Note: This page contains sample records for the topic ethanolic seed extract from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast stra- ins. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution sus- ceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined

ZDENKA CVETNI; SANDA VLADIMIR-KNE

2004-01-01

2

Antimicrobial activity of grapefruit seed and pulp ethanolic extract.  

PubMed

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of ethanolic extract of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf., Rutaceae) seed and pulp was examined against 20 bacterial and 10 yeast strains. The level of antimicrobial effects was established using an in vitro agar assay and standard broth dilution susceptibility test. The contents of 3.92% of total polyphenols and 0.11% of flavonoids were determined spectrometrically in crude ethanolic extract. The presence of flavanones naringin and hesperidin in the extract was confirmed by TLC analysis. Ethanolic extract exibited the strongest antimicrobial effect against Salmonella enteritidis (MIC 2.06%, m/V). Other tested bacteria and yeasts were sensitive to extract concentrations ranging from 4.13% to 16.50% (m/V). PMID:15610620

Cvetni?, Zdenka; Vladimir-Knezevi?, Sanda

2004-09-01

3

Supercritical fluid extraction of sunflower seed oil with CO 2 -ethanol mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ethanol addition to supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), up to 20%, on sunflower seed oil extraction over the range of 150 to 350 bars and 42 to 80C was studied. A nonrecirculating\\u000a home-made bench-scale system was used as extraction equipment. The oil-SC-CO2-ethanol mixture was reduced to atmospheric pressure in a test tube, where two phases, oil and ethanol,

María José Cocero; Lourdes Calvo

1996-01-01

4

Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds  

PubMed Central

Background: Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae) is popularly known as black cumin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmenthic. The seeds are externally applied for eruptions of skin. The seeds are used traditionally for psoriasis tropicus with general pain and eruption of patches. Objective: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: The screening of antipsoriatic activity of 95% of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds by using mouse tail model for psoriasis and in vitro antipsoriatic activity was carried out by SRB Assay using HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds extract produced a significant epidermal differentiation, from its degree of orthokeratosis (71.36±2.64) when compared to the negative control (17.30±4.09%). This was equivalent to the effect of the standard positive control, tazarotene (0.1%) gel, which showed a (90.03±2.00%) degree of orthokeratosis. The 95% ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa shown IC50 239 ?g/ml, with good antiproliferant activity compared to Asiaticoside as positive control which showed potent activity with IC50 value of 20.13 ?g/ml. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds also showed increase in relative epidermal thickness when compared to control group by confirming its traditional use in psoriasis treatment.

Dwarampudi, Lalitha Priyanka; Palaniswamy, Dhanabal; Nithyanantham, Muruganantham; Raghu, P. S.

2012-01-01

5

Sunflower seed protein concentrates and isolates obtention from ethanol oil extraction meals--(technical note).  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study and identify the necessary processing steps for obtaining good quality sunflower seed protein concentrate and isolate when the oil is extracted with ethanol. This work is part of a research project on using ethanol as renewable solvent for sunflower seed oil recovery and possible further processing of the meal. Both 99 degrees GL and 90 degrees GL ethanol were employed in the extractions to produce the concentrate. Isolates were obtained by treating the concentrate with NaOH and HCl solutions and final rinsing with acidified water. Both products were light in color and almost free from chlorogenic acid. PMID:7717804

Regitano-d'Arce, M A; Gutierrez, E M; Lima, U de A

1994-03-01

6

Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia bonducella seeds as a natural antioxidant. The DPPH activity of the extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200?g\\/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 38.93–74.77% as compared to ascorbic acid (64.26–82.58%). The IC50 values of

Shruti Shukla; Archana Mehta; Jinu John; Siddharth Singh; Pradeep Mehta; Suresh Prasad Vyas

2009-01-01

7

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

2011-01-01

8

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

2012-02-01

9

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.  

PubMed

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties. PMID:22282629

Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

2011-01-30

10

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

11

Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of ethanol extracts of seeds, pericarp and leaves of Eugenia Jamolana in rats.  

PubMed

The present study investigated the effect of ethanol extracts of seeds, pericarp and leaves of Eugenia Jamolana (E. Jamolana) on inflammation, gastric ulcer, anti-oxidants and hepatoprotective in rats. The acute inflammation was induced by intra-plantar injection of carrageenan (100 microl of 1 %) in the rat hind paw. Gastric ulcer was evoked by indomethacin (25 mg/kg) oral administration. Liver damage was induced by given CCL4 (2.5 ml/kg) orally. The median lethal (LD(50)) of the ethanol extract of both seeds and pericarp were determined and revealed that the investigated extracts of seeds and pericarp were non toxic up to 5 g/kg. The anti-inflammatory results showed that the oral administration of ethanol extract of E. Jamolana seeds (250, 500 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of oedema formation in dose-dependent manner by -27.86, -41.23, -44.73, -51.78 % and by -63.16, -37.77, -47.04, -55.36 % at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively. While the pericarp given at dose (500 mg/kg) exhibited significant inhibition of the oedema formation by -34.64, -21,8, 19.23 and -33.47 % at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively post carrageenan injection as compared with saline control group. E. Jamolana leaves fraction 1 given orally at dose of 25 mg/kg, induced non significant change on oedema, while the oedema response was significantly inhibited by -25.14, -33.4, -20.57 and -26.46 % at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h, respectively in group of rats that received leaves fraction 2 at the same dose. Rats were given leaves fraction 3 extract showed inhibition of oedema formation by -4.48 % at 1(st) h post- carrageenan injection, while at 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) h showed non significant change on oedema formation. The acute gastric mucosal lesions was significantly reduced by given ethanol extract of E. Jamolana seeds, pericarp (250, 500 mg/kg) and leaves fractions 1, 2 and 3 (25 mg/kg) respectively in dose dependent manner, as compared with indomethacin treated group (control group). All tested extracts showed significant reduction in elevated serum ALT, AST and ALP levels as compared with CCl4 treated group. The ethanol extract of E. Jamolana seeds, pericarp and leaves fractions 1, 2, 3 showed significant elevation of blood GSH level and significant reduction in elevated plasma lipid peroxides (MDA) as compared with CCl4 treated group. In conclusion we can see that the ethanol extracts of E. Jamolana of seeds, pericarp and leaves fractions showed anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidants activity. PMID:19112587

El-Shenawy, S M A

2009-04-01

12

A comparison of the cytotoxic potential of standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of a polyherbal mixture comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots) and Smilax glabra (rhizome)  

PubMed Central

Background: A decoction (hot-water extract) comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots), and Smilax glabra (rhizome) has been reported to prevent chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenic changes in rats and to exert significant cytotoxic effects on human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. However, the decoction used in previous studies to determine cytotoxicity was not standardized. Further, during preparation of pharmaceuticals for clinical use, it is more convenient to use an ethanolic extract. Therefore this study was carried out to (a) develop standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant mixture (N. sativa, H. indicus, and S. glabra) used in the preparation of the original decoction, and (b) compare the cytotoxic effects of these two extracts by evaluating cytotoxicity to the human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. Methods: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts have been standardized by evaluating organoleptic characters, physicochemical properties, qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents, and analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) profiles. Cytotoxic potentials of the above standardized extracts were compared by evaluating their effects on the survival and overall cell activity of HepG2 cells by use of the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl) -2, 5 – biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assays. Results: Results from MTT and SRB assays demonstrated that both extracts exerted strong dose-dependent in vitro cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. The standardized aqueous extract showed a marginally (though significantly, P<0.05) higher cyotoxic potential than the ethanolic extract. Thymoquinone, an already known cytotoxic compound isolated from N. sativa seeds was only observed in the standardized ethanolic extract. Thus, compounds other than thymoquinone appear to mediate the cytotoxicity of the standardized aqueous extract of this poly-herbal preparation. Conclusion: It may be concluded that results obtained in the present study could be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of these aqueous or ethanolic extracts and would be useful for the preparation of a standardized pharmaceutical product that may be used in the future for clinical therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Samarakoon, Sameera R.; Thabrew, Ira; Galhena, Prasanna B.; De Silva, Dilip; Tennekoon, Kamani H.

2010-01-01

13

Evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Ammi majus seeds in albino rats and mice.  

PubMed

Pharmacological and biochemical studies on the Ammi majus seeds L. (family Umbelliferae) grown in Egypt are limited. Furocoumarins are the major constituents in the plant seeds. In the present study, the evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities on albino rats and mice was done. After 2 months of administration, both the doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight [bwt], respectively) of the alcoholic extract of the A. majus seed result in a significant decrease in the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein and increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein. The extract was found to inhibit the rat paw edema at both the doses, which means that it exerts a significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with control-untreated groups at the intervals of 30 and 60 minutes posttreatment. The antipyretic effect of the extract was quite obvious; it showed that 100 mg/kg bwt was more potent in lowering body temperature starting after 1 hour of treatment than the lower dose (50 mg/kg bwt). It is worth to mention that the A. majus extract with its coumarin contents as well as the tested biological activities of the plant was investigated for the first time in the current study. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of the A. majus seeds had antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities that are dose dependant. PMID:22550046

Koriem, Khaled M M; Asaad, Gihan F; Megahed, Hoda A; Zahran, Hanan; Arbid, Mahmoud S

2012-05-01

14

Effects of ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola seeds on growth and haematology of catfish (Clarias gariepinus) broodstock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 56 day study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary ethanolic extracts of Garcinia kola (Bitter kola) in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus broodstock on growth performance and basic haematological indices. Catfish broodstock (mean weight, 245.20 - 255.00 g) were randomly distributed into concrete tanks (2 x 2 x 1.2 m) at 10 fish\\/tank in triplicate treatments. 5 diets

A. A. Dada; M. Ikuerowo

15

Anticancer Potential of Aqueous Ethanol Seed Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Cancer Cell Lines and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Ziziphus mauritiana (Lamk.) is a fruit tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases. In the present study, anticancer potential of seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana in vitro against different cell lines (HL-60, Molt-4, HeLa, and normal cell line HGF) by MTT assay as well as in vivo against Ehrich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice was investigated. The extract was found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells. Annexin and PI binding of treated HL-60 cells indicated apoptosis induction by extract in a dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis revealed a prominent increase in sub Go population at concentration of 20??g/ml and above. Agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells after 3 h incubation with extract. The extract also exhibited potent anticancer potential in vivo. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice with varied doses (100–800?mg/kg b.wt.) of plant extract significantly reduced tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and improved haemoglobin content, RBC count, mean survival time, tumor inhibition, and percentage life span. The enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals was evident from decline in levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase.

Mishra, Tulika; Khullar, Madhu; Bhatia, Aruna

2011-01-01

16

Anticancer Potential of Aqueous Ethanol Seed Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Cancer Cell Lines and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.  

PubMed

Ziziphus mauritiana (Lamk.) is a fruit tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases. In the present study, anticancer potential of seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana in vitro against different cell lines (HL-60, Molt-4, HeLa, and normal cell line HGF) by MTT assay as well as in vivo against Ehrich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice was investigated. The extract was found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells. Annexin and PI binding of treated HL-60 cells indicated apoptosis induction by extract in a dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis revealed a prominent increase in sub Go population at concentration of 20??g/ml and above. Agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells after 3 h incubation with extract. The extract also exhibited potent anticancer potential in vivo. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice with varied doses (100-800?mg/kg b.wt.) of plant extract significantly reduced tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and improved haemoglobin content, RBC count, mean survival time, tumor inhibition, and percentage life span. The enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals was evident from decline in levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. PMID:20953391

Mishra, Tulika; Khullar, Madhu; Bhatia, Aruna

2010-09-26

17

Acid-ethanol extractable compounds from fruits and seeds of the bitter gourd Momordica charantia: effects on lipid metabolism in isolated rat adipocytes.  

PubMed

Fruits and seeds of the bitter gourd Momordica charantia (Family Cucurbitaceae) were extracted with acidic ethanol. The extract was adjusted to pH 3 and proteins and peptides were precipitated by addition of a copious volume of acetone. The precipitate was dissolved, dialyzed and lyophilized. The resulting material, designated "p-fraction" was tested for antilipolytic and lipogenic activities. Seed "p-fraction" was further chromatographed on fetuin agarose to yield an unadsorbed fraction (F) which could be fractionated by gel filtration on Sephadex G-10 to give an unretarded fraction (F1) and a retarded fraction (F2). Fruit "p-fraction" exhibited antilipolytic activity in hamster adipocytes and stimulated 3H-glucose incorporation into lipids. F1, a saponin containing fraction, inhibited both lipolysis and 3H-glucose incorporation into lipids. F2 enhanced 3H-glucose incorporation into lipid. The results are indicative of the presence of compounds with insulinomimetic activities in M. charantia fruits and seeds. PMID:3318384

Ng, T B; Wong, C M; Li, W W; Yeung, H W

1987-01-01

18

Effects of Grape Seed Extract, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E on Ethanol- and Aspirin-Induced Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Effects of GSE and vitamins C and E on aspirin- and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and associated increases of lipid peroxidation in rats were compared. Two experiments were conducted. Rats were randomized into eight groups: a negative control and seven groups that received aspirin or ethanol for ulcer induction: one positive control (vehicle) and six with VC, VE, or GSE (25 and 250?mg/kg). Ulcer indexes and gastric levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were quantified. VC, VE, and GSE (25 and 250?mg/kg) decreased aspirin, and ethanol-induced ulcers and MDA values compared with positive control group. The magnitude of aspirin ulcer reduction was comparable for all treatments, and MDA decrease with GSE was higher than with VC and tended to be greater, albeit none significantly, than with VE. GSE was more effective than VC and VE for lowering the ethanol ulcers, while the decrease of MDA levels with GSE was greater than with VC, but comparable to that achieved with VE. GSE protected against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers more effectively than VC or VE, while its protection against aspirin ulcers was comparable for all treatments. GSE produced the greatest reductions of gastric MDA in both models.

Cuevas, Vivian Molina; Calzado, Yazmin Ravelo; Guerra, Yohani Perez; Yera, Ambar Oyarzabal; Despaigne, Sonia Jimenez; Ferreiro, Rosa Mas; Quintana, Daisy Carbajal

2011-01-01

19

Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol\\/xanthine\\/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant

Laura Giamperi; Daniele Fraternale; Anahi Bucchini; Donata Ricci

2004-01-01

20

Ethanol production by extractive fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideal method to produce a terminal metabolite inhibitor of cell growth and production is to remove and recover it from the fermenting broth as it is formed. Extractive fermentation is achieved in the case of ethanol production by coupling both fermentation and liquid-liquid extraction. The solvent of extraction is 1-dodecanol (or a mixture 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol); study of the inhibitory

M. Minier; G. Goma

1982-01-01

21

[Extraction of rape seed proanthocyanidin with ultrasonic wave].  

PubMed

Rape seed proanthocyanidin was extracted by ultrasonic technology, and the conditions of extraction were studied. The results showed that the order of the factors which influenced the extraction effects were as follows: ethanol concentration, extracting temperature, ultrasonic extracting time and the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extraction agent (w/v). The optimal conditions were as follows: temperature: 60 degrees C, extracting agent: 60% ethanol aqueous, the ratio of the quantity of raw material to extracting agent: 1 : 20 (w/v), extracting number: 3 times, extracting time: 20 min, respectively. The yield of proanthocyanidins extracted by ultrasonic technology was 84.5% higher than traditional method. Rape Seed was rich in proanthocyanidin. PMID:20518317

Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Jian-Ming; Xia, Chun-Tang; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Zheng-Rong

2010-01-01

22

[Analysis of components in natural food additive "grapefruit seed extract" by HPLC and LC/MS].  

PubMed

The components in a commercial natural food additive "Grapefruit seed extract" and the ethanol extract of grapefruit seeds were analyzed by HPLC and LC/MS. The HPLC chromatogram of the commercial grapefruit seed extract was quite different from that of the ethanol extract of grapefruit seeds. Three main peaks were observed in the chromatogram of the commercial grapefruit seed extract. By comparison of the retention times and the absorption spectra with those of authentic samples, two peaks were ascribed to methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate and 2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenylether (triclosan). Triclosan was also identified by LC/MS by using the negative electrospray ionization method. PMID:9037863

Sakamoto, S; Sato, K; Maitani, T; Yamada, T

1996-01-01

23

Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions. PMID:15030930

Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

2004-03-01

24

Stabilizing Unmilled Brown Rice by Ethanol Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is drawn to a highly advantageous and unobvious process for stabilizing unmilled brown rice comprising, contacting unmilled brown rice with ethanol under conditions providing extraction of 15% or less of brown rice oil from the unmilled brow...

E. T. Champagne R. J. Hron G. Abraham

1990-01-01

25

Efficacy of crude seed extracts of Annona squamosa against diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. in the greenhouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to assess the efficacy of crude seed extracts of Annona squamosa collected from Ambon (Maluku, Indonesia) against larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., feeding on cabbage. Three greenhouse trials were carried out using aqueous seed extracts and an aqueous emulsion of ethanolic seed extracts. At a concentration of 0.5% (w\\/v), an aqueous emulsion of an

J Audrey Leatemia; Murray B Isman

2004-01-01

26

Inhibitory effects of Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) ethanolic extract on A. ochraceus growth and ochratoxin production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ajowan is an aromatic seed spice that has a medicinal value. In this paper Ajowan Ethanolic Extract (AEE), which was prepared from Ajowan seeds, was assessed for antibacterial and antifungal activity against selected pathogenic bacteria and fungi by agar well diffusion assay. AEE exhibit ed considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms tested. Emphasis of the study was on the

Pushpa Srinivas MURTHY; Babasaheb Bhaskarrao BORSE; Hafeeza KHANUM; Pullabhatla SRINIVAS

27

Antioxidant Activity of Different Extracts of Red Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of three different extracts (ethanolic, chloroformic, and hexanic) of red flesh pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed using free radical scavenging assay, linoleic acid model system, and ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method was determined. Ethanolic extract inhibit 74.76% of free radicals at 1000 ?g\\/mL, while chloroformic extract gave the highest inhibition using linoleic acid model system (98.90% at 100 ?g\\/mL) and

Liana Adnan; Azizah Osman; Azizah Abdul Hamid

2011-01-01

28

ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF RED PITAYA (HYLOCEREUS POLYRHIZUS) SEED  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of three different extracts (ethanolic, chloroformic and hexanic) of red flesh pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seed using free radical scavenging assay, linoleic acid model system and ferric thiocyanate (FTC) method was determined. Ethanolic extract inhibit 74.76% of free radicals at 1000 ?g\\/mL while chloroformic extract gave the highest inhibition using linoleic acid model system (98.90% at 100 ?g\\/mL) and

Liana Adnan; Azizah Osman; Azizah Abdul Hamid

2010-01-01

29

Chemically treated seed grain as an ethanol feedstock  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to determine the effects of three commonly used seed treatment chemicals: captan, heptachlor, and methoxychlor on methanol production from grain sorghum. Results indicated that none of these chemicals significantly affected ethanol yield. Captan was completely destroyed in the process. Heptachlor and methoxychlor carried over into the stillage wet solids at levels that could result in disposal problems.

Egg, R.P.; Chiang, T.; Coble, C.G.; Mitchel, R.D.; O'Neal, H.P.

1983-12-01

30

Effects of podocarp extracts on lettuce seed germination and seedling growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ethanol extracts from 16 of the 17 New Zealand species in the family Podo-carpaceae on the germination of lettuce seeds and hypocotyl elongation are reported. Extracts of both juvenile and adult forms of Halocarpus kirkii and Halocarpus bidwillii were tested. Each extract was tested at three different levels: undiluted, and diluted × 10 and × 10. The

N. B. Perry; L. M. Foster; P. E. Jameson

1995-01-01

31

Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

2010-11-16

32

Seed extracts inhibiting protein synthesis in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Of 33 seed extracts examined, 12 inhibited protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. This activity seems to be due to a protein, since (i) it was recovered with the (NH4)2SO4 precipitate, (ii) it was retained by dialysis membranes, and (iii) in all cases but one was destroyed by boiling. Only the extracts from the seeds of Adenia digitata and, to a lower extent, of Euonymus europaeus inhibited protein synthesis in intact cells.

Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Morelli, P; Stirpe, F

1980-01-01

33

Essential oils content and antioxidant properties of peel ethanol extract in 18 lemon cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition of essential oils and antioxidant activity of peel ethanol extract were analyzed in 18 local lemon cultivars. Essential oils composition was determined by GC\\/FID analysis, and antioxidant activity with the ABTS method. Fruit weight, polar and equatorial diameters, peel thickness, seed number, juice percentage, titratable acidity and juice pH were also determined for each cultivar. The main component in

C. Di Vaio; G. Graziani; A. Gaspari; G. Scaglione; S. Nocerino; A. Ritieni

2010-01-01

34

Isolation of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside from lignan-containing extract of Linum usitatissimum seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective method for obtaining secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) purified of lignan from extract of Linum usitatissimum seeds was proposed. The lignan-containing concentrate obtained by aqueous ethanol extraction with microwave irradiation was\\u000a purified using column chromatography. The structure of the compound was confirmed using IR, mass, and NMR spectra.

O. V. Stasevich; S. G. Mikhalenok; V. P. Kurchenko

2009-01-01

35

Phase equilibrium data pertaining to the extraction of cottonseed oil with ethanol and 2-propanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Basic phase relation data have been obtained relative to the extraction of cottonseed oil with ethanol and 2-propanol, especially\\u000a as affected by water in the solvent. Mutual solubility diagrams have been constructed for cottonseed oil with ethanol and\\u000a 2-propanol of various aqueous concentrations. Tie-line data at 30? C. have been obtained for the ternary ethanol-cotton-seed\\u000a oil-water and 2-propanol-cottonseed oil-water systems.

Frank C. Magne; Evald L. Skau

1953-01-01

36

Extraction of bioactive principles from Mucuna pruriens seeds.  

PubMed

Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. Syn. M. prurita Hook. (Papilionaceae) is used in male impotency, as aphrodisiac, in sexual debility, and as nervine tonic. It also possesses anti-parkinson property, possibly due to the presence of L-DOPA. In the present study, attempts were made to develop the suitable method(s) for extraction of L-DOPA/other active components from the seeds using different solvents. The various extracts were also screened for their neuroprotective and antioxidant activities. In addition, TLC and HPLC fingerprinting of the extracts for amino acid components were also developed for preliminary and sophisticated analysis. The L-DOPA could be obtained in good yield on extraction with EtOH-H2O mixture (1:1) using ascorbic acid as protector. Interestingly, n-propanol extract, which contained negligible amount of L-DOPA, had shown significant neuroprotective activity, suggesting that some components, other than L-DOPA, might also be responsible for anti-Parkinson property of seeds. The extract (MW-0100) containing mainly amino acids and water-ethanol extract (1:1) (MWEL-1299) showed promising antioxidant activity (EC50 = 2.5 microg) against DPPH radicals. MWEL-1299 also exhibited encouraging results against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+) toxicity. The TLC fingerprinting may be used to authenticate the plant material in herbal industry. PMID:17385342

Misra, Laxminarain; Wagner, Hildebert

2007-02-01

37

Insecticidal activity of raw ethanolic extracts from Magnolia dealbata Zucc on a tephritid pest.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts from Magnolia dealbata (Zucc.) (Magnoliaceae); leaves, bark, seeds, sarcotesta and flowers were evaluated for insecticidal activity against adults of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using feeding bioassays composed from sugar-extract mixtures, only the extract from sarcotesta indicated insecticidal activity against the flies. The extracts from the other four plant tissues (leaves, bark, seeds and flowers) did not manifest any biological activity. The most effective extract was obtained from oven-dried sarcotesta, whereas extracts from fresh sarcotesta were inactive. Our results suggest that M. dealbata sarcotesta contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against A. ludens adults. These metabolites are as potent as natural pyrethins and represent a potential substance for controlling this type of pest. PMID:23581691

Flores-Estévez, Norma; Vasquez-Morales, Suria G; Cano-Medina, Tomás; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

2013-01-01

38

AUTHENTICATION OF COMMERCIAL GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a natural product that has reported antibacterial and antiviral properties. It is reported to be safe and effective to use internally and externally for a wide variety of conditions such as acne, allergies, athlete's foot, body odor, candida, colds, cold...

39

Extraction of Proteins from Vegetable Seed Compositions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Vegetable seed flakes, meal, and the like prepared for extraction in the normal manner were treated with ultrasonic waves solubilizing the protein which was then recovered from solution. From about 50 to 100 percent of the total protein contained in toast...

L. C. Wang

1975-01-01

40

Application of response surface methodology to optimize microwave-assisted extraction of silymarin from milk thistle seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.) is an excellent source of silymarin used as an antioxidant. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) was employed to extract silymarin from milk thistle seeds. The effects of four independents variables in terms of extraction time, temperature, ethanol concentration, and solid–liquid ratio on the silymarin yield were determined and the optimal conditions for silymarin were evaluated by means

Xianzhe Zheng; Xin Wang; Yubin Lan; John Shi; Sophia Jun Xue; Chenghai Liu

2009-01-01

41

Toxicity of neem (Azadirachta Indica) seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents, on the spider chiracanthium mildei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of neem seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents against the predatory spider,Chiracanthium mildei L. Koch, was investigated. The order of toxicity of the 4% extracts was pentane < acetone < ethanol << methanol = water (nontoxic).\\u000a All extracts were nontoxic at 2.5%.

F. A. Mansour; K. R. S. Ascher; N. Omari

1986-01-01

42

Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the antioxidant activity of water and ethanol extracts of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed (FS) was evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including total antioxidant, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, metal chelating activities and reducing power. Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and

Münir Oktay; ?lhami Gülçin; Ö. ?rfan Küfrevio?lu

2003-01-01

43

Safety evaluation of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proanthocyanidins, extracted from grape seeds, are widely used mainly as nutritional supplements. However, there has not been a systematic report to investigate toxicological studies on proanthocyanidins, especially in oral administration. In our studies, proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to document its safety for use in various foods. The grape seed extract (GSE)

J Yamakoshi; M Saito; S Kataoka; M Kikuchi

2002-01-01

44

Chemical characterization and phase behaviour of grape seed oil in compressed carbon dioxide and ethanol as co-solvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium experimental results for the systems grape oil\\/carbon dioxide and (grape oil\\/carbon dioxide+ethanol). The oil was obtained by supercritical extraction from the grape seed residue from wine production. The static synthetic method using a variable-volume view cell was employed for obtaining the experimental bubble and dew (cloud) points transition data over

Irede Dalmolin; Marcio A. Mazutti; Eduardo A. C. Batista; M. Angela A. Meireles; J. Vladimir Oliveira

2010-01-01

45

An aqueous ethanol extraction process for cottonseed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bench-top process for the extraction of cottonseed flakes with aqueous ethanol has been developed. The process consists\\u000a of cottonseed meat flaking, drying and extraction with boiling, aqueous ethanol (95% by volume) at atmospheric pressure. The\\u000a resulting miscella is chilled, producing free oil, emulsified oil and mucilaginous gum. The heterogeneous solution is processed\\u000a through a phase separator where free and

R. J. Hron; S. P. Koltun

1984-01-01

46

Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

47

Antiulcerogenic activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Lasianthera africana.  

PubMed

The effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Lasianthera africana on experimentally induced ulcer was studied in rats. The extract (1000 - 3000mg/kg) inhibited ethanol-induced, indomethacin - induced and reserpine -induced ulcer models in a dose dependent fashion. The various degrees of inhibitions were statistically significant (p<0.01). The effect of the extract was comparable to that of the standard drugs used. Thus, Lasianthera africana extract demonstrated a good antiulcer activity which supports the antiulcer effect of this plant in traditional medicine. PMID:20209006

Okokon, Jude E; Antia, Bassey S; Umoh, Emem E

2009-03-07

48

Extraction of ethanol from aqueous solution. 2. A solvent more volatile than ethanol: Dichloromethane  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system water-ethanol-dichloromethane have been determined experimentally at 25/sup 0/C and correlated simultaneously with vapor-liquid equilibrium data by using the UNIQUAC model. A suitable extraction process for separating ethanol and water using dichloromethane as the solvent has been chosen, and the design calculations have been carried out to determine the energetic requirements. The properties that another solvent should offer to decrease these energetic requirements have been studied.

Ruiz, F.; Gomis, V.; Botella, R.F.

1988-04-01

49

In vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.  

PubMed

Bixa orellana L. (annatto), from Bixaceae family, is a native plant of tropical America, which accumulates several carotenoids (including bixin and norbixin), terpenoids, tocotrienols and flavonoids with potential antioxidant activity. In the present study, the in vitro scavenging capacity of annatto seed extracts against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) was evaluated and compared to the bixin standard. Annatto extracts were obtained using solvents with different polarities and their phenolic compounds and bixin levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector. All annatto extracts were able to scavenge all the reactive species tested at the low ?g/mL range, with the exception of superoxide radical. The ethanol:ethyl acetate and ethyl acetate extracts of annatto seeds, which presented the highest levels of hypolaetin and bixin, respectively, were the extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity, although bixin standard presented the lowest IC(50) values. PMID:23140681

Chisté, Renan Campos; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; Gomes, Ana; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, José Luís Fontes da Costa; Bragagnolo, Neura

2011-01-08

50

Extraction and characteristics of seed kernel oil from white pitaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Valuable oil in the seeds of white pitaya can be extracted by different methods. Traditional Soxhlet extraction was compared with microwave-assistant extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) and a combination of microwave and AEE (MAEE) for the yield and characteristics of the oil obtained. MAEE was proven to be the best method with the highest oil

Hanming Rui; Liyan Zhang; Zuowei Li; Yanli Pan

2009-01-01

51

Antioxidant capacity of bioactives extracted from canola meal by subcritical water, ethanolic and hot water extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant compounds were extracted from canola meal by subcritical water extraction (SWE) at 110 and 160°C, hot water extraction (80°C) and ethanolic (95%, v\\/v) extraction. The highest extract yields were obtained with SWE at 160°C. The total phenolics contents and antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by the total phenolics assay (using Folin–Ciocalteu’s phenol reagent), the 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging

Majid Hassas-Roudsari; Peter R. Chang; Ronald B. Pegg; Robert T. Tyler

2009-01-01

52

The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial efficiency of Moringa oleifera seeds extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity of different Moringa oleifera seeds extracts were tested against Scenedesmus obliquus (green algae), Escherichia coli ATCC 13706, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC10145, Staphylococcus aureus NAMRU 3 25923, Bacillus sterothermophilus (bacterial strains) and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1) and Polio virus type 1 (sabin vaccine). Fixed oil extracted from the seeds was found to activate the

GAMILA H. ALI; M. A. ALI

2004-01-01

53

Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed proteinfraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissuelipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile ofrats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50±1 °C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residualchlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed thesunflower seed protein fraction had

M. Sen; D. K. Bhattacharyya

2000-01-01

54

Insecticidal activity of crude seed extracts of Annona spp., Lansium domesticum and Sandoricum koetjape against lepidopteran larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude ethanolic seed extracts ofAnnona muricata, A. squamosa (Annonaceae),Lansium domesticum andSandoricum koetjape (Meliaceae) collected from different locations and years in Maluku, Indonesia, were screened for inhibition of larval growth\\u000a against the polyphagous lepidopteranSpodoptera litura (Noctuidae). Extracts ofA. squamosa were significantly more active (20-fold) than those ofA. muricata. A. squamosa collected from Namlea yielded the extracts with the greatest inhibitory activity.

J. Audrey Leatemia; Murray B. Isman

2004-01-01

55

Inhibitory Effect of Helicteres gardneriana Ethanol Extract on Acute Inflammation  

PubMed Central

The anti-inflammatory effect of an ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana (Nees) Castiglioni was assayed in experimental models of pleurisy and microcirculation in situ. Treatment of animals with 500?mg/kg body weight reduced the exudate volume (35% reduction) induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan and the migration of polymorphonuclear cells into the inflamed pleural cavity of rats (40%). Additionally, rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and the number of leukocytes that migrated toward the perivascular space in response to the carrageenan injection were decreased by the extract (500?mg/kg). These data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethanol extract of Helicteres gardneriana and imply that inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial interactions is important in the extract's mechanism of action.

de Melo, Juliana Oliveira; de Arruda, Laura Licia Milani; Baroni, Silmara; Truiti, Maria da Conceicao Torrado; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

2012-01-01

56

Extraction of Amaranth seed oil by supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work studied various aspects of extracting high value lipids from a model seed material (Amaranthcruentus) using supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent. Experimentally, it investigated the effects of process temperature, pressure, solvent flow rate, scale of extraction, and sample pre-treatment on the extraction rate and yield. It was found that the rate of extraction was function of the solvent

D. Westerman; R. C. D. Santos; J. A. Bosley; J. S. Rogers; B. Al-Duri

2006-01-01

57

Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa leaf ethanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity and acute toxicity of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) leaf ethanolic extract in animal models. Methods Anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was studied on stress induced ulcer animal models. Ranitidine was used as standard. The anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa was evaluated with the help of ulcer area and histopatholgical examination. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and acute toxicity studies of F. religiosa also carried out. Results Results showed that the extract treatments prevented ulcer area and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of 2?000 mg/kg extract did not show any acute toxicity in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis identified the presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of F. religiosa. Conclusions The extract is non-toxic even at relatively high concentrations. The anti-ulcer activity is probably due to the presence of flavanoids.

Gregory, Marslin; Divya, B.; Mary, Revina Ann; Viji, M. M. Hipolith; Kalaichelvan, V. K.; Palanivel, V.

2013-01-01

58

Grape seed flavanols, but not Port wine, prevent ethanol-induced neuronal lipofuscin formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipofuscin is an end-product of lipid peroxidation which dramatically increases following ethanol consumption, as we have shown in hippocampal and cerebellar neurons. In this work, we corroborated observations indicating that supplementation of ethanol with 200 mg\\/l of grape seed flavanols prevents increased lipofuscin formation, an action that has been ascribed to the antioxidant properties of the flavanols. Because wine is an

Marco Assunção; Victor de Freitas; Manuel Paula-Barbosa

2007-01-01

59

Extraction, fractionation and characterization of bitter melon seed proteins.  

PubMed

Protein fractions (water-soluble/albumin, salt-soluble/globulin, alkali-soluble/glutelin, and alcohol-soluble/prolamin) were extracted from defatted ripe bitter melon seed (Momordica charantia) using water, 1 M sodium chloride solution, alkali/pH 11.0, and 70% ethanol, sequentially. The main protein fraction was albumin (49.3%), followed by globulin (29.3%) and glutelin (3.1%). No prolamin was detected, and 18.3% of the protein was nonextractable. The surface hydrophobicities of albumin, globulin, and glutelin were 757, 1,034, and 292, respectively. The molecular sizes of all the fractions were mostly about 45 and 55 kDa. The denaturation temperatures of albumin, globulin, and glutelin were 111.9, 117.3, and 133.6 degrees C, respectively. The levels of all essential amino acids in the bitter melon protein fractions met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU) with the exception of Thr. Bitter melon protein fractions with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients. PMID:20052973

Horax, Ronny; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Over, Ken; Chen, Pengyin; Gbur, Edward

2010-02-10

60

Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds*  

PubMed Central

Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contained in the crude extracts were measured as 1.71% (SG), 0.74% (STH), 0.97% (LJ), 3.30% (SC), and 5.06% (ST). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Pakistani SC and ST were 109.5 and 21 ?g/ml, respectively, lower than those of Chinese SG, STH, and LJ (134, 269, and 148 ?g/ml, respectively). An antiallergic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), had an IC50=39 ?g/ml, and a natural inhibitor of hyaluronidase, catechin, had an IC50=20 ?g/ml. The IC50 of ST extract was found similar to that of catechin (21 vs 20 ?g/ml) and lower than that of DSCG (21 vs 39 ?g/ml). This suggests that ST is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronidase, indicating a promising future development of natural antiallergic medicines or functional foods.

Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-chao

2009-01-01

61

Antioxidant and Antilipid Peroxidation Potential of Supercritical Fluid Extract and Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Vitex Negundo Linn.  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extract and ethanol extract of Vitex negundo Linn. were subjected to the chromatographic evaluation for identification of their constituents. Free radical scavenging activity of both extracts was studied by subjecting them to DPPH assay. IC50 values of ethanol and supercritical fluid extract of Vitex negundo indicate that ethanol extract has stronger reducing potential and ability to scavenge free radicals as compared to the supercritical fluid extract. The in vivo effect of extracts on lipid peroxidation was studied using ethanol induced oxidative stress model in rat. Ingestion of extracts for 14 days exhibited significant reduction in plasma MDA level of stressed animals. Ethanol extract exhibited higher in vivo antilipid peroxidation potential as compared to supercritical fluid extract which correlated well with radical scavenging potential of extract.

Nagarsekar, K. S.; Nagarsenker, M. S.; Kulkarni, S. R.

2011-01-01

62

Extraction of fat from fermented Cupuaçu seeds with supercritical solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum) is a Brazilian Amazonian fruit. The seeds have a high fat content (62%) with characteristics that resemble that of cocoa butter and with potential applications in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. In this work, new experimental data on the supercritical fluid extraction of fat components from Cupuaçu fermented seeds using ethane and CO2 as solvents are

Alvaro B. A. de Azevedo; Uiram Kopcak; Rahoma S. Mohamed

2003-01-01

63

The free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of pod and seed extract of Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard)- an underutilized legume  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the phenolic content and antioxidant capacities of pod and seed extracts (in methanol, ethanol, and water) of\\u000a an underutilized legume, Clitoria fairchildiana (Howard). The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined using the ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay,\\u000a and the free radical-scavenging capacity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging and ABTS assays.\\u000a In addition, the total flavonoids, flavonols, and

H. V. Annegowda; Rajeev Bhat; Liong Min Tze; A. A. Karim; S. M. Mansor

64

Antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extract and fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic activities of ethanolic root extract/fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis (A. djalonensis) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods A. djalonensis root extract/fractions (37–111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGLs) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of hours and days throughout the duration of the treatment. Results Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting BGLs of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. Conclusions These results suggest that the root extract/fractions of A. djalonensis possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

Okokon, Jude E; Antia, Bassey S; Udobang, John A

2012-01-01

65

Antioxidant Properties of Ethanolic Extract from Ramulus mori (Sangzhi)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant properties and total phenolic contents of four fractions of ethanolic extract from Ramulus mori were examined. Various experimental models including superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power were used for characterization of their antioxidant activity. The four fractions showed various degrees of efficacy in each assay in a dose-dependent manner.

Zuofa Zhang; Jie Jin; Liangen Shi

2009-01-01

66

Enzyme-supported oil extraction from Jatropha curcas Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jatropha curcas is a tropical plant widely distributed in arid areas. The seeds contain about 55% of oil, which is mainly used for the production\\u000a of soap as a fuel and after transesterification as biodiesel. Various methods for recovering of oil from the seeds, including\\u000a extraction with organic solvents and water, have been investigated. Compared to hexane extraction (98%) the

Elisabeth Winkler; Nikolaus Foidl; Georg M. Gübitz; Ruth Staubmann; Walter Steiner

1997-01-01

67

Evaluation of a ruminally dosed tall fescue seed extract as a model for fescue toxicosis in steers.  

