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1

Antitumor activity of an ethanol extract of Nigella sativa seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of ethanol extract of Nigella sativa L. on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT), mitotic index, labeling index and on the life span of tumor bear- ing mice were studied. The results from treated animals showed a decrease in viable cell count, an increase in the life span of EAT bearing mice and an increase in the glutathione

Daoud Musa; Nihat Dilsiz; Muharrem Bitiren

2

Antipsoriatic activity and cytotoxicity of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds  

PubMed Central

Background: Nigella sativa Linn (Ranunculaceae) is popularly known as black cumin with a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihelmenthic. The seeds are externally applied for eruptions of skin. The seeds are used traditionally for psoriasis tropicus with general pain and eruption of patches. Objective: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds were evaluated for antipsoriatic activity. Materials and Methods: The screening of antipsoriatic activity of 95% of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds by using mouse tail model for psoriasis and in vitro antipsoriatic activity was carried out by SRB Assay using HaCaT human keratinocyte cell lines. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds extract produced a significant epidermal differentiation, from its degree of orthokeratosis (71.36±2.64) when compared to the negative control (17.30±4.09%). This was equivalent to the effect of the standard positive control, tazarotene (0.1%) gel, which showed a (90.03±2.00%) degree of orthokeratosis. The 95% ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa shown IC50 239 ?g/ml, with good antiproliferant activity compared to Asiaticoside as positive control which showed potent activity with IC50 value of 20.13 ?g/ml. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds also showed increase in relative epidermal thickness when compared to control group by confirming its traditional use in psoriasis treatment.

Dwarampudi, Lalitha Priyanka; Palaniswamy, Dhanabal; Nithyanantham, Muruganantham; Raghu, P. S.

2012-01-01

3

Antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts from seeds in fresh Bokbunja ( Rubus coreanus Miq.) and wine processing waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant potential of ethanol extracts from defatted Bokbunja seed wastes generated during wine processing were estimated by radical scavenging abilities (DPPH, H2O2, and O2-), retardation of lipid oxidation, and iron ion-chelating characteristics. For comparison, ethanol extracts from seeds of fresh ripe Bokbunja fruits were also used. The ethanol extracts from the wine seed waste always showed higher scavenging activities

Chang Sub Ku; Sung Phil Mun

2008-01-01

4

Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Nigella sativa seeds on milk production in rats.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa L. is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine. Hence, the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of N. sativa seeds on milk production in rats were evaluated. The measurement of milk production was by measuring pup weight during suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of N. sativa were 4.23 and 4.9 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (0.5 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased milk production significantly (p < 0.001), producing about 31.3% and 37.6% more milk than control, respectively. During the study period, the pups gained weight with the aqueous (0.5 g/kg, p < 0.01) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg, p < 0.05). It is concluded that aqueous and ethanolic extracts of N. sativa can stimulate milk production in rats. PMID:23433051

Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Mosavi, Mojdeh Jalal; Taghiabadi, Elahe

2013-02-01

5

Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain\\u000a bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic\\u000a solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest

Pedro Chávez-Quintal; Tania González-Flores; Ingrid Rodríguez-Buenfil; Santiago Gallegos-Tintoré

2011-01-01

6

Wound-healing potential of an ethanol extract of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (Linn) (Caricaceae) is traditionally used to treat various skin disorders, including wounds. It is widely used in developing countries as an effective and readily available treatment for various wounds, particularly burns. This study evaluated the wound-healing and antimicrobial activity of C. papaya seed extract. Ethanol extract of C. papaya seed (50 mg/kg/day) was evaluated for its wound-healing activity in Sprague-Dawley rats using excision wound model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six each (group 1 served as control, group 2 treated with papaya seed extract, group 3 treated with a standard drug mupirocin and papaya seed extract (1:1 ratio) and group 4 treated with a mupirocin ointment. Rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content were determined to assess the wound-healing activity of the seed extract. The group 2 animals showed a significant decrease in wound area of 89% over 13 days when compared with groups 1 (82%), 3 (86%) and 4 (84%) respectively. The hydroxyproline content was significantly higher with the granulation tissue obtained from group 2 animals which were treated with C. papaya seed extract. Histological analysis of granulation tissue of the group 2 animals showed the deposition of well-organized collagen. The extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results suggest that C. papaya promotes significant wound healing in rats and further evaluation for this activity in humans is suggested. PMID:22296524

Nayak, Bijoor Shivananda; Ramdeen, Ria; Adogwa, Andrew; Ramsubhag, Adash; Marshall, Julien Rhodney

2012-12-01

7

Phytochemistry and heamatological potential of ethanol seed leaf and pulp extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.).  

PubMed

This study was aimed at qualitative evaluation of the ethanol seed, leaf and pulp extracts of C. papaya for bioactive compounds and also to investigate their effect on the haematology in male albino rats. A 3 x 4 factorial experimental layout using randomized complete design was adopted. Results show that the phytochemicals found in seed, leaf and pulp were almost the same but however, in varying proportions. Present result also revealed that there were significant effects (p < 0.05) of the extracts on the heamatology of the treated rats, which was blamed on the varying and different variants ofbioactive compounds found in the extracts they were administered with. Suggestively, C. papaya extracts could be used to enhance the production of selected blood parameters, taking issue of dosage into consideration. PMID:21902066

Ikpeme, E V; Ekaluo, U B; Kooffreh, M E; Udensi, O

2011-03-15

8

Analysis of fatty acids and phytosterols in ethanol extracts of Nelumbo nucifera seeds and rhizomes by GC-MS.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the fatty acid and phytosterol contents in ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes. These ethanol extracts were extracted with hexane. The hexane extracts were hydrolyzed in a microwave reactor, and total fatty acids and phytosterols were analyzed. The hexane extracts were also subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Nonpolar components (triglycerides and steryl-fatty acid esters) were hydrolyzed, and then the contents were analyzed. Polar components (diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acids, and phytosterols) were analyzed directly. Seeds contained higher concentrations of fatty acids and phytosterols compared to rhizomes. Linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid were the main fatty acid components in seeds and rhizomes, and most of them in seeds were in the ester form. In seeds, phytosterols existed mainly in the free form rather than in steryl-fatty acid ester form. ?-Sitosterol was the most abundant phytosterol in seeds and rhizomes. PMID:23742045

Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

2013-07-17

9

Extraction of lipid components from hibiscus seeds by supercritical carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The genus Hibiscus exhibits great diversity in the production of natural materials with edible and industrial applications. The seeds of twelve varieties of Hibiscus were investigated as a source for triglycerides and phospholipids that could be used in functional foods. Lipid components were extracted from seed samples ground to a nominal particle diameter of 0.1 mm. Extractions were performed with an ISCO model 3560 supercritical fluid extractor using carbon dioxide and a mixture of carbon dioxide modified with ethanol. The neutral lipids were extracted with carbon dioxide at 80 C and 5370 MPa for 45 min. Polar lipids were subsequently extracted with a mixture of carbon dioxide and 15% ethanol at the same temperature and pressure. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze extracts for major neutral and polar lipid classes. A silica column was used with a solvent gradient of hexane/isopropanol/ water and ultraviolet (UV) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). An aliquot of each triglyceride fraction was trans-methylated with sodium methoxide and analyzed by gas chromatography to obtain the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters. The total lipids extracted ranged from 8.5% for a variety indigenous to Madagascar (H. calyphyllus) to 20% for a hybrid species (Georgia Rose). The average oil yield was 11.4% for the other varieties tested. The fatty acid methyl ester analysis displayed a high degree of unsaturation for all varieties tested, e. g., 75 ' 83%. Oleic, linoleic, and linolenic fatty acids were the predominate unsaturated fatty acids with only minor amounts of C14, C18, and C20 saturated fatty acids measured. Palmitic acid was identified as the predominate saturated fatty acid. The distribution of the major phospholipids, i. e., phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and lysophosphatidylcholine, was found to vary significantly among the hibiscus species examined. Phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine were the predominate phospholipids comprising between 50 and 95% of the total phospholipids present. Pressurized extraction techniques provide a rapid method to separate both polar and nonpolar lipids from Hibiscus seeds using carbon dioxide and ethanol mixtures. The seeds require a minimum of processing prior to extraction and the extracts obtained are solvent free and suitable for edible products.

Holser, Ronald A.; King, J. W. (Jerry W.); Bost, G.

2002-01-01

10

Antisnake venom activity of ethanolic seed extract of Strychnos nux vomica Linn.  

PubMed

The whole seed extract of S. nux vomica (in low doses) effectively neutralized Daboia russelii venom induced lethal, haemorrhage, defibrinogenating, PLA2 enzyme activity and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal, cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, PLA2 enzyme activity. The seed extract potentiated polyvalent snake venom antiserum action in experimental animals. An active compound (SNVNF) was isolated and purified by thin layer chromatography and silica gel column chromatography, which effectively antagonised D. russelii venom induced lethal, haemorrhagic, defibrinogenating, oedema, PLA2 enzyme activity and N. kaouthia induced lethal, cardiotoxic, neurotoxic, PLA, enzyme activity. Polyvalent snake venom antiserum action was significantly potentiated by the active compound. Spectral studies revealed it to be a small, straight chain compound containing methyl and amide radicals. Detailed structure elucidation of the compound (SNVNF) is warranted before its clinical trials as a snake venom antagonist. PMID:15233470

Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K; Gomes, A

2004-05-01

11

Cytotoxic and immunopotentiating effects of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-vitro cytotoxic screening of extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds (Ranunculaceae) indicated cytotoxicity in the ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) against different classes of cancer cell lines, P388, Molt4, Wehi 164, LL\\/2, Hep G2, SW620 and J82, as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The ethyl-acetate column chromatographic fraction (CC-5) showed selectivity against Hep G2, Molt4, and LL\\/2. CC-5 was relatively non-toxic

S. M. K Swamy; B. K. H Tan

2000-01-01

12

Inhibitive and Adsorption Properties of Ethanol Extract of Seeds and Leaves of Azadirachta Indica on the Corrosion of Mild Steel in H2SO4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The corrosion of mild steel in H 2SO 4 was studied using gravimetric, gasometric and IR methods. The results indicate that the rate of corrosion of mild steel in H 2SO 4 increases with increase in the concentration of the acid and that ethanol extracts of the seeds and leaves of Azadirachta indica inhibit the corrosion of mild steel in

N. O. Eddy; P. A. P. Mamza

2009-01-01

13

Ethanol Extract of Lepidium apetalum Seed Elicits Contractile Response and Attenuates Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Secretion in Beating Rabbit Atria.  

PubMed

The seeds of Lepidium apetalum Willdenow (called "Tinglizi" in China and "Jungryukza" in Korea) have been used to discharge phlegm and improve dropsy in Oriental medicine. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract of the seeds of Lepidium apetalum (ELA) on atrial dynamics and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion in beating rabbit atria. ELA increased atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, and cAMP efflux, concomitantly attenuating ANP secretion in a dose-dependent manner. ELA-induced increases in atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, and cAMP levels and decrease in ANP secretion were not inhibited by pretreatment with staurosporine, a nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor, or diltiazem and verapamil, the L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers, respectively. Helveticoside, a well-known digitalis-like cardiac glycosidic constituent of ELA, also increased atrial dynamics, including stroke volume and pulse pressure, without changing cAMP efflux and ANP secretion, and the effects of helveticoside were not inhibited by pretreatment with staurosporine, diltiazem, and verapamil. These results suggest that the ELA-induced positive inotropic activity in beating rabbit atria might, at least partly, be due to the digitalis-like activity of helveticoside rather than an increase in cAMP efflux. PMID:24288558

Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Hye Yoom; Lee, Yun Jung; Cui, Hao Zhen; Jang, Ji Yeon; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

2013-01-01

14

Ethanol Extract of Lepidium apetalum Seed Elicits Contractile Response and Attenuates Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Secretion in Beating Rabbit Atria  

PubMed Central

The seeds of Lepidium apetalum Willdenow (called “Tinglizi” in China and “Jungryukza” in Korea) have been used to discharge phlegm and improve dropsy in Oriental medicine. The present study investigated the effects of ethanol extract of the seeds of Lepidium apetalum (ELA) on atrial dynamics and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion in beating rabbit atria. ELA increased atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, and cAMP efflux, concomitantly attenuating ANP secretion in a dose-dependent manner. ELA-induced increases in atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, and cAMP levels and decrease in ANP secretion were not inhibited by pretreatment with staurosporine, a nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor, or diltiazem and verapamil, the L-type Ca2+ channel blockers, respectively. Helveticoside, a well-known digitalis-like cardiac glycosidic constituent of ELA, also increased atrial dynamics, including stroke volume and pulse pressure, without changing cAMP efflux and ANP secretion, and the effects of helveticoside were not inhibited by pretreatment with staurosporine, diltiazem, and verapamil. These results suggest that the ELA-induced positive inotropic activity in beating rabbit atria might, at least partly, be due to the digitalis-like activity of helveticoside rather than an increase in cAMP efflux.

Kim, Seung Ju; Kim, Hye Yoom; Lee, Yun Jung; Cui, Hao Zhen; Jang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Ho Sub

2013-01-01

15

Effect of coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum L.) ethanol extract on insulin release from pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is grown as a spice crop all over the world. The seeds have been used to treat indigestion, diabetes, rheumatism and pain in the joints. In the present study, an ethanol extract of the seeds was investigated for effects on insulin release from the pancreatic beta cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus before and 1.5, 3 and 5 h after administration of the seed extract. Serum glucose levels were determined by the glucose oxidase method. To determine the insulin releasing activity, after extract treatment the animals were anaesthetized by diethyl ether, the pancreas was excised, fixed in 10% formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin for sectioning. Pancreatic sections of 5 microm were processed for examination of insulin-releasing activity using an immunocytochemistry kit. The results showed that administration of the ethanol extract (200 and 250 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited a significant reduction in serum glucose. Administration of streptozotocin decreased the number of beta cells with insulin secretory activity in comparison with intact rats, but treatment with the coriander seed extract (200 mg/kg) increased significantly the activity of the beta cells in comparison with the diabetic control rats. The extract decreased serum glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and increased insulin release from the beta cells of the pancreas. PMID:19003941

Eidi, Maryam; Eidi, Akram; Saeidi, Ali; Molanaei, Saadat; Sadeghipour, Alireza; Bahar, Massih; Bahar, Kamal

2009-03-01

16

Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. Against Inflammation Associated with Development of Arthritis in Rats.  

PubMed

The present investigation was carried out to study the anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MOEE) in adjuvant-induced arthritis in adult female Wistar rats. During the experimental period, body weight, paw edema volume (primary lesion) and arthritic index (secondary lesion) was observed. On the 21st day, serum from each animal was used for estimation of Rheumatoid Factor (RF) value and levels of selected cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1, and IL-6). Whole blood was used for measurement of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Liver homogenate was utilized for assessment of oxidative stress and histopathology was performed to measure degree of inflammation in synovial joint. Our results suggest that, percentage reduction in body weight was less, paw edema volume and arthritic index score was decreased significantly as compared to diseased control animals. Serum levels of RF, TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6 also showed decreased levels as compared to those in the diseased control group. Treatment with MOEE also altered oxidative stress in relation to its anti-inflammatory activity. Histopathological observations showed mild or less infiltration of lymphocytes, angiogenesis and synovial lining thickening. From all above results and observations, it can be concluded that Moringa oleifera possesses promising antiarthritic property. PMID:18958711

Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mali, Ravindra G; Mehta, Anita A

2007-01-01

17

A comparison of the cytotoxic potential of standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of a polyherbal mixture comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots) and Smilax glabra (rhizome)  

PubMed Central

Background: A decoction (hot-water extract) comprised of Nigella sativa (seeds), Hemidesmus indicus (roots), and Smilax glabra (rhizome) has been reported to prevent chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenic changes in rats and to exert significant cytotoxic effects on human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. However, the decoction used in previous studies to determine cytotoxicity was not standardized. Further, during preparation of pharmaceuticals for clinical use, it is more convenient to use an ethanolic extract. Therefore this study was carried out to (a) develop standardized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the plant mixture (N. sativa, H. indicus, and S. glabra) used in the preparation of the original decoction, and (b) compare the cytotoxic effects of these two extracts by evaluating cytotoxicity to the human hepatoma (HepG2) cell line. Methods: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts have been standardized by evaluating organoleptic characters, physicochemical properties, qualitative and quantitative analysis of chemical constituents, and analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) profiles. Cytotoxic potentials of the above standardized extracts were compared by evaluating their effects on the survival and overall cell activity of HepG2 cells by use of the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl) -2, 5 – biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assays. Results: Results from MTT and SRB assays demonstrated that both extracts exerted strong dose-dependent in vitro cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells. The standardized aqueous extract showed a marginally (though significantly, P<0.05) higher cyotoxic potential than the ethanolic extract. Thymoquinone, an already known cytotoxic compound isolated from N. sativa seeds was only observed in the standardized ethanolic extract. Thus, compounds other than thymoquinone appear to mediate the cytotoxicity of the standardized aqueous extract of this poly-herbal preparation. Conclusion: It may be concluded that results obtained in the present study could be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of these aqueous or ethanolic extracts and would be useful for the preparation of a standardized pharmaceutical product that may be used in the future for clinical therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Samarakoon, Sameera R.; Thabrew, Ira; Galhena, Prasanna B.; De Silva, Dilip; Tennekoon, Kamani H.

2010-01-01

18

Ethanolic Extract of the Seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment Induced by Cholinergic Blockade in Mice  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we investigated the effect of ethanolic extract of the seed of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa (EEZS) on cholinergic blockade-induced memory impairment in mice. Male ICR mice were treated with EEZS. The behavioral tests were conducted using the passive avoidance, the Y-maze, and the Morris water maze tasks. EEZS (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in our present behavioral tasks without changes of locomotor activity. The ameliorating effect of EEZS on scopolamine-induced memory impairment was significantly reversed by a sub-effective dose of MK-801 (0.0125 mg/kg, s.c.). In addition, single administration of EEZS in normal naïve mouse enhanced latency time in the passive avoidance task. Western blot analysis was employed to confirm the mechanism of memory-ameliorating effect of EEZS. Administration of EEZS (200 mg/kg) increased the level of memory-related signaling molecules, including phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase or cAMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampal region. Also, the time-dependent expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor by the administration of EEZS was markedly increased from 3 to 9 h. These results suggest that EEZS has memory-ameliorating effect on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment, which is mediated by the enhancement of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system, in part, via NMDA receptor signaling, and that EEZS would be useful agent against cognitive dysfunction such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Lee, Hyung Eun; Lee, So Young; Kim, Ju Sun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Lee, Young Woo; Jung, Jun Man; Kim, Dong Hyun; Shin, Bum Young; Jang, Dae Sik; Kang, Sam Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2013-01-01

19

ULCER HEALING PROPERTIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF EUGENIA JAMBOLANA SEED IN DIABETIC RATS : STUDY ON GASTRIC MUCOSAL DEFENSIVE FACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetes has been reported to cause an increase in offensive and decrease in defensive gastric mucosal factors, the imbalance of which can cause ulceration and delay the ulcer healing. Eugenia jambolana has been documented to have both antidiabetic and antiulcer activities. The present study evaluates the effects of ethanolic extract of E. jambolana on gastric ulcer healing and on rat

ADITI CHATURVEDI; G. BHAWANI; P. K. AGARWAL; SHALINI GOEL; A. SINGH; R. K. GOEL

2009-01-01

20

Prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum seeds on ethanol-induced toxicity in male rats.  

PubMed

The liver is vulnerable to alcohol-related injury because it is the primary site of alcohol metabolism. Additionally, a number of potentially dangerous by-products are generated as alcohol is broken down in the liver. However, dietary supplements may prevent or relieve some of alcohol's deleterious effects. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the prophylactic effect of aqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) on ethanol induced toxicity in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, ethanol, pre-treatment, simultaneous and post-treatment groups. In the prophylactic experiment, Sesamum indicum, (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered by oral gavage for 28 days; two hours before, simultaneously with or two hours after ethanol exposure. Toxicity was induced by administering 45% ethanol (4.8 g/kg bw) by oral gavage. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and gluthathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were then determined in the liver, serum triglyceride (TG) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were monitored and histological examination was carried out. The results revealed that ethanol administration led to significant elevation of TBARS level while depleting in the level of GSH as well as CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities. Similarly, TG level and ALT and AST activities were elevated. The SI pre-treated group significantly inhibited TBARS, restored GSH level, enhanced CAT, GPx, SOD and GST activities and significantly decreased the elevated level of serum TG, ALT and AST activities. SI treatment (simultaneously with ethanol) exhibited similar effects to those of the SI pre-treated groups, while the SI post-treated group did not show the same protection as the Pre-treated group. S. indicum possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties, that eliminate the deleterious effects of toxic metabolites of ethanol. PMID:24611106

Oyinloye, B E; Nwozo, S O; Amah, G H; Awoyinka, A O; Ojo, O A; Ajiboye, B O; Tijani, H A

2014-02-01

21

Antioxidant and free radical-scavenging properties of ethanolic extracts of defatted borage ( Borago officinalis L.) seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borage meal exerted a concentration-dependent antioxidant activity in a meat model system. At 2% (w\\/w), it inhibited (p?0.05) 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), hexanal and total volatile formation in meat by 26.5, 30.5 and 18.6%, respectively. Antioxidant compounds in the meal were concentrated at optimum extraction conditions (in 52% ethanol at 74°C for 62 min) predicted by response surface methodology (RSM).

Mahinda Wettasinghe; Fereidoon Shahidi

1999-01-01

22

Anticancer Potential of Aqueous Ethanol Seed Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Cancer Cell Lines and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Ziziphus mauritiana (Lamk.) is a fruit tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases. In the present study, anticancer potential of seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana in vitro against different cell lines (HL-60, Molt-4, HeLa, and normal cell line HGF) by MTT assay as well as in vivo against Ehrich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice was investigated. The extract was found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells. Annexin and PI binding of treated HL-60 cells indicated apoptosis induction by extract in a dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis revealed a prominent increase in sub Go population at concentration of 20??g/ml and above. Agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells after 3 h incubation with extract. The extract also exhibited potent anticancer potential in vivo. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice with varied doses (100–800?mg/kg b.wt.) of plant extract significantly reduced tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and improved haemoglobin content, RBC count, mean survival time, tumor inhibition, and percentage life span. The enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals was evident from decline in levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase.

Mishra, Tulika; Khullar, Madhu; Bhatia, Aruna

2011-01-01

23

Effects of Grape Seed Extract, Vitamin C, and Vitamin E on Ethanol- and Aspirin-Induced Ulcers  

PubMed Central

Effects of GSE and vitamins C and E on aspirin- and ethanol-induced gastric ulcer and associated increases of lipid peroxidation in rats were compared. Two experiments were conducted. Rats were randomized into eight groups: a negative control and seven groups that received aspirin or ethanol for ulcer induction: one positive control (vehicle) and six with VC, VE, or GSE (25 and 250?mg/kg). Ulcer indexes and gastric levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were quantified. VC, VE, and GSE (25 and 250?mg/kg) decreased aspirin, and ethanol-induced ulcers and MDA values compared with positive control group. The magnitude of aspirin ulcer reduction was comparable for all treatments, and MDA decrease with GSE was higher than with VC and tended to be greater, albeit none significantly, than with VE. GSE was more effective than VC and VE for lowering the ethanol ulcers, while the decrease of MDA levels with GSE was greater than with VC, but comparable to that achieved with VE. GSE protected against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers more effectively than VC or VE, while its protection against aspirin ulcers was comparable for all treatments. GSE produced the greatest reductions of gastric MDA in both models.

Cuevas, Vivian Molina; Calzado, Yazmin Ravelo; Guerra, Yohani Perez; Yera, Ambar Oyarzabal; Despaigne, Sonia Jimenez; Ferreiro, Rosa Mas; Quintana, Daisy Carbajal

2011-01-01

24

Polyphenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Grape Seed Extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape seed extracts (GSEs,) obtained from Italian and Rhine Rieslings, were examined for polyphenolic composition and antioxidant activities using HPLC and ESR spectrometry. The seed extraction was carried out with ethyl acetate and ethanol. The contents of polyphenols, flavan-3-ols and antioxidant activities were found to be higher in ethyl acetate than in ethanolic extracts. IC50 values were 0.1045 mg\\/mL and

Anamarija I. Mandic; Sonja M. ?ilas; Gordana S. ?etkovi?; Jasna M. ?anadanovi?-Brunet; Vesna T. Tumbas

2008-01-01

25

Alcoholic extraction of vegetable oils. III. Solubilities of babassu, coconut, olive, palm, rapeseed, and sunflower seed oils in aqueous ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Solubilities of babassu, coconut, olive, palm, rapeseed, and sunflower seed oils in aqueous alcoholic solutions at various\\u000a temperatures were determined by a direct and simple method. Solubility curves for the six oils are presented.\\u000a \\u000a The critical solution temperatures increase with the water content of the alcohol, and in each case the relationship is linear.\\u000a The pressure in the system also

Rama Kanth Rao; Lionel K. Arnold

1956-01-01

26

Supercritical fluid extraction of tea seed oil and its comparison with solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of tea seed oil was performed to study the effects of various parameters such as pressure, temperature, extraction time (dynamic) and modifier (ethanol) on the yield and composition of the oil. The results were also compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and DGF (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Fettwissenschaft) standard method B-I5 (87) in lab

Ahmad Rajaei; Mohsen Barzegar; Yaddollah Yamini

2005-01-01

27

Complementary and Comparative Study on Hypoglycemic and Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Extracts of Eugenia jambolana Seed, Momordica charantia Fruits, Gymnema sylvestre , and Trigonella foenum graecum Seeds in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol,\\u000a hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and\\/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract

Mukesh Yadav; Amita Lavania; Radha Tomar; G. B. K. S. Prasad; Shalini Jain; Hariom Yadav

2010-01-01

28

A fast ethanol assay to detect seed deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common way to test seed quality is to use a simple and reliable but time- and space-consuming germination test. In this paper we present a fast and simple method to analyse cabbage seed deterioration by measuring ethanol production from partially imbibed seeds. The method uses a modified breath analyser and is simple compared to gas chromatographic or enzymatic

J. Kodde; W. T. Buckley; Groot de C. C; M. Retiere; A. M. Viquez Zamora; S. P. C. Groot

2012-01-01

29

Extraction of polyphenols from grape seeds and concentration by ultrafiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solvent extraction method utilizing 50% ethanol and 50% water as solvent was used for the extraction of polyphenols from grape seeds. An additional ultrafiltlration step was also included to determine its beneficial effect. Various experimental conditions, such as solid to liquid ratio (0.1–0.25g\\/ml), number of extraction stages (single, double and triple) and membrane pore size (0.22 and 0.45?m) were

Haseeb Nawaz; John Shi; Gauri S. Mittal; Yukio Kakuda

2006-01-01

30

Stabilizing Unmilled Brown Rice by Ethanol Extraction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention is drawn to a highly advantageous and unobvious process for stabilizing unmilled brown rice comprising, contacting unmilled brown rice with ethanol under conditions providing extraction of 15% or less of brown rice oil from the unmilled brow...

