a naturally occurring anticancer agent that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells and is not toxic to normal cells. We examined the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of

Ewelina Szliszka; Zenon P. Czuba; Joanna Bronikowska; Anna Mertas; Andrzej Paradysz; Wojciech Krol

2009-01-01

173

Antihyperglycemic activity of Tarralin™, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies reported here were undertaken to examine the antihyperglycemic activity of an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., called Tarralin™ in diabetic and non-diabetic animals. In genetically diabetic KK-A? mice, Tarralin™ treatment by gavage (500mg\\/kgbodywt.\\/day for 7 days) lowered elevated blood glucose levels by 24% from 479±25 to 352±16mg\\/dl relative to control animals. In comparison, treatment with the known

D. M. Ribnicky; A. Poulev; M. Watford; W. T. Cefalu; I. Raskin

2006-01-01

174

The Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa Dried Calyx Ethanolic Extract Reduced Lipid Profile in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention\\u000a of chronic and degenerative diseases is continously advancing. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect\\u000a of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanolic extract on the serum lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed during 4

Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Stefan M. Waliszewski; Dulce Ma. Barradas-Dermitz; Zaida Orta-Flores; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipólito; Ofelia Angulo-Guerrero; Ramón Sánchez-Ricaño; Rosa M. Infanzón; Patricia R. L. Trujillo

2005-01-01

175

GC-MS analysis of phytocomponents in the ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L  

PubMed Central

Background: The presence of diverse secondary metabolites has been reported from species of the genus Polygonum. However, there has been not much information available on phytochemical components and biological activity in the whole plant ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L. Objective: This study was designed to determine the phytocomponents in the whole plant ethanol extract of P. chinense. Materials and Methods: GC-MS analysis of the whole plant ethanol extract of P. chinense was performed using a Perkin-Elmer GC Clarus 500 system comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and a gas chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Results: This investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from P. chinense by GC-MS. This analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of P. chinense (whole plant) contained mainly a triterpene compound–squalene (47.01%), and a plasticizer compound–1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono[2-ethylhexyl]ester (40.30%). All identified compounds were, generally, reported as having antimicrobial activity. In addition, the squalene compound also having anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, chemo-preventive, pesticidal and sun-screen properties, while the plasticizer compound –1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono[2-ethylhexyl] ester reported to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. No activity was reported in the alcoholic compound-4-hexene-1-ol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethanyl)-acetate-(R)-. Conclusions: From the results, it is evident that P. chinense contains various bioactive compounds and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance. PMID:22224055

Ezhilan, Bagavathi Perumal; Neelamegam, Ramasamy

2012-01-01

176

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Analysis of Cichoriumintybus Seeds Extract and Various Organic Fractions  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant effectiveness of methanolic extract and different fractions (n-butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of C.intybus seeds. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against a panel of microorganisms (four bacterial strains, i.e. P. multocida, E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureus and three fungal strains, i.e A. flavus, A. niger and R. solani). The results indicated that seeds extract and fractions of C. intybus showed moderate activity as antibacterial agent. While Antifungal activity of C. intybus seeds extract/fractions was very low against A. flavus and A. niger while mild against R. solani. The C.intybus seeds extract/fractions contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (50.8-285 GAE mg/100g of Dry plant matter) and total flavonoid contents (43.3-150 CE mg/100g of Dry plant matter). The C. intybus seed extract/fractions also exhibited good DPPH radical scavenging activity, with IC50 ranging from 21.28-72.14 ?g/mL. Of the C .intybus seeds solvent extract/fractions tested, 100% methanolic extract and ethylacetate fraction exhibited the maximum antioxidant activity. The results of the present investigation demonstrated significant (p < 0.01) variations in the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of C. intybus seeds solvent extract/fractions. PMID:24250548

Mehmood, Nasir; Zuba?r, Muhammad; R?zwan, Komal; Rasool, Nas?r; Shahid, Muhammad; Uddin Ahmad, Viqar

2012-01-01

177

Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts and Lectins from Moringa oleifera Seeds  

PubMed Central

Background The extract from Moringa oleifera seeds is used worldwide, especially in rural areas of developing countries, to treat drinking water. M. oleifera seeds contain the lectins cmol and WSMoL, which are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are able to reduce water turbidity because of their coagulant activity. Studies investigating the ability of natural products to damage normal cells are essential for the safe use of these substances. This study evaluated the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous seed extract, the extract used by population to treat water (named diluted seed extract in this work), and the isolated lectins cmol and WSMoL. Methodology/Principal Findings The data showed that the aqueous seed extract and cmol were potentially cytotoxic to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while WSMoL and diluted seed extract were not cytotoxic. The M. oleifera aqueous seed extract and the lectins cmol and WSMoL were weakly/moderately cytotoxic to the NCI-H292, HT-29 and HEp-2 cancer cell lines and were not hemolytic to murine erythrocytes. Evaluation of acute toxicity in mice revealed that the aqueous seed extract (2.000 mg/kg) did not cause systemic toxicity. The aqueous seed extract, cmol and WSMoL (6.25 µg/mL) and diluted seed extract at 50 µg/mL exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on lipopolyssaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages by regulating the production of nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1?. The aqueous seed extract reduced leukocyte migration in a mouse model of carrageenan-induced pleurisy; the myeloperoxidase activity and nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1? levels were similarly reduced. Histological analysis of the lungs showed that the extract reduced the number of leukocytes. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the extract prepared according to folk use and WSMoL may be non-toxic to mammalian cells; however, the aqueous seed extract and cmol may be cytotoxic to immune cells which may explain the immunosuppressive potential of the extract. PMID:24349164

Araújo, Larissa Cardoso Corrêa; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique; Mota, Fernanda Virgínia Barreto; Barros, André Luiz Souza; Moura, Maiara Celine; Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes

2013-01-01

178

Chemoprotective effects of ethanolic extract of neem leaf against MNNG-induced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

We evaluated the modifying effects of ethanolic extract of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on oxidative stress induced by the potent gastric carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in male Wistar rats. The extent of lipid peroxidation and the status of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were used as intermediate endpoints of chemoprevention. Three different concentrations of ethanolic neem leaf extract (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) body weight) were administered by intragastric intubation (i.g) for five consecutive days followed by MNNG (i.g) 1.5 h after the final administration. Enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences in the stomach, liver and erythrocytes of MNNG-treated rats. Pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight (bw) significantly lowered the concentration of lipid peroxides and increased antioxidant levels. Our results demonstrate that neem leaf exerts its chemoprotective effects on MNNG- induced oxidative stress by decreasing lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant status. PMID:12889539

Subapriya, R; Kumaraguruparan, R; Chandramohan, K V P; Nagini, S

2003-07-01

179

Amelioration of nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity by the ethanol extract of the herb Euphorbia hirta  

PubMed Central

Background: Euphorbia hirta (L.) (Euphorbiaceae) is a very popular herb amongst practitioners of traditional medicine and used in the treatment of female disorders, respiratory ailments, tumors, jaundice, digestive problems, wounds, etc. We aimed to evaluate the protective effect of E. hirta against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats. Materials and Methods: The nephroprotective activity of the ethanol extract of E. hirta (400 mg/kg body weight) was studied in nitrobenzene-induced albino rats (1000 mg/kg body weight). The activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiols and vitamin C in the kidney tissues were determined. Histopathologic investigation was performed in the kidney tissue samples. Results: Nitrobenzene administration significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced the lipid peroxidation and significantly (P < 0.05) depleted the levels of SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, GSH, total thiols and vitamin C. Treatment with the ethanol extract of E. hirta significantly normalized the antioxidant levels. The nephroprotective activity was also supported by histopathologic studies of kidney tissue. Conclusion: The results indicate that the ethanol extract of E. hirta ameliorates renal dysfunction and could be used as an effective protector against nitrobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity, primarily through its antioxidant capacity. PMID:22022170

Suganya, Subramanian; Sophia, Dominic; Raj, Chinthamony Arul; Rathi, Muthaiyan Ahalliya; Thirumoorthi, Lakshmanan; Meenakshi, Periyasamy; Kumar, Dugganaboyana Guru; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniyapan

2011-01-01

180

PRESSURIZED FLUID EXTRACTION OF PUMPKIN SEED AND PUMPKIN SEED PRESSED CAKE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pumpkin seed oil is one of the top three nutritional oils (hemp seed oil, flax seed oil, pumpkin seed oil) that provide the highest essential fatty acids (Omega 3 and Omega 6) required for healthy mind/body functioning. It is known to prevent and alleviate bladder and prostate problems. The oil th...

181

Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated. Results: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of ?-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:21808555

Verma, Laxmi; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Rajak, H.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.

2010-01-01

182

Hypotensive, vasorelaxant and cardiodepressant activities of the ethanol extract of Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss & Heldr.  

PubMed

Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss & Heldr is a native plant from the Mediterranean region that is used due to its medicinal and culinary properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol extract of S. raeseri on the blood pressure, vascular and cardiac contractions. Arterial blood pressure was registered directly from the carotid artery in the anaesthetized rabbits. Aortic rings and the spontaneously beating atria were mounted in tissue bath. An intravenous injection of extract of S. raeseri (0.025-7.5 mg/kg) caused a dose dependent decrease of the arterial pressure and heart rate, with EC(50) value of 24.31±3.87 mg/kg and 88.14±7.51 mg/kg, respectively. In aortic preparations precontracted with KCl (80 mM), the extract of S. raeseri (0.005-1.5 mg/ml) elicited a vasodilatator action (EC(50) 0.11±0.008 mg/ml). In spontaneously beating rat atria, the extract of S. raeseri (0.005-1.5 mg/ml) produced decrease of chronotropic and inotropic activity (with EC(50) value of 0.63±0.03 mg/ml and 0.40±0.08 mg/ml). Administration of verapamil induced inhibition of force and rate of the atrial contraction. These results demonstrate that the ethanol extract of Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss & Heldr can produce hypotension, vasodilatation, negative chronotropic and inotropic effects. PMID:23211307

Kitic, D; Brankovic, S; Radenkovic, M; Savikin, K; Zdunic, G; Kocic, B; Velickovic-Radovanovic, R

2012-10-01

183

Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

2014-01-01

184

Phytochemical Screening and Anti-nociceptive Properties of the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Trema Cannabina Lour  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the anti-nociceptive activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Trema cannabina Lour (family: Cannabaceae) in experimental animal models. Methods: The anti-nociceptive action was carried out against two types of noxious stimuli, thermal (hot plate and tail immersion tests) and chemical (acetic acid-induced writhing) in mice. Results: Phytochemical analysis of crude extract indicated the presence of reducing sugar, tannins, steroid and alkaloid types of secondary metabolites. Crude extract of T. cannabina (500 mg/kg dose) showed maximum time needed for the response against thermal stimuli (6.79±0.15 seconds) which is comparable to diclofenac sodium (8.26±0.14 seconds) in the hot plate test. Hot tail immersion test also showed similar results as in hot plate test. At the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, the extract showed significantly and in a dose-dependent (p<0.001) reduction in acetic acid induced writhing in mice with a maximum effect of 47.56% reduction at 500 mg/kg dose comparable to that of diclofenac sodium (67.07%) at 25 mg/kg. Conclusion: The obtained results tend to suggest the Anti-nociceptive activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Trema cannabina and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant part as a remedy for pain. PMID:24312820

Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Islam, Howlader Sariful; Kanti, Dey Shubhra; Arpona, Hira; Arif, Ahmed

2013-01-01

185

Effect of ethanol extract of Sphaeranthus indicus on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Cisplatin is an anticancer drug extensively used against a variety of cancers. Cisplatin chemotherapy is found to manifest dose-dependent nephrotoxicity. Depletion of the renal antioxidant defence system has been suggested to be the main cause of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the ethanol extract of entire plant of Sphaeranthus indicus could reduce the intensity of toxicity in albino rats. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by determining the serum creatinine and urea levels and renal antioxidant status in rats after cisplatin administration (12?mg?kg(-1)?body weight, i.p.). The ethanol extract of S. indicus (150 and 300?mg?kg(-1)?body weight) was administered orally from the sixth day onwards for 10 days after cisplatin administration. The extract significantly reduced the elevated serum creatinine and urea levels. Renal antioxidant defence systems, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase activities and reduced glutathione level that are depleted by cisplatin therapy were restored to normal by treatment with the extract. Cisplatin-induced lipid peroxidation was also found to be markedly reduced by treatment with the extract. These results suggest that S. indicus has protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, which may be attributed to its antioxidant potential. PMID:21790496

Mathew, Jessy Elizabeth; Joseph, Alex; Srinivasan, Keloth; Dinakaran, Seekarajapuram Vachala; Mantri, Anand; Movaliya, Vinit

2012-01-01

186

Relaxant effect of ethanol extract of Carum carvi on dispersed intestinal smooth muscle cells of the guinea pig.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the direct effects of Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) ethanol extract on dispersed intestinal smooth muscle cells (SMC) of guinea pigs. Effects of the plant extract on SMC and of acetylcholine (Ach) on extract pretreated SMC were measured by micrometric scanning technique. Three different extract concentrations (2.5 mg/mL, 250 mug/mL, and 25 mug/mL) were used. Ethanol extract of C. carvi reduced significantly the response of dispersed SMC to Ach. Pretreatment of SMC with the highest concentration of C. carvi ethanol extract (2.5 mg/mL) has significantly inhibited the response of SMC to Ach. The data obtained indicate a dose-dependent inhibition of the contraction induced by Ach. This response may explain, in part, the beneficial effect of caraway in relieving gastrointestinal symptoms associated with dyspepsia. PMID:20645759

Al-Essa, Mohammed K; Shafagoj, Yanal A; Mohammed, Faysal I; Afifi, Fatma U

2010-01-01

187

Antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. and evaluation of the morphological and structural modifications of its compounds upon the cells of Candida spp  

PubMed Central

Ethanolic crude extracts prepared from the arils and seeds, pericarp, peels and from the whole fruit of Punica granatum, known as pomegranate, had their antifungal activity tested against Candida spp. The ethanolic crude extracts were analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and yielded many compounds such as punicalagin and galladydilacton. The extracts from the pericarp and peel showed activity against Candida spp., with MICs of 125 ?g/mL. The effect of pericarp and peel extracts upon the morphological and structure of C. albicans and C. krusei were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, with the visualization of an irregular membrane and hyphae, formation of vacuoles and thickening of the cell wall. The data obtained revealed potential antimicrobial activity against yeasts cells of the Candida genus, and the bioactive compounds could be responsible for changes in cell morphology and structure. The data obtained open new perspectives for future research in continuation to this study, where information such as determination of the site of action of the compounds could contribute to an alternative therapy against these organisms. PMID:24516425

Anibal, Paula Cristina; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Foglio, Mary Ann; Höfling, José Francisco

2013-01-01

188

Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage  

PubMed Central

Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

2012-01-01

189

Biological Activities of Ethanolic Extracts from Deep-Sea Antarctic Marine Sponges  

PubMed Central

We report on the screening of ethanolic extracts from 33 deep-sea Antarctic marine sponges for different biological activities. We monitored hemolysis, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity towards normal and transformed cells and growth inhibition of laboratory, commensal and clinically and ecologically relevant bacteria. The most prominent activities were associated with the extracts from sponges belonging to the genus Latrunculia, which show all of these activities. While most of these activities are associated to already known secondary metabolites, the extremely strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential appears to be related to a compound unknown to date. Extracts from Tetilla leptoderma, Bathydorus cf. spinosus, Xestospongia sp., Rossella sp., Rossella cf. racovitzae and Halichondria osculum were hemolytic, with the last two also showing moderate cytotoxic potential. The antibacterial tests showed significantly greater activities of the extracts of these Antarctic sponges towards ecologically relevant bacteria from sea water and from Arctic ice. This indicates their ecological relevance for inhibition of bacterial microfouling. PMID:23549284

Turk, Tom; Ambroži? Avguštin, Jerneja; Batista, Urška; Strugar, Gašper; Kosmina, Rok; ?ivovi?, Sandra; Janussen, Dorte; Kauferstein, Silke; Mebs, Dietrich; Sep?i?, Kristina

2013-01-01

190

Ethanol production from nonsterilized carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using fed-batch culture  

SciTech Connect

The production of ethanol from carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in batch and fed-batch culture was investigated. Fed-batch culture proved to be a better fermentation system for the production of ethanol than batch culture. In fed-batch culture, both free and immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave the same maximum concentration of final ethanol at an initial sugar concentration of 300 g/L and F = 167 mL/h. The maximum ethanol productivity was obtained with both free and immobilized cells at a substrate concentration of 300 g/L and F = 334 mL/h. In repeated fed-batch culture, immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave a higher overall ethanol concentration compared with the free cells. The immobilized S. cerevisiae cells in Ca-alginate beads retained their ability to produce ethanol for 10 days.

Roukas, T. (Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Food Science and Technology)

1994-02-05

191

[Evaluation of non-host plant ethanol extracts against Plutella xylostella population].  

PubMed

Through establishing experimental and natural population life tables, and by using the index of population trend (1) and interference index of population control (IIPC), this paper evaluated 8 kinds of non-host plant ethanol extracts against experimental population of Plutella xylostella, and 3 kinds of these extracts and their mixture against Plutella xylostella natural population. The experimental population life table of DBM showed that the index of population trend (I) was 69. 8964 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.3702, 4.4842, 8.0945, 11.1382, 6.8937, 6.1609, 5.5199 and 9.8052, respectively in treatments of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Nicotiana tabacum, Broussonetia papyrifera, Bauhinia variegata, Duranta repens, Euphorbia hirta and Camellia oleifera ethanol extracts, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.0768, 0.0642, 0.1158, 0.1594, 0.0986, 0.0881, 0.0790 and 0. 1403, respectively. The natural population life tables of DBM showed that the index of population trend (I) was 21.6232 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.1997, 7.4160, 7. 3644 and 3.1399, respectively in treatments of the ethanol extracts of E. tereticornis, N. tabacum, C. oleifera and their mixture, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.2405, 0.3695, 0.3549 and 0.1608, respectively. All of these indicated that the test plant extracts could interfere the development of P. xylostella population significantly, and had the potential as an effective measure for controlling insect pest. PMID:16180759

Wei, Hui; Hou, Youming; Yang, Guang; Fu, Jianwei; You, Minsheng

2005-06-01

192

Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Properties of Ethanol Extract of Vernonia Amygdalina for the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibitive and adsorption properties of ethanol extract of vernonia amygdalina for the corrosion of mild steel were studied using weight loss, thermometric, gasometric and IR methods of monitoring corrosion. The results revealed that ethanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina inhibited the corrosion of mild steel. The inhibition efficiency of the extract increased as the concentration of the extract increases. The inhibitor

A. O. Odiongenyi; S. A. Odoemelam; N. O. Eddy

2009-01-01

193

Hepatoprotective potential of Lavandula coronopifolia extracts against ethanol induced oxidative stress-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

The present investigations were carried out to study the protective potential of four extracts (namely petroleum ether extract (LCR), chloroform extract (LCM), ethyl acetate extract (LCE), and alcoholic extract (LCL)) of Lavandula coronopifolia on oxidative stress-mediated cell death induced by ethanol, a known hepatotoxin in human hapatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. Cells were pretreated with LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts (10-50 ?g/ml) of L. coronopifolia for 24 h and then ethanol was added and incubated further for 24 h. After the exposure, cell viability using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and neutral red uptake assays and morphological changes in HepG2 cells were studied. Pretreatment with various extracts of L. coronpifolia was found to be significantly effective in countering the cytotoxic responses of ethanol. Antioxidant properties of these L. coronopifolia extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and glutathione (GSH) levels induced by ethanol were investigated. Results show that pretreatment with these extracts for 24 h significantly inhibited ROS generation and LPO induced and increased the GSH levels reduced by ethanol. The data from the study suggests that LCR, LCM, LCE, and LCL extracts of L. coronopifolia showed hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced damage in HepG2 cells. However, a comparative study revealed that the LCE extract was found to be the most effective and LCL the least effective. The hepatoprotective effects observed in the study could be associated with the antioxidant properties of these extracts of L. coronopifolia. PMID:23546397

Farshori, Nida Nayyar; Al-Sheddi, Ebtsam S; Al-Oqail, Mai M; Hassan, Wafaa H B; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed; Siddiqui, Maqsood A

2013-03-28

194

Preparation and characterization of nano liposomes of Orthosiphon stamineus ethanolic extract in soybean phospholipids  

PubMed Central

Background O. stamineus is a medicinal herb with remarkable pharmacological properties. However, poor solubility of the active principles limits its medicinal value. This study sought to prepare nano liposomes of OS ethanolic extract in unpurified soybean phospholipids in order to improve its solubility and permeability. OS liposomes were prepared by the conventional film method, and were characterized for solubility, entrapment efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size and zeta potential, release, absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs, and DPPH scavenging effect. Results OS liposomes showed substantial enhancement of extract’s solubility from 956?±?34 to 3979?±?139 ?g/ml, with entrapment efficiency of 66.2?±?0.9%. FTIR study indicates interaction between soybean phospholipids and OS extract. TEM and dynamic light scattering showed presence of round anionic nano liposomes with particle size and zeta potential of 152.5?±?1.1 nm and ?49.8?±?1.0 mV, respectively. A study using the fluorescent probe pyrene showed the critical micellar concentration is 9.2?±?2.9 ?g/ml. Release studies showed 94?±?0.1% release in non-formulated extract and 62.4?±?0.1% in OS liposomes. Released extract from OS liposomes showed improvement in DPPH scavenging effect, IC50?=?23.5?±?1.1 ?g/ml compared to 32.4?±?0.5 ?g/ml in non-formulated extract. OS liposomes were stable at pH 5.5 and 7.4, but showed reversible agglomeration at pH 1.6. Absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs showed substantial improvement in permeability of 3?-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4?-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, eupatorin, and 3 other unknown compounds. Conclusions Enhanced solubility, absorption and antioxidant effect may improve the overall pharmacological effects and medicinal value of OS ethanolic extract. PMID:24674107

2014-01-01

195

Relaxant effect of the ethanol extract of Helichrysum plicatum (Asteraceae) on isolated rat ileum contractions.  

PubMed

Helichrysum plicatum (Turkish Helichrysum) has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastric and hepatic disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the relaxant activity of an extract of H. plicatum flowers on isolated rat ileum. Segments of ileum of rats were suspended in an organ bath. Cumulative concentrations of H. plicatum ethanol extract induced a relaxant effect on spontaneous rat ileum contractions. H. plicatum extract caused a mean contractile response of 81.68 +/- 6.17% (at a dose of 0.01 mg/mL) and 30.08 +/- 9.07% (at a dose of 1 mg/mL). A similar effect was observed with papaverine (0.01-3 microg/mL). H. plicatum extract (0.01-1 mg/mL) relaxed high K+ (80 mM) precontractions, an effect similar to that caused by papaverine (0.01-3 microg/mL). The plant extract (0.03-0.3 mg/mL) also induced a significant depression of the cumulative concentration response curve for acetylcholine (5-1500 nM) (p < 0.01). Atropine (140 nM) abolished the acetylcholine effect. The extract (0.03-0.3 mg/mL) reduced the histamine (1-300 nM) and BaCl2 (3-900 microM) induced contractions (p < 0.01). Our results showed the relaxant effect of the ethanol extract of Helichrysum plicatum flowers on the isolated rat intestine Extract of H. plicatum can inhibit the spontaneous ileum contractions and contractions induced by acetylcholine, histamine, barium and potassium ions. PMID:20657488

Bigovic, Dubravka; Brankovic, Suzana; Kitic, Dusanka; Radenkovic, Mirjana; Jankovic, Teodora; Savikin, Katarina; Zivanovic, Slavoljub

2010-05-01

196

Structure and rheological properties of a xyloglucan extracted from Hymenaea courbaril var. courbaril seeds.  