PubMed

Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) toxicosis research is often complicated by a reduction in intake of infected forage or seed, making treatment comparisons difficult. This study was conducted to develop a fescue toxicosis model that would allow for variations in DMI without altering the quantity of alkaloids consumed over the course of the experiment. Ground tall fescue seed and a tall fescue seed extract were used in two 2-period crossover experiments to determine the effectiveness of ruminal dosing of a tall fescue seed extract to induce fescue toxicosis. This experiment used 4 growing Holstein steers (BW = 337 ± 24 kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Steers were maintained on a diet of endophyte-free fescue hay fed ad libitum throughout the experiment. Endophyte-infected (E+; 4.1 mg/kg of ergovaline) and uninfected (E-; 0.0 mg/kg of ergovaline) KY-31 tall fescue seed was ground and dosed or extracted with ethanol, concentrated, and lyophilized before ruminal dosing. Ergovaline concentration of the final extract was 102 mg/kg. Animals were given a minimum of a 3-wk washout period between treatments. Physiological indicators were measured over 7 d at 22°C (d 1 to 3) and 32°C (d 4 to 7) during both seed and extract dosing. Seed and extract E+ dosing reduced serum prolactin concentrations such that they were not different from zero (P < 0.10). Treatment with E+ reduced feed intake (P < 0.05) and heart rate (P < 0.001), and increased respiration rate (P < 0.01) and core temperature (P < 0.05) during both seed and extract dosing. Increasing environmental temperature from 22 to 32°C reduced total intake (P < 0.05) and increased core temperature (P < 0.001) and respiration rate (P < 0.001) during both seed and extract dosing. Diastolic blood pressure tended (P < 0.09) to be increased during E+ extract dosing and reduced during heat stress. These physiological alterations are consistent with those reported for cattle grazing or consuming seed from endophyte-infected tall fescue. These data indicate that a ruminally dosed ethanol extract of tall fescue seed is efficacious in inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. PMID:22064740

Koontz, A F; Bush, L P; Klotz, J L; McLeod, K R; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

2011-11-07

68

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of grape ( Vitis vinifera) seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape seeds were powdered and the fatty material was extracted in a Soxhlet extractor with petroleum ether (60–80 °C) for 6 h. The defatted powder was extracted with acetone:water:acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) and methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.5:0.5) for 8 h each separately. The extracts were concentrated under vacuum to obtain crude extracts, which were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection

G. K. Jayaprakasha; Tamil Selvi; K. K. Sakariah

2003-01-01

69

Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Colorectal Carcinoma by Litchi Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

The Litchi (Litchi chinensis) fruit products possess rich amounts of flavanoids and proanthocyanidins. Its pericarp has been shown to inhibit breast and liver cancer cell growth. However, the anticolorectal cancer effect of Litchi seed extract has not yet been reported. In this study, the effects of polyphenol-rich Litchi seed ethanol extract (LCSP) on the proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two colorectal cancer cell lines Colo320DM and SW480 were examined. The results demonstrated that LCSP significantly induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle in G2/M in colorectal carcinoma cells. LCSP also suppressed cyclins and elevated the Bax?:?Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activity. This study provides in vitro evidence that LCSP serves as a potential chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer.

Hsu, Chih-Ping; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Chiu-Chen; Lin, Yi-Hsien; Chou, Jyh-Ching; Tsia, Yu-Ting; Su, Jhih-Rou; Chung, Yuan-Chiang

2012-01-01

70

IMPROVIN PARTICLE SEPARATION FROM AN ETHANOL EXTRACT TO WATER: SETTLING DEPENDENCE ON FINE PARTICLE CONTENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Separating solid particles from ethanolic corn extracts by gravitational settling into a water layer has been studied as part of a project to develop a low cost method to extract ethanol-soluble protein from corn meal. During settling some of the liquid part of the extract (extract liquid) is entra...

71

Volatile components of ethanolic extract from broccolini leaves.  

PubMed

Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica?×?Alboglabra) is a hybrid of broccoli and kai-lan, Chinese broccoli. To date, no study has been reported on the chemical composition of the volatile fractions of this raw material. In this study, the volatile constituents from the ethanolic extract of broccolini leaves were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixteen compounds were identified. The major components include 5-phenyl-undecane (11%), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.34%), octadecanoic acid (6.39%), 1,1,3-trimethyl-3-phenyl-indan (4.0%), 3-(2-phenylethyl)benzonitrile (3.48%) and phytol (3.37%). PMID:21859369

Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Bochao; Wang, Bingfang; Zhang, Xuewu

2011-08-23

72

Antioxidant extraction from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal using high-intensity ultrasound.  

PubMed

Brassicaceae oilseeds provide feedstocks for the biofuels industry, but value-added coproducts are necessary to supply financial incentives for increased production. Our objective was to use high-intensity ultrasound to optimize extraction of antioxidants from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables included temperature, solvent-to-material ratio, sonication duration, and EtOH concentration. Extracts were analyzed for total phenolics content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and sinapine content. Conventional extraction using water and 70% EtOH (v/v) at 80 °C for 3×30 min yielded 7.83 ± 0.07 and 8.81 ± 0.17 mg sinapic acid equivalents (SAE)/g meal, respectively. UAE extraction at 40 °C for 30 min yielded similar phenolics content (8.85 ± 0.33 mg SAE/g meal) as conventional hot ethanolic extraction, but required less time and lower temperature. The highest TPC (13.79 ± 0.38 mg SAE/g meal) was in the 7-d aqueous extracts. Sonicated solutions of pure sinapine and sinapic acid showed 1st-order reaction kinetics with greater degradation of isolated compounds than those present in extracts. Sinapine contained in extracts showed insignificant (P < 0.05) degradation after 30 min of sonication. Our research indicates that ultrasound treatment can assist the extraction of antioxidants from B. juncea meal by reducing both the temperature and time requirement without significant degradation of the primary antioxidants present. PMID:23488824

Dubie, Jeremiah; Stancik, Aaron; Morra, Matthew; Nindo, Caleb

2013-03-11

73

Insecticidal effects of acetogenins from Rollinia occidentalis seed extract.  

PubMed

From the methanol seed extract of Rollinia occidentalis five acetogenins were isolated, sylvaticin (1), rolliniastatin-1 (2), rolliniastatin-2 (3), motrilin (4) and desacetyluvaricin (5), and evaluated for their toxicity and nutritional alterations on Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). All but one of the compounds produced more than 90% mortality on early larval instars at 50 and 100 microg per g of diet. Sylvaticin caused 15 and 60% mortality at 50 and 100 microg/g, respectively, while the methanol seed extract reached 35 and 50% at 100 and 250 microg/g, respectively. The addition of R. occidentalis methanolic seed extract (100 and 250 microg/g) and sylvaticin (100 microg/g) to the larval diet brought about significant changes to the nutritional indices in connection with larvae fed the control diet. This is the first report on the isolation of acetogenins from R. occidentalis and their insecticidal effects on S. frugiperda. PMID:23413573

Tolosa, Diego; Alvarez, Colom Olga; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

2012-12-01

74

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract.  

PubMed

The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product. PMID:23861716

San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2013-06-04

75

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2013-01-01

76

Synthesis of microsized gold nanoplates by a self-seeding method in ethanol solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-crystalline gold nanoplates with microsized edges have been synthesized by a simple self-seeding method with the assistance of aniline in an ethanol solution. The as-synthesized gold nanoplates showed strong absorption in near infrared region (NIR). Investigation suggests the amount of aniline added to the reaction solution plays a key role in the generation of nanoplates. A possible formation mechanism for

Zhirui Guo; Yu Zhang; Yongqiang Mao; Lan Huang; Ning Gu

2006-01-01

77

Free radical scavenging and antiatherogenic activities of Sesamum indicum seed extracts in chemical and biological model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging consensus underscores the importance of oxidative events in vascular disease including excess production of reactive oxygen\\/nitrogen species (ROS\\/RNS), in addition to lipoprotein oxidation. Sesamum indicum has long been used extensively as a traditional food. The aim of present study was to evaluate antioxidant action of aqueous and ethanolic seed extracts from S. indicum using various in vitro ROS\\/RNS

Nishant P. Visavadiya; Badrish Soni; Nirav Dalwadi

2009-01-01

78

Antioxidative effect of extracts from red grape seed and peel on lipid oxidation in oils of sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidative effect of red grape seed (RGS) and red grape peel (RGP) ethanolic extracts on primary and secondary lipid oxidation in sunflower and conjugated sunflower (SF\\/CSF) oils was evaluated. Lipid oxidation was analysed at 60°C using three methods; conjugated diene (CD) measurements for primary oxidation product development, static headspace gas chromatography (SHGC), and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to

Emad S. Shaker

2006-01-01

79

Extraction, quantification, and antioxidant activities of phenolics from pericarp and seeds of bitter melons (Momordica charantia) harvested at three maturity stages (immature, mature, and ripe).  

PubMed

Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is an exotic vegetable used for consumption and medicinal purposes mainly throughout Asia. Phenolics were extracted from pericarp (fleshy portion) and seeds of bitter melons harvested at three maturation stages (immature, mature, and ripe) using ethanol and water solvent systems. Total phenolic assessment demonstrated 80% of ethanol to be the optimal solvent level to extract phenolics either from pericarp or seed. Main phenolic constituents in the extracts were catechin, gallic acid, gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, and epicatechin. Free radical scavenging assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) demonstrated the bitter melon extracts as slow rate free radical scavenging agents. There were low correlations between the total phenolic contents and antiradical power values of the extracts, suggesting a possible interaction among the phenolic constituents occurred. Bitter melon phenolic extracts contain natural antioxidant substances, and could be used as antioxidant agents in suitable food products. PMID:20225855

Horax, Ronny; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Chen, Pengyin

2010-04-14

80

Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).  

PubMed

Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. PMID:24128509

Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

2013-08-29

81

Mathematical modeling of sunflower seed extraction by supercritical COâ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of oil from crushed sunflower seeds with supercritical COâ was performed at 280 bar and 40 C on a laboratory apparatus of 0.15 à 10⁻³ m³ volume and on a pilot plant of 1.5 à 10⁻³ m³ volume. COâ flow rate ranged between 5 and 45 kg\\/h. To study the influence of the vegetable matrix on the extraction rate,

M. Perrut; J. Y. Clavier; M. Poletto; E. Reverchon

1997-01-01

82

Evaluation of soybean seed protein extraction focusing on metalloprotein analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Two methods of protein extraction for soybean seeds were evaluated in terms of preservation of the metal ions bound to proteins\\u000a after the extraction and separation procedures. The proteins were firstly separated according to their molar masses by polyacrylamide\\u000a gel electrophoresis. Then, the protein bands were mapped by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence in order to establish\\u000a which metal ions were

Alessandra Sussulini; Jerusa S. Garcia; Márcia F. Mesko; Diogo P. Moraes; Érico M. M. Flores; Carlos A. Pérez; Marco A. Z. Arruda

2007-01-01

83

Identification of Benzethonium Chloride in Commercial Grapefruit Seed Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (by proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis). The main constituent was identified as benzethonium chloride, a synthetic antimicrobial agent commonly used in cosmetics and other

Gary R. Takeoka; Lan T. Dao; Rosalind Y. Wong; Leslie A. Harden; Noreen Mahoney

2001-01-01

84

Bronchodilatory effect of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis  

PubMed Central

Background: Nyctanthes arbortristis has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma and cough. Aim: In this study, bronchodilatory effect of ethanolic extract of the N. arbortristis was investigated under in vitro conditions. The concentration–response curve of the tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) to histamine was recorded in presence or absence of ethanolic extract and N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Dose–response effect of ethanolic extract on pre-constricted tissues was investigated. The ethanolic extract inhibited the histamine-induced maximum contractile responses of TSM (P < 0.001). Ethanolic extract also cause dose-dependent relaxation of TSM. These effects were reversed by L-NAME. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of typical plant constituents. These results suggest the possible use of extract of the leaves of N. arbortristis as a bronchodilator in therapeutic treatment of asthma.

Sopi, Ramadan B.; Hayat Khan, Muhammad Feroz

2013-01-01

85

The Antiinflammatory and Antiarthritic Properties of Ethanol Extract of Hedera helix.  

PubMed

The ethanol Hedera helix plant extract was tested for its antiinflammatory properties. Intraperitoneal injections of 7.5 ml/kg wt ethanol extract showed antiinflammatory activity with 88.89% inhibition as compared to reference drug diclofenac, which showed 94.44% inhibition in formalin-induced paw oedema. As formalin-induced paw oedema closely resembles human arthritis, the antiarthritic property of ethanol extract of Hedera helix was also investigated. The visible reduction in arthritic symptoms by extract of Hedera helix suggests the potential of the plant extract against inflammation and arthritis. PMID:23901168

Rai, Anuradha

2013-01-01

86

Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqueous Ethanolic Extract of Chamomile capitula in Paracetamol Intoxicated Albino Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Chamomile recutita capitula against paracetamol induced hepatic damage in albino rats was observed. In the present study the effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Chamomile recutita capitula on blood and liver glutathione, Na+ K+- ATPase activity, serum marker enzymes, serum bilirubin, glycogen and thiobarbutiric acid reactive substances against paracetamol induced damage in rats

Ajay Kumar Gupta; Neelam Misra

2006-01-01

87

Effect of microorganisms on rate of liquid extraction of ethanol from fermentation broths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid extraction is one means of removing metabolic products continuously during a fermentation and so reducing product inhibition. It is known that microbial organisms are attracted to liquid-liquid interfaces, and it is important for the design of extraction systems to establish if this has a detrimental effect on the rate of extraction. The extraction of ethanol from aqueous suspensions of

P. G. Crabbe; C. W. Tse; P. A. Munro

1986-01-01

88

Oxidative Phosphorylation by Mitochondria Extracted from Dry Sunflower Seeds  

PubMed Central

The role of mitochondria in the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP in the early steps of seed germination has been studied. Mitochondria were extracted from dry sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. Adenylate kinase-dependent ATP synthesis was inhibited by p1,p5-di(adenosine-5?)pentaphosphate. Synthesis of ATP was observed with the different substrates: citrate, ?-ketoglutarate, succinate, malate, pyruvate or NADH. This synthesis was activated by cytochrome c, and inhibited by cyanide, oligomycin, carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone, and carboxyatractyloside. The ATP/O values with succinate were 0.85 and 1.2 in the absence or presence, respectively, of cytochrome c. Electron micrographs showed that mitochondria of dry tissues have different structures when observed in situ or in vitro after aqueous extraction, suggesting that profound changes occurred after the contact with the aqueous medium. These results confirm previous data obtained in vivo showing that mitochondria present in dry seeds are able to synthesize ATP as soon as the seeds are rehydrated. Images Figure 7

Attucci, Sylvie; Carde, Jean Pierre; Raymond, Philippe; Saint-Ges, Veronique; Spiteri, Anne; Pradet, Alain

1991-01-01

89

Evaluation of extractive contact units for oil extraction from dehulled sunflower seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of an extractive system generally depends on kinetic, thermodynamic and technological parameters. Each of these\\u000a factors affects the extractive effectiveness, although the overall result depends on their interaction. In the present work\\u000a this interaction is analyzed for oil extraction from dehulled sunflower seed. Experiments on laboratory scale were made to\\u000a calculate the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the

L. Tranchino; F. Melle

1984-01-01

90

Antioxidant Property of an Ethanol Extract of the Stem of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethanol extract of the stem of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) was assessed to determine the mechanism(s) of its antioxidant activity. The ethanol extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in a thiocyanate assay system. In addition, the OFS extract showed dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity, including DPPH radicals, superoxide anions (O2¥-), and hydroxyl radicals (¥OH), using different

Jeong-Chae Lee; Hak-Ryul Kim; Ju Kim; Yong-Suk Jang

2002-01-01

91

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

1986-05-01

92

Fermentation of Aqueous Plant Seed Extracts by Lactic Acid Bacteria  

PubMed Central

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72-h period at 37°C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products.

Schaffner, Donald W.; Beuchat, Larry R.

1986-01-01

93

Extraction optimization of watermelon seed protein using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction conditions for maximum protein recovery from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Cv Sugar baby) seed meal were investigated using response surface methodology. A central composite design with four independent variables: temperature (40, 45, 50, 55 and 60°C); NaOH concentration (0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12 and 0.15g\\/L); extraction time (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25min) and solvent\\/meal ratio (30:1, 40:1, 50:1, 60:1 and

Ali Abas Wani; Devinder Kaur; Idrees Ahmed; D. S. Sogi

2008-01-01

94

Aqueous two-phase system coupled with ultrasound for the extraction of lignans from seeds of Schisandra chinensis (turcz.) Baill.  

PubMed

In this study the potential use of an aqueous two phase system (ATPS) coupled with ultrasound for the extraction of lignans from Schisandra chinensis seeds was evaluated and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The main bioactive components, schizandrin (SA), schisantherin A (SAA) and deoxyschizandrin (DSA) were selected as markers. The partitioning behavior of lignans in different salt-types of ATPS was compared. The optimization ATPS of 25% (w/w) (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and 19% (w/w) ethanol were selected based on their higher upper phase partitioning coefficient (>74) and the recovery (>93%) for three markers. Using the optimized ATPS solvent, the RMS results showed 20:1 of solvent:solid, 800 W and 61.1 min were the optimal ultrasound assisted extraction conditions, under which 13.10mg/g SA, 1.87 mg/g SAA and 1.84 mg/g DSA were recovered in the upper phase, whereas the wasted stigmas accumulated in the lower phase. Compared with 80% ethanol (v/v) ultrasonic extraction, similar yields were obtained, but the present method exhibited higher extraction purity for the selective extraction of lignans from S. chinensis seeds. PMID:22668796

Guo, Y X; Han, J; Zhang, D Y; Wang, L H; Zhou, L L

2012-05-24

95

Free radical scavenging and reducing power of Lawsonia inermis L. seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of Petroleum ether extract (PE), Dichloromethane extract (DCM), Ethanol extract (ET) and aqueous extract (AQ) of henna seeds.

Jacob P Philip; G Madhumitha; Saral A Mary

2011-01-01

96

Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of flavonoids compounds (FC) from hawthorn seed (HS).  

PubMed

Hawthorn seed (HS), an important by-product of the Hawthorn industry, is rich in potentially health-promoting flavonoids compounds. In this paper, the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of FC from HS was investigated. Important variables and their levels were obtained using Plackett-Burman (PB) design and Box-Behnken (BB) design. A mathematical model was developed to show the effects of each variable and their combinatorial interactions on extraction yield of FC. A high coefficient of determination (R(2) = 91.26%) indicated good agreement between the experimental and predicted values of FC yield. The optimum levels of these significant parameters were determined using response surface methodology (RSM), which revealed these as follows: ultrasound temperature 65 °C, ultrasonic time 37 min, extraction temperature 91 °C, extraction time 1.5h, solid-liquid ratio of 1:18, and 72% ethanol. Under the optimum condition, the UAE rate of FC was up to 91.7%, and the yield of FC was 16.45 ± 0.02 mg/g (P<0.05) that was 1.32-fold the yield of conventional reflux extraction (CRE). PMID:22142939

Pan, Guangyan; Yu, Guoyong; Zhu, Chuanhe; Qiao, Julin

2011-11-20

97

Biocide activity of Annona coriacea seeds extract on Rhodnius neglectus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).  

PubMed

The use of synthetic insecticides for insect control may lead to different kind of problems, such as vector resistance to insecticides. To avoid these problems, a new research area to study botanical products as possible disease vectors controls, has become a feasible alternative. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biocide activity of the ethanol extract of seeds of Annona coriacea on Rhodnius neglectus (Chagas disease vector) nymphs and adults. For this, different concentrations extracts were evaluated: 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/ mL, and water in DMSO (20%) was used as control. The experimental design was completely randomized and we conducted the bioassay with nymphs and adults, with 10 nymphs and 10 adults (five males and five females) per treatment. Extract action was evaluated in both bioassays, in order to identify possible effects of mortality and life cycle interruption of nymphs and adults during a 28-day-period. The results obtained showed that the extract of A. coriacea was able to disrupt the development of nymphs and adults of R. neglectus, with a mortality rate of more than 90%, 36% and 100%, at the highest concentrations, respectively. There was also molting inhibition in nymphs, lower reproductive capacity in females, feeding deterrence and morphological changes in nymphs and adults. We concluded that the extract of A. coriacea has insecticide action on nymphs and adults of R. neglectus. PMID:23894992

Carneirol, Angela Pinheiro; Pereira, Mônica Josene Barbosa; Galbiati, Carla

2013-03-01

98

Carbon dioxide extraction of canola seed: Oil solubility and effect of seed treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of oil from fixed beds of canola seed (Brassica napus) was studied using carbon dioxide at temperatures and pressures ranging from 25 to 90C and 10 to 36 MPa, respectively. The\\u000a oil solubility in CO2 was found to be strongly dependent on CO2 pressure and weakly dependent on the system temperature. The highest observed oil solubility was 11

M. Fattoria; N. R. Bulley; A. Meisen

1988-01-01

99

STUDIES CONCERNING ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM SWEET SORGHUM EXTRACT USING A Z. MOBILIS HIGH PRODUCTIVE MUTANT STRAIN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuel ethanol is currently made by large-scale yeast fermentation of sugars, that are extracted or prepared from crops, followed by distillation. Traditionally, sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) juice or beet (Beta vulgaris) molasses are used in ethanol production. The use of sweet sorghum to provide liquid fuels for the transport sector represent a new challenge, mainly due to its high yield

G. Stoian; G. Leurzeanu; V. Zaharescu; I. Iorgulescu

100

Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

101

Molecular docking studies and anti-snake venom metalloproteinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.  

PubMed

Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the binding pockets of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The phenolic principles could form hydrogen bonds with the three histidine residues in the conserved zinc-binding motif and could chelate the Zn(2+) atom of the SVMPs, which could potentially result in inhibition of the venom enzymatic activities and thereby inhibit tissue necrosis. PMID:19783918

Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

2009-08-27

102

Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of nine Nigerian spices against four food borne bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of nine Nigerian spices (Xylopia aethiopica, Myristia fragran, Aframomum sceptum, Garcina cola, Zingiber official, Piper guanine, Allium cepa, Vanilla fragran and Opium gratissimum) against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Streptococcus faecalis was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts. By and large, all the extracts

Christian Agatemor

103

SEPARATION OF PARTICLES FROM ETHANOL/MAIZE EXTRACTS: AN INEXPENSIVE ALTERNATIVE TO CENTRIFUGATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A pilot-scale settling tank was used to separate maize particles from extracts into water with little dilution of the aqueous ethanol extract liquid. The larger particles that settled in the first quarter of the tank were carried out by continuous water flow 76 cm below the extract layer. The large...

104

[Chemical composition and cryoprotective activity of ethanol extract from winter caterpillars Aporia crataegi L].  

PubMed

Glycerol, alpha-carotene, and other yet unidentified compounds have been found in the ethanol extract from winter caterpillars of the black-veined white (Aporia crataegi L.). We have shown that the ethanol extract has a cryoprotective effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes, and this activity is approximately three times higher than that of glycerol (particularly, in the case of repeated freezing), which is one of the best cryoprotectors. PMID:14735784

Li, N G; Osakovski?, V L; Ivanova, S S

105

Separation of lignocellulosic materials by combined processes of pre-hydrolysis and ethanol extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we proposed a new modification for an ethanol-based pulping process, which would consist of the pre-hydrolysis (pre-extraction) of wood chips for removing hemicelluloses; the ethanol extraction of pre-hydrolyzed wood chips for removing lignin; and the post purification of cellulose, leading to the production of pure cellulose. We also experimentally evaluated the separation of hemicelluloses from the pre-hydrolysis

Zehua Liu; Pedram Fatehi; M. Sarwar Jahan; Yonghao Ni

2011-01-01

106

A preliminary study of the mechanism of hypoglycaemic activity of Nauclea latifolia leaf ethanolic extract.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the possible underlying mechanism of the hypoglycaemic activity of the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia leaves in rats. The extract, glibenclamide or water was administered orally in a glucose, sucrose and maltose tolerance tests. In addition, the effect of the extract on ?-glucosidase enzymes was also studied. The ethanolic extract at 200mg/kg body weight inhibited the increase in glucose level after both oral and intraperitoneal glucose loads as did glibenclamide. The extract also dose dependently inhibited both maltase and sucrase activities in vitro but not in vivo. The hypoglycaemic effect of N. latifolia leaf ethanolic extract thus appears to be most probably exerted through a mechanism similar to that of glibenclamide which is related to increased insulin release from pancreatic ?-cells. PMID:22944715

Gidado, Abubakar; Ameh, Danladi A; Atawodi, Sunday E; Ibrahim, Sani

2012-08-10

107

Hepatoprotective activity of the ethanol extract of Sarcopyramis Nepalensis.  

PubMed

The present study examined the protective effect of the ethanol extract of Sarcopyramis nepalensis (EESN) on agents-induced hepatotoxicity in mice and the possible mechanism. Acute liver injury was induced by administration of either CCl(4) or D-GalN. The animals were divided into 5 groups in terms of different treatment: normal group, CCl(4) or D-GalN group, silymarin or bifendate group, low dose EESN group (10 mg/kg) and high dose EESN group (30 mg/kg). Liver function was evaluated by detecting the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). The oxidize stress markers were measured, including malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Liver tissues were histopathologically examined by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. The acute toxicity study revealed that there was no toxicity of EESN at the dose of 5 g/kg in mice. The levels of ALT and AST in serum, and the MDA level in live tissues were significantly increased and the activities of SOD and GSH substantially decreased in mice after CCl(4) or D-GalN treatment. These biochemical and oxidize stress markers were profoundly improved after treatment with EESN at different doses, which was similar to the results of silymarin or bifendate treatment. The histophathological examination revealed the significant improvement in the pathological changes of the liver in EESN-treated mice as compared to those in CCl(4) or D-GalN group. It was concluded that EESN possesses potential antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties and has therapeutic potential for liver diseases. PMID:23271284

Guo, Jieru; Zhang, Jinwen; Yao, Guangmin; Liao, Mei; Chen, Huadong; Yang, Xixiong; Zhang, Yonghui

2012-12-28

108

Effect of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Cassia auriculata L. flowers on diabetes using alloxan induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study the antidiabetic potential of aqueous and ethanol extract of Cassia auriculata L. flowers was assessed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity were made in these extracts. Antidiabetic agents (Flavonoids and phenolic acids) and free radical scavenging activity in water-soluble fraction of the ethanol extract was higher compared to that of aqueous extract.

F Lukmanul Hakkim; S Girija; R Senthil Kumar

2007-01-01

109

Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, ameliorates ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male wistar rats.  

PubMed

In previous studies, we established that kolaviron (KV) (a biflavonoid from Garcinia kola seeds) elicited anti-oxidative and hepatoprotective effects in Wistar rats chronically treated with ethanol. The present study investigates the possible ameliorative effect of KV against ethanol-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. Twenty-eight rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven animals each; Group 1 (control) was administered corn oil, group 2 was given 45%v/v ethanol at 3g/kg body weight, group 3 received ethanol and KV (200mg/kg) simultaneously and group 4 received KV alone. All drugs were given daily by oral gavage for 21 consecutive days. Ethanol treatment resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in relative weight of testis of the animals. In the spermatozoa, ethanol intoxication resulted in 54%, 21% and 38% decreases in testicular protein content, sperm motility and count, respectively. In addition, ethanol administration enhanced lipid peroxidation (LPO) process assessed by the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the testis. Precisely, MDA level was increased by 121% in the testis of ethanol-treated rats relative to the control. Furthermore, levels of testicular glutathione and activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in ethanol-treated rats. Histopathology showed extensive degenerative changes in seminiferous tubules and defoliation of spermatocytes in testis of ethanol-treated rats. Interestingly, co-administration of KV with ethanol led to almost complete inhibition of testicular LPO thereby enhancing antioxidant status of the testis. Overall, KV ameliorates ethanol-induced toxic assault on testis and improves seminal qualities of the rats. PMID:23955400

Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Arisekola, Muritala

2013-06-30

110

INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA L. SEED EXTRACTS AGAINST THE RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insecticidal activity of the seed extracts of custard apple, Annona squamosa L. in petroleum spirit, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol against Raj, CR 1, FSS II and CTC-12 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) was studied. The seeds were dried, powdered and extracted in Soxhlets apparatus in the solvents below 60°C. Extractions were applied on larvae and

M Khalequzzaman; Shajia Sultana

2006-01-01

111

Cellulase-assisted release of secoisolariciresinol from extracts of flax ( Linum usitatissimum) hulls and whole seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of secoisolariciresinol from seed hulls and whole seeds of flax was improved using an enzymatic step with cellulase R10 from Trichoderma reesei that allowed better yield as compared to ?-glucosidase. The cellulase assisted extraction process was further optimised for different parameters such as duration and concentration of hydromethanolic extraction, duration of alkaline hydrolysis, pH, duration and incubation temperature as

Sullivan Renouard; Christophe Hano; Cyrielle Corbin; Ophélie Fliniaux; Tatiana Lopez; Josiane Montguillon; Esmatullah Barakzoy; François Mesnard; Frédéric Lamblin; Eric Lainé

2010-01-01

112

Antioxidative activity of persimmon and grape seed extract: in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined in vitro radical scavenging activity of persimmon seed extract (PSE) and grape seed extract (GSE), and quantified total tannin concentrations of each extract. It has been found that both PSE and GSE have radical scavenging activities, and total tannin concentration of PSE was significantly higher than GSE (p < 0.05). In order to investigate the protective effect on

Hong Seok Ahn; Tae Il Jeon; Joo Yong Lee; Seong Gu Hwang; Yoongho Lim; Dong Ki Park

2002-01-01

113

Supercritical extraction of sunflower seed oil: Experimental data and model validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work experimental results of sunflower seed oil extraction using supercritical CO2 are presented, together with the outcome obtained by applying to the same data a theoretical model recently developed and further improved here.We performed extraction tests utilizing a supercritical extraction equipment having a volumetric capability of 100ml; the seeds were milled to obtain different particle sizes (mean diameter

Luca Fiori

2009-01-01

114

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) bark  

PubMed Central

The antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the plant bark of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) was investigated using tail flick method on Wistar rats. Three different dose levels (300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) were administered by p.o. route. The antinociceptive activities of the all doses were compared with that of the standard drug asprin (300 mg/kg) administered by p.o. route and the results were found to be significant (P < 0.01). At the above doses, the extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract indicated the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds, and flavanoids. The antinociceptive activity of the bark extract of D. sissoo may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as flavanoids. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanolic extract was not toxic up to 3000 mg/kg body weight.

Asif, Mohammad; Kumar, Arun

2011-01-01

115

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) bark.  

PubMed

The antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the plant bark of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) was investigated using tail flick method on Wistar rats. Three different dose levels (300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) were administered by p.o. route. The antinociceptive activities of the all doses were compared with that of the standard drug asprin (300 mg/kg) administered by p.o. route and the results were found to be significant (P < 0.01). At the above doses, the extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract indicated the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds, and flavanoids. The antinociceptive activity of the bark extract of D. sissoo may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as flavanoids. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanolic extract was not toxic up to 3000 mg/kg body weight. PMID:22470239

Asif, Mohammad; Kumar, Arun

2011-01-01

116

Hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Trichosanthes lobata (family cucurbitaceae) is used to treat malarial fever and liver disorders. This study aims to investigate possible hepatoprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced in Wistar male rats by oral administration, 2?g/kg body weight on 7th day after the administration of ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata and silymarin (100?mg/kg). Ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata was administered orally at doses of 200?mg/kg and 400?mg/kg body weight daily for 7?days. Several serum markers, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, total protein was measured to assess the effect of the extract on paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced hepatic damage. The study included histopathological examination of liver sections. Results Blood samples from rats treated with ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata (200?mg/kg body weight and 400?mg/kg body weight) had significant reductions in serum markers in paracetamol administered animals, indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. Silymarin (100?mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a reference drug. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of Trichosanthes lobata exhibits protective effects against paracetamol?induced hepatotoxicity.

2012-01-01

117

Sperm antimotility properties of a seed extract of Abrus precatorius.  

PubMed

This study examined the inhibitory effects of a methanol extract of Abrus precatorius seeds on the motility of washed human spermatozoa. The extract caused a concentration-related impairment of percentage sperm motility; with the EC50 concentration being 2.29 mg/ml. This effect on motility was essentially irreversible. With the highest concentration tested (20.0 mg/ml), the onset of the antimotility action was almost immediate. In addition, this concentration impaired the functional integrity of the plasma membrane (hypoosmotic swelling test) and viability (nigrosin-eosin stain) of spermatozoa. In contrast, with a lower concentration (5.0 mg/ml), such effects were not evident. It is concluded that at the lower concentrations the antimotility action may result from a rise in intracellular calcium (not via influx) and/or a decline in cAMP content and/or enhanced generation of a reactive oxygen species. PMID:1943179

Ratnasooriya, W D; Amarasekera, A S; Perera, N S; Premakumara, G A

118

EFFECT OF HYPERICUM PERFORATUM CO2 EXTRACT ON THE MOTIVATIONAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL IN ALCOHOL-PREFERRING RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Extracts of Hypericum perforatum (HPE) attenuate voluntary ethanol intake in different lines of alcohol-preferring rats. The present study evaluated the effect of the intragastric (IG) administration of a CO2 Hypericum perforatum extract (HPCO2) on operant ethanol self-administration, as well as on voluntary ethanol intake, after a period of ethanol deprivation in genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Methods: HPCO2

MARINA PERFUMI; LAURA MATTIOLI; LAURA FORTI; MAURIZIO MASSI; ROBERTO CICCOCIOPPO

2005-01-01

119

Grape seed extract effects in brain after hypobaric hypoxia.  

PubMed

Abstract Hypoxia induces a wide range of deleterious effects at the cellular level due to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Polyphenols from grape seeds, which are potent antioxidants might protect the brain against oxidative stress produced by hypobaric hypoxia. The brain effects of three doses of grape seed extract intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered in rats after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia corresponding to 5500?m altitude were investigated. Some oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and molecules involved in angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], matrix metalloproteinase 2 [MMP2], and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 [TIMP1]) were determined. Forty-two rats were divided in seven groups: group 1, control; groups 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 24?h in a hypobaric chamber; groups 5, 6, and 7 were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 5 days. After returning to normal atmospheric pressure, rats from groups 2 and 5 were sacrificed without other treatment. Animals from groups 3 and 6 were i.p treated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) vehicle and those from groups 4 and 7 were i.p. treated with grape seed extract (GSE) (50?mg gallic acid equivalents/kg body weight in 0.5?mL CMC suspension/animal). The treatment was applied at 2, 24, and 72?h from returning to normoxia. Hypobaric hypoxia produced increased brain levels of ROS, nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and VEGF after both time intervals (P<.05). The MMP2 concentration was significantly increased in groups treated only with vehicle, whereas TIMP1 was slightly changed. GSE produced a significant reduction of ROS and NO levels proving its antioxidant capacity. It also decreased IL-6 and MMP2 concentrations to values similar to controls. The VEGF concentration was also significantly reduced. These effects are indicative for anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties of GSE. PMID:24044492

Muresan, Adriana; Suciu, Soimita; Daicoviciu, Doina; Filip, Adriana Gabriela; Clichici, Simona

2013-09-01

120

In vitro antibacterial potential of Eugenia jambolana seed extracts against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible in vitro antibacterial potential of extracts of Eugenia jambolana seeds against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens. Agar well diffusion and microbroth dilution assay methods were used for antibacterial susceptibility testing. Kill-kinetics study was done to know the rate and extent of bacterial killing. Phytochemical analysis and TLC-bioautography were performed by colour tests to characterize the putative compounds responsible for this antibacterial activity. Cytotoxic potential was evaluated on human erythrocytes by haemolytic assay method and acute oral toxicity study was done in mice. The plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of strain specific antibacterial activity against all the test isolates. Further, ethyl acetate fraction obtained from fractionation of most active ethanol extract showed maximum antibacterial effect against all the test isolates. Phytochemical analysis and TLC-bioautography of ethyl acetate fraction revealed that phenolics were the major active phytoconstituents. Ethyl acetate fraction also demonstrated no haemolytic activity on human erythrocytes and no gross behavioural changes as well as toxic symptoms were observed in mice at recommended dosage level. The results provide justification for the use of E. jambolana in folk medicine to treat various infectious diseases and may contribute to the development of novel antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infections caused by these drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. PMID:22444436

Bag, Anwesa; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Pal, Nishith Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Rabi Ranjan

2012-03-22

121

In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bert.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana as a natural antioxidant. The DPPH activity of the extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200 microg/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 36.93-68.76% as compared to ascorbic acid 64.26-82.58%. The IC(50) values of ethanolic extract and ascorbic acid in DPPH radical scavenging assay were obtained to be 93.46 and 26.75 microg/ml, respectively. The ethanolic extract was also found to scavenge the superoxide generated by EDTA/NBT system. Measurement of total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract of S. rebaudiana was achieved using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent containing 61.50 mg/g of phenolic content, which was found significantly higher when compared to reference standard gallic acid. The ethanolic extract also inhibited the hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, superoxide anions with IC(50) values of 93.46, 132.05 and 81.08 microg/ml, respectively. However, the IC(50) values for the standard ascorbic acid were noted to be 26.75, 66.01 and 71.41 microg/ml respectively. The results obtained in this study clearly indicate that S. rebaudiana has a significant potential to use as a natural antioxidant agent. PMID:19540900

Shukla, Shruti; Mehta, Archana; Bajpai, Vivek K; Shukla, Savita

2009-06-21

122

Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Cassia tora seeds on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. After being fed a HFD for two weeks, rats were orally dosed with Cassia seed ethanol extract (CSEE) (100, 200, or 300mg/kg) once daily for 8weeks. CSEE induced dose-dependent reductions in plasma lipid levels, as well as decreased the over hepatic lipid accumulation. Furthermore, CSEE treatment improved HFD-induced hepatic histological lesions. CSEE enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in the livers of HFD-fed rats. AMPK inhibition by compound C retarded CSEE-induced reduction in triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells stimulated by insulin. Our findings suggest that CSEE may regulate hepatic lipid homeostasis related with an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation with CSEE may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:23026700

Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

2012-09-28

123

Extraction of oil from Jatropha curcas L. seed kernels by combination of ultrasonication and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of ultrasonication as a pretreatment before aqueous oil extraction and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction was found to be useful in the case of extraction of oil from the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. The use of ultrasonication for 10 min at pH 9.0 followed by aqueous oil extraction gave a yield of 67%. However, the maximum yield of 74%

Shweta Shah; Aparna Sharma; M. N. Gupta

2005-01-01

124

Nutrional value and antinutritional components of whole and ethanol extracted Moringa oleifera leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical constituents, organic matter digestibility, gross and metabolizable energy, rumen degradable and undegradable nitrogen, amino acid composition, digestion kinetics (leaves, their neutral-detergent fiber and cell solubles), and antinutritional factors were determined in extracted (80% aqueous ethanol; the extract is used as a source of growth promoting factors) and unextracted Moringa oleifera leaves. The metabolizable energy and organic matter digestibility predicted

H. P. S. Makkar; K. Becker

1996-01-01

125

Antinociceptive action of ethanolic extract obtained from roots of Humirianthera ampla Miers.  