E. T. Champagne R. J. Hron G. Abraham

1990-01-01

31

Cerebroprotective effect of isolated harmine alkaloids extracts of seeds of Peganum harmala L. on sodium nitrite-induced hypoxia and ethanol-induced neurodegeneration in young mice.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to isolate the harmine alkaloids from the seeds of Peganum harmala (TAPH) and its cerebroprotective effect on cognitive deficit mice. The tested doses of TAPH were screened for Sodium nitrite induced hypoxia and Ethanol induced neurodegeneration using behavioral models. The TAPH was found to be non-neurotoxic and Psychoactive by preventing the motor impairment and increasing the locomotion activity of animals in Rota rod and Actophotometer respectively. TAPH (5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg kg(-1) p.o.) significantly (p < 0.001) protected the Sodium nitrite induced memory impairment by decreasing the time require to find the water bottle in special water bottle case model. In Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) and Passive Shock Avoidance paradigm (PSA) the TAPH shown improved acquisition and retention memory significantly (p < 0.001) by decreasing the Transverse Latency Time (TLT) and increasing the Step Down Latency (SDL), respectively in dose dependent manner. The results were well supported by biochemical parameters, by inhibiting the Acetylcholinestrase (p < 0.01) activity, increasing the GSH (p < 0.001) level and decreasing the TBARS (p < 0.001) level of whole brain. Moreover TAPH has shown the significant Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) inhibition action (p < 0.001), hence it reduces the metabolism of epinephrine, 5-HT and other monoamines and enhances the action of these neurotransmitters indirectly; this adrenergic system plays an important role in learning and memory. Further, TAPH (5 mg kg(-1)) protect the DNA fragmentation of frontotemporal cortex of the brain from hypoxic effect induced by Sodium nitrite in Gel Electrophoresis studies. The results were comparable to their respective standards. Hence, harmine alkaloids are potential enough to utilize in the management of Neurodegenerative disorders of the type Alzheimer's diseases. PMID:24506035

Biradar, S M; Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Tarak, K C

2013-12-01

32

Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.  

PubMed

The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBP? and PPAR?. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis. PMID:23179316

Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

2013-07-01

33

Inhibitory effects of Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi) ethanolic extract on A. ochraceus growth and ochratoxin production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ajowan is an aromatic seed spice that has a medicinal value. In this paper Ajowan Ethanolic Extract (AEE), which was prepared from Ajowan seeds, was assessed for antibacterial and antifungal activity against selected pathogenic bacteria and fungi by agar well diffusion assay. AEE exhibit ed considerable inhibitory effects against all the organisms tested. Emphasis of the study was on the

Pushpa Srinivas MURTHY; Babasaheb Bhaskarrao BORSE; Hafeeza KHANUM; Pullabhatla SRINIVAS

34

Supercritical fluid extraction of celery seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical fluid extraction of oil from milled celery seeds, using CO2 as a solvent, is presented in this study. The effect of the process parameters — pressure and temperature of extraction, particle size of celery seeds and flow rate of CO2 — on the extraction rate was examined in a series of experiments. The results indicated a significant increase

I. Papamichail; V. Louli; K. Magoulas

2000-01-01

35

AntiMicrobial Activity of Ethanol Extracts of Two Indigenous Nigerian Spices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol extracts of two Nigerian spices, Piper guineense (fruits) and Xylopia aethiopica (seeds), were tested for anti-microbial activity against a fungus and seven bacterial strains by the agar diffusion technique. Piper guineense, but not Xylopia aethiopica, was active against Candida albicans. Extracts of both spices were variously bactericidal or bacteristatic against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Staphylococcus

M. I. Okeke; C. U. Iroegbu; C. O. Jideofor; A. S. Okoli; C. O. Esimone

2001-01-01

36

Protein changes during ethanol induced seed germination in Aconitum heterophyllum.  

PubMed

Aconitum heterophyllum is a high altitude medicinal plant that has become endangered due to overexploitation for their aconitins. The most effective, conventional propagation method for any plant species is by seed. However, in Aconitum seed germination is erratic, and seedling survival is low. In the present study results have been discussed on the possible implication of ethanol treatment on removal of barriers on radical emergence in terms of protein changes. Eighty seven percent of seed germination was achieved in Aconitum with ethanol treatment. Comparative 2-DE analysis of ethanol treated and untreated seed protein profiles in Phase II of germination revealed 40 differentially expressed proteins. Twenty-seven out of 40 proteins were induced, 5 were increased and 8 were repressed. Mass spectrometry and subsequent identification confirmed that these proteins were involved in metabolism, DNA regulation, stress tolerance and plasmamembrane/cell wall biosynthesis/extension processes. These protein changes might be responsible for physiological and physical changes, respectively, resulted in increase in germination percentage. Further, characterization of these proteins will be of great help in understanding the molecular mechanism lying behind enhanced germination in response to ethanol treatment. PMID:23199684

Rana, Bindu; Sreenivasulu, Yelam

2013-01-01

37

Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).  

PubMed

The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

2013-01-01

38

Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass)  

PubMed Central

The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martinez-Velazquez, Moises; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Villanueva-Rodriguez, Socorro

2013-01-01

39

Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

Abbas, Charles (Champaign, IL); Beery, Kyle E. (Decatur, IL); Binder, Thomas P. (Decatur, IL); Rammelsberg, Anne M. (Decatur, IL)

2010-11-16

40

Essential oils content and antioxidant properties of peel ethanol extract in 18 lemon cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition of essential oils and antioxidant activity of peel ethanol extract were analyzed in 18 local lemon cultivars. Essential oils composition was determined by GC\\/FID analysis, and antioxidant activity with the ABTS method. Fruit weight, polar and equatorial diameters, peel thickness, seed number, juice percentage, titratable acidity and juice pH were also determined for each cultivar. The main component in

C. Di Vaio; G. Graziani; A. Gaspari; G. Scaglione; S. Nocerino; A. Ritieni

2010-01-01

41

Oenanthe javanica extract accelerates ethanol metabolism in ethanol-treated animals.  

PubMed

The effect of water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica DC) extract in eliminating ethanol was evaluated in New Zealand white rabbit and ICR mice. When a hot-water extract of water dropwort extract and ethanol was injected into New Zealand white rabbit, the plasma ethanol level was rapidly reduced, similar to metadoxine treatment. Specifically, the n-butanol fraction of hot-water extract was the strongest in eliminating plasma alcohol in ICR mice. When ethanol was orally ingested, administration of the hot-water extract eliminated up to 44% of the plasma ethanol in mice while the n-butanol fraction eliminated around 70%. Alcohol removal behaved in a dose-dependent manner in response to 50-200 mg/kg of n-butanol fraction. These data show O. javanica extract is effective in overcoming alcohol intoxication by the accelerating ethanol metabolism. PMID:19712583

Kim, Jong Yeon; Kim, Ki-Hoon; Lee, Youn Ju; Lee, Seung Ho; Park, Jong Cheol; Nam, Doo Hyun

2009-08-31

42

RNA extraction from developing or mature wheat seeds.  

PubMed

Cereal grains, as storage tissues of the plant, contain high amounts of starch. Purification of RNA from plant tissue especially from seed tissue can be challenging due to this high starch content. Starch coprecipitates with RNA in the presence of isopropanol or ethanol and can interfere with the extraction process and downstream reactions. Thus the removal of starch by using appropriate methods is necessary for obtaining pure RNA to be processed for functional genomics analysis. We describe a method to isolate large amount of good-quality RNA from developing and mature wheat grain which can also be adapted to other cereal grains. PMID:24243193

Furtado, Agnelo

2014-01-01

43

Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities.\\u000a They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v\\/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of

Haider Samee; Zhen-xing Li; Hong Lin; Jamil Khalid; Yong-chao Guo

2009-01-01

44

Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Imbibing Soybean Seeds in Relation to Deterioration  

PubMed Central

Deterioration as evidenced by decline in germination or seedling growth of soybean (cv. Essex) seeds during accelerated aging treatments at 41 C and 100% relative humidity is accompanied by increased levels of acetaldehyde and ethanol in imbibing embryonic axes and seeds. These increases become more pronounced with duration of the aging treatment. A similar inverse relationship between levels of acetaldehyde and ethanol and deterioration was observed when seeds were “naturally” aged for several years. During imbibition of low-vigor, accelerated-aged seeds at 25 C, acetaldehyde and ethanol increased from near trace amounts in dry tissues to maximum levels at 4 hours. Increases in acetaldehyde and ethanol during imbibition were less in high- than in low-vigor seeds. Increases were also less pronounced in low-vigor seeds when water uptake injury was avoided by osmotically decreasing water uptake rate with 30% polyethylene glycol. Embryonic axes from deteriorated seeds were characterized by low rates of O2 uptake and high respiratory quotients relative to the unaged controls. Anaerobic conditions and respiratory inhibitors, such as sodium azide, increased acetaldehyde and ethanol in unaged seeds to levels similar to those in accelerated-aged seeds after 2 hours imbibition. It is suggested that, during aging, an imbalance between tricarboxylic and glycolytic activities, present during early imbibition to some degree even in vigorous unaged seeds, becomes more pronounced and leads to accumulation of ethanol and acetaldehyde.

Woodstock, Lowell W.; Taylorson, Raymond B.

1981-01-01

45

Toxicity of neem (Azadirachta Indica) seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents, on the spider chiracanthium mildei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of neem seed kernel extracts prepared with different solvents against the predatory spider,Chiracanthium mildei L. Koch, was investigated. The order of toxicity of the 4% extracts was pentane < acetone < ethanol << methanol = water (nontoxic).\\u000a All extracts were nontoxic at 2.5%.

F. A. Mansour; K. R. S. Ascher; N. Omari

1986-01-01

46

Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats.  

PubMed

In present study, we investigated hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential of five extracts (water, ethanol, methanol, hexane, and chloroform) of four plants (i.e., seeds of Eugenia jambolana, fruits of Momordica charantia, leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, and seeds of Trigonella foenum graecum) alone and/or in combination with glimepiride in rats. Ethanol extract of E. jambolana, water extract of M. charantia, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre, and water extract of T. graecum exhibited highest hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity (most active) in rats among all the extracts, while hexane extracts exhibited least activities. Most active extracts were further studied to dose-dependent (200, 100, and 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)) hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects alone and in combination with glimepiride (20, 10, and 5 mg/kg bw). The combination of most active extracts (200 mg/kg bw) and lower dose of glimepiride (5 mg/kg bw) showed safer and potent hypoglycemic as well as antihyperglycemic activities without creating severe hypoglycemia in normal rats, while higher doses (200 mg/kg bw of most active extracts, and 10 and 20 mg/kg bw of glimepiride) were generated lethal hypoglycemia in normal rats. From this study, it may be concluded that the ethanol extract of E. jambolana seeds, water extract of M. charantia fruits, ethanol extract of G. sylvestre leaves, and water extract of T. graecum seeds have higher hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic potential and may use as complementary medicine to treat the diabetic population by significantly reducing dose of standard drugs. PMID:19904502

Yadav, Mukesh; Lavania, Amita; Tomar, Radha; Prasad, G B K S; Jain, Shalini; Yadav, Hariom

2010-04-01

47

Safety evaluation of proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proanthocyanidins, extracted from grape seeds, are widely used mainly as nutritional supplements. However, there has not been a systematic report to investigate toxicological studies on proanthocyanidins, especially in oral administration. In our studies, proanthocyanidin-rich extract from grape seeds was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to document its safety for use in various foods. The grape seed extract (GSE)

J Yamakoshi; M Saito; S Kataoka; M Kikuchi

2002-01-01

48

Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples  

SciTech Connect

The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

2004-10-03

49

Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

50

Antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. ethanolic extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata ethanolic extract against 47 strains of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and to identify bioactive compounds. Inhibition of bacterial growth was investigated using agar diffusion, agar macrodilution, broth microdilution and bioautographic methods. Zuccagnia punctata extract was active against all assayed bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia

Iris C. Zampini; Marta A. Vattuone; Maria I. Isla

2005-01-01

51

Near-critical extraction of sage, celery, and coriander seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-critical extraction of coriander seed, Dalmatian sage, and celery was performed on a pilot-scale extraction apparatus. Sage and celery were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide to obtain oleoresins. Coriander seed was extracted at 250 bar and 40°C. Coriander extract was fractionated into triglycerides and essential oils by using two separation stages at different pressures. Extractions were carried out using a

Bruce M. Smallfield; J GREY

1996-01-01

52

Phytochemical screening and evaluation of Monechma ciliatum (black mahlab) seed extracts as antimicrobial agents  

PubMed Central

Objective: Tribes in Nubia Mountains regions of Sudan used Monechma ciliatum seeds for common cold and other chest allergic conditions as a traditional medicine. The aim of this paper is to validate this traditional practice scientifically. Materials and Methods: Monechma ciliatum seeds were screened for major phytochemical groups using standard methods. Different extracts were bioassayed in- vitro for their bioactivity to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Results: Phytochemical screening results showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, triterpens, and anthraquinones. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be sensitive to both water extract with zones of inhibition 22 – 26 mm at concentrations of 50 and 100mg/ml and ethanol extract 17 mm at concentration of 100 mg/ml. The growth of Klebsiella pneumoniae was inhibited by ethanol extract with zones of inhibition equal to 16, 26, and 33 mm at concentrations of 50, 100, and 150 mg/ml, respectively. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was insensitive to all extracts used. Similarly, all used fungi were found to be insensitive to extracts used. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts against microorganisms were ranged from 12.5 to 25 mg/ml. Conclusion: The findings of the current study support the traditional uses of the plant's seed in the therapy of respiratory tract infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Ahmed Oshi, Murtada; Mohmmed Abdelkarim, Abdelkarim

2013-01-01

53

Enzymatic extraction of mustard seed and rice bran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous enzymatic extraction was investigated for recovery of oil from mustard seed and rice bran. The extraction process\\u000a was reproducible based on statistical analysis of extraction data under different extraction conditions. The most significant\\u000a factors for extraction were the time of digestion with enzymes, seed or bran concentration in water, volume of hexane added\\u000a before recovery, and amount of enzyme(s)

R. Sengupta; D. K. Bhattacharyya

1996-01-01

54

Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity.  

PubMed

In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE) has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy's Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students' 't' test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23057003

Kannur, Dayanand M; Paranjpe, Mukta P; Sonavane, Lalit V; Dongre, Prerana P; Khandelwal, Kishanchand R

2012-07-01

55

Extraction of flavan-3-ols from grape seed and skin into wine using simulated maceration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulated maceration assays were carried out in wine model systems using increasing ethanol percentages from 0 to 12.5%, in order to study the extraction of flavan-3-ol monomers and oligomers from grape skins and seeds. The amount of flavan-3-ols transferred to the solutions improves with the increase in the alcohol percentage, although flavanols were much more readily released from grape skins

Susana González-Manzano; Julián C Rivas-Gonzalo; Celestino Santos-Buelga

2004-01-01

56

Antinociceptive Activity of Ethanol Extract from Duguetia chrysocarpa Maas (Annonaceae)  

PubMed Central

The ethanol extract from the fruits of Duguetia chrysocarpa was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The intraperitoneal administration of the ethanol extract (100, 200, and 400?mg/kg body weight) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhes. The extract also produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test in all doses tested and increased the reaction time in hot-plate test at dose of 200?mg/kg. The data obtained suggest that the antinociceptive effect of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The phytochemical investigation yielded the isolation of the benzenoid derivative 3-methoxy-4-ethoxy benzoic acid which is being reported for the first time in this genus.

Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Araujo, Edigenia Cavalcante da Cruz; Ribeiro, Luciano Augusto de Araujo; de Lima, Julianeli Tolentino; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Lucio, Ana Silvia Suassuna Carneiro; Agra, Maria de Fatima; Barbosa Filho, Jose Maria

2012-01-01

57

Anti-ulcer activity of Ficus religiosa leaf ethanolic extract  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the anti-ulcer activity and acute toxicity of Ficus religiosa (F. religiosa) leaf ethanolic extract in animal models. Methods Anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight) was studied on stress induced ulcer animal models. Ranitidine was used as standard. The anti-ulcer activity of F. religiosa was evaluated with the help of ulcer area and histopatholgical examination. Preliminary phyto-chemical screening and acute toxicity studies of F. religiosa also carried out. Results Results showed that the extract treatments prevented ulcer area and gastric secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of 2?000 mg/kg extract did not show any acute toxicity in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis identified the presence of flavonoids in the ethanolic extract of F. religiosa. Conclusions The extract is non-toxic even at relatively high concentrations. The anti-ulcer activity is probably due to the presence of flavanoids.

Gregory, Marslin; Divya, B.; Mary, Revina Ann; Viji, M. M. Hipolith; Kalaichelvan, V. K.; Palanivel, V.

2013-01-01

58

Effects of Anethum graveolens L. seed extracts on experimental gastric irritation models in mice  

PubMed Central

Background As a folk remedy, Anethum graveolens seed (dill) is used for some gastrointestinal ailments. We aimed to evaluate aqueous and ethanolic extracts of anti-ulcer and acute toxicity effects of the Anethum graveolens in mice. Results Gastric mucosal lesions were induced by oral administration of HCl (1 N) and absolute ethanol in mice. The acidity and total acid content of gastric juice were measured in pylorus-ligated mice. LD50 values of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 3.04 g/kg, i.p., (1.5, 6.16) and 6.98 g/kg, i.p., (5.69, 8.56), respectively. The efficacy of high dose of extracts (p.o.) was similar to sucralfate. The acidity and total acid content were reduced by the orally or intraperitoneally administration of the extracts. Conclusions The results suggest that A. graveolens seed extracts have significant mucosal protective and antisecretory effects of the gastric mucosa in mice.

Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Karimi, Gholam_Reza; Ameri, Maryam

2002-01-01

59

Immunomodulation by ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa roots.  

PubMed

We have earlier reported that ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa, a plant used in Indian traditional system of medicine, significantly inhibits the cell proliferation. This led us to evaluate the immunomodulatory properties of this plant extract on various in vitro tests such as human natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity, production of nitric oxide (NO) in mouse macrophage cells, RAW 264.7, interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), intracytoplasmic interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and expression of various cell surface markers on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Ethanolic extracts of B. diffusa roots inhibited human NK cell cytotoxicity in vitro, production of NO in mouse macrophage cells, IL-2 and TNF-alpha in human PBMCs. Intracytoplasmic IFN-gamma and cell surface markers such as CD16, CD25, and HLA-DR did not get affected on treatment with B. diffusa extract. Our study demonstrates immunosuppressive potential of ethanolic extract of B. diffusa. PMID:12188040

Mehrotra, S; Mishra, K P; Maurya, R; Srimal, R C; Singh, V K

2002-06-01

60

Antinociceptive effect of Melastoma malabathricum ethanolic extract in mice.  

PubMed

The antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract of Melastoma malabathricum (MME) was investigated using acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test and hot-plate test in mice. It was demonstrated that the extract (30-300 mg/kg, i.p.) strongly and dose-dependently inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing with an ED(50) of 100 (78-160) mg/kg i.p. It also significantly increased the response latency period to thermal stimuli. Furthermore, the nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone blocked the antinociceptive effect of the extract in both tests, suggesting that M. malabathricum may act both at peripheral and central levels. PMID:15567242

Sulaiman, M R; Somchit, M N; Israf, D A; Ahmad, Z; Moin, S

2004-12-01

61

Stabilized Alumina/Ethanol Colloidal Dispersion for Seeding High Temperature Air Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seeding air flows with particles to enable measurements of gas velocities via laser anemometry and/or particle image velocimetry techniques can be quite exasperating. The seeding requirements are compounded when high temperature environments are encountered and special care must be used in selecting a refractory seed material. The pH stabilization techniques commonly employed in ceramic processing are used to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. The technique is not limited to alumina/ethanol and is also demonstrated with an alumina/H2O system. Other ceramic powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(sub pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined.

Wernet, Judith H.; Wernet, Mark P.

1994-01-01

62

Extraction of safflower seed oil by supercritical CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safflower seed oil extraction with supercritical CO2 at series operational parameters of pressure, temperature, flow rate and particle size was investigated in a bench scale apparatus. The results show that the extraction yields plotted as a function of time are significantly affected by the extraction pressure, flow rate and particle size, but extraction yields plotted versus CO2 used are scarcely

Xiaojin Han; Leming Cheng; Rong Zhang; Jicheng Bi

2009-01-01

63

Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds*  

PubMed Central

Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contained in the crude extracts were measured as 1.71% (SG), 0.74% (STH), 0.97% (LJ), 3.30% (SC), and 5.06% (ST). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of Pakistani SC and ST were 109.5 and 21 ?g/ml, respectively, lower than those of Chinese SG, STH, and LJ (134, 269, and 148 ?g/ml, respectively). An antiallergic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), had an IC50=39 ?g/ml, and a natural inhibitor of hyaluronidase, catechin, had an IC50=20 ?g/ml. The IC50 of ST extract was found similar to that of catechin (21 vs 20 ?g/ml) and lower than that of DSCG (21 vs 39 ?g/ml). This suggests that ST is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronidase, indicating a promising future development of natural antiallergic medicines or functional foods.

Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-chao

2009-01-01

64

Anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts from brown seaweeds.  

PubMed

Ethanol extracts of brown seaweeds from Pakistan and China were isolated and compared for their antiallergenic activities. They included Sargassum tennerimum (ST) and Sargassum cervicorne (SC) from Pakistan, and Sargassum graminifolium turn (SG), Sargassum thunbergii (STH), and Laminaria japonica (LJ) from China. The ethanol extracts of these brown seaweeds were optimized at 85% (v/v) ethanol for the maximum yield of phlorotannin, an inhibitor against hyaluronidase. Total phlorotannins contained in the crude extracts were measured as 1.71% (SG), 0.74% (STH), 0.97% (LJ), 3.30% (SC), and 5.06% (ST). The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of Pakistani SC and ST were 109.5 and 21 microg/ml, respectively, lower than those of Chinese SG, STH, and LJ (134, 269, and 148 microg/ml, respectively). An antiallergic drug, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), had an IC(50)=39 microg/ml, and a natural inhibitor of hyaluronidase, catechin, had an IC(50)=20 microg/ml. The IC(50) of ST extract was found similar to that of catechin (21 vs 20 microg/ml) and lower than that of DSCG (21 vs 39 microg/ml). This suggests that ST is a potent inhibitor of hyaluronidase, indicating a promising future development of natural antiallergic medicines or functional foods. PMID:19235274

Samee, Haider; Li, Zhen-xing; Lin, Hong; Khalid, Jamil; Guo, Yong-chao

2009-02-01

65

Antioxidant effects of solvent extracts from the dried jujube ( Zizyphus jujube ) sarcocarp, seed, and leaf via sonication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant effects of extracts from sarcocarp, seed, and leaf of dried jujube (Zizyphus jujube) were investigated. The highest amount of flavonoids and polyphenol was found in 80% methanol leaf extract at value of 43.04±0.34\\u000a and 324.75±6.01 mg\\/g, respectively. For 2,2?-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity\\u000a analysis at a concentration of 1,000 ?g\\/mL, 70% ethanol seed extract (94.76±0.23%), and 80% methanol

Ye-Jin Kim; Dae-Yeul Son

2011-01-01

66

Comparison of the antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from chaga ( Inonotus obliquus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Additional extraction of biologically active compounds from a chaga shred has been carried out after completion of the aqueous\\u000a extraction. The extraction was carried out using ethanol. We have shown that the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts\\u000a and their components is higher than that of the aqueous extracts.

M. A. Sysoeva; L. R. Yumaeva; V. S. Gamayurova; G. K. Ziyatdinova; G. K. Budnikov; F. G. Khalitov

2010-01-01

67

Microwave-assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Grape Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microwave-assisted extraction technique was developed to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds from grape seeds. The microwave power (300-150W) and time of extraction (20-200s) were varied during the optimization process. The polyphenol content of the resulting extracts were measured as mg of tannic acid equivalent per gram of crude extract (mg TAE\\/g of crude extract), using a Folin-Ciocalteau reagent.

Ni Hong; Varoujan A. Yaylayan; G. S. Vijaya Raghavan; J. R. Jocelyn Paré; Jacqueline M. R. Bélanger

2001-01-01

68

In vitro antiplasmodial effect of ethanolic extracts of coastal medicinal plants along Palk Strait against Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the possible antiplasmodial compounds from Achyranthes aspera (A. aspera), Acalypha indica (A. indica), Jatropha glandulifera (J. glandulifera) and Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus). Methods The A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were collected along Palk Strait and the extraction was carried out in ethanol. The filter sterilized extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.125 µg/mL) of leaf, stem, root and flower extracts of A. aspera, A. indica, J. glandulifera and P. amarus were tested for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum. The potential extracts were also tested for their phytochemical constituents. Results Of the selected plants species parts, the stem extract of A. indica showed excellent antiplasmodial activity (IC50= 43.81µg/mL) followed by stem extract of J. glandulifera (IC50= 49.14µg/mL). The stem extract of A. aspera, leaf and root extracts of A. indica, leaf, root and seed extracts of J. glandulifera and leaf and stem extracts of P. amarus showed IC50 values between 50 and 100 µg/mL. Statistical analysis revealed that, significant antiplasmodial activity (P<0.01) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it showed that there were no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extract of all the tested plant extracts. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, triterpenoids, proteins, and tannins in the ethanolic extracts of tested plants. Conclusions The ethanolic stem extracts of P. amarus and J. glandulifera possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs.

Inbaneson, Samuel Jacob; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Suganthi, Palavesam

2012-01-01

69

Antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extract and fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic activities of ethanolic root extract/fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis (A. djalonensis) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods A. djalonensis root extract/fractions (37–111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGLs) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of hours and days throughout the duration of the treatment. Results Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting BGLs of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. Conclusions These results suggest that the root extract/fractions of A. djalonensis possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

Okokon, Jude E; Antia, Bassey S; Udobang, John A

2012-01-01

70

Possible immunomodulatory actions of Carica papaya seed extract.  