PubMed

Hymenaea courbaril var courbaril seed xyloglucan was efficiently extracted with 0.1M NaCl, followed by ethanol precipitation (yield=72±5% w/w). Its amorphous structure was identified by the pattern of X-ray diffraction. The monosaccharide composition was determined by GC/MS analysis of the alditol acetates and showed the occurrence of glucose:xylose:galactose:arabinose (40:34:20:6). One-(1D) and two-dimensional-(2D) NMR spectra confirmed a central backbone composed by 4-linked ?-glucose units partially branched at position 6 with non-reducing terminal units of ?-xylose or ?-galactose-(1?2)-?-xylose disaccharides. The xyloglucan solution was evaluated by dynamic light scattering and presents a polydisperse and practically neutral profile, and at 0.5 and 1.0% (w/v) the solutions behave as a viscoelastic fluid. The polysaccharide did not show significant antibacterial or hemolytic activities. Overall our results indicate that xyloglucan from H. courbaril is a promising polysaccharide for food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25450047

Arruda, Isabel R S; Albuquerque, Priscilla B S; Santos, Gustavo R C; Silva, Alexandre G; Mourão, Paulo A S; Correia, Maria T S; Vicente, António A; Carneiro-da-Cunha, Maria G

2015-02-01

197

Evaluation of Physiological Activities of the Citron (Citrus junos Sieb. ex TANAKA) Seed Extracts  

PubMed Central

Citron seed extracts (CSEs) were made using distilled water (CSEW), ethanol (CSEE), and n-hexane (CSEH), to measure the total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The total polyphenol content was observed the highest in CSEE (188.71 ?g/mL), and occurred in the following order: CSEE>CSEW (141.11 ?g/mL)>CSEH (26.19 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL. CSEE (63.56%) and CSEW (56.61%) showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activities when compared with CSEH (28.57%). ABTS radical scavenging activities of CSEE (45.53%) and CSEW (40.02%) were also observed to be higher, whereas CSEH did not show ABTS radical scavenging activity. Anti-complementary activity of CSEE (26.85%) showed a greater activity than that of CSEW (7.84%) at 1,000 ?g/mL. Limonin and nomilin contents had the highest values (1.882% and 2.089%) in CSEE, and with 0.327% and 0.139% in CSEW; however, CSEH showed relatively very low values at 0.061% and 0.026%, respectively. Among the CSEs tested, CSEE as a by-product from citron may provide an important source of dietary antioxidant compounds with rich polyphenol and limonoid contents, and immunopotentiating activity, including the complement activation factor. PMID:24471132

Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

2013-01-01

198

Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3?~?12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9?~?2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

2010-09-01

199

Separation of lignocellulosic materials by combined processes of pre-hydrolysis and ethanol extraction.  

PubMed

In this paper, we proposed a new modification for an ethanol-based pulping process, which would consist of the pre-hydrolysis (pre-extraction) of wood chips for removing hemicelluloses; the ethanol extraction of pre-hydrolyzed wood chips for removing lignin; and the post purification of cellulose, leading to the production of pure cellulose. We also experimentally evaluated the separation of hemicelluloses from the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) obtained from a pulp mill. To remove lignin from the PHL, it was acidified to a pH of 2, which resulted in 47% lignin precipitation. The lignin separation from the acidified PHL was further improved via adding polyethylene oxide and poly aluminum chloride or adding ethyl acetate. To recover the hemicelluloses from the acidified PHL, ethanol was added to the acidified PHL with a volumetric ratio of 4 to 1. The isolated lignin and hemicelluloses were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and a gas permeation chromatography (GPC). PMID:20829035

Liu, Zehua; Fatehi, Pedram; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao

2011-01-01

200

Grape seed extracts inhibit dentin matrix degradation by MMP-3  

PubMed Central

Since Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been suggested to contribute to dentin caries progression, the hypothesis that MMP inhibition would affect the progression of dentin caries is clinically relevant. Grape seed extracts (GSE) have been previously reported to be natural inhibitors of MMPs. Objective: To evaluate the capacity of a GSE mouthrinse to prevent the degradation of demineralized dentin matrix by MMP-3 (stromelysin-1). Materials and Methods: Standardized blocks of dentin obtained from sound permanent teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons were demineralized with Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and pretreated either with (A) GSE (0.2% w/v), (B) amine fluoride (AmF) (20% w/v), (C) a mouthrinse which contains both, (D) placebo, (E) sodium fluoride (0.15 mg.ml?1), (F) PBS, (G) Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or (H) zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The dentin blocks were then incubated with activated recombinant MMP-3. The supernatants were analyzed by Western Blot for several dentin matrix proteins known to be MMP-3 substrate. In parallel, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed on resin replica of the dentin blocks. Results: Western blot analysis of the supernatants revealed that MMP-3 released from the dentin matrix small proteoglycans (decorin and biglycan) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) in the AmF, sodium fluoride, PBS and placebo pretreated groups, but not in the GSE and mouthrinse pretreated groups. SEM examination of resin replica showed that the mouthrinse and its active components not only had an anti-MMP action but also modified the dentin surface accessibility. Conclusion: This study shows that GSE either alone or combined with AmF as in the evaluated mouthrinse limits dentin matrix degradation. This association may be promising to prevent the progression of caries within dentin. However, the procedure should be adapted to clinically relevant durations. PMID:25400590

Khaddam, Mayssam; Salmon, Benjamin; Le Denmat, Dominique; Tjaderhane, Leo; Menashi, Suzanne; Chaussain, Catherine; Rochefort, Gaël Y.; Boukpessi, Tchilalo

2014-01-01

201

Gastroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds ( Trigonella foenum graecum) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum) compared to omeprazole was studied on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. The aqueous extract and a gel fraction isolated from the seeds showed significant ulcer protective effects. The cytoprotective effect of the seeds seemed to be not only due to the anti-secretory action but also to the effects on mucosal glycoproteins. The fenugreek seeds

R Suja Pandian; C. V Anuradha; P Viswanathan

2002-01-01

202

Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract of Artemisia absinthium against Hyalomma anatolicum ticks.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of different concentrations of ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia absinthium in comparison to amitraz on adults, eggs and larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum using the adult immersion test (AIT), egg hatchability test and larval packet test (LPT), respectively. Four concentrations of the extract (2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in all the bioassays. In AIT, the mortality rates at 2.5, 5 and 10% were significantly different (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control group; however, at 20%, it was similar to the positive control group. Maximum mortality of 86.7% was recorded at 20%. The LC50 and LC95 values were calculated as 6.51 and 55.43%, respectively. The oviposition was reduced significantly by 36.8 and 59.1% at concentrations of 10 and 20%, respectively. Egg hatchability was reduced significantly at all concentrations (2.5-20%) in comparison to the control. In LPT, the extract caused 100% mortality of larvae at all the concentrations after 24 h. The results show that ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of A. absinthium has acaricidal properties and could be useful in controlling H. anatolicum. PMID:25039005

Godara, R; Parveen, S; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Katoch, M; Khajuria, J K; Kaur, D; Ganai, A; Verma, P K; Khajuria, Varun; Singh, N K

2015-01-01

203

Effect of ethanol on the chemical structure of the soot extractable material of an ethylene inverse diffusion flame  

SciTech Connect

The effect of fuel-side ethanol addition on the chemical structure of the soot extractable material generated in an ethylene inverse diffusion flame was evaluated by means of average structural parameters. The results indicate that the ethanol effect on the aromatic components was more pronounced, with an increase of about 40% in the average number of aromatic fused rings (R{sub a}) as compared to the results of a neat flame. This observation also helps explain the low percentage of chloroform-extractable material in the soot samples obtained from the flame with ethanol addition. In contrast, the aliphatic component of the extractable material did not demonstrate significant changes with ethanol addition. (author)

Santamaria, Alexander; Mondragon, Fanor [Institute of Chemistry, University of Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Eddings, Eric G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

2007-10-15

204

Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

205

Allelopathic effects of sorghum extracts on Amaranthus retroflexus seed germination and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

With regards to importance and abundance of Amaranthus retroflexus weed in fields an experiment was conducted using CRD based factorial design with three replications to study the allelopathic effects of sorghum extracts on germination and growth of Amaranthus retroflexus in 2008-2009. Treatments were: harvesting stage of extracted sorghum (vegetative, flowering and seed filling stage), extracted plant part (leaf, stem, root

M. Yarnia; M. B. Khorshidi Benam; E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi

2009-01-01

206

Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and

Ameer Shaheed; Michael R. Templeton; Robert L. Matthews; Sabitri K. Tripathi; Kiran Bhattarai

2009-01-01

207

Hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Annona squamosa L. in experimental animals.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extract of Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) leaves was administered orally at different doses to normal as well as streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The dose of 350 mg/kg body weight (bw) reduced the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level by 6.0% within 1 h, whereas, the peak blood glucose at 1 h during glucose tolerance test (GTT) was reduced by 17.1% in normal rats. The same dose of ethanolic extract reduced FBG by 26.8% and improved glucose tolerance by 38.5 and 40.6% at 1 and 2 h, respectively, during GTT in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. In STZ-diabetic rats, a fall of 13.0% in FBG and an improvement in glucose tolerance by 37.2 and 60.6% at 1 and 2 h, respectively, was observed during GTT. The dose of 350 mg/kg bw of ethanolic extract in 10-day treatment of a group of STZ-diabetic rats produced 73.3% fall in FBG level and no sugar was observed in fasting urine. Treatment of severely-diabetic rabbits for 15 days with a dose of 350 mg/kg of extract reduce FBG by 52.7% and urine sugar by 75%. It brought about fall in the level of total cholesterol (TC) by 49.3% with increase of 30.3% in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and decrease of 71.9 and 28.7% in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) levels, respectively. PMID:15848023

Gupta, Rajesh Kumar; Kesari, Achyut Narayan; Murthy, P S; Chandra, R; Tandon, V; Watal, Geeta

2005-05-13

208

A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) have long been used as a herbal medicine for treating metabolic and nutritive dysfunctions. They have been shown to modulate\\u000a feeding behaviour in animals. We have recently observed a selective decrease in fat consumption in healthy normal weight volunteers\\u000a treated with a hydro-alcoholic seed extract. However, strong clinical data on the effects of fenugreek seeds

Hugues Chevassus; Jean-Baptiste Gaillard; Anne Farret; Françoise Costa; Isabelle Gabillaud; Emilie Mas; Anne-Marie Dupuy; Françoise Michel; Caroline Cantié; Eric Renard; Florence Galtier; Pierre Petit

2010-01-01

209

Antihyperglycemic effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and its use in diabetes mellitus: a brief qualitative phytochemical and acute toxicity test on the extract.  

PubMed

The effects of ethanol extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek) seeds on the blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats at different doses (2 g/kg, 1 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg and 0.1 g/kg) were studied. The hypoglycemic effect of extract was compared with that of the standard antidiabetic drug (glimepiride, 4 mg/kg) single dose. The extract showed significant activity against the diabetic state induced by alloxan but the intensity of hypoglycemic effect varied from dose to dose. The most effective dose recognized was 1 g/kg but that is still lower than the standard antidiabetic drug. No acute toxicity was observed for ethanol extract of T. foenum-graecum seed when it was administered orally at high dose level (3 g/kg body weight), which is higher than effective antihyperglycemic dose, and closely observed for 24 hrs for any mortality and next 10 days for any delayed toxic effects on gross behavioral activities. Phytochemical group tests were also accomplished and presence of alkaloids, steroids and carbohydrates were recognized in the extract. PMID:20448850

Mowla, Asmena; Alauddin, M; Rahman, Md Atiar; Ahmed, Kabir

2009-01-01

210

The Bioconversion of Red Ginseng Ethanol Extract into Compound K by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HJ-014  

PubMed Central

A ?-glucosidase producing yeast strain was isolated from Korean traditional rice wine. Based on the sequence of the YCL008c gene and analysis of the fatty acid composition, the isolate was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain HJ-014. S. cerevisiae HJ-014 produced ginsenoside Rd, F2, and compound K from the ethanol extract of red ginseng. The production was increased by shaking culture, where the bioconversion efficiency was increased 2-fold compared to standing culture. The production of ginsenoside F2 and compound K was time-dependent and thought to proceed by the transformation pathway of: red ginseng extract?Rd?F2?compound K. The optimum incubation time and concentration of red ginseng extract for the production of compound K was 96 hr and 4.5% (w/v), respectively. PMID:25346602

Choi, Hak Joo; Kim, Eun A; Kim, Dong Hee

2014-01-01

211

Anticancer effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on prostate cancer cell line (PC-3).  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent cancer and the leading cause of male cancer death. Azadirachta indica (neem tree) has been used successfully centuries to reduce tumors by herbalists throughout Southeast Asia. Here the present study indicated that an ethanolic extract of neem has been shown to cause cell death of prostate cancer cells (PC-3) by inducing apoptosis as evidenced by a dose-dependent increase in DNA fragmentation and a decrease in cell viability. Western blot studies indicated that treatment with neem extract showed decreased level of Bcl-2, which is anti-apoptotic protein and increased the level of Bax protein. So the neem extract could be potentially effective against prostate cancer treatment. PMID:16378700

Kumar, Suresh; Suresh, P K; Vijayababu, M R; Arunkumar, A; Arunakaran, J

2006-04-21

212

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts derived from Australian fungi inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro.  

PubMed

Fifteen Australian macrofungi were investigated for cytotoxic activity. Ethanol, cold and hot water extracts of each species were screened for cytotoxic activity against normal mouse fibroblast cells (NIH/3T3), healthy human epithelial kidney cells (HEK-293), four cancer cell lines, gastric adenocarcinoma cells (AGS), two mammary gland adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF7) and colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) with a validated MTT assay. Most extracts derived from Omphalotus nidiformis, Cordyceps cranstounii and Cordyceps gunnii demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity toward a variety of cancer cell lines. In contrast only some extracts from Coprinus comatus, Cordyceps hawkesii, Hypholoma fasciculare, Lepista nuda, Leratiomyces ceres and Ophiocordyceps robertsii displayed significant cytotoxic activity, which was usually selective for only one or two cancer cell lines tested. The least cytotoxic species evaluated in this study were Agaricus bitorquis, Coprinopsis atrametaria, Psathyrella asperospora, Russula clelandii, Tricholoma sp. AU2 and Xerula mundroola. PMID:21262985

Beattie, Karren D; Ulrich, Rahel; Grice, I Darren; Uddin, Shaikh J; Blake, Tony B; Wood, Kyle A; Steele, Jules; Iu, Fontaine; May, Tom W; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

213

In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and

C. Marie-Magdeleine; H. Hoste; M. Mahieu; H. Varo; H. Archimede

2009-01-01

214

Effect of chloroform and aqueous basic fraction of ethanolic extract from Apium graveolens L. in experimentally-induced hyperlipidemia in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to explore the antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Apium graveolens L. and its chloroform and aqueous basic fraction in olive oil induced hyperlipidemic rats. The antihyperlipidemic activity of Apium graveolens was compared with a standard drug Atrovastatin (50mg/kg). The study involved phytochemical screening and chromatographic studies of extract and fractions. The ethanolic extract and its fractions were administered orally at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight in rats. Olive oil (5ml/kg oral dose) was administered 30 min after treatment. Blood was collected by ocular puncture 2 and 4 h after olive oil treatment and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15-20 min. Serum samples were further subjected to biochemical analysis. The study dose dependently inhibited the total cholesterol (TC) triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL) level, and significantly increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenoid, tannin, alkaloid, glycoside, flavanoid and sterols. UV ?max was found to be 206 nm with a melting point of 137-138°C for the isolated component. The antihyperlipidemic effect was evaluated in olive oil loaded rats. Acute treatment caused stimulatory effect on HDL level and inhibition in TC and TG elevation induced by olive oil. PMID:22718672

Iyer, Deepa; Patil, U K

2011-01-01

215

UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

2012-01-01

216

Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats  

PubMed Central

It is presumed that drugs sourced from herbs have lesser side effects than allopathic drugs. Enantia chlorantha is widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as jaundice, malaria, fever, infective hepatitis, etc. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. The effects of ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark on body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as histology of vital organs (heart, kidneys and liver) were assessed. Also, the phytochemical constituent of the plant was analysed. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups (A–E) of five rats each and the ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark extract was administered by oral gavage in a single dose. Group A rats were administered 500 mg/kg of the extract, group B; 1000 mg/kg, group C; 2000 mg/kg, group D; 3000 mg/kg and group E rats received distilled water (10 ml/kg) and served as control. The extract caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in a dose dependent manner. Further, significant alterations were not observed in the serum biochemical parameters analysed (AST, ALP, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubin). In addition, the extract at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg caused congestion in the heart and kidney of experimental rats. These results suggest that oral administration of E. chlorantha may produce severe toxic effects at relatively high doses, thus caution should be exercised in its use. PMID:24678252

Abatan, Mathew O.

2013-01-01

217

A new lignan from the seeds of Sphaerophysa salsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel lignan: sphaerophyside SC was isolated from ethanolic extract of the seeds of Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. The structure of the compound was elucidated mainly on the basis of the 1D NMR and 2D NMR data.

Zhongjun Ma; Jia Tian; Isao Fujii; Yutaka Ebizuka; Xian Li

2003-01-01

218

Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria. Materials and Methods: The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract. Results: The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36?g/ml and 182.19?g/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50) value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein. Conclusion: Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria.

Ishnava, Kalpesh B; Shah, Pankit P.

2014-01-01

219

Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), twice weekly and for 8weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g\\/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well

Alaaeldin A. Hamza

2010-01-01

220

INHIBITION OF TRIIODOTHYRONINE PRODUCTION BY FENUGREEK SEED EXTRACT IN MICE AND RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fenugreek seed extract on the alterations in serum thyroid hormone concentrations were studied in adult male mice and rats. Simultaneously, hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were examined. Administration of methi seed extract (0.11 g kg body wt.?1day?1for 15 days) to both mice and rats

SUNANDA PANDA; PANKAJ TAHILIANI; ANAND KAR

1999-01-01

221

Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Fenugreek Seeds Protect Erythrocytes from Oxidative Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polyphenol-rich extract from the seeds of fenugreek was evaluated for its protective effect against hydrogen peroxide(H2O2)-induced oxidation in normal and diabetic human erythrocytes (RBCs). RBCs, preincubated with increasing amounts of fenugreek seed extract and challenged with H2O2, were analyzed for hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. RBCs from diabetic subjects were more susceptible to oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation than those

S. KAVIARASAN; K. VIJAYALAKSHMI; C. V. ANURADHA

2004-01-01

222

Effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The effects and benefits of Acacia auriculiformis on health are not well established. This study was planned to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats. Materials and Methods: Learning and memory were evaluated using passive avoidance paradigm and rewarded alternation test (T-maze) after the oral administration of two doses (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis with rivastigmine as positive control. Forty eight rats were divided into 4 groups in each study model. Estimation of brain cholinesterase activity was done to substantiate the results of the above mentioned tests. Data was analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test using GraphPad InStat software, version 3.06. Results: The extract produced a dose-dependent improvement in the memory score namely the step through latency in passive avoidance model (P < 0.001) and the percentage of correct responses in rewarded alternation test (P < 0.05). Dose-dependent inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity (P < 0.001) was also noted. Conclusion: The acetylcholinesterase inhibiting property of Acacia auriculiformis contributes to its memory enhancing potential. Further large scale studies are required to elucidate its benefits on cognitive function. This may offer a promising new option for the treatment of dementia and other cognitive deficits. PMID:25002806

Sharma, Ajitha; Shetty, Manjunath; Parida, Amrita; Adiga, Shalini; Kamath, Shobha; Sowjanya

2014-01-01

223

Gastroprotective Effects of Glutinous Rice Extract against Ethanol-, Indomethacin-, and Stress-induced Ulcers in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of an orally administered aqueous extract of glutinous rice (GRE) to protect against acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by ethanol, indomethacin, and water immersion restraint stress in rats and to characterize the active substances responsible for the protection. GRE was shown to dose-dependently prevent the gastric lesions induced by the above ulcerogenic treatments at doses of 30 to 300 mg/kg. GRE treatment increased the gastric mucin content and partially blocked the ethanol-induced depletion of the gastric mucus layer. Also, it increased the nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration in the gastric mucosa. The gastroprotective action of GRE was markedly enhanced by co-treatment with 4-8 mg/kg tea extracts. The activity of GRE was completely lost by heat treatment at 80? for 3 min or treatment with 0.01% pepsin at 37? for 1 h. Protein extraction studies indicated that prolamins are involved in the gastroprotective activity of GRE. Our results suggest that glutinous rice proteins are useful for the prevention and treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer. PMID:24855601

Song, Dong Up; Jang, Mi Sun; Kim, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Hyun Joong; Chay, Kee Oh; Joo, Young Eun; Jung, Young Do; Yang, Sung Yeul

2014-01-01

224

Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils.  

PubMed

Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of Cocos nucifera and Colocynthis citrullus seeds and seed oils were evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude fibre, ash, crude protein, lipids and total carbohydrate contents of the seeds as 7.51 and 4.27, 7.70 and 5.51, 1.02 and 2.94, 10.57 and 11.67, 47.80 and 50.42 and 32.84 and 29.47 while the calorific values were 553.99 and 567.32 Kcal/100 g for C. nucifera and C. citrullus, respectively. The two seed oils were odourless and at room temperature (30 degrees C) liquids, with a pale yellow to yellowish colouration. Lipid indices of the seed oils indicated the Acid Values (AV) as 2.06-6.36 mg NaOH g(-1) and 2.99-6.17 mg NaOH g(-1), Free Fatty Acids (FFA) as 1.03-3.18 and 1.49-3.09%, Saponification Values (SV) as 252.44-257.59 and 196.82-201.03 mg KOH g(-1), Iodine Values (IV) as 9.73-10.99 and 110.93-111.46 mg of I2 g(-1) of oil and Peroxide Values (PV) as 0.21-0.21 and 1.53-2.72 mg O2 kg(-1) for soxhlet-mechanical extracted C. nucifera and C. citrullus seed oils, respectively. The studied characteristics of the oil extracts in most cases compared favourably with most conventional vegetable oils sold in the Nigeria markets; however, there were some observed levels of significant differences in the values at p < or = 0.05. These results suggest that the seeds examined may be nutritionally potent and also viable sources of seed oils judging by their oil yield. The data also showed that the seed oils were edible inferring from their low AV and their corresponding low FFA contents. Industrially, the results revealed the seed oils to have great potentials in soap manufacturing industries because of their high SV. They were also shown to be non-drying due to their low IV which also suggested that the oils contain few unsaturated bonds and therefore have low susceptibility to oxidative rancidity and deterioration as confirmed by their low PV which also serves as indicators of the presence or high levels of anti-oxidants in the oils. PMID:22530436

Obasi, N A; Ukadilonu, Joy; Eze, Eberechukwu; Akubugwo, E I; Okorie, U C

2012-01-01

225

Augmentation of sebaceous lipogenesis by an ethanol extract of Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in hamsters in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) is an edible and medicinal mushroom with versatile effects such as antitumor and immunomodulating actions. Here, we demonstrated that an ethanol extract of G. frondosa fruiting body (Maitake extract) augmented intracellular lipid droplet formation and the production of triacylglycerols (TG), a major component of sebum, along with the activation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase, a rate-limiting enzyme of TG synthesis in cultured hamster sebocytes. The topical treatment of Maitake extract on the skin of hamster auricles augmented sebum accumulation in sebaceous glands and ducts. However, in comparison with the Maitake extract, another ethanol extract prepared from Agaricus blazei Murill showed less activity in sebaceous lipogenesis in hamsters in vivo and in vitro. These results provide novel evidence that Maitake extract augments sebaceous lipogenesis in hamsters in vivo and in vitro. Thus, Maitake extract is likely to be a unique agent leading to the remission of dry skin. PMID:19228191

Nagao, Mie; Sato, Takashi; Akimoto, Noriko; Kato, Yuya; Takahashi, Masao; Ito, Akira

2009-08-01

226

Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract.  