PubMed

Humirianthera ampla Miers is a member of the Icacinaceae family and presents great amounts of di and triterpenoids. These chemical constituents in roots of Humirianthera ampla sustain not only the ethnopharmacological use against snake venom, but also some anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the plant. In this study we investigated the antinociceptive action of the ethanolic extract (EE) from roots of the Humirianthera ampla in chemical and thermal models of pain in mice. The oral treatment with ethanolic extract dose-dependently inhibited glutamate-, capsaicin- and formalin-induced licking. However, it did not prevent the nociception caused by radiant heat on the tail-flick test. The ethanolic extract (30 mg/kg) caused marked inhibition of the nociceptive biting response induced by glutamate, (+/-)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and substance P. The antinociception caused by ethanolic extract was significantly attenuated by naloxone, l-arginine, WAY100635, ondansetron or ketanserin, but not by caffeine or naloxone methiodide. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract from roots of Humirianthera ampla produces antinociception against neurogenic and inflammatory models of nociception. The mechanisms of antinociception involve nitric oxide, opioid, serotonin and glutamate pathways. Therefore, our results support the ethnopharmacological use of the Humirianthera ampla against inflammatory and painful process caused by snake venom. PMID:17900839

Luiz, Ana Paula; Moura, Janaína D'Avila; Meotti, Flavia C; Guginski, Giselle; Guimarães, Cesar L S; Azevedo, Mariangela S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Santos, Adair R S

2007-08-19

126

A twin-screw extruder for oil extraction: II. Alcohol extraction of oleic sunflower seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our work is about the extraction of sunflower seed oil in a twin-screw extruder with or without the injection of 2-ethylhexanol\\u000a and acidified 2-ethylhexanol. 2-Ethylhexanol is mixed with phosphoric acid. The oil recovery is increased to 90% by the co-injection\\u000a of acidified alcohol. Mixing phosphoric acid with the alcohol enhances the lability of the oily spherosomes. Its addition\\u000a increases the

Corinne Dufaure; Zéphirin Mouloungui; Luc Rigal

1999-01-01

127

Simultaneous production of sugars and ethanol from inulin rich-extracts in a chemostat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomplete fermentation of inulin-containing extracts by Saccharomyces diastaticus allows the simultaneous production of ethanol and syrups with increased fructose content. The yeast strain used ferments sucrose and inulin small polymers but does not easily ferment inulin large polymers. After batch fermentation a production of 62.5 g\\/L ethanol and 75 g\\/L of sugars containing up to 94 % fructose can be

S. Schorr-Galindo; C. Ghommidh; J. P. Guiraud

1995-01-01

128

Biological activity of ethanolic extract fractions of Dracaena arborea against infestation of stored grains by two storage insect pests.  

PubMed

As part of on-going efforts to use eco-friendly alternatives to chemical pesticides, ethanolic extract of dried leaves of Dracaena arborea (Willd.) Link (Dragon tree; Dracaenaceae) dissolved in distilled water and partitioned between equal volumes of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol was assessed in the laboratory against infestation by Sitophillus zeamais Motsch. and Callosobruchus maculatus Walp. in stored maize and cowpea, respectively. One hundred grams each of maize grains and cowpea seeds were treated with 400 mg kg(-1) of each extract fraction to evaluate contact toxicity, damage assessment, effect on eggs and immature stages and progeny production in both insect species. Contact toxicity by topical application, toxicity upon filter paper application and repellency using area preference method were carried out on the two insect species. Results showed that the extract fraction caused significant (p < or = 0.05) mortality of both insect pests with a high residual contact activity against S. zeamais. Grain damage was significantly (p < or = 0.01) reduced, while progeny production and development of eggs within grains were inhibited. The extract fractions evoked a strong repellent action against S. zeamais but moderate action against C. maculatus. The full potentials of using extract fractions of D. arborea as grain protectant against infestation by insect pests is discussed. PMID:19817125

Epidi, T T; Udo, I O

2009-07-01

129

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from Opuntia dillenii Haw. and its antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from Opuntia dillenii Haw. and its antioxidant activity were investigated in this study. The effects of main operating parameters including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO2 flow rate on the extraction yield of seed oil were studied. The maximum extraction yield of 6.65% was achieved at a pressure of 46.96MPa, a temperature of

Wei Liu; Yu-Jie Fu; Yuan-Gang Zu; Mei-Hong Tong; Nan Wu; Xiao-Lei Liu; Su Zhang

2009-01-01

130

Temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient of oil from different sunflower seeds during extraction with hexane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil extraction from confectionery, oilseed and wild sunflower seeds with n-hexane was investigated by laboratory tests carried out in a stirred batch extractor at several temperatures (40, 50 and 60°C). The rates of extraction were determined from ground sunflower seeds (particle sizes between 0.420 and 1.000mm). The oil yield in the extract increased with higher contact time and extraction temperature

Ethel E. Perez; Amalia A. Carelli; Guillermo H. Crapiste

2011-01-01

131

Subcritical water extraction of biologically active substances from milk thistle seed ( Silybum murianum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of biologically active substances from milk thistle seed (Silybum marianum L.) that makes it possible to obtain aqueous extracts without using organic solvents is suggested. The contents of hepatoprotective\\u000a biologically active substances (taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin, and silybin) in milk thistle seed extracts obtained by\\u000a SCWE and by standardized liquid extraction procedures are compared.

I. A. Platonov; N. V. Nikitchenko; L. A. Onuchak; Yu. I. Arutyunov; V. A. Kurkin; P. V. Smirnov

2010-01-01

132

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Valuable Compounds from Citrus junos Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of Citrus junos seed was carried out at temperatures of 40–70 °C, pressures of 20–50 MPa, and CO2 flow rate of 3 ml\\/min with supercritical carbon dioxide to obtain the valuable compounds. Seed oil was also extracted by\\u000a using Soxhlet extraction with hexane as the solvent during 360 min for comparison with the efficiency of supercritical carbon\\u000a dioxide extraction. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)

Hiro Ueno; Masahiro Tanaka; Siti Machmudah; Mitsuru Sasaki; Motonobu Goto

2008-01-01

133

Differential Neuroprotective Activity of Two Different Grape Seed Extracts  

PubMed Central

Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major events that takes place during various neurotoxic injuries such as brain ischemia. We prepared grape seed extracts, from two different varieties, containing high amounts of polyphenols but little resveratrol. Their neuroprotective effects were investigated using primary culture of neonatal mouse hippocampal neurons treated with an excitotoxic concentration of glutamate. Koshu, a white, local variety of V. vinifera, alleviated the acute inactivation of Erk1/2 and dendrite retraction in cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to a toxic concentration of glutamate (1.0 ng/ml). By contrast, Muscat Bailey A, a red, hybrid variety (Muscat Humburg × Bailey), failed to show any neuroprotective effect. Unlike brain-derived neurotrophic factor and other neuroprotective cytokines, Koshu extract did not induce Akt phosphorylation. Koshu extract also augmented neuron survival rate 24 hours after glutamate toxicity. The comparison of polyphenols between the two samples by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrated that Koshu had higher amounts of low molecular weight polyphenols along with several Koshu-specific procyanidin oligomers. These data suggest the presence of high affinity molecular targets for polyphenols in hippocampal neurons, which induce neuroprotective effects in a manner different from BDNF, and the importance of low molecular weight polyphenols and/or procyanidin oligomers for neuroprotection.

Narita, Keishi; Hisamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Tohru; Takeda, Sen

2011-01-01

134

Screening of SdiA inhibitors from Melia dubia seeds extracts towards the hold back of uropathogenic E.coli quorum sensing-regulated factors.  

PubMed

Plants have always been a supreme source of drugs and India is endowed with a wide variety of them with high medicinal values. The Quorum Sensing (QS) quenching efficiency of various solvent extracts of Melia dubia seeds was investigated against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to screen the competitive inhibitor of SdiA, a transcriptional activator of quorum sensing in E. coli. In this study, potentiality of five different extracts of Melia dubia seeds for quorum sensing inhibitory activity was investigated against uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Assays such as cell density, swarming motility, protein, protease, hemolysis, hemagglutination, hydrophobicity and biofilm inhibition were performed. Biofilm, hemolysis and swarming motility were found to be inhibited by 92.1%, 20.9 % and 48.52% respectively, when the medium was supplemented with 30 mg/ml of the ethanolic extract. GC-MS spectrum of the ethanolic extract showed an array of 27 structurally unlinked compounds with natural ligand C8HSL. The docking against QS transcriptional regulator SdiA was predicted by in silico studies and the ligand C6 showed significant activity with -10.8 GScore. In vitro and in silico docking analysis showed fairly a good correlation, suggesting that the ethanolic extract showed potency to attenuate quorum sensing of uropathogenic E. coli. Further studies by in vitro and in vivo strategies are necessary to foresee the quorum quenching effect of the ligands. PMID:23210902

Ravichandiran, Vinothkannan; Shanmugam, Karthi; Solomon, Adline Princy

2013-09-01

135

Antitumor potential of ethanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton against breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton is a commonly prescribed Chinese medical herb for tumor therapy. In this study, an extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton referred as Cpv was prepared and its anti-tumor effect was evaluated with MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton power was extracted with ethanol and the main components of the extract (Cpv) were analyzed with HPLC. The effect

Xiuping Chen; Lixia Pei; Zhangfeng Zhong; Jiajie Guo; Qingwen Zhang; Yitao Wang

2011-01-01

136

Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Cortex fraxini and use in peanut oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortex fraxini was extracted with 95% ethanol to obtain a crude antioxidant extract. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the linoleic acid peroxidation method and the free radical scavenging assays, namely 2,2?-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals. Cortex fraxini extract (CFE) showed high inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid when compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). CFE also exhibited excellent scavenging activity

Yingming Pan; Jinchan Zhu; Hengshan Wang; Xiaopu Zhang; Ye Zhang; Chunhuan He; Xiaowen Ji; Haiyun Li

2007-01-01

137

Inactivation of Enterobacter sakazakii by Water-soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hot and cold water-soluble muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia) seed extracts and their polar and polyphenol fractions from two Muscadine cultivars (‘Ison’, purple and ‘Carlos’, bronze) were investigated for their inhibition of Enterobacter sakazakii. The heat treatment on each seed extract not only incre...

138

Rejuvenation of antioxidant system in central nervous system of aged rats by grape seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress is considered as a major risk factor that contributes to age-related increase in lipid peroxidation and declined antioxidants in the central nervous system during aging. Grape seed extract, one of the bioflavonoid, is widely used for its medicinal properties. In the present study, we evaluated the role of grape seed extract on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in

Muthaiya Balu; Purushotham Sangeetha; Dayalan Haripriya; Chinnakannu Panneerselvam

2005-01-01

139

Separation of bioactives from seabuckthorn seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction methodology through solubility parameter approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoids L.) seed oil having high nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and therapeutic activity has been extracted from dried seabuckthorn (SBT) seed powder using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2). The solubility parameter of SBT actives (tocopherols, lycopene and ?-carotene), CO2, and entrainer solvents was calculated and validated with experimental results. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was evaluated in terms

Lalit D. Kagliwal; Sushant C. Patil; Anuradha S. Pol; Rekha S. Singhal; Vandana B. Patravale

2011-01-01

140

Comparison of fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential of extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracts of seven Citrus rootstock seeds have been compared regarding fatty acid profile and antioxidant potential. Sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) was found to contain the highest oil amount (34%), while the Poncirus trifoliata cultivars contained the highest percentage of unsaturated fatty acids (84–87%). In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts from defatted seeds have been evaluated by

Pierluigi Plastina; Alessia Fazio; Bartolo Gabriele

2012-01-01

141

Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from moringa oleifera seed by salt solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

142

Protective action of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in gastric ulcer prevention induced by ethanol in rats.  

PubMed

The pathology of a gastric ulcer is complex and multifactorial. Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and its development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (eeRo); this plant, more commonly known as rosemary, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its numerous pharmacological properties and their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we tested the preventive effects of eeRo against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol in male Wistar rats. In addition, we aimed to clarify the mechanism involved in the preventive action of the eeRo in gastric ulcers. Based on the analysis of markers of oxidative damage and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, the measurement of nitrite and nitrate levels and the assessment of the inflammatory response, the eeRo exhibited significant antioxidant, vasodilator and antiinflammatory properties. PMID:23279841

Amaral, Guilherme Pires; de Carvalho, Nelson Rodrigues; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Portella, Rafael de Lima; da Silva, Michele Hinerasky; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Villetti, Marcos Antonio; Antunes Soares, Félix Alexandre; Fachinetto, Roselei

2012-12-29

143

Antiosteoporotic effect of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomized rat.  

PubMed

Ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis was evaluated for its anti-osteoporotic activity in ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis at two different dose levels of 500 and 750 mg/kg per day. Healthy female albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. First group was sham operated and served as control. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control. Groups 3-5 were orally treated with Raloxifen (5.4 mg/kg) and ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 and 750 mg/kg), respectively. The findings assessed on the basis of biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters showed that the ethanol extract of the plant had a definite antiosteoporotic effect. PMID:14611887

Shirwaikar, Annie; Khan, Saleemulla; Malini, S

2003-12-01

144

Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high concentration. The LC50 for the extract is 0.68 mg/ml at 24 hours of exposure. The LD50 of the SMCM seed extract for acute oral toxicity in mice is greater than 5000 mg/kg. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract may contain bioactive compounds of potential therapeutic significance which are relatively safe from toxic effects, and can compromise the medicinal use of this plant in folk medicine.

Sahgal, Geethaa; Ramanathan, Surash; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan; Mordi, Mohd. Nizam; Ismail, Sabariah; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

2010-01-01

145

Hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Aframomum melegueta on ethanol-induced toxicity in rats.  

PubMed

In recent years there have been remarkable developments in the prevention of diseases, especially with regards to the role of free radicals and antioxidants. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to be one mechanism by which ethanol causes liver injury. The protective effect of aqueous plant extract of Aframomum melegueta on ethanol-induced toxicity was investigated in male Wistar rats. The rats were treated with 45 % ethanol (4.8 g/kg b.w.t.) for 16 days to induce alcoholic diseases in the liver. The activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and triglyceride were monitored and the histological changes in liver examined in order to evaluate the protective effects of the plant extract. Hepatic malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione, as well as superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase activities were determined for the antioxidant status. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in a statistically significant elevation of serum alanine aminotransferases and triglyceride levels, as well as a decrease in reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase which was dramatically attenuated by the co-administration of the plant extract. Histological changes were related to these indices. Co-administration of the plant extract suppressed the elevation of lipid peroxidation, restored the reduced glutathion, and enhanced the superoxide dismutase activity. These results highlight the ability of Aframomum melegueta to ameliorate oxidative damage in the liver and the observed effects are associated with its antioxidant activities. PMID:21887409

Nwozo, Sarah O; Oyinloye, Babatunji E

2011-08-29

146

Effect of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium (E. elaterium) fruits alone against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains and Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains, or in combination with penicillin against Staphylococcus areus strains. Methods Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity or synergy interaction was carried out using microdilution method. Results The results showed that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and C. albicans. This extract showed a significant decrease in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin against both MRSA and MSSA strains. Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC) between penicillin and ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits against these test strains was less than 0.5. Conclusions This study suggests that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and C. albicans and there is a possibility of concurrent use of penicillin and E. elaterium extract in combination in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA and MSSA strains. A wider study is needed to identify the effective components, the mode of action and the possible toxic effect in vivo of these ingredients.

Adwan, Ghaleb; Salameh, Yousef; Adwan, Kamel

2011-01-01

147

Converting carbohydrates extracted from marine algae into ethanol using various ethanolic Escherichia coli strains.  

PubMed

Marine algae, which make up about 80% of the world's living organisms, contain many energy sources, such as sugars and lipids. Therefore, the possibility of utilizing structural carbohydrates from marine algae for bioethanol production has been studied. In order to obtain monosaccharides, Undaria pinnatifida, Chlorella vulgaris, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were used for the saccharification experiments. The pretreatment was carried out by dilute acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment. To find the optimal conditions, experiments were performed at several temperatures, acid concentrations, pH conditions and durations. To test bioethanol production, several ethanolic E. coli W3110 strains, which were developed previously, were used. The maximum yield of bioethanol, 0.4 g ethanol/g biomass, was achieved with pretreated C. vulgaris and E. coli SJL2526, derived from wild-type E. coli W3110 and which includes the adhB, pdc, galP, and glk genes. PMID:21286944

Lee, Soojin; Oh, Younghoon; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Doyeon; Lee, Choulgyun; Lee, Jinwon

2011-02-01

148

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) and its antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) extraction of seed oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) was investigated. The effects of process variables namely pressure (150-300 bar), temperature (40-50 °C) and dynamic extraction time (60-120 min) on crude extraction yield (CEY) were studied through response surface methodology (RSM). The SC-CO(2) extraction process was modified using ethanol (99.9%) as co-solvent. Perturbation plot revealed the significant effect of all process variables on the CEY. A central composite design (CCD) was used to optimize the process conditions to achieve maximum CEY. The optimum conditions were 244 bar pressure, 46 °C temperature and 97 min dynamic extraction time. Under these optimal conditions, the CEY was predicted to be 176.30 mg-extract/g-dried sample. The validation experiment results agreed with the predicted value. The antioxidant activity and fatty acid composition of crude oil obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with published results using Soxhlet extraction (SE) and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE). It was found that the antioxidant activity of the extract obtained by SC-CO(2) extraction was strongly higher than those obtained by SE and UAE. Identification of fatty acid composition using gas chromatography (GC) showed that all the extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids with the most being linoleic acid. In contrast, the amount of saturated fatty acids extracted by SE was higher than that extracted under optimized SC-CO(2) extraction conditions. PMID:23322066

Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

2013-01-15

149

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical COâ extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts

E. Reverchon; C. Marrone; M. Poletto; J. Daghero; M. Mattea

1999-01-01

150

Ethanol Production from Sunflower Seed Hull Hydrolysate by Pichia stipitis under Uncontrolled pH Conditions in a Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol production from sunflower seed hull hydrolysate was evaluated using Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 in this study. The hydrolysate was prepared with 0.7 M H2SO4 and a solid\\/liquid ratio of 1\\/5 (w\\/v) at 90?C. Fermentation of detoxified hydrolysate was carried out in a batch bioreactor system under uncontrolled pH operation at initial pH of 6 at 30 ?C. The influence

Mujgan TELLI OKUR

151

A Novel Extraction Method and Some Physicochemical Properties of Extractives of Irvingia Gabonensis seeds  

PubMed Central

The plant Irvingia gabonensis contains lipids and polymer extractives that can be a good source of excipients for oral pharmaceutical formulations. These constituents are usually extracted from the seeds with the aid of either organic solvents or enzymes. The purpose of this paper was to describe a novel, simpler, cheaper, and safer method for the simultaneous extraction of lipids and gum from I. gabonensis. A 100.0 g of seeds of I. gabonensis in 200 mL deionized water was heated at 78°C in the presence of 2.0 g sodium chloride for 1 h, and the mixture was allowed to stand for the lipids to be separated and removed by filtration. The samples were air dried at 25–30°C. The liquid fraction was centrifuged at 3445 rpm for 30 min, and the supernatant portion containing the gum was freeze dried. The samples were investigated for their true, bulk, and tapped densities as well as particle size and particle size distributions. The rheological, and near infrared absorption spectra as well as thermal behavior of the samples were also studied. The lipid and the polymeric components of I. gabonensis seeds were successfully extracted simultaneously. The true densities of the fatty and gum components were, respectively, 1.000 and 1.544 g/cm3. The melting point of the fat was 40°C and Tg of the gum was 232°C. These values were similar to those described in the literature for the components using the traditional method, demonstrating the effectiveness and efficiency of this simple novel method.

Ogaji, Ikoni J; Nan, Anjan; Hoag, Stephen W

2012-01-01

152

[Anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit on Ascaridia galli].  

PubMed

The anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fruit (noni) was evaluated in chicken naturally infected by Ascaridia galli. The anthelmintic activity in vitro was determined in adult parasites. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts were used in the following concentrations: 1.69; 3.37; 6.74; 13.48 e 26.96 mg.mL(-1) and 4.17; 8.34; 16.68; 33.36 and 66.72 mg.mL(-1), respectively. The anthelmintic activity in vivo was determined by the administration of 10 mL.kg(-1) of the aqueous (50.1 mg.mL(-1)) and ethanolic (24.6 mg.mL(-1)) extracts during three consecutive days. Later the chickens were euthanized and necropsy was performed in order to count the remaining helminths. The data were analyzed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. In the concentrations of 13.48 and 26.96 mg.mL(-1), the aqueous extract demonstrated mortality of 46.67 and 50%, respectively, there was a significative difference from the negative control (P < 0.05). The ethanolic extract presented statistical difference from the negative control (diluent) (P < 0.05) for the concentrations of 33.36 and 66.72 mg.mL(-1), expressed by a mortality rate of 66.67 and 76.67%, respectively. In the in vivo test, the aqueous extract of noni fruit showed 27.08% of elimination, deferring statistically from the control group. There was no statistical difference between the ethanolic extract treatments and the control (P > 0.05). It follows that the anthelmintic activity of noni fruit test showed satisfactory results in vitro, there is a need for studies in higher concentrations in the in vivo test. PMID:20040206

Brito, Danilo R Barros; Fernandes, Rozeverter Moreno; Fernandes, Maria Zenaide de Lima C M; Ferreira, Marcos Daniel de S; Rolim, Fernanda R L; da Silva Filho, Manoel L

153

Annona squamosa and Catunaregam nilotica Seeds, the Effect of the Extraction Method on the Oil Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annona squamosa and Catunaregam nilotica seeds and oils were characterized for their approximate analysis and physico-chemical properties. The oil and protein contents\\u000a were 26.8, 17.5 and 40.0, 22.2%, in A. squamosa and C. nilotica seeds, respectively. The oils were extracted using cold extraction (CE) and Soxhlet extraction (SE) methods. Fatty acids\\u000a and tocopherols were determined by GC–MS and HPLC, respectively.

Abdalbasit Adam Mariod; Sara Elkheir; Yousif Mohamed Ahmed; Bertrand Matthäus

2010-01-01

154

Optimization of the enzymatic treatment during aqueous oil extraction from sunflower seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially dehulled sunflower seeds were subjected to a hydrolytic treatment with cellulases during aqueous processing for oil and protein extraction. Sub-optimal extraction conditions (particle size and separation technology) were established in order to appreciate the potential improvement caused by the enzymatic treatment and to select the best operational conditions. The effects of three operational variables (extraction–treatment time, water\\/seeds ratio and

J Sineiro; H Dom??nguez; M. J Núñez; J. M Lema

1998-01-01

155

Behavioral, neurochemical and neuroendocrine effects of the ethanolic extract from Curcuma longa L. in the mouse forced swimming test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curcuma longa L. (turmeric) has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine as a treatment for mental disorders including depression. The studies described here were undertaken to determine the behavioral, neurochemical and neuroendocrine effects of the ethanolic extract from Curcuma longa using the forced swimming test (FST) in male ICR strain of mice. The ethanolic extract was found to

X. Xia; G. Cheng; Y. Pan; Z. H. Xia; L. D. Kong

2007-01-01

156

Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, ethanol production from carob pod extract (extract) using Zymomonas mobilis with medium optimized by Plackett–Burman (P–B) and response surface methodologies (RSM) was studied. Z. mobilis was recognized as useful for ethanol production from carob pod extract. The effects of initial concentrations of sugar, peptone,\\u000a and yeast extract as well as agitation rate (rpm), pH, and culture time in

Hossein Vaheed; Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati; Hasan Galip

2011-01-01

157

Control of storage rot of cassava tuber caused by Rhizopus oryzae using some plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potency of Piper nigrum seed and leaf, Aframomum meleguata seed and Ageratum conyzoides leaf extracts in the control of cassava tuber rot caused by Rhizopus oryzae was investigated. Water, ethanol and petroleum ether were used as extracting solvents. These extracts were fungitoxic both in vitro and in vivo against the test pathogen. P. nigrum seed extracts were the best

A. C. Amadioha; A. A. Markson

2007-01-01

158

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS AND ESSENTIAL OILS OF SPICES AGAINST SALMONELLAE AND OTHER ENTEROBACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude ethanolic extracts and essential oils of 14 spices including cardamom, cinnamon, clove, coriander, cumin, garlic, ginger, holy basil, kaffir lime leaves and peels, lemongrass, mace, nutmeg, black and white pepper, and turmeric were examined for their antibacterial activity against 20 serotypes of Salmonella and 5 species of other enterobacteria using disk diffusion method as preliminary screening. Of these, 9

Suree Nanasombat; Pana Lohasupthawee

2005-01-01

159

Anti-spermatogenic activity of ethanol extract of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. stem bark.  

PubMed

The study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-spermatogenic efficacy of ethanol extract of stem bark of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. For the in vitro study, semen samples were obtained from 15 healthy fertile men aged 25-35 years. Sperm motility was examined by the Sander-Cramer method. A dose-dependent and time-dependent effect of ethanol extract on sperm motility and sperm viability were observed. Various concentrations affected the motility of sperm. Ethanol extract at a concentration of 20 mg/mL caused complete immobilization within 3 minutes. Sperm viability and hypo-osmotic swelling was significantly reduced at this concentration. The in vivo studies were carried out on Swiss male albino mice. Ethanol extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight resulted in a significant decrease (p<0.001) in weight of the testis and epididymis. A significant decrease (p<0.01) in sperm motility and sperm count in the epididymis were observed. Histological changes in the epididymis and testis were also investigated. PMID:21704954

Vasudeva, Neeru; Vats, Manisha

2011-06-01

160

Ethanolic leaf extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) inhibits buccal pouch carcinogenesis in hamsters.  

PubMed

We evaluated the chemopreventive effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract in the initiation and post-initiation phases of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis. The frequency of bone marrow micronuclei as well as the concentrations of lipid peroxides, ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and the activities of the GSH-dependent enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the buccal pouch, liver and erythrocytes were used as biomarkers of chemoprevention. All the hamsters painted with DMBA alone for 14 weeks developed buccal pouch carcinomas that showed diminished lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status associated with increased frequencies of bone marrow micronuclei. In the liver and erythrocytes of tumour-bearing animals, enhanced lipid peroxidation was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of ethanolic neem leaf extract effectively suppressed DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis as revealed by the absence of tumours in the initiation phase and reduced tumour incidence in the post-initiation phase. In addition, ethanolic neem leaf extract modulated lipid peroxidation and enhanced antioxidant status in the pouch, liver and erythrocytes and reduced the incidence of bone marrow micronuclei. The results of the present study, demonstrate that ethanolic neem leaf extract inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP tumours by protecting against oxidative stress. PMID:15473007

Subapriya, R; Bhuvaneswari, V; Ramesh, V; Nagini, S

161

Evaluation of the Wound-Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. The primary indigenous use of this plant appears to be of the leaves, as a topical treatment for wound healing. The ethanol extract of noni leaves (150 mg kg1 day1) was used to evaluate the wound-healing activity on rats, using excision and dead space wound models.

B. Shivananda Nayak; Steve Sandiford; Anderson Maxwell

2009-01-01

162

Immunosuppressive activity of Pollen Typhae ethanol extract on the immune responses in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunosuppressive activity of the ethanol extract of Pollen Typhae (EEPT) consisting of a mixture of flavonoids, steroids and volatile oils was studied on the immune responses in mice. EEPT significantly suppressed concanavalin A (Con A)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. ICR mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA on days 0 and 14. Beginning

Feng Qin; Hong-Xiang Sun

2005-01-01

163

Effect of ethanolic extract of Rubia peregrina L. (Rubiaceae) on monoamine-mediated behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the traditional system of medicine in Sardinia, Rubia peregrina (RP) is reported as an aphrodisiac herb. Since aphrodisiacs may also have dopaminergic activity, and there can be a reciprocal relationship between dopaminergic and serotonergic functions in the central nervous system, the aim here was to study the effect of the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of R. peregrina

Sanjay Kasture; Anupama Pawar; Ameya Kasture; Caterina Foddis; Maria Assunta Frau; Andrea Maxia

2011-01-01

164

Influence of ethanol and methanol gasoline blends on the mutagenicity of particulate exhaust extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

TheSalmonella mutagenicity test was used to evaluate the influence of alcohol fuel extenders on the genetic toxicity of particulate exhaust extracts. Four spark-ignition engine equipped vehicles were operated on gasoline alone, 10% blends of ethanol or methanol in gasoline, and a commercially available “gasohol.” The tests were conducted on a chassis dynomometer and the particulate exhaust was collected on high

Charles R. Clark; John S. Dutcher; Roger O. McClellan; Ted M. Naman; Donald E. Seizingert

1983-01-01

165

RECOVERY OF CORN OIL FROM ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF GROUND CORN USING MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The recovery of additional co-products from the dry-grind process for ethanol could impact the industry greatly, as most facilities today rely on subsidies and tax incentives to operate. Modification of the process to include the extraction of oil could add $0.30-0.50 per bushel to the value deriv...

166

Phytochemical Investigation and Antibacterial Screening of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Sapindus emarginatus Vahl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sapindus emarginatus Vahl. is extensively used in Indian traditional and folklore medicines to cure various human ailments. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves revealed the presence of saponins, terpenoids, tannins, acids, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and sugars. In vitro antibacterial studies on the ethanolic leaf extracts were carried out on ten medically important bacterial strains, including Salmonella typimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,

M. Sathiya; K. Muthuchelian

2008-01-01

167

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Studies on the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. is extensively used in Indian traditional and folklore medicines to cure various human ailments. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and sugars. In vitro antibacterial studies on the ethanolic leaf extracts were carried out on ten medically important bacterial strains, including Salmonella typimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia,

M. Sathiya; P. Parimala; K. Muthuchelian

2008-01-01

168

The application of ethanol-extracted Gloriosa superba for metaphase chromosome preparation in mosquitos.  

PubMed

The application of ethanol-extracted Gloriosa superba for metaphase chromosome preparation in adult and 4th larva Aedes aegypti revealed that 0.5-8% ethanol-extracted Gl. superba solution could be used instead of 1% colchicine in Hanks' balanced salt solution. For adult mosquitos, the metaphase rates and average number of metaphase chromosomes per positive mosquito after intrathoracic inoculation with 1-2% ethanol-extracted Gl. superba solution were 100% and 11.8 (2-16) -12.6 (3-28) in females, and 80-90% and 16.5 (1-52) - 29.89 (1-72) in males, whereas the inoculation with 1% colchicine solution yielded 80% and 50% metaphase rates, and 18.25 (1-40) and 16.5 (2-53) average number of metaphase chromosomes per positive mosquito in females and males, respectively. For 4th stage larvae, the metaphase rates and average number of metaphase chromosomes per positive mosquito after incubation with 0.5-8% ethanol-extracted Gl. superba solution were 90-100% and 14.42 (1-65) - 64 (19-137), while incubation with 1% colchicine solution yield 100% metaphase rate and 10.9 (7-15) average number of metaphase chromosomes per positive mosquito. PMID:11485100

Choochote, W; Pitasawat, B; Jitpakdi, A; Rattanachanpichai, E; Riyong, D; Leemingsawat, S; Wongkamchai, S

2001-03-01

169

Challenges of cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Xylose production using corncobs is an established industrial practice. The cellulose-rich xylose-extracted corncob residue (X-ER), as a byproduct, is a potential energy resource. Efforts to convert the cellulose fraction of X-ER to ethanol have been unsatisfactory due to a lack of understanding of ...

170

Effects of Hypericum perforatum Extract on Ethanol Intake, and on Behavioral Despair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the possible involvement of ? receptors and of serotonergic mechanisms in the effects of Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE) on immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) and on ethanol intake in Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. The HPE employed was a dry extract containing 0.3% hypericin and 3.8% hyperforin. Intraperitoneal pretreatment with 20 mg\\/kg of the

I Panocka; M Perfumi; S Angeletti; R Ciccocioppo; M Massi

2000-01-01

171

Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using ethanolic leaf extract of Centella asiatica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we report a novel use of the ethanolic leaf extract of Centella asiatica to produce gold nanoparticles by reduction of AuCl4? ions. The phytochemicals present in the leaf extract served as effective reducing and capping agent. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV–visible spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM studies showed the particles to

Ratul Kumar Das; Bibhuti Bhusan Borthakur; Utpal Bora

2010-01-01

172

Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Elephantopus tomentosus Ethanolic Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elephantopus tomentosus is widely used in Asia, especially in Malaysia, for the treatment of pain and inflammation. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a 95% ethanol extract of E. tomentosus were investigated in different experimental models. In the anti-inflammation study, 1000 mg\\/kg of extract significantly reduced carrageenan-induced hind paw edema (p < 0.05) and inhibited abdominal

Mun Fei Yam; Lee Fung Ang; Omar Ziad Ameer; Ibrahim Muhammad Salman; Hesham Abdul Aziz; Mohd. Zaini Asmawi

2009-01-01

173

Recovery of corn oil from ethanol extracts of ground corn using membrane technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of additional co-products from the dry-grind process for ethanol could influence the industry greatly, as most\\u000a facilities today rely on subsidies and tax incentives to operate. Modification of the process to include the extraction of\\u000a oil could add $0.30–0.50 per bushel to the value derived from corn. A process combining solvent extraction with membrane technology\\u000a to recover the

Jason R. Kwiatkowski; Munir Cheryan

2005-01-01

174

In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana as a natural antioxidant. The DPPH activity of the extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200?g\\/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 36.93–68.76% as compared to ascorbic acid 64.26–82.58%. The IC50 values of

Shruti Shukla; Archana Mehta; Vivek K. Bajpai; Savita Shukla

2009-01-01

175

Potent antiulcerogenic activity of ethanol extract of leaf of Piper betle Linn by antioxidative mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pretreatment of an ethanolic extract of leaf ofPiper betle linn at a dose of 200mg\\/kg body weight, orally administered to rats for ten consecutive days, was found to possess a significant\\u000a protective action against gastric lesions induced by indomethacin. The extract pretreatment resulted in significant increase\\u000a in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity, increase in mucus, hexosamine and total

Biswajit Majumdar; Susri Ray Chaudhuri; Arun Ray; Sandip K Bandyopadhyay

2002-01-01

176

Bioactivity of solanesol extracted from tobacco leaves with carbon dioxide–ethanol fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central composite design combined with response surface methodology was used to optimal operating parameters of ethanol-modified supercritical CO2 extraction and evaluate the effects of operating parameters on crude-solanesol yield and extract anti-free-radical activity (DPPH radical scavenging activity). The results show that pressure, temperature and time appeared independent and interactive effects on the crude solanesol yield as well as the

Wen Huang; Zhenshan Li; Hai Niu; Jiawen Wang; Yuan Qin

2008-01-01

177

Solvent Extraction of Biologically Derived 1,3-Propanediol with Ethyl Acetate and Ethanol Cosolvent  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the use of ethyl acetate and its mixture with ethanol as cosolvent for the extraction of biologically derived 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) from a fermentional process. Experimental results on extraction of the fermentation model mixture revealed that ethyl acetate was a suitable solvent, having the distribution coefficient of 1,3-PDO of 0.22 at 303.15 K. The temperature (303.15 to 323.15 K) was

Thapagorn Boonsongsawat; Artiwan Shotipruk; Veerapat Tantayakom; Phatthanon Prasitchoke; Chaya Chandavasu; Panatpong Boonnoun; Chirakarn Muangnapoh

2010-01-01

178

Antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from the twigs of Cinnamomum osmophloeum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kaneh. is an indigenous tree species in Taiwan. In this study, phytochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts from the twigs of C. osmophloeum were investigated for the first time. The extracts were obtained successively using liquid–liquid partition to yield n-hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH) and water fractions. The antioxidant activities of C. osmophloeum twig

Meng-Thong Chua; Yu-Tang Tung; Shang-Tzen Chang

2008-01-01

179

Protective Effect of a Novel Rice Extract Against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective action of rice extract on ethanol-induced mucosal damage in vivo and\\u000a wound healing of epithelial cells in vitro. Also, the effect of rice extract on gastric mucosal prostaglandin E2 level, HSP72 expression, gastric acid secretion, and contribution of vanilloid receptor-mediated action was studied. In addition,\\u000a using cultured gastric mucosal cells

Tamotsu Matsuhashi; Michiro Otaka; Masaru Odashima; Mario Jin; Koga Komatsu; Isao Wada; Youhei Horikawa; Reina Ohba; Jinko Oyake; Natsumi Hatakeyama; Sumio Watanabe

2007-01-01

180

Cocos nucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber ethanolic extract: antioxidant capacity and electrochemical investigation.  

PubMed

The present study aims to determine the antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extracts of husk fiber of four coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) varieties (yellow dwarf, green dwarf, giant and hybrid) and to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of these extracts on a glassy carbon electrode and on a modified glassy carbon electrode. The highest values of total phenolic content were obtained for the hybrid (531 ± 24 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) and yellow dwarf (501 ± 29 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract) varieties and the lowest was for the green dwarf variety with 58 ± 9 mg GAE g(-1) dry extract. The ability of the extracts to scavenge DPPH? radicals was in the order of giant > yellow dwarf > hybrid > green dwarf and the IC50 values varied from 8.6 to 55.9 ?g mL(-1). All varieties showed reducing potential by the use of FRAP and CUPRAC methods, with the lowest performance obtained for the green dwarf variety. Additionally, through the use of mimetic biomembranes, ethanolic extracts of coconut husk were shown to protect lipids against oxidative damage independent of the variety. The main antioxidants identified in the extract of yellow dwarf variety by UPLC-MS were quercetin and catechin. Cyclic voltammetric studies of the ethanolic extracts on glassy carbon electrode confirmed the presence of easily oxidized compounds, and the high antioxidant capacity of the varieties. This capacity was expressed as mg quercetin equivalents g(-1) dry extract and ranged from 25.9 up to 53.5 mg QE g(-1). A poly-xanthurenic acid (poly-Xa)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) / glassy carbon modified electrode (poly-Xa/MWCNT/GCE) was used for this purpose. Our findings suggest that these extracts are potentially important antioxidant supplements for the everyday human diet, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, thereby aggregating value to the enormous amount of waste from the coconut industry, mostly used for burning purposes. PMID:23092165

Oliveira, Monika Bezerra dos Santos; Valentim, Iara Barros; de Vasconcelos, Camila Calado; Omena, Cristhiane Maria Bazílio; Bechara, Etelvino José Henriques; da Costa, João Gomes; Freitas, Mikael de Lima; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Goulart, Marília Oliveira Fonseca

2013-02-01

181

Ethanol.  

PubMed

Ethanol is a widely used drug whose mechanism of action, despite intensive study, remains uncertain. Biochemical and electrophysiological experiments have identified receptors and ion channels whose functions are altered at physiological concentrations of ethanol. Yet, the contribution of these potential targets to its intoxicating or behavioral effects is unclear. Unbiased forward genetic screens for resistant or hypersensitive mutants represent an attractive means of identifying the relevant molecular targets or biochemical pathways mediating the behavioral effects of neuroactive compounds. C. elegans has proven to be a particularly useful system for such studies. The behavioral effects of ethanol occur at equivalent tissue concentrations in mammals and in C. elegans, suggesting the existence of conserved drug targets in the nervous system. This chapter reviews the results of studies directed toward determining the mechanisms of action of ethanol. Studies of the neural adaptations that occur with prolonged drug exposure are also discussed. The methods used to characterize the actions of ethanol should be applicable to the characterizations of other compounds that affect the behavior of C. elegans. PMID:20432508

McIntire, Steven L

2010-04-29

182

Allelopathic effects of weeds extracts against seed germination of some plants.  