PubMed

Carica papaya seed extract is currently being marketed as a nutritional supplement with purported ability "to rejuvenate the body condition and to increase energy". The product claims to improve immunity against common infection and body functioning. The present study was initiated to analyze the chemical constituents of the Carica Seed Extract and determine the potential immunomodulatory properties of the different bioactive fractions. These immunomodulatory activities of crude Carica Seed Extract and its bioactive fractions were examined in vitro using lymphocyte proliferation assays and complement-mediated hemolytic assay. Three major observations were made in this study: (1) the crude Carica Seed Extract and two other bioactive fractions significantly enhanced the phytohemagglutinin responsiveness of lymphocytes; (2) none of the Carica Seed Extract (at the concentrations used in this study) was able to protect the lymphocytes from the toxic effects of chromium; and (3) some of the bioactive fractions of Carica Seed Extract were able to significantly inhibit the classical complement-mediated hemolytic pathway. These findings provide evidence for immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory actions of Carica Seed Extract. No single compound is likely responsible for these activities. Further purification, isolation and characterization of the active components are needed. PMID:14724345

Mojica-Henshaw, Mariluz P; Francisco, Angelica D; De Guzman, Florecita; Tigno, Xenia T

2003-01-01

71

Pharmacological activity of ethanolic extract of Alhagi maurorum roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethanolic extract (EE) of Ahagi maurorum powdered roots was examined for its pharmacological activity and showed the following results: (1) Administration of EE intraperitoneally into mice decreased the body temperature in a dose-dependent manner. The decreases ranged from 0.2 to 3.3°C. (2) Treatment of the frog tissue with EE blocked the action of the neurotransmitter, acetyl choline (Ach). Thus,

M. S. Marashdah; H. M. AL-Hazimi

2010-01-01

72

Bioactivity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts  

PubMed Central

Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 ?g/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 ?g/mL) and TH (165.44 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 ?g/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 ?g/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation.

Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

2012-01-01

73

Bioactivity of Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliate) Seed Extracts.  

PubMed

Trifoliate orange seed extracts (TSEs) were made using either distilled water (TW), ethanol (TE), or n-hexane (TH), to measure total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The results showed that the total polyphenol content showed higher value at TE (235.24 ?g/mL, p<0.05) than those of TW (132.65 ?g/mL) and TH (165.44 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL and TE exerted the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (61.77%, p<0.05), which occurred in the following order: TE>TW (56.87%)>TH (39.78%). The results of ABTS radical scavenging activity showed that TW (34.26%) and TE (31.81%) showed similar activities, which were higher than TH (12.74%, p<0.05). Anti-complementary activity of TE (61% at 500 ?g/mL) showed a higher activity when compared with the positive control (60% at 1,000 ?g/mL) polysaccharide-K (PSK), a known immuno-active polysaccharide from Coriolus versicolor. Consequently, among TSEs, TE is a byproduct from trifoliate orange and could be an important source of dietary polyphenolic antioxidant compounds and immunopotentiating activity, including complement activation. PMID:24471075

Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

2012-06-01

74

Demonstration of a stabilized alumina/ethanol colloidal dispersion technique for seeding high temperature air flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Laser anemometry enables the measurement of complex flow fields via the light scattered from small particles entrained in the flow. In the study of turbomachinery, refractory seed materials are required for seeding the flow due to the high temperatures encountered. In this work we present a pH stabilization technique commonly employed in ceramic processing to obtain stable dispersions for generating aerosols of refractory seed material. By adding submicron alumina particles to a preadjusted pH solution of ethanol, a stable dispersion is obtained which when atomized, produces a high quality aerosol. Commercial grade alumina powder is used with a moderate size distribution. Other metal oxide powders in various polar solvents could also be used once the point of zero charge (pH(pzc)) of the powder in the solvent has been determined. Laser anemometry measurements obtained using the new seeding technique are compared to measurements obtained using Polystyrene Latex (PSL) spheres as the seed material.

Wernet, Mark P.; Skoch, Gary J.; Wernet, Judith H.

1995-01-01

75

Supercritical fluid extraction of daphne ( Laurus nobilis L.) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laurus nobilis L., commonly known as daphne tree, is an evergreen that belongs to the Lauraceae family. Daphne trees produce grape-sized\\u000a shiny purplish berries having three parts: flesh, skin, and an inner kernel (single seed). This study examines supercritical\\u000a CO2 (SC-CO2) extraction of oil from daphne seeds. The oil yield of ground seeds varied from 14 to 28% depending on

Sedat H. Beis; Nurhan T. Dunford

2006-01-01

76

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cuphea seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuphea seed oil (CSO) is a potential domestic source of medium chain fatty acids. Although CSO has been obtained using solvent extraction and screw pressing, both methods suffer from disadvantages. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a promising alternative extraction technology. It is a very effective means to extract vegetable oils, non-toxic, non-flammable, easy to separate from extracts (i.e., no

F. J. Eller; S. C. Cermak; S. L. Taylor

2011-01-01

77

Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Passiflora seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates extraction of Passiflora seed oil by using supercritical carbon dioxide. Artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied for modeling and the prediction of the oil extraction yield. Moreover, process optimization were carried out by using both methods to predict the best operating conditions, which resulted in the maximum extraction yield of the Passiflora

Gholamreza Zahedi; Abbas Azarpour

2011-01-01

78

Analgesic effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of clove  

PubMed Central

Objective: The beneficial effects of clove on toothache have been well documented. We have also previously shown the analgesic effects of clove essential oil. The present work was done to investigate the analgesic effects of the aqueous extract of clove using hot plate test. The possible role of opioid receptors in the analgesic effects of clove was also investigated using naloxone. Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice were divided into nine groups: (1) Saline, (2-4) Aaqueous (Aq 50, Aq 100, and Aq 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract of clove, respectively, (5-7) Ethanolic (Eth 50, Eth 100, and Eth 200) groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanolic extract of clove, respectively, and (8-9) Aq 100- Naloxone and Aq 200- Naloxone which were pretreated with 4 mg/kg of naloxone before injection of 100 or 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. The hot plate test was performed as a base record 10 min before injection of drugs and consequently repeated every 10 minutes after the injection. Results: The maximal percent effect (MPE) in the animal groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of aqueous extract was significantly higher than the control group. Pretreatment with naloxone reduced the analgesic effects of both 100 and 200 mg/kg of the aqueous extract. Administration of all three doses of the ethanloic extract also non-significantly increased the MPE. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that aqueous extract of clove has analgesic effect in mice demonstrated by hot plate test which is reversible by naloxone. The role of opioid system in the analgesic effect of clove might be suggested. However, more investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism(s).

Kamkar Asl, Mina; Nazariborun, Ashraf; Hosseini, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

79

Antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. ethanolic extracts.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to investigate antibacterial activity of Zuccagnia punctata ethanolic extract against 47 strains of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and to identify bioactive compounds. Inhibition of bacterial growth was investigated using agar diffusion, agar macrodilution, broth microdilution and bioautographic methods. Zuccagnia punctata extract was active against all assayed bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 25 to 200 microg/mL. Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were identical or two-fold higher than the corresponding MIC values. Contact bioautography, indicated that Zuccagnia punctata extracts possess one major antibacterial component against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and at least three components against. Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Activity-guided fractionation of 1he ethanol extract on a silica gel column yielded a compound (2',4'-dihydroxychalcone), which exhibited strong antibacterial activity with MIC values between 0.10 and 1.00 microg/mL for Proteus mirabilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Morganella morganii, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. These values are lower than imipenem (0.25-16 microg/mL). Zuccagnia punctata might provide promising therapeutic agents against infections with multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16137849

Zampini, Iris C; Vattuone, Marta A; Isla, Maria I

2005-12-01

80

Antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum L. seed extract.  

PubMed

The seeds of C. sativum are used as a traditional drug for the treatment of diabetes. The antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of seeds in vitro was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Incorporation of seed powder in the diet led to marked lowering of blood glucose and a rise in the levels of insulin in diabetic rats. A parallel beneficial effect was observed on oxidant -antioxidant balance in the kidney. Addition of coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of peroxidative damage but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels in diabetic rats. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while total flavanoid content was found to be 12.6 quercetin equivalents/g. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum free radical-scavenging action and free radical reducing power of coriander seed extract was observed at a concentration of 50 microg GAE. Islet histology structures showed degeneration of pancreatic islets in diabetic rats which was also reduced in diabetic rats treated with seed powder. These results show that C. sativum seeds not only possess antihyperglycemic properties but antioxidative properties also. Increased dietary intake of coriander seeds decrease the oxidative burden in diabetes mellitus. PMID:21365993

Deepa, B; Anuradha, C V

2011-01-01

81

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.  

PubMed

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (?? m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

82

Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract  

PubMed Central

Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1?mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

2014-01-01

83

Immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract of Shirishadi compound  

PubMed Central

Immunomodulators are substances that helps to regulate the immune system. The basic mechanisms by which the herbs defend the body against infection have two probable ways- one by destroying pathogens and other by enhancing the body immunity. Shirishadi compound is a polyherbal drug used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for the management of allergic disorders such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma etc., The present study was carried out to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of polyherbal compound “Shirishadi” on Swiss albino mice. Cyclophosphamide (CP) induced immunosuppression model was used to assess the activity of drug. CP was given in the dose of 30 mg/kg body weight through i.p route. 500 mg/kg body weight of Shirishadi polyherbal drug was given through oral route. The extent of protection against immunosuppression caused by CP was evaluated after 14 days of drug administration, by estimating hematological parameters and neutrophil adhesion test. Ethanolic extracts of Shirishadi compound showed pronounced immunoprotective activity by increasing the depleted levels of total WBC count and RBC, % Hb, and % neutrophils adhesion. The extract was found to be an effective immunomodulatory agent.

Kajaria, Divya; Tripathi, Jyoti Shankar; Tiwari, Shri Kant; Pandey, Bajrangi Lal

2013-01-01

84

Volatile components of ethanolic extract from broccolini leaves.  

PubMed

Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica?×?Alboglabra) is a hybrid of broccoli and kai-lan, Chinese broccoli. To date, no study has been reported on the chemical composition of the volatile fractions of this raw material. In this study, the volatile constituents from the ethanolic extract of broccolini leaves were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixteen compounds were identified. The major components include 5-phenyl-undecane (11%), n-hexadecanoic acid (9.34%), octadecanoic acid (6.39%), 1,1,3-trimethyl-3-phenyl-indan (4.0%), 3-(2-phenylethyl)benzonitrile (3.48%) and phytol (3.37%). PMID:21859369

Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Bochao; Wang, Bingfang; Zhang, Xuewu

2012-01-01

85

Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-hyperlipidemic Effects of Bryonia Laciniosa Seed Extract and its Saponin Fraction in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats  

PubMed Central

Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) seed is used in traditional medicine for a number of ailments including metabolic disorders. This investigation was carried out to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic potential of the ethanolic extract of seeds of B. laciniosa Linn. and its saponin fraction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The ethanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg; p.o.) and saponin fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered to diabetic rats and standard drug insulin (5 IU/kg; i.p.) to the group serving as a positive control. Effects of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction on various biochemical parameters were studied in diabetic rats. Data were statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's t-test. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction for 28 days to streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the levels of blood glucose and improved the levels of plasma insulin. The levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, urea, and creatinine were markedly altered in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract and saponin fraction restored all these biochemical parameters to near control levels. This study reveals the efficacy of B. laciniosa seed extract and its saponin fraction in the amelioration of diabetes and its associated complications.

Patel, SB; Santani, D; Shah, MB; Patel, VS

2012-01-01

86

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of triglycerides from Aquilaria crassna seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effects of pressure, temperature and solvent to solid ratio (SSR) on extraction efficiency of triglycerides from powdered Aquilaria crassna seeds by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. Supercritical extractions were designed for pressures ranging from 250 to 350bar, temperatures ranging from 313 to 333K and SSR values ranging from 60:1 to 120:1. All values were selected

Wei-Heng Chen; Ching-Hung Chen; Chieh-Ming J. Chang; Bing-Chung Liau; Daina Hsiang

2010-01-01

87

Extraction and refining of oil from amaranth seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil was extracted with hexane on a pilot plant scale from seeds ofAmaranthus cruentus after the seeds were subjected to an efficient abrasive milling. Optimum conditions were then determined for refining and\\u000a bleaching this oil. The yellow oil obtained is similar in appearance and composition to corn oil, but comparison with previously\\u000a published analyses reveals a considerable variation in the

C. K. Lyon; R. Becker

1987-01-01

88

Antioxidant extraction from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal using high-intensity ultrasound.  

PubMed

Brassicaceae oilseeds provide feedstocks for the biofuels industry, but value-added coproducts are necessary to supply financial incentives for increased production. Our objective was to use high-intensity ultrasound to optimize extraction of antioxidants from mustard (Brassica juncea) seed meal. The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) variables included temperature, solvent-to-material ratio, sonication duration, and EtOH concentration. Extracts were analyzed for total phenolics content (TPC), antioxidant activity, and sinapine content. Conventional extraction using water and 70% EtOH (v/v) at 80 °C for 3×30 min yielded 7.83 ± 0.07 and 8.81 ± 0.17 mg sinapic acid equivalents (SAE)/g meal, respectively. UAE extraction at 40 °C for 30 min yielded similar phenolics content (8.85 ± 0.33 mg SAE/g meal) as conventional hot ethanolic extraction, but required less time and lower temperature. The highest TPC (13.79 ± 0.38 mg SAE/g meal) was in the 7-d aqueous extracts. Sonicated solutions of pure sinapine and sinapic acid showed 1st-order reaction kinetics with greater degradation of isolated compounds than those present in extracts. Sinapine contained in extracts showed insignificant (P < 0.05) degradation after 30 min of sonication. Our research indicates that ultrasound treatment can assist the extraction of antioxidants from B. juncea meal by reducing both the temperature and time requirement without significant degradation of the primary antioxidants present. PMID:23488824

Dubie, Jeremiah; Stancik, Aaron; Morra, Matthew; Nindo, Caleb

2013-04-01

89

Multimembrane bioreactor for extractive fermentation: ethanol from Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

SciTech Connect

Low product concentration, low volumetric productivity and feedback inhibition have been problems in traditional biological production of fuels and chemicals. Solvent extraction and immobilized cells have been suggested as techniques to solve these problems. However, with solvent extraction, the best solvents are often toxic to cells. The slow diffusion of product and nutrient and disruption of immobilization matrix due to cell growth and/or gas production have been problems with traditional cell immobilization. A multimembrane bioreactor is proposed to circumvent the aforementioned problems. Four layers of its basic unit are separated by membranes. This structure prevents solvent emulsification in the fermentation broth. The system was tested for ethanol production from glucose using yeast. Tributyl phosphate (TBP) was chosen as the extractant. Experiments demonstrate for the first time a successful extractive fermentation with a practical solvent. Prevention of emulsification by immobilizing the solvent inside the pores of a hydrophobic membrane removes the toxic effect of TBP. These experiments also demonstrated that TBP exhibits phase toxicity but not chemical toxicity.

Cho, T.

1987-01-01

90

Modulation of jejunal contractions by extract of Carica papaya L. seeds.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. (papaya) seed preparations are used in traditional medicine to expel intestinal worms in human and ruminants. In the present study, an ethanol extract of papaya seeds (EEPS; 0.1-6.4 mg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inhibition of jejunal contractions in contrast to corresponding concentrations of DMSO (solvent control). The inhibitory effect of EEPS on jejunal contractions was significantly irreversible. Previous studies have indicated that benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is the main bioactive compound responsible for the anthelmintic activity of papaya seeds. In the present study, standard BITC (0.01-0.64 mmol/L) also caused significant irreversible inhibition of jejunal contractions. Recovery of jejunal contractions after BITC-induced inhibition was weaker than recovery after EEPS-induced inhibition (BITC versus EEPS: 19 +/- 7% vs 38 +/- 13%). Cryosections of the jejunum showed marked morphological damage of the segments treated with BITC in contrast to DMSO-treated segments. EEPS-induced jejunal damage was, however, less marked. These results indicate that papaya seed extract and BITC, its principal bioactive constituent are capable of weakening the contractile capability of rabbit isolated jejunum. It is thus envisaged that at the toxic level that will be needed to kill and expel intestinal worms in vivo, BITC may also cause impairment of intestinal functions. PMID:16161026

Adebiyi, Adebowale; Adaikan, P Ganesan

2005-07-01

91

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS) was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics 27.62 ± 1.43?mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract and total flavonoids 0.74 ± 0.03?mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200?mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50?mg/kg body weight). These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

San, Aye Moh Moh; Thongpraditchote, Suchitra; Sithisarn, Pongtip; Gritsanapan, Wandee

2013-01-01

92

Antioxidative effect of extracts from red grape seed and peel on lipid oxidation in oils of sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidative effect of red grape seed (RGS) and red grape peel (RGP) ethanolic extracts on primary and secondary lipid oxidation in sunflower and conjugated sunflower (SF\\/CSF) oils was evaluated. Lipid oxidation was analysed at 60°C using three methods; conjugated diene (CD) measurements for primary oxidation product development, static headspace gas chromatography (SHGC), and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to

Emad S. Shaker

2006-01-01

93

Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus cannabinus L. seed extracts after sequential solvent extraction.  

PubMed

A sequential solvent extraction scheme was employed for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds. Yield of extracts varied widely among the solvents and was the highest for hexane extract (16.6% based on dry weight basis), while water extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (18.78 mg GAE/g extract), total flavonoid content (2.49 mg RE/g extract), and antioxidant activities (p < 0.05). DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging, ?-carotene bleaching, metal chelating activity, ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays were employed to comprehensively assess the antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts prepared sequentially. Besides water, methanolic extract also exhibited high retardation towards the formation of hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the total antioxidant activity tests (p < 0.05). As conclusion, water and methanol extracts of kenaf seed may potentially serve as new sources of antioxidants for food and nutraceutical applications. PMID:23099617

Yusri, Noordin Mohd; Chan, Kim Wei; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

2012-01-01

94

The Antiinflammatory and Antiarthritic Properties of Ethanol Extract of Hedera helix  

PubMed Central

The ethanol Hedera helix plant extract was tested for its antiinflammatory properties. Intraperitoneal injections of 7.5 ml/kg wt ethanol extract showed antiinflammatory activity with 88.89% inhibition as compared to reference drug diclofenac, which showed 94.44% inhibition in formalin-induced paw oedema. As formalin-induced paw oedema closely resembles human arthritis, the antiarthritic property of ethanol extract of Hedera helix was also investigated. The visible reduction in arthritic symptoms by extract of Hedera helix suggests the potential of the plant extract against inflammation and arthritis.

Rai, Anuradha

2013-01-01

95

The Antiinflammatory and Antiarthritic Properties of Ethanol Extract of Hedera helix.  

PubMed

The ethanol Hedera helix plant extract was tested for its antiinflammatory properties. Intraperitoneal injections of 7.5 ml/kg wt ethanol extract showed antiinflammatory activity with 88.89% inhibition as compared to reference drug diclofenac, which showed 94.44% inhibition in formalin-induced paw oedema. As formalin-induced paw oedema closely resembles human arthritis, the antiarthritic property of ethanol extract of Hedera helix was also investigated. The visible reduction in arthritic symptoms by extract of Hedera helix suggests the potential of the plant extract against inflammation and arthritis. PMID:23901168

Rai, Anuradha

2013-01-01

96

Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region  

PubMed Central

The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (?) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32?mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15?mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73??g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51??g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9?µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martonio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vania Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

2013-01-01

97

Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 ? g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 ? g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

2013-01-01

98

Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).  

PubMed

Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants. PMID:24128509

Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

2014-02-15

99

Antioxidant, antimicrobial properties and phenolics of different solvent extracts from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.  

PubMed

This study appraises the antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes of various solvent extracts (absolute methanol, aqueous methanol, absolute ethanol, aqueous ethanol, absolute acetone, aqueous acetone, and deionized water) from bark, leaves and seeds of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. Maximum extraction yield of antioxidant components from bark (16.31%), leaves (11.42%) and seeds (21.51%) of P. pinnata was obtained using aqueous methanol (20:80). Of the extracts tested, the bark extract, obtained with aqueous methanol, exhibited greater levels of total phenolics [6.94 g GAE/100 g dry weight (DW)], total flavonoids (3.44 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (69.23%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC(50) value, 3.21 ?g/mL), followed by leaves and seeds extracts. Bark extract tested against a set of bacterial and fungal strains also revealed the strongest antimicrobial activity with the largest inhibition zone and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). HPLC analysis of aqueous methanol extracts from bark, leaves and seeds indicated the presence of protocatechuic, ellagic, ferulic, gallic, gentisic, 4-hydroxybenzoic and 4-hydroxycinnamic acids in bark (1.50-6.70 mg/100 g DW); sorbic, ferulic, gallic, salicylic and p-coumaric acids in leaves (1.18-4.71 mg/100 g DW); vanillic, gallic and tannic acids in seeds (0.52-0.65 mg/100 g DW) as the main phenolic acids. The present investigation concludes that the tested parts of P. pinnata, in particular the bark, have strong potential for the isolation of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents for functional food and pharmaceutical uses. PMID:22466852

Sajid, Zahid Iqbal; Anwar, Farooq; Shabir, Ghulam; Rasul, Ghulam; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

2012-01-01

100

Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Sida acuta on microorganisms from skin infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial effect of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Sida acuta was investigated. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins; tannins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and anthraquinones. The test isolates from human skin infections were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Scopulariopsis candida, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus. The zone of inhibition for the ethanolic extract varied from

M. A. Ekpo; P. C. Etim

2009-01-01

101

Screening of Dried Plant Seed Extracts for Adiponectin Production Activity and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Inhibitory Activity on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity\\u000a on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan.\\u000a komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

Yoshinori Okada; Mizue Okada; Yumi Sagesaka

2010-01-01

102

The effect of seed extraction methods on seed quality of two cultivar's tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).  

PubMed

In order to compare of different methods and identify the optimum condition for tomato seed extraction, factorial experiments with 3 replications was conducted. In the first experiment, pulp of two tomato cultivars (Faraon, Dominator) were fermented at two temperatures (25, 35 degrees C) and six periods (24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 h). The germination of seeds in laboratory as well as seedling emergence and preliminary growth in greenhouse were studied and measured. The results showed that effect of cultivar on traits (except of seedling emergence) was significant. Also the effect of temperature of fermentation, duration of fermentation and also interaction effects of them on seed germination were significant. Totally seed quality decreased with increasing temperature and duration of fermentation and the fermentation duration from 24 to 48 h at temperature 25 degrees C, is recommended. In the second experiment, tomato seeds were extracted by HCL (pH was arranged to 1, 2, 3 for 10, 20, 30 min), H2SO4 (pH was arranged to 1, 2, for 15, 30 min), Sodium carbonate (5, 10% for 24 and 48 h) and fermentation. Percentage germination, germination rate, length of radicle and length of plumule were used for seed quality assessment. The results showed that interaction effect between pH and duration of HCL treatments was significant for seed germination (percentage and rate) and there was an interaction effect between concentration and duration for germination rate in alkali treatments. Different extraction methods had not detrimental effect on percentage germination, but acid treatments produce very bright clean seeds in compare to other treatments. PMID:21313905

Nemati, H; Nazdar, T; Azizi, M; Arouiee, H

2010-09-01

103

Inhibitory effects of grape seed extract on lipases  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to assess the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on the fat-metabolizing enzymes pancreatic lipase, lipoprotein lipase, and hormone-sensitive lipase in vitro and evaluate its potential application as a treatment for obesity.

Diego A. Moreno; Nebojsa Ilic; Alexander Poulev; Dawn L. Brasaemle; Susan K. Fried; Ilya Raskin

2003-01-01

104

Effect of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis on some biochemical parameters of rat kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of administration of ethanolic extract of Khaya senegalensis (2mg\\/kg body weight) on some biochemical parameters of rat kidney were investigated. Experimental animals were randomly divided into the control, those administered with the extract for 6 days and those administered with extract for 18 days, respectively. The prolonged administration of the extract resulted in significant reduction in the alkaline

Joseph O. Adebayo; Musa T. Yakubu; Evans C. Egwim; Victor B. Owoyele; Bernard U. Enaibe

2003-01-01

105

Determination of isocytisoside and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract from Aquilegia vulgaris L.  

PubMed

The leaves and stems of Aquilegia vulgaris L. yielded an ethanolic extract in which the content of isocytisoside, its main component, was determined by authors' method. The method consisted in chromatographic separation of the extract, elution of the isocytisoside spot and measurement of its absorbance using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The isocytisoside content was 3.00%. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic extract was also determined. PMID:11693726

Bylka, W; Go?li?ska, L

2001-01-01

106

Nutritional quality of sunflower seed protein fraction extracted with isopropanol.  

PubMed

This study investigated the nutritional effect of sunflower seed protein fraction (SSPF) extracted with isopropanol on growth, plasma and tissue lipid profile, protein content and erythrocyte membrane lipid profile of rats. Dehulled sunflower seeds were extracted with isopropanol at 50 +/- 1 degree C resulting in a protein fraction (71.5%) with low residual chlorogenic acid (0.07%) and fiber (3.3%) contents. Rats fed the sunflower seed protein fraction had a similar body weight gain and food efficiency ratios in comparison to those fed casein. Rats fed SSPF in contrast had a significantly higher growth and food efficiency ratio than the rats fed sunflower meal (SM), extracted with hexane. However, dietary proteins exerted a separate effect on plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, low density lipoprotein to high density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C/HDL-C) ratio and triglyceride content. Sunflower seed protein fraction resulted in a significant decrease in plasma cholesterol (p < 0.05) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.02) levels compared to the casein fed rats. Membrane phospholipid profile also showed a marked variation with the type of dietary protein. Rats fed SSPF and SM did not show much variation in plasma lipids, plasma proteins, liver and brain lipids and membrane phospholipid concentrations. Protein content, liver and brain lipid profile of the groups fed SSPF and casein were comparable, suggesting that the nutritional value of SSPF is better than SM and equivalent to that of casein. PMID:11030480

Sen, M; Bhattacharyya, D K

2000-01-01

107

In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol and water extracts of Cassia alata.  