PubMed

Hawthorn [Crataegus monogyna Jacq. and Crataegus oxyacantha L.; sin. Crataegus laevigata (Poiret) DC., Rosaceae] leaves, flowers, and berries are used in traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic heart failure, high blood pressure, arrhythmia, and various digestive ailments, as well as geriatric and antiarteriosclerosis remedies. According to European Pharmacopoeia 6.0, hawthorn berries consist of the dried false fruits of these two species or their mixture. The present study was carried out to test free-radical-scavenging, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract. Phenolic compounds represented 3.54%, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. Determination of total flavonoid aglycones content yielded 0.18%. The percentage of hyperoside, as the main flavonol component, was 0.14%. With respect to procyanidins content, the obtained value was 0.44%. DPPH radical-scavenging capacity of the extract was concentration-dependent, with EC50 value of 52.04 microg/mL (calculation based on the total phenolic compounds content in the extract). Oral administration of investigated extract caused dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect in a model of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The obtained anti-inflammatory effect was 20.8, 23.0, and 36.3% for the extract doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. In comparison to indomethacin, given in a dose producing 50% reduction of rat paw edema, the extract given in the highest tested dose (200 mg/kg) showed 72.4% of its activity. Gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using an ethanol-induced acute stress ulcer in rats with ranitidine as a reference drug. Hawthorn extract produced dose-dependent gastroprotective activity (3.8 +/- 2.1, 1.9 +/- 1.7, and 0.7 +/- 0.5 for doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively), with the efficacy comparable to that of the reference drug. Antimicrobial testing of the extract revealed its moderate bactericidal activity, especially against gram-positive bacteria Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus subtilis, and Lysteria monocytogenes, with no effect on Candida albicans. All active components identified in the extract might be responsible for activities observed. PMID:18698794

Tadi?, Vanja M; Dobri?, Silva; Markovi?, Goran M; Dordevi?, Sofija M; Arsi?, Ivana A; Menkovi?, Nebojsa R; Stevi?, Tanja

2008-09-10

227

Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats  

PubMed Central

Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels. PMID:22736884

Balakrishnan, A.; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K.; Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Sathya, M.

2011-01-01

228

Apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from some Apiaceae on human leukaemia cell lines.  

PubMed

Apiaceae are a family of medicinal plants widely used in traditional medicine. The apoptotic activities of seven ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae, Eryngium planum, Archangelica officinalis, Pastinaca sativa, Heracleum sibiricum, Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Levisticum officinale against ML-1--human acute myeloblastic leukaemia, J-45.01--human acute T cell leukaemia, EOL--human eosinophilic leukaemia, HL-60--human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia, 1301--human T cell leukaemia lymphoblast, C-8166--human T cell leukaemia, U-266B1--human myeloma, WICL--human Caucasian normal B cell, and H-9--human T cell, were investigated. PMID:18672039

Bogucka-Kocka, A; Smolarz, H D; Kocki, J

2008-12-01

229

SUBCRITICAL (HOT) WATER/ETHANOL EXTRACTION OF NONYLPHENOL POLYETHOXY CARBOXYLATES IN INDUSTRIAL AND MUNICIPAL SLUDGES. (R821195)  

EPA Science Inventory

Subcritical (hot) water with ethanol as modifier was used to extract nonylphenol polyethoxy carboxylates (NPECs) with 1-4 ethoxy groups from sludge samples. Quantitative recovery of native NPECs from sludge was accomplished by extracting 0.25 g samples for 20 min w...

230

Ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava: Phyto- chemical and trypanocidal activity in rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phyto-chemical composition and trypanocidal activity of the ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava (guava) was investigated in rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Results showed that the extract contained a higher amount of flavonoids compared to tannins which is moderately present. Other phyto-chemicals present but in minute amounts included saponins, steroids, and terpenoids amongst others. The result of the

O. Stephen; M. A. Akanji; S. A. Oguntoye

231

Selective induction of apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) by an ethanol extract of Lentinula edodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ethanol extracts from four species of mushroom fruiting bodies, mushroom spores and mushroom cultured broth, were assessed for modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) and non-tumorigenic epidermal cells (C50). While extracts from mycelia of Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, or from spores of G. lucidum exerted little, if any, effect

Yu-Huan Gu; Martha A. Belury

2005-01-01

232

Toxicological evaluation of the ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. for use as a dietary supplement and in functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

TARRALIN™ is an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus (Russian tarragon), a common medicinal and culinary herb with centuries of use. Artemisia dracunculus is a close relative of the French or cooking tarragon and contains components common to many herbs that are routinely consumed without reported adverse effects. Since safety information of Artemisia dracunculus and its extract is limited to historical

David M. Ribnicky; Alexander Poulev; Joseph O'Neal; Gary Wnorowski; Dolores E. Malek; Ralf Jäger; Ilya Raskin

2004-01-01

233

Anxiolytic and Hypnotic Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Aerial Parts of Echium italicum L. in Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has clearly improved in recent decades. Self-administration of herbal medicines has been the most popular therapeutic alternative to standard medicine. Objectives Since the extract of Echium amoenum exhibits an anxiolytic effect, the aim of this study is to evaluate the anxiolytic and hypnotic effects in mice of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of E. italicum, a member of the Boraginaceae family. Materials and Methods Mice were administered the agents intraperitoneally before the start of the experiments for evaluation of hypnotic activity (induced by sodium pentobarbital, 30 mg/kg, i.p.), anxiolytic activity (elevated plus-maze [EPM] test), locomotor activity (open field test), and motor coordination (rotarod test). Result The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum, at doses of 1.2 and 2.1 g/kg, increased the percentage of time-spent and the percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM and decreased the percentage of time-spent in the closed arms of the EPM. Moreover, both extracts decreased the pentobarbital-induced latency to sleep and significantly increased the total sleeping time induced by pentobarbital. In addition, locomotor activity was affected by aqueous extracts and ethanolic extract (at higher doses). Both extracts showed no effect in the rotarod test. Conclusions These results suggest that both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. italicum may have anxiolytic effects and sedative activity but no effect on muscle relaxation. PMID:24624158

Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Shahandeh, Shabnam; Shahsavand, Shabnam

2012-01-01

234

Full-Press Oil Extraction of Extruded Lesquerella Seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lesquerella fendleri is a winter annual oilseed crop belonging to the Brassicaceae family that is native to the desert Southwestern United States. The seed has 30% oil, which contains 55-64% lesquerolic and auricolic acids (hydroxy FA). The seeds contain glucosinolates that, upon hydrolysis by thi...

235

Grape seed extract attenuates arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is a recognized factor in nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (As). Grape seed extract (GSE) possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effects of GSE against arsenic-induced renal injury. Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to As in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg) for 12 months. The serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and mRNA expression levels of fibrogenic markers in the renal tissues were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) subunits, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) were assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cotreatment with GSE significantly improved renal function, as demonstrated by the reductions in relative kidney weight (% of body weight) and blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in the creatinine clearance capacity. GSE attenuated the As-induced changes in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1? and the mRNA levels of TGF-?1, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in renal tissue. Furthermore, administration of GSE markedly reduced As-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nox activity, as well as the protein expression levels of the NADPH subunits (Nox2, p47phox and Nox4). In addition, GSE cotreatment was correlated with a significant reduction in TGF-?/Smad signaling, as demonstrated by the decreased protein levels of TGF-?1 and pSmad2/3 in renal tissue. This study indicated that GSE may be a useful agent for the prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to As. GSE may exert its effects through the suppression of Nox and inhibition of TGF-?/Smad signaling activation. PMID:24348802

Zhang, Jiangong; Pan, Xinjuan; Li, Ning; Li, Xing; Wang, Yongchao; Liu, Xiaozhuan; Yin, Xinjuan; Yu, Zengli

2014-01-01

236

Uncaria tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract triggers an immunomodulation toward a Th2 cytokine profile.  

PubMed

Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC (Rubiaceae) is a large woody vine that is native to the Amazon and Central American rainforests and is used widely in traditional medicine for its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory activities. The present work used in vivo immunotoxic and in vitro immunomodulatory experiments to investigate the effects of a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid extract from U. tomentosa bark on lymphocyte phenotype, Th1/Th2 cytokine production, cellular proliferation and cytotoxicity. For the in vivo immunotoxicity testing, BALB/c male mice were treated once a day with 125, 500 or 1250?mg/kg of U. tomentosa extract for 28?days. For the in vitro protocol, lymphocytes were cultured with 10-500??g/mg of the extract for 48?h. The extract increased the cellularity of splenic white pulp and the thymic medulla and increased the number of T helper lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. Also, a large stimulatory effect on lymphocyte viability was observed. However, mitogen-induced T lymphocyte proliferation was significantly inhibited at higher concentrations of U. tomentosa extract. Furthermore, an immunological polarization toward a Th2 cytokine profile was observed. These results suggest that the U. tomentosa aqueous-ethanol extract was not immunotoxic to mice and was able to modulate distinct patterns of the immune system in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:21656603

Domingues, Alexandre; Sartori, Alexandrina; Valente, Ligia Maria Marino; Golim, Marjorie Assis; Siani, Antonio Carlos; Viero, Rosa Marlene

2011-08-01

237

Ethanolic Extracts of California Mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) Are Cytotoxic against Normal and Cancerous Human Cells  

PubMed Central

California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) is used by many tribes throughout California to treat a variety of conditions, including colds, allergies, and pain. California mugwort is also utilized as women’s medicine. Its use is on the rise outside of Native communities, often without the guidance of a traditional healer or experienced herbalist. Because it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity against plant and animal cells, we investigated whether California mugwort extracts have an effect on normal human cells as well as estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor negative (ER?) human breast cancer cells. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of A. douglasiana leaves were tested for cytotoxicity against unstimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC), as well as against an ER+ human breast cancer cell line (BT-474) and an ER? human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). An ethanolic leaf extract killed hPBMC, BT-474, and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 23.6 ± 0.3, 27 ± 5, and 37 ± 4 ?g/ml, respectively. An aqueous extract killed hPBMC with an IC50 value of 60 ± 10 ?g/ml, but had no effect on the two cancer cell lines at concentrations up to 100 ?g/ml. The results of this study indicate that the cytotoxicity of California mugwort extends to normal human cells, as well as cancerous cells. Therefore, until further is known about the safety of this medicine, caution should be taken when consuming extracts of California mugwort, whether as a tincture or as a tea. PMID:24073389

Somaweera, Himali; Lai, Gary C.; Blackeye, Rachel; Littlejohn, Beverly; Kirksey, Justine; Aguirre, Richard M.; LaPena, Vince; Pasqua, Anna; Hintz, Mary McCarthy

2013-01-01

238

Pharmacological Proprieties of the Ethanol Extract of Muehlenbeckia platyclada (F. Muell.) Meisn. Leaves  

PubMed Central

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the Muehlenbeckia platyclada leaves’ ethanol extract were investigated in animal models. The extract (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid by 21.57% (400 mg/kg). After intraplantar injection of formalin, a dose of 400 mg/kg (p.o.) inhibited the time spent paw licking in the first phase (26.43%), while the second phase was inhibited by 10.90 and 36.65% at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at a dose of 400 mg/kg (32.68 and 40.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by extract (p.o.) at doses of 100 (15.46 and 16.67%), 200 (22.68 and 25.64%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50 and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of carrageenan application, respectively. Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h after the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (11.28, 21.54 and 45.13%), while leukocyte migration was reduced by 21.21 and 29.70% at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. These results indicate that the ethanol extract from M. platyclada may constitute a potential target for the discovery of new molecules with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities that can be explored for their therapeutic use. PMID:21152311

Fagundes, Leopoldina Leonor; Vieira, Glauciemar Del-Vechio; de Pinho, José de Jesus R. G.; Yamamoto, Célia Hitomi; Alves, Maria Silvana; Stringheta, Paulo César; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

2010-01-01

239

Extraction of Essential Oils From the Seeds of Pomegranate Using Organic Solvents and Supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, essential oils from pomegranate seeds of the Malas variety from Shahreza, Iran, were extracted using hexane\\u000a and petroleum benzene applying four extraction methods: normal stirring, soxhlet, microwave irradiation, and ultrasonic irradiation.\\u000a Also, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 under different conditions was used for comparison. Different methods of extraction with organic solvents (normal stirring,\\u000a soxhlet, microwave irradiation,

Hajar Abbasi; Karamatollah Rezaei; Ladan Rashidi

2008-01-01

240

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with supercritical-CO2 (SC-CO2) have been optimized with respect to pressure, temperature, CO2-flow and extraction time in order to selectively obtain the essential oil. Using Soxhlet extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were extracted. From

T. Baysal; D. A. J. Starmans

1999-01-01

241

Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds ( Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175°C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components were carried out by

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

2007-01-01

242

Research note Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 ? C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4 ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

243

Controlling rice blast in vitro and in vivo with extracts of Azadirachta indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and ethanol leaf extracts, and oil extract of seeds of Azadirachta indica (neem) significantly reduced the in vitro radial growth of Pyricularia oryzae and the development and spread of blast disease in rice plants in the greenhouse. Oil extracts exhibited the best control of the pathogen and subsequent disease followed by ethanol extract, cold water and then hot water

A. C. Amadioha

2000-01-01

244

A comparative study of phytohaemagglutinin and extract of Phaseolus vulgaris seeds by characterization and cytogenetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is a lectin obtained from Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans), that acts as a mitogen in human leucocyte culture and is commercially available from Gibco®. This PHA (Gibco®) was found to be very expensive, hence other inexpensive sources that can be used in all kinds of cytogenetics labs (rich and poor), were attempted. One such successful attempt was PHA extract from seeds of P.vulgaris. This paper details the methodology of extraction and application of PHA from seeds of P.vulgaris. Attempts has been made to identify the chemical and physical properties of the products in the extract, analyzed by various spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The analysis clearly indicates that the product from Phaseolus seeds extract was found to be similar to the commercially available PHA (Gibco®) in the cytogenetic study of human leucocyte cultures. The present study enforces the possible utility of the plant extract directly for human leucocyte cultures.

Badari Nath, A. R. S.; Sivaramakrishna, A.; Marimuthu, K. M.; Saraswathy, Radha

2015-01-01

245

Effect of Garden Cress Seeds Powder and Its Alcoholic Extract on the Metabolic Activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.  

PubMed

The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:24711855

Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Thukair, Areej A; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Abbas, Fawkeya A; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

2014-01-01

246

Antioxidant effect of dry olive ( Olea europaea L.) leaf extract on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies demonstrated that the damaging action of absolute ethanol could be attributed to the enhancement in the reactive\\u000a oxygen species, increase in lipid peroxidation and inhibition of antioxidative enzyme activity. In this study we investigated\\u000a the mechanism of protective effect of olive leaf extract (OLE), a natural antioxidant, on gastric mucosal damage induced by\\u000a absolute ethanol in rats. OLE

D. Dekanski; S. Risti?; D. M. Mitrovi?

2009-01-01

247

A Comparison between Water and Ethanol Extracts of Rumex acetosa for Protective Effects on Gastric Ulcers in Mice  

PubMed Central

Rumex acetosa is a perennial herb that is widely distributed across eastern Asia. Although the hot water extract of R. acetosa has been used to treat gastritis or gastric ulcers as a folk medicine, no scientific report exists for the use of this plant to treat gastric ulcers. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the anti-ulcer activity of water and 70% ethanol extracts obtained from R. acetosa, using an HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. Anti-inflammatory and free radical-scavenging activities of these two extracts were also evaluated and compared. As a result, the administration of R. acetosa extracts significantly reduced the occurrence of gastric ulcers. However, significant differences in protective activity against gastric ulcers were observed between the two samples. In the case of the group pretreated with an ethanol extract dosage of 100 mg/kg, the protective effect (90.9%) was higher than that of water extract (41.2%). Under histological evaluation, pretreatment with R. acetosa extracts reversed negative effects, such as inflammation, edema, moderate hemorrhaging and loss of epithelial cells, presented by HCl/ ethanol-treated stomachs. Meanwhile, R. acetosa extracts showed potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity and decreased NO production in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cellular viability. The greater anti-ulcer and NO production inhibitory activities exhibited by ethanol extracts compared to water extracts could be ascribed to the higher emodin levels, a major anthraquinone component of this plant. PMID:24009831

Bae, Ji-Yeong; Lee, Yoon Seok; Han, Sun Young; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Kong, Jae Yang; Lee, Dong Hoon; Cho, Kyeong Jae; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Ahn, Mi-Jeong

2012-01-01

248

A Comparison between Water and Ethanol Extracts of Rumex acetosa for Protective Effects on Gastric Ulcers in Mice.  

PubMed

Rumex acetosa is a perennial herb that is widely distributed across eastern Asia. Although the hot water extract of R. acetosa has been used to treat gastritis or gastric ulcers as a folk medicine, no scientific report exists for the use of this plant to treat gastric ulcers. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the anti-ulcer activity of water and 70% ethanol extracts obtained from R. acetosa, using an HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. Anti-inflammatory and free radical-scavenging activities of these two extracts were also evaluated and compared. As a result, the administration of R. acetosa extracts significantly reduced the occurrence of gastric ulcers. However, significant differences in protective activity against gastric ulcers were observed between the two samples. In the case of the group pretreated with an ethanol extract dosage of 100 mg/kg, the protective effect (90.9%) was higher than that of water extract (41.2%). Under histological evaluation, pretreatment with R. acetosa extracts reversed negative effects, such as inflammation, edema, moderate hemorrhaging and loss of epithelial cells, presented by HCl/ ethanol-treated stomachs. Meanwhile, R. acetosa extracts showed potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity and decreased NO production in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cellular viability. The greater anti-ulcer and NO production inhibitory activities exhibited by ethanol extracts compared to water extracts could be ascribed to the higher emodin levels, a major anthraquinone component of this plant. PMID:24009831

Bae, Ji-Yeong; Lee, Yoon Seok; Han, Sun Young; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Kong, Jae Yang; Lee, Dong Hoon; Cho, Kyeong Jae; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Ahn, Mi-Jeong

2012-07-01

249

Legume seed exudates and Physcomitrella patens extracts influence swarming behavior in Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

PubMed

Plants are known to secrete chemical compounds that can change the behavior of rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria. We investigated the effects of extracts from legume host plants on the swarming behavior of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. We also investigated the effects on swarming when Rhizobium is exposed to extracts from an ancestor to vascular plants, the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Lentil and faba bean seed exudates enhanced and inhibited swarming motility, respectively, whereas pea seed exudates had no observable effect on swarming. Swarming was also enhanced by the moss extracts. Exposure to lentil seed exudates and the moss extract increased flaA expression 2-fold, while faba bean seed exudates exposure decreased expression 3-fold, suggesting that the swarming effect could, in part, be due to regulation of flagellin gene expression. However, the exudates and extracts did not significantly affect flaA gene expression in planktonic motile cells, indicating that the response to flagellar regulation is specific to a physiology unique to the swarming cell. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that addition of the lentil seed exudate and the moss extract results in earlier differentiation into swarmer cells, which could contribute to the development of a larger swarming surface area. To gain further mechanistic insight into the effect of the moss extract on swarming, a moss strigolactone-deficient mutant (Ppccd8?) was tested. A reduction in the promotive effect was observed, suggesting that the plant hormone strigolactone may be a signalling molecule activating swarming motility in R. leguminosarum. PMID:24392922

Tambalo, Dinah D; Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Shawn; Halmillawewa, Anupama; Hynes, Michael F; Yost, Christopher K

2014-01-01

250

Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20?mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500?mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as compared with omeprazole or extract which shows significant protection towards gastric mucosal injury the plant promotes ulcer protection as it shows significant reduction of ulcer area grossly, and histology showed marked reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared with ulcer group. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of Hsp70 protein and downexpression of Bax protein in rats pretreated with extract. Significant increased in the pH, mucus of gastric content and high levels of PGE2, SOD and reduced amount of MDA was observed. PMID:22550543

AlRashdi, Ahmed S.; Salama, Suzy M.; Alkiyumi, Salim S.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Abdelwahab, Siddig I.; Taha, Manal M.; Hussiani, Jamal; Asykin, Nur

2012-01-01

251

Identification of COX inhibitors in the hexane extract of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.  

PubMed

Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seed extract inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), but its active constituents have not been identified. In the present study, COX inhibitors were isolated from the hexane extract of this seed by means of 4 steps of liquid chromatography and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The COX inhibitors in the extract of Japanese horse chestnut seeds were identified as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic acid. Their efficacies were in the following order: linolenic acid = linoleic acid > oleic acid. These active constituents are C18 unsaturated fatty acids; stearic acid, a C18 saturated fatty acid, had no activity. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid had high selectivity toward COX-2 (selectivity index = 10), whereas oleic acid had no selectivity. Considering the efficacy and yield of each fatty acid, linoleic acid may be the principal COX inhibitor in this seed. PMID:17675801

Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

2007-07-01

252

ANTIPSYCHOTIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN AMPHETAMINE CHALLENGED MICE MODEL  

PubMed Central

Tinospora cordifolia is reported to have CNS active principle and is used for the treatment of various neurological disorders. Hence, the effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia was investigated for its putative antipsychotic activity using amphetamine challenged mice model. Haloperidol (1 mg/kg i.p.) was administered acutely to mice as standard drug. Control animals received vehicle (10% DMSO). The in vivo receptor binding studies were carried out to correlate the antipsychotic activity of the extract with its capacity to bind to the DAD2 receptor. The results in SLA showed that the hydro alcoholic extract of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia at a dose level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed no significant antipsychotic activity in amphetamine induced hyperactivity in mice when compared to standard. Extract alone treated group at a dos level of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg showed a decreased in locomotor activity when compared to the control. The plant extract increased the DAD2 receptor binding in a dose dependent manner in treated mice compared to the control group. PMID:22247829

Jain, Bindu nee Giri; Jain, Vibhor Kumar; Shete, Abhilasha

2010-01-01

253

Antidiarrhoeal activity of an ethanol extract of the stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum (Caesalpiniaceae) in rats.  