PubMed

This study investigated the allelopathic effects of various weeds extracts on seed germination of 11 crop species. Most of the weed extracts tested had inhibitory effects on seed germination of common bean, tomato, pepper, squash, onion, barley, wheat, and corn at different application rates as compared with the 10% acetone control. Chickpea seed germination was inhibited by extracts of Solanum nigrum L., Chenopodium album L., and Matricaria chamomilla L. (10%, 20% and 22.5%, respectively) at the end of 21 day incubation period. However, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers., and Reseda lutea L. extracts stimulated chickpea seed germination at the rates of 95%, 94%, and 93%, respectively, compared to control. It was concluded that some of the weed extracts tested in this study could be used as inhibitor while others could be used as stimulator for the crops. PMID:16161968

Kadioglu, Izzet; Yanar, Yusuf; Asav, Unal

2005-04-01

183

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of seaweed macroalgae against Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Malaria is a major health problem in many developing countries. The drugs resistant Plasmodium falciparum causes the most virulent form of malaria in humans and it is described as a public health disaster causing increased morbidity and mortality. Thirteen seaweeds species which belong to four different families (Rhodomelaceae, Cladophoraceae, Ulvaceae, and Caulerpaceae) were collected from Mandapam coastal area and the seaweeds extracts were tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. Among them, Caulerpa toxifolia (IC(50) 5.06 ?g·ml(-1)) showed potential antiplasmodial activity than other seaweeds extracts and it can be comparable with the positive control artemether (IC(50) 4.09 ?g·ml(-1)). Caulerpa peltata (IC(50) 16.69 ?g·ml(-1)) also exhibited good antiplasmodial activity and the IC(50) value is lesser than the positive control chloroquine (IC(50) 19.59 ?g·ml(-1)). Statistical analysis reveals that significant in vitro antiplasmodial activity (P<0.05) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it shows that no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extract of seaweeds extracts after 48 h of incubation. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of sugars, proteins, and phenols in the ethanolic extracts of seaweeds. It is concluded from the present study that, the ethanolic extracts of seaweeds of C. toxifolia and C. peltata possesses lead compounds for development of antiplasmodial drugs. PMID:21120527

Ravikumar, Sundaram; Inbaneson, Samuel Jacob; Suganthi, Palavesam; Gokulakrishnan, Ramasamy; Venkatesan, Malaiyandi

2010-12-01

184

Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts.  

PubMed

This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and dose-dependent. The maximum coliform inactivation achieved in any trial was 86%. Fruit extracts were more successful at inactivating total coliforms than faecal coliforms. Seed extracts achieved higher coliform inactivation levels than fruit extracts generally. Overall, the antimicrobial potential of seeds and fruit from L. cylindrica was demonstrated; however the disinfection performance was less than would be required for these extracts to be considered reliable disinfectants for drinking water treatment. PMID:20088208

Shaheed, Ameer; Templeton, Michael R; Matthews, Robert L; Tripathi, Sabitri K; Bhattarai, Kiran

2009-12-01

185

Protein extraction optimisation, characterisation, and functionalities of protein isolate from bitter melon ( Momordica charantia) seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitter melon seeds are a rich source of protein. Optimum conditions for protein extraction from the seeds, determined using a response surface design, were at a pH 9.0 and 1.3M NaCl. Soy protein isolate (SPI) was included for comparison. Surface hydrophobicity of bitter melon seed protein isolate (BMSPI) (690) was significantly higher than that of SPI (399). Electrophoretograms of BMSPI

Ronny Horax; Navam Hettiarachchy; A. Kannan; Pengyin Chen

2011-01-01

186

A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) have long been used as a herbal medicine for treating metabolic and nutritive dysfunctions. They have been shown to modulate\\u000a feeding behaviour in animals. We have recently observed a selective decrease in fat consumption in healthy normal weight volunteers\\u000a treated with a hydro-alcoholic seed extract. However, strong clinical data on the effects of fenugreek seeds

Hugues Chevassus; Jean-Baptiste Gaillard; Anne Farret; Françoise Costa; Isabelle Gabillaud; Emilie Mas; Anne-Marie Dupuy; Françoise Michel; Caroline Cantié; Eric Renard; Florence Galtier; Pierre Petit

2010-01-01

187

Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3?~?12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9?~?2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

2010-09-01

188

Supercritical fluid extraction of limonoids and naringin from grapefruit ( Citrus paradisi Macf.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limonoids and naringin were extracted from grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) seeds by a supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction technique. Prominent limonoids such as limonin and limonin-17-?-d-glucopyranoside (LG) and flavonoid naringin were quantified for process optimization. Extraction was completed in two stages. In stage one less polar limonin was extracted using SC-CO2 while in stage two extraction of high polar LG

Jun Yu; Deepak V. Dandekar; Romeo T. Toledo; Rakesh K. Singh; Bhimanagouda S. Patil

2007-01-01

189

Allelopathic effects of sorghum extracts on Amaranthus retroflexus seed germination and growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

With regards to importance and abundance of Amaranthus retroflexus weed in fields an experiment was conducted using CRD based factorial design with three replications to study the allelopathic effects of sorghum extracts on germination and growth of Amaranthus retroflexus in 2008-2009. Treatments were: harvesting stage of extracted sorghum (vegetative, flowering and seed filling stage), extracted plant part (leaf, stem, root

M. Yarnia; M. B. Khorshidi Benam; E. Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi

2009-01-01

190

Antimicrobial Effect of Water-Soluble Muscadine Seed Extracts on Escherichia coli O157:H7  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Water-soluble extracts were prepared from purple (cultivar Ison) and bronze (cultivar Carlos) muscadine seeds with or without heating. The Ison extracts had strong antimicrobial activity against a cocktail of three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. This extract had higher acidity (pH 3.39 to 3.43...

191

Nanoemulsified ethanolic extract of Pyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn ameliorates CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus amarus (PA) is commonly used in traditional medicine for hepatoprotectivity. The major limitation is that, treatment requires a large quantity of herbal extract for a longer duration. Aim of the present study was to encapsulate ethanolic plant extract for sustained release of constituents in intestine and facilitate maximum absorption. The efficacy was compared for the hepatoprotective activity of nanoencapsulated ethanolic extract of P. amarus (NPA) and PA in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxic male rats. Based on total phenol content (TPC), the loading efficiency of nanocapsules was 89% (pH 7.0) and optimum concentration was 2:18 (mg/mL) for plant extract: olive oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed a spherical morphology, photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) identified mean particle diameter as 213 nm and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed that the phytoconstituents were stable. An oral dose of NPA (20 mg/kg body wt.) showed a better hepatoprotective activity than PA (100 mg/kg body wt.) and also repeated dose oral toxicity proved to be safe. These biochemical assessments were supported by rat biopsy examinations. In conclusion, the nanoemulsification method may be applied for poor water-soluble ethanolic herbal extracts to reduce the dosage and time. PMID:23305029

Deepa, V; Sridhar, R; Goparaju, A; Reddy, P Neelakanta; Murthy, P Balakrishna

2012-11-01

192

Toxicity of ethanolic extracts from Lippia origanoides and Gliricidia sepium to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

Botanical compounds with insecticidal and acaricidal activities have been used in pest management with different levels of success. Toxicity of ethanolic extracts obtained from wild oregano (Lippia origanoides) and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) were evaluated. Mite population was collected from black bean plants growing in Urachiche Municipality, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ethanolic extracts of wild oregano and gliricidia leaves were evaluated at different concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20%) using the leaf disk immersion technique. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins, essential oils and saponins was verified in the plant material used in our study. Tetranychus cinnabarinus oviposition decreased at a rate of 43.7% or 57% when 5% oregano or gliricidia extracts were used, respectively. Also, 10% oregano or gliricidia extracts caused 42.2% or 72.5% of mortality to T. cinnabarinus, respectively. Ethanolic extracts showed acaricidal effects on T. cinnabarinus, as evidenced by maximum mortality (96.6% and 100% caused by wild oregano and gliricidia, respectively) when used at a concentration of 20%. Our results showed that gliricidia and wild oregano are promising for the management of T. cinnabarinus, although their field efficacy remains to be evaluated. PMID:21710033

Sivira, A; Sanabria, M E; Valera, N; Vásquez, C

193

Androgenic and spermatogenic activity of alkylamide-rich ethanol solution extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC.  

PubMed

Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum) has been used as Vajikaran Rasayana (aphrodisiac) in traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine to treat male sexual dysfunction, including infertility. Aphrodisiac activity may be due to an increase in the production or effect of androgens, so this study sought to evaluate the androgenic and spermatogenic potential of the alkylamide-rich ethanol solution extract. Male Wistar strain rats weighing between 150 and 180?g were completely randomized divided into five groups. The ethanol solution extract of A. pyrethrum was administered to groups of rats in 50, 100, and 150?mg/kg doses for a period of 28?days, and the action was compared with control and testosterone-treated rats. Thirteen N-alkylamides were detected in the extract by using HPLC/UV/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. Extract administration at all the doses produced significant increase in body weight, sperm count, motility, and viability along with serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Histoarchitecture of testis revealed increased spermatogenic activities. Seminal fructose content was also significantly increased after 28?days of treatment. Our results suggest that the ethanol solution extract of the roots of A. pyrethrum has androgenic potential and may improve male fertility by enhancing spermatogenesis. PMID:22473789

Sharma, Vikas; Boonen, Jente; Spiegeleer, Bart De; Dixit, V K

2012-04-04

194

Effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Trianthema portulacastrum L. On aflatoxin induced hepatic damage in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the ethanolic leaf extract of Trianthema portulacastrum L. (Family: Aizoaceae) on aflatoxin induced hepatic damage in rats. Aflatoxin intoxication in rats significantly (p < 0.001) elevated the levels of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin, which indicated acute hepatocellular damage and biliary obstruction. Ethanolic leaf extract of T. portulacastrum showed dose dependent decrease in the levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP and total bilirubin. Minimum effective dose of extract was found to be 100 mg/kg body weight. Results obtained from histopathological studies also supported hepatoprotective activity against aflatoxin-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus the study demonstrates that T. portulacastrum possess antihepatotoxic effect against aflatoxin. PMID:23105870

Sharmila Banu, G; Kumar, G; Murugesan, A G

2009-12-30

195

In vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of ethanolic extract from Tecomella undulata  

PubMed Central

This study was undergone to evaluate the in-vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tecomella undulata Seem. on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 60?mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 minutes after the i.p administration of 110?mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide. The extract has shown significant blood glucose lowering effect in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The blood glucose level, cholesterol, glycogen contents, glycosylated hemoglobin, and antioxidant parameters (Malondialdehyde and Glutathione level) were estimated from the blood plasma by using standard kits to demonstrate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect in treated animals. The data showed that the extract have significant influence on the above biochemical parameters. Thus ethanolic fraction of the plant Tecomella undulata can be used as new candidate for antihyperglycemic and antioxidant.

2012-01-01

196

Regulation of inducible adhesion molecule expression in human endothelial cells by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered expression of cell adhesion molecule expression has been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions. Regulation of adhesion molecule expression by specific redox sensitive mechanisms has been reported. Grape seed proanthocyanidins have been reported to have potent antioxidant properties. We evaluated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the expression of TNFa-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression

Chandan K. Sen; Debasis Bagchi

2001-01-01

197

Crude extract of Astragalus mongholicus root inhibits crop seed germination and soil nitrifying activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astragalus mongholicus has been of medicinal use within the traditional Chinese system for centuries. However, little information is available on its allelopathic effects on other crop plants and soil biochemical properties. Field experiment showed that the extracted residues of A. mongholicus root inhibited seed germination of wheat. Inhibition of seed germination was further confirmed in laboratory using the same crude

Jian Mao; Linzhang Yang; Yuming Shi; Jian Hu; Zhe Piao; Lijuan Mei; Shixue Yin

2006-01-01

198

Effects of seed maturity, extraction practices and storage duration on germinability in watermelon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a field experiment, watermelons (cv. “Sugar Baby”) were grown in the Newe Ya’ar Research Center (northern Israel). Fruits were harvested 21, 28, 35, 42 and 49 days past anthesis (DPA) and seeds were fermented or not fermented in the extraction procedure. After washing, the seeds were dried either in ambient air or at 40, 20 or 10°C, to form

Haim Nerson

2002-01-01

199

An Algorithm Based on Core Characteristic Extraction of Watermelon Seeds by Automated Separating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algorithm of extracting a series of characteristic values, taking the flat objects, seeds, as the experiment is applied into the auto-distinguishing seeds system software successfully. It fulfills the blank in this area. It shows it is practical for the machine to distinguish the flat objects with the equipment visual. It designs and realizes the new algorithm of the length

YONG SUN; YUN BAI; LIHONG GANG; QIANGGUO PU; NIKOS MASTORAKIS

200

Extraction of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) seed oil by full pressing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pennycress is currently being developed as an oilseed crop for biofuel production. Pennycress seeds harvested from a field near Peoria, IL, provided our first opportunity to conduct an oil extraction study on a pilot scale. The goals of this study were to determine the effects of seed moisture and c...

201

Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.  

PubMed

Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel. PMID:19748936

Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

2009-09-11

202

UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements.

Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

2012-01-01

203

In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Three Hypericum and Three Achillea Species From Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of Hypericum scabrum L (HSm), Hypericum lysimachioides var. lysimachioides (HL), and Hypericum retusum Aucher (HR) and ethanol extracts of Achillea aleppica D.C. subsp. aleppica (AA), Achillea aleppica D.C. subsp. zederbaueri (Hayek) Hub.-Mor (AZ), and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (AB). The antioxidant properties of extracts

Deniz Bar??; Murat K?z?l; Çetin Aytekin; Göksel K?z?l; Murat Yavuz; Bircan Çeken; A. Selçuk Ertekin

2011-01-01

204

Direct extraction of oil from sunflower seeds by twin-screw extruder according to an aqueous extraction process: Feasibility study and influence of operating conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an aqueous process to extract sunflower seed oil using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Aqueous extraction was carried out using whole seeds and the influence of the operating conditions on oil yield was examined. Operating conditions included screw profile, screw rotation speed, and input flow rates of sunflower seeds and

Ph. Evon; V. Vandenbossche; P. Y. Pontalier; L. Rigal

2007-01-01

205

A twin-screw extruder for oil extraction: I. Direct expression of oleic sunflower seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipids are traditionally removed from seeds by mechanical crushing and solvent extraction. During the mechanical crushing\\u000a process the oilseed is cleaned, cracked, flaked, and cooked before entering a mechanical screw press. Seventy-five percent\\u000a of the oil of sunflower seeds can be extracted by crushing, and the fatty cake then contains about 15% of oil. The oil levels\\u000a remaining in the

Corinne Dufaure; Juliette Leyris; Luc Rigal; Zéphirin Mouloungui

1999-01-01

206

Efficacy of crude neem seed kernel extracts against natural infestation of Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of crude aqueous-methanol and aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel against sarcoptic mange of sheep. Crude aqueous-methanol (AME) and aqueous extracts (AE) of neem seed kernel (NSK) were prepared and formulated as 10% and 20% ointments (w\\/w), using Vaseline as vehicle. Forty-two lambs of Pak Karakul breed, having natural infection

Shahid Maqsood Tabassam; Zafar Iqbal; Abdul Jabbar; Zia-ud-Din Sindhu; Amjad Iqbal Chattha

2008-01-01

207

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE CRUDE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF XYLOCARPUS GRANATUM STEM BARKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial effect of the crude organic extract of Xylocarpus granatum stem barks was studied in the Department of Pharmacology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202, Bangladesh, during the period from October to December 2003. Disc diffusion method has been adopted in this study and petri dishes (120 mm in diameter) containing nutrient agar medium seeded with the test organism was used for

M. A. Alam; M. Sarder; M. A. Awal; M. M. H. Sikder; K. A. Daulla

2006-01-01

208

Antiulcer and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Passiflora foetida L.  

PubMed

Passiflora foetida L. (Passifloraceae), a widely growing perennial climber, has been used in traditional medicine for treating many ailments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extract of P. foetida (EEPF) whole plant on gastric ulcer. The antiulcer effects of EEPF at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses were evaluated on ethanol and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models. The antioxidant parameters and histological changes in gastric tissue of ulcer rats were also determined in both the models. P. foetida treatment significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the ulcer index and significantly (P < 0.01) increased the gastric pH of both ethanol and aspirin-induced ulcer rats. P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.01) reduction in lipid peroxidation and increase in reduced glutathione levels. The observations confirm that EEPF whole plant has antiulcer and antioxidant activities. PMID:21713043

Sathish, R; Sahu, Alok; Natarajan, K

2011-05-01

209

Antiulcer and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Passiflora foetida L.  

PubMed Central

Passiflora foetida L. (Passifloraceae), a widely growing perennial climber, has been used in traditional medicine for treating many ailments. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanolic extract of P. foetida (EEPF) whole plant on gastric ulcer. The antiulcer effects of EEPF at 100 and 200 mg/kg doses were evaluated on ethanol and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models. The antioxidant parameters and histological changes in gastric tissue of ulcer rats were also determined in both the models. P. foetida treatment significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the ulcer index and significantly (P < 0.01) increased the gastric pH of both ethanol and aspirin-induced ulcer rats. P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.01) reduction in lipid peroxidation and increase in reduced glutathione levels. The observations confirm that EEPF whole plant has antiulcer and antioxidant activities.

Sathish, R.; Sahu, Alok; Natarajan, K.

2011-01-01

210

Antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of tubers of Dioscorea alata in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Dioscorea alata in glucose loaded and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: The authenticated tubers of D. alata (DA) (JSSCPDP/2008/157) were collected from Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu. The ethanol extract was tested for hypoglycemic activity in normal rats. In oral glucose tolerance test, glucose (3 g/kg, p.o.) was administered to non diabetic control, metformin (250 mg/kg, p.o.) and DA extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) to treat treated rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.) in physiological saline after overnight fasting for 18 hours. DA extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) and standard drug metformin (250 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose level and changes in body weight were measured on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. At the end of 21st day, serum lipid profile, total protein, albumin, and creatinine were assessed. Results: In glucose loaded normal rats, the treatment with the extract of DA had shown a highly significant reduction (P < 0.001) in blood glucose levels at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. The extract did not produce hypoglycemic activity at both the dose levels in normal, fasted rats. In alloxan induced diabetic rats, the body weight of the DA extract treated animals had shown a significant increase (P < 0.001) after 21 days treatment. The blood glucose level was reduced significantly by 47.48% and 52.09% after 21 days treatment at dose levels 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively. Serum lipid levels, total protein, albumin, and creatinine were reversed toward near normal in treated rats as compared to diabetic control. Conclusion: The results indicate that ethanol extract of DA tubers possesses significant antidiabetic activity.

Maithili, V.; Dhanabal, S.P.; Mahendran, S.; Vadivelan, R.

2011-01-01

211

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract attenuates oxidant injury in cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

This study sought to test whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) attenuates exogenous and endogenous oxidant stress induced in chick cardiomyocytes and whether this cytoprotection is mediated by PKC activation, mito K(ATP) channel opening, NO production, oxidant scavenging, or iron chelating effects. Cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (exogenous oxidant stress, 0.5mM) or antimycin A (endogenous oxidant stress, 100 micro M) for 2h following pretreatment with GSPE at various concentrations for 2h. Cells were also pretreated with GSPE or with inhibitors of PKC (chelerytherine), mito K(ATP) channel (5-hydroxydecanoate), nitric oxide synthase (nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) for 2h. Oxidant stress was measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and cell viability was assessed using propidium iodide. Free radical scavenging and iron chelating ability was tested in vitro. GSPE dose-dependently attenuated oxidant formation and significantly improved cell survival and contractile function. However, inhibitors of PKC, mito K(ATP) channel or NO synthase failed to abolish the protective action of GSPE during H(2)O(2) or antimycin A exposure. In vitro studies suggested that GSPE scavenges H(2)O(2), hydroxyl radical and superoxide, and may chelate iron. These results indicate that GSPE confers cardioprotection against exogenous H(2)O(2)- or antimycin A-induced oxidant injury. Its effect does not require PKC, mito K(ATP) channel, or NO synthase, presumably because it acts by reactive oxygen species scavenging and iron chelating directly. PMID:12741998

Shao, Zuo-Hui; Becker, Lance B; Vanden Hoek, Terry L; Schumacker, Paul T; Li, Chang-Qing; Zhao, Danhong; Wojcik, Kim; Anderson, Travis; Qin, Yimin; Dey, Lucy; Yuan, Chun-Su

2003-06-01

212

Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial efficacy as well as the content of preservative agents of six commercially available grapefruit seed extracts were examined. Five of the six extracts showed a high growth inhibiting activity against the test germs Bacillus subtilis SBUG 14, Micrococcus flavus SBUG 16, Staphylococcus aureus SBUG 11, Serratia marcescens SBUG 9, Escherichia coli SBUG 17, Proteus mirabilis SBUG 47, and Candida maltosa SBUG 700. In all of the antimicrobial active grapefruit seed extracts, the preservative benzethonium chloride was detected by thin layer chromatography. Additionally, three extracts contained the preserving substances triclosan and methyl parabene. In only one of the grapefruit seed extracts tested no preservative agent was found. However, with this extract as well as with several self-made extracts from seed and juiceless pulp of grapefruits (Citrus paradisi) no antimicrobial activity could be detected (standard serial broth dilution assay, agar diffusion test). Thus, it is concluded that the potent as well as nearly universal antimicrobial activity being attributed to grapefruit seed extract is merely due to the synthetic preservative agents contained within. Natural products with antimicrobial activity do not appear to be present. PMID:10399191

von Woedtke, T; Schlüter, B; Pflegel, P; Lindequist, U; Jülich, W D

1999-06-01

213

Effect of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical parameters of rat kidney.  

PubMed

The effect of administration of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis (2mg/kg body weight) on some biochemical parameters of rat kidney were investigated. Experimental animals were randomly divided into the control, those administered with the extract for 6 days and those administered with extract for 18 days, respectively. The prolonged administration of the extract resulted in significant reduction in the alkaline phosphatase activities of the kidney and its body weight ratio (P<0.05). In contrast, the same prolonged administration of the extract resulted in significant increase in the serum sodium ion concentration (P<0.05) while there was no significant difference in serum potassium ion concentration when compared to control (P>0.05). Administration of the extract for 6 days produced no significant difference from the control values in all the parameters investigated except in serum urea concentration which produced a significant increase (P<0.05). The available evidence in this study suggest that the ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis exerted more deleterious effect on the kidney when administered continuously over a prolonged period than a short one and this will adversely affect the functioning of the kidney. PMID:12902053

Adebayo, Joseph O; Yakubu, Musa T; Egwim, Evans C; Owoyele, Victor B; Enaibe, Bernard U

2003-09-01

214

Researches and Application of Algorithm on Core Characteristic Extraction for Auto-separating System of Watermelon Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algorithm of extracting a series of characteristic value, taking watermelon seeds as the research object, has been successfully applied into the software system of separating watermelon seeds automatically. By extracting characteristic values, like the length of orthogonal long and minor axis of the watermelon seeds, the proportion between the length and width, the area, the degree of connecting superficial

Sun Yong; Guan Miao; Yu Daoqin; Li Hong Gang

2007-01-01

215

Ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum violaceum Gürke leaves enhances kidney function in mouse model of malaria.  

PubMed

Evaluation of the effects of daily oral administration of ethanolic extract of C. violaceum leaves (13 mg/kg body weight) for 5 days on some kidney function indices of uninfected and Plasmodium berghei-infected mice was done on days 3, 8 and 14 post-infection. The indices studied include serum urea and creatinine concentrations with the specific activities of alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in the kidney. Treatment of P. berghei-infected mice with ethanolic extract of C. violaceum leaves (13 mg/kg body weight) for 5 days was able to ameliorate significantly the alterations in the various parameters observed in infected untreated mice, comparing favourably with chloroquine treatment in most cases. Administration of extract to uninfected mice had no significant effect on both serum and kidney parameters compared to the uninfected control. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of C. violaceum leaves does not adversely affect kidney function at the dose used in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria but rather enhances it. PMID:19579800

Zailani, Ahmed H; Balogun, Elizabeth A; Adebayo, Joseph O

2009-05-01

216

Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of ethanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber L. leaves  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim of study was to evaluate the scientific basis for the traditional use of Elephantopus scaber leaves. Materials and Methods: In the present study, ethanol extract of Elephantopus scaber leaves was evaluated for preliminary phytochemical screening and antiasthmatic activity using histamine and acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm, mast cell degranulation and histamine induced constriction on isolated guinea pig tracheal chain at different dose levels. Student's t-Test and Dunett's test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The result of present investigation showed that the ethanolic extract of E. scaber significantly (P<0.001) decreased the bronchospasm induced by histamine, acetylcholine and protected mast cell degranulation as compared to control groups. It also decreased the histamine induce constriction on isolated guinea pig trachea in dose-dependent manner. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of steroids, saponin, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds in the extract. Conclusions: The present study concludes that the antiasthmatic activity of ethanolic extract of E. scaber leaves may be due to the presence of flavonoids or steroids. Antiasthmatic action of the E. scaber could be due to its antihistaminic, anticholinergic and mast-cell-stabilizing property.

Sagar, Rakesh; Sahoo, H.B.

2012-01-01

217

Anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Linn.) in Sprague Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the anti-arthritic effect of whole plant ethanolic extract of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats using the Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA) model. Materials and Methods: The plant was collected from different regions of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu, and the phytoconstituents were identified through chemical tests. Ethanol (95%) was used to obtain the whole plant extraction through Soxhlet extractor. Female SD rats were used for anti-arthritic screening. Arthritis was induced using FCA, and the anti-arthritic effect of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens was studied at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg. The effects were compared with those of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). At the end of the study, the liver enzyme levels were determined and a radiological examination was carried out. Result: The preliminary phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the FCA-induced arthritis in the rats. This was manifested by as a decrease in the paw volume. The arthritic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals without arthritis. T. procumbens animals showed dose dependent reduction in decrees in body weight and arthritis. At the same time, T. procumbens significantly altered the biochemical and haematological changes induced by FCA (P < 0.05). The anti-arthritic effect of T. procumbens was comparable with that of indomethacin. Conclusion: The whole plant extract of T. procumbens showed significant anti-arthritic activity against FCA-induced arthritis in female SD rats.

Petchi, R Ramesh; Vijaya, C; Parasuraman, S

2013-01-01

218

Selective enzyme-mediated extraction of capsaicinoids and caratenoids from chili guajillo puya (Capsicum annum L.) using ethanol as solvent.  

PubMed

The selective extraction of capsaicinoids and carotenoids from chili guajillo "puya" flour was studied. When ethanol was used as solvent, 80% of capsaicinoids and 73% of carotenoids were extracted, representing an interesting alternative for the substitution of hexane in industrial processes. Additionally, when the flour was pretreated with enzymes that break the cell wall and then dried, extraction in ethanol increased to 11 and 7% for carotenoid and capsaicinoid, respectively. A selective two-stage extraction process after the treatment with enzymes is proposed. The first step uses 30% (v/v) ethanol and releases up to 60% of the initial capsaicinoids, and the second extraction step with industrial ethanol permits the recovery of 83% of carotenoids present in the flour. PMID:11032487

Santamaría, R I; Reyes-Duarte, M D; Bárzana, E; Fernando, D; Gama, F M; Mota, M; López-Munguía, A

2000-07-01

219

Antitumor-promoting effects of polyphenolic extracts from seedless and seeded Indian grapes.  

PubMed

Grapes, the widely consumed fruits, are rich in polyphenols. The biological and chemopreventive activities of grape seed polyphenols have been demonstrated, while similar information regarding crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components (pulp plus skin, seeds), particularly the seedless varieties, is lacking. Cancer chemoprevention can be achieved by inhibition of either initiation or promotion/progression stages of carcinogenesis. This study involves the determination of the polyphenolic content extracted from green (Pandhari sahebi, Thompson seedless) and black cultivars (Bangalore blue, Sharad seedless) of Indian grapes and their components (whole grapes, pulp plus skin, and seeds). Comparative evaluation of antitumor-promoting effects of seedless and seeded grape polyphenolic extracts (GPEs) was carried out in carcinogen-initiated and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-promoted S/RVCri-ba mouse skin and stomach, as well as esophagus of ICRC mice. The yield of crude polyphenolic extracts from whole grapes and their components varied between 3% and 51%. The total polyphenolic content expressed as mg catechin equivalents/g crude polyphenolic extract ranged from 0.47 to 701 in seeded grapes and 1.49 to 28.30 in seedless varieties. Both seedless and seeded GPEs possessed antitumor-promoting activity in target tissues of mice as is evident from their ability to delay tumor formation along with a significant decrease in tumor multiplicity and incidence. Marked and sustained epidermal hyperplasia observed in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-initiated and TPA-promoted mice was greatly reduced on pretreatment with GPE or catechin. The polyphenolic extracts from Sharad seedless and seeds of Bangalore blue showed the strongest suppressing activity comparable to catechin than the corresponding whole grapes. The results suggest that the chemopreventive activity of polyphenols extracted from seedless grape cultivars was as effective as that of the seeded variety and these may have beneficial effects in disease states, especially cancer. PMID:19105538

Ramchandani, Asha G; Karibasappa, Goudar S; Pakhale, Shrirang S

2008-01-01

220

Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.  

PubMed

Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits. PMID:22188801

Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

2012-01-01

221

Ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced memory deficiency via its antineuroinflammatory and antiamyloidogenic effects.  

PubMed

Magnolia bark contains several compounds such as magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, obovatol, and other neolignan compounds. These compounds have been reported to have various beneficial effects in various diseases. There is sufficient possibility that ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis is more effective in amyloidogenesis via synergism of these ingredients. Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether the ethanol extract of M.?officinalis (10?mg/?kg in 0.05% ethanol) prevents memory dysfunction and amyloidogenesis in AD mouse model by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250?µg/?kg/day for seven times) injection. We found that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevented LPS-induced memory deficiency as well as inhibited the LPS-induced elevation of inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In particular, administration of M.?officinalis ethanol extract inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis, which resulted in the inhibition of amyloid precursor protein, beta-site amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving enzyme 1 and C99. Thus, this study shows that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevents LPS-induced memory impairment as well as amyloidogenesis via inhibition of neuroinflammation and suggests that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis might be a useful intervention for neuroinflammation-associated diseases such as AD. PMID:22628265

Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Hwan Mook; Lee, Kiho; Choi, Seok Hwa; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Jeong, Jea-Hwang; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

2012-05-25

222

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process conditions during the extraction of carvone and limonene from caraway seed (Carum carvi L.) with supercritical-CO2 (SC-CO2) have been optimized with respect to pressure, temperature, CO2-flow and extraction time in order to selectively obtain the essential oil. Using Soxhlet extraction, limonene, carvone and fatty oils in both the raw material and the residual matrix material were extracted. From

T. Baysal; D. A. J. Starmans

1999-01-01

223

Extraction of Essential Oils From the Seeds of Pomegranate Using Organic Solvents and Supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, essential oils from pomegranate seeds of the Malas variety from Shahreza, Iran, were extracted using hexane\\u000a and petroleum benzene applying four extraction methods: normal stirring, soxhlet, microwave irradiation, and ultrasonic irradiation.\\u000a Also, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2 under different conditions was used for comparison. Different methods of extraction with organic solvents (normal stirring,\\u000a soxhlet, microwave irradiation,

Hajar Abbasi; Karamatollah Rezaei; Ladan Rashidi

2008-01-01

224

Determination of amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds (Mangifera oraphila)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity of crude extract from partially germinated mango seeds (Mangifera oraphila) was determined using Caraway-Somogyi iodine\\/potassium iodide (IKI) method. The effects of varied pH and temperature were also investigated. The amylase was extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.2). Amylase activity of the crude extracts was measured by monitoring the amount of starch hydrolyzed by the crude extract

C. O. Edeogu

2009-01-01

225

Wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. leaf--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The extract of K. pinnata was evaluated for its wound healing activity by using excision wound model in rats. On day 11, animals treated with the ethanolic leaf extract exhibited 86.33% reduction in the wound area, compared to petroleum jelly treated control (69.36%) and the mupirocin treated standard (85.49%). The hydroxyproline content of extract treated animals was higher, as compared to control and the standard groups. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that K. pinnata leaf extract exhibits significant wound healing potential. The increased rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the extract treated animals supports the claims made by traditional healers of the benefits obtained from the medicinal use of K. pinnata. PMID:20882759

Nayak, B Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin

2010-06-01

226

Microbiological and mucociliary properties of the ethanol extract of Hymenocardia acida on selected respiratory clinical isolates.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial property of the ethanol leaf extract of Hymenocardia acida (H. acida) on some opportunistic respiratory pathogens was evaluated in this study. We also assessed the activity of the extract on tracheal mucociliary activity using murine tracheal mucus exudation and mucociliary motility in pigeons as experimental models. Phytochemical screening of the extract was done; and acute toxicity of the extract in mice was carried out using Lorke's method for estimation of its median lethal dose. Results show the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, resins, and balsams in the extract and the absence of anthraquinones, terpenes, and sterols. Results of the acute toxicity test showed that the extract was slightly toxic, with an estimated median lethal dose of 1,767.77 mg/kg body weight. At 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight of H. acida, tracheal mucus exudation was increased by 14.29, 19.24, and 33.82%, respectively. The effect on mucociliary velocity was dose-dependent as 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract led to increased ciliary activity by 7.69, 61.5, and 81.6%, respectively. The effects of the extract (200 mg/kg body weight) on mucus exudation and clearance were significant (p < .05) and higher than the effect of ammonium chloride. Although the extract did not inhibit the growth of C. albicans and K. pneumoniae, it exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. These findings show the mucociliary activity and antimicrobial properties of H. acida ethanol extract, and justify its use in the treatment of airway disorders. PMID:22432631

Obidike, I C; Aboh, M I; Salawu, O A

2011-01-14

227

Immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells and Rhizomucor miehei Lipase for the Production and Extractive Biocatalysis of Ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized cells and its esterification with oleic acid, catalysed by a lipase from Rhizomucor miehei, was the biochemical process considered as model to illustrate the concept of extractive biocatalysis. The selection of the most suitable support for lipase immobilization was carried out. The best results for the ethanol\\/oleic acid esterification reaction were obtained

A. C. Oliveira; M. F. Rosa; J. M. S. Cabral; M. R. Aires-Barros

1997-01-01

228

Anticonvulsant activities of ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction isolated from Delphinium denudatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried roots of Delphinium denudatum Wall. are a popular folk remedy for the treatment of epilepsy in the traditional Unani system of medicine in the sub-continent. We carried out anticonvulsant screening of the ethanolic extract (EE) and aqueous fraction (AF) of this plant utilising the maximal electroshock (MEST) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ), bicuculline (scBIC), picrotoxin (scPTX) and strychnine (scSTN) tests

Mohsin Raza; Farzana Shaheen; M. I Choudhary; Sompong Sombati; Azhar Rafiq; Amin Suria; Atta-ur-Rahman; R. J DeLorenzo

2001-01-01

229

Superoxide radical scavenging and antibacterial activities of different fractions of ethanol extract of Mentha spicata (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mentha spicata is a well-known spice that has a variety of biological properties and is abundantly available throughout the world. This\\u000a study was designed to investigate the superoxide radical scavenging and antibacterial properties of different fractions (hexane,\\u000a chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous) of the ethanol extract of Mentha spicata. In addition, xanthine oxidase generated uric acid inhibition, reducing potential and

Ponnan Arumugam; Rajenderan Murugan; Mahalingam Subathra; Arabandi Ramesh

2010-01-01

230

Beyond six scents: defining a seventh Thymus vulgaris chemotype new to southern France by ethanol extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of plant chemotype has long been useful to describe secondary chemical phenotypes; however, the idea has practical limitations, especially when applied to ecological questions. This work reports the discovery of a new 1,8-cineole chemotype of Thymus vulgaris from a well-studied area in southern France. Multivariate statistical analysis of ethanol-extracted plant terpenes was used to describe this new chemotype

Ken Keefover-Ring; John D. Thompson; Yan B. Linhart

2009-01-01

231

Antidiabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Zaleya decandra in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes mellitus is a complex disorder that disturbs the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Medicinal plants\\u000a play an important role in the management of diabetes mellitus. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential\\u000a of Zaleya decandra roots on alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of the root (200 mg\\/kg body weight\\/day)\\u000a for 15 days restored

Periasamy Meenakshi; Rajendran Bhuvaneshwari; Muthaiyan Ahalliya Rathi; Lakshmanan Thirumoorthi; Dugganaboyana Chinna Guravaiah; Muthedath Janardhanan Jiji; Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan

2010-01-01

232

Antioxidative effect of ethanol tea extracts on oxidation of canola oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing interest in the biological effects of natural antioxidants present in teas on formation ofin vivo free radicals, carcinogenesis, and atherogenesis. Teas are traditionally classified into six major groups, namely, green,\\u000a yellow, white, black, dark-green, and oolong teas. The present study examined the antioxidative activity of ethanol extracts\\u000a from these six major groups of teas against oxidation

Z. Y. Chen; P. T. Chan; H. M. Ma; K. P. Fung; J. Wang

1996-01-01

233

Effects of ethanol extract of Artemisia annua L. against monogenean parasites of Heterobranchus longifilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol extract of Artemisia annua was effective in the dislodgement and mortality of monogenean parasites of juvenile Heterobranchus longifilis at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 mg\\/l. Five hundred 1-week-old juvenile fish were stocked in hapa in earthen pond\\u000a for 7 days to accumulate parasites. The approximate number of parasites per fish was confirmed by counting the number of parasites\\u000a attached to

Albert P. Ekanem; Ebiamadon Andi Brisibe

2010-01-01

234

Production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) from potato wastes: fermentation with integrated membrane extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical possibilities of the microbial production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) from potato waste using in-line solvent recovery, are evaluated. Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731 produces up to 20 g·l-1 of solvents when grown on a medium containing 14% (w\\/v) potato powder. Using a polypropylene perstraction system and a oleyl alcohol\\/decane mixture as the extractant, the product yield (based

Nicole G. Grobben; Gerrit Eggink; F. Petrus Cuperus; Henk J. Huizing

1993-01-01

235

An ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper betle (Paan) Linn mediates its antileishmanial activity via apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unprecedented increase in the incidence of unresponsiveness to antimonial compounds has highlighted the urgent need to\\u000a develop new antileishmanial agents. The leaves of Piper betle (locally known as Paan) have long been in use in the Indian indigenous system of medicine for its antimicrobial properties\\u000a but its antileishmanial potential has not been studied. Accordingly, an ethanolic extract of leaves

Avijit Sarkar; Rupashree Sen; Piu Saha; Sudipto Ganguly; Goutam Mandal; Mitali Chatterjee

2008-01-01

236

The Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa Dried Calyx Ethanolic Extract Reduced Lipid Profile in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific basis for the statement that plants and their active constituents play an important role in the prevention\\u000a of chronic and degenerative diseases is continously advancing. The object of the present study was to evaluate the effect\\u000a of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanolic extract on the serum lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were fed during 4

Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal; Stefan M. Waliszewski; Dulce Ma. Barradas-Dermitz; Zaida Orta-Flores; Patricia M. Hayward-Jones; Cirilo Nolasco-Hipólito; Ofelia Angulo-Guerrero; Ramón Sánchez-Ricaño; Rosa M. Infanzón; Patricia R. L. Trujillo

2005-01-01

237

Wound-healing activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Ficus benghalensis  

PubMed Central

Wound healing is the process of repair that follows injury to the skin and other soft tissues. Following injury, an inflammatory response occurs and the cells below the dermis (the deepest skin layer) begin to increase collagen (connective tissue) production. Later, the epithelial tissue (the outer skin) is regenerated. There are three stages to the process of wound healing: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Traditionally, Ficus benghalensis is used for wound healing. Since no detailed scientific data are available regarding the wound-healing activity of F. benghalensis, the present study was designed to explore the same. The wound-healing efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of F. benghalensis was evaluated in excision and incision wound models. The parameters studied include rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelialization, and tensile strength of incision wound. Student's t test was used to analyze the results obtained from the present study and P<0.05 was considered significant. Both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of F. benghalensis were found to possess significant wound-healing activity, which was evidenced by decrease in the period of epithelialization, increase in the rate of wound contraction and skin-breaking strength. The present study has demonstrated that the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of F. benghalensis have properties that render them capable of promoting accelerated wound-healing activity compared with placebo control.

Garg, Vipin Kumar; Paliwal, Sarvesh Kumar

2011-01-01

238

Antidiabetic Activity of the Ethanol Extract of Capparis sepiaria L Leaves.  