PubMed

Crude ethanol and water extract of leaves and barks from Cassia alata were tested in vitro against fungi, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Microsporum canis), yeast (Candida albicans) and bacteria (Staphylococcus aereus and Escherichia coli). C. albicans showed concentration-dependent susceptibility towards both the ethanol and water extracts from the barks, but resistant towards the extracts of leaves. The degree of susceptibility varied, the water extract from barks showed bigger inhibition zone than the ethanol extracts (12-16 and 10-14 mm, diameter respectively). The growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Microsporum canis were not affected by all types of the plant extracts. Results were comparable to standard antifungal drug Tioconazole (18 mm diameter) at equivalent concentration. The anti-bacterial activity of C. alata extracts on S. aureus was detected with only the leaves extracts using water and ethanol. The water extract exhibited higher antibacterial activity than the ethanol extract from leaves (inhibition zones of 11-14 and 9-11 mm, respectively). E. coli showed resistance to all types of extracts. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that this plant has antimicrobial activity, which is as potent as standard antimicrobial drugs against certain microorganisms. PMID:12499068

Somchit, M N; Reezal, I; Nur, I Elysha; Mutalib, A R

2003-01-01

108

Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.).  

PubMed

The ethanol leaf extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) was evaluated for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. The extract, at the dose of 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) body weight, exerted the analgesic activity by observing the number of abdominal contractions and anti-inflammatory activity against Carrageenin induced paw edema in mice by measuring the paw volume. The ethanolic extract of Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction of percentage of writhing of 33.57 and 61.31% at 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) oral dose, respectively, when compared to negative control. The Ethanolic plant extract also showed significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent reduction of mean increase of formation of paw edema. The results of the experiment and its statistical analysis showed that the ethanolic plant extract had shown significant (p < 0.05) dose dependent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities when compared to the control. PMID:22518936

Howlader, Md Amran; Alam, Mahmudul; Ahmed, Kh Tanvir; Khatun, Farjana; Apu, Apurba Sarker

2011-10-01

109

Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by Eriobotrya japonica seed extract.  

PubMed

We have clarified that Eriobotrya japonica seed extract has strong antioxidative activity, and is effective for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as hepatopathy and nephropathy. In this study, to investigate the influences of components of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract on its antioxidative activity, extracts were prepared using various solvents (n-hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (n-BuOH), methanol (MeOH) and H2O) and the antioxidative activity of the solvent fractions and components was evaluated based on the scavenging of various radicals (DPPH and O2(-)) measured by the ESR method and the inhibition of Fe3+-ADP induced NADPH dependent lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. The radical scavenging activities and inhibitory activities on lipid peroxidation differed among the solvent fractions and components. In the n-BuOH, MeOH and H2O fractions, radical scavenging activity and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation were high. In addition, these fractions contained abundant polyphenols, and the radical scavenging activity increased with the polyphenol content. In the low-polar Hex and EtOAc fractions, the radical scavenging activity was low, but the lipid peroxidation inhibition activity was high. These fractions contained beta-sitosterol, and the inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation was high. Based on these findings, the antioxidative activity of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract may be derived from many components involved in a complex mechanism, resulting in high activity. PMID:16508147

Yokota, Junko; Takuma, Daisuke; Hamada, Atsuhide; Onogawa, Masahide; Yoshioka, Saburo; Kusunose, Masahiko; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Kyotani, Shojiro; Nishioka, Yutaka

2006-03-01

110

Anti-allergic activity of a platycodon root ethanol extract.  

PubMed

Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae) is used as traditional medicine in Asian countries. In Korean traditional medicine, Platycodon root has been widely used since ancient times as a traditional drug to treat cold, cough and asthma. However, its effects on bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC)-mediated allergy and inflammation mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the biological effect of Platycodon root ethanol extract (PE) was evaluated in BMMC after induction of allergic mediators by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulation. The effect of PE on the production of several allergic mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)), leukotriene C(4) (LTC(4)), beta-Hexosaminidase (beta-Hex) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, was investigated. The results demonstrate that PE inhibits PMA + A23187 induced production of IL-6, PGD(2), LTC(4), beta-Hexosaminidase and COX-2 protein. Taken together, these results indicate that PE has the potential for use in the treatment of allergy. PMID:20717534

Oh, You-Chang; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Choi, Jang-Gi; Lee, Young-Seob; Brice, Obiang-Obounou; Jung, Hyun Ju; Hong, Seung-Heon; Lee, Young-Mi; Shin, Dong-Won; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

2010-01-01

111

Anti-Allergic Activity of a Platycodon Root Ethanol Extract  

PubMed Central

Platycodon grandiflorum (Campanulaceae) is used as traditional medicine in Asian countries. In Korean traditional medicine, Platycodon root has been widely used since ancient times as a traditional drug to treat cold, cough and asthma. However, its effects on bone marrow-derived mast cell (BMMC)-mediated allergy and inflammation mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, the biological effect of Platycodon root ethanol extract (PE) was evaluated in BMMC after induction of allergic mediators by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus calcium ionophore A23187 (A23187) stimulation. The effect of PE on the production of several allergic mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), leukotriene C4 (LTC4), ?-Hexosaminidase (?-Hex) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, was investigated. The results demonstrate that PE inhibits PMA + A23187 induced production of IL-6, PGD2, LTC4, ?-Hexosaminidase and COX-2 protein. Taken together, these results indicate that PE has the potential for use in the treatment of allergy.

Oh, You-Chang; Kang, Ok-Hwa; Choi, Jang-Gi; Lee, Young-Seob; Brice, Obiang-Obounou; Jung, Hyun Ju; Hong, Seung-Heon; Lee, Young-Mi; Shin, Dong-Won; Kim, Yeong-Shik; Kwon, Dong-Yeul

2010-01-01

112

APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN METHOD FOR ETHANOL PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION OF SUNFLOWER SEED HULL HYDROLYSATE USING PICHIA STIPITIS NRRL-124  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lignocellulosic hydrolysates provide a rich medium for fermentation of sugars into ethanol. The potential use of sunflower seed hull hemicellulose hydrolysate in ethanol fermentation was evaluated by using the Experimental Design method in this study. A 2 Box-Wilson experimental design was used to develop a statistical model. The effects of shaking rate (55–145 rpm) and initial pH (4.6–7.4) on the

Odonchimeg Jargalsaikhan; Nurdan Saraço?lu

2008-01-01

113

Antioxidant property of an ethanol extract of the stem of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.  

PubMed

An ethanol extract of the stem of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OFS) was assessed to determine the mechanism(s) of its antioxidant activity. The ethanol extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in a thiocyanate assay system. In addition, the OFS extract showed dose-dependent free-radical scavenging activity, including DPPH radicals, superoxide anions (O(2)(*-)), and hydroxyl radicals (*OH), using different assay systems. The OFS ethanol extract was also found to be effective in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals in a Fenton's reaction mixture. Furthermore, the extract showed significant (p < 0.01) dose-dependent protection of mouse splenocytes against glucose oxidase-mediated cytotoxicity. Finally, the OFS extract was characterized as containing a high amount of phenolics (180.3 mg/g), which might be the active compounds responsible for the antioxidant properties of the OFS extract. PMID:12381138

Lee, Jeong-Chae; Kim, Hak-Ryul; Kim, Ju; Jang, Yong-Suk

2002-10-23

114

Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities investigation of tomato seed extracts.  

PubMed

Biological activities of different varieties of tomato seed extracts were evaluated to verify the potential antioxidant and/or antiproliferative activity of the bioactive metabolites present in them. Findings demonstrated that among all the varieties investigated (San Marzano Rosso, San Marzano Giallo, Corbarino, Black Tomato and San Marzano/Black Tomato hybrid) San Marzano Rosso seed extract exhibited the highest free radical-scavenging activity with 68% of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical inhibition, and the best cytotoxic activity evaluated by using the brine shrimp test (LD50: 23,198 ppm) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay on A375 cell line (IC50: 137.7 ?g/mL). PMID:24483342

Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Caporale, Angelamaria; De Martino, Laura; Popolo, Ada; De Prisco, Rocco; Nicolaus, Barbara; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Saturnino, Carmela

2014-01-01

115

Comparison of Supercritical Fluid and Hexane Extraction Methods in Extracting Kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus ) Seed Oil Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate and compare fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols of kenaf seed oil extracted\\u000a by supercritical carbon dioxide and traditional solvent methods. Fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols were determined in the\\u000a extracted oils as functions of the pressure (400 bar, 600 bar), temperature (40 °C, 80 °C) and CO2 flow rate (25 g\\/min) using a 1-L extraction vessel. Gas

Abdalbasit Adam Mariod; Bertrand Matthäus; Maznah Ismail

2011-01-01

116

Cytotoxicity analysis of active components in bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seed extracts using human embryonic kidney and colon tumor cells.  

PubMed

Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seed extracts (BMSE) have been used as traditional medicine for treating various ailments, although in many cases, the active component(s) are unidentified. In this study, bitter melon seeds were extracted in water, ethanol, or ethanol: water (1:1). The aqueous seed extracts (BMSE-W) exhibited marked cytotoxicity towards human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) and human colon tumor 116 (HCT1116) cells. The activity in BMSE-W was unaffected by heat and proteinases treatments, and eluted in the total volume of size-exclusion HPLC, suggesting the small, organic nature of the active component(s). Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometic (GC-MS) analysis of the HPLC fractions identified methoxy-phenyl oxime (MPO) as a major active component. Acetophenone oxime, a commercially available structural homolog of MPO, demonstrated cytotoxicity comparable with that of the BMSE-W. The oxime functional group was found to be critical for activity. Increased poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase and beta-actin cleavage, and chromatin condensation observed in treated cells suggested apoptosis as a plausible cause for the cytotoxicity. This study, for the first time, identified a cytotoxic oxime in BMSE-W. PMID:23074909

Chipps, Elizabeth S; Jayini, Renuka; Ando, Shoko; Protzman, April D; Muhi, M Zubayed; Mottaleb, M Abdul; Malkawi, Ahmed; Islam, M Rafiq

2012-09-01

117

Supercritical fluid extraction of Cucurbita ficifolia seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pumpkin, Cucurbita ficifolia, seed oil was extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2) in the temperature range of 308–318 K and in the pressure range of 18–20 MPa. In addition, the influence of the superficial velocity within a tubular extractor was studied. The oil content determined by a Soxhlet apparatus was 43.5%. Physical and chemical characteristics of the oil were obtained. The

M. Gabriela Bernardo-Gil; Lina M. Cardoso Lopes

2004-01-01

118

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) attenuates collagen-induced arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) which is known to act as an antioxidant has therapeutic effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. Mice were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of GSPE (10, 50, or 100mg\\/kg) or saline. Clinical, histological, and biochemical parameters were assessed. The effects of GSPE on osteoclastogenesis were

Mi-La Cho; Yu-Jung Heo; Mi-Kyung Park; Hye-Jwa Oh; Jin-Sil Park; Yun-Ju Woo; Ji-Hyeon Ju; Sung-Hwan Park; Ho-Youn Kim; Jun-Ki Min

2009-01-01

119

Stability of polyphenolic extracts from grape seeds after thermal treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five commercial grape seed extracts (GSEs) were put under pasteurisation (HTST and LTLT), cooking, baking and sterilisation\\u000a conditions. After each treatment, the tannin content, antioxidant activity, browning and characteristics of eight phenolic\\u000a compounds were determined. For nearly all quantified parameters, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between at least two treatments. The gallic acid, gallocatechin and browning parameters showed a greater

Gabriel Davidov-Pardo; Iñigo Arozarena; María R. Marín-Arroyo

2011-01-01

120

Supercritical Fluid Chromatography of polyphenolic compounds in grape seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Supercritical Fluid Chromatography with a packed column on a mixture of eight polyphenols has been optimized. Carbon dioxide\\u000a which was modified with methanol which contained less than 1% (w\\/w) citric acid as a secondary additive served as the mobile\\u000a phase. Two tandem diol columns were used sequentially. The optimized method was applied to a supercritical fluid grape seed\\u000a extract. Various

A. Karnangerpour; M. Ashraf-Khorassani; L. T. Taylor; H. M. McNair; L. Chorida

2002-01-01

121

In vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).  

PubMed

The antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract from edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) were evaluated by various methods in vitro and in vivo. In antioxidant assays in vitro, ethanolic extract of A. bisporus was found to have strong reducing power, superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and moderate hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. In antioxidant assays in vivo, mice were administered with ethanolic extract of A. bisporus via gavage for 30 consecutive days. As a result, administration of ethanolic extract significantly enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes in serums, livers and hearts of mice. In addition, the total phenolic content in the extract determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method was 6.18mg of gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight. The main phenolic compounds in ethanolic extract analyzed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were determined as gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and myricetin. These results suggested that ethanolic extract of A. bisporus had potent antioxidant activity and could be explored as a novel natural antioxidant. PMID:23099505

Liu, Jun; Jia, Liang; Kan, Juan; Jin, Chang-Hai

2013-01-01

122

Extraction and identification of proanthocyanidins from grape seed ( Vitis Vinifera) using supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of proantocyanidins (PRCs) was performed and the effect of different pressure, temperature and ethanol percentage was investigated. High performance liquid chromatography was used for the analysis of the compounds and it was found that the most effective parameter on the extraction was the amount of the ethanol percentage. Each compound was extracted from

Esen Eyiler Yilmaz; Emin Burcin Özvural; Halil Vural

2011-01-01

123

Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

1986-05-01

124

Identification of benzethonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts.  

PubMed

Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis (by proton-induced X-ray emission [PIXE] analysis). The main constituent was identified as benzethonium chloride, a synthetic antimicrobial agent commonly used in cosmetics and other topical applications. This compound comprised 8.03% (n = 2) of the liquid GSE sample. Higher amounts of benzethonium chloride were found in powder GSE samples. PMID:11453769

Takeoka, G; Dao, L; Wong, R Y; Lundin, R; Mahoney, N

2001-07-01

125

Identification of benzalkonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts.  

PubMed

Commercial grapefruit seed extracts (GSE) were extracted with chloroform. The solvent was evaporated, and the resulting solid was subsequently analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI/MS), tandem mass spectrometry (ESI/MS/MS), and elemental analysis (by proton-induced X-ray emission analysis). Three major constituents were observed by HPLC and were identified as benzyldimethyldodecylammonium chloride, benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride, and benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride. This mixture of homologues is commonly known as benzalkonium chloride, a widely used synthetic antimicrobial ingredient used in cleaning and disinfection agents. PMID:16159196

Takeoka, Gary R; Dao, Lan T; Wong, Rosalind Y; Harden, Leslie A

2005-09-21

126

Central nervous system stimulant effect of the ethanolic extract of Kigelia africana  

Microsoft Academic Search

CNS stimulant effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Kigelia africana was studied in mice using the barbiturate induced sleeping time and the Rota rod bar to check the extract's effect on muscle coordination. The results showed that the extract at all doses tested reduced the duration of sleeping time when compared to the control group that received distilled

Owolabi O. j; F. C Amaechina; A. B Eledan

127

Separation of lignocellulosic materials by combined processes of pre-hydrolysis and ethanol extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we proposed a new modification for an ethanol-based pulping process, which would consist of the pre-hydrolysis (pre-extraction) of wood chips for removing hemicelluloses; the ethanol extraction of pre-hydrolyzed wood chips for removing lignin; and the post purification of cellulose, leading to the production of pure cellulose. We also experimentally evaluated the separation of hemicelluloses from the pre-hydrolysis

Zehua Liu; Pedram Fatehi; M. Sarwar Jahan; Yonghao Ni

2011-01-01

128

A preliminary study of the mechanism of hypoglycaemic activity of Nauclea latifolia leaf ethanolic extract.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the possible underlying mechanism of the hypoglycaemic activity of the ethanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia leaves in rats. The extract, glibenclamide or water was administered orally in a glucose, sucrose and maltose tolerance tests. In addition, the effect of the extract on ?-glucosidase enzymes was also studied. The ethanolic extract at 200mg/kg body weight inhibited the increase in glucose level after both oral and intraperitoneal glucose loads as did glibenclamide. The extract also dose dependently inhibited both maltase and sucrase activities in vitro but not in vivo. The hypoglycaemic effect of N. latifolia leaf ethanolic extract thus appears to be most probably exerted through a mechanism similar to that of glibenclamide which is related to increased insulin release from pancreatic ?-cells. PMID:22944715

Gidado, Abubakar; Ameh, Danladi A; Atawodi, Sunday E; Ibrahim, Sani

2012-01-01

129

Antiulcer activity of ethanol leaf extract of Cassia fistula.  

PubMed

The ethanol leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula Linn. (Caesalpinaceae) was evaluated for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. Ranitidine (30 mg/kg b.w.) and ELE at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.w. were administered orally in different groups of rats (n = 6), 1 h prior to pyloric ligation. Four hours after pyloric ligation, the gastric juice was collected for evaluation of various parameters. The antiulcer activity of ELE was evidenced by the significant attenuation of gastric volume, pH, free acidity, and total acidity in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats in a dose-dependent manner, and this protective effect could be due to strengthening of the mucosal defense mechanism. ELE pre-treatment significantly attenuated the fall in status of sialic acid and fucose accompanied by an increase in hexose, hexosamine, total non-amino polysaccharide, total carbohydrate, and C:P ratio in the gastric juice of pylorus-ligated rats, and this effect could be due to protection of the mucosal barrier system. ELE pre-treatment significantly prevented the increase in LPO and SOD accompanied by a fall in CAT, in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats. This protective ability of ELE against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Higher doses of ELE (750 mg/kg b.w.) produced maximum antiulcer activity comparable to ranitidine treatment. In essence, the antiulcer activity of ELE could be attributed to (i) a decrease in gastric acid secretion, (ii) protection of the mucosal barrier and restoration of mucosal secretions, (iii) inhibition of free radical generation or prevention of lipid peroxidation, and (iv) free radical scavenging or antioxidant properties. PMID:20673173

Karthikeyan, Sivanesan; Gobianand, Kuppannan

2010-08-01

130

Protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by Curcuma comosa Roxb. ethanol extract.  

PubMed

The protective effect of an ethanol extract of Curcuma comosa against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in mice was studied. Adult male mice were pretreated for 4 days with the ethanol extract of C. comosa [100-200 mg/kg body weight (BW), orally (p.o.)] before injection of cisplatin (12.5 mg/kg BW, intraperitoneally (i.p.)). Five days later the mice were killed, and blood samples were collected to determine blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma creatinine levels. Kidneys were examined histopathologically and levels of lipid peroxidation, gluthathione (GSH) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), gluthathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities were determined. Histological examinations revealed degenerative changes and tubular necrosis in mice treated with cisplatin, which were improved by pretreatment with C. comosa ethanol extract. Cisplatin raised BUN, creatinine, and kidney lipid peroxidation levels, and lowered kidney GSH content and levels of GPx, SOD, and CAT activities, all of which (except SOD and CAT) could be restored to normal values by pretreatment with 200 mg/kg BW of C. comosa ethanol extract. In addition, the ethanol extract of C. comosa and its isolated diarylheptanoid compound also exhibited radical scavenging activities. The results suggest that the ethanol extract of C. comosa exhibits effective protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity mediated through its antioxidant activity. PMID:19536611

Jariyawat, Surawat; Kigpituck, Pranida; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Chuncharunee, Aporn; Chaovanalikit, Arusa; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee

2009-10-01

131

Analysis of Proanthocyanidins in Grape Seed Extracts, Health Foods and Grape Seed Oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grape seed extract (GSE) is one of Japan's natu- ral food additives, and is recommended for use as an antioxidant. The component of interest is polyphenol, mainly proanthocyanidins, which are condensed tannins. A vanillin-hydrochloric acid (HCl) assay is spe- cific for flavan-3-ol. The sensitivity of GSE components to the vanillin-HCl assay differed according to the chemical structure. We applied this

Yumiko Nakamura; Sumiko Tsuji; Yasuhide Tonogai

2003-01-01

132

Molecular docking studies and anti-snake venom metalloproteinase activity of Thai mango seed kernel extract.  

PubMed

Snakebite envenomations cause severe local tissue necrosis and the venom metalloproteinases are thought to be the key toxins involved. In this study, the ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose) exhibited potent and dose-dependent inhibitory effects on the caseinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activities of Malayan pit viper and Thai cobra venoms in in vitro tests. molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the binding pockets of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). The phenolic principles could form hydrogen bonds with the three histidine residues in the conserved zinc-binding motif and could chelate the Zn(2+) atom of the SVMPs, which could potentially result in inhibition of the venom enzymatic activities and thereby inhibit tissue necrosis. PMID:19783918

Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

2009-01-01

133

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) bark.  

PubMed

The antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the plant bark of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) was investigated using tail flick method on Wistar rats. Three different dose levels (300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) were administered by p.o. route. The antinociceptive activities of the all doses were compared with that of the standard drug asprin (300 mg/kg) administered by p.o. route and the results were found to be significant (P < 0.01). At the above doses, the extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract indicated the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds, and flavanoids. The antinociceptive activity of the bark extract of D. sissoo may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as flavanoids. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanolic extract was not toxic up to 3000 mg/kg body weight. PMID:22470239

Asif, Mohammad; Kumar, Arun

2011-01-01

134

Phytochemical investigation and evaluation of antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) bark  

PubMed Central

The antinociceptive activity of ethanolic extract of the plant bark of Dalbergia sissoo (Roxb.) was investigated using tail flick method on Wistar rats. Three different dose levels (300, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) in 0.5% carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) were administered by p.o. route. The antinociceptive activities of the all doses were compared with that of the standard drug asprin (300 mg/kg) administered by p.o. route and the results were found to be significant (P < 0.01). At the above doses, the extract exhibited significant and dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanolic extract indicated the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds, and flavanoids. The antinociceptive activity of the bark extract of D. sissoo may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as flavanoids. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanolic extract was not toxic up to 3000 mg/kg body weight.

Asif, Mohammad; Kumar, Arun

2011-01-01

135

Antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark against Naja venom  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antivenom potential of ethanolic extract of bark of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom induced pharmacological effects such as lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion, edema, cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Methods Wistar strain rats were challenged with Naja venom and treated with the ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. The effectiveness of the extract to neutralize the lethalities of Naja venom was investigated as recommended by WHO. Results At the dose of 400 and 800 mg/kg ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark significantly inhibited the Naja venom induced lethality, hemorrhagic lesion, necrotizing lesion and edema in rats. Ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark was effective in neutralizing the coagulant and defibrinogenating activity of Naja venom. The cardiotoxic effects in isolated frog heart and neurotoxic activity studies on frog rectus abdominus muscle were also antagonized by ethanolic extract of Cordia macleodii bark. Conclusions It is concluded that the protective effect of extract of Cordia macleodii against Naja venom poisoning may be mediated by the cardiotonic, proteolysin neutralization, anti-inflammatory, antiserotonic and antihistaminic activity. It is possible that the protective effect may also be due to precipitation of active venom constituents.

Soni, Pranay; Bodakhe, Surendra H.

2014-01-01

136

Phytochemical and biological investigation of the extracts of Nigella sativa L. seed waste.  

PubMed

Different extracts of Nigella sativa L. seed waste; aqueous (AE) 200 mg/kg, ethanol 70% (EE) 250 mg/kg and hexane (HE) 10 mg/kg, were evaluated for their hepatoprotective activities. They were administered orally, once daily, for 5 consecutive days. On day 5, liver injury was induced in animals by a single i.p. injection of carbon tetrachloride (10 mg/kg b. w. of 0.25% (v/v). Hepatoxicity produced, was evaluated by both biochemical and histopathological investigations. The aqueous extract attenuated the CCl(4) -induced liver damage likely due to the decrease of proinflammatory cytokines and T-cell proliferation. This was noticed by a significant decrease in both serum and tissue cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interferon-gamma (INF-?) and interlukin-beta (IL-1?), in the markers of liver functions; bilirubin and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and in the oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione content (GSH). Fractionation of this extract was performed and its component, protein, saponin, and polyphenol fractions were evaluated by appropriate analytical procedures. The crude protein of the seed waste reached 36.85% while protein fingerprint showed four bands ranging from 91.97 KD and 29.00 KD. The saponin content was evaluated through the determination of the haemolytic index and reached 15.56 mg/g dry powder. Finally, Folin Ciocalteu method was used for the determination of the total polyphenols. The same biochemical and histopathological studies were again performed on the different fractions of the aqueous extract; protein fraction (PF) 10 mg/kg, saponin fraction (SF) 5 mg/kg and polyphenol fraction (FF) 10 mg/kg. The biochemical changes were improved only by the protein fraction (PF) of the seed waste of Nigella sativa. This was manifested by a significant reduction in both serum and tissue cytokines in the liver markers and in the oxidative stress markers. Moreover, liver histopathology showed that (PF) reduced the incidence of liver lesions including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, lymphocytes infiltration, hepatic necrosis and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by CCl(4) in mice. From this study, it is concluded that the protein fraction of the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seed waste exhibited a promising hepatoprotective effect in the management of different liver disorders. PMID:21309000

Michel, Camilia G; El-Sayed, Nesrine S; Moustafa, Sherifa F; Ezzat, Shahira M; Nesseem, Demiana I; El-Alfy, Taha S

2011-04-01

137

Quality and characteristics of ginseng seed oil treated using different extraction methods  

PubMed Central

Ginseng seed oil was prepared using compressed, solvent, and supercritical fluid extraction methods of ginseng seeds, and the extraction yield, color, phenolic compounds, fatty acid contents, and phytosterol contents of the ginseng seed oil were analyzed. Yields were different depending on the roasting pretreatment and extraction method. Among the extraction methods, the yield of ginseng seed oil from supercritical fluid extraction under the conditions of 500 bar and 65? was the highest, at 17.48%. Color was not different based on the extraction method, but the b-value increased as the roasting time for compression extraction was increased. The b-values of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction were 3.54 to 15.6 and those following compression extraction after roasting treatment at 200? for 30 min, were 20.49, which was the highest value. The result of the phenolic compounds composition showed the presence of gentisic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid in the ginseng seed oil. No differences were detected in phenolic acid levels in ginseng seed oil extracted by compression extraction or solvent extraction, but vanillic acid tended to decrease as extraction pressure and temperature were increased for seed oil extracted by a supercritical fluid extraction method. The fatty acid composition of ginseng seed oil was not different based on the extraction method, and unsaturated fatty acids were >90% of all fatty acids, among which, oleic acid was the highest at 80%. Phytosterol analysis showed that ?-sitosterol and stigmasterol were detected. The phytosterol content of ginseng seed oil following supercritical fluid extraction was 100.4 to 135.5 mg/100 g, and the phytosterol content following compression extraction and solvent extraction was 71.8 to 80.9 mg/100 g.