PubMed

Piliostigma reticulatum (Caesalpiniaceae) is used in Africa as a traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, such as malaria, tuberculosis and diarrhoea. We investigated the antidiarrhoeal properties of a crude ethanol extract from the stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum (EEPR) in Wistar albino rats to substantiate its traditional use and to determine its phytochemical constituents. The antidiarrhoeal activity of the plant extract was evaluated in a castor oil-induced diarrhoea model in rats and compared with loperamide. The effect of the extract on gastrointestinal motility was also determined by the oral administration of charcoal meal and castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation (enteropooling). EEPR showed remarkable dose-dependent antidiarrhoeal activity evidenced by a reduction of defecation frequency and change in consistency. Extracts at 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced diarrhoeal faeces. EEPR also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility and castor oil-induced enteropooling at 500 and 1000 mg/kg, similar to the inhibition obtained in control rats treated by atropine. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, polyphenols and reducing sugars in the stem bark of P. reticulatum. No mortality or visible signs of general weakness were observed in the rats following administration of the crude extract in doses up to 6000 mg/kg body weight in an acute toxicity study. Our results show that the stem bark of P. reticulatum possesses antidiarrhoeal activity and strongly suggest that its use in traditional medicine practice could be justified. PMID:23983341

Dosso, K; N'guessan, B B; Bidie, A P; Gnangoran, B N; Méité, S; N'guessan, D; Yapo, A P; Ehilé, E E

2012-01-01

254

Ethanolic extract of Aloe vera ameliorates sciatic nerve ligation induced neuropathic pain  

PubMed Central

Background: Aloe vera is being used since ages by human kind for treating various ailments including various inflammatory conditions, but scientific validation has not been done for analgesic activity against neuropathic pain. Objective: The current study was designed to systematically evaluate the therapeutic potential of the ethanolic extract of A. vera (EEAV) against sciatic nerve ligation (SCNL) induced neuropathic pain. Materials and Methods: Nociceptive threshold of EEAV against thermal hyperalgesia, chemical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were performed on 0, 7, 14 and 21st day post-SCNL. Serum total protein, serum nitrite, in vivo anti-oxidant parameters and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated. Sciatic nerve homogenate was used to estimate myeloperoxidase (MPO) and calcium levels. Histopathology of the sciatic nerve was done to confirm the biochemical findings. Results: Treatment with ethanolic extract has increased the threshold for the nociception in thermal hyperalgesia, chemical hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia models. A significant improvement of in vivo anti-oxidant parameters and decreased LPO levels were observed on treatment with A. vera. Significant decrease in serum nitrite, protein, calcium and MPO levels were observed, indicating protection against damage caused by SCNL. Conclusion: The results of the present study validate the use of EEAV to treat neuropathic pain. This effect may be attributed to the decreased migration of neutrophils and due to the anti-oxidant properties of A. vera. Further studies to confirm the mechanism of action will help develop suitable A. vera formulations for neuropathic pain therapy. PMID:25593400

Kanyadhara, Swetha; Dodoala, Sujatha; Sampathi, Sunitha; Punuru, Priyanka; Chinta, Gopichand

2014-01-01

255

Hepatoprotective effect of biherbal ethanolic extract against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in albino rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: The combined hepatoprotective effect of Bi-herbal ethanolic extract (BHEE) was evaluated against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver function tests and biochemical parameters were estimated using standard kits. Livers were quickly removed and fixed in 10% formalin and subjected to histopathological studies. Results: Ethanolic extract from the leaves of Aerva lanata and leaves of Achyranthes aspera at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, 400mg/kg body weight was administered orally once for 3 days. Substantially elevated serum marker enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, due to paracetamol treatment were restored towards normal. Biochemical parameters like total protein, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and urea were also restored towards normal levels. In addition, BHEE significantly decreased the liver weight of paracetamol intoxicated rats. Silymarin at a dose level of 25 mg/kg used as a standard reference also exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity. Conclusion: The results of this study strongly indicate that BHEE has got a potent hepatoprotective action against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in rats. PMID:23326091

Anantha, Krishna Chaitanya D.; Siva, Reddy Challa; Manohar, Reddy A.

2012-01-01

256

Pressurized liquid extraction of polar and nonpolar lipids in corn and oats with hexane, methylene chloride, isopropanol, and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of freshly ground corn kernels and freshly ground rolled oats were extracted via pressurized liquid extraction (accelerated solvent extraction) using four different organic solvents [hexane, methylene chloride\\u000a (also known as dichloromethane), isopropanol, and ethanol] at two temperatures (40 and 100C). Lipid yields varied from 2.9\\u000a to 5.9 wt% for ground corn and from 5.5 to 6.7 wt% for ground

Robert A. Moreau; Michael J. Powell; Vijay Singh

2003-01-01

257

Protective effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in male Swiss albino mice. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei, the extent of hepatic lipid peroxidation and the status of antioxidants-reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were used as intermediate biomarkers of chemoprotection. In DMBA-treated mice, the increases in micronuclei and lipid peroxides were accompanied by compromised antioxidant defenses. Pretreatment with ethanolic neem leaf extract (200 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced DMBA-induced micronuclei and lipid peroxides and enhanced GSH-dependent antioxidant activities. The results of the present study suggest that ethanolic neem leaf extract exerts protective effects against DMBA-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant status. PMID:16635967

Subapriya, Rajamanickam; Kumaraguruparan, Ramasamy; Abraham, Suresh K; Nagini, Siddavaram

2005-01-01

258

Flavonoid content in ethanolic extracts of selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous foods consumed by vulnerable groups of Kenya: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related functional properties.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the flavonoid content, antioxidant as well as type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activities of ethanolic extract of certain raw and traditionally processed indigenous food ingredients including cereals, legumes, oil seeds, tubers, vegetables and leafy vegetables, which are commonly consumed by vulnerable groups in Kenya. The vegetables exhibited higher flavonoid content (50-703 mg/100 g) when compared with the grains (47-343 mg/100 g). The ethanolic extract of presently studied food ingredients revealed 33-93% DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 486-6,389 mmol Fe(II)/g reducing power, 19-43% ?-amylase inhibition activity and 14-68% ?-glucosidase inhibition activity. Among the different food-stuffs, the drumstick and amaranth leaves exhibited significantly higher flavonoid content with excellent functional properties. Roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be suitable processing methods in preserving the functional properties. Hence, such viable processing techniques for respective food samples will be considered in the formulation of functional supplementary foods for vulnerable groups in Kenya. PMID:21375390

Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri

2011-08-01

259

Gastroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5?mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20?mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250?mg/kg and 500?mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5?mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2?g/kg and 5?g/kg). PMID:24783203

Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Golbabapour, Shahram; Ismail, Salmah; Tayyab, Saad; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

2014-01-01

260

Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5?mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20?mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250?mg/kg and 500?mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5?mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2?g/kg and 5?g/kg). PMID:24783203

Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab.; Tayyab, Saad

2014-01-01

261

Coagulation–flocculation process for POME treatment using Moringa oleifera seeds extract: Optimization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of palm oil mill effluent, POME is an important issue for the minimization of water pollution. The coagulation–flocculation process using Moringa oleifera seeds after oil extraction as natural coagulant is reported for POME treatment in the present study. The important process parameters pH, settling time, M. oleifera (after oil extraction) dosage and flocculant (NALCO 7751) dosage were optimized

Subhash Bhatia; Zalina Othman; Abdul Latif Ahmad

2007-01-01

262

SedativeHypnotic Activity of Extracts and Essential Oil of Coriander Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Coriandrum sativum L. has been recom- mended for relief of insomnia in Iranian traditional medi- cine. However, no pharmacological studies have yet evalu- ated its sedative effects. The aim of this study was to de- termine if extracts and essential oil of coriander seeds have sedative-hypnotic activity. Methods: The aqueous or hydro-alcohol ic extracts or essen- tial oil of

M. Emamghoreishi; G. Heidari-Hamedani

2006-01-01

263

Characterization of chia seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil yield, fatty acid composition and the physicochemical and quality characteristics of chia crude seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction were determined. The extraction methods assayed influenced significantly the oil yield, obtaining about 30% more oil by solvent than by pressing. The main fatty acids ranked in the following order of abundance: ?-linolenic acid (? Ln)>linoleic acid

Vanesa Y. Ixtaina; Marcela L. Martínez; Viviana Spotorno; Carmen M. Mateo; Damián M. Maestri; Bernd W. K. Diehl; Susana M. Nolasco; Mabel C. Tomás

2011-01-01

264

EFFECT OF FENUGREEK (Trigonella Foenum-Graecum) SEED EXTRACT ON VISCERAL ORGANS OF BROILER CHICKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the seed extract (aqueous) on the visceral organs of broiler chicks. One hundred and sixty, day old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments A, B, C and D. Each treatment was replicated four times with ten chicks per replicate. Group A, B, C received the aqueous extract of Fenugreek

Farman Ullah Khan; F. R. Durrani; Asad Sultan; Rifat Ullah Khan; Shabana Naz

265

Microemulsion system for topical delivery of thai mango seed kernel extract: development, physicochemical characterisation and ex vivo skin permeation studies.  

PubMed

A microemulsion system containing Thai mango seed kernel extract (MSKE, cultivar "Fahlun") was developed and characterised for the purpose of topical skin delivery. The MSKE-loaded microemulsions were prepared by using the spontaneous emulsification method. Isopropyl myristate (IPM) was selected as the oil phase. A polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate and sorbitan monododecanoate (1:1, w/w) system was used as the surfactant phase; an aqueous mixture of different cosurfactants (absolute ethanol, 96.3% v/v ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol or 1,2-propanediol) at a weight ratio of 1:1 was used as the aqueous phase. Among the cosurfactants studied, the 1-propanol aqueous mixture had the largest microemulsion region (48.93%) in the pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Microemulsions containing 1% MSKE demonstrated good physicochemical stability during a six-month study period at 25 ± 2 °C/60% ± 5% RH. The ex vivo skin permeation study demonstrated that the microemulsions exhibited a potent skin enhancement effect allowing MSKE to penetrate skin layers up to 60-fold higher compared with the control. Neither skin irritation nor skin corrosion was observed in ex vivo studies. The present study revealed that IPM-based microemulsion systems may be promising carriers to enhance skin penetration and delivering MSKE for topical treatment. PMID:25347456

Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Padois, Karine; Falson, Françoise; Bavovada, Rapepol; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan

2014-01-01

266

Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of an ethanol extract of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana from Malaysia.  

PubMed

In the annals of biomedical theory perhaps no single class of natural product has enjoyed more ingenious speculation than antioxidants formally aimed at counteracting oxidative insults which are involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, skin ageing and wound healing. In pursuing our study of Malaysian traditional medicines with antioxidant properties, we became interested in Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort., used traditionally to heal wounds. To examine whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. could suppress oxidation an ethanol extract was tested by conventional chemical in vitro assays i.e., ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay (FRAP), DPPH scavenging assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. To explore whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. protected cells against oxidative injuries, we exposed human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). In all the aforementioned experiments, the ethanol extracts elicited potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. To gain a better understanding of the phytochemical nature of the antioxidant principle involved, five fractions (F1-F5) obtained from the ethanol extract were tested using FRAP, DPPH and BCB assays. Our results provided evidence that F5 was the most active fraction with antioxidant potentials equal to 2.090 +/- 0.307 microg/mL, 0.532 +/- 0.041 microg/mL, 0.032 +/- 0.025 microg/mL in FRAP, DPPH and BCB assay, respectively. Interestingly, F5 protected HepG2 against t-BHP oxidative insults. To further define the chemical identity of the antioxidant principle, we first performed a series of phytochemical tests, followed by liquid-chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) profiling which showed that the major compound contained in F5 was geraniin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the wound healing property of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. is mediated by a geraniin containing extract. Furthermore, our data leads us to conclude that geraniin could be used as a potential pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic topical agent. PMID:23678815

Din, Wardah M; Chu, Jessica; Clarke, Garry; Jin, Khoo T; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Fry, Jeff R; Wiart, Christophe

2013-03-01

267

Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted. PMID:25183141

Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

268

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

?uk, M.; Dymi?ska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; M?czka, M.; Zaj?c, A.; Szo?tysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

2011-03-01

269

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds.  

PubMed

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis. PMID:21237701

Zuk, M; Dymi?ska, L; Kulma, A; Boba, A; Prescha, A; Szopa, J; M?czka, M; Zaj?c, A; Szo?tysek, K; Hanuza, J

2011-03-01

270

Polyphenol-rich extract of fenugreek seeds protect erythrocytes from oxidative damage.  

PubMed

A polyphenol-rich extract from the seeds of fenugreek was evaluated for its protective effect against hydrogen peroxide(H202)-induced oxidation in normal and diabetic human erythrocytes (RBCs). RBCs, preincubated with increasing amounts of fenugreek seed extract and challenged with H2O2, were analyzed for hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. RBCs from diabetic subjects were more susceptible to oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation than those from normal subjects. However preincubation with the polyphenol-rich extract significantly reduced the oxidative modifications in both the groups. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation was concentration-dependent up to 100 microl of extract, which contained 0.75mM gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of phenolic compounds. These findings demonstrate the potent antioxidant properties of the fenugreek seeds. PMID:15678722

Kaviarasan, S; Vijayalakshmi, K; Anuradha, C V

2004-01-01

271

Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts  

PubMed Central

Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100?mg/L A. montana and 10–500?mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10?mg/L A. montana and 10–300?mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders. PMID:22958433

2012-01-01

272

Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the Uncaria tomentosa bark were evaluated. The analysis included trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOD) and quantitation of total tannins (TT) and total phenolic compounds (TPC). The obtained results indicate high antioxidant capacity of the studied materials in comparison to the other extracts of fruits, vegetables, cereals and medicinal plants. Higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of the alcoholic preparations -- TEAC=0.57 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.52 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.39 U/mg than of the aqueous preparation -- TEAC=0.34 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.19 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.10 U/mg were observed. These results might suggest higher medical suitability of alcoholic extracts. However, the highly elevated level of tannins in alcoholic extracts may cause undesirable gastric effects. PMID:16202551

Pilarski, Rados?aw; Zieli?ski, Henryk; Ciesio?ka, Danuta; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

2006-03-01

273

Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa.  

PubMed

Caper plant (Capparis spinosa) extracts have been associated with diverse biological activities including anti-oxidant properties. In this work, we characterized the hydro-ethanolic extract obtained from C. spinosa leaves [hydroethanolic extract of C. spinosa (HECS)] by analyzing the content in anti-oxidant compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Further, we evaluated HECS antioxidant activities in vitro using bleaching of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ABTS test as well as by pretreatment of HeLa cells exposed to Fe(2+) or H2O2. Our findings indicate that HECS contains high amount of total phenolic compounds and high levels of flavonoids and anthocyanins. Furthermore, HECS exhibited antioxidant activity in both chemical and biological tests. Specially, pretreatment of HeLa cells with different concentrations of the extract conferred protection against lipid peroxidation and modulated activities of two antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase. These results revealed HECS antioxidant effects and suggest that C. spinosa leaves are a potential source of natural antioxidant molecules with possible applications in industry and medicine. PMID:25377263

Mansour, Riadh Ben; Jilani, Imtinen Ben Haj; Bouaziz, Mohammed; Gargouri, Bochra; Elloumi, Nésrine; Attia, Hamadi; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb; Lassoued, Saloua

2014-11-01

274

Comparative study on hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts of fenugreek seeds.  

PubMed

The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts (water, methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, dichloro-methane) of fenugreek seeds were investigated in cholesterol-fed rats. Only the ethyl acetate extract reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet (HCD). Furthermore, the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver, heart and kidney decreased significantly after oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The phenolic and flavonoïd contents were highest in the methanol and the ethyl acetate extracts. These results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of the fenugreek seeds had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect and antioxidant activity in cholesterol-fed rats, whether this is partly due to the presence of flavonoïds in the extract needs further study. PMID:23411266

Belguith-Hadriche, Olfa; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Jamoussi, Kamel; Simmonds, Monique S J; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Makni-Ayedi, Fatma

2013-06-01

275

Effects of hydro-ethanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis on blood glucose levels and pathology of organs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluated the differential effects of ethanol extraction of Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis) on the blood glucose concentration and pathology of pancreas, liver, lungs, kidney and gastrointestinal tract in the alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 adult female Albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The first group was treated with the extract of C. colocynthis seed (300 mg/kg) and the rats of the second group, as an untreated diabetic group, received ordinary diet. Ten non diabetic rats remained as a normal control group. Results The results of this study indicate that C. colocynthis was able to reduce blood glucose significantly compared with the control diabetic group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, alloxan resulted in severe necrotic changes in the pancreatic islets, especially in the central area of the islets. Tissue sections of the pancreas in the treated rats demonstrated enhanced regeneration of B cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Liver of the treated diabetic rats revealed significant improvement of the hepatic tissue compared to those of the untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions The present study indicated a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect of C. colocynthis seed and supported its traditional usage in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Oryan, Ahmad; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Hamidi, Ahmad-Reza; Mohammadalipour, Adel

2014-01-01

276

Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0moll?1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500ml of low turbid water (50

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

1999-01-01

277

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Characterization of Argentinean Chia Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of chia seed oil was performed with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). To investigate the effects of pressure and temperature on the oil solubility and yield, two isobaric (250 and 450 bar)\\u000a and two isothermal (40 and 60 °C) extraction conditions were selected. The global extraction yield of chia oil increased with\\u000a pressure enhancement, but temperature had a little influence on it.

Vanesa Y. Ixtaina; Facundo Mattea; Damián A. Cardarelli; Miguel A. Mattea; Susana M. Nolasco; Mabel C. Tomás

2011-01-01

278

Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringa) seed extract on liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis was induced by the oral administration of 20% carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)), twice weekly and for 8 weeks. Simultaneously, M.oleifera Lam seed extract (1g/kg) was orally administered daily. The biochemical and histological results showed that Moringa reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. The administration of Moringa seed extract decreased the CCl(4)-induced elevation of serum aminotransferase activities and globulin level. The elevations of hepatic hydroxyproline content and myeloperoxidase activity were also reduced by Moringa treatment. Furthermore, the immunohistochemical study showed that Moringa markedly reduced the numbers of smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive cells and the accumulation of collagens I and III in liver. Moringa seed extract showed significant inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical, as well as strong reducing antioxidant power. The activity of superoxide dismutase as well as the content of both malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, which are oxidative stress markers, were reversed after treatment with Moringa. Finally, these results suggested that Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. PMID:19854235

Hamza, Alaaeldin A

2010-01-01

279

Ethanol and acetaldehyde production in germinating cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) seeds subjected to hypoxic stress  

SciTech Connect

Alcoholic fermentation in germinating cotton seeds in response to sudden hypoxic stress was characterized. Cotton seeds were imbibed in the dark for various intervals (typically 22-24 hr) in air at 32 C and then subjected to sudden hypoxic stress by exposing seeds in light or darkness to either pure carbon dioxide or nitrogen gas in sealed vials at 28 C. EtOH and acetaldehyde (AALD) were then separated via GLC from head-space samples. Results indicated that during the first 32 hr of imbibition at 32 C, maximum EtOH forming-capacity reached a peak at 16 hr and then fell off slightly. In contrast, AALD forming-capacity during the same interval gradually increases. EtOH production as induced by CO/sub 2/ was unaffected by light conditions during incubation and average 20 nmoles x seed/sup -1/ x hr/sup -1/. EtOH production as induced by N/sub 2/ was only 55% that of CO/sub 2/ stress. AALD production as induced by CO/sub 2/ was reduced 83% under dark as compared to light incubation conditions where it averaged 2.5 nmoles x seed/sup -1/ x hr/sup -1/. EtOH and AALD levels rapidly fell following hypoxic stress relief.

Lehle, F.R.; Ahmed, O.K.

1987-04-01

280

In vitro biological activities and fatty acid profiles of Pistacia terebinthus fruits and Pistacia khinjuk seeds.  

PubMed

This study reports in vitro anticholinesterase, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and ethanol-water extracts prepared from Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits and Pistacia khinjuk Stocks seeds as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and fatty acid compositions. Ethanol and ethanol-water extracts of both species exhibited higher anticholinesterase activity than galanthamine. Among ABTS, DPPH and CUPRAC assays, the highest antioxidant capacity of the extracts was found in the last one. P. terebinthus ethanol extract being rich in flavonoid content showed the best cupric reducing effect. All extracts possessed no antimicrobial activity. The main fatty acid in P. terebinthus fruits (52.52%) and P. khinjuk seeds (59.44%) was found to be oleic acid. Our results indicate that P. terebinthus fruits and P. khinjuk seeds could be a good source of anticholinesterase compounds, and could be phytochemically investigated. PMID:25115646

Hac?bekiro?lu, I??l; Y?lmaz, Pelin Köseo?lu; Ha?imi, Nesrin; K?l?nç, Ersin; Tolan, Veysel; Kolak, Ufuk

2014-08-12

281

Inducing-apoptotic activity of the ethanol extract of Duchesnea indica Focke on treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis.  

PubMed

This study explores the inducing-apoptotic activity of the ethanol extract of Duchesnea indica Focke on treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis. Cell models were employed and divided into 4 groups: normal group, virus group, Duchesnea indica group and dexamethasone group. Cytopathic effect examination was employed to detect apoptosis of PC-12 and BV-2 cells. ELISA was used to measure TNF-?, IL-1?, and Greiss method to measure NO secretion. Flow cytometry assay for caspase-3 expressions was performed. As a result, the ethanol extract of Duchesnea indica could protect the neuron cell model from impairment by virus. In the cell model of microglia stimulated by herpes simplex virus (HSV), with the ethanol extract intervention, TNF-?, IL-1? and NO levels were significantly decreased and cell death of BV-2 cells were markedly increased. The expression level of caspase-3 was notably elevated after the extract intervention. In conclusion, the ethanol extract of Duchesnea indica can reduce HSV-induced inflammatory injury on neuron due to the induction of microglia apoptosis. PMID:21978695

Li, X-F; Guo, Y-J; Wang, M-L; Zhang, D-M; Li, Y-H; Wang, Y-F; Tao, J-Y; Zhang, S-L; Dong, J-H; Li, Lv-Li; Zhao, Lei

2011-01-01

282

A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat consumption in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) are an old herbal remedy used to treat metabolic and nutritive dysfunctions. They have been shown to modulate feeding\\u000a behaviour in animals, but strong clinical data are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a repeated\\u000a administration of a fenugreek seed extract on energy intake and eating behaviour in healthy

Hugues Chevassus; Nathalie Molinier; Françoise Costa; Florence Galtier; Eric Renard; Pierre Petit

2009-01-01

283

Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

284

Antioxidant potential of crocins and ethanol extracts of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS and Crocus sativus L.: A relationship investigation between antioxidant activity and crocin contents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crocins are water-soluble carotenoids responsible for the colour of saffron and gardenia. In this study, we isolated and identified three major crocins from gardenia, and then evaluated their antioxidant potential using four in vitro antioxidant tests in comparison with saffron ethanol extract (SE), gardenia ethanol extract (GE) and gardenia resin fraction (GRF). The relationship between total crocin contents and antioxidant

Yang Chen; Hao Zhang; Xi Tian; Can Zhao; Le Cai; Ying Liu; Lin Jia; Hong-Xiang Yin; Chu Chen

2008-01-01

285

Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness. PMID:22225422

Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B

2012-02-01

286

Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.  

PubMed

The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (?), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug. PMID:24158737

Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

2014-02-01

287

Inhibition of triiodothyronine production by fenugreek seed extract in mice and rats.  