PubMed

Capparis sepiaria L, a profusely branched hedge plant, is used in Indian traditional medicine. Capparis sepiaria leaves were extracted with ethanol and concentrated to dryness. The LD(50) value was determined as 894.43 mg/kg body weight by acute toxicity study. The ethanol extract was investigated for possible hypoglycemic effect produced by single oral administration at various dose levels 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and compared against normal saline control and the standard glibenclamide. A maximum fall of plasma glucose level 9.40%; 13.57%; 15.25% and 18.80% was observed after 12 h of treatment when administered with ethanol extract of Capparis sepiaria at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg, and glibenclamide 10 mg/kg dose, respectively. The findings from the study suggest that the Capparis sepiaria leaves may be prescribed as an adjunct to traditional formulation and drug treatment for controlling diabetes mellitus. PMID:20046752

Selvamani, P; Latha, S; Elayaraja, K; Babu, P Suresh; Gupta, J K; Pal, T K; Ghosh, L K; Sen, D J

239

Grape Seed Extract for Control of Human Enteric Viruses ?  

PubMed Central

Grape seed extract (GSE) is reported to have many pharmacological benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic, and antimicrobial properties. However, the effect of this inexpensive rich source of natural phenolic compounds on human enteric viruses has not been well documented. In the present study, the effect of commercial GSE, Gravinol-S, on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates (feline calicivirus, FCV-F9; murine norovirus, MNV-1; and bacteriophage MS2) and hepatitis A virus (HAV; strain HM175) was evaluated. GSE at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/ml was individually mixed with equal volumes of each virus at titers of ?7 log10 PFU/ml or ?5 log10 PFU/ml and incubated for 2 h at room temperature or 37°C. The infectivity of the recovered viruses after triplicate treatments was evaluated by standardized plaque assays. At high titers (?7 log10 PFU/ml), FCV-F9 was significantly reduced by 3.64, 4.10, and 4.61 log10 PFU/ml; MNV-1 by 0.82, 1.35, and 1.73 log10 PFU/ml; MS2 by 1.13, 1.43, and 1.60 log10 PFU/ml; and HAV by 1.81, 2.66, and 3.20 log10 PFU/ml after treatment at 37°C with 0.25, 0.50, and 1 mg/ml GSE, respectively (P < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. GSE treatment of low titers (?5 log10 PFU/ml) at 37°C also showed viral reductions. Room-temperature treatments with GSE caused significant reduction of the four viruses, with higher reduction for low-titer FCV-F9, MNV-1, and HAV compared to high titers. Our results indicate that GSE shows promise for application in the food industry as an inexpensive novel natural alternative to reduce viral contamination and enhance food safety.

Su, Xiaowei; D'Souza, Doris H.

2011-01-01

240

Measurement of ethanol concentration using solvent extraction and dichromate oxidation and its application to bioethanol production process.  

PubMed

A method for measuring the ethanol concentration in a yeast culture broth was developed using both microtubes and a 96-deepwell microplate. The strategy involved first the solvent extraction of ethanol from the yeast culture broth and measurements of the ethanol concentration using the dichromate oxidation method. Particular focus was made on selecting the extraction solvent as well as determining the measurable range of ethanol concentrations using this solvent extraction-dichromate oxidation method. This method was developed as an assay format in 2.0-ml microtubes and 1.2-ml 96-deepwell microplates, and the ethanol concentration in the batch cultures and fed-batch fermentations was measured. Tri-n-butyl phosphate [non-alcoholic solvent, density = 0.9727, solubility in water = 0.028% (w/v)] was used for solvent extraction when measuring the ethanol concentration from the yeast culture broth. The maximum detectable ethanol concentration was 8% (v/v) when 10 g potassium dichromate in 100 ml of 5 M sulfuric acid was used. The concentrations determined from the solvent extraction-dichromate oxidation methods were remarkably similar to those of gas chromatography in which samples were prepared from seven experiments, such as four batch cultures and three fed-batch fermentations. PMID:18989713

Seo, Hyun-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Oh-Kyu; Ha, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan

2008-11-07

241

Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg\\/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly

C Vijaya; M Ramanathan; B Suresh

242

Characterisation of gold nanoparticles synthesised by leaf and seed extract of Syzygium cumini L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, Syzygium cumini leaf extract (LE) and seed extract (SE) were explored for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNP). LE and SE as well as their polar (water) fractions showed potential for GNP synthesis. Comparative synthesis kinetics and morphological characterisation studies revealed the synthesis of smaller sized GNP by LE than SE. Only polar (water) fractions showed potential for GNP

Vineet Kumar; Sudesh Kumar Yadav

2012-01-01

243

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract of Seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds aqueous extract was screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activities (reducing power, DPPH and liposome model system) showed a good antioxidant activity. The extract was also found to posses antibacterial activity with a MIC values with respect to Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica found to be 750 and 1000 ppm, respectively. The antioxidant and antimicrobial

Attar Singh Chauhan; Pradeep Singh Negi; Ramesh Shyam Ramteke

2007-01-01

244

Coagulation–flocculation process for POME treatment using Moringa oleifera seeds extract: Optimization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of palm oil mill effluent, POME is an important issue for the minimization of water pollution. The coagulation–flocculation process using Moringa oleifera seeds after oil extraction as natural coagulant is reported for POME treatment in the present study. The important process parameters pH, settling time, M. oleifera (after oil extraction) dosage and flocculant (NALCO 7751) dosage were optimized

Subhash Bhatia; Zalina Othman; Abdul Latif Ahmad

2007-01-01

245

Apple scab control with grapefruit seed extract: no alternative to chemical fungicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The growth inhibiting effect of four commercially available grapefruit seed extracts on the causal organism of apple scabVenturia inaequalis ?? was tested. Germination of the conidia of Venturia inaequalis was pronouncedly inhibited by all tested extracts. The commercial products were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography and thin layer chromatography. All samples contained at least one preserving agent. These

Renate Spitaler; Klaus Marschall; Christian Zidorn; Kelderer Markus

246

Evaluation of the in vivo antimalarial activity of ethanolic leaf and stembark extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the in vivo antimalarial activities of ethanolic leaf and stembark extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis used traditionally as malarial remedy in Southern Nigeria in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei. Methods: The ethanolic extracts of the A. djalonensis leaf (1000 – 3000 mg/kg/day) and stembark (220 – 660 mg/kg/day) were screened for blood schizonticidal activity against chloroquine-sensitive P. berghei in mice. The schizonticidal effect during early and established infections was investigated. Results: The A. djalonensis leaf extract (1000 – 3000 mg/kg/day) exhibited a significant antiplasmodial activity both in the 4-day early infection test and in the established infection with a considerable mean survival time, which was incomparable to that of the standard drug, chloroquine (5 mg/kg/day). The stembark extract (220 – 660 mg/kg/day) also demonstrated a promising blood schizontocidal activity in early and established infections. Conclusion: These plant extracts possess considerable antiplasmodial activities, which justify their use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in malaria therapy.

Bassey, Anita S.; Okokon, Jude E.; Etim, Emmanuel I.; Umoh, Francis U.; Bassey, Emmanuel

2009-01-01

247

Effect of ethanol extract of Sphaeranthus indicus on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Cisplatin is an anticancer drug extensively used against a variety of cancers. Cisplatin chemotherapy is found to manifest dose-dependent nephrotoxicity. Depletion of the renal antioxidant defence system has been suggested to be the main cause of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the ethanol extract of entire plant of Sphaeranthus indicus could reduce the intensity of toxicity in albino rats. Nephrotoxicity was assessed by determining the serum creatinine and urea levels and renal antioxidant status in rats after cisplatin administration (12?mg?kg(-1)?body weight, i.p.). The ethanol extract of S. indicus (150 and 300?mg?kg(-1)?body weight) was administered orally from the sixth day onwards for 10 days after cisplatin administration. The extract significantly reduced the elevated serum creatinine and urea levels. Renal antioxidant defence systems, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase activities and reduced glutathione level that are depleted by cisplatin therapy were restored to normal by treatment with the extract. Cisplatin-induced lipid peroxidation was also found to be markedly reduced by treatment with the extract. These results suggest that S. indicus has protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, which may be attributed to its antioxidant potential. PMID:21790496

Mathew, Jessy Elizabeth; Joseph, Alex; Srinivasan, Keloth; Dinakaran, Seekarajapuram Vachala; Mantri, Anand; Movaliya, Vinit

2011-07-27

248

Evaluation of Bauhinia monandra aqueous and ethanol extracts in pregnant rats.  

PubMed

Bauhinia monandra Kurz. (Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae) is a plant widely employed in Brazilian folk medicine for hypoglycemia. However, little is known about the effect of maternal exposure to this plant on fetal development. The aqueous and ethanol extracts obtained from B. monandra dried leaves were administered to pregnant Wistar rats throughout gestation (day 1 to day 20) at 1,400 or 7,000 mg/kg/day (n = 6/group). Maternal toxicity was not observed in the dams of both groups, and was evaluated by observing body weight, water and food intake during treatment, by measuring serum biochemical levels of creatinine, urea, AST and ALT, and by studying the histopathology of liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen and uterus at the end of treatment (gestation day 20). Both extracts and doses did not impair reproductive performance or delay fetal development, measured by observing implantations and reabsorptions in the uterus, by counting the number of corpora lutea in ovaries, by recording the litter weight and number of live and dead fetuses and by analyzing possible skeleton and viscera malformations in the fetuses. Also, the aqueous extract promoted decreased post-implantation loss when compared to the control group. The aqueous and ethanol extracts from B. monandra dried leaves (1,400 or 7,000 mg/kg/day) did not cause maternal or fetal toxicities and the aqueous extract promoted increased implantation and decreased post-implantation loss in the pregnant rats. PMID:20645777

Mendes, Caio C; Marinho, Ciro M F; Moreira-Junior, Valderes F; Queiroz, Fernando M; Dantas, Gláucia L S; Macedo, Márcia F S; Oliveira, Cláudia N; Schwarz, Aline

2010-07-01

249

Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage.  

PubMed

Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes. PMID:22239856

Ratanapariyanuch, Kornsulee; Tyler, Robert T; Shim, Youn Young; Reaney, Martin Jt

2012-01-12

250

Detection of ethanol in human body fluids by headspace solid-phase micro extraction (SPME)\\/capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol has been found extractable from human whole blood and urine samples by headspace solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) with a Carbowax\\/divinylbenzene-coated fiber. After heating a vial containing the body fluid sample with ethanol, and isobutanol as internal standard (IS) at 70°C in the presence of (NH4)2SO4, a Carbowax\\/divinylbenzene-coated SPME fiber was exposed in the headspace of the vial to allow

T. Kumazawal; H. Seno; X.-P. Lee; A. Ishii; O. Suzuki; K. Sato

1996-01-01

251

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds.  

PubMed

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis. PMID:21237701

Zuk, M; Dymi?ska, L; Kulma, A; Boba, A; Prescha, A; Szopa, J; M?czka, M; Zaj?c, A; Szo?tysek, K; Hanuza, J

2010-12-22

252

Hypoglycemic effect of Mucuna pruriens seed extract on normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The hypoglycemic effect of the aqueous extract of the seeds of Mucuna pruriens was investigated in normal, glucose load conditions and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. In normal rats, the aqueous extract of the seeds of Mucuna pririens (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.001) reduced the blood glucose levels after an oral glucose load from 127.5+/-3.2 to 75.6+/-4.8 mg% 2 h after oral administration of seed extract. It also significantly lowered the blood glucose in STZ diabetic rats from 240.5+/-7.2 to 90.6+/-5.6 mg% after 21 days of daily oral administration of the extract (P<0.001). Thus, this study shows that M. pruriens has an anti-hyperglycemic action and it could be a source of hypoglycemic compounds. PMID:18672037

Bhaskar, Anusha; Vidhya, V G; Ramya, M

2008-07-10

253

Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory. PMID:21762099

Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

2011-10-01

254

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

?uk, M.; Dymi?ska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; M?czka, M.; Zaj?c, A.; Szo?tysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

2011-03-01

255

Salt effects in extraction of ethanol, 1-butanol and acetone from aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Experimental studies were performed to assess the effect of salt addition on the extraction of 1-butanol, ethanol and acetone from dilute aqueous solutions using cyclopentanol, n-valeraldehyde, tert-amyl alcohol, and Adol 85NF as extractants. The liquid-liquid partitioning was examined for a few strong electrolytes in a broad range of concentrations. Results demonstrate that the distribution coefficient and selectivity in systems with reduced water activity resulting from salt addition were markedly increased. These observations can be qualitatively explained on the basis of the hydration theory. It was also determined that strong electrolytes added to the aqueous feed reduced extractant solubility in the aqueous phase, thus contributing to lower solvent losses. The results showed that the extraction efficiency was not significantly affected by increasing salt content beyond a level that reduces the water activity to a value of 0.92.

Malinowski, J.J.; Daugulis, A.J. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-09-01

256

IN VITRO ACTIVITY OF CERTAIN DRUGS IN COMBINATION WITH PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This study has been done to evaluate the interaction between ethanolic extracts of Rhus coriaria (seed), Psidium guajava (Leaf), Lawsonia inermis (Leaf) and Sacropoterium spinosum (seed) and antimicrobial drugs including oxytetracycline HCl, enrofloxacin, gentamicin sulphate and sulfadimethoxine against four clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methodology: Evaluation of the interaction between ethanolic extracts and different antimicrobial agents has

Ghaleb Mohammad Adwan; Bassam Ali Abu-Shanab; Kamel Mohammad Adwan

257

The determination of glucoraphanin in broccoli seeds and florets by solid phase extraction and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust method for the determination of glucoraphanin in broccoli (brassica oleracea ssp. italica ‘Marathon’) seeds and florets has been developed using solid phase extraction (SPE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) as the determinative step. Glucosinolates were extracted from the broccoli seeds and florets with hot water. Unwanted impurities were removed by passing the extracts through C18 and protonated

V. Craige Trenerry; Domenico Caridi; Aaron Elkins; Osaana Donkor; Rod Jones

2006-01-01

258

Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activities of ethanol root extract of Strophanthus hispidus DC (Apocynaceae).  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Strophanthus hispidus DC (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant widely used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of rheumatic afflictions, ulcer, conjunctivitis, leprosy and skin diseases. This study sought to investigate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiulcer properties of the ethanol root extract of S. hispidus. Methods: Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests in mice. The carrageenan- and egg albumin-induced rat paw edema tests were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory actions, whereas the antiulcer activity was investigated using ethanol-, HCl- and pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Results: S. hispidus [100-800 mg/kg orally (po)] produced significant (p<0.05) inhibition of writhing reflex with peak effect of 74.13% inhibition observed at 800 mg/kg. Similarly, S. hispidus significantly (p<0.05) attenuated formalin-induced early and late phase of nociception with peak effect of 61.84% and 89.43%, respectively, at 200 mg/kg. S. hispidus (25-800 mg/kg po) caused significant (p<0.05) inhibition of edema development in the carrageenan and egg albumin models with peak effect (93.40% and 90.10% inhibition of edema formation) observed at 50 mg/kg. With respect to antiulcer activity, S. hispidus (100-800 mg/kg) showed potent antiulcer activity with respective peak effects of 96% (ethanol-induced), 99% (HCl-induced) and 70.60% inhibition of ulcer. Conclusions: The findings in this study suggest that the ethanol root extract of S. hispidus possesses antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic activities. This justifies the use of the extract in folklore medicine for the treatment of ulcer and inflammatory disorders. PMID:23729560

Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Oreagba, Ibrahim A; Murtala, Abdulahi A; Chijioke, Micah C

2013-05-01

259

[Evaluation of non-host plant ethanol extracts against Plutella xylostella population].  

PubMed

Through establishing experimental and natural population life tables, and by using the index of population trend (1) and interference index of population control (IIPC), this paper evaluated 8 kinds of non-host plant ethanol extracts against experimental population of Plutella xylostella, and 3 kinds of these extracts and their mixture against Plutella xylostella natural population. The experimental population life table of DBM showed that the index of population trend (I) was 69. 8964 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.3702, 4.4842, 8.0945, 11.1382, 6.8937, 6.1609, 5.5199 and 9.8052, respectively in treatments of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Nicotiana tabacum, Broussonetia papyrifera, Bauhinia variegata, Duranta repens, Euphorbia hirta and Camellia oleifera ethanol extracts, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.0768, 0.0642, 0.1158, 0.1594, 0.0986, 0.0881, 0.0790 and 0. 1403, respectively. The natural population life tables of DBM showed that the index of population trend (I) was 21.6232 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.1997, 7.4160, 7. 3644 and 3.1399, respectively in treatments of the ethanol extracts of E. tereticornis, N. tabacum, C. oleifera and their mixture, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.2405, 0.3695, 0.3549 and 0.1608, respectively. All of these indicated that the test plant extracts could interfere the development of P. xylostella population significantly, and had the potential as an effective measure for controlling insect pest. PMID:16180759

Wei, Hui; Hou, Youming; Yang, Guang; Fu, Jianwei; You, Minsheng

2005-06-01

260

Ethanol production from nonsterilized carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using fed-batch culture  

SciTech Connect

The production of ethanol from carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in batch and fed-batch culture was investigated. Fed-batch culture proved to be a better fermentation system for the production of ethanol than batch culture. In fed-batch culture, both free and immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave the same maximum concentration of final ethanol at an initial sugar concentration of 300 g/L and F = 167 mL/h. The maximum ethanol productivity was obtained with both free and immobilized cells at a substrate concentration of 300 g/L and F = 334 mL/h. In repeated fed-batch culture, immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave a higher overall ethanol concentration compared with the free cells. The immobilized S. cerevisiae cells in Ca-alginate beads retained their ability to produce ethanol for 10 days.

Roukas, T. (Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Food Science and Technology)

1994-02-05

261

Differences in the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties between Vitis coignetiae and Vitis vinifera seeds extracts.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds were extracted from European and Japanese grapevine species (Vitis vinifera and V. coignetiae) seeds using 80% methanol or 80% acetone. The total content of phenolic compounds was determined utilizing Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent, while the content of tannins was assayed by the vanillin and BSA precipitation methods. Additionally, the DPPH free radical and ABTS cation radical scavenging activities and the reduction power of the extracts were measured. The HPLC method was applied to determine the phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids and catechins. The seeds contained large amounts of tannins and gallic acid and observable quantities of catechins, p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids. The dominant form of phenolic acids in the extracts was the ester-bound form. The content of total phenolics was higher in the European grape V. vinifera seeds, which also contained more tannins, catechins and phenolic acids, except for caffeic acid. Extracts from V. vinifera seeds showed better radical scavenger properties and stronger reducing power. The total contents of phenolic compounds and tannins in acetone extracts were higher than in methanolic extracts. Acetone extracts also exhibited stronger antiradical properties as well as stronger reducing power. PMID:23493104

Weidner, Stanis?aw; Rybarczyk, Anna; Karama?, Magdalena; Król, Angelika; Mostek, Agnieszka; Gr?bosz, Joanna; Amarowicz, Ryszard

2013-03-14

262

Antifertility effect of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract in female albino rats.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effect of oral administration of Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract on fertility index, uterine weight and various histological and biochemical parameters of uterus were studied in the adult cyclic Wistar rats. Average number of embryos and implantation losses in the pregnant animals treated with dharek seed extract was also studied. The extract was prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on per kg body weight basis. The results indicated a reduction in fertility index and average number of embryos in mated rats treated with the dharek extract. Pre-implantation, post-implantation and total prenatal mortalities were increased in rats treated with dharek seed extract during early (D1-D7) and late (D7-D18) stages of gestation period at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1). Histological studies showed a significant reduction in myometrial thickness, uterine gland diameter, luminal diameter of uterine glands and luminal epithelial cell height in rats treated with dharek seed extract at 1mg kg(-1) body wt day(-1) for 18 days. Pits and folds in luminal epithelial, mitotic activity in luminal and glandular epithelial cells of uterus were observed to be absent. Biochemically, a significant increase in protein and glycogen contents was observed. Thus, in conclusion, the application of this plant extract in rodent control programme may help to elevate the socioeconomic status of the society. PMID:17948733

Mandal, Reshu; Dhaliwal, Patwant Kaur

2007-10-01

263

In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora. Methods The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Results Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Conclusions The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants.

Shrestha, Binit; Theerathavaj, M.L. Srithavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

2012-01-01

264

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds.  

PubMed

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds aqueous extract was screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activities (reducing power, DPPH and liposome model system) showed a good antioxidant activity. The extract was also found to possess antibacterial activity with a MIC values with respect to Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica found to be 750 and 1000 ppm, respectively. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the extract implicate its potential for natural preservation. PMID:17651916

Chauhan, Attar Singh; Negi, Pradeep Singh; Ramteke, Ramesh Shyam

2007-07-03

265

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of various seabuckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were successively extracted with chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol (MeOH) using a Soxhlet extractor for 8 h each. The crude extracts were screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The reducing power and antioxidant activities evaluated in various in vitro models (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine and liposome model system) showed the highest activity for MeOH extract. The MeOH

P. S. Negi; A. S. Chauhan; G. A. Sadia; Y. S. Rohinishree; R. S. Ramteke

2005-01-01

266

Dormancy break of celery (Apium graveolens L.) seeds by plant derived smoke extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy of a highly-dormant cultivar of celery (Apium graveolens L.) was broken by combinations of plant-derived smoke extract or N6-benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellins A4\\/7 (GA4\\/7) in the dark at temperatures between 18 and 26°C. A less dormant cultivar which responded to GA4\\/7 alone showed no additional response to smoke extract or BA. Neither smoke extract nor BA affected either

T. H. Thomas; J. Staden

1995-01-01

267

Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0moll?1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500ml of low turbid water (50

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

1999-01-01

268

A toxicological investigation of a celery seed extract having anti-inflammatory activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  An extract of the seed from celery (Apium graviolens) (CSE), and fractions thereof, have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity, gastro-protective activity, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. In view of the potential for employing these extracts for therapeutic use, toxicological investigations were undertaken\\u000a with an alcoholic extract (A-CSE) which has previously been shown to have the above pharmacological activities.

M. C. Powanda; K. D. Rainsford

2011-01-01

269

Separation of lignocellulosic materials by combined processes of pre-hydrolysis and ethanol extraction.  

PubMed

In this paper, we proposed a new modification for an ethanol-based pulping process, which would consist of the pre-hydrolysis (pre-extraction) of wood chips for removing hemicelluloses; the ethanol extraction of pre-hydrolyzed wood chips for removing lignin; and the post purification of cellulose, leading to the production of pure cellulose. We also experimentally evaluated the separation of hemicelluloses from the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) obtained from a pulp mill. To remove lignin from the PHL, it was acidified to a pH of 2, which resulted in 47% lignin precipitation. The lignin separation from the acidified PHL was further improved via adding polyethylene oxide and poly aluminum chloride or adding ethyl acetate. To recover the hemicelluloses from the acidified PHL, ethanol was added to the acidified PHL with a volumetric ratio of 4 to 1. The isolated lignin and hemicelluloses were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and a gas permeation chromatography (GPC). PMID:20829035

Liu, Zehua; Fatehi, Pedram; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao

2010-08-24

270

Evaluation of the Wound-healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf  

PubMed Central

Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. The primary indigenous use of this plant appears to be of the leaves, as a topical treatment for wound healing. The ethanol extract of noni leaves (150 mg kg?1 day?1) was used to evaluate the wound-healing activity on rats, using excision and dead space wound models. Animals were randomly divided into two groups of six for each model. Test group animals in each model were treated with the ethanol extract of noni orally by mixing in drinking water and the control group animals were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, time until complete epithelialization, granulation tissue weight and hydoxyproline content. On day 11, the extract-treated animals exhibited 71% reduction in the wound area when compared with controls which exhibited 57%. The granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content in the dead space wounds were also increased significantly in noni-treated animals compared with controls (P < 0.002). Enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content and histological characteristics suggest that noni leaf extract may have therapeutic benefits in wound healing.

Sandiford, Steve; Maxwell, Anderson

2009-01-01

271

Evaluation of the Wound-healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf.  

PubMed

Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. The primary indigenous use of this plant appears to be of the leaves, as a topical treatment for wound healing. The ethanol extract of noni leaves (150 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) was used to evaluate the wound-healing activity on rats, using excision and dead space wound models. Animals were randomly divided into two groups of six for each model. Test group animals in each model were treated with the ethanol extract of noni orally by mixing in drinking water and the control group animals were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, time until complete epithelialization, granulation tissue weight and hydoxyproline content. On day 11, the extract-treated animals exhibited 71% reduction in the wound area when compared with controls which exhibited 57%. The granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content in the dead space wounds were also increased significantly in noni-treated animals compared with controls (P < 0.002). Enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content and histological characteristics suggest that noni leaf extract may have therapeutic benefits in wound healing. PMID:18955257

Nayak, B Shivananda; Sandiford, Steve; Maxwell, Anderson

2007-10-25

272

MILKWEED SEED WING REMOVAL TO IMPROVE OIL EXTRACTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Milkweed is now being grown commercially, mainly for the production of floss used as hypoallergenic filters in pillows and comforters. More recently, the use of milkweed seed oil in soaps and personal care products is being explored. The oil used in this effort was obtained by screw pressing whole...

273

Extraction of oil from Jatropha curcas L. seed kernels by enzyme assisted three phase partitioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three phase partitioning has been evaluated for extraction of oil from Jatropha curcas L. seeds. This process consisted of simultaneous addition of t-butanol (1:1, v\\/v) and 30% (w\\/v) ammonium sulphate to the slurry prepared from Jatropha seed kernels. Combination of sonication and enzyme treatment with a commercial preparation of fungal proteases at pH 9, led to 97% oil yield within

Shweta Shah; Aparna Sharma; M. N. Gupta

2004-01-01

274

A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat consumption in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) are an old herbal remedy used to treat metabolic and nutritive dysfunctions. They have been shown to modulate feeding\\u000a behaviour in animals, but strong clinical data are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a repeated\\u000a administration of a fenugreek seed extract on energy intake and eating behaviour in healthy

Hugues Chevassus; Nathalie Molinier; Françoise Costa; Florence Galtier; Eric Renard; Pierre Petit

2009-01-01

275

Effect of chloroform and aqueous basic fraction of ethanolic extract from Apium graveolens L. in experimentally-induced hyperlipidemia in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to explore the antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Apium graveolens L. and its chloroform and aqueous basic fraction in olive oil induced hyperlipidemic rats. The antihyperlipidemic activity of Apium graveolens was compared with a standard drug Atrovastatin (50mg/kg). The study involved phytochemical screening and chromatographic studies of extract and fractions. The ethanolic extract and its fractions were administered orally at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight in rats. Olive oil (5ml/kg oral dose) was administered 30 min after treatment. Blood was collected by ocular puncture 2 and 4 h after olive oil treatment and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15-20 min. Serum samples were further subjected to biochemical analysis. The study dose dependently inhibited the total cholesterol (TC) triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL) level, and significantly increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenoid, tannin, alkaloid, glycoside, flavanoid and sterols. UV ?max was found to be 206 nm with a melting point of 137-138°C for the isolated component. The antihyperlipidemic effect was evaluated in olive oil loaded rats. Acute treatment caused stimulatory effect on HDL level and inhibition in TC and TG elevation induced by olive oil. PMID:22718672

Iyer, Deepa; Patil, U K

2011-09-27

276

Investigating Apoptotic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema glabrum Seed on WEHI-164 Cells  

PubMed Central

We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment.

Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

2013-01-01

277

[Effects of Larix gmelini aqueous extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of Juglans mandshurica].  

PubMed

In this study, Juglans mandshurica seeds were drenched in different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 g x kg(-1)) aqueous extracts from adult Larix gmelini root, bark, branch and leaf for one week, and cultured in greenhouse in mid-April, 2004. The germination rate and germination index were calculated 18 days later, and the seedling's height and collar diameter were measured on August 1st. The results suggested that 25 g x kg(-1) root and 12.5 g x kg(-1) bark and branch aqueous extracts of L. gmelini could significantly increase the seed germination rate and germination index of J. mandshurica (P < 0.05), and 12.5 g x kg(-1) root and bark aqueous extracts could significantly increase the seedling height and collar diameter (P < 0.05). High concentrations of L. gmelini leaf aqueous extract could significantly promote the seed germination and seedling growth of J. mandshurica, but the promotion effect decreased gradually with decreasing concentration of leaf aqueous extract. The promotion of L. gmelini aqueous extracts to J. mandshurica seed germination and seedling growth might be related to the allelopathy between these two tree species. PMID:16964959

Yang, Lixue

2006-06-01

278

Extract of Passion Fruit ( Passiflora edulis ) Seed Containing High Amounts of Piceatannol Inhibits Melanogenesis and Promotes Collagen Synthesis.  

PubMed

The effect of passion fruit, the fruit of Passiflora edulis , on melanin inhibition and collagen synthesis was studied using cultured human melanoma and fibroblast cells. Passion fruit was divided into three parts, rind (PF-R), pulp (PF-P), and seed (PF-S), and each part was extracted using 80% ethanol. The concentration of polyphenols was higher in PF-S than in PF-R or PF-P. Treatment of melanoma cells with PF-S led to inhibition of melanogenesis. In addition, the production of total soluble collagen was elevated in dermal fibroblast cells cultured in the presence of PF-S. PF-R and PF-P did not yield these effects. Furthermore, the removal of polyphenols from PF-S led to the abolishment of the effects described above. We discovered that piceatannol (3,4,3',5'-tetrahydroxy-trans-stilbene) is present in passion fruit seeds in large amounts and that this compound is the major component responsible for the PF-S effects observed on melanogenesis and collagen synthesis. PMID:20822151

Matsui, Yuko; Sugiyama, Kenkichi; Kamei, Masanori; Takahashi, Toshio; Suzuki, Tamio; Katagata, Yohtaro; Ito, Tatsuhiko

2010-09-01

279

Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fraction of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods M. scandens leaf extract/fractions (37–111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of 7 hours for acute study and 14 days for prolonged study. Lipid profiles of the treated diabetic rats were determined after the period of treatment. Results Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting bloodglucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. The extract/fractions exerted a significant reduction in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL of extract with increases in HDL levels of the diabetic rats. Conclusions These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

Akpan, Enomfon J; Okokon, Jude E; Offong, Emem

2012-01-01

280

Antinociceptive activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes in rats.  

PubMed

Rhizomes of Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) posses several bio-activities and are used in traditional medicine of Sri Lanka. However, their antinociceptive activity has not been investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to examine the antinociceptive activity of hot water extract (HWE) and hot ethanol extract (HEE) of Alpinia calcarata rhizomes using rats and three models of nociception (tail flick, hot plate and formalin tests). Different concentrations of HWE (100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 mg/kg) and HEE (100, 250, 500, 750, 1000 mg/kg) were made and orally administrated to rats and the reaction times determined. The results showed that the extracts have marked dose-dependent antinociceptive activity, when evaluated in the hot plate and the formalin tests but not in the tail flick test. The antinociceptive effect was slightly higher in HEE than that of HWE. The antinociceptive effect was mediated via opioid mechanisms. PMID:15507354

Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Ratnasooriya, W D

2004-12-01

281

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts derived from Australian fungi inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro.  

PubMed

Fifteen Australian macrofungi were investigated for cytotoxic activity. Ethanol, cold and hot water extracts of each species were screened for cytotoxic activity against normal mouse fibroblast cells (NIH/3T3), healthy human epithelial kidney cells (HEK-293), four cancer cell lines, gastric adenocarcinoma cells (AGS), two mammary gland adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF7) and colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) with a validated MTT assay. Most extracts derived from Omphalotus nidiformis, Cordyceps cranstounii and Cordyceps gunnii demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity toward a variety of cancer cell lines. In contrast only some extracts from Coprinus comatus, Cordyceps hawkesii, Hypholoma fasciculare, Lepista nuda, Leratiomyces ceres and Ophiocordyceps robertsii displayed significant cytotoxic activity, which was usually selective for only one or two cancer cell lines tested. The least cytotoxic species evaluated in this study were Agaricus bitorquis, Coprinopsis atrametaria, Psathyrella asperospora, Russula clelandii, Tricholoma sp. AU2 and Xerula mundroola. PMID:21262985

Beattie, Karren D; Ulrich, Rahel; Grice, I Darren; Uddin, Shaikh J; Blake, Tony B; Wood, Kyle A; Steele, Jules; Iu, Fontaine; May, Tom W; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-24

282

Antidiabetic properties of the ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits in rats  

PubMed Central

Background and the purpose of the study Fruits of Rhus coriaria L. (Anacardiaceae) are traditionally used as a table spice in Iran and are highly recommended for diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the antidiabetic properties of the ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits and also its mechanisms of action. Methods The effects of ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits were measured on blood glucose, lipids and antioxidant enzymes by commercial kits. mRNA levels of insulin (INS) and glucose transporter type-4 (GLUT-4) genes were investigated by RT-PCR (Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction) technique. Moreover, its effects on intestinal a-glucosidases was measured using an in vitro method. Results and Conclusion Following a single dose administration of the extract it was found that extract could significantly reduce postprandial blood glucose by 24% (at 5 hrs). In the long term experiment, on the day of 21, postprandial blood glucose (PBG) was found to be significantly lower (by 26%) compared to diabetic control group. The plant extract raised markedly serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 34% and also reduced low-density lipoprotein (HDL) by 32%. Also it had noticeable antioxidant effects by elevating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase(CAT) activities by 46% and 77%, respectively. However it did not show a strong effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. The extract inhibited maltase and sucrase activities by 44% and 27%, respectively. However it made no changes in the transcript levels of INS and GLUT-4 genes. It can be concluded that constituents of Rhus coriaria fruits have effective components which can be utilized as useful herb for alleviation of diabetes complications.

Mohammadi, S.; Montasser Kouhsari, S; Monavar Feshani, A

2010-01-01

283

Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

2012-04-14

284

Antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of the stem bark of Clausena heptaphylla  

PubMed Central

Background There is wide spread interest in drugs derived from plants as green medicine is believed to be safe and dependable, compared with costly synthetic drugs that have adverse effects. Methods We have attempted to evaluate the antioxidant, In vitro thrombolytic, antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic effects of Clausena heptaphylla (Rutaceae) stem bark extract ethanol extract. Results Ethanolic stem bark extract of Clausena heptaphylla (CHET) contains flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins and steroids but it lacks tannins, anthraquinones and resins. Phenol content of the extract was 13.42 mg/g and flavonoid content was 68.9 mg/g. CHET exhibited significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 3.11 ?g/ml. Reducing power of CHET was also moderately stronger. In the cytotoxicity assay, LC50 and Chi-square value of the ethanolic extract against brine shrimp nauplii were 144.1461 ?g/ml and 0.8533 demonstrating potent cytotoxic effect of the extract. In vitro thrombolytic activity of CHET is significant with 45.38% clot lysis capability compared to that of Streptokinase (65.78%). In antibacterial screening, moderate zone of inhibition (6.5-9.0 mm in diameter) was observed against gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus polymyxa ATCC 842 and Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13578 and less promising zone of inhibition (3.0-4.5 mm in diameter) against gram-negative Salmonella typhi ATCC 65154, Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, Proteus vulgaris ATCC 13315 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Shigella sonnei ATCC 8992 did not show any sensitivity. The MIC values against these bacteria were ranged from 2,000 to 3,500 ?g/ml. The extract showed significant zone of inhibition against Rhizopus oryzae DSM 2200, Aspergillus niger DSM 737 and Aspergillus ochraceus DSM 824 in antifungal assay. Conclusions Further advanced research is necessary to isolate and characterize the chemical components responsible for the therapeutic properties of the plant.

2012-01-01

285

Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.  

PubMed

American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed. PMID:20411504

Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano

286

New crystallization of fatty acids from aqueous ethanol solution combined with liquid-liquid extraction  

SciTech Connect

A new separation process of saturated fatty acids (lauric acid-myristic acid) using crystallization from an aqueous ethanol solution has been examined. There were two vessels in this separation process: an extraction vessel and a crystallization vessel. The fatty acids in the aqueous phase were first extracted from their organic phase (melt) in the extraction vessel. The fatty acids in the aqueous phase were continuously introduced to the crystallization vessel, and then the fatty acids were crystallized there. The crystals of the fatty acids were collected continuously above the aqueous phase in the crystallization vessel. In this process, the yield and the purity of the crystals over time were measured, and it was found that the purity of lauric acid increased unsteadily up to 0.98 mole fraction of lauric acid with an increase in the yield of the low yield range. The mole fraction of ethanol in the aqueous phase could be significant to control the relationship between the yield and the purity of the crystals. Three different mole fractions of lauric acid in the organic phase were used to be separated in this process. Moreover, the authors have considered the effective separations of this process, and the maximum yield and purity of the crystals have been estimated by a simple mass balance.

Maeda, Kouji; Nomura, Yoshihisa; Tai, Kimihiko; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Fukui, Keisuke; Hirota, Syouji [Himeji Inst. of Tech., Hyogo (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-06-01

287

[Antifeedant and antioviposition activities of Momordica charantia leaf ethanol extract against Liriomyza sativae].  

PubMed

Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is one of the important pests harming a wide variety of vegetables and ornamental plants throughout the world. The leaf ethanol extract of Momordica charantia at the concentration of 2000-4000 microg x ml(-1) displayed significant antifeedant and antioviposition activities against L. sativae adults. For further purifying the extract, four solvents, i. e., cyclohexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, were used to extract the ethanol extract, and the antifeedant and antioviposition activities of the extracts against L. sativae adults were tested. The results showed that after treated with the extracts at the concentration of 1000 microg x ml(-1) for 2 days, the antifeedant index (AFI) of cyclohexane-, ethyl acetate-, n-butanol- and water extracts against L. sativae adults was 11.08%, 34.89%, 22.99% and 0, and the antioviposition index (AOI) was 0, 30.91%, 6.45% and 0, respectively. Ethyl acetate extract had the highest bioactivity. At the concentration of 4000 microg x ml(-1), the AFI and AOI of ethyl acetate extract were 70.95% and 69.49%, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract was then isolated by silica gel column chromatography, and three compounds, i.e., (19S, 23E)-5beta,19-epoxy-19-methoxy-cucurbita-6,23-dien-3beta and 25-diol (compound 1), (19R, 23E)-5beta,19-epoxy-19-methoxy-cucurbita-6,23-dien-3beta and 25-diol (compound 2), and 3beta, 7beta,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (compound 3), were obtained. These three compounds at concentration of 100-400 microg x ml(-1) all had inhibitory effects on the feeding and oviposition of L. sativae. At the concentration of 400 microg x ml(-1), the AFI and AOI were 66.89% , 53.53% and 78.02% , and 76.32%, 58.36% and 78.36% for compound 1, 2 and 3, respectively. PMID:19565764

Ling, Bing; Xiang, Ya-Lin; Wang, Guo-Cai; Chen, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Mao-Xin

2009-04-01

288

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected medicinal plants--effects of high pressure and added ethanol on yield of extracted substances.  

PubMed

The possibilities and limitations of supercritical fluid extraction of natural products of low, medium and high polarity under very high pressure and with polar modifiers has been investigated. The medicinal herbs marigold (Calendula officinalis), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) were used as models in this study. Extraction profiles and the spectra of extractable metabolites were recorded following extraction with mixtures of carbon dioxide:ethanol of varying proportions (0-20% ethanol) and at various pressures in the range 300-689 bar. Components were identified by HPLC-PAD-MS or GC-MS and quantified by HPLC or GC as appropriate. Extraction yields under the varying conditions depended to a large extent on the profiles of secondary metabolites present in the three drugs. Whereas the extractability of lipophilic compounds increased substantially at pressures above 300 bar, the yields of polyphenolic and glycosidic compounds remained low even at 689 bar and with 20% modifier in the extraction fluid. PMID:14979527

Hamburger, M; Baumann, D; Adler, S

289

Effects of aqueous extracts of Paeonia decomposita seeds on germination and some metabolic activities associated with growth of wheat seedlings.  