Lee, Myung-Hee; Kim, Sung-Soo; Cho, Chang-Won; Choi, Sang-Yoon; In, Gyo; Kim, Kyung-Tack

2013-01-01

138

Recovery of grape seed oil by liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction: a comparison with conventional solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the extraction of grape seed oil by means of liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent is described. The operating conditions to determine the maximum extraction yield were studied. The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was similar to that obtained by conventional liquid extraction, but the quality of the supercritically extracted oil was higher, equivalent to

A. Molero Gómez; C. Pereyra López; E. Martinez de la Ossa

1996-01-01

139

Nutrional value and antinutritional components of whole and ethanol extracted Moringa oleifera leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical constituents, organic matter digestibility, gross and metabolizable energy, rumen degradable and undegradable nitrogen, amino acid composition, digestion kinetics (leaves, their neutral-detergent fiber and cell solubles), and antinutritional factors were determined in extracted (80% aqueous ethanol; the extract is used as a source of growth promoting factors) and unextracted Moringa oleifera leaves. The metabolizable energy and organic matter digestibility predicted

H. P. S. Makkar; K. Becker

1996-01-01

140

Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using

Giancarlo Cravotto; Carlo Bicchi; Stefano Mantegna; Arianna Binello; Valérie Tomao; Farid Chemat

2011-01-01

141

Antioxidative activity of persimmon and grape seed extract: in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined in vitro radical scavenging activity of persimmon seed extract (PSE) and grape seed extract (GSE), and quantified total tannin concentrations of each extract. It has been found that both PSE and GSE have radical scavenging activities, and total tannin concentration of PSE was significantly higher than GSE (p < 0.05). In order to investigate the protective effect on

Hong Seok Ahn; Tae Il Jeon; Joo Yong Lee; Seong Gu Hwang; Yoongho Lim; Dong Ki Park

2002-01-01

142

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? The Study of appropriate extraction methods and analysis composition of Passion fruit seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to extract and analyses composition of passion fruit seed oil and develop cosmetics from oil extract. Two different techniques were investigated, soxhlet extraction by hexane and petroleum ether, and hydraulic press, to obtain oil directly, resulting the yields of passion fruit seed oil of 23.36 %, 24.46% and 20.06% respectively. The composition of seed

Pongsiri Winitchai

143

Grape seed extract suppresses lipid peroxidation and reduces hypoxic ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen radicals play a crucial role in brain injury. Grape seed extract is a potent anti-oxidant. Does grape seed extract reduce brain injury in the rat pup? Seven-day-old rat pups had the right carotid arteries permanently ligated followed by 2.5h of hypoxia (8% oxygen). Grape seed extract, 50mg\\/kg, or vehicle was administered by i.p. 5min prior to hypoxia and 4h

Yangzheng Feng; Yi-Ming Liu; Jonathan D. Fratkins; Michael H. LeBlanc

2005-01-01

144

The influence of sunflower and mustard leaf extracts on the germination of mustard seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extracts from sunflower and mustard leaves were separated using SPE-Columns. The mustard seeds were germinated on water\\u000a (24 h) and subsequently on crude extracts or separate fractions. The heat production rate was measured by isothermal calorimetry\\u000a at 21°C and changes in seed cotyledons by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Crude extracts strongly inhibited seed germination. The water\\u000a and ‘methanol’ fractions of mustard

Magdalena Tro?; A. Skoczowski; Ma?gorzata Bara?ska

2009-01-01

145

Antinociceptive action of ethanolic extract obtained from roots of Humirianthera ampla Miers.  

PubMed

Humirianthera ampla Miers is a member of the Icacinaceae family and presents great amounts of di and triterpenoids. These chemical constituents in roots of Humirianthera ampla sustain not only the ethnopharmacological use against snake venom, but also some anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the plant. In this study we investigated the antinociceptive action of the ethanolic extract (EE) from roots of the Humirianthera ampla in chemical and thermal models of pain in mice. The oral treatment with ethanolic extract dose-dependently inhibited glutamate-, capsaicin- and formalin-induced licking. However, it did not prevent the nociception caused by radiant heat on the tail-flick test. The ethanolic extract (30 mg/kg) caused marked inhibition of the nociceptive biting response induced by glutamate, (+/-)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and substance P. The antinociception caused by ethanolic extract was significantly attenuated by naloxone, l-arginine, WAY100635, ondansetron or ketanserin, but not by caffeine or naloxone methiodide. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract from roots of Humirianthera ampla produces antinociception against neurogenic and inflammatory models of nociception. The mechanisms of antinociception involve nitric oxide, opioid, serotonin and glutamate pathways. Therefore, our results support the ethnopharmacological use of the Humirianthera ampla against inflammatory and painful process caused by snake venom. PMID:17900839

Luiz, Ana Paula; Moura, Janaína D'Avila; Meotti, Flavia C; Guginski, Giselle; Guimarães, Cesar L S; Azevedo, Mariangela S; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Santos, Adair R S

2007-12-01

146

Extraction of high-quality DNA from ethanol-preserved tropical plant tissues  

PubMed Central

Background Proper conservation of plant samples, especially during remote field collection, is essential to assure quality of extracted DNA. Tropical plant species contain considerable amounts of secondary compounds, such as polysaccharides, phenols, and latex, which affect DNA quality during extraction. The suitability of ethanol (96%?v/v) as a preservative solution prior to DNA extraction was evaluated using leaves of Jatropha curcas and other tropical species. Results Total DNA extracted from leaf samples stored in liquid nitrogen or ethanol from J. curcas and other tropical species (Theobroma cacao, Coffea arabica, Ricinus communis, Saccharum spp., and Solanum lycopersicon) was similar in quality, with high-molecular-weight DNA visualized by gel electrophoresis. DNA quality was confirmed by digestion with EcoRI or HindIII and by amplification of the ribosomal gene internal transcribed spacer region. Leaf tissue of J. curcas was analyzed by light and transmission electron microscopy before and after exposure to ethanol. Our results indicate that leaf samples can be successfully preserved in ethanol for long periods (30?days) as a viable method for fixation and conservation of DNA from leaves. The success of this technique is likely due to reduction or inactivation of secondary metabolites that could contaminate or degrade genomic DNA. Conclusions Tissue conservation in 96% ethanol represents an attractive low-cost alternative to commonly used methods for preservation of samples for DNA extraction. This technique yields DNA of equivalent quality to that obtained from fresh or frozen tissue.

2014-01-01

147

Larvicidal action of ethanolic extracts from fruit endocarps of Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica against the dengue mosquito Aedes aegypti.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts from the kernels of ripe fruits from the Indian Lilac Melia azedarach and from the well-known Neem tree, Azadirachta indica were assayed against larvae of Aedes aegypti, the mosquito vector of dengue fever. The lethality bioassays were carried out according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Extracts were tested at doses ranging from 0.0033 to 0.05 g% in an aqueous medium for 24 and 48 h, at 25 or 30 degrees C, with or without feeding of the larvae. LC50, LC95 and LC99 were determined. Both seed extracts proved lethal for third to fourth instar larvae. Non-fed A. aegypti larvae were more susceptible to Azadirachta extracts at both temperatures. Under a more realistic environmental situation, namely with fed larvae at 25 degrees C, the death rates caused by the Melia extract were higher, although at 30 degrees C the extract of Azadirachta had an even higher lethality. Inter allia, the LC50 values for the crude extracts of these two members of the Meliaceae ranged from 0.017 to 0.034 g% while the LC99 values ranged from 0.133 to 0.189 g%. Since no downstream processing was undertaken to purify the active agents in the extracts, our findings seem very promising, suggesting that it may be possible to increase the larvicidal activity further by improving the extraction and the fractionation of the crude limonoids, for instance removing the co-extracted natural fats. PMID:15530964

Wandscheer, Carolina B; Duque, Jonny E; da Silva, Mario A N; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Wohlke, Jonathan L; Adelmann, Juliana; Fontana, José D

2004-12-15

148

Extraction of fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds with supercritical CO 2: Comparison with hydrodistillation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seeds, growing wild in Montenegro, were extracted with supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) at a flow rate of 0.2 kg CO2\\/h under varying extraction conditions in order to determine yield, composition and organoleptic characteristics of extract. The extracts obtained were compared to fennel seed oil isolated by hydrodistillation. In the SC-CO2, extracts as well in the hydrodistilled

Biljana Damjanovi?; Žika Lepojevi?; Vladimir Živkovi?; Aleksandar Toli?

2005-01-01

149

Grape seed extract effects in brain after hypobaric hypoxia.  

PubMed

Hypoxia induces a wide range of deleterious effects at the cellular level due to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Polyphenols from grape seeds, which are potent antioxidants might protect the brain against oxidative stress produced by hypobaric hypoxia. The brain effects of three doses of grape seed extract intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered in rats after exposure to hypobaric hypoxia corresponding to 5500 m altitude were investigated. Some oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, inflammatory cytokine (IL-6) and molecules involved in angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], matrix metalloproteinase 2 [MMP2], and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 [TIMP1]) were determined. Forty-two rats were divided in seven groups: group 1, control; groups 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 24 h in a hypobaric chamber; groups 5, 6, and 7 were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia for 5 days. After returning to normal atmospheric pressure, rats from groups 2 and 5 were sacrificed without other treatment. Animals from groups 3 and 6 were i.p treated with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) vehicle and those from groups 4 and 7 were i.p. treated with grape seed extract (GSE) (50 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg body weight in 0.5 mL CMC suspension/animal). The treatment was applied at 2, 24, and 72 h from returning to normoxia. Hypobaric hypoxia produced increased brain levels of ROS, nitric oxide (NO), IL-6, and VEGF after both time intervals (P<.05). The MMP2 concentration was significantly increased in groups treated only with vehicle, whereas TIMP1 was slightly changed. GSE produced a significant reduction of ROS and NO levels proving its antioxidant capacity. It also decreased IL-6 and MMP2 concentrations to values similar to controls. The VEGF concentration was also significantly reduced. These effects are indicative for anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties of GSE. PMID:24044492

Muresan, Adriana; Suciu, Soimita; Daicoviciu, Doina; Filip, Adriana Gabriela; Clichici, Simona

2013-09-01

150

Nigella sativa seed extract: 1. Enhancement of sheep macrophage immune functions in vitro.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed, Black cumin, immunomodulatory activity has been investigated in human and mice. Little is known about the immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed extract on animals' immune cells, specifically, antigen presenting cells such as macrophages. This study focused on the immunomodulatory effect of N. sativa seed extract on sheep macrophage functions in vitro. Sheep peripheral blood monocytes were isolated and derived to macrophages (MDM). The MDM were cultured with N. sativa seed extract and their morphological changes, phagocytic activity, nitric oxide production, and microbicidal activity were investigated. Marked morphological changes were observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract including cell size enlargement; increase in both cytoplasmic space and cytoplasmic granules. Significant increases in phagocytic activity to Candida albicans yeast and in number of yeast engulfed per individual MDM were observed in cells cultured with seed extract. MDM capacity to produce nitric oxide was higher in the culture media of the seed extract-cultured cells compared to the control. Interestingly, prominent enhancement in MDM microbicidal activity to yeast or bacteria was observed in MDM cultured with N. sativa seed extract confirming the potent immunostimulatory effect of the extract. From this study, it could be concluded that N. sativa seed extract can enhance macrophages' important innate immune functions that could control infectious diseases and regulate adaptive immunity. PMID:23664216

Elmowalid, Gamal; Amar, Ahmad M; Ahmad, Adel Attia M

2013-10-01

151

Cassia tora (Leguminosae) seed extract alleviates high-fat diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Cassia tora seeds on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis, and elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind its effects. After being fed a HFD for two weeks, rats were orally dosed with Cassia seed ethanol extract (CSEE) (100, 200, or 300mg/kg) once daily for 8weeks. CSEE induced dose-dependent reductions in plasma lipid levels, as well as decreased the over hepatic lipid accumulation. Furthermore, CSEE treatment improved HFD-induced hepatic histological lesions. CSEE enhanced the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its primary downstream targeting enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, up-regulated the gene expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, and down-regulated sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase protein levels in the livers of HFD-fed rats. AMPK inhibition by compound C retarded CSEE-induced reduction in triglyceride accumulation in HepG2 cells stimulated by insulin. Our findings suggest that CSEE may regulate hepatic lipid homeostasis related with an AMPK-dependent signaling pathway. Targeting AMPK activation with CSEE may represent a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:23026700

Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Lu, Hung-Jen; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Chang, Chia Ju; Liu, I-Min

2013-01-01

152

Antibacterial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook et Arn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts and three aqueous extracts from various parts (leaves, stems and flowers) of A. aroma against 163 strains of antibiotic multi-resistant bacteria.The disc diffusion assay was performed to evaluate antibacterial activity of the A. aroma crude extracts, against several Gram-positive bacteria (E. faecalis, S. aureus,

M. E Arias; J. D Gomez; N. M Cudmani; M. A Vattuone; M. I Isla

2004-01-01

153

A comparison of in vitro anticancerous activity and mechanism of ethanolic extracts from different Ganoderma genus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five ethanolic extracts from the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum, G. tsugae, G. oerstedii, G. subamboinense, and G. resinaceum were respectively studied on their anticancerous activities against leukemic HL-60 cell line in vitro. Results showed that\\u000a all five extracts potently inhibited HL-60 proliferation. The extract from G. lucidum mycelia exerted the highest activity. Annexin V\\/PI bivariate flow cytometric analysis further revealed

Yueqin Zhou; Xiaotong Yang; Xuquan Li; Huiqin Feng; Ke Mi; Qingyao Yang

2006-01-01

154

A simple DNA extraction method for PCR amplification from dry seeds of Brassica napus.  

PubMed

A simple and reliable DNA extraction method for dry seeds of Brassica napus has been developed in our laboratory. The NaCl and PVP were used to remove polysaccharides and polyphenols during DNA purification. The oil and proteins of dry seeds were removed only through centrifugation in this method. The RAPD amplification patterns have no obviously difference between the DNA extracted from dry seeds and fresh leaves extracted with control method. The good results of SSR molecular markers on the DNA of dry seeds of another 12 B. napus indicating that the DNA extracted from dry seeds was freedom from common contaminating compounds. In conclusion, this method could be widely used in DNA extraction from dry seeds of B. napus. PMID:19070063

Maoteng, Li; Jianmin, Liu; Zhangyi; Pei, Wang; Lu, Gan; Longjiang, Yu

2007-04-01

155

In Vivo Antioxidant and Antiulcer Activity of Parkia speciosa Ethanolic Leaf Extract against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcer in Rats  

PubMed Central

Background The current study was carried out to examine the gastroprotective effects of Parkia speciosa against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings Sprague Dawley rats were separated into 7 groups. Groups 1–2 were orally challenged with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC); group 3 received 20 mg/kg omeprazole and groups 4–7 received 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of ethanolic leaf extract, respectively. After 1 h, CMC or absolute ethanol was given orally to groups 2–7. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. Then, the injuries to the gastric mucosa were estimated through assessment of the gastric wall mucus, the gross appearance of ulcer areas, histology, immunohistochemistry and enzymatic assays. Group 2 exhibited significant mucosal injuries, with reduced gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa, whereas reductions in mucosal injury were observed for groups 4–7. Groups 3–7 demonstrated a reversal in the decrease in Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining induced by ethanol. No symptoms of toxicity or death were observed during the acute toxicity tests. Conclusion Treatment with the extract led to the upregulation of heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the downregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Significant increases in the levels of the antioxidant defense enzymes glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the gastric mucosal homogenate were observed, whereas that of a lipid peroxidation marker (MDA) was significantly decreased. Significance was defined as p<0.05 compared to the ulcer control group (Group 2).

Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mazen M.; Abdualkader, Abdualrahman Mohammed; Hadi, Hamid A.; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

2013-01-01

156

Effect of ethanolic fl ax (Linum usitatissimum L.) extracts on lipid oxidation and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products.  

PubMed

Background. Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of phenolic compounds, mainly lignans. Antioxidant capacities of flaxseed extracts that contain the compounds have been reported earlier. However, there is a lack of accessible information about their activity against lipid oxidation in meat products. Therefore, the effect of ethanolic flaxseed extracts (EFEs) on lipid stability and changes in nutritive value of frozen-stored meat products (pork meatballs and burgers) was determined. Material and methods. EFEs from three Polish flax varieties (Szafir, Oliwin, Jantarol) were applied in the study. During 150-day storage of meat products, the lipid oxidation (peroxide and TBARS value) and thiamine retention were periodically monitored, alongside with methionine and lysine availability and protein digestibility. Results. The addition of EFEs significantly limited lipid oxidation in stored meatballs and burgers. EFE from brown seeds of Szafir var. was superior to the others from golden seeds of Jantarol and Oliwin. Moreover, the extracts reduced changes in thiamine and available lysine content, as well as protein digestibility, during storage time. The effect of EFE addition on available methionine retention was limited. Conclusion. The ethanolic flaxseed extracts exhibit antioxidant activity during frozen storage of meat products. They can be utilized to prolong shelf-life of the products by protecting them against lipid oxidation and deterioration of their nutritional quality. However, antioxidant efficiency of the extracts seems to depend on chemical composition of raw material (flax variety). Further investigations should be carried on to explain the issue. PMID:24876309

Waszkowiak, Katarzyna; Szymandera-Buszka, Krystyna; H??, Marzanna

2014-04-01

157

Antiosteoporotic effect of ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. on ovariectomized rat.  

PubMed

Ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis was evaluated for its anti-osteoporotic activity in ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis at two different dose levels of 500 and 750 mg/kg per day. Healthy female albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. First group was sham operated and served as control. All the remaining groups were ovariectomized. Group 2 was fed with equivolume of saline and served as ovariectomized control. Groups 3-5 were orally treated with Raloxifen (5.4 mg/kg) and ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (500 and 750 mg/kg), respectively. The findings assessed on the basis of biomechanical, biochemical and histopathological parameters showed that the ethanol extract of the plant had a definite antiosteoporotic effect. PMID:14611887

Shirwaikar, Annie; Khan, Saleemulla; Malini, S

2003-12-01

158

Evaluation of acute and subacute oral toxicity of the ethanol extract from Antidesma acidum Retz.  

PubMed

Toxicity tests of 95% ethanol extract of the root of Antidesma acidum were studied in male and female rats. The oral acute toxicity test at 5,000 mg/kg revealed that the ethanol extract did not produce toxic effects on signs, general behavious, mortality and gross appearance of internal organs of rats. Furthermore, the oral sub-acute toxicity test at the dose of 1,000 mg/kg/day displayed no significant changes in body and internal organs' weights, normal hematological and clinical blood chemistry values. Histological examination also showed normal architecture of all internal organs. In conclusion, the ethanol extract of Antidesma acidum did not produce any toxicity in oral acute and suba-cute toxicity studies. PMID:23983382

Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Thamaree, Sopit; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Vannasiri, Supaporn; Khonsung, Parirat; Singhalak, Tipaya; Jaijoy, Kanjana

2012-01-01

159

Antioxidant, Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Leaves of Alocasia indica (Schott.)  

PubMed Central

Extracts obtained from the leaves of various Alocasia species have been used in India as folk remedy for the treatment of various inflammatory ailments including rheumatism and bruise. The ethanolic extract of leaves of Alocasia indica Schott. was evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant models of screening like scavenging of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, nitric oxide radical, superoxide anion radical, and hydroxyl radical. The antinociceptive activity was tested by acetic acid-induced writhing response, hot plate method, and tail flick method in albino rats. The anti-inflammatory potential of gels of ethanolic extract has been determined by using carrageenan-induced paw edema assay, formalin-induced paw edema assay, arachidonic acid-induced ear edema assay, and xylene-induced ear edema assay. The extract showed remarkable antioxidant activity in all models, comparable to the standard reference drug ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extract of Alocasia indica and its gels produced dose-dependent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. This finding suggests that ethanolic extract of A. indica possess potent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity possibly due to its free radical scavenging properties.

Mulla, WA; Kuchekar, SB; Thorat, VS; Chopade, AR; Kuchekar, BS

2010-01-01

160

Effect of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium (E. elaterium) fruits alone against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains and Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains, or in combination with penicillin against Staphylococcus areus strains. Methods Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity or synergy interaction was carried out using microdilution method. Results The results showed that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and C. albicans. This extract showed a significant decrease in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin against both MRSA and MSSA strains. Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC) between penicillin and ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits against these test strains was less than 0.5. Conclusions This study suggests that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and C. albicans and there is a possibility of concurrent use of penicillin and E. elaterium extract in combination in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA and MSSA strains. A wider study is needed to identify the effective components, the mode of action and the possible toxic effect in vivo of these ingredients.

Adwan, Ghaleb; Salameh, Yousef; Adwan, Kamel

2011-01-01

161

Acaricidal effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf ethanolic extract against Rhipicephlaus (Boophilus) annulatus.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the acaricidal properties of crude ethanolic extract of Cassia fistula leaves for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus based on adult immersion test (AIT). The percentage of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of ova laid were studied at different concentrations of the extract ranging from 50 to 100 mg / ml. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA. The extract produced complete inhibition of hatching of eggs at concentrations above 80 mg / ml of the extract. Mortality of adult engorged female ticks and inhibition of fecundity were concentration dependent. The LC50 value of extract against R. (B.) annulatus was 97.1 mg / ml. PMID:23959488

Sunil, A R; Amithamol, K K; Juliet, S; Nair, S N; Ajithkumar, K G; Soorya, V C; Divya, T M; Jyothymol, G; Ghosh, S; Ravindran, R

2013-06-01

162

Minimum antimicrobial inhibitory concentration of carnosol and of the ethanol extract from Lepichinia hastata (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of carnosol and of the ethanolic extract from the aerial part of Lepechinia hastata were determined against Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. aureus (2), S. aureus "A", and S. aureus "B", (strains "A" and "B" are resistant to penicillin and ampicillin), Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Carnosol and the ethanol extract showed activity against gram (+) bacteria, but no activity against the yeast and the gram (-) bacteria. PMID:23195903

Encarnación-Dimayuga, R; Almada, G; Virgen, M

1998-08-01

163

Protection against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by Curcuma comosa Roxb. ethanol extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective effect of an ethanol extract of Curcuma comosa against cisplatin-induced renal toxicity in mice was studied. Adult male mice were pretreated for 4 days with the ethanol\\u000a extract of C. comosa [100–200 mg\\/kg body weight (BW), orally (p.o.)] before injection of cisplatin (12.5 mg\\/kg BW, intraperitoneally (i.p.)).\\u000a Five days later the mice were killed, and blood samples were collected to determine

Surawat Jariyawat; Pranida Kigpituck; Kanoknetr Suksen; Aporn Chuncharunee; Arusa Chaovanalikit; Pawinee Piyachaturawat

2009-01-01

164

Supercritical fluid extraction of grape seed: Process scale-up, extract chemical composition and economic evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scale-up of the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process for grape (Vitis vinifera L.) seed was studied from the laboratory (0.29L) to the pilot scale (5.15L) at 35MPa and 313K. The scale-up criterion adopted consisted of maintaining a constant solvent to feed ratio (S\\/F), and the criterion was successfully used to predict the approximate behavior of the SFE process from

Juliana M. Prado; Irede Dalmolin; Natália D. D. Carareto; Rodrigo C. Basso; Antonio J. A. Meirelles; J. Vladimir Oliveira; Eduardo A. C. Batista; M. Angela A. Meireles

165

Functional properties of protein isolates, globulin and albumin extracted from Ginkgo biloba seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the functional properties of Ginkgo seed protein isolate (GPI), Ginkgo seed globulin protein (GGP) and Ginkgo seed albumin protein (GAP) extracted from Ginkgo biloba seeds were investigated. The protein contents of GPI, GGP and GAP were 91.0%, 93.4% and 87.8%, respectively in the samples in which the sugar, polyphenol and crude fibre were removed by the preparation

Qianchun Deng; Lan Wang; Fang Wei; Bijun Xie; FengHong Huang; Wen Huang; John Shi; Qingde Huang; Binqiang Tian; Sophia Xue

2011-01-01

166

Extraction of pomegranate ( Punica granatum L.) seed oil using superheated hexane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Superheated hexane extraction (SHHE), Soxhlet extraction and cold pressing method were compared for the extraction of pomegranate seed oil. The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (80, 100, 120°C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1.00mm), and n-hexane flow rates (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mL\\/min) were investigated. The fatty acids profile of the seed oils were quantitatively determined by GC-FID. The optimum

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Seyed Saied Homami

167

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from Opuntia dillenii Haw. and its antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of seed oil from Opuntia dillenii Haw. and its antioxidant activity were investigated in this study. The effects of main operating parameters including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO2 flow rate on the extraction yield of seed oil were studied. The maximum extraction yield of 6.65% was achieved at a pressure of 46.96MPa, a temperature of

Wei Liu; Yu-Jie Fu; Yuan-Gang Zu; Mei-Hong Tong; Nan Wu; Xiao-Lei Liu; Su Zhang

2009-01-01

168

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Valuable Compounds from Citrus junos Seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of Citrus junos seed was carried out at temperatures of 40–70 °C, pressures of 20–50 MPa, and CO2 flow rate of 3 ml\\/min with supercritical carbon dioxide to obtain the valuable compounds. Seed oil was also extracted by\\u000a using Soxhlet extraction with hexane as the solvent during 360 min for comparison with the efficiency of supercritical carbon\\u000a dioxide extraction. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)

Hiro Ueno; Masahiro Tanaka; Siti Machmudah; Mitsuru Sasaki; Motonobu Goto

2008-01-01

169

In vitro antitumor activity of broccolini seeds extracts.  