PubMed

The effects of fenugreek seed extract on the alterations in serum thyroid hormone concentrations were studied in adult male mice and rats. Simultaneously, hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, viz superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were examined. Administration of methi seed extract (0.11 g kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) for 15 days) to both mice and rats significantly decreases serum triiodothyronine (T(3)) concentration and T(3)/T(4) ratio, but increases thyroxine (T(4)) levels and body weight. While hepatic LPO and CAT activities were not altered, a significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in both the animal models. These findings suggest that fenugreek seed extract induced inhibition in T(4)to T(3) conversion is not peroxidation-mediated and the inhibition in SOD activity could be the result of a decrease in the protein anabolic hormone, T3. PMID:10527654

Panda, S; Tahiliani, P; Kar, A

1999-11-01

288

Ethanol extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn enhances sperm output in healthy Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), among other factors, have been implicated in the aetiology of male infertility. Thus, the roles of antioxidants at improving sperm production and quality are being investigated. The present study was designed to assess the effect of the ethanol extract of fresh leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on the sperm parameters of healthy male Wistar rats. A total of 18 rats, weighing between 108-124 g, were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were administered 250 mg/kg/d and 500 mg/kg/d of guava leaf extract (GLE) orally for 53 days respectively. Group 3 animals received normal saline. Sperm count increased from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 57.1+/-0.2 (x10(6)) in group 1 animals, and from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 72.3+/-0.4 (x10(6)) in group 2 animals. Similarly, dose-dependent increases in the percentages of motile spermatozoa were observed in GLE-treated animals compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. possess beneficial effects on sperm production and quality, and may thus improve the sperm parameters of infertile males with oligospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia. PMID:19205576

Akinola, O B; Oladosu, O S; Dosumu, O O

2007-06-01

289

In vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Terminalia glaucescens  

PubMed Central

Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in various pathological conditions. Synthetic antioxidants have adverse health effects, while many medicinal plants have antioxidant components that can prevent the harmful effects of ROS. Objectives: This study quantitatively determined the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of the stem bark of Terminalia glaucescens (EESTG). Materials and Methods: The objectives were achieved based on in vitro assays. Data were analyzed by Sigma Plot (version 11.0). Results: Using gallic acid as the standard compound, TPC value obtained was 596.57 ?g GAE/mg extract. TFC content of EESTG, determined as quercetin equivalent was 129.58 ?g QE/mg extract. Furthermore, EESTG significantly (P < 0.001) displayed higher reducing power activity than the standard compounds (ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene [BHT]). Total antioxidant capacity assay, measured by phosphomolybdate method, was 358.33 ± 5.77 ?g butylated hydroxytoluene equivalents [BHTE]/mg extract. ?-carotene-linoleate bleaching method affirmed the potency of EESTG because of its significantly (P < 0.001) higher anti-oxidant activity when compared with quercetin and BHT. Based on DPPH assay, EESTG displayed significantly (P < 0.001) higher activity than BHT, while the hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of BHT and quercetin significantly (P < 0.001) exceeded that of the extract, although EESTG still displayed a high level of activity obtained as 83.77% in comparison to 92.80% of the standard compounds. Conclusion: Findings from this study indicate the presence of promisingly potent phytoconstituents in EESTG that have the capability to act as antioxidants and free radical scavengers. PMID:25598635

Olugbami, J. Olorunjuwon; Gbadegesin, Michael A.; Odunola, Oyeronke A.

2015-01-01

290

Modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes by ethanolic neem leaf extract during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Chemoprevention by medicinal plants is a promising approach for controlling cancer. There is substantial evidence to indicate that chemopreventive agents exert their anticarcinogenic effects by modulation of phase I and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Therefore, we examined the chemopreventive potential of ethanolic neem leaf extract (ENLE) on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. Hamsters were divided into four groups of six animals each. The right buccal pouches of animals in Group I were painted with 0.5 per cent DMBA in liquid paraffin three times per week. Animals in Group 2 painted with DMBA as in group 1, received in addition, intragastric administration of ENLE at a concentration of 200 mg/kg bw three times per week on days alternate to DMBA application. Group 3 was given ENLE alone. Animals in Group 4 served as controls. All animals were killed after an experimental period of 14 weeks. Five out of six hamsters painted with DMBA alone developed squamous cell carcinomas in the buccal pouch. The HBP tumours showed an increase in phase I carcinogen activation (cytochrome P450 and b5) and phase II detoxification enzyme (glutathione-S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and NADPH-diaphorase) activities. In the liver of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced cytochrome P450 and b5 levels were accompanied by a decrease in phase II detoxification enzyme activities. Administration of ENLE effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP tumours, decreased cytochrome P450 and b5 levels, and enhanced phase II enzyme activities in the pouch and liver. Our results suggest that the modulation of DMBA metabolism is a possible mechanism for the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract. PMID:16110755

Subapriya, R; Velmurugan, B; Nagini, S

2005-06-01

291

Comparison of alkylamide yield in ethanolic extracts prepared from fresh versus dry Echinacea purpurea utilizing HPLC–ESI-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, a top selling botanical medicine, is currently of considerable interest due to immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) binding activities of its alkylamide constituents. The purpose of these studies was to comprehensively profile the alkylamide (alkamide) content of E. purpurea root, and to compare yields of alkylamide constituents resulting from various ethanolic extraction procedures

Kevin Spelman; Matthew H. Wetschler; Nadja B. Cech

2009-01-01

292

Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Salvadora oleoides in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To find out the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of an ethanolic extract of the aerial part of Salvadora oleoides Decne in euglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Normal as well as diabetic albino rats were divided into groups (n = 6) receiving different treatments: vehicle (control), ethanolic extract (1 g and 2 g/kg b.w), and standard antidiabetic drug tolbutamide (0.5 g/kg b.w.). Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and were analyzed for blood glucose and lipid profile on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: The ethanolic extract of S oleoides produced significant reduction (P < 0.001) in blood glucose and also had beneficial effects (P < 0.001) on the lipid profile in euglycemic as well as alloxan-induced diabetic rats at the end of the treatment period (21st day). However, the reduction in the blood glucose and improvement in lipid profile was less than that achieved with the standard drug tolbutamide. Conclusion: We concluded that an ethanolic extract of S oleoides is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and improves lipid profile in euglycemic as well as diabetic rats. PMID:21264157

Yadav, J.P.; Saini, Sushila; Kalia, A.N.; Dangi, A.S.

2008-01-01

293

In vitro and in vivo immunosuppressive activity of Spica Prunellae ethanol extract on the immune responses in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunosuppressive activity of the ethanol extract of Spica Prunellae (Prunella vulgaris fruiting spikes) (EESP) consisting of a mixture of triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins and polysaccharide was studied on the immune responses in mice. The effects of EESP on mice splenocyte proliferation in vitro were measured. EESP significantly suppressed concanavalin A (Con A)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in vitro in

Hong-Xiang Sun; Feng Qin; Yuan-Jiang Pan

2005-01-01

294

Experimental Evaluation of Ethanolic Extract of Carapa guianensis L. Leaf for Its Wound Healing Activity Using Three Wound Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Carapa guianensis have been used to treat ulcers, skin parasites, and skin problems. The ethanolic extract of C. guianensis leaf was evaluated for its antibacterial and wound healing activity using excision, incision and dead space wound models in rats. The animals were randomly divided into two groups (n ¼ 6) in all the models. In the excision

B. Shivananda Nayak; Joel Kanhai; David Malcolm Milne; Lexley Pinto Pereira; William H. Swanston

295

Spasmolytic Activity of the Ethanol Extract of Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr. on the Isolated Rat Ileum Contractions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr., known as “mountain tea,” has been widely used in the Mediterranean region as a spice and in folk medicine as a very popular decoction because of its anti-inflammatory, carminative, analgesic, antitussive, stomachic, and antimicrobial properties. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of S. raeseri on intestinal activity. Air-dried and powdered aerial parts were extracted with 96% ethanol. The rat ileum preparations were incubated in Tyrode's solution gassed (95% O2/5% CO2) at 37°C. The ethanol extract of S. raeseri (0.03–0.3?mg/mL) relaxed spontaneous contractions in isolated rat ileum, similar to that produced by papaverine. The plant extract in a concentration-dependent manner (0.015–0.15?mg/mL) significantly inhibited the contractile response to acetylcholine (P<.01). Atropine inhibited the response to acetylcholine. A similar relaxation-inducing effect of the S. raeseri extract was observed on the precontracted ileum by histamine and barium chloride. Plant extract (0.03–0.3?mg/mL) significantly shifted the histamine concentration–response curve to the right and down (P<.01). The S. raeseri extract (0.03–0.3?mg/mL) significantly inhibited the contractions induced by barium chloride (P<.01). The results show that the ethanol extract of S. raeseri can produce inhibition of the the spontaneous rat ileum contractions and contractions induced by different spasmogens. These data indicate that S. raeseri acts as a spasmolytic on intestinal smooth muscle, which justifies its use in gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:21480795

Kitic, Dusanka; Radenkovic, Mirjana; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Jankovic, Teodora; Savikin, Katarina; Zdunic, Gordana

2011-01-01

296

Spasmolytic activity of the ethanol extract of Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr. on the isolated rat ileum contractions.  

PubMed

Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr., known as "mountain tea," has been widely used in the Mediterranean region as a spice and in folk medicine as a very popular decoction because of its anti-inflammatory, carminative, analgesic, antitussive, stomachic, and antimicrobial properties. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of S. raeseri on intestinal activity. Air-dried and powdered aerial parts were extracted with 96% ethanol. The rat ileum preparations were incubated in Tyrode's solution gassed (95% O(2)/5% CO(2)) at 37°C. The ethanol extract of S. raeseri (0.03-0.3?mg/mL) relaxed spontaneous contractions in isolated rat ileum, similar to that produced by papaverine. The plant extract in a concentration-dependent manner (0.015-0.15?mg/mL) significantly inhibited the contractile response to acetylcholine (P<.01). Atropine inhibited the response to acetylcholine. A similar relaxation-inducing effect of the S. raeseri extract was observed on the precontracted ileum by histamine and barium chloride. Plant extract (0.03-0.3?mg/mL) significantly shifted the histamine concentration-response curve to the right and down (P<.01). The S. raeseri extract (0.03-0.3?mg/mL) significantly inhibited the contractions induced by barium chloride (P<.01). The results show that the ethanol extract of S. raeseri can produce inhibition of the the spontaneous rat ileum contractions and contractions induced by different spasmogens. These data indicate that S. raeseri acts as a spasmolytic on intestinal smooth muscle, which justifies its use in gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:21480795

Brankovic, Suzana; Kitic, Dusanka; Radenkovic, Mirjana; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Jankovic, Teodora; Savikin, Katarina; Zdunic, Gordana

2011-05-01

297

Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05g%

Carolina B. Wandscheer; Jonny E. Duque; Mario A. N. da Silva; Yoshiyasu Fukuyama; Jonathan L. Wohlke; Juliana Adelmann; José D. Fontana

2004-01-01

298

Mechanisms involved in the antinociception caused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from Melissa officinalis L. and of the rosmarinic acid in chemical behavioral models of nociception and investigates some of the mechanisms underlying this effect. The extract (3–1000 mg\\/kg), given orally (p.o.) 1 h prior to testing, produced dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain, with ID50 value of 241.9 mg\\/kg. In the

Giselle Guginski; Ana Paula Luiz; Morgana Duarte Silva; Murilo Massaro; Daniel Fernandes Martins; Juliana Chaves; Robson Willain Mattos; Damaris Silveira; Vânia M. M. Ferreira; João Batista Calixto; Adair R. S. Santos

2009-01-01

299

Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and widely used multi-functional fungus. Hot water (50 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C) and ethanol crude extracts of I. obliquus were investigated for their antioxidant activity with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays. We also investigated the antiproliferative effects and ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer

Honghai Hu; Zhenya Zhang; Zhongfang Lei; Yingnan Yang; Norio Sugiura

2009-01-01

300

Extraction of oil from chia seeds with supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chia (Salvia Hispanic, L.) is a crop that was used as food, medicine and paints by the Aztec Indians in Mexico before 1492, and now has a promissory future in several countries. Chia seeds oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly omega-3 linolenic acid (54–67%) and omega-6 linoleic acid (12–21%) which pose great benefits for human and animal health.The

Jose Antonio Rocha Uribe; Jorge Ivan Novelo Perez; Henry Castillo Kauil; Gabriel Rosado Rubio; Carlos Guillermo Alcocer

2011-01-01

301

Extractive acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using methylated crude palm oil as extractant in batch culture of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of employing methylated crude palm oil (CPOE) as an extraction solvent to reduce end-product inhibition and to enhance solvent productivity in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was evaluated using oleyl alcohol as the standard butanol extractant. Fermentation was carried out at an initial glucose concentration of 90 g\\/l. CPOE did not inhibit the growth of the fermentative organism. Without solvent

Ayaaki Ishizaki; Shigeru Michiwaki; Edward Crabbe; Genta Kobayashi; Kenji Sonomoto; Sadazo Yoshino

1999-01-01

302

Comparative Screening of Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. and Ethanolic Extract of Cleome gynandra Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The assesement of immunomodulatory activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. (75, 150 and 300 mg\\/kg, p.o.) and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cleome gynandra Linn. (50, 100 and 200 mg\\/kg, p.o.) were done by carbon clearance method for non-specific immunity, haemagglutination antibody titre method for humoral immunity and footpad swelling method for

Kalpesh Gaur; M. L. Kori; R. K. Nema

303

Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5?mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200?mg/kg) was administered to rats 2?h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000?mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes. PMID:23118790

Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2012-01-01

304

Green tea extract therapy diminishes hepatic fibrosis mediated by dual exposure to carbon tetrachloride and ethanol: A histopathological study  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of green tea extract (GTE) against the hepatic fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), ethanol, and dual exposure to CCl4 plus ethanol in rats. In particular, an investigation of the three-dimensional architecture was conducted using scanning electron microscopy. Various techniques revealed that hepatic fibrosis with intermingled fibers was located between cells in the CCl4, ethanol and combined CCl4 plus ethanol groups. The hepatic fibrosis differed among the ethanol, CCl4 and CCl4 plus ethanol groups in terms of the type, thickness and distribution of fibers. The fibrotic lesions virtually disappeared in all the groups after 25 days of treatment with GTE, returning the architecture of the liver tissue to its normal status. The rats were also found to regain normal body weight and fur color, which had earlier been discolored due to weight loss. The autopsy results also showed that the animal livers returned to the normal shape and color. GTE demonstrated the same clear action in attenuating the hepatofibrosis for all three inducing treatments, by impairing collagen fibers, eliminating lipid peroxidation and returning the liver architecture to normal. GTE presents a safe therapeutic strategy for hepatic fibrosis.

SAFER, ABDEL-MAJEED; AFZAL, MOHAMAD; HANAFY, NOMNY; MOUSA, SHAKER

2015-01-01

305

Ethanolic neem leaf extract protects against N-methyl -N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine-induced gastric carcinogenesis in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. The extent of lipid peroxidation and the status of the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the stomach, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. Animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. Rats in group 1 were given MNNG (150 mg/kg bw) by intragastric intubation three times with a gap of 2 weeks in between the treatments. Rats in group 2 administered MNNG as in group 1, in addition received intragastric intubation of ethanolic neem leaf extract (200 mg/kg bw) three times per week starting on the day following the first exposure to MNNG and continued until the end of the experimental period. Group 3 animals were given ethanolic neem leaf extract alone, while group 4 served as controls. All the animals were killed after an experimental period of 26 weeks. Diminished lipid peroxidation in the stomach tumour tissue was associated with enhanced antioxidant levels. In contrast to tumour tissue, enhanced lipid peroxidation with compromised antioxidant defences was found in the liver and erythrocytes of tumour bearing animals. Administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract significantly reduced the incidence of stomach tumours, modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the stomach, liver and blood. From the results of our study, we suggest that ethanolic neem leaf extract may exert its chemopreventive effects by modulating lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant status in the stomach, liver and erythrocytes. PMID:14507242

Subapriya, R; Nagini, S

2003-01-01

306

The antiangiogenic activities of ethanolic crude extracts of four Salvia species  

PubMed Central

Background Angiogenesis is one of cancer hallmarks that are required for both cancer progression and metastasis. In this study we examined the antiangiogenic properties of the ethanolic crude extracts of four Salvia species grown in Jordan. Methods The direct antiangiogenic activity was evaluated using various models: ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, in vitro assessment of HUVEC proliferation and migration, and in vivo CAM assay, while we used the changes in the expression of HIF-1? and VEGF in breast cancer cells (MCF 7) as an indicative for the indirect antiangiogenic activity. Results All four crude extracts showed a potential antiangiogenic activity in the rat aortic assay, however two species were found to be cytotoxic against Fibroblast cell line (PLF); the finding that caused the exclusion of these two extracts from further studies. Of the two remaining extracts, S. triloba showed very promising direct and indirect antiangiogenic activities. S. triloba inhibited the HUVEC proliferation with an IC50 of 90 ?g/mL and HUVEC migration by 82% at 150 ?g/mL. Furthermore, the in vivo CAM assay also illustrated the high impact of S. triloba against the newly formed vessel in the chicken embryonic membrane. Interestingly, the S. triloba inhibited the expression of VEGF at the mRNA and protein and the HIF-1? mRNA in the MCF 7 breast cancer cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusions Taken together, all these findings of the direct and indirect angiogenic investigations nominated S. triloba as a highly potent antiangiogenic plant that may have chemotherapeutic and/or chemoprevention potentials. PMID:24330494

2013-01-01

307

Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

2014-09-01

308

Response surface optimization of mucilage aqueous extraction from flixweed (Descurainia sophia) seeds.  

PubMed

The effects of four factors of pH (4-8), temperature (50-95°C), weed-seed ratio (W/S, 15-45), and time (1-4 h) on the yield of mucilage extraction of Descurainia sophia seeds were investigated using response surface methodology-Box-Behnken design (RSM-BBD). Results showed that a second-order model for the studied response was adequately fitted with a coefficient of determination of 98.7% (p<0.0001). The optimum conditions to achieve the highest yield (10.45%) were extraction time of 2.9 h, extraction temperature of 94.32°C, pH of 7.55 and the W/S ratio of 44.2. The extracted mucilage at the optimal point effectively scavenged DPPH free radical, and more concentrations of this polysaccharide indicated potent antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:25036599

Golalikhani, Mahshid; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Khosravi, Azin

2014-09-01

309

Antioxidant activities of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) seed coat extracts using in vitro and in vivo models.  

PubMed

Tamarindus indica seed coat was extracted with methanol, acetone and water and screened for DPPH radical scavenging activities. Methanol extract showed higher activity than other extracts. Treatment of albino rats (Wistar strain) with CCl4 at 1.25 mL/kg of body weight decreased superoxide dismutase (55 %), catalase (73 %) and peroxidase (78 %), while lipid peroxidation increased nearly 2.5 fold in liver. Pretreatment of rats with methanol extract of T. Indica seed coat (TSCE) at 50 mg/kg (as tannic acid equivalents) followed by CCl4 treatment, caused restoration of superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation to values close to control while peroxidase was restored to 67 % of the control. Histopathological studies of liver of different groups supported the protective effects of TSCE by restoring the hepatic architecture. These studies could be further extended to exploit its possible application for the preservation of food products as well as a health supplement and neutraceutical. PMID:25190852

Sandesh, P; Velu, V; Singh, R P

2014-09-01

310

Anticholinesterase and Antioxidative Properties of Aqueous Extract of Cola acuminata Seed In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background. Cola acuminata seed, a commonly used stimulant in Nigeria, has been reportedly used for the management of neurodegenerative diseases in folklore without scientific basis. This study sought to investigate the anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from C. acuminata seed in vitro. Methodology. The aqueous extract of C. acuminata seed was prepared (w/v) and its effect on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase activities, as well as some prooxidant (FeSO4, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and quinolinic acid (QA)) induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain in vitro, was investigated. Results. The results revealed that C. acuminata seed extract inhibited AChE (IC50 = 14.6 ?g/mL) and BChE (IC50 = 96.2 ?g/mL) activities in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, incubation of rat's brain homogenates with some prooxidants caused a significant increase P < 0.05 in the brain malondialdehyde (MDA) content and inhibited MDA production dose-dependently and also exhibited further antioxidant properties as typified by their high radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelating abilities. Conclusion. Inhibition of AChE and BChE activities has been the primary treatment method for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, one possible mechanism through which the seed exerts its neuroprotective properties is by inhibiting cholinesterase activities as well as preventing oxidative-stress-induced neurodegeneration. However, this is a preliminary study with possible physiological implications. PMID:25506036

Akinyemi, Ayodele J.; Omojokun, Olasunkanmi S.; Oyeleye, Idowu S.

2014-01-01

311

Functional proteomics reveals the protective effects of saffron ethanolic extract on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.  

PubMed

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a common clinical problem and ROS may be a contributing factor on IR injury. The current study evaluates the potential protective effect of saffron ethanol extract (SEE) in a rat model upon hepatic IR injury. Caspases 3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) results showed increased cell death in the IR samples; reversely, minor apoptosis was detected in the SEE/IR group. Pretreatment with SEE significantly restored the content of antioxidant enzymes (SOD1 and catalase) and remarkably inhibited the intracellular ROS concentration in terms of reducing p47phox translocation. Proteome tools revealed that 20 proteins were significantly modulated in protein intensity between IR and SEE/IR groups. Particularly, SEE administration could attenuate the carbonylation level of several chaperone proteins. Network analysis suggested that saffron extract could alleviate IR-induced ER stress and protein ubiquitination, which finally lead to cell apoptosis. Taken together, SEE could reduce hepatic IR injury through modulating protein oxidation and our results might help to develop novel therapeutic strategies against ROS-caused diseases. PMID:23696413

Pan, Tai-Long; Wu, Tung-Ho; Wang, Pei-Wen; Leu, Yann-Lii; Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Huang, Chun-Hsun; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

2013-08-01

312

Effects of ethanolic extract of Fumaria indica L. on rat cognitive dysfunctions  

PubMed Central

Fumaria indica L. in Ayurveda is known as Parpat and traditionally used to calm the brain. Due to lack of scientific validation, 50% ethanolic extract of F. indica L. (FI) was evaluated for putative cognitive function modulating effects. Suspension of FI in 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was orally administered to rats during the entire experimental period of 16 days at dose levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day. Piracetam was used as standard nootropic. Behavioral models of learning and memory used were modified elevated plus-maze (M-EPM) and passive avoidance (PA) tests. Scopolamine (I mg/kg, s.c.), sodium nitrite (25 mg/kg, i.p.), and electroconvulsive shock (150 mA, 0.2 sec) were used to induce amnesia. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, muscarinic receptor density, oxidative status, and cytokine expressions [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-10] were also assessed. Piracetam (500 mg/kg/day)-like memory-enhancing and anti-amnesic activity of the extract was observed. FI showed dose-dependent decrease in brain AChE activity and increase in muscarinic receptor density, and such was also the case for its observed beneficial effects on the brain antioxidative status. FI also inhibited the scopolamine-induced overexpression of the three tested cytokines observed in rat's brain. FI possesses nootropic-like beneficial effects on cognitive functions. PMID:24696581

Singh, Gireesh Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

2013-01-01

313

Antistress Effects of the Ethanolic Extract from Cymbopogon schoenanthus Growing Wild in Tunisia  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the antistress properties of the ethanol extract of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (CSEE), growing wild in the southern part of Tunisia. The effect of extracts on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Its effect on stress-induced in ICR mice was exposed to force swim and tail suspension, in concordance with heat shock protein expression (HSP27 and HSP90), corticosterone, and catecholamine neurotransmitters level. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CSEE at 1/2000, 1/1000, and 1/500?v/v dilutions significantly inversed H2O2-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, CSEE treatments significantly reversed heat shock protein expression in heat-stressed HSP47-transformed cells (42°C, for 90?min) and mRNA expression of HSP27 and HSP90 in H2O2-treated SH-SY5Y. Daily oral administration of 100?mg/kg and 200?mg/kg CSEE was conducted to ICR mice for 2 weeks. It was resulted in a significant decrease of immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. The effect of CSEE on animal behavior was concordant with a significant regulation of blood serum corticosterone and cerebral cortex levels of catecholamine (dopamine, adrenaline, and noradrenaline). Therefore, this study was attempted to demonstrate the preventive potential of CSEE against stress disorders at in vitro and in vivo levels. PMID:24228063

Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Han, Junkyu; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Ksouri, Riadh; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

2013-01-01

314

Analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta resin in experimental animals  

PubMed Central

Aim: Shorea robusta (Sal), an important traditional Indian medicinal plant used in various ailments and rituals and the indigenous use of the resin of this plant as a medicament for treatment of various inflammatory conditions is well documented in literature. In the present study, ethanolic extract of S. robusta resin (SRE) was evaluated for its analgesic activity by making use of different central and peripheral pain models. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of SRE was assessed by employing different pain models such as, i) hot plate and tail flick tests for central analgesia, ii) acetic acid- induced writhing (peripheral analgesic model), iii) formalin-induced hind paw licking (both central and peripheral model), iv) carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia (peripheral analgesic model) and v) post-surgical pain (peripheral analgesic model). Results: The extract produced significant central and peripheral analgesic effects, as is evident from increase in reaction time in hot plate and tail flick tests, inhibition in writhing counts in acetic acid-induced writhing test, inhibition of licking time in formalin-induced hind paw licking, increased pain threshold in paw withdrawal latency in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia and increased paw withdrawal threshold in post-surgical pain. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate marked antinociceptive effects of SRE. PMID:23087512

Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Kumar, Dhirendra; Prasad, Raju; Verma, Pawan Kumar; Sardar, Kaustuk K.; Tandan, Surendra Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh

2012-01-01

315

Optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract using immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in a stirred tank bioreactor.  