PubMed

Paeonia decomposita is a perennial deciduous shrub with great ornamental and medicinal values. Unfortunately, the distribution region, population size and individual numbers of P. decomposita rapidly decrease in the wild. It is a particularly rare, highly endangered, protective plant endemic to Southwest China. To understand the causes of seed dormancy of P. decomposita, the effects of aqueous extracts of the seed coat, endosperm of P. decomposita on germination, seedling growth and amylases activities of wheat seeds were examined in this paper. The results showed that the seed, especially the endosperm tissue of P. decomposita contained substances that strongly suppressed seed germination. The crude extract of endosperm of P. decomposita, which significantly reduced the activities of ? and ?-amylase, showed a more significant inhibition than that of seed coat at the same dose. It was concluded that the presence of inhibitory substances in seed, especially in endosperm tissue, seem to be responsible for P. decomposita seed dormancy. PMID:22963917

Song, Hui-Xing; Liu, Guang-Li; Chen, Qi-Bing

2012-09-01

290

Antihyperlipidemic effect of methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of a methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds fed to mice in a hypercholesterolemic diet. Acute toxicity of the methanolic extract was investigated by an established method. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and DPPH, respectively. The total phenolic content of Opuntia joconostle seeds was 47.85?±?1.29 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The main phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin, rutin, and cafeic acid. Percent inhibition of DPPH? was 49.76?±?0.49 %. The oral LD?? for the methanolic extract from the Opuntia joconostle seeds was >5,000 mg/kg BW. Mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for six days exhibited significantly (P???0.001) higher plasma lipid levels than mice fed a normal diet. Remarkably, supplementation with methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle at doses of 1, 2, and 5 g/kg body weight significantly (P???0.001) prevented the increase in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides level, and atherogenic index. Similar concentrations of the HDL cholesterol were observed in both treated and control groups. A significant dose-dependent reduction in lipid levels was noted for treated groups compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. We attribute this result to the seeds' phenolic composition. This methanolic extract has potential to be included in short-term hypercholesterolemia treatment regimens as it exhibits hypolipidemic activity with no apparent toxic manifestations. PMID:23135897

Osorio-Esquivel, Obed; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Alvarez, Valente B; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores

2012-12-01

291

Antidiarrheal evaluation of the ethanol extract of Nauclea latifolia root bark.  

PubMed

Nauclea latifolia (Rubiaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Nigeria folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The root bark of the plant was extracted with 70% ethanol and the extract screened for antidiarrheal activity by investigating castor oil-induced diarrhea and small intestinal motility in mice. The effects of the extract on isolated rat ileum were also investigated. The extract (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) caused a significant decrease in the frequency of diarrhea and conferred protection following castor oil administration (P < 0.05). It also significantly (P < 0.0001) inhibited small intestinal motility in mice at the same doses. Its activity was dose-dependent and when compared to atropine, its antidiarrheal effects at 500 mg/kg were 179% and 165% respectively, in castor oil-induced diarrhea and small intestinal motility experiments. Extract effects on rat ileum revealed a significant (P < 0.0001) inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contractions at 0.2 and 2 mg/mL final bath concentrations used. These findings confirm the antidiarrheal activity of the root bark extract of N. latifolia. PMID:21132124

Owolabi, O J; Nworgu, Z A M; Odushu, K

2010-10-01

292

Effect of ethanol content on supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of caffeine from tea stalk and fiber wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the effect of ethanol content on supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of caffeine from tea plant wastes. Tea stalk and fiber wastes of Turkish tea plants that have no economical value were evaluated as raw material throughout the caffeine extraction experiments. These wastes were supplied from tea factory marked “Çaykur” in the east blacksea region. They were separately

Hacer ?çen; Metin Gürü

2010-01-01

293

Immunomodulating activity of Echinacea gloriosa L., Echinacea angustifolia DC. and Rudbeckia speciosa Wenderoth ethanol-water extracts.  

PubMed

The effect of the ethanol-water extracts of Echinacea gloriosa L., Echinacea angustifolia DC. and Rudbeckia speciosa Wenderoth on immunological system of inbred mice was investigated. The extract of the root of Rudbeckia speciosa had the highest immunostimulatory activity. PMID:8688891

Bukovský, M; Vaverková, S; Kost'álová, D

294

In vitro anticancer activity of aqueous extracts and ethanol extracts of fifteen taditional Chinese medicines on human digestive tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer activity of 15 traditional Chinese medicines which are usually used for tumor patients in China. The MTT (methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) method was applied to compare the antitumoral activity of the aqueous crude extracts and the ethanol crude extracts of these drugs on six human digestive tumor cell lines: human liver carcinoma

Jing Sun; Bao-Rui Liu; Wen-Jing Hu; Li-Xia Yu; Xiao-Ping Qian

2007-01-01

295

Pharmacological Proprieties of the Ethanol Extract of Muehlenbeckia platyclada (F. Muell.) Meisn. Leaves  

PubMed Central

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the Muehlenbeckia platyclada leaves’ ethanol extract were investigated in animal models. The extract (p.o.) reduced the number of abdominal contortions induced by acetic acid by 21.57% (400 mg/kg). After intraplantar injection of formalin, a dose of 400 mg/kg (p.o.) inhibited the time spent paw licking in the first phase (26.43%), while the second phase was inhibited by 10.90 and 36.65% at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The extract (p.o.) increased the reaction time on a hot plate at a dose of 400 mg/kg (32.68 and 40.30%) after 60 and 90 minutes of treatment, respectively. The paw edema was reduced by extract (p.o.) at doses of 100 (15.46 and 16.67%), 200 (22.68 and 25.64%) and 400 mg/kg (29.50 and 37.33%) after 3 to 4 h of carrageenan application, respectively. Doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), administered 4 h after the carrageenan injection, reduced the exudate volume (11.28, 21.54 and 45.13%), while leukocyte migration was reduced by 21.21 and 29.70% at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. These results indicate that the ethanol extract from M. platyclada may constitute a potential target for the discovery of new molecules with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities that can be explored for their therapeutic use.

Fagundes, Leopoldina Leonor; Vieira, Glauciemar Del-Vechio; de Pinho, Jose de Jesus R. G.; Yamamoto, Celia Hitomi; Alves, Maria Silvana; Stringheta, Paulo Cesar; de Sousa, Orlando Vieira

2010-01-01

296

Biochemical composition, antimicrobial activities,and anti-quorum-sensing activities of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from Hypericum connatum Lam. (Guttiferae).  

PubMed

We studied the polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of the ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of Hypericum connatum (Guttiferae), in addition to their antimicrobial and antiquorum-sensing (AQS) properties. The extracts exhibited a similar polyphenol content and a notable antioxidant activity, which was stronger in the ethanolic extract (EC50=3.2 ?g/mL). Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography analyses revealed different polyphenol profiles, with rutin and apigen being the main components of the ethanolic extract and caffeic acid, (-)-epicatechin and p-coumaric acid being abundant in the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited a more effective antimicrobial activity than the ethanolic extract against the pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For the first time, AQS activity was detected in H. connatum: the ethanolic extract inhibited the production of violacein, a quorum-sensing-regulated pigment, in a Chromobacterium violaceum tester strain, without interfering with its growth. PMID:23631492

Fratianni, Florinda; Nazzaro, Filomena; Marandino, Aurelio; Fusco, Maria Del Rosario; Coppola, Raffaele; De Feo, Vincenzo; De Martino, Laura

2013-04-30

297

Differential extraction of eleostearic acid-rich lipid-protein complexes in tung seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid-protein complexes were identified in the 104,000×g supernatant fraction of developing tung seeds. Incubation of this fraction with linoleoyl-CoA promoted an increase of chloroform-extractable\\u000a lipids in a time-dependent manner. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the extracted lipids were\\u000a similar to mature tung oil triglycerides. Differential extraction using chloroform or chloroform\\/methanol indicated that linoleoyl-CoA\\u000a promoted extraction of pre-existing lipids rather

John M. Dyer; Fuqiang Tang; Dorselyn C. Chapital; Alan R. Lax; Hurley S. Shepherd; Ding S. Shih; Armand B. Pepperman

1998-01-01

298

In vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of ethanol extract of Alpinia oxyphylla fruits.  

PubMed

Abstract Context. Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel (Zingiberaceae) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine widely used for the treatment of intestinal disorders, urosis and diuresis. However, information about antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of its fruits remains to be elucidated. Objective: The ethanol crude extract (CE) and its fractions [petroleum ether fraction (PF), ethyl acetate fraction (EF), n-butanol fraction (BF) and water fraction (WF) extracted by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, respectively] of A. oxyphylla fruits were investigated for their antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity. Materials and methods: The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•)), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and reducing power assay. Cytotoxicity of the extracts (0-200??g/mL) was tested on six human cancer cell lines (breast cancer cell line, cervix carcinoma cell line, lung adenocarcinoma cell line, liver carcinoma cell line, gastric cancer cell line and colon cancer cell line) using the sulforhodamine B assay. Results: The TPC of extracts varied from 8.2 to 20.3?mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. DPPH radical scavenging effect of extracts decreased in the order of EF?>?BF?>?CE?>?PF?>?WF, with IC50 values ranging from 74.7 to 680.8??g/mL. 2,2-azo-bis(3-Ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfoic acid) diammonium salt scavenging activity ranged from 0.118 to 0.236?mmol Trolox equivalence/mg extract. The extracts exhibited concentration-dependent reducing power, and EF showed the highest reducing ability. A satisfactory correlation (R(2)?>?0.826) between TPC and antioxidant activity was observed. In addition, EF, PF and CE exhibited potent anticancer effects on six cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 40.1 to 166.3??g/mL. Discussion and conclusion: The ethanol extract of A. oxyphylla fruit, especially the EF, was found to possess potent antioxidant and anticancer activities, and thus a great potential for the application in food and drug products. PMID:23841520

Wang, Cheng-Zhong; Yuan, Hui-Hui; Bao, Xiao-Li; Lan, Min-Bo

2013-07-10

299

Biosynthesis of Au nanoparticles using cumin seed powder extract.  

PubMed

Cumin seed was investigated for synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Polydispersed particles were obtained at pH 3 and 30 degrees C, and the effect of temperature and pH on synthesis of gold nanoparticles was analyzed. TEM images showed that amount of platelets formed were predominant at lower temperature where as more number of monodispersed spherical particle of size 1-10 nm were perceived at high temperatures. The gold nanoparticles particles formed at higher pH were stable, uniform and spherical in shape. XPS analysis showed the presence of pure gold nanoparticles. PMID:21456298

Sneha, Krishnamurthy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Lee, Shi Yn; Bae, Min A; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

2011-02-01

300

Effect of straw extract on water absorption and germination of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. variety RR21) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Freshly prepared straw extract inhibited wheat seed germination by about 18 per cent but did not affect water absorption by germinating wheat seeds. The maximum germination inhibition (47 per cent) was noticed with extract of straw rotted for 15 days. The germination inhibitory effect of rotting straw was over at 31 days of straw rotting.

P. C. Srivastava; N. G. Totey; Om Prakash

1986-01-01

301

Research and Application of Algorithm Based on Core Characteristic Extraction of Watermelon Seeds by Automated Separating System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The algorithm of extracting a series of characteristic value, taking watermelon seeds as the research object, has been successfully applied into the software system of separating watermelon seeds automatically. It has been proven that it is practical for humans to be replaced by machine. By extracting characteristic values like the length of orthogonal long and minor axis of the watermelon

YONG SUN; YUN BAI; LIHONG GANG; QIANGGUO PU; NIKOS MASTORAKIS

2007-01-01

302

Comparison of Antioxidant Activity of Grape Seed Extract and Fruits Containing High B-Carotene, Vitamin C and E  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activity of a potent antioxidant, grape seed extract and fruits containing high ?-carotene, vitamin C and E was measured and compared by DPPH and FRAP assay. The results showed that antioxidant activity of 20 mg capsule of grape seed extract was approximately 10 to 20 times greater than one gram of tomato, papaya, banana, and mango. However, if antioxidant

Piyada Songsermsakul; Endo Pornphairin; Supatra Porasuphatana

2012-01-01

303

A Comparison between Water and Ethanol Extracts of Rumex acetosa for Protective Effects on Gastric Ulcers in Mice  

PubMed Central

Rumex acetosa is a perennial herb that is widely distributed across eastern Asia. Although the hot water extract of R. acetosa has been used to treat gastritis or gastric ulcers as a folk medicine, no scientific report exists for the use of this plant to treat gastric ulcers. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the anti-ulcer activity of water and 70% ethanol extracts obtained from R. acetosa, using an HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. Anti-inflammatory and free radical-scavenging activities of these two extracts were also evaluated and compared. As a result, the administration of R. acetosa extracts significantly reduced the occurrence of gastric ulcers. However, significant differences in protective activity against gastric ulcers were observed between the two samples. In the case of the group pretreated with an ethanol extract dosage of 100 mg/kg, the protective effect (90.9%) was higher than that of water extract (41.2%). Under histological evaluation, pretreatment with R. acetosa extracts reversed negative effects, such as inflammation, edema, moderate hemorrhaging and loss of epithelial cells, presented by HCl/ ethanol-treated stomachs. Meanwhile, R. acetosa extracts showed potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity and decreased NO production in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cellular viability. The greater anti-ulcer and NO production inhibitory activities exhibited by ethanol extracts compared to water extracts could be ascribed to the higher emodin levels, a major anthraquinone component of this plant.

Bae, Ji-Yeong; Lee, Yoon Seok; Han, Sun Young; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Kong, Jae Yang; Lee, Dong Hoon; Cho, Kyeong Jae; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Ahn, Mi-Jeong

2012-01-01

304

Impact of legume seed extracts on degradation and functional properties of gelatin from unicorn leatherjacket skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trypsin inhibitor was extracted from the seed flour of soybean (SB; Glycine max), mung bean (MB; Vigna radiata), cowpea bean (CP; Vigna unguiculata) and adzuki bean (AB; Vigna angularis) using 0.15M NaCl, followed by heat precipitation at 70°C. The extract from SB showed the highest specific trypsin inhibitory activity, followed by those from MB, CP and AB, respectively. Based on

Mehraj Ahmad; Soottawat Benjakul

2011-01-01

305

Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract inhibits mouse skin papillomagenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to elucidate the inhibitory potential of Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract on mouse skin papillomagensis with the modulatory influence of biotransformation system enzymes. Topical application of Momordica whole fruit extract (100 ?l\\/animal per day) during the peri-initiation stage (1 week before and 2 weeks after initiation) by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)

Anjali Singh; Satya Prakash Singh; Ramesh Bamezai

1998-01-01

306

Quantification of polyphenols and pharmacological analysis of water and ethanol-based extracts of cultivated agarwood leaves.  

PubMed

Mangiferin (3) and genkwanin 5-O-?-primeveroside (5) are the two major bioactive polyphenols with laxative property present in the extracts of agarwood (Aquilaria sinensis) leaves (AL). Here we developed an HPLC method to determine these bioactive components and four other major polyphenols in AL extracts and evaluated the pharmacological equivalence of organic and water extracts. Using mobile phase gradient conditions combined with UV detection at 330 nm, all six compounds were separated and we determined the relative extraction ratios of the six compounds present in A. sinensis extracts that were prepared under different conditions and compared the contents of the two laxative polyphenols present in the 60% ethanol extracts of A. sinensis and A. crassna. The polyphenols present in water extracts of 13 commercially cultivated A. crassna plants have also been analyzed. The laxative properties of 60% ethanol and four water extracts of A. crassna were evaluated by the frequency and weight of stools in loperamide-induced constipation model mice. The pharmacological equivalence of 60% ethanol extract and hot water (95°C) extract was identified in mice. PMID:22790572

Ito, Tetsuro; Kakino, Mamoru; Tazawa, Shigemi; Watarai, Tatsuya; Oyama, Masayoshi; Maruyama, Hiroe; Araki, Yoko; Hara, Hideaki; Iinuma, Munekazu

2012-01-01

307

The antifungal activity of Sarcococca saligna ethanol extract and its combination effect with fluconazole against different resistant Aspergillus species.  

PubMed

Microbial resistance is a major drawback in chemotherapy of microbial or fungal infection disease. In this study, the antifungal activity of ethanol extract of a selected plant (Sarcococca saligna) has been investigated against clinical isolates of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus treus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Also, the enhancement of the antifungal activity of fluconazole by this extract was further evaluated against mentioned test strains. Conventional disk diffusion method was used to assay the antifungal activity of S. saligna ethanol extract in the absence and presence of fluconazole. The highest antifungal activity was observed against A. treus. The ethanol extract of S. saligna enhanced the antifungal activity of fluconazole against A. niger and A. treus and A. flavus. At the highest tested contents (4 mg/disk), 1.15-, 0.64-, and 2.47-fold increases in inhibition zone surface area were observed for A. niger, A. treus, and A. flavus, respectively. However, no enhancing effect was observed for this plant extract against Aspergillus fumigates at tested contents (0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/disk). In a separate experiment, the general cytotoxicity of the ethanol extract of S. saligna was examined with brine shrimp assay. This plant extract showed low cytotoxicity against Artemia salina (LC(50) = 186 microg/ml). PMID:19685213

Mollazadeh Moghaddam, Kamyar; Arfan, Mohammad; Rafique, Jamal; Rezaee, Sassan; Jafari Fesharaki, Parisa; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

2009-08-15

308

Antifertility activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract in male rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Complementary medicine has grown over time with more botanicals emerging and remaining integral parts of medicare. Such botanicals include Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. AIM: This study investigated the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract on male reproductive system using rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Control and treated rats were maintained on control diet. Treated rats also received graded doses of the extract. RESULTS: When compared with the controls, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta treatment led to significant testosterone suppression associated with consequent significant rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) and decrease in sperm count. Treatment with Cryptolepis sanguinolenta did not result in significant attenuation of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and testicular morphometry. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also comparable in all groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity.

Ajayi, Ayodeji F; Akhigbe, Roland E

2012-01-01

309

Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition of ethanolic extract and monoterpenes from Pimpinella anisoides V Brig. (Apiaceae).  

PubMed

Ethanolic extract from the fruits of Pimpinella anisoides, an aromatic plant and a spice, exhibited activity against AChE and BChE, with IC(50) values of 227.5 and 362.1 microg/ml, respectively. The most abundant constituents of the extract were trans-anethole, (+)-limonene and (+)-sabinene. trans-Anethole exhibited the highest activity against AChE and BChE with IC(50) values of 134.7 and 209.6 microg/ml, respectively. The bicyclic monoterpene (+)-sabinene exhibited a promising activity against AChE (IC(50) of 176.5 microg/ml) and BChE (IC(50) of 218.6 microg/ml). PMID:19351555

Menichini, Federica; Tundis, Rosa; Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

2009-04-05

310

Acaricidal activity of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla ethanolic extracts against Varroa destructor in honeybee colonies.  

PubMed

The acaricidal (miticidal) activity of 90% ethanolic extracts of leaves and stem bark of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla were tested against Varroa destructor mite. Four concentrations were used over two different time intervals under laboratory and field conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on mortality and LC(50) of all tested extracts against the Varroa mite was concentration and time dependant. The acaricidal action against Varroa mites was relatively the least for the S. macrophylla stem bark extract at 500 ppm concentration after 48 h while it reached 100% and 95% in case of S. mahogani bark and S. macrophylla leaves, respectively. The% infestation with Varroa in colonies treated with the different extracts at various time intervals showed that the rate of infestation decreased to 0.0% after 12 days from the beginning of treatments with 500 ppm of S. mahogani leaves extract compared to 0.79% decrease after treatment with Mitac, a reference drug (60 mg/colony). The rate of infestation in case of treatments with S. mahogani bark, S. macrophylla leaves and S. macrophylla bark was decreased to 0.11%, 2.41% and 1.08%, respectively. The highest reduction was observed with S. mahogani leaves extract followed by S. mahogani bark. All the tested extracts showed less or no effect on honey bees at the different concentrations and at different bioassay times. This study suggested that the use of natural plant extracts or their products as ecofriendly biodegradable agents could be of high value for the control of Varroa mite. PMID:22101075

El Zalabani, Soheir M; El-Askary, Hesham I; Mousa, Ola M; Issa, Marwa Y; Zaitoun, Ahmed A; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

2011-11-12

311

Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20?mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500?mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as compared with omeprazole or extract which shows significant protection towards gastric mucosal injury the plant promotes ulcer protection as it shows significant reduction of ulcer area grossly, and histology showed marked reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared with ulcer group. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of Hsp70 protein and downexpression of Bax protein in rats pretreated with extract. Significant increased in the pH, mucus of gastric content and high levels of PGE2, SOD and reduced amount of MDA was observed.

AlRashdi, Ahmed S.; Salama, Suzy M.; Alkiyumi, Salim S.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Abdelwahab, Siddig I.; Taha, Manal M.; Hussiani, Jamal; Asykin, Nur

2012-01-01

312

Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats.  

PubMed

Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20?mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500?mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as compared with omeprazole or extract which shows significant protection towards gastric mucosal injury the plant promotes ulcer protection as it shows significant reduction of ulcer area grossly, and histology showed marked reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared with ulcer group. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of Hsp70 protein and downexpression of Bax protein in rats pretreated with extract. Significant increased in the pH, mucus of gastric content and high levels of PGE(2), SOD and reduced amount of MDA was observed. PMID:22550543

Alrashdi, Ahmed S; Salama, Suzy M; Alkiyumi, Salim S; Abdulla, Mahmood A; Hadi, A Hamid A; Abdelwahab, Siddig I; Taha, Manal M; Hussiani, Jamal; Asykin, Nur

2012-04-05

313

Flavonoid content in ethanolic extracts of selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous foods consumed by vulnerable groups of Kenya: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related functional properties.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the flavonoid content, antioxidant as well as type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activities of ethanolic extract of certain raw and traditionally processed indigenous food ingredients including cereals, legumes, oil seeds, tubers, vegetables and leafy vegetables, which are commonly consumed by vulnerable groups in Kenya. The vegetables exhibited higher flavonoid content (50-703 mg/100 g) when compared with the grains (47-343 mg/100 g). The ethanolic extract of presently studied food ingredients revealed 33-93% DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 486-6,389 mmol Fe(II)/g reducing power, 19-43% ?-amylase inhibition activity and 14-68% ?-glucosidase inhibition activity. Among the different food-stuffs, the drumstick and amaranth leaves exhibited significantly higher flavonoid content with excellent functional properties. Roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be suitable processing methods in preserving the functional properties. Hence, such viable processing techniques for respective food samples will be considered in the formulation of functional supplementary foods for vulnerable groups in Kenya. PMID:21375390

Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri

2011-03-04

314

Standardisation and physicochemical characterisation of the extracts of seeds of Glinus lotoides.  

PubMed

Extraction methods were standardised for saponin-containing extracts from the seeds of Glinus lotoides and the effects of some extraction process variables, such as the extracting solvent (various concentrations of methanol in water) and method of extract drying (freeze-drying and vacuum oven-drying), on the physical properties of the extracts were investigated. Physicochemical properties, namely particle size and size distribution, morphology, water uptake profiles and sorption isotherms, densities, flow properties and compaction profiles, of the crude dry extracts of 60% methanol (extract A), 70% methanol (extract B) and 80% methanol (extract C) were investigated. The average particle sizes (X50) of extracts A, B and C were found to be 68.4, 92.1 and 68.5 microm, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs of freeze-dried and vacuum oven-dried extract A showed that the particles are irregular in shape and are compact masses with sharp edges. The percent water uptake by the crude extracts was found to increase with an increase in relative humidities, while the hygroscopicity increased with decreasing methanol ratio of the extracting solvent. The bulk and the true densities of the three extracts (A, B and C) ranged from 0.66 to 0.67 and 1.49 to 1.50 g/ml, respectively. The tapped density (0.94 g/ml) and hence the porosity (56.0%), Carr's index (29.8%) and Hausner ratio (1.42) of extract A were greater than those of extracts B and C. Measurements of angle of repose indicated that all of the extracts exhibit poor flow properties. Compaction studies revealed that extract C has higher compactibility than extracts A and B. PMID:14964419

Endale, A; Schmidt, P C; Gebre-Mariam, T

2004-01-01

315

In vivo assessment of genotoxic effects of Annona squamosa seed extract in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread use of pesticides represents a potential risk to human and environmental health. Hence, biopesticides from plants are some of the future strategies for plant protection. In this regard, a seed extract of Annona squamosa was prepared and found to be a promising pesticide. In order to establish the inherent toxicity and non-target safety required for registration and marketing of

Paramjit Grover; S. P. Singh; P. V. Prabhakar; Utkarsh A. Reddy; A. Balasubramanyam; M. Mahboob; M. F. Rahman; Sunil Misra

2009-01-01

316

Grape Seed Extract to Improve Liver Function in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Change  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim: Therapeutic interventions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are limited, while antioxidative materials have shown benefi ts in animal models. This study aimed to evaluate grape seed extract as an anti-oxidative material in this process. Therapeutic effects of grape seed extract were evaluated in comparison to vitamin C in a double-blind setting. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients were enrolled in each group. Liver function tests were done; also, grade of steatosis and pattern of echogenicity of the liver were determined. Patients were followed up by the same evaluation repeated in first, second and third months. Results: Mean age ± standard deviation was 43.2 ± 10.3 years. Grape seed extract (GSE) significantly improved the grade of fatty liver change; and resulted in significant decrease in alanine aminotransferase in patients receiving the concentrate compared to those receiving vitamin C independently, from the initial grade of steatosis. Conclusions: This study describes the beneficial effect of using grape seed extract for three months in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. These results may improve with a longer period of follow-up.

Khoshbaten, Manouchehr; Aliasgarzadeh, Akbar; Masnadi, Koorosh; Farhang, Sara; Tarzamani, Mohammad K.; Babaei, Hosain; Kiani, Javad; Zaare, Maryam; Najafipoor, Farzad

2010-01-01

317

Dehulling of Cuphea PSR23 Seeds to Reduce Color of the Extracted Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oil extracted from the seeds Cuphea PSR23, a semi-domesticated, high-capric acid hybrid from C. viscosissima x C. lanceolata, by screw-pressing contained 200-360 ppm of chlorophyll. A high amount of bleaching clay was needed during refining to remove the chlorophyll in the oil. In this paper, dehu...

318

Molecular mechanisms of cardioprotection by a novel grape seed proanthocyanidin extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free radicals and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases including congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy, atherosclerosis and ischemic heart disease. We have demonstrated that IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) provides superior antioxidant efficacy as compared to Vitamins C, E and ?-carotene. A series of studies were

Debasis Bagchi; Chandan K Sen; Sidhartha D Ray; Dipak K Das; Manashi Bagchi; Harry G Preuss; Joe A Vinson

2003-01-01

319

Nigella sativa (black cumin) seed extract alleviates symptoms of allergic diarrhea in mice, involving opioid receptors.  

PubMed

The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa-(U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFN?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy. PMID:22768141

Duncker, Swantje C; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

2012-06-29

320

Haematopoetic effect of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (grape fruit) in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the blood-forming effects of (100% methanol seed extract) of Citrus paradisi Macfad in adult Wistar rats for 30 days as a way of evaluat- ing its traditional use in the treatment of blood deficiencies. Acute oral toxicity study was also conducted using limit dose test of the Up and Down Procedure statistical program

A. A. Adeneye

321

Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit

Valerio Spinosi; Primula Semprini; Vincenzo Langella; Giampiero Scortichini; Silvano Calvarese

322

Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of an ethanol extract of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana from Malaysia.  

PubMed

In the annals of biomedical theory perhaps no single class of natural product has enjoyed more ingenious speculation than antioxidants formally aimed at counteracting oxidative insults which are involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, skin ageing and wound healing. In pursuing our study of Malaysian traditional medicines with antioxidant properties, we became interested in Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort., used traditionally to heal wounds. To examine whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. could suppress oxidation an ethanol extract was tested by conventional chemical in vitro assays i.e., ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay (FRAP), DPPH scavenging assay and beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) assay. To explore whether Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. protected cells against oxidative injuries, we exposed human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells to tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP). In all the aforementioned experiments, the ethanol extracts elicited potent antioxidant and cytoprotective activities. To gain a better understanding of the phytochemical nature of the antioxidant principle involved, five fractions (F1-F5) obtained from the ethanol extract were tested using FRAP, DPPH and BCB assays. Our results provided evidence that F5 was the most active fraction with antioxidant potentials equal to 2.090 +/- 0.307 microg/mL, 0.532 +/- 0.041 microg/mL, 0.032 +/- 0.025 microg/mL in FRAP, DPPH and BCB assay, respectively. Interestingly, F5 protected HepG2 against t-BHP oxidative insults. To further define the chemical identity of the antioxidant principle, we first performed a series of phytochemical tests, followed by liquid-chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) profiling which showed that the major compound contained in F5 was geraniin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the wound healing property of Acalypha wilkesiana var. macafeana hort. is mediated by a geraniin containing extract. Furthermore, our data leads us to conclude that geraniin could be used as a potential pharmaceutical and/or cosmetic topical agent. PMID:23678815

Din, Wardah M; Chu, Jessica; Clarke, Garry; Jin, Khoo T; Bradshaw, Tracey D; Fry, Jeff R; Wiart, Christophe

2013-03-01

323

Antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Diospyros lotus seeds.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the antioxidant, antihemolytic and nephroprotective effects of Diospyros lotus seeds extract in experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Antioxidant potential of Diospvyos lotus seeds extract was examined by employing seven in vito models i.e., DPPH, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activity, iron ion chelating, reducing power and lipid peroxidation through linoleic acid. Antihemolytic activity of extract was examined against hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocytes hemolysis. Also, nephroprotective effect of extract against gentamicin (GM)-induced renal injury was evaluated. Renal injury was achieved by injecting 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) of GM in normal saline. Extracts were administrated i.p. in doses 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood samples were examined for serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen after 10 consecutive days of treatment. Results show that extract showed different level of antioxidant and antihemolytic activity in the studied models. Also, results show that GM-induced nephrotoxic animal model was successfully constructed. Extract attenuated the gentamicin-induced increase in level of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. The present study shows that the extract offered significant biological action compared with standard compound. PMID:22876611

Moghaddam, Akbar Hajizadeh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Bigdellou, Rata; Mohammadzadeh, Sakineh; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

324

Anthelmintic activities of chloroform and methanol extracts of Buchholzia coriacea Engler seed.  

PubMed

The anthelmintic potentials of the chloroform and methanol extracts of Buchholzia coriacea Engler seed were investigated. In folklore medicine, B. coriacea (Capparidaceae) is believed to be useful in the treatment of various kinds of ailments and diseases. At doses of 10 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, the extracts were tested against Eudrilus eugeniae (earthworm) and Bunostomum phlebotomum (cattle hookworm). The extracts exhibited dose-dependent anthelmintic effects on the earthworms and hookworms. The methanol extract at 50 mg/kg was the most active extract against the helminths, and the activity of the methanol extract was not significantly different from that of piperazine hydrate (reference drug, 10 mg/kg) against the earthworms. PMID:21344210

Fred-Jaiyesimi, Adediwura A; Adepoju, Adeola; Egbebunmi, Oluwatosin

2011-02-23

325

Antidiabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Piper betle leaves in rats.  

PubMed

Leaves of Piper betle (Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in traditional medicinal systems. However, its antidiabetic activity has not been scientifically investigated so far. The aim of this study therefore, was to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Piper betle leaves. This was tested in normoglycaemic and strepozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats using oral administration of hot water extract (HWE) and cold ethanolic extract (CEE). In normoglycaemic rats, both HWE and CEE significantly lowered the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. In glucose tolerance test, both extracts markedly reduced the external glucose load. The antidiabetic activity of HWE is comparable to that of CEE. Moreover, HWE failed to inhibit the glucose absorption from the small intestine of rats. Both extracts were found to be non-toxic and well tolerated after following chronic oral administration (no overt signs of toxicity, hepatotoxicity or renotoxicity). However, the weight of the spleen had increased in treated groups possibly indicating lymphoproliferative activity. It is concluded that HWE and CEE of Piper betle leaves possess safe and strong antidiabetic activity. PMID:16055288

Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Ratnasooriya, W D

2005-08-01

326

Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50 % inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

2013-08-07

327

Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava) Root  

PubMed Central

In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava) roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol?:?chloroform fraction (BDF 5) had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48?h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200??g?mL?1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

Srivastava, Rakhi; Saluja, Daman; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.; Chopra, Madhu

2011-01-01

328

Antiplasmodial and antidiabetic activities of ethanolic leaf extract of Heinsia crinata.  

PubMed

The ethanolic leaf extract of Heinsia crinata, grown particularly for the leaf in Niger Delta region of Nigeria, was evaluated for antiplasmodial activity in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice as well as for hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. H. crinata (450-1,350 mg/kg/day) exhibited significant (P < .05) blood schizonticidal activity in both the 4-day early infection test and established infection with a considerable mean survival time, though not comparable to that of the standard drug, chloroquine (5 mg/kg/day). Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the leaf extract caused a significant (P < .01) reduction in fasting blood glucose levels of normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats both in an acute study and with prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activity of the extract was comparable to that of the reference drug, glibenclamide, during the acute study but was not comparable to that of the standard drug during prolonged treatment. The results suggest that the leaf extract of H. crinata possesses significant (P < .05) antiplasmodial as well as hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effects that can be employed in health care. PMID:19298206

Okokon, Jude E; Umoh, Emem E; Etim, Emmanuel I; Jackson, Clement L

2009-02-01

329

Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO3, KCl, NH4Cl and NaNO3. Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

Birima, A. H.; Hammad, H. A.; Desa, M. N. M.; Muda, Z. C.

2013-06-01

330

Phytochemical screening and toxicity studies on the methanol extract of the seeds of moringa oleifera.  

PubMed

The seeds of Moringa oleifera were collected, air-dried, pulverized, and subjected to cold extraction with methanol. The methanol extract was screened phytochemically for its chemical components and used for acute and sub-acute toxicity studies in rats. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and cardiac glycosides but the absence of anthraquinones. Although signs of acute toxicity were observed at a dose of 4,000 mg kg-1 in the acute toxicity test, and mortality was recorded at 5,000 mg kg-1, no adverse effect was observed at concentrations lower than 3,000 mg kg-1. The median lethal dose of the extract in rat was 3,873 mg kg-1. Sub-acute administration of the seed extract caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the levels of alanine and aspartate transferases (ALT and AST), and significant (p<0.05) decrease in weight of experimental rats, at 1,600 mg kg-1. The study concludes that the extract of seeds of M. oleifera is safe both for medicinal and nutritional uses. PMID:23652639

Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi; Arowolo, Ruben; Olayemi, Funsho Olakitike

2013-05-07

331

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars  

PubMed Central

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.

Gozlekci, Sadiye; Saracoglu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

2011-01-01

332

Anticonvulsant activity of ethanol extracts of Vetiveria zizanioides roots in experimental mice.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Vetiveria zizanioides Linn. (Gramineae), an aromatic plant commonly known as vetiver, is traditionally used for various ailments. Ethanol and aqueous extract of this plant found extensive use in Indian folklore medicine and used in treatment of a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied. Objective: To evaluate anticonvulsant activity of ethanol extract of V. zizanioides (EEVZ) in experimental mice. Materials and methods: Anticonvulsant activity of EEVZ was determined by maximal electroshock stimulation (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in mice for 8?d experimental protocol. The extract at a dose of 100, 200 and 400?mg/kg body weight was administered once by oral route. Results: LD50 value of EEVZ in mice was found at a dose of 600?mg/kg body weight. EEVZ at a dose of 400?mg/kg significantly (p?

Gupta, Ritu; Sharma, Krishan Kant; Afzal, Muhammad; Damanhouri, Zoheir A; Ali, Babar; Kaur, Rupinder; Kazmi, Imran; Anwar, Firoz

2013-07-18

333

Anticoagulant effect of polyphenols-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.  

PubMed

Blood coagulation consists of a series of zymogens that can be converted by limited proteolysis to active enzymes leading to the generation of thrombin. Fresh plasma and human thrombin was incubated with extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5; 5; 50 ?g/ml). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts prolonged clotting time and decreased the maximal velocity of fibrin polymerization in human plasma. Moreover thrombin incubation with both extracts results in the inhibition of amidolytic activity of this enzyme. It gives hopes for development of diet supplements, which may be preventing thrombosis in pathological states. PMID:21596108

Bijak, Micha?; Bobrowski, Mateusz; Borowiecka, Marta; Pods?dek, Anna; Gola?ski, Jacek; Nowak, Pawe?

2011-05-06

334

Quantification of gallic acid and ellagic acid from longan ( Dimocarpus longan Lour.) seed and mango ( Mangifera indica L.) kernel and their effects on antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA) have been identified in longan seed and mango kernel by the use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection (DAD). The ethanolic extract of longan seed contained 23.3 and 156mg\\/100 seeds of GA and EA, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of mango kernel contained approximately 87% more GA than the

Yean-Yean Soong; Philip J. Barlow

2006-01-01

335

The effect of ethanol extract of Hypericum lysimachioides on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rabbits and its in vitro antioxidant activity.  

PubMed

Hypercholesterolemia, high cholesterol diet and oxidative stress increase serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels resulting in increased risk for development of atherosclerosis. Antioxidants play an important role in inhibiting and scavenging radicals, thus providing protection to humans against infectious and degenerative diseases. Literature shows that the antioxidant activity is high in medicinal plants. Realizing the fact that, this study was carried out to determine the effect of ethanol extract of Hypericum lysimachioides Boiss var lysimachioides (Guttifera) on serum lipid levels and serum lipid peroxidation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The rabbits were divided into four groups and these groups were fed with diets containing standard laboratory diet (Group I), standard laboratory diet and ethanol extracts of H. lysimachioides (HL) (50mg/kg body weight) (Group II), standard laboratory diet, ethanol extracts of HL (50mg/kg body weight) and cholesterol (100mg/kg body weight) (Group III), and finally standard laboratory diet and cholesterol (100mg/kg body weight) (Group IV), for 5 weeks. Feeding cholesterol increased serum cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels significantly in Group IV as compared to the other groups. Ethanol extract of HL with high cholesterol diet significantly lowered LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels in the rabbits of Group III as compared to the Group IV. The level of serum triacylglycerol was found to be similar to all comparison groups. HDL cholesterol levels were also increased significantly in Groups II and III as compared to Group IV. Statistically significant difference was found in Group IV as compared to all other groups. The ethanol extract of HL with high cholesterol diet significantly lowered the serum MDA levels in the rabbits of Group III compared to the Group IV. The histopathological findings confirmed that the ethanol extract of HL restrained the progression of the hydropic degeneration and fatty changes in the liver and some atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta. The in vitro antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of HL was also evaluated. The free radical-scavenging properties of HL (IC(50)=28 microg/ml) were studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Since plant phenolic compound is one of the phytochemicals possessing radical scavenging activity, the amount of total phenolic compound was also determined in ethanol extract of HL and total phenolic content of one-milligram HL ethanol extract was equivalent to 307 microg of gallic acid. Total antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of HL was tested by using ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. Antioxidative activities of ethanol extract of HL was found to be comparable with Vitamin E. In conclusion, the use of this extract could be useful in the management of cardiovascular disease in which atherosclerosis is important. PMID:16901489

Hakimo?lu, Fidan; Kizil, Göksel; Kanay, Zeki; Kizil, Murat; Isi, Hilmi

2006-08-09

336

Antiulcer effect of the methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica seeds in different experimental models  

PubMed Central

Background: Peptic ulcer is a global health problem of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by mucosal damage secondary to pepsin and gastric acid secretion which occurs due to due to an imbalance between offensive and defensive factors. Objective: The present study was carried out with methanolic extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica Linn. to evaluate its antiulcer potential on ibuprofen, alcohol and pyloric ligation induced gastric lesions. Materials and Methods: Doses of 100 mg/kg & 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract wre administered orally to rats of different groups. Ranitidine at a dose of 50 mg/kg was used as a standard drug for these gastric ulcer models. The gastric content was collected and the volume was measured. The ulceration index was determined by examining the inner lining of each stomach. Furthermore, the effect was assessed by free acidity, pepsin activity, total carbohydrate (TC), protein content (PK). Result: The result showed that the methanolic extract of seed coats of Tamarindus indica significantly reduce the total volume of gastric juice, free and total acidity of gastric secretion (P < 0.01) in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model as is comparable with the standard drug ranitidine. There was also a significant reduction in ulcer index (P < 0.01) as compared to control group. Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of seed coat of Tamarindus indica can be used as a new source of antiulcer agent in animals.