PubMed

Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica × Alboglabra) is a hybrid of broccoli and kai-lan, Chinese broccoli. To date, no report on antitumor activity of Broccolini (NOT Broccoli) is available. In this study, we evaluated the antiproliferative effects of broccolini seeds extract (BSE) on human lung and ovarian cancer cells. It was found that BSE induces A549 and OVCAR-3 cells apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by using MTT assay. The IC(50) values of BSE in A549 and OVCAR-3 cells were estimated to be 81.94 and 78.6?µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the phase contrast microscope showed that in high-dose group (90?120?µg/ml), the morphology structure of OVCAR-3 cells become irregular and exhibited characteristics of apoptosis such as cell membrane shrinkage, condensation and fragmentation of nuclear chromatin as well as formation of apoptotic bodies. PMID:21695707

Yang, Yanjing; Zhang, Xuewu

2011-01-01

170

Extraction and recovery of karanjin: A value addition to karanja ( Pongamia pinnata) seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Karanja (Pongamia pinnata) seed oil contains karanjin, a bioactive molecule with important biological attributes. The objective of this study was to develop a facile method for efficient recovery of karanjin. The seed oil was subjected to liquid–liquid extraction with methanol. The extract was further purified by chromatography on alumina followed by crystallization to afford karanjin, whose purity was ascertained by

Vismaya; W. Sapna Eipeson; J. R. Manjunatha; P. Srinivas; T. C. Sindhu Kanya

2010-01-01

171

Pressurized liquid extraction of vitamin E from Brazilian grape seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this paper is to optimize the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of vitamin E from grape seed oil from residues of the wine industry. For this purpose an experimental planning to optimize the extraction of Brazilian grape seed oil by means of PLE with hexane as solvent was applied and the results are compared with conventional methods (Soxhlet

Lisiane dos Santos Freitas; Rosângela Assis Jacques; Marc François Richter; Andréia Loviane da Silva; Elina Bastos Caramão

2008-01-01

172

Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from moringa oleifera seed by salt solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

2001-01-01

173

Rejuvenation of antioxidant system in central nervous system of aged rats by grape seed extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress is considered as a major risk factor that contributes to age-related increase in lipid peroxidation and declined antioxidants in the central nervous system during aging. Grape seed extract, one of the bioflavonoid, is widely used for its medicinal properties. In the present study, we evaluated the role of grape seed extract on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in

Muthaiya Balu; Purushotham Sangeetha; Dayalan Haripriya; Chinnakannu Panneerselvam

2005-01-01

174

Tocolytic and toxic activity of papaya seed extract on isolated rat uterus.  

PubMed

Carica papaya L. seeds extracted with 80% ethanol (EEPS) caused concentration-dependent tocolysis of uterine strips isolated from gravid and non-gravid rats. Prostaglandin F2alpha and oxytocin-induced contractions of the isolated rat uterus were also inhibited in a concentration-dependent fashion by EEPS. Recoveries of the uterine activity after EEPS-induced uterine quiescence were very weak. Higher concentration of EEPS caused prompt uterine quiescence, which was also significantly irreversible. Pre-incubation of the rat uterus in Ringer Locke solution containing 10 mg/ml of EEPS for 1 hour prior to suspension in tissue baths led to significant depression of the spontaneous and KCl (60 mM)-induced uterine contractions relative to the solvent control (P<0.05). Cross sections of EEPS-pretreated non-gravid rat uterus (stained with hematoxyline and eosin) examined under light microscope revealed degeneration of the endometrium and myometrium with obvious cytoplasmic vacuolation indicating that EEPS could have direct toxic effect on the uterine tissues. Previous workers have reported benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) as the main bioactive and anthelmintic compound in different extracts of papaya seeds. Using electron impact ionization methods, the presence of BITC in EEPS was also shown in this study. Mass spectra of both EEPS and standard BITC showed a base peak of benzyl/tropylium ion at m/z 91 (indicative of an aromatic compound) and the molecular ion peak of BITC (m/z 149). Our earlier studies have demonstrated BITC-induced functional and morphological derangement of isolated uterus. We thus conclude that at high concentration, EEPS is capable of causing irreversible uterine tocolysis probably due to the damaging effect of BITC (its chief phytochemical) on the myometrium. PMID:14623029

Adebiyi, Adebowale; Ganesan Adaikan, P; Prasad, R N V

2003-12-19

175

COMPARISION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AERVA LANATA (Linn.) Juss. ex. Schult & AERVA TOMENTOSA Forsk. Family: AMARANTHACEAE.  

PubMed

The diuretic activity of concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata (Linn) & Aerva tomentosa Forsk on healthy albino rats were studied with frusemide as reference drug. The urine output increased with concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata only. In this case the level of electrolytes in urine also increased. But the diuretic activity was mild as compared to frusemide. PMID:22557194

Kumar, Deepak; Prasad, D N; Bhatnagar, S P

2005-10-01

176

COMPARISION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AERVA LANATA (Linn.) Juss. ex. Schult & AERVA TOMENTOSA Forsk. Family: AMARANTHACEAE  

PubMed Central

The diuretic activity of concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata (Linn) & Aerva tomentosa Forsk on healthy albino rats were studied with frusemide as reference drug. The urine output increased with concentrated ethanolic extract of Aerva lanata only. In this case the level of electrolytes in urine also increased. But the diuretic activity was mild as compared to frusemide.

Kumar, Deepak; Prasad, D.N.; Bhatnagar, S.P.

2005-01-01

177

Hot water extraction and steam explosion as pretreatments for ethanol production from spruce bark.  

PubMed

Spruce bark is a source of interesting polyphenolic compounds and also a potential but little studied feedstock for sugar route biorefinery processes. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of spruce bark sugars to ethanol were studied after three different pretreatments: steam explosion (SE), hot water extraction (HWE) at 80 °C, and sequential hot water extraction and steam explosion (HWE+SE), and the recovery of different components was determined during the pretreatments. The best steam explosion conditions were 5 min at 190 °C without acid catalyst based on the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of the material. However, when pectinase was included in the enzyme mixture, the hydrolysis rate and yield of HWE bark was as good as that of SE and HWE+SE barks. Ethanol was produced efficiently with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the pretreated and hydrolysed materials suggesting the suitability of spruce bark to various lignocellulosic ethanol process concepts. PMID:22613888

Kemppainen, Katariina; Inkinen, Jenni; Uusitalo, Jaana; Nakari-Setälä, Tiina; Siika-aho, Matti

2012-08-01

178

HPLC profile and antihyperglycemic effect of ethanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Andrographis paniculata is a Malaysian traditional herb for treatment of fever-causing diseases and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to\\u000a examine the antihyperglycemic effects of different extracts (95, 50, and 20% ethanol extracts and water extracts) of A. paniculata in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Only the treatment with 20% ethanol extract (at 1 g\\/kg for 7 h, p.o.)\\u000a significantly

Mariam Ahmad; Abdul Razak; Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah; Zaini Asmawi; Ismail Zhari

2007-01-01

179

Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, ethanol production from carob pod extract (extract) using Zymomonas mobilis with medium optimized by Plackett–Burman (P–B) and response surface methodologies (RSM) was studied. Z. mobilis was recognized as useful for ethanol production from carob pod extract. The effects of initial concentrations of sugar, peptone,\\u000a and yeast extract as well as agitation rate (rpm), pH, and culture time in

Hossein Vaheed; Seyed Abbas Shojaosadati; Hasan Galip

2011-01-01

180

Total polyphenols, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of different extracts in mungbean seeds and sprouts.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the biological, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and antiproliferative activities of different extracts of mungbean seeds and sprouts. All extracts from the sprouts showed higher contents of total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than from seeds. The highest DPPH and tyrosinase inhibition activities were registered in ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract. ADH activity of methanol (MeOH), n-hexane (n-hexane) and n-butanol (n-BuOH) extracts from sprouts was significantly higher (P?seeds. However, the highest ADH activity was found in water extract of seeds. According to 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol -2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay, extracts from sprouts were more effective against Calu-6 (human pulmonary carcinoma) and SNU-601 (human gastric carcinoma) cells than from seeds. EtOAc extract showed the highest antiproliferative activity in both sprouts and seeds, followed by n-hexane extraction. During sprouting of mungbean, all the studied components significantly increased. In conclusion, the extracts of sprouts are more effective than from seeds and could be a potential source of antioxidants linked with health benefits. PMID:22350499

Kim, Dong-Kwan; Jeong, Seok Cheol; Gorinstein, Shela; Chon, Sang-Uk

2012-03-01

181

Transforming Growth Factors: Isolation of Polypeptides from Virally and Chemically Transformed Cells by Acid \\/ Ethanol Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypeptides characterized by their ability to confer a transformed phenotype on an untransformed indicator cell have been isolated directly from tumor cells growing both in culture and in the animal, by using an acid \\/ ethanol extraction procedure. Assay of these polypeptides is based on their ability to induce normal rat kidney fibroblasts to form colonies in soft agar. Peptides

Anita B. Roberts; Lois C. Lamb; Dianne L. Newton; Michael B. Sporn; Joseph E. de Larco; George J. Todaro

1980-01-01

182

Inhibition of neutrophils' chemiluminescence by ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) and its phenolic components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol extract of propolis (EEP), a natural beehive product, has been known for centuries for a variety of beneficial traditional medical properties, among which an anti-inflammatory effect is a major one. Now that most of its components have been isolated and recently identified, we tested 19 of them (all phenolic compounds) for their degree of anti-inflammatory activity. This was performed

W. Krol; S. Scheller; Z. Czuba; T. Matsuno; G. Zydowicz; J. Shani; M. Mos

1996-01-01

183

Mixed solvent systems for recovery of ethanol from dilute aqueous solution by liquid-liquid extraction  

SciTech Connect

Distribution coefficients and selectivities of a number of mixed solvent systems have been determined in order to assess their suitability in preferentially extracting ethanol from aqueous solution. The measured values of distribution coefficients and selectivities differ substantially from the values estimated by interpolating between the pure solvents. (Refs. 10).

Mitchell, R.J.; Arrowsmith, A.; Ashton, N.

1987-01-01

184

Studies of Crude Ethanol Extract of Roots of Salvia Przewalskii Maxim by Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crude ethanol extract of roots of Salvia przewalskii Maxim was studied by micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Optimum conditions for the separation were established. Three peaks belonging to cryptotanshinone, dihydrotanshinone I and tanshinone IIA were identified by known standards. The three substances are valuable pharmaceutical ingredients of the plant.

Z. D. Hu; Li Jia; Z. P. Zhang; Y. P. Shi; K. T. Wang

1997-01-01

185

Antibacterial activities and toxicological potentials of crude ethanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaves of Euphorbia hirta used in traditional medicine for the treatment of boils, wounds and control of diarrhoea and dysentery was extracted by maceration in ethanol. The agar diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, E coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis at different concentrations while it was tested for toxicity on albino

J. N. Ogbulie; C. C. Ogueke; Ifeanyi C. Okoli; Beatrice N Anyanwu

2007-01-01

186

Fructan Precipitation from a Water/Ethanol Extract of Oats and Barley 1  

PubMed Central

Fructan was precipitated from a water and ethanol extract of oat (Avena sativa L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The degree of polymerization and response on a differential refractometer, based on peak area and height, was compared to fructan collected from a lead-based HPLC column and to commercially available inulin. Statistically significant differences are discussed.

Livingston, David P.

1990-01-01

187

Subacute oral toxicity study of ethanolic leaves extracts of Strobilanthes crispus in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the oral toxicity of repeated dosing of Strobilanthes crispus (S. crispus) ethanol leaves extract on the liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Young female rats aged between 8 and 12 week-old were randomly assigned into four groups with five animals each group (n=5). The first group served as control, while the second, third and fourth groups were orally treated with a single dose daily with 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract for 14 d consecutively. Cage-side observation was conducted for first 4 h after each dosing. The body weight changes, food consumptions and water intake were also recorded. Serum biochemical parameters, i.e., aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea were determined at Day 15. All results were expressed as mean±SD and analysed using Dunnett's test. Results It was obtained that 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract did not cause any adverse effects or lethality to the female Sprague Dawley rats. No significant changes in serum biochemical parameters, relative organs weights, body weights, food intake and water consumptions were observed between the treatment groups and control. Conclusions In conclusion, 14-day oral administration of S. crispus ethanol leaves extract was safe to be consumed in female rats without affecting the liver and kidney functions.

Lim, Kean Tatt; Lim, Vuanghao; Chin, Jin Han

2012-01-01

188

Antioxidant activities in vitro of ethanol extract from brown seaweed Sargassum pallidum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crude extract (CE) was obtained by extracting the powder of Sargassum pallidum with a solution of 70% ethanol. Then, CE dissolved in distilled water was fractionated with chloroform (Cf), ethyl acetate\\u000a (EtOAc), and n-butanol (n-BuOH), respectively, affording four fractions of Cf, EtOAc, n-BuOH and aqueous. First, the contents of total polyphenols, vitamin C (VC) and vitamin E (VE) in

Hong Ye; Chunhong Zhou; Yi Sun; Xin Zhang; Jun Liu; Qiuhui Hu; Xiaoxiong Zeng

2009-01-01

189

Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extract of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica were investigated. The antioxidant properties of both extracts of Brassica oleracea L. var. italica were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide\\u000a radical scavenging, inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation, reduction of power, and metal ion chelating activities. Inhibition\\u000a of

Abdul Mueed Bidchol; A. Wilfred; P. Abhijna; R. Harish

190

Separation of butanol from acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation by a hybrid extraction-distillation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alternative fuel butanol can be produced via acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation from biomass. The high costs for the separation of ABE from the dilute fermentation broth have so far prohibited the industrial-scale production of bio-butanol. In order to facilitate an effective and energy-efficient product removal, we suggest a hybrid extraction–distillation downstream process with ABE extraction in an external column. By

Korbinian Kraemer; Andreas Harwardt; Rob Bronneberg; Wolfgang Marquardt

2011-01-01

191

In vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana Bert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro potential of ethanolic leaf extract of Stevia rebaudiana as a natural antioxidant. The DPPH activity of the extract (20, 40, 50, 100 and 200?g\\/ml) was increased in a dose dependent manner, which was found in the range of 36.93–68.76% as compared to ascorbic acid 64.26–82.58%. The IC50 values of

Shruti Shukla; Archana Mehta; Vivek K. Bajpai; Savita Shukla

2009-01-01

192

Intrinsic anticarcinogenic effects of Piper sarmentosum ethanolic extract on a human hepatoma cell line  

PubMed Central

Background Piper sarmentosum, locally known as kaduk is belonging to the family of Piperaceae. It is our interest to evaluate their effect on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) for the potential of anticarcinogenic activity. Results The anticarcinogenic activity of an ethanolic extract from Piper sarmentosum in HepG2 and non-malignant Chang's liver cell lines has been previously determined using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assays, where the IC50 value was used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. The ethanolic extract that showed anticarcinogenic properties in HepG2 cells had an IC50 of 12.5 ?g mL-1, while IC50 values in the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line were greater than 30 ?g mL-1. Apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells were observed using an inverted microscope and showed chromatin condensation, cell shrinkage and apoptotic bodies following May-Grunwald-Giemsa's staining. The percentage of apoptotic cells in the overall population (apoptotic index) showed a continuously significant increase (p < 0.05) in 12.5 ?g mL-1 ethanolic extract-treated cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours compared to controls (untreated cells). Following acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, treatment with 10, 12 and 14 ?g mL-1 of ethanolic extracts caused typical apoptotic morphological changes in HepG2 cells. Molecular analysis of DNA fragmentation was used to examine intrinsic apoptosis induced by the ethanolic extracts. These results showed a typical intrinsic apoptotic characterisation, which included fragmentation of nuclear DNA in ethanolic extract-treated HepG2 cells. However, the non-malignant Chang's liver cell line produced no DNA fragmentation. In addition, the DNA genome was similarly intact for both the untreated non-malignant Chang's liver and HepG2 cell lines. Conclusion Therefore, our results suggest that the ethanolic extract from P. sarmentosum induced anticarcinogenic activity through an intrinsic apoptosis pathway in HepG2 cells in vitro.

Zainal Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham; Wan Omar, Wan Haifa Haryani; Zainal Ariffin, Zaidah; Safian, Muhd Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Megat Abdul Wahab, Rohaya

2009-01-01

193

Green tea and grape seed extracts — Potential applications in food safety and quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using “natural green” plant extracts or their derived products in various food and beverage applications is an increasing trend in the food industry. Selection of these plant extracts and their application depends on their functional properties, availability, cost effectiveness, consumer awareness and their effect on the sensory attributes of the final product. Green tea extract (GTE) and grape seed extract

A. V. S. Perumalla; Navam. S. Hettiarachchy

2011-01-01

194

Extraction of sesame seed oil using supercritical CO 2 and mathematical modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, extraction of sesame oil from sesame seeds using supercritical CO2 was carried out. The effect of operating parameters such as pressure, temperature, and supercritical CO2 flow rate and particle size on extraction yield were investigated. An increase in the pressure and the supercritical CO2 flow rate improved the extraction yield and also shortened the extraction time. The

Onur Döker; U?ur Salgin; Nuray Yildiz; Mihrican Aydo?mu?; Ayla Çalimli

2010-01-01

195

In vitro anti oxidant activity and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia paniculata bark ethanolic extract on Sprague Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T. paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1?000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy.

Mopuri, Ramgopal; Meriga, Balaji

2014-01-01

196

In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of seaweed macroalgae against Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Malaria is a major health problem in many developing countries. The drugs resistant Plasmodium falciparum causes the most virulent form of malaria in humans and it is described as a public health disaster causing increased morbidity and mortality. Thirteen seaweeds species which belong to four different families (Rhodomelaceae, Cladophoraceae, Ulvaceae, and Caulerpaceae) were collected from Mandapam coastal area and the seaweeds extracts were tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. Among them, Caulerpa toxifolia (IC(50) 5.06 ?g·ml(-1)) showed potential antiplasmodial activity than other seaweeds extracts and it can be comparable with the positive control artemether (IC(50) 4.09 ?g·ml(-1)). Caulerpa peltata (IC(50) 16.69 ?g·ml(-1)) also exhibited good antiplasmodial activity and the IC(50) value is lesser than the positive control chloroquine (IC(50) 19.59 ?g·ml(-1)). Statistical analysis reveals that significant in vitro antiplasmodial activity (P<0.05) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes was also carried out and it shows that no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethanolic extract of seaweeds extracts after 48 h of incubation. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of sugars, proteins, and phenols in the ethanolic extracts of seaweeds. It is concluded from the present study that, the ethanolic extracts of seaweeds of C. toxifolia and C. peltata possesses lead compounds for development of antiplasmodial drugs. PMID:21120527

Ravikumar, Sundaram; Inbaneson, Samuel Jacob; Suganthi, Palavesam; Gokulakrishnan, Ramasamy; Venkatesan, Malaiyandi

2011-06-01

197

Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia  

PubMed Central

If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500??g/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223??g/mL of pravastatin (control) showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate?:?methanol (95?:?5), gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A). Fraction 7A at 150??g/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s), working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase.

Wong, Janet P.-C.; Wijaya, Sumi; Ting, Kang-Nee; Wiart, Christophe; Mustafa, Kamarul'Ain; Shipton, Fiona; Khoo, Teng-Jin

2014-01-01

198

Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia.  

PubMed

If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500? ? g/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223? ? g/mL of pravastatin (control) showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate?:?methanol (95?:?5), gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A). Fraction 7A at 150? ? g/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s), working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase. PMID:24839451

Wong, Janet P-C; Wijaya, Sumi; Ting, Kang-Nee; Wiart, Christophe; Mustafa, Kamarul'Ain; Shipton, Fiona; Khoo, Teng-Jin

2014-01-01

199

Antibacterial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Acacia aroma Gill. ex Hook et Arn.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of seven ethanolic extracts and three aqueous extracts from various parts (leaves, stems and flowers) of A. aroma against 163 strains of antibiotic multi-resistant bacteria. The disc diffusion assay was performed to evaluate antibacterial activity of the A. aroma crude extracts, against several Gram-positive bacteria (E. faecalis, S. aureus, coagulase-negative stahylococci, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. aureus ATCC 29213, E. faecalis ATCC 29212) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli., K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, E. cloacae, S. marcescens, M morganii, A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, S. maltophilia, E. coli ATCC 35218, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, E. coli ATCC 25922). All ethanolic extracts showed activity against gram-positive bacteria. Among all obtained extracts, only leaf and flower fluid extracts showed activity against Gram-negative bacteria. Based on this bioassay, leaf fluid extracts tended to be the most potent, followed by flower fluid extracts. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts and antibiotics were comparatively determined by agar and broth dilution methods. Both extracts were active against S. aureus, coagulase-negative stahylococci, E. faecalis and E. faecium and all tested Gram-negative bacteria with MIC values from 0.067 to 0.308 mg/ml. In this study the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were identical or twice as high than the corresponding MIC for leaf extracts and four or eight times higher than MIC values for flower extracts. This may indicate a bactericidal effect. Stored extracts have similar antibacterial activity as recently obtained extracts. The A. aroma extracts of leaves and flowers may be useful as antibacterial agents against Gram- negative and Gram-positive antibiotic multi-resistant microorganisms. PMID:15120571

Arias, M E; Gomez, J D; Cudmani, N M; Vattuone, M A; Isla, M I

2004-05-28

200

Stability studies of saponins in Bacopa monnieri dried ethanolic extracts.  

PubMed

Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Brahmi) is currently used as a drug and food supplement for memory improvement. However, studies on the physical and chemical stability of the extract components, especially on the lead compound important for pre-formulation, have not yet been reported. In this study, the stabilities of the crude extract and the diluted crude extract were investigated at various temperatures using saponin glycosides, bacopaside I and bacoside A3 as markers for quantitative analysis. The stability testing of bacopaside I and bacoside A3 standard solution was performed at various temperatures and pH values. The quantity of both compounds under all conditions was analyzed using HPLC techniques. The moisture adsorption of the crude extract was determined at 5, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C at 75 % relative humidity using gravimetric methods. The results revealed that the crude extract quickly adsorbed moisture up to 54 % w/w at both 40 and 80 degrees C, while it only slowly adsorbed moisture at 5 degrees C. The amounts of intact bacopaside I and bacoside A3 in the crude extract decreased drastically at 80 degrees C, slowly at 40 and 60 degrees C, and remained unchanged at 5 degrees C during the period of investigation. Moreover, the amount of both compounds in the standard solution dropped sharply at a pH of 1.2 but slowly at pH 6.8 and 9.0, respectively. The pre-formulation data could be further used for improvement of the final product quality. PMID:18951336

Phrompittayarat, Watoo; Wittaya-areekul, Sakchai; Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Putalun, Waraporn; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

2008-11-01

201

Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2?000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats.

Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

2014-01-01

202

Androgenic and spermatogenic activity of alkylamide-rich ethanol solution extract of Anacyclus pyrethrum DC.  

PubMed

Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum) has been used as Vajikaran Rasayana (aphrodisiac) in traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine to treat male sexual dysfunction, including infertility. Aphrodisiac activity may be due to an increase in the production or effect of androgens, so this study sought to evaluate the androgenic and spermatogenic potential of the alkylamide-rich ethanol solution extract. Male Wistar strain rats weighing between 150 and 180?g were completely randomized divided into five groups. The ethanol solution extract of A. pyrethrum was administered to groups of rats in 50, 100, and 150?mg/kg doses for a period of 28?days, and the action was compared with control and testosterone-treated rats. Thirteen N-alkylamides were detected in the extract by using HPLC/UV/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. Extract administration at all the doses produced significant increase in body weight, sperm count, motility, and viability along with serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations. Histoarchitecture of testis revealed increased spermatogenic activities. Seminal fructose content was also significantly increased after 28?days of treatment. Our results suggest that the ethanol solution extract of the roots of A. pyrethrum has androgenic potential and may improve male fertility by enhancing spermatogenesis. PMID:22473789

Sharma, Vikas; Boonen, Jente; Spiegeleer, Bart De; Dixit, V K

2013-01-01

203

Ethanolic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata bark and leaf attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the potential protective effect of ethanolic extract of Boswellia ovalifoliolata (BO) bark and leaf against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Ethanolic extracts of BO bark (400 mg/kg) and leaves (250 mg/kg) were given orally to mice for 9 consecutive days and DOX (15 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered on the seventh day. Extract protected against DOX-induced ECG changes. It significantly inhibited DOX-provoked glutathione depletion and accumulation of malondialdehyde. The decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase in cardiac tissue were significantly (p<0.05) mitigated after treatment with BO bark and leaf extracts. Pretreatment with BO significantly (p<0.05) restored the levels of DOX-induced rise of SGPT, SGOT, serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB levels. These findings suggest that ethanolic extract of BO has protective effects against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:23981374

Uma Mahesh, Bandari; Shrivastava, Shweta; Kuncha, Madhusudhana; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Swamy, Challa Veerabhadra; Pragada, Rajeswara Rao; Naidu, V G M; Sistla, Ramakrishna

2013-11-01

204

Toxicity of ethanolic extracts from Lippia origanoides and Gliricidia sepium to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acari: Tetranychidae).  

PubMed

Botanical compounds with insecticidal and acaricidal activities have been used in pest management with different levels of success. Toxicity of ethanolic extracts obtained from wild oregano (Lippia origanoides) and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium) to Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) were evaluated. Mite population was collected from black bean plants growing in Urachiche Municipality, Yaracuy State, Venezuela. Ethanolic extracts of wild oregano and gliricidia leaves were evaluated at different concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 20%) using the leaf disk immersion technique. The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins, essential oils and saponins was verified in the plant material used in our study. Tetranychus cinnabarinus oviposition decreased at a rate of 43.7% or 57% when 5% oregano or gliricidia extracts were used, respectively. Also, 10% oregano or gliricidia extracts caused 42.2% or 72.5% of mortality to T. cinnabarinus, respectively. Ethanolic extracts showed acaricidal effects on T. cinnabarinus, as evidenced by maximum mortality (96.6% and 100% caused by wild oregano and gliricidia, respectively) when used at a concentration of 20%. Our results showed that gliricidia and wild oregano are promising for the management of T. cinnabarinus, although their field efficacy remains to be evaluated. PMID:21710033

Sivira, A; Sanabria, M E; Valera, N; Vásquez, C

2011-01-01

205

Sedative and anxiolytic effects of ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae) leaves  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate possible anxiogenic activity, sedative property and anxiolytic potential of crude ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves. Methods The anxiogenic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea leaves was evaluated using standard animal behavioral models, such as hole cross and open field; sedative property and anxiolytic potential were evaluated by conducting thiopental sodium induced sleeping time tests and elevated plus-maze test. Results The crude ethanolic extract exhibited a significant (P<0.05, P<0.001) decrease of motor activity and exploratory behavior in hole cross and open field tests. The extract also markedly increased both the number of visits to and time spent in the corners of the open field. The extract treated rats spent more time in the open arm of elevated plus-maze, showing its antianxiety activity. There was a decrease in the locomotor activity. Conclusions The obtained results provide support for the use of this species in traditional medicine and warrant further investigation to isolate the specific components that are responsible for the sedative and anxiolytic effects. Components from this plant may have a great potential value as medicinal agents, as leads or model compounds for synthetic or semi synthetic structure modifications and optimization, and as neuropharmacological probes.