PubMed

In this study, optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract was carried out by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results showed that Ca-alginate concentration and the amount of immobilized cells had significant effects on yield. Optimum conditions for ethanol fermentation were determined to be 2% Ca-alginate concentration, 150 rpm agitation rate, 5% yeast cells entrapped in beads and pH 5.5. After validation experiments; ethanol concentration, yield, production rate and sugar utilization rate were respectively 40.10 g/L, 46.32%, 3.19 g/L/h and 90.66%; and the fermentation time was decreased to 24 h. In addition, the immobilized cells were shown to be reusable for five cycles, though a decrease in yield was observed. Finally, carob pod extract was used for ethanol fermentation by controlled and uncontrolled pH without any enrichment, and the results suggest that carob extract can be utilized effectively by immobilized-cell fermentation without the use of enrichments to facilitate yeast growth. PMID:23010212

Ercan, Yatmaz; Irfan, Turhan; Mustafa, Karhan

2013-05-01

316

Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract inhibits mouse skin papillomagenesis.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to elucidate the inhibitory potential of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract on mouse skin papillomagensis with the modulatory influence of biotransformation system enzymes. Topical application of Momordica whole fruit extract (100 microl/animal per day) during the peri-initiation stage (1 week before and 2 weeks after initiation) by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and/or during the tumor promotion stage reduced the (i) tumor burden to 4.26, 3.72 and 3.11 (positive control value: 5.42); (ii) cumulative number of papillomas to 81, 67 and 53 (positive control value: 103); and (iii) percent incidence of mice bearing papillomas to 100, 94 and 94, respectively (positive control value: 100). In a comparison of the anticarcinogenic efficacy of Momordica peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract (100 microl/animal per day), after topical treatment during the peri-initiation and during the tumor promotion stage, revealed the modulation of the (i) tumor burden (tumors/mouse) to 3.06, 3.61, 3.17 and 3.11; (ii) cumulative number of papillomas to 49, 65, 54 and 53; and (iii) percent incidence of mice bearing papillomas to 84, 100, 94 and 94, respectively. Significant elevation in the sulfhydryl (-SH) level was observed in the liver and skin tissues by the topical treatment of Momordica peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract. Elevation in the hepatic levels of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and microsomal cytochrome b, was also observed by the topical treatment of Momordica peel, seed and whole fruit extract. The results suggest the maximum chemopreventive potential is in the Momordica peel. Equivocal efficacy is in the Momordica seed and whole fruit extract. Biotransformation system enzymes may be the cause of this reduced papillomagenesis. PMID:9544697

Singh, A; Singh, S P; Bamezai, R

1998-01-16

317

Application of response surface methodology to optimize microwave-assisted extraction of silymarin from milk thistle seeds  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several parameters of Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) including extraction time, extraction temperature, ethanol concentration and solid-liquid ratio were selected to describe the MAE processing. The silybin content, measured by an UV-Vis spectrophotometry, was considered as the silymarin yield....

318

SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION OF THE SEED OF COIX LACHRYMA-JOBI L  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the oil and fat in a mixture of the hull and the testa of the seed of Coix Lachryma-Jobi L. is extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. The investigated temperature and pressure ranges from 35 to 50 o C and from 20.7 to 48.3 MPa. It is found that the weight fraction of extractable oil and fat in

Ming-Tsai Liang; Chia-Chen Liang; Wen-Hao Wu; Ling-Yea Wang; Chia-Yen Ho; Chun-Hao Chena; Jer-Yi Liaoa

319

Comparison of chemical composition of Aerva javanica seed essential oils obtained by different extraction methods.  

PubMed

Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult. seed essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and dry steam distillation (SD) extracting methods and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Twenty and eighteen components representing 90.5% and 95.6% of the seed essential oil were identified, using hydrodistillation and dry steam distillation, respectively. The major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by HD were heptacosane (25.4%), 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (14.1%), pentacosane (12.1%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentade-canone (7.9%), nonacosane (7.1%), tricosane (3.6%), ?-farnesene (3.5%), dodecanal (2.7%) and octacosane (2.1%). Whereas the major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by SD were heptacosane (41.4%), pentacosane (21.2%), nonacosane (14.8%), tricosane (6.3%), octacosane (4.2%) and tetracosane (3.0%). PMID:23811454

Samejo, Muhammad Qasim; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

2013-07-01

320

A sunlight-induced method for rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using an Andrachnea chordifolia ethanol extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study a sunlight-induced method for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using an ethanol extract of Andrachnea chordifolia is described. The silver nitrate solutions (1 mM) containing the ethanol extract of Andrachnea chordifolia were irradiated by both sunlight radiation and by sunlight radiation passed through different colored filters (red, yellow or green). The smallest size of silver nanoparticles was obtained when a silver ion solution was irradiated for 5 minutes by direct sunlight radiation. Further examination of the shape and size and of the surface chemistry of these biogenic silver nanoparticles, which were prepared under sunlight radiation, was carried out using transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy images show spherical particles with an average size of 3.4 nm. Hydroxyl residues were also detected on the surface of these biogenic silver nanoparticles fabricated using plant extract of Andrachnea chordifolia under sunlight radiation. Our study on the reduction of silver ions by this plant extract in darkness shows that the synthesis process can take place under dark conditions at much longer incubations (48 hours). Larger silver polydispersed nanoparticles ranging in size from 3 to 30 nm were obtained when the silver ions were treated with the ethanol extract of Andrachnea chordifolia under dark conditions for 48 hours.

Karimi Zarchi, A. A.; Mokhtari, N.; Arfan, M.; Rehman, T.; Ali, M.; Amini, M.; Faridi Majidi, R.; Shahverdi, A. R.

2011-05-01

321

Effects of the serjania erecta and zeyheria montana ethanol extracts in experimental pulpitis in rats: A histological study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by the semi-quantitative histological analysis, the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extracts of Serjania erecta e Zeyheria Montana, in experimental pulpits in rats. Study Design: In order to induce pulp inflammation, cavities were performed on the occlusal surface of the mandibular first molars of 45 male rats, without pulp exposure. The animals were distributed into 4 groups: GI, teeth without cavities; GII, single dose of saline solution via intraperitoneal (IP); GIII, single dose (IP) of 300mg/Kg of ethanolic extract of Zeyheria montana; GIV, single dose (IP) of 300mg/Kg of ethanolic extract of Serjania erecta. After 6, 12 and 24 hours, 5 animals of each group were killed by anesthetic overdose. The histological analyses of the pulp tissue were performed and the data analyzed by Dunn´s multiple test, at significance of 5%. Results: After 12 h, the GIII presented score statistically lower (p<0.05) than positive control group. After 24 h, GIII presented inflammatory index statistically lower than the positive control (p<0.01) and Serjania erecta (p<0.05) groups. Conclusion: The Zeyheria montana extract presented better anti-inflammatory activity than positive control group and Serjania erecta extract, which did not show anti-inflammatory effect in the analyzed periods. Key words:Anti-inflammatory effect, experimental pulpitis, histological analysis, phytotherapy, rats. PMID:23229264

Nossa, Patrícia M.; Guenka, Leandro C.; Couto, Lucélio B.

2013-01-01

322

Aqueous fenugreek seed extract ameliorates adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity and testicular alterations in albino rats.  

PubMed

The present work studied the effect of fenugreek seed extracts on cytotoxicity and testicular damage induced by adriamycin (ADR) in albino rats. Administrating animals with ADR caused significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index, and induced DNA damage in bone marrow. Testes of ADR-treated rats showed many histopathological alterations and the number of sperm head abnormalities increased. Moreover, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased and the activity of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) decreased in the testis. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous seed extracts of fenugreek led to an improvement in the cytogenetic effect and testicular alterations induced by ADR. Lipid peroxidation was reduced and the activities of CAT and SOD were increased. In conclusion, the results indicated that fenugreek seeds ameliorated the cytotoxicity and testicular alterations induced by ADR in albino rats and this may be mediated by its potent antioxidant effects. PMID:22051850

Sakr, Saber A; El-Shenawy, Salama M; Al-Shabka, Ahmed M

2012-01-01

323

Extractable amounts of trans-resveratrol in seed and berry skin in Vitis evaluated at the germplasm level.  

PubMed

Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins and seeds were studied in 120 grape (Vitis) germplasm cultivars during two consecutive years to determine the distribution of resveratrol among the main grape genotypes. Interspecific rootstock cultivars had much higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in skin and seed than all other grape genotypes studied in both years. Extremely high extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins [>100 microg g(-1) of skin fresh weight (FW)] and seeds (>20 microg g(-1) of seed FW) were observed on two rootstock cultivars obtained from hybrids of V. monticula x V. riparia. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berries of rootstock cultivars that are the descendants of V. riparia were also very high. The cultivated European type (V. vinifera) cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low levels of extractable resveratrol in berry skin and seed, and the extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were, with a few exceptions, <2 microg g(-1) of skin or seed FW. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were closely related with fruit traits or purpose of uses and climate. Significantly higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin were found in seeded cultivars than in seedless ones, in both berry skin and seeds in winemaking grapes than in table grapes, and in red grapes than in green ones. Moreover, rainfall during fruit development resulted in higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin, whereas resveratrol synthesis and accumulation in grape seeds were not related to climate change. PMID:17090126

Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Benhong; Wang, Lijun; Li, Shaohua

2006-11-15

324

Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>?-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

2013-01-01

325

Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from Moringa oleifera seed by salt solution.  

PubMed

It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The active component was isolated and purified from the crude extract through a sequence of steps that included salting-out by dialysis, removal of lipids and carbohydrates by homogenization with acetone, and anion exchange. Specific coagulation activity of the active material increased up to 34 times more than the crude extract after the ion exchange. The active component was not the same as that of water extract. The molecular weight was about 3000 Da. The Lowry method and the phenol-sulfuric acid method indicated that the active component was neither protein nor polysaccharide. The optimum pH of the purified active component for coagulation of turbidity was pH 8 and above. Different from the conventional water extracts, the active component can be used for waters with low turbidity without increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration. PMID:11228992

Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

2001-02-01

326

A New Seeded Region Growing Technique for Retinal Blood Vessels Extraction  

PubMed Central

Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation. PMID:25298931

Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

2014-01-01

327

Development of a fescue toxicosis model using a fescue seed extract  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was designed to examine the efficacy of a fescue seed extract for inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. Four growing Holstein steers (BW = 309±36kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas were utilized in a four phase crossover design experiment. The basal diet consisted of endophyte fr...

328

Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

329

EFFECTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA SEED EXTRACT ON RUMEN FERMENTATION IN VITRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moringa oleifera is a pantropical tree of the family Moringaceae. A previously undescribed property of an aqueous extract from the seeds of this plant is the modulation of ruminal fermentation patterns, especially protein degradation, as demonstrated in a short-term batch incubation system. Gas, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cellulolytic enzyme activities were determined as general fermentation parameters. A dot

EM HOFFMANN; S. Muetzel; K. Becker

2003-01-01

330

Antioxidant activity of various extracts and fractions of Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus spp. seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant potency of various extracts and fractions from Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus sp. was evaluated using three established methods, specifically the DPPH scavenging activity, FRAP, and ?-carotene bleaching assays. Satisfying results were obtained, which lead to expect the use of these seeds as health-promoting ingredients. The antioxidant activity was less correlated to the phenolics content suggesting that non-phenolic compounds

Robert Yawadio Nsimba; Hiroe Kikuzaki; Yotaro Konishi

2008-01-01

331

Formulation and characterization of a cream containing extract of fenugreek seeds.  

PubMed

Fenugreek seeds possess antioxidant effects and contain a mucilage which has emollient properties. It can also produce skin healing, whitening, moisturizing, skin soothening and antiwrinkle effects. The purpose of study was to formulate a stable W/O emulsion containing fenugreek seeds extract using liquid paraffin oil. Fenugreek seeds extract, which was obtained by concentrating methanolic extract of fenugreek seeds, was entrapped in the inner aqueous phase of W/O emulsion. A base containing no active material and a formulation containing concentrated extract of fenugreek (in a concentration of 4%) in the internal aqueous phase (W/O emulsion) were prepared and stored at different accelerated conditions for a period of four weeks to predict the stability of these creams. It was found that both, the base and the formulation, were stable at all the accelerated conditions regarding color, liquifaction and phase separation. However, insignificant changes in the pH of base and significant changes in the pH of the formulation were observed with the passage of time. Both the base and the formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for six weeks and various parameters of the skin were evaluated every week to measure any effect produced by these creams. All the effects of base were statistically significant except the sebum contents and pH, which changed but insignificantly. A significant decrease on skin melanin and erythma was produced by the formulation. An insignificant decrease in TEWL was observed for the formulation. PMID:20369794

Waqas, Muhammad K; Akhtar, Naveed; Ahmad, Mahmood; Murtaza, Ghulam; Khan, Haji M S; Iqbal, Muhammad; Rasul, Akhtar; Bhatti, Naveed S

2010-01-01

332

Effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour in the rat: metabolic-endocrine correlates.  

PubMed

Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) are assumed to have restorative and nutritive properties. The present work was designed to investigate the effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour. Experiments were performed to determine food consumption and motivation to eat as well as metabolic-endocrine changes in chronically treated animals. Male Wistar rats were given the seed extract orally (10 and 100 mg/day per 300 g body weight), mixed together with food, and control animals were monitored in parallel. The results show that chronic oral administration of the fenugreek extract significantly increases food intake and the motivation to eat. The treatment, however, does not prevent the anorexia nor the decreased motivation to eat induced by d-fenfluramine (2 mg/kg, IP). An increase in plasma insulin and a decrease in total cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) total cholesterol were also observed. In conclusion, chronic administration of a fenugreek seed extract enhances food consumption and motivation to eat in rats and also induces hyperinsulinemia as well as hypocholesterolemia. PMID:8327543

Petit, P; Sauvaire, Y; Ponsin, G; Manteghetti, M; Fave, A; Ribes, G

1993-06-01

333

Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract. PMID:21188055

Akter, A.; Neela, F. A.; Khan, M. S. I.; Islam, M. S.; Alam, M. F.

2010-01-01

334

Methanol-Water Extraction of Saponins From Seeds of Saponaria Vaccaria L. — Calibration Equation, Extraction Condition Analysis, and Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bisdesmosides, monodesmosides, and other bisdesmosidic saponins were observed in the particles of Saponaria vaccaria L seeds (15.35% dry basis) with diameter of 0.044 to 1.19 mm and an average thickness of 124 µm as investigated with liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy at methanol concentration of 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90% (vol., aq.), temperature of 30°C, 45°C, and 60°C, and eight extraction time intervals between

B. L. Shrestha; O. D. Baik

2012-01-01

335

Antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Diospyros lotus seeds.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective effects of Diospyros lotus seeds extract in experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant potential of Diospvyos lotus seeds extract was examined by employing seven in vito models i.e., DPPH, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activity, iron ion chelating, reducing power and lipid peroxidation through linoleic acid. Antihemolytic activity of extract was examined against hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocytes hemolysis. Also, nephroprotective effect of extract against gentamicin (GM)-induced renal injury was evaluated. Renal injury was achieved by injecting 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) of GM in normal saline. Extracts were administrated i.p. in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood samples were examined for serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after 10 consecutive days of treatment. Results show that extract showed different level of antioxidant and antihemolytic activity in the studied models. Also, results show that GM-induced nephrotoxic animal model was successfully constructed. Extract attenuated the gentamicin-induced increase in level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. The present study shows that the extract offered significant biological action compared with standard compound. PMID:22876611

Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bigdellou, Rata; Mohammadzadeh, Sakineh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

2012-01-01

336

Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on methanolic seeds' extract of Dolichos biflorus.  

PubMed

The Dolichos biflorus is a well known medicinal plant in folklore for its medicinal properties. In herbal medicine the seeds of it are mainly used as tonic, astringent, diuretic, and are also recommended in asthma, bronchitis, urinary discharges, hiccoughs, ozoena, heart trouble and other diseases of brain. The main purpose of this study is to explore and to provide experimental data on the traditional use of plant Dolichos biflorus. For this purpose we investigated the plant seed extract phytochemically and pharmacologically. Phytochemical analysis was performed on extract and powder form of the drug. Procedure use for evaluation were Identification of chemical constituent by color reaction, Fluorescence analysis of powder drug, pH (in powder and extract forms), loss on drying, Thin layer chromatography, Infrared spectroscopy, acid and saponification values. In pharmacological studies (diuretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities) were tested on the extract of plant seed. The tests were carried out over albino mice taking different concentration of seed extract. Seeds extract of Dolichos biflorus has exhibited mild analgesic activity, the results were (84.6±6.68) at dose 300mg/kg and (92.2±6.81) at dose 500mg/kg which were not much significant as compared to reference drug Aspirin (300mg/kg) having result (36.4±2.27). While seed extract of Dolichos biflorus exhibited remarkable diuretic activity, the values at 300 mg/kg was (1.33±0.13) and at 500 mg/kg were (2.66±0.31) which are highly significant as compared to drug Lasix (20mg /kg) having result (2.38±0.23). Anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract of Dolichos biflorus obtained at 0.06mg/kg and 01mg/kg were (26.6±2.96) and (36±1.67) respectively. While the value for aspirin as standard drug (300mg/kg) were (17.44±1.59).This study provides a platform for further investigation for the isolation of active principles responsible for biological activity. PMID:24577923

Ahmad, Mansoor; Sharif, Sadaf; Mehjabeen; Sharif, Hina; Jahan, Noor; Naqvi, Ghazala Raza

2014-03-01

337

[Nature and fractionation of barley proteins extracted by ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol in different proportions].  

PubMed

Barley alcoholsoluble protein extractabilities by aqueous ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol were measured at room temperature. The quantities extracted by each alsohol strongly depend on the concentration of the alcohol. The most efficient concentration for the three alcohols were by increasing order: 45 per cent ethanol, 40 per cent isopropanol, 35 per cent (w/w) n-propanol. Hrodein preparations extracted by these three alcoholic solutions and by 75 per cent (w/w) ethanol were compared by means of the flour nitrogen percentage they contain and by electrophoresis, amino-acid analysis and Sephadex G 100 gel filtration. The preparations studied do not differ markedly in their amino-acid composition or electrophoretic pattern which shows at least 17 different bands. On the other hand, Sephadex G 100 gel filtration separates two main groups of proteins, The first one is present at the same level in all preparations studied and consists of electrophoretically typical hordeins (already described hordeins). The other group represents a fraction of the preparation, the more abundant as the solvent is more effective. This second group is excluded on Sephadex G 100 chromatography and does not give well defined bands by starch gel electrophoresis. Consequently it is related to some glutelins. Nevertheless its amino-acid composition is very close to the mean hordein composition. Electrophoretic comparison with glutelins extracted by acetic acid and with hordeins, all reduced and alkylated, discloses a great similitude between this fraction, the glutelins and some hordein fast components alpha, beta and gamma. PMID:1009177

Laurière, M; Charbonnier, L; Mossé, J

1976-01-01

338

New efficient DNA extraction method to access the microbiome of Ricinus communis seeds.  

PubMed

Ricinus communis (castor bean) seeds are used to produce an alcohol-soluble oil that is used in more than 400 industrial processes. Despite its economic importance, there has been little research on the endophytic microbiota of castor bean seeds. This microbiota is important for plant metabolic processes and may have considerable biotechnological potential, such as production of lipases and plant growth promoter agents. We evaluated several DNA extraction methodologies in order to access the microbial diversity of castor bean through a metagenomic approach. Based on our observations, we developed a new methodology that takes advantage of the low solubility of calcium phosphates and the high affinity of these phosphates for proteins and polysaccharides. The extracted DNA quality was evaluated by PCR, using a selective primer pair for bacterial and mitochondrial 16S rDNA genes (799F and 1492R). We found this methodology quantitatively and qualitatively more efficient than the other approaches. In evaluating this new extraction methodology, we found that the difficulties of DNA extraction from castor bean seeds, such as abundant oil, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and plant enzymes, could be overcome. The resulting extracts had high concentration and purity, and they were obtained faster than with previous methods. The samples contained virtually all of the DNA, including the microbial DNA; this was validated by PCR analysis. PMID:23479168

Santos, C D; Dias, A C C; Amaral, I M R; Bonetti, A M; Campos, T A

2013-01-01

339

Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

2013-06-01

340

Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.  

PubMed

The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses. PMID:23652639

Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

2013-01-01

341

An enzymatic extraction of proanthocyanidins from País grape seeds and skins.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) from the skins and seeds of País grapes were obtained by enzymatic extraction by using three enzymes (pectinase, cellulase and tannase) and an enzymatic blend to increase the phenol concentrations and reduce the PA molecular size. The total phenol concentrations (as indicated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent), mean degree of polymerisation (mDP), galloylation percentage (%G) and structural proportion (phloroglucinolysis) were analysed, in addition to the extract's capacity to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. On grape skins, pectinase had the greatest effective on the release of total phenols, to 0.01g/ml solid/liquid (S/L) and 1% enzyme/substrate (E/S). On grape seed, the three enzymes were effective in increasing the phenolic extraction (p<0.05). The effects of enzymes on the mDP and %G of the extracts were related to their enzymatic activity. All the extracts inhibited ACE, but ACE inhibition was thought to be improved by the increased number of terminal units in the seed samples. PMID:25172676

Fernández, Katherina; Vega, Marco; Aspé, Estrella

2015-02-01

342

Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

2014-12-01

343

LC-MS N-alkylamide profiling of an ethanolic Anacyclus pyrethrum root extract.  