Kalra, Pankaj; Sharma, Sunil; Suman; Kumar, Suresh

2011-01-01

337

Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells  

PubMed Central

Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation.

Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

2012-01-01

338

Antileukemic Potential of Momordica charantia Seed Extracts on Human Myeloid Leukemic HL60 Cells.  

PubMed

Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Anticancer activity of M. charantia extracts has been demonstrated by numerous in vitro and in vivo studies. In the present study, we investigated the differentiation inducing potential of fractionated M. charantia seed extracts in human myeloid HL60 cells. We found that the HL60 cells treated with the fractionated seed extracts differentiated into granulocytic lineage as characterized by NBT staining, CD11b expression, and specific esterase activity. The differentiation inducing principle was found to be heat-stable, and organic in nature. The differentiation was accompanied by a downregulation of c-myc transcript, indicating the involvement of c-myc pathway, at least in part, in differentiation. Taken together these results indicate that fractionated extracts of M. charantia seeds possess differentiation inducing activity and therefore can be evaluated for their potential use in differentiation therapy for leukemia in combination with other inducers of differentiation. PMID:22654956

Soundararajan, Ramani; Prabha, Punit; Rai, Umesh; Dixit, Aparna

2012-05-13

339

Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness. PMID:22225422

Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B

2012-01-06

340

A case of beta-carboline alkaloid intoxication following ingestion of Peganum harmala seed extract.  

PubMed

Beta-carboline alkaloids harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of amine neurotransmitters, or by direct interaction with specific receptors; they are found in numerous plants, including Peganum harmala, Passiflora incarnata and Banisteriopsis caapi, and in the entheogen preparation Ayahuasca, which is traditionally brewed using B. caapi to enhance the activity of amine hallucinogenic drugs. The ingestion of plant preparations containing beta-carboline alkaloids may result in toxic effects, namely visual and auditory hallucinations, locomotor ataxia, nausea, vomiting, confusion and agitation. We report a case of intoxication following intentional ingestion of P. harmala seed infusion; P. harmala seeds were bought over the Internet. The harmala alkaloids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the seed extract and the patient's urine. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of P. harmala intoxication corroborated by toxicological findings. PMID:18603389

Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Zancanaro, Flavio; Fazzin, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

2008-07-07

341

Antibacterial and antifungal activities of acetonic extract from Paullinia cupana Mart. seeds.  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the acetone extract from Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis Mart. (Sapindaceae) seeds, commonly called guarana, were assessed against selected bacterial and fungal strains. We tested the extract against both standard American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and clinically isolated (CI) bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values for bacteria and MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration for fungi were determined. The extract showed an activity against the nine bacterial strains tested, both CI and ATCC strains (MIC comprised between 32 and 128 ?m/mL and MBC between 128 and 512 ?m/mL), showing a significant antibacterial effect against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Also, the tested fungi were sensitive to the extract (MIC between 125 and 250 ?m/mL). The contemporaneous presence of different bioactivities in the extract from guarana suggests this plant as a source of bioactive substances. PMID:23672664

Basile, Adriana; Rigano, Daniela; Conte, Barbara; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Sorbo, Sergio

2013-05-14

342

Antioxidative and Antimutagenic Activities of 70% Ethanolic Extracts from Four Fungal Mycelia-Fermented Specialty Rices  

PubMed Central

The health-promoting potential of 70% ethanolic extracts of 4 rice varieties fermented with Monascus ruber, Phellinus linteus, Cordyceps sinensis and Agaricus blazei was evaluated mainly focusing on their antioxidative and antimutagenic capacities based on the following parameters: phenolic compound and phytic acid content; inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation; scavenging activity on DPPH radical; suppressing ability on mitomycin C-induced mutagenesis in E. coli cells; and protective effect on 4-nitroquinoline oxide-triggered DNA lesion in V79 hamster cells. The fermented rice extracts were superior in overall health-promoting parameters compared to the source material. The higher antimutagenic activity of the fermented rice extracts might be in part caused by a larger amount of antioxidant constituents such as phenolic compounds or phytic acid. Of the fungal species, Monascus ruber was found to impart a marked increase in both the antioxidative and antimutagenic abilities to the source material. The current study suggests a possibility that such fermented rice may contribute to the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases such as cancer through a daily intake of rice-based diets.

Ra Yoon, Mi; Hyun Nam, Seok; Young Kang, Mi

2008-01-01

343

Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia morrisonensis Hayata in Mice  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the ethanolic extract of A. morrisonensis Hayata (AMEtOH). Two models were employed for evaluation of the analgesic effects: acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results demonstrated that AMEtOH decreased writhing response for both the acetic acid assay and the licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by paw edema of mice induced by ?-carrageenan. AMEtOH significantly decreased induced paw edema three to four hours after ?-carrageenan injection. Additionally, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of AMEtOH may be due to the declined levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the edematous paw. Furthermore, AMEtOH decreased the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, leading to the reduction of prostaglandins and subsequently alleviated edema. Isolation and purification of the AMEtOH extract determined p-hydroxyacetophenone to be a major component at 130?mg/g of extract. No mortality was observed in the acute toxicity test given at the dose of 10?g/kg. This study demonstrated the possible mechanisms for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of AMEtOH for mice and provided evidence for the ethnobotanical uses of A. morrisonensis in treating inflammatory diseases.

Chou, Shen-Chieh; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Ying-Chih; Wu, Chung-Hao; Chao, Chien-Ti; Chang, Ching-Wen; Peng, Wen-Huang

2012-01-01

344

Antioxidative and antimutagenic activities of 70% ethanolic extracts from four fungal mycelia-fermented specialty rices.  

PubMed

The health-promoting potential of 70% ethanolic extracts of 4 rice varieties fermented with Monascus ruber, Phellinus linteus, Cordyceps sinensis and Agaricus blazei was evaluated mainly focusing on their antioxidative and antimutagenic capacities based on the following parameters: phenolic compound and phytic acid content; inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation; scavenging activity on DPPH radical; suppressing ability on mitomycin C-induced mutagenesis in E. coli cells; and protective effect on 4-nitroquinoline oxide-triggered DNA lesion in V79 hamster cells. The fermented rice extracts were superior in overall health-promoting parameters compared to the source material. The higher antimutagenic activity of the fermented rice extracts might be in part caused by a larger amount of antioxidant constituents such as phenolic compounds or phytic acid. Of the fungal species, Monascus ruber was found to impart a marked increase in both the antioxidative and antimutagenic abilities to the source material. The current study suggests a possibility that such fermented rice may contribute to the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases such as cancer through a daily intake of rice-based diets. PMID:18818745

Ra Yoon, Mi; Hyun Nam, Seok; Young Kang, Mi

2008-09-01

345

Cardiovascular effects of Ekebergia capensis Sparrm (Meliaceae) ethanolic leaf extract in experimental animal paradigms.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the in vivo effects of Ekebergia capensis leaf ethanolic extract (EKE) on the blood pressure of anaesthetised normotensive male Wistar rats and conscious weanling Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS) rats, which develop hypertension as they age. To investigate possible mechanism(s) of the extract's hypotensive effects, the contractile or relaxant responses to EKE in the absence or presence of reference drugs were evaluated in Wistar rat isolated aortic rings precontracted with methoxamine hydrochloride (ME, 10 microM). Acute intravenous administration of EKE elicited hypotensive responses in anaesthetised animals, while sub-chronic treatment with the extract averted the development of high blood pressure in weanling DSS rats. Isometric recordings of methoxamine hydrochloride (ME) pre-contracted, isolated, endothelium-intact and -denuded aortic rings revealed concentration-dependent relaxation responses to EKE (1-160 mg/ml). The potency was significantly less in the endothelium- denuded rings. Inhibitors of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), L-NAME, methylene blue and indomethacin significantly reduced EKE-evoked vasorelaxations in endothelium-intact aortic rings. These results indicate that the vasorelaxant effect of EKE was in part mediated via EDRF-dependent or -independent pathways. These observations suggest that the hypotensive effect of EKE was in part mediated via modulation of total peripheral resistance of the vascular smooth muscles. PMID:19575078

Kamadyaapa, David R; Gondwe, Mavuto M; Moodley, Kogi; Ojewole, John A O; Musabayane, Cephas T

346

Ethanol extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn enhances sperm output in healthy Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), among other factors, have been implicated in the aetiology of male infertility. Thus, the roles of antioxidants at improving sperm production and quality are being investigated. The present study was designed to assess the effect of the ethanol extract of fresh leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. on the sperm parameters of healthy male Wistar rats. A total of 18 rats, weighing between 108-124 g, were divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each. Animals in groups 1 and 2 were administered 250 mg/kg/d and 500 mg/kg/d of guava leaf extract (GLE) orally for 53 days respectively. Group 3 animals received normal saline. Sperm count increased from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 57.1+/-0.2 (x10(6)) in group 1 animals, and from 56.2+/-0.3 (x10(6)) in the control to 72.3+/-0.4 (x10(6)) in group 2 animals. Similarly, dose-dependent increases in the percentages of motile spermatozoa were observed in GLE-treated animals compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. possess beneficial effects on sperm production and quality, and may thus improve the sperm parameters of infertile males with oligospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia. PMID:19205576

Akinola, O B; Oladosu, O S; Dosumu, O O

2007-06-01

347

The effectiveness of ethanolic extract of Amaranthus tricolor L.: A natural hepatoprotective agent.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extract of Amaranthus tricolor L. (ATE) leaves was tested for its efficacy against CCl?-induced liver toxicity in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of ATE was evaluated via measuring various liver toxicity parameters, the lipid profile, and a histopathological evaluation. A sleeping time determination study and an acute toxicity test were performed in mice. The results clearly showed that oral administration of ATE for three weeks significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum GOT, GPT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, TG, and MDA induced by CCl?. Moreover, ATE treatment was also found to significantly increase the activities of NP-SH and TP in liver tissue. These biochemical findings have been supported by the evaluation of the liver histopathology in rats. The prolongation of narcolepsy induced by pentobarbital was shortened significantly by the extract. The acute toxicity test showed that no morbidity or mortality was caused by the extract. The observed hepatoprotective effect appears to be due to the antioxidant properties of A. tricolor, which may pave the way to finding a new drug to be used for fighting liver diseases. PMID:21061460

Al-Dosari, Mohammed S

2010-01-01

348

Cytotoxic, mutagenic and antimutagenic screening of Arenosclera brasiliensis acetone and ethanol extracts.  

PubMed

The marine environment is a rich source of biologically active compounds with pharmacological properties. Marine organisms often produce secondary metabolites with structural features different from those produced by terrestrial ones, and the Phylum Porifera seems to be one of the most productive in this sense. This study was undertaken to provide data on mutagenic and antimutagenic activities from an acetone (Areac) and an ethanol (Areet) extract obtained from Arenosclera brasiliensis, an endemic Brazilian sponge. A qualitative Salmonella reverse mutation test was performed with the TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102 strains by incubating cells with Areac and Areet in the presence and absence of a known mutagen. A cytotoxic evaluation of the extracts was also performed. A. brasiliensis did not display any mutagenic activity, but Areac showed significant toxicity against test strains. In the antimutagenic assay, a reduction in the number of his+ revertants was observed for the TA97, TA100 and TA102 strains treated with Areac when compared to the positive controls. Areet treatment showed protective activity against DNA lesions only for the TA100. These results are in agreement with those obtained previously with other A. brasiliensis extracts, suggesting an antimutagenic activity. PMID:18752179

Stankevicins, L; Aiub, C A F; Mazzei, J L; Lobo-Hajdu, G; Felzenszwalb, I

2008-06-17

349

Evaluation of antihyperlipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Cassia auriculata flowers.  

PubMed

Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for development of coronary artery disease. Cassia auriculata is traditionally used in India for medicinal purposes. In this study, effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia auriculata flowers (Et-CAF) was investigated in Triton WR1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with the Et-CAF (450 mg/kg b.wt) significantly reduced the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) levels and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level associated with reduction of atherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rats. However, there was no change in the serum lipid profile of normal rats treated with Et-CAF alone. The results suggest that Et-CAF has a beneficial effect in treating hyperlipidemia and may serve as a potential drug for prevention of hyperlipidemic atherosclerosis. PMID:21469603

Vijayaraj, Panneer Selvam; Muthukumar, Kannan; Sabarirajan, Jayaraja; Nachiappan, Vasanthi

2011-02-01

350

Evaluation of antibacterial, antioxidant and DNA protective capacity of Chenopodium album's ethanolic leaf extract.  

PubMed

We have investigated the antibacterial effects of Chenopodium album's ethanolic leaf extract (CAE) on all the Gram (+) and Gram (-) microorganisms and evaluated the protective effects of CAE on both yeast and human mononuclear leukocytes' genomic DNA upon oxidative shock. Antibacterial activity was recorded on Bacillus subtilis with 13 mm of inhibition zone. Total oxidative status (TOS) and the total antioxidative status (TAS) levels were determined to evaluate the antioxidant activity of CAE. Results indicated that there was a good correlation between dose of CAE and TAS levels. We also observed that CAE protect the DNA of both yeast and mononuclear leukocytes against the damaging effect of hydrogen peroxide. The comet assay, applied on both Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 (MATa his3?1 leu2?0 met15?0 ura3?0) and human leukocytes, results suggested that there was statistically significant correlation between CAE dilutions and antigenotoxic activity. PMID:22897836

Elif Korcan, S; Aksoy, Onur; Erdo?mu?, S Feyza; Ci?erci, ? Hakk?; Konuk, Muhsin

2012-08-13

351

Vasorelaxant effect of Cinnamomi ramulus ethanol extract via rho-kinase signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway is substantially involved in vascular contraction. This study investigated the vasodilatory effects and possible mechanisms of Cinnamomi ramulus ethanol extract (CRE), with the hypothesis that the CRE vasodilatory effect involves RhoA and the ROCK signaling pathway in rat aortic preparations. CRE (0.05-1 mg/ml) dose-dependently relaxed the vascular contraction induced by phenylephrine and calpeptin in an endothelium-independent manner. Measurement of the expression levels of ROCK-related signaling molecules in response to calpeptin revealed that CRE completely inhibited RhoA and ROCK2 protein expressions. Furthermore, CRE dephosphorylated the subsequent downstream targets myosin phosphatase targeting subunit 1 (MYPT-1), protein kinase C potentiated phosphatase inhibitor protein-17 kDa (CPI-17) and myosin light chain 20 kDa (MLC20). We conclude that the vasorelaxation effect of CRE occurs via downregulation of ROCK signal molecules. PMID:21905278

Kang, Yun Hwan; Shin, Heung Mook

2011-01-01

352

Antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats.  

PubMed

This research was designed to investigate the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in five of the six groups (B-F) by a single intra-peritoneal injection at the dose of 100mg/kg after normal fasting blood glucose had been determined. Group A served as the positive control while groups C-E received 100mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract respectively. Group B did not received any treatment while group F received chlorpropamide, a standard drug used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose and body weights were monitored weekly for four weeks. Plasma lipids and electrolytes such as Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL), Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) were determined after four weeks of treatment with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. The results show significant reduction (P<0.001) in the blood glucose in group C (100mg/kg of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) when compared with diabetic control (Alloxan only) and other treatment groups. There was gradual increase in weight of all treatment groups compared with the diabetic control, which had progressive weight loss. Plasma cholesterol levels also significantly reduced (P<0.001) in rats treated with 1,000mg/kg Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. From this study, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract was found to considerably reduce blood glucose and plasma cholesterol levels and progressively increase weight gain in diabetic treated rats confirming its traditional use for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22416660

Oyagbemi, A A; Odetola, A A; Azeez, O I

2010-12-01

353

Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts.  

PubMed

The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13 mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7 mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87 mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-(1), from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625 mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156 mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625 mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. PMID:19448924

Leite, João Jaime Giffoni; Brito, Erika Helena Salles; Cordeiro, Rossana Aguiar; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Bertini, Luciana Medeiros; Morais, Selene Maia de; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

354

Supercritical fractional extraction of fennel seed oil and essential oil: Experiments and mathematical modeling  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical CO{sub 2} extraction of fennel seeds has been performed in two steps; the first step was performed at 90 bar and 50 C to obtain the selective extraction of essential oil. The second one was performed at 200 bar and 40 C and allowed the extraction of vegetable oil. The experiments were performed using the fractional separation of the extracts using three different CO{sub 2} flow rates (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg/h). On the basis of the extraction results and of the analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the vegetable matter, mathematical models of the two extraction processes have been proposed. The extraction of fennel vegetable oil has been modeled using a model based on differential mass balances and on the concept of broken and intact cells as evidenced by SEM. Only one adjustable parameter has been used: the internal mass-transfer coefficient k{sub t}. A fairly good fitting of the experimental data was obtained by setting k{sub t} = 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s. The fennel essential oil extraction process was modeled as desorption from the vegetable matter plus a small mass-transfer resistance. The same internal mass-transfer coefficient value used for vegetable oil extraction allowed a fairly good fitting of the essential oil extraction data.

Reverchon, E.; Marrone, C.; Poletto, M. [Univ. di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Chimica a Alimentare; Daghero, J.; Mattea, M. [Univ. Nacional de Rio Cuarto (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

1999-08-01

355

Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) Seed Oil Extracted by Optimized Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

PubMed Central

Seeds are another product in addition to leaves (raw materials for teas) of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plant. The great increase of tea consumption in recent years raises the challenge of finding commercial applications for tea seeds. In the present study, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction edible oil from tea seed was carried out, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize processing parameters including time (20–90 min), temperature (35–45 °C) and pressure (50–90 MPa). The fatty acid composition and antioxidant activity of the extracted oil was also investigated. The highest yield of oil (29.2 ± 0.6%) was obtained under optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions (45 °C, 89.7 min and 32 MPa, respectively), which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that (25.3 ± 1.0%) given by Soxhlet extraction. Meanwhile, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 contained approximately 80% unsaturated fatty acids and showed a much stronger scavenging ability on the DPPH radical than that extracted by Soxhlet. SC-CO2 is a promising alternative for efficient extraction of edible oil from tea seed. Moreover, tea seed oil extracted by SC-CO2 is highly edible and has good antioxidant activity, and therefore may play a potential role as a health-promoting food resource in human diets.

Wang, Yuefei; Sun, Da; Chen, Hao; Qian, Lisheng; Xu, Ping

2011-01-01

356

Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antioxidant acitivity of hydroalcoholic seed extract of Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f.  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Nymphaea nouchali seed locally prescribed as a diet for diabetes mellitus. Methods The antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of hydroalcoholic extract of the plant was assessed against 1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation using standard protocols. Total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins were also determined. Results Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, flavones, tannins, protein, reducing sugars, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids and steroids. The activities of plant extract against DPPH, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was concentration dependent with IC50 value of 42.82, 23.58 and 54.65 µg/mL respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was high with 577.73 mg vitamin E/g of the extract and showed a moderately high vitamin C content of 197.22 mg/g. The total tannin content of hydroalcoholic seed extract was high (195.84 GE/g), followed by phenolics (179.56 GE/g) and flavonoids (23.55 QE/g). Conclusion Our findings provide evidence that the crude extract of Nymphaea nouchali is a potential source of natural antioxidants and this justifies its use in folkloric medicine.

Parimala, Mabel; Shoba, Francis Gricilda

2013-01-01

357

In vitro and in vivo immunosuppressive activity of Spica Prunellae ethanol extract on the immune responses in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunosuppressive activity of the ethanol extract of Spica Prunellae (Prunella vulgaris fruiting spikes) (EESP) consisting of a mixture of triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins and polysaccharide was studied on the immune responses in mice. The effects of EESP on mice splenocyte proliferation in vitro were measured. EESP significantly suppressed concanavalin A (Con A)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in vitro in

Hong-Xiang Sun; Feng Qin; Yuan-Jiang Pan

2005-01-01

358

Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) on sexual behaviour of normal male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually

Tajuddin; Shamshad Ahmad; Abdul Latif; Iqbal Ahmad Qasmi

2004-01-01

359

Anti-listerial activity of ethanolic extracts of medicinal plants, Eremophila alternifolia and Eremophila duttonii, in food homogenates and milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen responsible for the disease listeriosis. Ethanolic extracts from two native Australian traditional medicinal plants, Eremophila alternifolia and Eremophila duttonii, have been found to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes. These plants were investigated for their ability to control the growth of L. monocytogenes in full cream milk and skim milk and in diluted homogenates

Roxanne J. Owen; Enzo A. Palombo

2007-01-01

360

Ethanolic extract of Crinum asiaticum attenuates hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress and protects hepatocytes in alloxan induced experimental diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is to investigate the antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The experimental rats were randomly divided into three groups: Group I: control; Group II: alloxan induced diabetic rats and Group III: alloxan induced diabetic rats were treated with ethanolic extract of Crinum asiaticum leaves (200mg\\/kg\\/bw). Diabetes mellitus was induced by alloxan in a single dose of

S. Indradevi; S. Ilavenil; B. Kaleeswaran; S. Srigopalram; S. Ravikumar

361

Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Salvadora oleoides in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective: To find out the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of an ethanolic extract of the aerial part of Salvadora oleoides Decne in euglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Normal as well as diabetic albino rats were divided into groups (n = 6) receiving different treatments: vehicle (control), ethanolic extract (1 g and 2 g/kg b.w), and standard antidiabetic drug tolbutamide (0.5 g/kg b.w.). Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and were analyzed for blood glucose and lipid profile on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: The ethanolic extract of S oleoides produced significant reduction (P < 0.001) in blood glucose and also had beneficial effects (P < 0.001) on the lipid profile in euglycemic as well as alloxan-induced diabetic rats at the end of the treatment period (21st day). However, the reduction in the blood glucose and improvement in lipid profile was less than that achieved with the standard drug tolbutamide. Conclusion: We concluded that an ethanolic extract of S oleoides is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and improves lipid profile in euglycemic as well as diabetic rats.

Yadav, J.P.; Saini, Sushila; Kalia, A.N.; Dangi, A.S.

2008-01-01

362

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata (EEVG) in a CCl4-induced liver damage model in rats; and to isolate and characterise the bioactive constituent from EEVG. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by changes in the levels of the serum enzymes viz. AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin, and further by

V. K. Sridevi; Hemendra S. Chouhan; Narendra K. Singh; Sushil K. Singh

2011-01-01

363

Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of the ethanol extract of Vitex glabrata (EEVG) in a CCl4-induced liver damage model in rats; and to isolate and characterise the bioactive constituent from EEVG. Hepatoprotective activity was evaluated by changes in the levels of the serum enzymes viz. AST, ALT, ALP and total bilirubin, and further by

V. K. Sridevi; Hemendra S. Chouhan; Narendra K. Singh; Sushil K. Singh

2012-01-01

364

Ethanolic extract of Rubia peregrina L. (Rubiaceae) inhibits haloperidol-induced catalepsy and reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the traditional Sardinian system of medicine, Rubia peregrina L. (Rubiaceae) is reported as an aphrodisiac herb. Since the aphrodisiacs may also have antioxidant and dopaminergic activities, the aim of this study was to study the effect of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of R. peregrina for the scavenging of free DPPH radicals and the inhibition of haloperidol-induced catalepsy in

Andrea Maxia; Maria Assunta Frau; Caterina Foddis; Maria Cristina Lancioni; Veena Kasture; Sanjay Kasture

2011-01-01

365

Ethanolic extract of Rubia peregrina L. (Rubiaceae) inhibits haloperidol-induced catalepsy and reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the traditional Sardinian system of medicine, Rubia peregrina L. (Rubiaceae) is reported as an aphrodisiac herb. Since the aphrodisiacs may also have antioxidant and dopaminergic activities, the aim of this study was to study the effect of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of R. peregrina for the scavenging of free DPPH radicals and the inhibition of haloperidol-induced catalepsy in

Andrea Maxia; Maria Assunta Frau; Caterina Foddis; Maria Cristina Lancioni; Veena Kasture; Sanjay Kasture

2012-01-01

366

Extractive bioconversion in aqueous two-phase systems. A model study on the conversion of cellulose to ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous two-phase systems composed of dextran and poly (ethylene glycol) have been successfully used for glucose fermentation, cellulose hydrolysis and bioconversion of cellulose to ethanol. The biocatalysts are confined in the bottom phase whereas the products are extracted by the top phase.

Bärbel Hahn-Hägerdal; Bo Mattiasson; Per-Åke Albertsson

1981-01-01

367

Spasmolytic Activity of the Ethanol Extract of Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr. on the Isolated Rat Ileum Contractions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr., known as “mountain tea,” has been widely used in the Mediterranean region as a spice and in folk medicine as a very popular decoction because of its anti-inflammatory, carminative, analgesic, antitussive, stomachic, and antimicrobial properties. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of S. raeseri on intestinal activity. Air-dried and powdered aerial parts were extracted with 96% ethanol. The rat ileum preparations were incubated in Tyrode's solution gassed (95% O2/5% CO2) at 37°C. The ethanol extract of S. raeseri (0.03–0.3?mg/mL) relaxed spontaneous contractions in isolated rat ileum, similar to that produced by papaverine. The plant extract in a concentration-dependent manner (0.015–0.15?mg/mL) significantly inhibited the contractile response to acetylcholine (P<.01). Atropine inhibited the response to acetylcholine. A similar relaxation-inducing effect of the S. raeseri extract was observed on the precontracted ileum by histamine and barium chloride. Plant extract (0.03–0.3?mg/mL) significantly shifted the histamine concentration–response curve to the right and down (P<.01). The S. raeseri extract (0.03–0.3?mg/mL) significantly inhibited the contractions induced by barium chloride (P<.01). The results show that the ethanol extract of S. raeseri can produce inhibition of the the spontaneous rat ileum contractions and contractions induced by different spasmogens. These data indicate that S. raeseri acts as a spasmolytic on intestinal smooth muscle, which justifies its use in gastrointestinal disorders.

Kitic, Dusanka; Radenkovic, Mirjana; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Jankovic, Teodora; Savikin, Katarina; Zdunic, Gordana

2011-01-01

368

EFFECT OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF FLOWERS OF VITEX TRIFOLIA LINN. ON CCl4 INDUCED HEPATIC INJURY IN RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of flowers of Vitex trifolia (Verbenaceae) was studied against CCl4 induced hepatic injury in albino rats. The plant extract (EVT) at the dose of 200 mg\\/kg, p.o. showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity. CCl4 induced a significant rise in serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin and gamma

RAMASAMY ANANDAN; BALASUNDARAM JAYAKAR; BIUSAN KARAR; SEEVALEN BABUJI; RAJAPPAN MANAVALAN; RAJU SENTHIL KUMAR

369

Aqueous two-phase extraction of 2,3-butanediol from fermentation broths using an ethanol\\/phosphate system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of 2,3-butanediol from the complex fermentation broths is a difficult task and becomes a bottleneck in industrial production. Aqueous two-phase systems composed of hydrophilic solvents and inorganic salts could be used to extract 2,3-butanediol from fermentation broths. Aqueous two-phase extraction of 2,3-butanediol from fermentation broths was studied by ethanol and dipotassium hydrogen phosphate system. The influences of phase composition

Bo Jiang; Zhi-Gang Li; Jian-Ying Dai; Dai-Jia Zhang; Zhi-Long Xiu

2009-01-01

370

Comparative Screening of Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. and Ethanolic Extract of Cleome gynandra Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The assesement of immunomodulatory activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. (75, 150 and 300 mg\\/kg, p.o.) and ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cleome gynandra Linn. (50, 100 and 200 mg\\/kg, p.o.) were done by carbon clearance method for non-specific immunity, haemagglutination antibody titre method for humoral immunity and footpad swelling method for

Kalpesh Gaur; M. L. Kori; R. K. Nema

371

Extractive acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using methylated crude palm oil as extractant in batch culture of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility of employing methylated crude palm oil (CPOE) as an extraction solvent to reduce end-product inhibition and to enhance solvent productivity in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was evaluated using oleyl alcohol as the standard butanol extractant. Fermentation was carried out at an initial glucose concentration of 90 g\\/l. CPOE did not inhibit the growth of the fermentative organism. Without solvent

Ayaaki Ishizaki; Shigeru Michiwaki; Edward Crabbe; Genta Kobayashi; Kenji Sonomoto; Sadazo Yoshino

1999-01-01

372

Matrix metalloproteinase-1 inhibitory activities of Morinda citrifolia seed extract and its constituents in UVA-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine whether a 50% ethanolic extract (MCS-ext) of the seeds of Morinda citrifolia (noni) and its constituents have matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory activity in UVA-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The MCS-ext (10 ?g/mL) inhibited MMP-1 secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, without cytotoxic effects, at 48 h after UV exposure. The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of MCS-ext was the most potent inhibitor of MMP-1 secretion. Among the constituents of the fraction, a lignan, 3,3'-bisdemethylpinoresinol (1), inhibited the MMP-1 secretion at a concentration of 0.3 ?M without cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, 1 (0.3 ?M) reduced the level of intracellular MMP-1 expression. Other constituents, namely americanin A (2), quercetin (3) and ursolic acid (4), were inactive. To elucidate inhibition mechanisms of MMP-1 expression and secretion, the effect of 1 on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) phosphorylation was examined. Western blot analysis revealed that 1 (0.3 ?M) reduced the phosphorylations of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that 1 suppresses intracellular MMP-1 expression, and consequent secretion from UVA-irradiated NHDFs, by down-regulation of MAPKs phosphorylation. PMID:22293351

Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Uwaya, Akemi; Isami, Fumiyuki; Matsuda, Hideaki

2012-01-01

373

Reduction of lipid accumulation in white adipose tissues by Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed extract is associated with AMPK activation.  

PubMed

Natural herbal medications may be one answer to the worldwide epidemic of obesity. This study examines the effects of Cassia seed ethanol extract (CSEE) upon lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT). CSEE exhibited a significant concentration-dependent decrease in the intracellular accumulation of trigycerides in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. After being fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 weeks, rats were fed CSEE (100, 200 or 300 mg/kg) once daily for 8 weeks. CSEE caused dose-related reductions in body weight gain (as well as plasma lipid levels and epididymal WAT sizes in HFD-fed rats). CSEE enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in epididymal WAT of HFD-fed rats. CSEE could attenuate lipid accumulation in WAT via AMPK signaling pathway activation. PMID:23122166

Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

2012-09-16

374

Gallic acid is the major component of grape seed extract that inhibits amyloid fibril formation.  

PubMed

Many protein misfolding diseases, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, are characterised by the accumulation of protein aggregates in an amyloid fibrillar form. Natural products which inhibit fibril formation are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In this study we have shown, using in vitro thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy, that grape seed extract inhibits fibril formation of kappa-casein (?-CN), a milk protein which forms amyloid fibrils spontaneously under physiological conditions. Among the components of grape seed extract, gallic acid was the most active component at inhibiting ?-CN fibril formation, by stabilizing ?-CN to prevent its aggregation. Concomitantly, gallic acid significantly reduced the toxicity of ?-CN to pheochromocytoma12 cells. Furthermore, gallic acid effectively inhibited fibril formation by the amyloid-beta peptide, the putative causative agent in Alzheimer's disease. It is concluded that the gallate moiety has the fibril-inhibitory activity. PMID:24157371

Liu, Yanqin; Pukala, Tara L; Musgrave, Ian F; Williams, Danielle M; Dehle, Francis C; Carver, John A

2013-10-01

375

Effects of grape seed extract on the oxidative and microbial stability of restructured mutton slices.  

PubMed

The antioxidant and antimicrobial efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) was studied in restructured mutton slices (RMS) under aerobic and vacuum packaging conditions during refrigerated storage. The RMS treated with grape seed extract (GSE) had significantly (P<0.05) lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values and free fatty acids (FFA) % compared to control (C) and butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) treated RMS during storage at 4±1°C. Addition of GSE significantly (P<0.05) reduced the total psychrophilic and coliform counts in RMS during refrigerated storage. The GSE treated mutton slices recorded significantly (P<0.05) superior scores of color, flavor, juiciness and overall palatability than C and BHA treated RMS. The TBARS values, FFA % and microbial counts increased significantly (P<0.05) during storage. It can be concluded that GSE has excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties compared to control and BHA treated RMS during refrigerated storage under aerobic and vacuum conditions. PMID:23743034

Reddy, G V Bhaskar; Sen, A R; Nair, Pramod N; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Reddy, K Kondal; Kondaiah, N

2013-04-13

376

Anti-diabetic activity of alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea Linn. seeds in rats.  

PubMed

Celosia argentea Linn. commonly known as "Cocks Comb" and its seeds are widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of an alcoholic extract of Celosia argentea seeds (ACAS) on blood glucose and body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. ACAS was found to reduce the increase of blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (27.8% at 250 mg/kg and 38.8% at 500 mg/kg body weight). Chronic administration of ACAS significantly (p<0.01) reduced the blood glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rats for two weeks. Also the extract prevented a decrease in body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These results suggest that the ACAS possesses anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. PMID:11995938

Vetrichelvan, Thangarasu; Jegadeesan, Maniappan; Devi, Bangaru Adigalar Uma

2002-04-01

377

Antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc: An in vitro study.  

PubMed

It is well known that the over production of reactive oxygen species is harmful for living organisms and it damages major cellular constituents such as DNA, protein, and lipid. At present, searching of new plant sources having free radical scavenging activity is an important field of research in phytomedicine as natural products are safe and relatively low cost. In this respect, attention has been focused to evaluate the antioxidant potential of hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc (Caesalpenacae) using different in vitro models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, extract was examined on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging effect, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging potential, and anti-lipid peroxidation activity by biochemical methods. Total phenol and flavonoids contents in the said extract were measured biochemically as per standard methods. Results were compared with butylated hydroxyl toluene and ?-tocopherol. Results indicated that hydro-methanolic extract has strong scavenging activity on 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical with IC(50) value 157.4 ?g/ml, hydroxyl radical with IC(50) value 61.9 ?g/ml and hydrogen peroxide with IC(50) value 64.32 ?g/ml. Hydro-methanolic extract also showed notable inhibition in lipid peroxidation having IC(50) value 58.87 ?g/ml. Phytochemical study focused that the extract is rich in phenolic compounds (24.66 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dried extract) and flavonoids (136.65 mg quercetin equivalent/g dried extract). Findings of the experiment indicated that the hydro-methanolic extract of seed of Caesalpinia bonduc is a source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22247894

Jana, Kishalay; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Ghosh, Abhinandan; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

2011-10-01

378

The phosphatides of safflower seeds involved in color formation occurring in extracted and heated crude oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on crude safflower oils have established that three phosphatides extracted with the oil from the kernel of the seed\\u000a are responsible for color formation. The phosphatides have been isolated and identified as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE),\\u000a phosphatidylmyoinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Phosphatidylethanolamine was the most potent contributor to color\\u000a formation, followed by phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. The color-forming compounds were separated from

H. J. Burkhardt

1970-01-01

379

Sunflower seed extract enhances the differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osteoporosis is recognised as one of the major hormonal deficiency diseases, especially in menopausal women and the elderly. The present study investigated whether treatment with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed extract (SSE) may affect the function of MC3T3-E1 osteogenic cells. In order to determine the growth and differentiation of osteoblast, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, collagen

Eun Mi Choi

2012-01-01

380

Effect of Grape Seed Extracts on the Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Corn Chips during Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effectiveness of grape seed extracts (GSE) on lipid oxidation of corn chips stored for 90 days in\\u000a comparison to tert-butylhydroxytoluene (BHT). Proximate chemical analysis results showed that corn chips contained low moisture contents (less\\u000a than 2%) and also that no significant differences were found in the dry matter values in ash, fat, protein, and fiber. Antioxidant\\u000a activity

Taha M. Rababah; Sevil Yücel; Khalil I. Ereifej; Mohammad N. Alhamad; Majdi A. Al-Mahasneh; Wade Yang; Khalid Ismaeal

2011-01-01

381

A fluorescence spectroscopic study of a coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fluorescence studies of coagulating protein extracted from Moringa oleifera seeds have been studied using steady-state intrinsic fluorescence. The fluorescence spectra are dominated by tryptophan emission and the emission peak maximum (?max=343±2nm) indicated that the tryptophan residue is not located in the hydrophobic core of the protein. Changes in solution pH affected the protein conformation as indicated by changes in

H. M. Kwaambwa; R. Maikokera

2007-01-01

382

Removal of sodium lauryl sulphate by coagulation\\/flocculation with Moringa oleifera seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among other natural flocculant\\/coagulant agents, Moringa oleifera seed extract ability to remove an anionic surfactant has been evaluated and it has been found to be very interesting. Sodium lauryl sulphate was removed from aqueous solutions up to 80% through coagulation\\/flocculation process. pH and temperature were found to be not very important factors in removal efficiency. Freundlich (F), Frumkin–Fowler–Guggenheim (FFG) and

J. Beltrán-Heredia; J. Sánchez-Martín

2009-01-01

383

Coagulation Mechanism of Salt Solution-Extracted Active Component in Moringa oleifera Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC–pc) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-pc tap water formed insoluble matters. This formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-pc was added into distilled water. The

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

384

Physiological and biochemical responses of grapefruit seed extract dip on ‘Redglobe’ grape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Redglobe) were immersed in 1gL?1 grapefruit seed extract (GSE) for 60s at 15°C and then stored at 2±1°C, and the related physiological effects were investigated. The results showed that GSE treatment lowered the respiration rate and ethylene evolution in the whole cluster. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) were increased and

Wen-Tao Xu; Xiao-li Peng; Yun-Bo Luo; Jin-ai Wang; Xing Guo; Kun-Lun Huang

2009-01-01

385

Evaluation of grapefruit seed extract as natural fungicide to control apple scab in organic apple growing  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-pro, an experimental fungicide based on grapefruit seed extract was compared to copper oxychloride for the control of apple scab in a field trial. Efficacy and possible phytotoxic effects where accessed. The C-pro formulation was analysed for possible chemical additives by HPTLC. C-pro proved tot be more effective in controlling apple scab then the standard rate of 300 gram copper

Marc Trapman

386

Mechanism of the endothelium-dependent relaxation evoked by a grape seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

GSEs (grape seed extracts) which contain polyphenolic compounds cause an endothelium- dependent relaxation of blood vessels. The aim of the present study was to examine the mech- anisms involved in this response. A well-characterized GSE was applied to rabbit aortic rings sus- pended in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit buffer maintained at 37 ?C. In aortic rings pre-contacted with noradrenaline (norepinephrine),

Indika Edirisinghe; Britt Burton-Freeman

2008-01-01

387

Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aegle marmelos Corr. (Rutaceae) is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos seeds was administered orally at different doses (100, 250 and 500mg\\/kg) to normal as well as sub (fasting blood glucose (FBG) normal; glucose tolerance abnormal) and mild (FBG 120–250mg\\/dl) diabetic rats. The dose of 250mg\\/kg was found

Achyut Narayan Kesari; Rajesh Kumar Gupta; Santosh Kumar Singh; Sandhya Diwakar; Geeta Watal

2006-01-01

388

Efficacy of neem seed extract shampoo on head lice of naturally infected humans in Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty heavily lice-infested male and female children (4–15 years) were selected and subjected to the treatment with a neem seed extract shampoo. Twenty to thirty milliliter of the shampoo were thoroughly mixed with completely wet hair and rubbed in to reach the skin of the scalp. After 5, 10, 15 and 30 min, the shampoo was washed out and the hair basically

Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar; Margit Semmler

2007-01-01

389

Haematopoietic properties of ethanolic extract of Ageratum conyzoides (goat weed) in albino rats.  