Khan, Irfan Newaz; Sarker, Md. Mominul Islam; Ajrin, Marzina

2014-01-01

206

In vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials of ethanolic extract from Tecomella undulata  

PubMed Central

This study was undergone to evaluate the in-vivo anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tecomella undulata Seem. on streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type 2 diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of 60?mg/kg streptozotocin, 15 minutes after the i.p administration of 110?mg/kg body weight of nicotinamide. The extract has shown significant blood glucose lowering effect in the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The blood glucose level, cholesterol, glycogen contents, glycosylated hemoglobin, and antioxidant parameters (Malondialdehyde and Glutathione level) were estimated from the blood plasma by using standard kits to demonstrate the hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect in treated animals. The data showed that the extract have significant influence on the above biochemical parameters. Thus ethanolic fraction of the plant Tecomella undulata can be used as new candidate for antihyperglycemic and antioxidant.

2012-01-01

207

A comparative study of anti-gastric cancer activity between aqueous extract and ethanol extract of Folium Cordylines Fruticosae.  

PubMed

The active components in Folium Cordylines Fruticosae were extracted by heat reflux method. The solvents used were distilled water and ethanol. The effects of two types of extracts on gastric cancer cells were compared; dry extract yields were calculated, as well as the inhibition rates of gastric cancer MGC-803 cell proliferation and the colony cell counts. The micro-Kjeldahl method was used to measure the cell protein contents and to make a comprehensive comparison. The results showed that the MGC-803 cell inhibition rates of three different concentrations (32.5, 75 and 150 mg/ml) of ethanol extracts increased with the increase of concentration, which was 48.9% at a concentration of 150 mg/ml; aqueous extract of Folium Cordylines Fruticosae had very low inhibitory activity at a low concentration (32.5 mg/ml), which was remained at about 20%. After being affected by two types of extracts, cells had uneven sizes, with very low brightness, while the normal cells presented a uniform full form, with high definition. PMID:24146505

Liu, Shaojun; Cao, Dongbo; Xiao, Zhiming; Liu, Fen; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Lian; Tian, Li; Shen, Shourong

2013-01-01

208

In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Three Hypericum and Three Achillea Species From Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of Hypericum scabrum L (HSm), Hypericum lysimachioides var. lysimachioides (HL), and Hypericum retusum Aucher (HR) and ethanol extracts of Achillea aleppica D.C. subsp. aleppica (AA), Achillea aleppica D.C. subsp. zederbaueri (Hayek) Hub.-Mor (AZ), and Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (AB). The antioxidant properties of extracts

Deniz Bar??; Murat K?z?l; Çetin Aytekin; Göksel K?z?l; Murat Yavuz; Bircan Çeken; A. Selçuk Ertekin

2011-01-01

209

Gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activities of an ethanolic extract of Bidens pilosa L. var. radiata Schult. Bip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bidens pilosa var. radiata Schult. Bip. is used in folk medicine to treat stomach disorders including peptic ulcers. The ethanolic extract (0.5–2 g\\/kg) decreased the gastric juice volume, acid secretion, as well as pepsin secretion in pylorus ligated rats. B. pilosa extract showed antiulcer activity against indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. The extract effectively inhibited gastric haemorragic lesions induced by ethanol, and

A. Alvarez; F. Pomar; M. A. Sevilla; M. J. Montero

1999-01-01

210

Extraction and identification of isothiocyanates from broccolini seeds.  

PubMed

Broccolini (Brassica oleracea Italica x Alboglabra) is a cross between broccoli and kai-lan (Chinese broccoli), which contains abundant glucosinolates. The intact glucosinolates are believed to be inactive, while their hydrolysis products, such as isothiocyanates (ITCs), are found to have bacteriocidal and anticarcinogenic activities. So far, no report is available about generation of ITCs during the process of glucosinolate hydrolysis in broccolini. In this study, the hydrolysis of broccolini seed glucosinolates was investigated under controlled conditions of pH, time and temperature, and the ITCs produced were determined. The results showed that an optimum hydrolysis of glucosinolates could be achieved at a temperature of 250C, at pH 7.0, and a reaction time of eight hours. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis indicated that the extracted ITCs primarily were: 3-BITC (3-benzyl-ITC) (10.8%), 4-methylpentyl-ITC (0.5%), 1-isothiocyanato-butane (26.8%), PEITC (phenethyl-ITC) (22.6%) and SFN (sulforaphane) (19.2%). PMID:21366048

Zhang, Bochao; Wang, Xiaoqin; Yang, Yanjing; Zhang, Xuewu

2011-01-01

211

Effects of safflower seed extract on arterial stiffness  

PubMed Central

Safflower seed extract (SSE) contains characteristic polyphenols and serotonin derivatives (N-( p-coumaroyl) serotonin and N-feruloylserotonin), which are reported to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), formation of atherosclerotic plaques, and improve arterial stiffness as assessed by pulse wave analysis in animal models. The effects of long-term supplementation with SSE on arterial stiffness in human subjects were evaluated. This doubleblind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 77 males (35–65 years) and 15 postmenopausal females (55–65 years) with high-normal blood pressure or mild hypertension who were not undergoing treatment. Subjects received SSE (70 mg/day as serotonin derivatives) or placebo for 12 weeks, and pulse wave measurements, ie, second derivative of photoplethysmogram (SDPTG), augmentation index, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) were conducted at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Vascular age estimated by SDPTG aging index improved in the SSE-supplemented group when compared with the placebo group at four (P = 0.0368) and 12 weeks (P = 0.0927). The trend of augmentation index reduction (P = 0.072 versus baseline) was observed in the SSE-supplemented group, but reduction of baPWV by SSE supplementation was not observed. The SSE-supplemented group also showed a trend towards a lower malondialdehyde-modified-LDL autoantibody titer at 12 weeks from baseline. These results suggest long-term ingestion of SSE in humans could help to improve arterial stiffness.

Suzuki, Katsuya; Tsubaki, Shigekazu; Fujita, Masami; Koyama, Naoto; Takahashi, Michio; Takazawa, Kenji

2010-01-01

212

Evaluation of Physiological Activities of the Citron (Citrus junos Sieb. ex TANAKA) Seed Extracts  

PubMed Central

Citron seed extracts (CSEs) were made using distilled water (CSEW), ethanol (CSEE), and n-hexane (CSEH), to measure the total polyphenol contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, and anti-complementary activity. The total polyphenol content was observed the highest in CSEE (188.71 ?g/mL), and occurred in the following order: CSEE>CSEW (141.11 ?g/mL)>CSEH (26.19 ?g/mL) at 10 mg/mL. CSEE (63.56%) and CSEW (56.61%) showed significantly higher DPPH radical scavenging activities when compared with CSEH (28.57%). ABTS radical scavenging activities of CSEE (45.53%) and CSEW (40.02%) were also observed to be higher, whereas CSEH did not show ABTS radical scavenging activity. Anti-complementary activity of CSEE (26.85%) showed a greater activity than that of CSEW (7.84%) at 1,000 ?g/mL. Limonin and nomilin contents had the highest values (1.882% and 2.089%) in CSEE, and with 0.327% and 0.139% in CSEW; however, CSEH showed relatively very low values at 0.061% and 0.026%, respectively. Among the CSEs tested, CSEE as a by-product from citron may provide an important source of dietary antioxidant compounds with rich polyphenol and limonoid contents, and immunopotentiating activity, including the complement activation factor.

Kim, Seong Yeong; Shin, Kwang-Soon

2013-01-01

213

?-Sitosterol: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction from Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Seeds  

PubMed Central

Supercritical fluid extraction represents an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for isolation of phytosterols from different plant sources. Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) seeds were extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 15–60 MPa and temperatures of 40–80 °C. Oil and ?-sitosterol yields were measured in the extraction course and compared with Soxhlet extraction with hexane. The average yield of ?-sitosterol was 0.31 mg/g of seeds. The maximum concentration of ?-sitosterol in the extract, 0.5% w/w, was achieved at 15 MPa, 40 °C, and a carbon dioxide consumption of 50 g/g of seeds. The extraction rate was maximal at 60 MPa and 40 °C. Both ?-sitosterol yield and its concentration in the extract obtained with hexane were lower than with carbon dioxide.

Sajfrtova, Marie; Lickova, Ivana; Wimmerova, Martina; Sovova, Helena; Wimmer, Zdenek

2010-01-01

214

Screening of dried plant seed extracts for adiponectin production activity and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitory activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  

PubMed

To search for dried plant seeds with potent anti-diabetes activity, we conducted a large scale screening for inhibitory activity on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and facilitating activity on adiponectin production in vitro. These activities in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were screened from ethanol extracts of 20 kinds of dried plant seed marketed in Japan. komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), qing geng cai (Brassica rapa var. chinensis), green soybean (Glycine max), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L.) markedly enhanced adiponectin production (11.3?~?12.7 ng/ml) but Japanese radish (Raphanus sativus), edible burdock (Arctium lappa L.), bitter melon (Momordica charantia) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) did not (0.9?~?2.7 ng/ml). All adiponectin-production-enhancing seeds except spinach (2.7 pg/ml) and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) (6.6 pg/ml) effectively decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels (0.0 pg/ml). We further examined the effects on free radical scavenging activities in the dried seed extracts. Although scavenging activity correlated well with total phenolic content of samples, no correlation was observed with adiponectin production. These results point to the potential of dried seed extracts as a means to modify the activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha for the adiponectin production. PMID:20717728

Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue; Sagesaka, Yumi

2010-09-01

215

Optimization of seed production for a simultaneous saccharification cofermentation biomass-to-ethanol process using recombinant Zymomonas  

SciTech Connect

The five-carbon sugar D-xylose is a major component of hemicellulose and accounts for roughly one-third of the carbohydrate content of many lignocellulosic materials. The efficient fermentation of xylose-rich hemicellulose hydrolyzates (prehydrolyzates) represents an opportunity to improve significantly the economics of large-scale fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is currently investigating a simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) process for ethanol production from biomass that uses a dilute-acid pretreatment and a metabolically engineered strain of Zymomonas mobilis that can coferment glucose and xylose. The objective of this study was to establish optimal conditions for cost-effective seed production that are compatible with the SSCF process design. 55 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Lawford, H.G.; Rousseau, J.D. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada); McMillan, J.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1997-12-31

216

Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of ethanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber L. leaves  

PubMed Central

Aims: The aim of study was to evaluate the scientific basis for the traditional use of Elephantopus scaber leaves. Materials and Methods: In the present study, ethanol extract of Elephantopus scaber leaves was evaluated for preliminary phytochemical screening and antiasthmatic activity using histamine and acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm, mast cell degranulation and histamine induced constriction on isolated guinea pig tracheal chain at different dose levels. Student's t-Test and Dunett's test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The result of present investigation showed that the ethanolic extract of E. scaber significantly (P<0.001) decreased the bronchospasm induced by histamine, acetylcholine and protected mast cell degranulation as compared to control groups. It also decreased the histamine induce constriction on isolated guinea pig trachea in dose-dependent manner. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of steroids, saponin, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds in the extract. Conclusions: The present study concludes that the antiasthmatic activity of ethanolic extract of E. scaber leaves may be due to the presence of flavonoids or steroids. Antiasthmatic action of the E. scaber could be due to its antihistaminic, anticholinergic and mast-cell-stabilizing property.

Sagar, Rakesh; Sahoo, H.B.

2012-01-01

217

Protein extraction optimisation, characterisation, and functionalities of protein isolate from bitter melon ( Momordica charantia) seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bitter melon seeds are a rich source of protein. Optimum conditions for protein extraction from the seeds, determined using a response surface design, were at a pH 9.0 and 1.3M NaCl. Soy protein isolate (SPI) was included for comparison. Surface hydrophobicity of bitter melon seed protein isolate (BMSPI) (690) was significantly higher than that of SPI (399). Electrophoretograms of BMSPI

Ronny Horax; Navam Hettiarachchy; A. Kannan; Pengyin Chen

2011-01-01

218

Production of biodiesel from winery waste: Extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed. Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol

Carmen María Fernández; María Jesús Ramos; Ángel Pérez; Juan Francisco Rodríguez

2010-01-01

219

Effect of low frequency ultrasonic assisted extraction on the quality of seed oils of Indian origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study gives an insight into the effect of low frequency ultrasonic enhancement of solvent extraction on the quality of non-edible oils (Jatropha and Pongamia as model seed varieties) in comparison to conventional methods of extraction i.e. direct reflux or soxhlet extraction using hexane. A series of experiments have been carried out to study the effect of variables; solute to

Savita Kaul; Garima Sharma; Jyoti Porwal; Neha Bisht

2011-01-01

220

Evaluation of the analgesic properties of the Datura metel seeds aqueous extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was carried out to investigate the analgesic activity of dried seed of Datura metel Linn. A concentrated aqueous extract was obtained, mimicking conditions used in traditional treatment setting, which includes dissolving the extract in water. As in this part of the world, experiments were carried out with the aqueous extract for its peripheral and central antinociceptive potentials on

N. N. Wannang; H. C. Ndukwe; C. Nnabuife

221

Extraction of polyphenolic compounds from grape seeds with near critical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new analytical method using near critical carbon dioxide to extract polyphenolic compounds from white grape seeds has been developed. Carbon dioxide density, organic modifier, percentage of modifier, and extraction temperature were optimized utilizing an experimental design. Gallic acid, catechin, and epicatechin were the main phenolic compounds detected in the HPLC chromatogram of each extract. Recovery and reproducibility of catechin

M Palma; L. T Taylor

1999-01-01

222

Ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced memory deficiency via its antineuroinflammatory and antiamyloidogenic effects.  

PubMed

Magnolia bark contains several compounds such as magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, obovatol, and other neolignan compounds. These compounds have been reported to have various beneficial effects in various diseases. There is sufficient possibility that ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis is more effective in amyloidogenesis via synergism of these ingredients. Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether the ethanol extract of M.?officinalis (10?mg/?kg in 0.05% ethanol) prevents memory dysfunction and amyloidogenesis in AD mouse model by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250?µg/?kg/day for seven times) injection. We found that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevented LPS-induced memory deficiency as well as inhibited the LPS-induced elevation of inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In particular, administration of M.?officinalis ethanol extract inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis, which resulted in the inhibition of amyloid precursor protein, beta-site amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving enzyme 1 and C99. Thus, this study shows that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevents LPS-induced memory impairment as well as amyloidogenesis via inhibition of neuroinflammation and suggests that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis might be a useful intervention for neuroinflammation-associated diseases such as AD. PMID:22628265

Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Hwan Mook; Lee, Kiho; Choi, Seok Hwa; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Jeong, Jea-Hwang; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

2013-03-01

223

Evaluation of the Leishmanicidal Activity of Rutaceae and Lauraceae Ethanol Extracts on Golden Syrian Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) Peritoneal Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Traditional medicine has provided a number of therapeutic solutions for the control of infectious agents, cancers, and other diseases. After screening a wide variety of Colombian plant extracts, we have identified promising antileishmanial activity in ethanol extracts from Ocotea macrophylla (Lauraceae) and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum (Rutaceae). In this study, we evaluated the in vitro activity of two ethanol extracts, one from Ocotea macrophylla and the other from Zanthoxyllum monophyllum and one alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, on peritoneal macrophages isolated from golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Leishmania panamensis and Leishmania major promastigotes. All of the extracts studied displayed promising (?2) selectivity indices (S/I), the most significant of which were for ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania panamensis (S/I=12) and alkaloid fraction of ethanol extract of Zanthoxyllum monophyllum against Leishmania major (S/I=11). These results support the use of ethanol extracts and alkaloid fractions isolated from Ocotea macrophylla and Zanthoxyllum monophyllum, respectively; as therapeutic options for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

Chavez Enciso, N. A.; Coy-barrera, E. D.; Patino, O. J.; Cuca, L. E.; Delgado, Gabriela

2014-01-01

224

Regulation of inducible adhesion molecule expression in human endothelial cells by grape seed proanthocyanidin extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Altered expression of cell adhesion molecule expression has been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions. Regulation of adhesion molecule expression by specific redox sensitive mechanisms has been reported. Grape seed proanthocyanidins have been reported to have potent antioxidant properties. We evaluated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on the expression of TNFa-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression

Chandan K. Sen; Debasis Bagchi

2001-01-01

225

In vitro effects of Cucurbita moschata seed extracts on Haemonchus contortus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro effect of Cucurbita moschata seed against the parasitic nematode of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Three extracts (aqueous, methanolic and dichloromethane) of C. moschata seed were tested in vitro on four developmental stages of H. contortus using egg hatch assay (EHA), larval development assay (LDA), L3 migration inhibition (LMI) assay and

C. Marie-Magdeleine; H. Hoste; M. Mahieu; H. Varo; H. Archimede

2009-01-01

226

Recovery of oil components of okara by ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.  

PubMed

Recovery of the oil components of okara by ethanol-modified supercritical carbon dioxide extraction was investigated at 40-80 degrees C temperature and 12-30 MPa pressure. In a typical run (holding period of 2 h, continuous flow extraction of 5 h), results indicated that the oil component could be best obtained with a recovery of 63.5% at relatively low temperature of 40 degrees C and mild pressure of 20 MPa in the presence of 10 mol% EtOH as entrainer. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, the extracts consisted mainly of fatty acids and phytosterols, and traces of decadienal. Folin-Ciocalteau estimates of total phenols showed that addition of EtOH as entrainer increased the yield and the amount of phenolic compounds in the extracts. The amounts of two primary soy isoflavones, genistein and daidzein, in the extracts also increased with increasing amount of EtOH. PMID:16099646

Quitain, Armando T; Oro, Kazuyuki; Katoh, Shunsaku; Moriyoshi, Takashi

2006-09-01

227

Wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. leaf--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

The extract of K. pinnata was evaluated for its wound healing activity by using excision wound model in rats. On day 11, animals treated with the ethanolic leaf extract exhibited 86.33% reduction in the wound area, compared to petroleum jelly treated control (69.36%) and the mupirocin treated standard (85.49%). The hydroxyproline content of extract treated animals was higher, as compared to control and the standard groups. Histological analysis was also consistent with the proposal that K. pinnata leaf extract exhibits significant wound healing potential. The increased rate of wound contraction and hydroxyproline content in the extract treated animals supports the claims made by traditional healers of the benefits obtained from the medicinal use of K. pinnata. PMID:20882759

Nayak, B Shivananda; Marshall, Julien R; Isitor, Godwin

2010-06-01

228

Effect of the ethanol extract of Pleurotus eryngii on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective Postmenopausal bone loss and the possible progression to osteoporosis are a major health concern. Mushrooms have been recognized as functional foods. Pleurotus eryngii extract has been reported to have estrogenic activity, suggesting that its consumption may mitigate postmenopausal bone loss. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementation with an ethanol extract of P. eryngii on bone metabolism in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. Methods Female 12-week-old Wistar rats were subjected to either sham operation or bilateral ovariectomy. The ovariectomized rats were then subdivided into two groups: one fed the extract and the other not. Twelve weeks after surgery, indices of bone mass, bone histomorphometry, and bone mechanics were measured. Results The right femur bone mineral content and density of the ovariectomized group were significantly lower than in the Sham group, and extract supplementation did not have any significant effect on these differences. Furthermore, ovariectomy significantly increased measures of mineralizing surface and bone formation rates; again, extract supplementation again had no significant effect. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the ethanol extract of P. eryngii does not alter bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats, suggesting that consumption of P. eryngii may not be beneficial in slowing bone loss after menopause. PMID:24502200

Ohyama, Y; Matsushita, H; Minami, A; Kanazawa, H; Suzuki, T; Watanabe, K; Wakatsuki, A

2014-08-01

229

Ocimum basilicum ethanolic extract decreases cholesterol synthesis and lipid accumulation in human macrophages.  

PubMed

Macrophage lipid accumulation induced by low density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a pivotal role in atherosclerotic plaque development. Previous work showed that Ocimum basilicum extract, used as hypocholesterolemic agent by traditional medicine in Morocco, has hypolipidemic activity in rat acute hyperlipimidemia. This study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of O. basilicum on lipid accumulation in human macrophages. As modification of LDL increase atherogenicity of the particles we evaluated the effects of the extract on LDL oxidation. The extract caused a dose-related increase of LDL-resistance to Cu(2+)-induced oxidation. Furthermore, at the dose of 60 microg/ml, significantly decreases the accumulation of macrophage lipid droplets induced by modified LDL evaluated as by red-oil staining. Cholesterol esterification and triacylglycerol synthesis in the cells were not affected. Macrophage treatment with 60 microg/ml, but not 20 microg/ml, of the extract reduced newly synthesized unesterified cholesterol by about 60% and decreased scavenger receptors activity by about 20-30%, evaluated by the internalization of cholesterol carried by [(3)H]CE-aggregated-LDL. The results suggest that O. basilicum ethanolic extract has the capability to reduce foam cell formation through the reduction of cholesterol synthesis and the modulation of the activity of surface scavenger receptors. PMID:18620033

Bravo, Elena; Amrani, Souliman; Aziz, Mohammed; Harnafi, Hicham; Napolitano, Mariarosaria

2008-12-01

230

UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements  

PubMed Central

Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements.

Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

2012-01-01

231

Evaluation and optimization of ethanol production from carob pod extract by Zymomonas mobilis using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

In this research, ethanol production from carob pod extract (extract) using Zymomonas mobilis with medium optimized by Plackett-Burman (P-B) and response surface methodologies (RSM) was studied. Z. mobilis was recognized as useful for ethanol production from carob pod extract. The effects of initial concentrations of sugar, peptone, and yeast extract as well as agitation rate (rpm), pH, and culture time in nonhydrolyzed carob pod extract were investigated. Significantly affecting variables (P = 0.05) in the model obtained from RSM studies were: weights of bacterial inoculum, initial sugar, peptone, and yeast extract. Acid hydrolysis was useful to complete conversion of sugars to glucose and fructose. Nonhydrolyzed extract showed higher ethanol yield and residual sugar compared with hydrolyzed extract. Ethanol produced (g g(-1) initial sugar, as the response) was not significantly different (P = 0.05) when Z. mobilis performance was compared in hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed extract. The maximum ethanol of 0.34 ± 0.02 g g(-1) initial sugar was obtained at 30°C, initial pH 5.2, and 80 rpm, using concentrations (g per 50 mL culture media) of: inoculum bacterial dry weight, 0.017; initial sugar, 5.78; peptone, 0.43; yeast extract, 0.43; and culture time of 36 h. PMID:20820859

Vaheed, Hossein; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Galip, Hasan

2011-01-01

232

Anticonvulsant activities of ethanolic extract and aqueous fraction isolated from Delphinium denudatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dried roots of Delphinium denudatum Wall. are a popular folk remedy for the treatment of epilepsy in the traditional Unani system of medicine in the sub-continent. We carried out anticonvulsant screening of the ethanolic extract (EE) and aqueous fraction (AF) of this plant utilising the maximal electroshock (MEST) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ), bicuculline (scBIC), picrotoxin (scPTX) and strychnine (scSTN) tests

Mohsin Raza; Farzana Shaheen; M. I Choudhary; Sompong Sombati; Azhar Rafiq; Amin Suria; Atta-ur-Rahman; R. J DeLorenzo

2001-01-01

233

GC-MS analysis of phytocomponents in the ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L  

PubMed Central

Background: The presence of diverse secondary metabolites has been reported from species of the genus Polygonum. However, there has been not much information available on phytochemical components and biological activity in the whole plant ethanol extract of Polygonum chinense L. Objective: This study was designed to determine the phytocomponents in the whole plant ethanol extract of P. chinense. Materials and Methods: GC-MS analysis of the whole plant ethanol extract of P. chinense was performed using a Perkin-Elmer GC Clarus 500 system comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and a gas chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Results: This investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from P. chinense by GC-MS. This analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of P. chinense (whole plant) contained mainly a triterpene compound–squalene (47.01%), and a plasticizer compound–1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono[2-ethylhexyl]ester (40.30%). All identified compounds were, generally, reported as having antimicrobial activity. In addition, the squalene compound also having anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, chemo-preventive, pesticidal and sun-screen properties, while the plasticizer compound –1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono[2-ethylhexyl] ester reported to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. No activity was reported in the alcoholic compound-4-hexene-1-ol, 5-methyl-2-(1-methylethanyl)-acetate-(R)-. Conclusions: From the results, it is evident that P. chinense contains various bioactive compounds and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.

Ezhilan, Bagavathi Perumal; Neelamegam, Ramasamy

2012-01-01

234

Ethanol extracts of Saururus chinensis suppress ovalbumin-sensitization airway inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyThe aerial part of Saururus chinensis has been used in folk medicine to treat several inflammatory diseases in China and Korea. Previously, our group reported that anti-asthmatic activity of an ethanol extract of Saururus chinensis (ESC) might occur, in part, via the inhibition of prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4) production, and degranulation reaction in vitro,

Zhejiu Quan; Youn Ju Lee; Ju Hye Yang; Yue Lu; Ying Li; Yeun-Kyung Lee; Meihua Jin; Jong-Yeon Kim; Joon Hyuk Choi; Jong Keun Son; Hyeun Wook Chang

2010-01-01

235

Beyond six scents: defining a seventh Thymus vulgaris chemotype new to southern France by ethanol extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of plant chemotype has long been useful to describe secondary chemical phenotypes; however, the idea has practical limitations, especially when applied to ecological questions. This work reports the discovery of a new 1,8-cineole chemotype of Thymus vulgaris from a well-studied area in southern France. Multivariate statistical analysis of ethanol-extracted plant terpenes was used to describe this new chemotype

Ken Keefover-Ring; John D. Thompson; Yan B. Linhart

2009-01-01

236

Hypocholesterolemic effects of Auricularia auricula ethanol extract in ICR mice fed a cholesterol-enriched diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cholesterol-lowering properties of Auricularia auricula are commonly attributed to the presence of polysaccharides based on previous research. The present study was designed to\\u000a investigate the effects of ethanol extract of A. auricula (AAE) on hypercholesterolemia in ICR mice. AAE contained more than 16% (g\\/g) polyphenolic compounds, excluding other interfering\\u000a factors such as polysaccharides, water-soluble fibre and protein. Thirty-six mice

Gang Chen; Yang-Chao Luo; Bao-Ping Ji; Bo Li; Wei Su; Zhen-Lei Xiao; Gui-Zhi Zhang

237

ACUTE TOXICITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Derris elliptica ROOTS TO Oreochromis niloticus FINGERLINGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replicate static 24-hour bioassay was conducted to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) and median lethal time (LT50) for Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings to ethanolic extracts of dried roots of Derris elliptica. Six graded concentrations of 0 (Control), 93, 139.5, 186, 232.5 & 279 mg\\/litre of Derris elliptica were used as treatments. These were applied in the form of

M. O. Akinbulumo; O. A. Fagbenro; E. A. Fasakin

238

Intrinsic anticarcinogenic effects of Piper sarmentosum ethanolic extract on a human hepatoma cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Piper sarmentosum, locally known as kaduk is belonging to the family of Piperaceae. It is our interest to evaluate their effect on human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) for the potential of anticarcinogenic activity. RESULTS: The anticarcinogenic activity of an ethanolic extract from Piper sarmentosum in HepG2 and non-malignant Chang's liver cell lines has been previously determined using (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide)

Shahrul Hisham Zainal Ariffin; Wan Haifa Haryani Wan Omar; Zaidah Zainal Ariffin; Muhd Fauzi Safian; Sahidan Senafi; Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab

2009-01-01

239

Final report on the safety assessment of Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Oil, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Seed Extract, Corylus Avellana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, Corylus Americana (Hazel) Leaf Extract, and Corylus Rostrata (Hazel) Leaf Extract.  