PubMed

An N-alkylamide profiling from an ethanolic Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. root extract was performed using a gradient reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography/UV/electrospray-ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/UV/ESI-MS) method on an embedded polar column. MS1 and MS2 fragmentation data were used for identification purposes while UV was used for quantification. Thirteen N-alkylamides (five N-isobutylamides, three N-methyl isobutylamides, four tyramides and one 2-phenylethylamide) were detected. Six of them, identified as undeca-2E,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, undeca-2E,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid N-methyl isobutylamide, tetradeca-2E,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid tyramide, deca-2E,4E-dienoic acid N-methyl isobutylamide, tetradeca-2E,4E,XE/Z-trienoic acid tyramide and tetradeca-2E,4E,XE/Z,YE/Z-tetraenoic isobutylamide, are novel compounds which have never been reported before from Anacyclus pyrethrum. PMID:23047251

Boonen, Jente; Sharma, Vikas; Dixit, Vinod Kumar; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

2012-11-01

344

Anti-adipogenic effect of mulberry leaf ethanol extract in 3T3-L1 adipocytes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Adipogenesis is part of the cell differentiation process in which undifferentiated fibroblasts (pre-adipocytes) become mature adipocytes with the accumulation of lipid droplets and subsequent cell morphological changes. Several transcription factors and food components have been suggested to be involved in adipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine whether mulberry leaf ethanol extract (MLEE) affects adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. MATERIALS/METHODS The 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with different doses of MLEE for 8 days starting 2 days post-confluence. Cell viability, fat accumulation, and adipogenesis-related factors including CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP?), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), PPAR? coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1?), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and adiponectin were analyzed. RESULTS Results showed that MLEE treatments at 10, 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml had no effect on cell morphology and viability. Without evident toxicity, all MLEE treated cells had lower fat accumulation compared with control as shown by lower absorbances of Oil Red O stain. MLEE at 50 and 100 µg/ml significantly reduced protein levels of PPAR?, PGC-1?, FAS, and adiponectin in differentiated adipocytes. Furthermore, protein level of C/EBP? was significantly decreased by the treatment of 100 µg/ml MLEE. CONCLUSION These results demonstrate that MLEE treatment has an anti-adipogenic effect in differentiated adipocytes without toxicity, suggesting its potential as an anti-obesity therapeutic. PMID:25489399

Yang, Soo Jin; Park, Na-Young

2014-01-01

345

An ethanolic extract of Angelica gigas improves atherosclerosis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

The effects of an ethanolic extract of Angelica gigas (EAG) on the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and high-cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis were investigated. Rat aortic VSMCs were stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor-BB (25 ng/mL) for the induction of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation. EAG (1-10 µg/mL) significantly inhibited both the thymidine incorporation and cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding male New Zealand white rabbits with 0.5% cholesterol in diet for 10 weeks, during which EAG (1% in diet) was given for the final 8 weeks after 2-week induction of hypercholesterolemia. Hypercholesterolemic rabbits exhibited great increases in serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) levels, and finally severe atheromatous plaque formation covering 28.4% of the arterial walls. EAG significantly increased high-density lipoproteins (HDL), slightly decreased LDL, and potentially reduced the atheroma area to 16.6%. The results indicate that EAG attenuates atherosclerosis not only by inhibiting VASC proliferation, but also by increasing blood HDL levels. Therefore, it is suggested that EAG could be an alternative or an adjunct therapy for the improvement of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:24999363

Jang, Ja Young; Kim, Jihyun; Cai, Jingmei; Kim, Youngeun; Shin, Kyungha; Kim, Tae-Su; Lee, Sung-Pyo; Park, Sung Kyeong

2014-01-01

346

Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa on thioacetamide induced liver cirrhosis in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatology research has focused on developing traditional therapies as pharmacological medicines to treat liver cirrhosis. Thus, this study evaluated mechanisms of the hepatoprotective activity of Curcuma longa rhizome ethanolic extract (CLRE) on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Methods The hepatoprotective effect of CLRE was measured in a rat model of thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis over 8 weeks. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 and serum levels of TGF-?1 and TNF-? were evaluated. Oxidative stress was measured by malondialdehyde, urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine and nitrotyrosine levels. The protective activity of CLRE free-radical scavenging mechanisms were evaluated through antioxidant enzymes. Protein expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in animal blood sera was studied and confirmed by immunohistochemistry of Bax, Bcl2 proteins and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and liver biochemistry were significantly lower in the Curcuma longa-treated groups compared with controls. CLRE induced apoptosis, inhibited hepatocytes proliferation but had no effect on hepatic CYP2E1 levels. Conclusion The progression of liver cirrhosis could be inhibited by the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of CLRE and the normal status of the liver could be preserved. PMID:23496995

2013-01-01

347

Isolation and characterization of lignins extracted from flax shives using pressurized aqueous ethanol.  

PubMed

High-molecular weight lignins (HML) and low-molecular weight lignins (LML) were extracted from flax shives using pressurized 30% aqueous ethanol, and isolated by precipitation and ultrafiltration. The isolated lignin samples and two commercial lignins were assayed for monolignol content and functional groups, solubility assays, thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The highest yield of HML was 13.5 g/100 g of flax shives, and this was about six times higher than the LML yield. SEC of lignin samples revealed that the molecular weights of HML and LML are about 30,000 and 8749 Da, respectively. The DSC results of HML show that this lignin has a glass transition temperature near 160 degrees C. HML contains fewer carboxyl groups and more phenolic hydroxyl groups than LML. The higher molecular weight and higher thermal stability of HML makes it an excellent candidate for industrial applications. PMID:20537893

Buranov, Anvar U; Ross, Kelly A; Mazza, Giuseppe

2010-10-01

348

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Siegesbeckia orientalis Ethanol Extract in In Vitro and In Vivo Models  

PubMed Central

This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory responses and mechanisms of Siegesbeckia orientalis ethanol extract (SOE). In cell culture experiments, RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with SOE and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for inflammatory mediators assay. In animal experiments, mice were tube-fed with SOE for 1 week, and s.c. injected with ?-carrageenan or i.p. injected with LPS to simulate inflammation. The degree of paw edema was assessed, and cytokine profile in sera and mouse survival were recorded. Data showed that SOE significantly reduced NO, IL-6, and TNF-? production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that mice supplemented with 32 mg SOE/kg BW/day significantly lowered sera IL-6 level and resulted a higher survival rate compared to the control group (P = 0.019). Furthermore, SOE inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by blocking the degradation of I?B-?. The SOE also reduced significantly the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the in vitro and in vivo evidence indicate that SOE can attenuate acute inflammation by inhibiting inflammatory mediators via suppression of MAPKs- and NF-?B-dependent pathways. PMID:25328884

Weng, Li-Wen; Chang, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Wang, Shih-Wei; Houng, Jer-Yiing

2014-01-01

349

Sutherlandia frutescens Ethanol Extracts Inhibit Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Responses in Neurons and Microglial Cells  

PubMed Central

Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R.Br. (SF) is a medicinal plant indigenous to southern Africa and used in folk and contemporary remedies for stress, chronic diseases, cancer, and HIV/AIDS. While previous studies have focused on physiological effects of SF on cellular and systemic abnormalities associated with these diseases, little is known about its effects in the brain and immune cells in the central nervous system. Results of this study indicate that ethanol extracts of SF (SF-E) suppress NMDA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, and LPS- and IFN?-induced ROS and nitric oxide (NO) production in microglial cells. SF-E’s action on microglial cells appears to be mediated through inhibition of the IFN?-induced p-ERK1/2 signaling pathway which is central to regulating a number of intracellular metabolic processes including enhancing STAT1? phosphorylation and filopodia formation. The involvement of SF in these pathways suggests the potential for novel therapeutics for stress and prevention, and/or treatment of HIV/AIDS as well as other inflammatory diseases in the brain. PMID:24587007

Jiang, Jinghua; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Zong, Yijia; Patel, Jayleenkumar; Brownstein, Korey; Lei, Wei; Lu, Chi-Hua; Simonyi, Agnes; Gu, Zezong; Cui, Jiankun; Rottinghaus, George E.; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Folk, William R.; Sun, Grace Y.

2014-01-01

350

Sutherlandia frutescens ethanol extracts inhibit oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in neurons and microglial cells.  

PubMed

Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R.Br. (SF) is a medicinal plant indigenous to southern Africa and used in folk and contemporary remedies for stress, chronic diseases, cancer, and HIV/AIDS. While previous studies have focused on physiological effects of SF on cellular and systemic abnormalities associated with these diseases, little is known about its effects in the brain and immune cells in the central nervous system. Results of this study indicate that ethanol extracts of SF (SF-E) suppress NMDA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, and LPS- and IFN?-induced ROS and nitric oxide (NO) production in microglial cells. SF-E's action on microglial cells appears to be mediated through inhibition of the IFN?-induced p-ERK1/2 signaling pathway which is central to regulating a number of intracellular metabolic processes including enhancing STAT1? phosphorylation and filopodia formation. The involvement of SF in these pathways suggests the potential for novel therapeutics for stress and prevention, and/or treatment of HIV/AIDS as well as other inflammatory diseases in the brain. PMID:24587007

Jiang, Jinghua; Chuang, Dennis Y; Zong, Yijia; Patel, Jayleenkumar; Brownstein, Korey; Lei, Wei; Lu, Chi-Hua; Simonyi, Agnes; Gu, Zezong; Cui, Jiankun; Rottinghaus, George E; Fritsche, Kevin L; Lubahn, Dennis B; Folk, William R; Sun, Grace Y

2014-01-01

351

Ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss.) causing apoptosis by ROS upregulation in Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria.  

PubMed

Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the Canine family. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves (EEA) against the microfilaria (mf) of D. immitis in vitro. EEA was evaluated for different compound classes through HPTLC. Relative motility, mortality and morphological alterations were observed in the mf after exposure to EEA. The effect of EEA on redox status in the treated mf was evaluated by some key enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters. An enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the treated mf along with altered redox status was evident. DNA fragmentation and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl-transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) confirmed apoptosis. In addition, western blotting revealed down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins. Taken together, the microfilaricidal activity of EEA can be attributed to its capacity to inflict oxidative stress culminating in apoptosis. PMID:25092478

Mukherjee, Niladri; Saini, Prasanta; Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Roy, Priya; Gayen, Prajna; Babu, Santi P Sinha

2014-10-01

352

Anticonvulsant activity of fraction isolated from ethanolic extract of heartwood of Cedrus deodara.  

PubMed

The heartwood of Cedrus deodara is traditionally used for the treatment of neurological disorders in India. In this study, the compound 3,4-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) furan-2,5-dione (BDFD) isolated from the ethanolic extract of C. deodara was evaluated for its anticonvulsant activity. The experimental studies were carried out in albino mice (18–22 g) and rats (180–220 g), employing different models of convulsions. The N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced lethality test and estimation of brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were carried out to investigate the mechanism of action of this compound. BDFD gave dose-dependent protection against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, pilocarpine- and 6-Hz-induced convulsions but it could not inhibit NMDA-induced lethality. Motor incoordination was displayed when the BDFD dose exceeded 400 mg/kg, whereas the therapeutic dose was below 100 mg/kg in the PTZ, pilocarpine and 6-Hz models (39–90 mg/kg). Furthermore, brain GABA estimation revealed that this compound increases the GABA level. BDFD dose levels up to 150 mg/kg did not prevent NMDA-induced lethality, which proves its weak influence on the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. The findings of the experiments on various animal models clearly demonstrated that BDFD possesses anticonvulsant activity by enhancing inhibitory GABAminergic neurotransmission. PMID:23959538

Dhayabaran, Daniel; Florance, Ebinezar Jeyaseeli; Nandakumar, Krishnadas; Shanmugarathinam, Alagarsamy; Puratchikody, Ayarivan

2014-04-01

353

Gynura procumbens ethanolic extract suppresses osteosarcoma cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro.  

PubMed

Gynura procumbens is a traditional herb used for the treatment of inflammation, rheumatism and viral infections, although the antitumor effect and its potential mechanisms of action remain unclear. In the present study, the antitumor effect of Gynura procumbens ethanolic extract (GPE) on the osteosarcoma (OS) cell line, U2-OS, was investigated in vitro. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry assays, respectively. Transwell invasion and wound healing assays were performed to investigate the invasion and migration of the U2-OS cells. The results showed that GPE was able to inhibit U2-OS cell proliferation and metastasis and induce cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the expression of the NF-?Bp65 protein was detected by western blotting to evaluate the effects of GPE on the nuclear transfer of NF-?B. It was demonstrated that the expression of the NF-?Bp65 protein was significantly decreased by GPE. This indicated that GPE was able to inhibit the nuclear transfer of NF-?B. The study shows that GPE is able to induce apoptosis and suppress proliferation and metastasis in U2-OS cells via the inhibition of the nuclear translocation of NF-?B. PMID:23946787

Wang, Heng; Zhou, Ji Wen; Fu, DA Hua; Zhou, Yang; Cheng, Wen Zhao; Liu, Zhi-Li

2013-07-01

354

Aedes aegypti larvicide from the ethanolic extract of Piper nigrum black peppercorns.  

PubMed

Due to unavailability of a vaccine and a specific cure to dengue, the focus nowadays is to develop an effective vector control method against the female Aedes aegypti mosquito. This study aims to determine the larvicidal fractions from Piper nigrum ethanolic extracts (PnPcmE) and to elucidate the identity of the bioactive compounds that comprise these larvicidal fractions. Larvicidal assay was performed by subjecting 3rd to 4th A. aegypti instar larvae to PnPcmE of P. nigrum. The PnPcmE exhibited potential larvicidal activity having an LC50 of 7.1246 ± 0.1304 ppm (mean ± Std error). Normal phase vacuum liquid chromatography of the PnPcmE was employed which resulted in five fractions, two of which showed larvicidal activity. The most active of the PnPcmE fractions is PnPcmE-1A, with an LC50 and LC90 of 1.7101 ± 0.0491 ppm and 3.7078 ppm, respectively. Subsequent purification of PnPcmE-1A allowed the identification of the larvicidal compound as oleic acid. PMID:25118563

Santiago, Viviene S; Alvero, Rita Grace; Villaseñor, Irene M

2015-03-01

355

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ethanolic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intensity of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Sphaeranthus indicus on albino mice and rat of either sex. The flowers of S. indicus are an important herb used in folk eastern medicines. In this study, the ethanolic extract of S. indicus in doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg was used. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by measuring the mean decrease in hind paw volume after the sub planter injection of carrageenan. The analgesic activity was tested against acetic acid induced writhing response using albino rats. Result of the study shows that at the end of one hour the inhibition of paw edema was 42.66 and 50.5% respectively and the percentage of protection from writhing was 62.79 and 68.21 respectively. S. indicus possesses several important pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties. The current study describes that flower of S. indicus has significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Conclusion of the study is that this herbal medicine can be used as an alternative therapy for the treatment of minor to moderate types of inflammation and as a painkiller. PMID:21715276

Ali, Adam; Shyum Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Gauhar, Shahnaz; Saeed, Rehana

2011-07-01

356

Antihyperglycemic activity of Tarralin, an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L.  

PubMed

The studies reported here were undertaken to examine the antihyperglycemic activity of an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L., called Tarralin in diabetic and non-diabetic animals. In genetically diabetic KK-A(gamma) mice, Tarralin treatment by gavage (500 mg/kg body wt./day for 7 days) lowered elevated blood glucose levels by 24% from 479+/-25 to 352+/-16 mg/dl relative to control animals. In comparison, treatment with the known antidiabetic drugs, troglitazone (30 mg/kg body wt./day) and metformin (300 mg/kg body wt./day), decreased blood glucose concentrations by 28% and 41%, respectively. Blood insulin concentrations were reduced in the KK-A(gamma) mice by 33% with Tarralin, 48% with troglitazone and 52% with metformin. In (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, Tarralin treatment, (500 mg/kg body wt./day for 7 days), also significantly lowered blood glucose concentrations, by 20%, from 429+/-41 to 376+/-58 mg/dl relative to control. As a possible mechanism, Tarralin was shown to significantly decrease phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression by 28% in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In non-diabetic animals, treatment with Tarralin did not significantly alter PEPCK expression, blood glucose or insulin concentrations. The extract was also shown to increase the binding of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) to its receptor in vitro. These results indicate that Tarralin has antihyperglycemic activity and a potential role in the management of diabetic states. PMID:16920509

Ribnicky, D M; Poulev, A; Watford, M; Cefalu, W T; Raskin, I

2006-09-01

357

Preventive effects of tamarind seed coat extract on UVA-induced alterations in human skin fibroblasts.  

PubMed

One of the most damaging actions on skin is from solar radiation, particularly from its ultraviolet (UV) component, through the formation of oxidative species. Thus, an antioxidant strategy that prevents the formation of these oxidants could form the basis of an efficacious cutaneous protectant. Many herbal materials contain antioxidant polyphenols, and this study assessed the possibility that tamarind seed coat extract could fulfill this role. An alcoholic extract of the tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat showed stronger antioxidant activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl inhibition, EC(50) = 12.9 ?g/ml) than L-ascorbic acid (EC(50) = 22.9 ?g/ml) and ?-tocopherol (EC(50) = 29.3 ?g/ml). In cultured fibroblasts taken from human skin, hydrogen peroxide (100-1000 ?M) damaged 62-92% of the cells compared to only 35-47% when the cells were preincubated in extract (200 ?g/ml) for 24 h. UVA (40 J/cm2) irradiation of human fibroblasts damaged 25% of the cells but the death rate was reduced to 10% with extract. UV irradiation increased the proportion of cells arrest in G(0)/G(1) phase (from 59% to 78%) but this was largely prevented by the extract (64%), according to flow cytometry. Intracellular total glutathione of UVA-irradiated cells pretreated with the extract increased to 10-25% compared to the non-pretreated group at 24-72 h after irradiation. Fibroblasts typically increased matrix metalloproteinase-1 secretion after photodamage, and this is prevented by the extract. This is the first report showing that tamarind seed coat extract is an antioxidant and can protect human skin fibroblasts from cellular damage produced by UVA and thus may form the foundation for an antiaging cosmetic. PMID:24602819

Phetdee, Khemjira; Rakchai, Racharat; Rattanamanee, Kwanchai; Teaktong, Thanasak; Viyoch, Jarupa

2014-01-01

358

Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) as a salt-tolerant feedstock for production of biodiesel and ethanol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seashore mallow (Kosteletzkya pentacarpos) is a non-invasive perennial nonclonal halophytic oilseed-producing dicot that was investigated as a feedstock for production of biodiesel from seeds and ethanol from residual stem biomass. Seashore mallow seeds contained 19.3 mass % oil, which after extract...

359

Ethanolic extract of Coelogyne cristata Lindley (Orchidaceae) and its compound coelogin promote osteoprotective activity in ovariectomized estrogen deficient mice.  

PubMed

Coelogyne cristata Lindley (CC) family Orchidaceae is an Indian medicinal plant used for the treatment of fractured bones in folk-tradition of Kumaon region, Uttarakhand, India. In continuation of our drug discovery program, feeding of ethanolic extract to ovariectomized estrogen deficient mice led to significant restoration of trabecular micro architecture in both femoral and tibial bones, better bone quality and also devoid of any uterine estrogenicity. Subsequently, coelogin, a pure compound was isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of C. cristata and evaluated in in vitro osteoblast cell cultures. Treatment of coelogin to osteoblasts led to enhanced ALP activity (a marker of osteoblast differentiation), mineral nodule formation and mRNA levels of osteogenic markers like BMP-2, Type 1 Collagen and RUNX-2. Based on these results, we propose that ethanolic extract of C. cristata and its pure compound coelogin have potential in the management of post menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:25442280

Sharma, Chetan; Mansoori, Mohd Nizam; Dixit, Manisha; Shukla, Priyanka; Kumari, Tejaswita; Bhandari, S P S; Narender, T; Singh, Divya; Arya, K R

2014-10-15

360

Anti-Inflammatory and Antihyperalgesic Activities of Ethanolic Extract and Fruticulin A from Salvia lachnostachys Leaves in Mice  

PubMed Central

The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the ethanolic extract (SLEE) and fruticulin A from the leaves of Salvia lachnostachys were evaluated in mice, using experimental models of inflammation (paw oedema and pleurisy induced by carrageenan injection) and hyperalgesia (electronic Von Frey). Oral administration of SLEE (30, 100, and 300?mg/kg) and fruticulin A (0.3 and 3.0?mg/kg) decreased the total leucocytes number in pleural lavage, protein extravasation, and paw oedema. SLEE (100?mg/kg) and fruticulin A (3?mg/kg) also exhibited antihyperalgesic activity in carrageenan induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In addition, fruticulin A (3?mg/kg) prevented mechanical hyperalgesia, inhibiting TNF but not L-DOPA-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. In conclusion, SLEE and fruticulin A display anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Therefore, fruticulin A is at least partially responsible for the activity observed in the ethanolic extract of Salvia lachnostachys. PMID:25435893

Piccinelli, Ana Claudia; Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, Diana; Morato, Priscila Neder; Kuraoka-Oliveira, Ângela Midori; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; dos Santos, Élide Pereira; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Oliveira, Rodrigo Juliano; Kassuya, Cândida Aparecida Leite

2014-01-01

361

Improvement of depression-like behavior and memory impairment with the ethanol extract of Pleurotus eryngii in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Ethanol extract of Pleurotus eryngii (DC.) QUÉL has estrogen-like activities that protect against bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency. In the present study, we investigated the effect of P. eryngii on depression-like behavior and memory impairment in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Immobility time during a forced swimming test was significantly longer for OVX rats than for sham-operated rats. The depression-like behavior in OVX rats was improved by long-term administration of the ethanol extract of P. eryngii (500?mg/kg body weight (b.w.)/d). Spatial memory impairment in OVX rats assessed by the Morris water maze test was also improved by P. eryngii extract without any effect on motility. These results suggested that P. eryngii extract has estrogen-like improvement activity against depression-like behavior and memory impairment in OVX rats. Additionally, increase in the amount of synaptosomal zinc after ovariectomy was inhibited by P. eryngii extract. Since zinc in synaptic vesicles is important for memory function and is linked to the pathophysiology of depression, normalization of zinc signaling would be involved in the beneficial effect of P. eryngii extract on neurological disorders after ovariectomy. PMID:24292057

Minami, Akira; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Horii, Yuuki; Ieno, Daisuke; Matsuda, Yukino; Saito, Masakazu; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Ohyama, Yuriko; Wakatsuki, Akihiko; Takeda, Atsushi; Hidari, Kazuya I P J; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary; Suzuki, Takashi

2013-01-01

362

Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves.  

PubMed

To rationalize scientifically the traditional claim on use of Wedelia biflora (Linn.) D. C. for the treatment of wounds and infections, the present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound healing activity of ethanol extract of leaves of W. biflora. In in vitro assays the test extract was subjected to antimicrobial activity by agar well-diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration method in different microbial strains. Wound healing activity of the test extract was studied by excision wound model and incision wound model in Wistar albino rats. In excision wound model, 97.90% wound healing was recorded in 10% w/w extract treated group on 16(th) days of postsurgery, whereas only 58.50% was observed in control group. In incision model, higher breaking strength, high hydroxyl proline content and histopathological study in extract treated groups revealed higher collagen redeposition than the control group. The agar well-diffusion evaluation and minimum inhibitory concentration established antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts of W. biflora. These observations established the traditional claim and therapeutic activity of W. biflora and it could be a potent wound healing candidate for use in future. PMID:24019563

Biswas, D; Yoganandam, G P; Dey, A; Deb, L

2013-03-01

363

New mixes based on collagen extracts with bioactive properties, for treatment of seeds in sustainable agriculture.  