PubMed

The potential haematological effects associated with the administration of ethanolic leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides was investigated in rats. 27 rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group had 6 rats and served as control, the remaining 3 experimental groups and had 7 rats each. These later groups were gavaged with the extract of Ageratum conyzoides in concentrations of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively for 30 days at a dose of 0.1 ml/body weight. The control group was gavaged with 0.9% sodium chloride at a dose of 0.1 m1/body weight as placebo. The extract at the doses administered was found to increase in a dose-related fashion PCV and Hb ([P < 0.01] for 200 mg/kg and [P < 0.001] for 400 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), RBC ([P < 0.05] for 400 mg/Kg and 500 mg/kg) and marginal increases that were not significant for 200 mg/kg); MCH and MCV ([P < 0.05] and [P < 0.01] for 400 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg respectively) 200 mg/kg was not significant. MCHC recorded no significant change. WBC recorded marginal increases that were not significant, similarly, the differential white blood cell recorded marginal increases that were not significant, except lymphocytes that recorded significant increase in group 4 [P < 0.05]. Marginal decreases in body weight were also observed, these decreases were however not significant. The result of this study thus indicate haematopoietic potentials of the extract and could possibly remedy anaemia. PMID:18379624

Ita, S O; Etim, O E; Ben, E E; Ekpo, O F

390

Modulation of the antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance, cytotoxicity and antiviral actions of grape seed extracts.  

PubMed

Grape seed extracts (GSEs) were investigated in yeast cells harbouring defects in their antioxidant system (regarding the cellular growth and growth recovery from H2O2 insult). GSEs antioxidant activity was detected in wild-type and mutant strains ?cta1, ?gsh1 and ?oye2glr1, while pro-oxidant activity in ?sod1 cells was seen. Assessment of proliferation of prostate cancer PC3 and HBV-replicating HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs has shown higher cytotoxicity of red grape seed extract (RW) than white grape seed extract (WW) subjective to dose and period of administration. No antiviral effect was detected by measuring the secreted virion particles in HepG2 2.2.15 cells treated with GSEs. The GSEs play a dual antioxidant/pro-oxidant role in vivo according with the cellular antioxidant system deficiencies and exhibit cytotoxic properties in PC3 and HepG2 2.2.15 cell lines, but no antiviral action against HBV. PMID:23993573

Ignea, Codru?a; Doroban?u, Cristina Mihaela; Mintoff, Christopher Paul; Branza-Nichita, Norica; Ladomery, Michael R; Kefalas, Panagiotis; Chedea, Veronica Sanda

2013-06-29

391

Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5?mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200?mg/kg) was administered to rats 2?h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Gastric mucosal injuries were evaluated by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. In the acute toxicity study, no adverse effects of OSWE were observed at doses up to 2000?mg/kg/day. Administration of OSWE reduced the damage by conditioning the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury, which included hemorrhage, hyperemia, and loss of epithelial cells. The level of MDA was reduced in OSWE-treated groups compared with the ethanol-induced group. Moreover, the level of GSH and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were significantly increased in the OSWE-treated groups. Our findings suggest that OSWE has a protective effect on the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced acute gastric injury via the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes.

Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

2012-01-01

392

Assessment of the Anti-Protozoal Activity of Crude Carica papaya Seed Extract against Trypanosoma cruzi.  

PubMed

In order to determine the in vivo activity against the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, two doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) of a chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds were evaluated compared with a control group of allopurinol. The activity of a mixture of the three main compounds (oleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a proportion of 45.9% of oleic acid, 24.1% of palmitic and 8.52% of stearic acid previously identified in the crude extract of C. papaya was evaluated at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg. Both doses of the extracts were orally administered for 28 days. A significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of blood trypomastigotes was observed in animals treated with the evaluated doses of the C. papaya extract in comparison with the positive control group (allopurinol 8.5 mg/kg). Parasitemia in animals treated with the fatty acids mixture was also significantly reduced (p < 0.05), compared to negative control animals. These results demonstrate that the fatty acids identified in the seed extracts of C. papaya (from ripe fruit) are able to reduce the number of parasites from both parasite stages, blood trypomastigote and amastigote (intracellular stage). PMID:24126379

Jiménez-Coello, Matilde; Guzman-Marín, Eugenia; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Perez-Gutiérrez, Salud; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y

2013-10-11

393

Antibacterial efficacy of the seed extracts of Melia azedarach against some hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antibacterial potential of the polar and non-polar extracts of the seeds of Melia azedarach (M. azedarach) L. (Meliaceae) against eighteen hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains. Methods Petrol, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol, and aqueous extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were evaluated. Disk diffusion method was followed to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy. Results All extracts of the seeds demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract revealed the highest inhibition comparatively. The present study also favored the traditional uses reported earlier. Conclusions Results of this study strongly confirm that the seed extracts of M. azedarach could be effective antibiotics, both in controlling gram-positive and gram-negative human pathogenic infections.

Khan, Abdul Viqar; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin; Mir, M Ramzan; Shukla, Indu; Khan, Athar Ali

2011-01-01

394

The Effect of a Grape Seed Extract on Radiation-Induced DNA Damage in Human Lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant-derived antioxidants due to their phenolic compounds content are reported as potential candidates for reducing the levels of oxidative stress in living organisms. Grape seed extracts are very potent antioxidants and exhibit numerous interesting pharmacologic activities. Hydroethanolic (50/50, v/v) standardized extract was obtained from red grape seed (Vitis vinifera, variety Burgund Mare-BM). The total polyphenols content was evaluated by Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and expressed as ?Eq Gallic Acid/ml. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antioxidant effects of different concentrations of BM extract against 60Co ?-rays induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Samples of human lymphocytes were incubated with BM extract (12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml, respectively) administered at 30 minutes before in vitro irradiation with ?-rays (2 Gy). The DNA damage and repair in lymphocytes were evaluated using alkaline comet assay. Using the lesion score, the radiation-induced DNA damage was found to be significantly different (p<0.05) from control, both in the absence and presence of BM extract (except the lymphocytes treated with 37.5 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract). DNA repair analyzed by incubating the irradiated cells at 37° C and 5% CO2 atmosphere for 2 h, indicated a significant difference (p<0.05) in the lymphocytes group treated with 25.0 ?Eq GA/ml BM extract, immediately and two hours after irradiation. These results suggest radioprotective effects after treatment with BM extract in human lymphocytes.

Dicu, Tiberius; Postescu, Ion D.; Fori?, Vasile; Brie, Ioana; Fischer-Fodor, Eva; Cernea, Valentin; Moldovan, Mircea; Cosma, Constantin

2009-05-01

395

Grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera) partially reverses high fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-obesity effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplement in C57BL\\/6J mice. Thirty mice were divided into three groups; normal diet control group (ND), high fat diet control group (HD) and high fat diet plus grape seed extract supplemented group (HD+GSE). Results were as follows: 1. GSE supplement reduced the weight

Su-Hui Park; Tae-Sun Park; Youn-Soo Cha

2008-01-01

396

Interaction between a plant-derived smoke extract, light and phytohormones on the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-derived smoke extracts mimics the effect of red light on germination in light-sensitive lettuce seeds and partially overcomes the inhibitory effect of far-red light. Interaction between a smoke extract and gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethephon was investigated. Smoke acted synergistically with GA3 and increased the sensitivity of the lettuce seeds to ABA. It seems likely that smoke affects membrane

J. Staden; A. K. Jäger; A. Strydom

1995-01-01

397

Some physico-chemical properties of Moringa oleifera seed oil extracted using solvent and aqueous enzymatic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physico-chemical properties of oil from Moringa oleifera seed were determined following extraction either with petroleum ether or 2% Neutrase 0.8L (a neutral bacterial protease from Bacillus amyloiquefaciens, Novozyme Bagsvaerd Denmark). The enzyme was chosen following a preliminary study conducted on the enzymatic extraction of M. oleifera seed oil using four commercial enzymes that showed Neutrase to be the best

S. M. Abdulkarim; K. Long; O. M. Lai; S. K. S. Muhammad; H. M. Ghazali

2005-01-01

398

Antidepressant-like activity of n-hexane extract of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) seeds in mice.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of an n-hexane extract of Myristica fragrans seeds on depression in mice by using the forced swim test (FST) and the tail suspension test (TST). M. fragrans extract (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) was administered orally for 3 successive days to different groups of Swiss male young albino mice. M. fragrans extract significantly decreased immobility periods of mice in both the FST and the TST. The 10 mg/kg dose was found to be most potent, as indicated by the greatest decrease in the immobility period compared with the control. Furthermore, this dose of the extract was found to have comparable potency to imipramine (15 mg/kg i.p.) and fluoxetine (20 mg/kg i.p.). The extract did not have a significant effect on locomotor activity of mice. Prazosin (62.5 microg/kg i.p.; an alpha (1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (50 mg/kg i.p.; a selective D(2) receptor antagonist), and p-chlorophenylalanine (100 mg/kg i.p.; an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis) significantly attenuated the M. fragrans extract-induced antidepressant-like effect in the TST. Thus, extract of M. fragrans elicited a significant antidepressant-like effect in mice, when assessed in both the TST and the FST. The antidepressant-like effect of the extract seems to be mediated by interaction with the adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems. PMID:16579733

Dhingra, Dinesh; Sharma, Amandeep

2006-01-01

399

Effects of the serjania erecta and zeyheria montana ethanol extracts in experimental pulpitis in rats: A histological study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by the semi-quantitative histological analysis, the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extracts of Serjania erecta e Zeyheria Montana, in experimental pulpits in rats. Study Design: In order to induce pulp inflammation, cavities were performed on the occlusal surface of the mandibular first molars of 45 male rats, without pulp exposure. The animals were distributed into 4 groups: GI, teeth without cavities; GII, single dose of saline solution via intraperitoneal (IP); GIII, single dose (IP) of 300mg/Kg of ethanolic extract of Zeyheria montana; GIV, single dose (IP) of 300mg/Kg of ethanolic extract of Serjania erecta. After 6, 12 and 24 hours, 5 animals of each group were killed by anesthetic overdose. The histological analyses of the pulp tissue were performed and the data analyzed by Dunn´s multiple test, at significance of 5%. Results: After 12 h, the GIII presented score statistically lower (p<0.05) than positive control group. After 24 h, GIII presented inflammatory index statistically lower than the positive control (p<0.01) and Serjania erecta (p<0.05) groups. Conclusion: The Zeyheria montana extract presented better anti-inflammatory activity than positive control group and Serjania erecta extract, which did not show anti-inflammatory effect in the analyzed periods. Key words:Anti-inflammatory effect, experimental pulpitis, histological analysis, phytotherapy, rats.

Nossa, Patricia M.; Guenka, Leandro C.; Couto, Lucelio B.

2013-01-01

400

Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products. PMID:20140296

Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

2010-01-29

401

Inhibition of seed germination by extracts of bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin, a feeding stimulant for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).  

PubMed

Cucurbitacins are feeding stimulants for corn rootworm used in baits to control the adults of this insect pest. Corn rootworm larvae also feed compulsively on cucurbitacins. Cucurbitacins are reported to be gibberellin antagonists that may preclude their use as seed treatments for these soil-dwelling insects. The crude extract of a bitter Hawkesbury watermelon containing cucurbitacin E-glycoside significantly inhibited germination of watermelon, squash, and tomato seeds. Although the germination of corn seed was not significantly inhibited, root elongation was inhibited by crude extracts, but not by high-performance liquid chromatography-purified cucurbitacin E-glycoside. Therefore, the effects of the major components in the bitter watermelon extract (e.g., sugars) on seed germination and root elongation were determined. Pure sugars (glucose and fructose), at concentrations found in watermelon extract, mimicked the inhibition of seed germination and root elongation seen with the crude bitter Hawkesbury watermelon extract. Removal of these sugars may be necessary to use this extract as a bait for corn rootworm larvae as a seed or root treatment. PMID:14994812

Martin, Phyllis A W; Blackburn, Michael

2003-04-01

402

Hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extract and crude isolates of Murraya koenigii against in vitro ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity model.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants constitute a principal health care resource corroborating their gradual acceptance by the global population. The ethno medicinal plant, Murraya koeniggi (Curry-leaf tree) as is native to India exhibits diverse biological activities. Unpublished data from our laboratory revealed hepatoprotective activity of its crude aqueous extract against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animals. Chronic ethanol consumption diminishes the cellular antioxidant levels through free radical induced injury causing hepatitis and cirrhosis with mortality in severe cases. This provided a rationale for studying its mechanistic approaches in terms of modulation of antioxidant defenses for probable hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in vitro. Based on the inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) obtained from the cell viability assay, graded concentrations of 100 ?g/ml and 500 ?g/ml of aqueous extract (WE), isolated carbazole alkaloids (CA) and tannin (T) fraction were chosen to study the hepatoprotective activity against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity using liver carcinoma cell lines (Hep G(2)). Their antioxidant activity with anti-lipid peroxidation potential (LPO), effects on protein content, liver metabolizing enzymes viz., glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the morphology of the cells were studied as parameters of hepatoprotection. The tannins and the carbazole alkaloids from the aqueous extract exhibited excellent hepatoprotective activity with respect to the different parameters studied and maintained normal morphology even after ethanolic challenge to the cells as comparable to the protection offered by the standard drug L-ornithine L-aspartate (LOLA). The modulating effect of the aqueous extract and isolates on liver metabolizing enzymes, reduction in lipid peroxidation and decreased cellular damage were found to contribute to the hepatoprotective activity. PMID:20488686

Sathaye, Sadhana; Bagul, Yogita; Gupta, Sanjay; Kaur, Harpreet; Redkar, Roopali

2010-05-20

403

Anti-tumor potential of ethanol extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton against breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton is a commonly prescribed Chinese medical herb for tumor therapy. In this study, an extract of Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton referred as Cpv was prepared and its anti-tumor effect was evaluated with MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton power was extracted with ethanol and the main components of the extract (Cpv) were analyzed with HPLC. The effect of Cpv on MCF-7 cells proliferation, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), apoptosis, apoptotic related proteins, MDA-MB-231 cell migration, and integrins expression were determined. Furthermore, the effect of Cpv on some key signal transduction molecules was also investigated. Furanodienone, germacrone and furanodiene were identified as the main components of Cpv. Cpv treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, increased LDH release, induced intracellular ROS formation, and decreased ??m in a dose-dependent manner in MCF-7 cells. Cpv induced apoptosis without affecting cell migration. Cpv increased protein expression of Bax, PARP, cleaved PARP, caspase-3, 7, JNK1, p-p42/44MAPK, NF-?B, IKK?, IKK?, decreased protein expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bim, Bik, Bad, integrin ?5, p42/44MAPK without affecting integrin ?5, ?1, and p38MAPK protein expression. We concluded that Cpv inhibited MCF-7 cells proliferation by inducing apoptosis mediated by increasing ROS formation, decreasing ??m, regulating Bcl-2 family proteins expression, and activating caspases. Cpv treatment also modulated several signaling transduction pathways. These results might provide some molecular basis for the anti-tumor activity of Curcuma phaeocaulis Valeton. PMID:21795032

Chen, Xiuping; Pei, Lixia; Zhong, Zhangfeng; Guo, Jiajie; Zhang, Qingwen; Wang, Yitao

2011-07-26

404

The antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of dietary phenolic extracts from horse gram ( Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total phenolics and the antioxidative properties of two varieties of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) were studied. The raw and dry-heated seed samples were extracted successively with methanol and 70% acetone separately. After removing the solvents, the extracts were freeze-dried. The black seeds contained relatively high levels of total phenolics and tannins than the brown seeds with respect to the treatments

Perumal Siddhuraju; Sellamuthu Manian

2007-01-01

405

Hypoglycemic and antidiabetic activities on the stem bark aqueous and ethanol extracts of Musanga cecropioides in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily oral administration of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Musanga cecropioides stem bark in normal and diabetic rats at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg\\/kg\\/day , for 14 days significantly lowered the fasting plasma glucose levels in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats in dose-dependent fashion. The ethanol extract induced more significant antidiabetic effect than the aqueous extract.

A. A. Adeneye; O. P. Ajagbonna; O. W. Ayodele

2007-01-01

406

Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats.  

PubMed

Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly attenuated the elevated serum total cholesterol and triglycerides with an increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in high-fat diet- induced hyperlipidaemic rats. The standard drugs atorvastatin in the former and gemfibrozil in the latter studies showed slightly better effects. PMID:19405383

Vijaya, C; Ramanathan, M; Suresh, B

2009-03-01

407

Identification and quantitative determination of carbohydrates in ethanolic extracts of two conifers using 13C NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

We developed a method for the direct identification and quantification of carbohydrates in raw vegetable extracts using (13)C NMR spectroscopy without any preliminary step of precipitation or reduction of the components. This method has been validated (accuracy, precision and response linearity) using pure compounds and artificial mixtures before being applied to authentic ethanolic extracts of pine needles, pine wood and pine cones and fir twigs. We determined that carbohydrates represented from 15% to 35% of the crude extracts in which pinitol was the principal constituent accompanied by arabinitol, mannitol, glucose and fructose. PMID:18299126

Duquesnoy, Emilie; Castola, Vincent; Casanova, Joseph

2008-01-12

408

Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity  

PubMed Central

Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract.

Akter, A.; Neela, F. A.; Khan, M. S. I.; Islam, M. S.; Alam, M. F.

2010-01-01

409

Screening of Ethanol, Petroleum Ether and Chloroform Extracts of Medicinal Plants, Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. for Antibacterial Activity.  

PubMed

Organic extracts (ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform) of two medicinal plants Lawsonia inermis L. and Mimosa pudica L. were proven for antibacterial properties against 15 Gram-positive and Gram-negative human pathogenic bacteria. Among the three types of extracts tested, ethanol extract was found to possess maximum antibacterial activity. The diameter of the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth showed that Gram-negative bacteria are more sensitive than Gram-positive bacteria to plant extracts. Between the two plants species studied, Lawsonia inermis extract showed more antibacterial activity compared to Mimosa pudica extract. PMID:21188055

Akter, A; Neela, F A; Khan, M S I; Islam, M S; Alam, M F

2010-05-01

410

Fast microwave-assisted extraction of rotenone for its quantification in seeds of yam bean (Pachyrhizus sp.).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to find if fast microwave-assisted extraction could be an alternative to the conventional Soxhlet extraction for the quantification of rotenone in yam bean seeds by SPE and HPLC-UV. For this purpose, an experimental design was used to determine the optimal conditions of the microwave extraction. Then the values of the quantification on three accessions from two different species of yam bean seeds were compared using the two different kinds of extraction. A microwave extraction of 11 min at 55°C using methanol/dichloromethane (50:50) allowed rotenone extraction either equivalently or more efficiently than the 8-h-Soxhlet extraction method and was less sensitive to moisture content. The selectivity, precision, trueness, accuracy, and limit of quantification of the method with microwave extraction were also demonstrated. PMID:23341347

Lautié, Emmanuelle; Rasse, Catherine; Rozet, Eric; Mourgues, Claire; Vanhelleputte, Jean-Paul; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

2013-01-22

411

Phytochemical screening and free radical scavenging activity of Citrullus colocynthis seeds extracts  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the phytochemical screening of different extracts from Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis ) seeds extracts and to assess their antioxidant activity on the DPPH free radical scavenging. Methods Phytochemical screening, total content of polyphenols and flavonoids of C. colocynthis seeds extracts, including a crude aqueous extract (E1), a defatted aqueous extract (E2), a hydromethanolic extract (HM), an ethyl acetate extract (EA) and a n-butanol extract (n-B) was carried out according to the standard methods and to assess their corresponding effect on the antioxidant activity of this plant. Results None of these extracts contained detectable amount of alkaloid, quinone, antraquinone, or reducing sugar. Catechic tannins and flavonoids were abundant in E1, HM and EA, whilst terpenoids were abundantly present in E1 and n-B but only weekly in HM. Coumarins were found in E2, EA and n-B. Polyphenols, expressed as gallic acid equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter, to 329, 1002 and 150 mg in EA, HM an E1 respectively. Flavonoids, expressed as catechin equivalent, amounted, per 100 g plant matter to 620, 241 and 94 mg in EA, HM and E1 respectively. Comparable values were found in n-B and E1, with lower values in E2. Quercetin, myricetin and gallic acid were found in the EA and HM extracts by thin layer chromatography, The antioxidative effect of these extracts yielded, when tested at a concentration of 2?000 µg/mL in a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, a reducing percentage of 88.8% with EA, 74.5% with HM and 66.2% with E1, and corresponding IC50 of 350, 580 and 500 µg/mL as compared to 1.1 µg/mL for ascorbic acid. Conclusions These qualitative and quantitative analytical data document the presence in C. colocynthis extracts of such chemical compounds as flavonoids responsible for the antioxidant activity, as well as other biological activities of this plant.

Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Bellakhdar, Wafaa; Belkacem, Nacera; Kadiata, Marcel; Malaisse, Willy J.; Sener, Abdullah

2013-01-01

412

Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extract under drought.  

PubMed

This research evaluated the effect of drought on total and individual polyphenol contents as well as the antioxidant activities of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds of 2 geographic origins, Tunisia (TCS) and India (ICS). Plants were treated with different levels of water deficit: control. Our results indicated that, in both varieties, moderate water deficit (MWD) improved the number of umbels per plant as well as the number of umbellets per umbel and the seed yield, in comparison to the control, but it decreased under severe water deficit (SWD). Besides, total phenolic contents were higher in the treated seeds and drought increased the level of total and individual polyphenols. This increase was appreciably more important in TCS than in ICS. Moreover, antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by 4 different test systems, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ?-carotene/linoleic acid chelating, and reducing power assays, and showed that treated seeds exhibited the highest activity, for both TCS and ICS. PMID:22671525

Rebey, Iness Bettaieb; Zakhama, Nesrine; Karoui, Iness Jabri; Marzouk, Brahim

2012-06-01

413

Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.  

PubMed

Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected. PMID:23202603

Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

2012-12-01

414

Insulinotropic action of Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts in rat pancreatic islets.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the direct in vitro effects of several distinct Citrullus colocynthis seed extracts on glucose-stimulated insulin release from pancreatic islets isolated from rats. Six extracts were tested, a crude aqueous, defatted aqueous, ethyl acetate, H2O-methanol and n-butanol extract and an extract containing a major component (fraction A) identified by gel chromatography in the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and H2O-methanol extracts. Under selected experimental conditions, the majority of extracts exhibited a positive insulinotropic action, at least when tested in the presence of 8.3 mM D-glucose. The concentration-response correlation observed with distinct extracts revealed the participation of distinct chemical compounds, including compounds with an inhibitory insulinotropic potential, in the modulation of the insulin secretory response to D-glucose. The results of the present study are relevant for further investigations which aim to identify compounds exhibiting positive insulinotropic actions. These agents may be suitable for the treatment of human diabetic subjects. PMID:23128986

Benariba, Nabila; Djaziri, Rabeh; Hupkens, Emeline; Louchami, Karim; Malaisse, Willy J; Sener, Abdullah

2012-10-24

415

Relative toxicity of neem fruit, bitter gourd, and castor seed extracts against the larvae of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Say)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search of a natural larvicide, petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, and methanol extracts of Azadirachta indica fruits and seed extracts of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and castor (Ricinus communis) were tested for larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, the methanol extract of Az. indica was observed the most potent with LC50 at 74.04 and 58.52 ppm and LC?90

Lata Batabyal; Preeti Sharma; Lalit Mohan; Prejwltta Maurya; C. N. Srivastava

2009-01-01

416

Effects of Extraction Solvents and Provenances on Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Cumin ( Cuminum cyminum L.) Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol contents and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging activity of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed extracts were compared depending on their geographical origin (Tunisia and India: TCS and ICS, respectively) and\\u000a the extraction solvent polarity. The ?-carotene bleaching assay, the chelating ability and the reducing power of the most\\u000a promising solvent extracts were also assessed. In addition, TCS and ICS extracts

Iness Bettaieb Rebey; Soumaya Bourgou; Imen Ben Slimen Debez; Iness Jabri Karoui; Ibtissem Hamrouni Sellami; Kamel Msaada; Ferid Limam; Brahim Marzouk

417

Improvement of the efficacy of influenza vaccination (H5N1) in chicken by using extract of Cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS).  

PubMed

Seeds of a Chinese traditional medicine plant, Cochinchina momordica were used in the present study for the improvement of influenza vaccine (H5N1) in chicken. Crude extraction from Cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS) was obtained by ethanol extraction method. In experiment No. 1, two weeks old chickens were immunized with influenza vaccine (H5N1) alone or combined with ECMS (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 microg/dose). Serum IgG antibody levels (by ELISA) as well as effects on daily weight gain were measured on 0, 7, 14 and 28th day after immunization. Results revealed that all ECMS groups numerically increased the antibody levels while 10 and 20 microg/dose groups significantly (P<0.05) enhanced total IgG antibody on day 28, when compared with control. Average daily weight gain was also significantly higher in 20 microg/dose ECMS group. Adjuvant effect was also confirmed in experiment No. 2 when chickens were immunized with 20 microg/dose ECMS and antibody titer was measured through hemagglutination inhibition (HI). It is concluded that ECMS has potential to improve the immune responses and deserve further study as an adjuvant. PMID:17542061

Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Xiao, Chen-wen; Hu, Song-hua; Arijo, Abdullah G; Soomro, Noor Mohammad

2007-05-01

418

Improvement of the efficacy of influenza vaccination (H5N1) in chicken by using extract of Cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS)*  

PubMed Central

Seeds of a Chinese traditional medicine plant, Cochinchina momordica were used in the present study for the improvement of influenza vaccine (H5N1) in chicken. Crude extraction from Cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS) was obtained by ethanol extraction method. In experiment No. 1, two weeks old chickens were immunized with influenza vaccine (H5N1) alone or combined with ECMS (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ?g/dose). Serum IgG antibody levels (by ELISA) as well as effects on daily weight gain were measured on 0, 7, 14 and 28th day after immunization. Results revealed that all ECMS groups numerically increased the antibody levels while 10 and 20 ?g/dose groups significantly (P<0.05) enhanced total IgG antibody on day 28, when compared with control. Average daily weight gain was also significantly higher in 20 ?g/dose ECMS group. Adjuvant effect was also confirmed in experiment No. 2 when chickens were immunized with 20 ?g/dose ECMS and antibody titer was measured through hemagglutination inhibition (HI). It is concluded that ECMS has potential to improve the immune responses and deserve further study as an adjuvant.

Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Xiao, Chen-wen; Hu, Song-hua; Arijo, Abdullah G.; Soomro, Noor Mohammad

2007-01-01

419

Extraction of nutraceuticals from milk thistle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds from milk thistle (Silybum marianum Gaert L.) contain flavanolignan and dihydroflavanol compounds that have interesting and important therapeutic activities.\\u000a The recovery of these silymarin compounds generally involves a two-step defatting and extraction process using organic solvents.\\u000a This study examined the batch, single-stage extraction of whole and defatted seeds using ethanol, methanol, acetonitrile,\\u000a and acetone as the solvents. In extracting

Sunny N. Wallace; Danielle Julie Carrier; Edgar C. Clausen

2003-01-01

420

Extraction and purification of human interleukin-10 from transgenic rice seeds.  

PubMed

Recombinant protein production system using transgenic rice grain offers many advantages in higher accumulation, preservation, lower production cost, ease of scale up and low risk of contamination by toxic materials. We developed a transgenic rice strain whose seeds accumulate human interleukin (IL)-10, a cytokine that suppresses inflammation-related immune responses. We also developed a method of extracting and purifying IL-10 from rice seeds. A biochemical crosslinking method was used to detect the biologically active noncovalent dimer of IL-10. This method was useful for developing efficient methods of refolding and purification. The purified IL-10 comprised only noncovalent dimers and showed higher activity than the commercial IL-10. The purified IL-10 had very low endotoxin contamination and is expected to have broad clinical application. PMID:20159041

Fujiwara, Yoshihiro; Aiki, Yasuhiko; Yang, Lijun; Takaiwa, Fumio; Kosaka, Akemi; Tsuji, Noriko M; Shiraki, Kentaro; Sekikawa, Kenji

2010-02-14

421

[Survey of synthetic disinfectants in grapefruit seed extract and its compounded products].  

PubMed

Grapefruit seed extract (GSE), derived from the seeds of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MCAF.), is listed as a natural food additive in Japan. Products containing GSE are used as disinfectants made from only natural sources, especially after Japanese researchers found that GSE prevents the growth of norovirus. On the other hand, recent overseas studies indicated that synthetic disinfectants, such as benzalkonium and benzethonium chlorides, were present in some commercial GSE products. To confirm the quality of commercial GSE products available in Japanese markets, we carried out comprehensive research to identify the major constituents of commercial GSE products which are used as food additives (13 products from 6 manufacturers), dietary supplements (5 products from 4 manufacturers), cosmetic materials (16 products from 10 manufacturers) and disinfectant or deodorant sprays (7 products from 7 manufacturers). By means of NMR and LC/MS analysis, synthetic disinfectants such as benzethonium or benzalkonium salts were detected in most of the commercial GSE products. PMID:18344660

Sugimoto, Naoki; Tada, Atsuko; Kuroyanagi, Masanori; Yoneda, Yuko; Yun, Young Sook; Kunugi, Akira; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Ken-Ichi

2008-02-01

422

Optimized H- extraction in an argon magnesium seeded magnetized sheet plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enhancement and optimization of H- extraction through argon and magnesium seeding of hydrogen discharges in a magnetized sheet plasma source are reported. The paper first presents the modification of the production chamber into a hexapole multicusp configuration resulting in decreased power requirements, improved plasma confinement and longer filament lifetime. By this, a wider choice of discharge currents for sustained quiescent plasmas is made possible. Second, the method of adding argon to the hydrogen plasma similar to the scheme in Abate and Ramos [Y. Abate, H. Ramos, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 (10) (2000) 3689] was performed to find the optimum conditions for H- formation and extraction. Using an E × B probe, H- yields were investigated at varied argon hydrogen admixtures, different discharge currents and spatial points relative to the core plasma. The optimum H- current density extracted at 3.0 cm from the plasma core using 3.0 A plasma current with 10% argon seeding increased by a factor of 2.42 (0.63 A/m2) compared to the measurement of Abate and Ramos [Y. Abate, H. Ramos, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71 (10) (2000) 3689]. Third, the argon hydrogen plasma at the extraction chamber is seeded with magnesium. Mg disk with an effective area of 22 cm2 is placed at the extraction region’s anode biased 175 V with respect to the cathode. With Mg seeding, the optimum H- current density at the same site and discharge conditions increased by 4.9 times (3.09 A/m2). The enhancement effects were analyzed vis-à-vis information gathered from the usual Langmuir probe (electron temperature and density), electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and the ensuing dissociative attachment (DA) reaction rates at different spatial points for various plasma discharges and gas ratios. Investigations on the changes in the effective electron temperature and electron density indicate that the enhancement is due to increased density of low-energy electrons in the volume, conducive for DA reactions. With Mg, the density of electrons with electron temperature of about 3 eV increased 3 orders of magnitude from 2.76 × 1012 m-3 to 2.90 × 1015 m-3.

Noguera, Virginia R.; Blantocas, Gene Q.; Ramos, Henry J.

2008-06-01

423

Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats.  

PubMed

The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 +/- 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group) after oral administration of polar (PF) and non-polar (NPF) fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek) seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35 degrees C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05) in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 +/- 0.33 and 4.67 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 +/- 1.67 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 +/- 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 +/- 0.40 and 1.80 +/- 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 +/- 7.02) and follicles in various stages (I-VII) of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05) the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 +/- 5.93 and 1.00 +/- 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 +/- 0.88 and 5.33 +/- 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF) and dharek (13.00 +/- 3.58 and 14.60 +/- 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF) treatments compared to control (216.00 +/- 15.72 and 222.20 +/- 19.52, respectively). Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of follicles. This may help elevate the socio-economic status of the country. Thus, the present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of A. indica and M. azedarach seed extracts on reproduction of albino rats. PMID:15933789

Roop, J K; Dhaliwal, P K; Guraya, S S

2005-06-01

424

Longan seed extract reduces hyperuricemia via modulating urate transporters and suppressing xanthine oxidase activity.  

PubMed

Hyperuricemia causes gouty arthritis, kidney disease, heart disease, and other diseases. Xanthine oxidase (XOD) and urate transporters play important roles in urate homeostasis. Numerous plants have been identified as XOD inhibitors. Longan seeds are known to contain high levels of polyphenols such as corilagin, gallic acid and ellagic acid. We examined the effect of longan seed extract on XOD inhibition and urate transporters GLUT1 and GLUT9 using both in vitro and in vivo assays. The results showed that dried longan seed extract (LSE) and its active components inhibited XOD dose-dependently in vitro. LSE inhibited uric acid production and XOD activity in normal liver cells (clone-9 cells) and was not cytotoxic under the concentration of 200 ?g/ml. For the in vivo study, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given intraperitoneally for thirty minutes with or without allopurinol (a XOD inhibitor, 3.5 mg/kg) or LSE (80 mg/kg) and then injected intraperitioneally with 250 mg/kg of oxonic acid and 300 mg/kg of hypoxanthine intragastrically. LSE was able to reduce serum uric acid level and XOD activity in hyperuricemic rats. However, LSE or allopurinol did not inhibit the liver XOD activities. On the other hand, GLUT1 protein was suppressed in kidney and GLUT9 was induced in liver from experimental rats and LSE or allopurinol decreased GLUT9 but increased GLUT1 protein level in the liver and kidney, respectively. These results confirmed the claimed effect of longan seeds on gout and other complications and suggested that its urate reducing effect might be due to modulation of urate transporters and inhibition of circulating xanthine oxidase. PMID:22928829

Hou, Chien-Wei; Lee, Ying-Chung; Hung, Hsiao-Fang; Fu, Hua-Wen; Jeng, Kee-Ching

2012-01-01

425

LC-MS N-alkylamide profiling of an ethanolic Anacyclus pyrethrum root extract.  

PubMed

An N-alkylamide profiling from an ethanolic Anacyclus pyrethrum DC. root extract was performed using a gradient reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography/UV/electrospray-ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/UV/ESI-MS) method on an embedded polar column. MS1 and MS2 fragmentation data were used for identification purposes while UV was used for quantification. Thirteen N-alkylamides (five N-isobutylamides, three N-methyl isobutylamides, four tyramides and one 2-phenylethylamide) were detected. Six of them, identified as undeca-2E,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide, undeca-2E,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid N-methyl isobutylamide, tetradeca-2E,4E-diene-8,10-diynoic acid tyramide, deca-2E,4E-dienoic acid N-methyl isobutylamide, tetradeca-2E,4E,XE/Z-trienoic acid tyramide and tetradeca-2E,4E,XE/Z,YE/Z-tetraenoic isobutylamide, are novel compounds which have never been reported before from Anacyclus pyrethrum. PMID:23047251

Boonen, Jente; Sharma, Vikas; Dixit, Vinod Kumar; Burvenich, Christian; De Spiegeleer, Bart

2012-10-09

426

Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on Relaxation in Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle.  

PubMed

Aims of study. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (ESB) relaxes penile corpus cavernosum muscle in organ bath experiments. Materials and methods. Changes in tension of cavernous smooth muscle strips were determined by penile strip chamber model and in penile perfusion model. Isolated endothelium-intact rabbit corpus cavernosum was precontracted with phenylephrine (PE) and then treated with ESB. Results. ESB relaxed penile smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner, and this was inhibited by pre-treatment with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, and 1H-[1, 2, 4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-?]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. ESB-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA), a nonselective K(+) channel blocker, and charybdotoxin, a selective Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channel inhibitor. ESB increased the cGMP levels of rabbit corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner without changes in cAMP levels. In a perfusion model of penile tissue, ESB also relaxed penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion. Taken together, these results suggest that ESB relaxed rabbit cavernous smooth muscle via the NO/cGMP system and Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channels in the corpus cavernosum. PMID:22235229

Li, Xiang; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Son, Su Bin; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

2011-12-22

427

Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on Relaxation in Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle  

PubMed Central

Aims of study. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (ESB) relaxes penile corpus cavernosum muscle in organ bath experiments. Materials and methods. Changes in tension of cavernous smooth muscle strips were determined by penile strip chamber model and in penile perfusion model. Isolated endothelium-intact rabbit corpus cavernosum was precontracted with phenylephrine (PE) and then treated with ESB. Results. ESB relaxed penile smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner, and this was inhibited by pre-treatment with NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, and 1H-[1, 2, 4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-?]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. ESB-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA), a nonselective K+ channel blocker, and charybdotoxin, a selective Ca2+-dependent K+ channel inhibitor. ESB increased the cGMP levels of rabbit corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner without changes in cAMP levels. In a perfusion model of penile tissue, ESB also relaxed penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion. Taken together, these results suggest that ESB relaxed rabbit cavernous smooth muscle via the NO/cGMP system and Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels in the corpus cavernosum.

Li, Xiang; Oh, Hyun Cheol; Son, Su Bin; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

2012-01-01

428

Ethanol Extract of Chinese Propolis Facilitates Functional Recovery of Locomotor Activity after Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

An ethanol extract of Chinese propolis (EECP) was given intraperitoneally to rats suffering from hemitransection of half of their spinal cord (left side) at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebra to examine the effects of the EECP on the functional recovery of locomotor activity and expression of mRNAs of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and neurotrophic factors in the injury site. Daily administration of EECP after the spinal cord injury ameliorated the locomotor function, which effect was accompanied by a reduced lesion size. Furthermore, the EECP suppressed iNOS gene expression, thus reducing NO generation, and also increased the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNAs in the lesion site, suggesting that the EECP reduced the inflammatory and apoptotic circumstances through attenuation of iNOS mRNA expression and facilitation of mRNA expression of neurotrophins in the injured spinal cord. These results suggest that Chinese propolis may become a promising tool for wide use in the nervous system for reducing the secondary neuronal damage following primary physical injury.

Kasai, Masaki; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi; Soumiya, Hitomi; Furukawa, Shoei

2011-01-01

429

Ethanol extract of chinese propolis facilitates functional recovery of locomotor activity after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

An ethanol extract of Chinese propolis (EECP) was given intraperitoneally to rats suffering from hemitransection of half of their spinal cord (left side) at the level of the 10th thoracic vertebra to examine the effects of the EECP on the functional recovery of locomotor activity and expression of mRNAs of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and neurotrophic factors in the injury site. Daily administration of EECP after the spinal cord injury ameliorated the locomotor function, which effect was accompanied by a reduced lesion size. Furthermore, the EECP suppressed iNOS gene expression, thus reducing NO generation, and also increased the expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 mRNAs in the lesion site, sugges