PubMed

The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate. PMID:24372268

Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai

2013-01-01

364

Beneficial effects of Undaria pinnatifida ethanol extract on diet-induced-insulin resistance in C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was performed to evaluate the beneficial effect of Undaria pinnatifida ethanol extract (UEFx) on insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice. A high-fat diet was supplemented with the UEFx at 0.69% (wt\\/wt) dose, which contains an equivalent amount of 0.02% fucoxanthin (wt\\/wt), or with Fx at 0.02% (wt\\/wt) dose in diet. After 9weeks, both UEFx supplement significantly lowered the

H. J. Park; M. K. Lee; Y. B. Park; Y. C. Shin; M. S. Choi

2011-01-01

365

“High in omega-3 fatty acids” bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed.The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6\\/?-3 ratio from

Izaskun Berasategi; Sheila Legarra; Mikel García-Íñiguez de Ciriano; Sheyla Rehecho; Maria Isabel Calvo; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Íñigo Navarro-Blasco; Diana Ansorena; Iciar Astiasarán

2011-01-01

366

Identification of Natural Compounds with Anti-Hepatitis B Virus Activity from Rheum palmatum L. Ethanol Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a severe health problem in the world; however, there is still no satisfactory therapeutic strategy for the HBV infection. In search for new anti-HBV agents with higher efficiency and less side effects, the anti-HBV activities of traditional Chinese medicine Rheum palmatum L. ethanol extract (RPE) and isolated anthraquinones were evaluated. Methods: The anti-HBV

Zhi Li; Li-jun Li; Yan Sun; Jing Li

2007-01-01

367

Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by Rheum palmatum L. ethanol extract in a stable HBV-producing cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection is a severe health problem in the world. However, there is still not a satisfactory therapeutic\\u000a strategy for the HBV infection. To search for new anti-HBV agents with higher efficacy and less side-effects, the inhibitory\\u000a activities of traditional Chinese medicine Rheum palmatum L. ethanol extract(RPE) against HBV replication were investigated\\u000a in this study. Quantitative real-time polymerase

Yan Sun; Li-jun Li; Jing Li; Zhi Li

2007-01-01

368

Matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activities of Morinda citrifolia seed extract and its constituents in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine whether a 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) of the seeds of Morinda citrifolia (noni) and its constituents have matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity in UVA-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The MCS-ext (10 ?g/mL) inhibited MMP-1 secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, without cytotoxic effects, at 48 h after UV exposure. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of MCS-ext was the most potent inhibitor of MMP-1 secretion. Among the constituents of the fraction, a lignan, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), inhibited the MMP-1 secretion at a concentration of 0.3 ?M without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 1 (0.3 ?M) reduced the level of intracellular MMP-1 expression. Other constituents, namely americanin A (2), quercetin (3) and ursolic acid (4), were inactive. To elucidate inhibition mechanisms of MMP-1 expression and secretion, the effect of 1 on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation was examined. Western blot analysis revealed that 1 (0.3 ?M) reduced the phosphorylations of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that 1 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression, and consequent secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, by down-regulation of MAPKs phosphorylation. PMID:22293351

Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

2012-01-01

369

Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

Aframomum melegueta Schum (Zingiberaceae) is a perennial herb widely cultivated for its valuable seeds in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of methanolic seed extract of A. melegueta. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay and in vivo serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay method. The extract (25–400??g/mL concentration) produced concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay. The extract (400?mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the control group. The extract (400?mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the seed of A. melegueta has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement. PMID:24955096

Onoja, Samuel Okwudili; Omeh, Yusuf Ndukaku; Ezeja, Maxwell Ikechukwu; Chukwu, Martins Ndubuisi

2014-01-01

370

Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.  

PubMed

Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp. PMID:25212152

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

2011-09-15

371

Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

2012-01-01

372

Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells.  

PubMed

Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

2012-01-01

373

Dietary effect of Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immune gene expression in white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of a Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immunostimulatory response in white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Shrimps with an average initial weight of 0.5 ± 0.04 g were collected and acclimatized for 10 days. Four experimental diets including a control diet, a probiotic diet and 0.25 and 0.5% of R. coreanus ethanolic extract (RcEE) diets were used to feed the shrimps. After 8 weeks of culture, shrimp fed with probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet had showed significant enhancement in the growth while shrimp fed with 0.5% RcEE diet showed significantly increased expression of immune genes and antioxidant enzymes activities. One week of challenge experiments for all the four diets fed shrimps showed decreased cumulative mortality in the 0.5% RcEE diets fed shrimps, when compared with the probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet fed shrimp groups. The results indicates that R. coreanus ethanolic extract could be used as a herbal immunostimulant for shrimps to increase its immunity and disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus. PMID:23811352

Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Jang, Yeoung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kang, Bong-Jo; Heo, Moon-Soo

2013-09-01

374

Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na+/K+ ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

Kumar, V.; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C. D.; Khanna, Geetika

2014-01-01

375

Protective Effect of Gymnema sylvestre Ethanol Extract on High Fat Diet-induced Obese Diabetic Wistar Rats.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with numerous co-morbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and others. Therefore, the present study was planned to investigate the effect of water- soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract on biochemical and molecular alterations in obese diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by single i.v. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg) via tail vein. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of high fat diet for a period of 28 days in diabetic rats. Body weight gain, food intake, water intake, hemodynamic parameters (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressures and heart rate), serum biochemical parameters (leptin, insulin, lipid levels, apolipoprotein B and glucose), cardiomyocyte apoptosis (cardiac caspase-3, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA fragmentation) organs and visceral fat pad weight and oxidative stress parameters were measured. Oral treatment with water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extracts (120 mg/kg/p.o.) for a period of 21 days, resulted in significant reduction in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, serum leptin, insulin, apolipoprotein B, lipids, glucose, cardiac caspase-3 levels, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity and DNA laddering, visceral fat pad and organ's weight and improved the antioxidant enzymes levels in the high fat diet induced obesity in diabetic rats. The results of present study reveal that water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre ethanol extract could be useful intervention in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25284929

Kumar, V; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, Geetika

2014-07-01

376

Characterization and Functional Properties of Macela ( Achyrocline satureioides ) Extracts Obtained by Supercritical Fluid Extraction Using Mixtures of CO 2 Plus Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of approximately 30 g of dried and comminuted flowers of Achyrocline satureioides, a species popularly known as macela, were subjected to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 with ethanol as a modifier or co-solvent (20% v\\/v). The effects of variations in the pressure (10, 20, or 30 MPa) and temperature (303 or 318 K) on the SFE performance were\\u000a evaluated. The functional

Thais M. Takeuchi; M. Laura Rubano; M. Angela A. Meireles

2010-01-01

377

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare] [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria] [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

1999-08-01

378

Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.  

PubMed

The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. PMID:19448924

Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

2009-01-01

379

Isolation of a new triterpene derivative and in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of ethanolic extract from root bark of Zizyphus nummularia Aubrev.  

PubMed

The work is designed to isolate, identify and screen for possible anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo of the ethanolic extract and isolated identified compound from Zizyphus nummularia root bark. PMID:25422165

Dey Ray, Sarbani; Dewanjee, Saikat

2014-11-25

380

An ethanolic extract of black cohosh causes hematological changes but not estrogenic effects in female rodents  

SciTech Connect

Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. -- Highlights: ? Mice and rats were dosed with black cohosh extract for 90 days starting at weaning. ? Hematological changes were consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia. ? Peripheral micronucleated red blood cell frequencies increased. ? Puberty was delayed 2.9 days in rats. ? No estrogenic/anti-estrogenic activity was seen in the uterotrophic assay.

Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C.; Witt, Kristine L. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Granville, Courtney A.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A.; Ryan, Michael J. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)] [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M.; Vallant, Molly K. [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)] [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Stout, Matthew D., E-mail: StoutM@niehs.nih.gov [National Toxicology Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

2012-09-01

381

Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets. PMID:22174626

Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

2011-01-01

382

Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant acitivity of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.

Parimala, Mabel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

2013-01-01

383

The impact of seed extraction on the population dynamics of Pinus maximartinezii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pinus maximartinezii is a rare, endemic, threatened species known from a single small population in the state of Zacatecas, Mexico. Among the pine species that produce edible nuts, it produces one of the largest and most nutritious seeds. The seeds of P. maximartinezii have historically been used for human consumption. The cones are harvested directly from the trees, and the seeds are sold illegally in local, national and international markets. However, the effects of seed extraction must be thoroughly evaluated to determine the potential impacts on population stability. To assess the impact of different rates of seed harvesting on the demography of this species, a 2-yr study of population dynamics was conducted in three 0.1-ha plots. A 9 × 9 size-structured matrix model was used to simulate changes in population growth over time in conjunction with increasing stepwise reductions in fecundity. The population growth rate (?) of P. maximartinezii was 1.1175, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) from 1.1008 to 1.1321, and it was relatively insensitive to changes in fecundity and growth. Under a seed extraction intensity of 99%, ? decreased to 1.0241, with a CI from 1.0177 to 1.0361. Elasticity analysis was then performed to identify the combined effects of proportional changes in fecundities and the largest stasis elements on ?. The results suggest that a sound conservation strategy should focus on improving the survival of juveniles and adults during their first reproductive events and on the largest adults, as well as on protecting the habitat of this threatened endemic species.

López-Mata, Lauro

2013-05-01

384

Optimisation of the extraction of olive ( Olea europaea ) leaf phenolics using water\\/ethanol-based solvent systems and response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental setup based on a 23 full-factorial, central-composite design was implemented with the aim of optimising the recovery of polyphenols from olive\\u000a leaves by employing reusable and nontoxic solutions composed of water\\/ethanol\\/citric acid as extracting media. The factors\\u000a considered were (i) the pH of the medium, (ii) the extraction time and (iii) the ethanol concentration. The model obtained\\u000a produced

Stefania Mylonaki; Elias Kiassos; Dimitris P. Makris; Panagiotis Kefalas

2008-01-01

385

Comparative antidiarrheal and antiulcer effect of the aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of Tinospora cordifolia in rats  

PubMed Central

Tinospora cordifolia is indigenous to the tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. The use of plant as remedy for diarrhea and ulcer is well-documented in Ayurvedic system of medicine. However, pharmacological evidence does not exist to substantiate its therapeutic efficacy for the same. The aim was to investigate the antidiarrheal and antiulcer activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. cordifolia in rats. The antidiarrheal activity of T. cordifolia extracts was evaluated by castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea using parameters such as onset of diarrhea, number of wet stools, total number of stool and weight of total number of stools. The antiulcer activity of extracts was investigated using ethanol and pylorus ligation-induced ulcer. Furthermore, tissue antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation level were also investigated. Tinospora cordifolia extracts were more efficacious in reducing number of total stools in both the models of diarrhea and showed a dose-dependent antidiarrheal effect. The antiulcer activity of the extracts was confirmed by a reduction in ulcer index along with the decrease in gastric volume, total acidity, and an increase in pH of gastric content in both the models. The obtained results have established a pharmacological evidence for the folkloric use of the T. cordifolia as antidiarrhoeal and antiulcer agent. PMID:25126533

Kaur, Mohanjit; Singh, Amarjeet; Kumar, Bimlesh

2014-01-01

386

Ethanol extracts of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata leaves induce apoptosis in human hepatoma cell through caspase-3 cascade  

PubMed Central

Inducing apoptosis to susceptible cells is the major mechanism of most cytotoxic anticancer drugs in current use. Cinnamomum kanehirai Hayata (Lauraceae), a unique and native tree of Taiwan, is the major host for the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea which exhibits anti-cancer activity. Because of the scarcity of A. cinnamomea, C. kanehirai Hayata instead, is used as fork medicine in liver cancer. Here we observed the C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract could inhibit the cellular viability of both HepG2 and HA22T/VGH human hepatoma cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. We found the mode of cell death was apoptosis according to cell morphological changes by Liu’s stain, oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, externalization of phosphotidyl serine by detecting Annexin V and hypoploid population by cell cycle analysis. Our results showed that the extracts caused cleavage of caspase-3 and increased enzyme activity of caspase-8 and caspase-9. Caspase 3 inhibitor partially reversed the viability inhibition by the extract. Furthermore, the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-2 were also noted by the extract treatment. In conclusion, C. kanehirai Hayata ethanol extract induced intrinsic pathway of apoptosis through caspase-3 cascade in human hepatoma HA22T/VGH and HepG2 cells, which might shed new light on hepatoma therapy.

Liu, Yu-Kuo; Chen, Kuan-Hsing; Leu, Yann-Lii; Way, Tzong-Der; Wang, Ling-Wei; Chen, Yu-Jen; Liu, Yu-Ming

2015-01-01

387

Activity of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) rhizome ethanol extract against MRSA, MRCNS, MSSA, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Temu kunci (Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.)) has a number of benefits and one of these is antibacterial. The rhizome is said to have antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactocillus sp. and Candida albicans. The aim of the study is to test the antibacterial activity of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) rhizome ethanol extract on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant coagulase negative Staphylococci (MRCNS), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was assayed by the microdilution method using Mueller Hinton Broth with sterilized 96 round-bottomed microwells to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as to determine the time-kill activity. The MIC of the extract was 16 ppm for both Bacillus subtilis and MRSA; 8 ppm for both MSSA and Salmonella typhi and 4 ppm for MRCNS. Ethanol extract of Kaempferia pandurata (Roxb.) showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria and was the most potent against MRCNS, with MIC 4 ppm. The killing profile test of the extract displayed bactericidal activity at 8-16 ppm against MRSA, MSSA, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi and bacteriostatic activity at 4 ppm towards MRCNS. PMID:24783777

Sukandar, Elin Yulinah; Sunderam, Nethiyakalyani; Fidrianny, Irda

2014-01-01

388

Selective induction of apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) by an ethanol extract of Lentinula edodes.  

PubMed

The effects of ethanol extracts from four species of mushroom fruiting bodies, mushroom spores and mushroom cultured broth, were assessed for modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in murine skin carcinoma cells (CH72) and non-tumorigenic epidermal cells (C50). While extracts from mycelia of Grifola frondosa, Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, or from spores of G. lucidum exerted little, if any, effect on proliferation, the ethanol-soluble extract of Lentinula edodes (L. edodes) significantly decreased cell proliferation of CH72 cells. There were no changes in the proliferative response of the non-tumorigenic keratinocyte cell line, C50, to any of the mushroom extracts tested. To analyze cell proliferation and apoptosis, fluorescent DNA-microscopy with ethidium bromide and acridine orange staining of cells revealed L. edodes reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in time- and dose-dependent manners in carcinoma cells but had no effect in non-tumorigenic cells (C50). Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that L. edodes extract induced a transient G(1) arrest, with no changes observed in the non-tumorigenic cells (C50). PMID:15737684

Gu, Yu-Huan; Belury, Martha A

2005-03-18

389

Anti-ulcerogenic and in vitro antioxidant activities of Lagenaria breviflora (LB) whole fruit ethanolic extract in laboratory animals  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-ulcer and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of Lagenaria breviflora (EELB) whole fruit in laboratory rats. Methods: The anti-ulcer property of the ethanolic extract of the whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora (LB) was assessed using the cold-restraint stress-induced (CRU) gastric ulcer, pyloric ligation-induced (PL) gastric ulcer, aspirin-induced (ASP) gastric ulcer and alcohol-induced (AL) gastric ulcer models. The scavenging activity of the LB extract was examined with 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric oxide, Hydroxyl radical and Superoxide anion scavenging models. Results: EELB (50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) protected against the CRU gastric ulcer dose dependently. Similarly, 150 mg/kg b.w. of the LB extract protected against the PL gastric ulcer, ASP gastric ulcer and AL gastric ulcer and was comparable to omeprazole (10 mg/kg b.w.) or Suscralfate (500 mg/kg b.w.), respectively. The in vitro antioxidant activity of LB was demonstrated by its ability to quench free radicals generated by nitric oxide and superoxide anion with a concomitant scavenging potential against DPPH-induced radical formation. Conclusion: Taken together, the study showed that the whole fruit extract possess potent anti-ulcer and antioxidant activities. PMID:21731388

Onasanwo, S. A.; Singh, Neetu; Saba, A. B.; Oyagbemi, A. A.; Oridupa, O. A.; Palit, Gautam

2011-01-01

390

Isolation and structural characterization of the water-extractable polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia seeds.  

PubMed

The seed of Cassia obtusifolia is a food or herbal medicine used for improving eyesight, treating constipation and other disorders, and polysaccharides have been implicated in these pharmacological activities. The endosperm of the seeds, Cassia gum, is a commercial thickening or gelling agent, composed mainly of galactomannans. However, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia, rather than the endosperm, are used in folk medicine or food, which might contain more complex constituents of polysaccharides. In this study, the whole seeds of C. obtusifolia were extracted with boiling water, and from the water extract, three homogeneous fractions were isolated, designated CFAA-1, CFAA-3, and CFBB2, respectively, after treatment with Fehling solution followed by anion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Using chemical and spectroscopic methods, CFAA-1, and CFAA-3 were elucidated to be both branched galactomannans with different molecular weights, consisting of 1,4-linked ?-d-mannopyranosyl backbone with single-unit ?-d-galactopyranosyl branches attached to O-6 of mannose, while CFBB2 was shown to be a linear (1?4)-?-polygalacturonic acid. PMID:22840008

Shang, Mingsheng; Zhang, Xiaoman; Dong, Qun; Yao, Jian; Liu, Qin; Ding, Kan

2012-10-01

391

Gallic acid is the major component of grape seed extract that inhibits amyloid fibril formation.  

PubMed

Many protein misfolding diseases, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, are characterised by the accumulation of protein aggregates in an amyloid fibrillar form. Natural products which inhibit fibril formation are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In this study we have shown, using in vitro thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy, that grape seed extract inhibits fibril formation of kappa-casein (?-CN), a milk protein which forms amyloid fibrils spontaneously under physiological conditions. Among the components of grape seed extract, gallic acid was the most active component at inhibiting ?-CN fibril formation, by stabilizing ?-CN to prevent its aggregation. Concomitantly, gallic acid significantly reduced the toxicity of ?-CN to pheochromocytoma12 cells. Furthermore, gallic acid effectively inhibited fibril formation by the amyloid-beta peptide, the putative causative agent in Alzheimer's disease. It is concluded that the gallate moiety has the fibril-inhibitory activity. PMID:24157371

Liu, Yanqin; Pukala, Tara L; Musgrave, Ian F; Williams, Danielle M; Dehle, Francis C; Carver, John A

2013-12-01

392

Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions. PMID:23743034

Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N

2013-10-01

393

Optimised amylases extraction from oat seeds and its impact on bread properties.  

PubMed

Statistical approaches were employed for the optimisation of the extraction of amylolytic activity from oat (Avena sativa) seeds. The application of the response surface methodology allows us to determine a set of optimal conditions (ratio seed weight/buffer volume 0.1, germination days 10 days, temperature 20°C and pH 5.6). Experiments carried out under these conditions led to amylase production yield of 91U/g. Its maximal activity was in the pH 5.6 and at 55°C. Study of the incorporation of the optimised oat extract into the bread formulation revealed an improvement of the sensory quality and the textural properties of fresh and stored bread. Three-dimensional elaborations of Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) images were performed on crumb of the different breads to evaluate the influence of amylase activity on microstructure. The result showed improved baking characteristics as well as overall microscopic and macroscopic appearance. PMID:25453287

Ben Halima, Nihed; Borchani, Maha; Fendri, Imen; Khemakhem, Bassem; Gosset, David; Baril, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal; Ayadi, Mohamed-Ali; Abdelkafi, Slim

2015-01-01

394

Antioxidative and anticancer activities of various ethanolic extract fractions from crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci).  

PubMed

Many studies currently researching marine invertebrates to determine the therapeutic potential of their bioactive materials have been showing very promising results. The crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, an Echinodermata of the class Asteroidea, is infamous as the unique venomous starfish and as a destroyer of coral reefs. Starfish possesses many useful pharmacological and biological characteristics. In this study, A. planci was extracted with 70% ethanol and lyophilized to obtain an ethanol fraction. The ethanol fraction was dissolved with water and defatted with petroleum ether to obtain a non-polar fraction. The residual solution was successively partitioned with ethylacetate and butanol to obtain an ethylacetate fraction and butanol fraction, respectively. Four fractions were used to examine the antioxidant and anticancer properties. The ethanol fraction of A. planci contained the highest antioxidant effects such as ABTS, DPPH, Fe(2+) chelating activity and reducing power when compared with four fractions. Among the four fractions, the butanol fraction was especially shown to inhibit human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells' proliferation, which is involved in the apoptotic progression. This fraction could induce apoptosis and even necrosis in A375.S2 cells as evidenced by double staining with an Annexin V-FITC and PI assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. These results indicated that the starfish A. planci is a good resource for obtaining the biologically active substances for antioxidant and anticancer effects. PMID:25305737

Lee, Chi-Chiu; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

2014-11-01

395

A fluorescence spectroscopic study of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence studies of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds have been studied using steady-state intrinsic fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra are dominated by tryptophan emission and the emission peak maximum (?max=343±2nm) indicated that the tryptophan residue is not located in the hydrophobic core of the protein. Changes in solution pH affected the protein conformation as indicated by changes in

H. M. Kwaambwa; R. Maikokera

2007-01-01

396

Removal of sodium lauryl sulphate by coagulation\\/flocculation with Moringa oleifera seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among other natural flocculant\\/coagulant agents, Moringa oleifera seed extract ability to remove an anionic surfactant has been evaluated and it has been found to be very interesting. Sodium lauryl sulphate was removed from aqueous solutions up to 80% through coagulation\\/flocculation process. pH and temperature were found to be not very important factors in removal efficiency. Freundlich (F), Frumkin–Fowler–Guggenheim (FFG) and

J. Beltrán-Heredia; J. Sánchez-Martín

2009-01-01

397

Coagulation Mechanism of Salt Solution-Extracted Active Component in Moringa oleifera Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC–pc) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-pc tap water formed insoluble matters. This formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-pc was added into distilled water. The

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

398

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of volatile oil from Italian coriander seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction of the volatile oil from Italian coriander seeds was carried out under different conditions of temperature (40 and 50°C), pressure (90, 100 and 150bar), mean particle size (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8mm) and CO2 flow rate (0.79, 1.10 and 1.56kg\\/h) in order to evaluate their influence on the yield and composition of the volatile oil. Hydrodistillation with

C. Grosso; V. Ferraro; A. C. Figueiredo; J. G. Barroso; J. A. Coelho; A. M. Palavra

2008-01-01

399

Extraction, purification and characterization of globulin from common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salt-soluble globulin was extracted from common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) seeds. The protein content of buckwheat globulin (BWG) was over 90%. Anion-exchange chromatography (with stepwise salt gradient elution) was used to obtain two fractions of BWG, corresponding to the basic and acidic polypeptides, respectively, at a ratio of approximately 1:2. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the acidic

Siu-Mei Choi; Ching-Yung Ma

2006-01-01

400

Chronic effect of datura (seed) extract on the brain of albino rats.  

PubMed

The effect of chronic treatment with datura (seed) extract was studied to investigate its effect on the energy metabolism and peroxidative activities in the brain of rats. Datura treatment was found to cause an increase in the activity of brain lipid peroxidase and catalase, while it caused a decrease in the activity of fructose diphosphate aldolase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme. A marked reduction was noted in the protein, DNA and RNA contents of datura administered rats. PMID:2442442

Hasan, S S; Kushwaha, A K

1987-05-01