PubMed

These ingredients are all derived from hazelnut trees. The two seed oils are expressed from the nuts of the hazelnut tree of the particular species identified. Most current reported cosmetic uses are of the seed oils. The seed extracts are the extract of the nuts of the identified species tree. There is one current report of use of seed extract in cosmetics. The leaf extracts are the extract from the leaves of the particular species tree. There are no current reports of use of these extracts in cosmetics. Analysis of seed oil from one species identified Oleic Acid, Palmitoleic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Eicosaenoic Acid, Docosenoic Acid, Eicosanoic Acid, Palmitic Acid, Linolenic Acid, Stearic Acid, and Tetraeicosanoic Acid. Little information is available to characterize the extracts, however. The functions of most of these ingredients in cosmetics are not reported. In studies of hazelnuts from Spain and Egypt, aflatoxin was reported as a possible contaminant. Aflatoxins are considered carcinogenic in humans. Virtually no safety test data are available on these ingredients. Negative results in one comedogenicity study using a seed oil are reported. Cross-sensitivity to proteins in peanuts and those in hazelnuts are reported, but the presence or absence of protein in nut extract and plant extract from hazelnut trees is not known. Additional data were provided regarding concentration of use, method of extraction and contaminants, comedogenicity, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation absorption, but these data related to nut oil from only one species, and were not overall sufficient to resolve questions about irritation, sensitization, and photosensitization. Because of the absence of data, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic products. Because of the limited information that characterizes any of these oils or extracts, data are needed on each (except that items 1, 2, and 3 below are not needed for Hazel [Corylus Avellana] Nut Oil). The additonal data needs include: (1) current concentration of use; (2) method of extraction/manufacture and quality control (i.e., chemical analyses); (3) contaminants and methods of extraction (especially pesticides and heavy metals); (4) dermal irritation and sensitization; (5) UV absorption; if there is significant absorption, then a photosensitization study will be needed; (6) 28-day dermal toxicity; (7) reproductive and developmental toxicity; and (8) two genotoxicity assays, one in a mammalian system; if positive, then a 2-year dermal carcinogenesis study using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods may be needed. PMID:11358108

Madhaven, N

2001-01-01

240

Quality of borage seed oil extracted by liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the extraction of borage seed oil by liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide, from the point of view of both operative method and pre-treatment of raw material. The best conditions for borage seed oil extraction are obtained at 300bar, 40°C and a solvent flow rate of 1.5l\\/min at STP. The yields obtained are very similar to those resulting

A Molero Gómez; E Mart??nez de la Ossa

2002-01-01

241

Efficacy of crude neem seed kernel extracts against natural infestation of Sarcoptes scabiei var. ovis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of crude aqueous-methanol and aqueous extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel against sarcoptic mange of sheep. Crude aqueous-methanol (AME) and aqueous extracts (AE) of neem seed kernel (NSK) were prepared and formulated as 10% and 20% ointments (w\\/w), using Vaseline as vehicle. Forty-two lambs of Pak Karakul breed, having natural infection

Shahid Maqsood Tabassam; Zafar Iqbal; Abdul Jabbar; Zia-ud-Din Sindhu; Amjad Iqbal Chattha

2008-01-01

242

Antioxidant effects of a grape seed extract in a rat model of diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated the anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of grape seed extract, a polyphenolic flavonoid, in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Group I: non-diabetic control; Group II: diabetic control; Group III: diabetic rats treated with grape seed extract, administered via an intragastric tube (0.6 ml\\/rat), at a

Irina C. Chis; Marius I. Ungureanu; Adriana Marton; Ramona Simedrea; Adriana Muresan; Ion-Dan Postescu; Nicoleta Decea

2009-01-01

243

Antioxidant effects of a grape seed extract in a rat model of diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated the anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effect of grape seed extract, a polyphenolic flavonoid, in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Group I: non-diabetic control; Group II: diabetic control; Group III: diabetic rats treated with grape seed extract, administered via an intragastric tube (0.6 ml\\/rat), at a

Irina C. Chis; Marius I. Ungureanu; Adriana Marton; Ramona Simedrea; Adriana Muresan; Ion-Dan Postescu; Nicoleta Decea

2010-01-01

244

Grape seed oil supercritical extraction kinetic and solubility data: Critical approach and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on supercritical CO2 extraction of grape seed oil which has been analyzed both experimentally and theoretically.Extractions on crushed seeds at pressures varying in the range 280–550bar and at a fixed temperature of 313K were performed. From the initial linear portion of the experimental curves oil solubility data in the supercritical solvent have been obtained. By modeling the

L. Fiori

2007-01-01

245

Wound-healing activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Ficus benghalensis  

PubMed Central

Wound healing is the process of repair that follows injury to the skin and other soft tissues. Following injury, an inflammatory response occurs and the cells below the dermis (the deepest skin layer) begin to increase collagen (connective tissue) production. Later, the epithelial tissue (the outer skin) is regenerated. There are three stages to the process of wound healing: inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Traditionally, Ficus benghalensis is used for wound healing. Since no detailed scientific data are available regarding the wound-healing activity of F. benghalensis, the present study was designed to explore the same. The wound-healing efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of F. benghalensis was evaluated in excision and incision wound models. The parameters studied include rate of wound contraction, period of complete epithelialization, and tensile strength of incision wound. Student's t test was used to analyze the results obtained from the present study and P<0.05 was considered significant. Both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of F. benghalensis were found to possess significant wound-healing activity, which was evidenced by decrease in the period of epithelialization, increase in the rate of wound contraction and skin-breaking strength. The present study has demonstrated that the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of F. benghalensis have properties that render them capable of promoting accelerated wound-healing activity compared with placebo control.

Garg, Vipin Kumar; Paliwal, Sarvesh Kumar

2011-01-01

246

Grape seed extract attenuates arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity in rats  

PubMed Central

Oxidative stress is a recognized factor in nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (As). Grape seed extract (GSE) possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effects of GSE against arsenic-induced renal injury. Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to As in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg) for 12 months. The serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and mRNA expression levels of fibrogenic markers in the renal tissues were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) subunits, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) were assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cotreatment with GSE significantly improved renal function, as demonstrated by the reductions in relative kidney weight (% of body weight) and blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in the creatinine clearance capacity. GSE attenuated the As-induced changes in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1? and the mRNA levels of TGF-?1, ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in renal tissue. Furthermore, administration of GSE markedly reduced As-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nox activity, as well as the protein expression levels of the NADPH subunits (Nox2, p47phox and Nox4). In addition, GSE cotreatment was correlated with a significant reduction in TGF-?/Smad signaling, as demonstrated by the decreased protein levels of TGF-?1 and pSmad2/3 in renal tissue. This study indicated that GSE may be a useful agent for the prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to As. GSE may exert its effects through the suppression of Nox and inhibition of TGF-?/Smad signaling activation.

ZHANG, JIANGONG; PAN, XINJUAN; LI, NING; LI, XING; WANG, YONGCHAO; LIU, XIAOZHUAN; YIN, XINJUAN; YU, ZENGLI

2014-01-01

247

Measurement of ethanol concentration using solvent extraction and dichromate oxidation and its application to bioethanol production process.  

PubMed

A method for measuring the ethanol concentration in a yeast culture broth was developed using both microtubes and a 96-deepwell microplate. The strategy involved first the solvent extraction of ethanol from the yeast culture broth and measurements of the ethanol concentration using the dichromate oxidation method. Particular focus was made on selecting the extraction solvent as well as determining the measurable range of ethanol concentrations using this solvent extraction-dichromate oxidation method. This method was developed as an assay format in 2.0-ml microtubes and 1.2-ml 96-deepwell microplates, and the ethanol concentration in the batch cultures and fed-batch fermentations was measured. Tri-n-butyl phosphate [non-alcoholic solvent, density = 0.9727, solubility in water = 0.028% (w/v)] was used for solvent extraction when measuring the ethanol concentration from the yeast culture broth. The maximum detectable ethanol concentration was 8% (v/v) when 10 g potassium dichromate in 100 ml of 5 M sulfuric acid was used. The concentrations determined from the solvent extraction-dichromate oxidation methods were remarkably similar to those of gas chromatography in which samples were prepared from seven experiments, such as four batch cultures and three fed-batch fermentations. PMID:18989713

Seo, Hyun-Beom; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Oh-Kyu; Ha, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hyeon-Yong; Jung, Kyung-Hwan

2009-02-01

248

[Study of anti-atherosclerosic effect of grape seed extract and its mechanism].  

PubMed

In order to observe the anti-atherosclerosic effect of the grape seed extract and its mechanism, the 50C57/6J mice are divided randomly into 5 group (normal control group, hyperlipidemia model group, low and high grape seed extract groups(0.2 mg/gBW, 0.6 mg/gBW), and drug control group(0.2 mg/gBW). After twenty-one weeks, plasma oxidized low density lipoprotein (OX-LDL), serum nitric oxide (NO) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) are measured and the form of aortic valves are observed pathologically. The results show that the levels of plasma OX-LDL, and ICAM-1 are significantly lower in grape seed extract group than those in model group while the levels of NO are higher in grape seed extract group than that in model group (P < 0.01). The thickness of aortic valves consisting of foam cell and endothelium hyperplasia in grape seed extract group is lighter than that of model group. The results indicate that the grape seed extract has inhibitary effect on atherosclerosis in C57BL/6J mice, and the possible mechanism may be related to inhibition of the increase of OX-LDL, and ICAM-1, reduction of the damage of vascular endothelium and protection of the function of vascular endothelium. PMID:12600036

Yu, Hongxia; Wang, Shu-e; Zhao, Changfeng; Xu, Guifa

2002-08-01

249

90-day oral toxicity study of a grape seed extract (IH636) in rats.  

PubMed

To assess the safety of grape seed extract with less than 5.5% catechin monomers (IH636), 4 groups of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided grape seed extract in the diet at levels of 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% for a period of 90 days. All animals survived the duration of the study, and no significant changes in clinical signs, hematological parameters, organ weights, ophthalmology evaluations, or histopathological findings were observed. A significant increase in food consumption was observed in male and female rats provided the grape seed extract diets compared to that of the control rats, especially in male rats consuming 2.0% grape seed extract. This effect was not accompanied by increases in body weight gains. Grape seed extract appeared to increase the insoluble fraction of the diet. Male rats in the high-dose group exhibited decreased serum iron levels and decreased serum iron/total iron binding capacity ratio compared to those of the controls, although all values were within historical ranges for Sprague-Dawley rats. In conclusion, administration of the grape seed extract IH636 to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats in the feed at levels of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0% for 90 days did not induce any significant toxicological effects. PMID:11902976

Wren, Allison F; Cleary, Michael; Frantz, Christopher; Melton, Shawn; Norris, Leslie

2002-03-27

250

Evaluation of acute toxicity of water extract of Azadirachta indica leaves and seeds in rats.  

PubMed

This study 'in vivo' was applied on rats "Rattus norvegicus" to determine the acute toxicity of water extracts of Azadirachta indica leaves and seeds during 48 hours and the 50% lethal dose (LD50) values were calculated. Different doses of A. indica water extracts of leaves and seeds were injected to the rats (Rattus norvegicus) and the percentage of death was recorded during 48 hours. The present study, found that the percentage of death in all treated rats with A. indica leaves and seeds water extracts were increased by doses increased (R2 = 0.9). Rats injected with higher doses of water extract ofA. indica leaves (0.1 and 0.092 g mL(-1)) and seeds (0.2 g mL(-1)) showed 100% death. The LD50 of water extract of A. indica leaves and seeds were 6.2, 9.4 mL kg(-1), respectively. Based on these results, it may be concluded that doses of water extract of A. indica leaves and seeds injected to rats showed significant acute toxicity. PMID:24505996

Bakr, Shori Amal

2013-07-15

251

Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts.  

PubMed

Papaya (Carica papaya) seeds were extracted in an aqueous buffer or in organic solvents, fractionated by chromatography on silica and aliquots tested for anthelmintic activity by viability assays using Caenorhabditis elegans. For all preparations and fractions tested, anthelmintic activity and benzyl isothiocyanate content correlated positively. Aqueous extracts prepared from heat-treated seeds had no anthelmintic activity or benzyl isothiocyanate content although both appeared when these extracts were incubated with a myrosinase-containing fraction prepared from papaya seeds. A 10 h incubation of crude seed extracts at room temperature led to a decrease in anthelmintic activity and fractionated samples showed a lower benzyl isothiocyanate content relative to non-incubated controls. Benzyl thiocyanate, benzyl cyanide, and benzonitrile were not detected in any preparations and cyanogenic glucosides. which were present, could not account for the anthelmintic activity detected. Thus, our results are best explained if benzyl isothiocyanate is the predominant or sole anthelmintic agent in papaya seed extracts regardless of how seeds are extracted. PMID:11393524

Kermanshai, R; McCarry, B E; Rosenfeld, J; Summers, P S; Weretilnyk, E A; Sorger, G J

2001-06-01

252

Physical and oxidative stability of uncoated and chitosan-coated liposomes containing grape seed extract.  

PubMed

Polyphenol-rich grape seed extract (0.1 w/w%) was incorporated in liposomes (1 w/w% soy lecithin) by high pressure homogenization (22,500 psi) and coated with chitosan (0.1 w/w%). Primary liposomes and chitosan-coated secondary liposomes containing grape seed extract showed good physical stability during 98 days of storage. Most of the polyphenols were incorporated in the shell of the liposomes (85.4%), whereas only 7.6% of the polyphenols of grape seed extract were located in the interior of the liposomes. Coating with chitosan did not change the polyphenol content in the liposomes (86.6%). The uncoated liposomes without grape seed extract were highly prone to lipid oxidation. The cationic chitosan coating, however, improved the oxidative stability to some extent, due to its ability to repel pro-oxidant metals. Encapsulated grape seed extract showed high antioxidant activity in both primary and secondary liposomes, which may be attributed to its polyphenol content. In conclusion, the best chemical stability of liposomes can be achieved using a combination of grape seed extract and chitosan. PMID:24300515

Gibis, Monika; Rahn, Nina; Weiss, Jochen

2013-01-01

253

Producao de Etanol por Fermentacao Extractiva com Celulas de Levedura Imobilizadas (Extractive Fermentation of Ethanol by Immobilized Yeast Cells).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ethanol Production by Extractive Fermentation of glucose in the presence of media saturated with DBBP (dibutylbutylphosphorate) was performed in a semi-fluidized bed reactor by immobilized yeast cells of Saccharomyces bayanus in Ca-alginate matrices with ...

S. M. M. Dias

1991-01-01

254

Anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant activity of the ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata (Linn. F.) in mice  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the anticonvulsant and muscle relxant activity of ethanolic extract of stems of Dendrophthoe falcata in mice. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of stems of D. falcata (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was studied for its anticonvulsant effect on maximal electroshock-induced seizures and muscle relaxant activity at the same dose level using rota rod and traction test in mice. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed presence of proteins, carbohydrates, glycosides, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds. D. falcata ethanolic extract (DFEE) (100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.001) inhibited seizures induced by MES, reduced the duration of Hind limb tonic extensor phase (HLTE) and a decline in motor coordination. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract possesses anticonvulsant activity and muscle relaxant activity.

Sinoriya, Pooja; Irchhaiya, R.; Sharma, Bhawna; Sahu, Gayatri; Kumar, Santosh

2011-01-01

255

Molecular docking studies and anti-enzymatic activities of Thai mango seed kernel extract against snake venoms.  

PubMed

The ethanolic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (MSKE) (Mangifera indica L. cv. 'Fahlun') (Anacardiaceae) and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloyl glucopyranose) exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects on enzymatic activities of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)), hyaluronidase and L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) of Calloselasma rhodostoma (CR) and Naja naja kaouthia (NK)venoms by in vitro tests. The anti-hemorrhagic and anti-dermonecrotic activities of MSKE against both venoms were clearly supported by in vivo tests. Molecular docking studies indicated that the phenolic molecules of the MSKE could selectively bind to the active sites or their proximity, or modify conserved residues that are critical for the catalysis of PLA(2), and selectively bind to the LAAO binding pocket of both CR and NK venoms and thereby inhibit their enzymatic activities. The results imply a potential use of MSKE against snake venoms. PMID:19384272

Leanpolchareanchai, Jiraporn; Pithayanukul, Pimolpan; Bavovada, Rapepol; Saparpakorn, Patchreenart

2009-01-01

256

Stabilization of emulsion and butter like products containing essential fatty acids using kalonji seeds extract and curcuminoids.  

PubMed

Owing to the tendency of essential fatty acids (EFAs) to undergo autoxidation, their storage becomes a key problem. Generally, they are stabilized by synthetic antioxidants like TBHQ that are toxic in nature. Recently many studies were reported where these EFAs are stabilized by natural antioxidants. In the present study, curcuminoids and kalonji seeds ethanol extract (KEE) were used to stabilize these EFAs in refined sunflower oil (RSFO), water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion and butter like products (BLPs). In RSFO, though curcuminoids alone exerted pro-oxidant effect, KEE and curcuminoids showed synergistic antioxidant activity that was comparable to TBHQ. KEE exhibited good antioxidant activity in emulsions and BLPs, providing fine physical properties like slipping point, dropping point and spreadability. EFAs increased the nutritional value of BLPs and antioxidants added for their stabilization provided their medicinal benefits. PMID:22188801

Rege, Sameera A; Momin, Shamim A; Bhowmick, Dipti N; Pratap, Amit A

2012-01-01

257

Lipid lowering activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) in hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid lowering effect of 50% ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. marmelos (Linn.) was evaluated in triton and diet induced hyperlipidaemic models of Wistar albino rats. The extract at 125 and 250 mg\\/kg dose levels inhibited the elevation in serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels on Triton WR 1339 administration in rats. The extract at the same dose levels significantly

C Vijaya; M Ramanathan; B Suresh

258

Inhibitory effect of celery seeds extract on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis: modulation of cell proliferation, metabolism and altered hepatic foci development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemopreventive activity of methanolic extract of Apium graveolens seeds (celery seeds) has been investigated against Solt Farber protocol of hepatocarcinogenesis, oxidative stress and induction of positive foci of ?-GT in the liver of Wistar rats. The prophylactic treatment of celery seeds extract protected dose dependently against diethylnitrosoamine (DEN)+2-acetylaminofluorine (AAF)+partial hepatectomy (PH) induced hepatocarcinogenesis and other related events such as

Sarwat Sultana; Salahuddin Ahmed; Tamanna Jahangir; Sonia Sharma

2005-01-01

259

Phytochemical Screening and Anti-nociceptive Properties of the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Trema Cannabina Lour.  

PubMed

Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the anti-nociceptive activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Trema cannabina Lour (family: Cannabaceae) in experimental animal models. Methods: The anti-nociceptive action was carried out against two types of noxious stimuli, thermal (hot plate and tail immersion tests) and chemical (acetic acid-induced writhing) in mice. Results: Phytochemical analysis of crude extract indicated the presence of reducing sugar, tannins, steroid and alkaloid types of secondary metabolites. Crude extract of T. cannabina (500 mg/kg dose) showed maximum time needed for the response against thermal stimuli (6.79±0.15 seconds) which is comparable to diclofenac sodium (8.26±0.14 seconds) in the hot plate test. Hot tail immersion test also showed similar results as in hot plate test. At the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, the extract showed significantly and in a dose-dependent (p<0.001) reduction in acetic acid induced writhing in mice with a maximum effect of 47.56% reduction at 500 mg/kg dose comparable to that of diclofenac sodium (67.07%) at 25 mg/kg. Conclusion: The obtained results tend to suggest the Anti-nociceptive activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Trema cannabina and thus provide the scientific basis for the traditional uses of this plant part as a remedy for pain. PMID:24312820

Hossain, Hemayet; Jahan, Ismet Ara; Islam, Howlader Sariful; Kanti, Dey Shubhra; Arpona, Hira; Arif, Ahmed

2013-01-01

260

Evaluation of the in vivo antimalarial activity of ethanolic leaf and stembark extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the in vivo antimalarial activities of ethanolic leaf and stembark extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis used traditionally as malarial remedy in Southern Nigeria in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei. Methods: The ethanolic extracts of the A. djalonensis leaf (1000 – 3000 mg/kg/day) and stembark (220 – 660 mg/kg/day) were screened for blood schizonticidal activity against chloroquine-sensitive P. berghei in mice. The schizonticidal effect during early and established infections was investigated. Results: The A. djalonensis leaf extract (1000 – 3000 mg/kg/day) exhibited a significant antiplasmodial activity both in the 4-day early infection test and in the established infection with a considerable mean survival time, which was incomparable to that of the standard drug, chloroquine (5 mg/kg/day). The stembark extract (220 – 660 mg/kg/day) also demonstrated a promising blood schizontocidal activity in early and established infections. Conclusion: These plant extracts possess considerable antiplasmodial activities, which justify their use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in malaria therapy.

Bassey, Anita S.; Okokon, Jude E.; Etim, Emmanuel I.; Umoh, Francis U.; Bassey, Emmanuel

2009-01-01

261

Effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. for the management of alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: As per traditional claims, root, bark, leaf and flower of the plant Cassia occidentalis Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) have been reported to possess antidiabetic activity. Based on this traditional indication, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of C. occidentalis was orally tested at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for evaluating the hypoglycemic effect in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In addition, changes in body weight, serum cholesterol, triglyceride and total protein levels, assessed in the ethanol extract treated diabetic rats were compared with diabetic control and normal animals. Histopathologic observations during 21 days of treatment were also evaluated. Results: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis produced a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in the normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats led to a dose-dependent fall in blood sugar levels. Significant differences were observed in serum lipid profiles (cholesterol and triglyceride), serum protein and changes in body weight in ethanolic extract treated diabetic animals, when compared with the diabetic control and normal animals. Concurrent histopathologic studies of the pancreas of these animals showed comparable regeneration by ethanolic extract, which were earlier necrosed by alloxan. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of C. occidentalis exhibited significant antidiabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profiles and also, histopathologic studies showed regeneration of ?-cells of pancreas and so it might be of value in the treatment of diabetes.

Verma, Laxmi; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Rajak, H.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.

2010-01-01

262

Detection of ethanol in human body fluids by headspace solid-phase micro extraction (SPME)\\/capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol has been found extractable from human whole blood and urine samples by headspace solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) with a Carbowax\\/divinylbenzene-coated fiber. After heating a vial containing the body fluid sample with ethanol, and isobutanol as internal standard (IS) at 70°C in the presence of (NH4)2SO4, a Carbowax\\/divinylbenzene-coated SPME fiber was exposed in the headspace of the vial to allow

T. Kumazawal; H. Seno; X.-P. Lee; A. Ishii; O. Suzuki; K. Sato

1996-01-01

263

Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder.  

PubMed

The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans. PMID:24872936

Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

2014-01-01

264

Pumpkin Seed Oil Extracted From Cucurbita maxima Improves Urinary Disorder in Human Overactive Bladder  

PubMed Central

The pumpkin seed oil obtained from Cucurbita pepo has been shown to be useful for the treatment of nocturia in patients with urinal disorders in several western countries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pumpkin seed oil from Cucurbita maxima on urinary dysfunction in human overactive bladder (OAB). Forty-five subjects were enrolled in this study. An extract of pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima (10 g of oil/day) was orally administrated for 12 weeks. After 6 and 12 weeks, urinary function was evaluated using Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS). Pumpkin seed oil from C. maxima significantly reduced the degree of OABSS in the subjects. The results from our study suggest that pumpkin seed oil extracts from C. maxima as well as from C. pepo are effective for urinary disorders such as OAB in humans.

Nishimura, Mie; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Sato, Hiroji; Takeda, Hiroshi; Nishihira, Jun

2014-01-01

265

Anticonvulsant potential of ethanol extracts and their solvent partitioned fractions from Flemingia strobilifera root  

PubMed Central

Background: Flemingia strobilifera (FS) R.Br. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant. In wealth of India it has been reported that roots of FS are used by santals in epilepsy, hysteria, insomnia, and to relieve pain. In Burma also the roots of F. strobilifera are used to treat epilepsy. Objective: To investigate anticonvulsant potential of 95% ethanol extract and four subsequent fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions of the roots of FS against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) induced convulsions. Material and Methods: All the fractions and crude ethanol extract were administered (i.e., 200, 400, 600 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 days and at the end of the treatment convulsions were induced experimentally using pentylenetetrazole and Maximal electroshock Test. Diazepam and phenytoin (4 mg/kg, i.p. and 20 mg/kg, i.p., respectively) were used as reference anticonvulsant drugs against experimentally induced convulsions. The latency of tonic convulsions and the numbers of animals protected from tonic convulsions were noted. Results: High doses (200 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) of ethyl acetate fraction and 95% ethanol crude extract (400 and 600 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced the duration of seizure induced by maximal electroshock (MES). The same dose also protected from pentylenetetrzole-induced tonic seizures and significantly delayed the onset of tonic seizures. However, pet, ether, chloroform, and aqueous fraction at any of the doses used (i.e., 100, 200, 300 mg/kg, p.o.) did not show any significant effect on PTZ and MES induced convulsions. The treatment with crude ethanolic extract and ethyl acetate fraction caused signs of central nervous system depressant action in the locomotor activity test, confirmed by the potentiation of sodium pentobarbital sleeping time. Both did not cause disturbance in motor coordination assessed by rotarod test. Conclusion: The data suggest that crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of roots of Flemingia strobilifera have a central nervous system depressant action and behave as a potential anticonvulsant. It may produce its anticonvulsant effect via non-specific mechanism since it reduced the duration of seizures produced by maximal electroshock as well as delayed the latency of seizures produced by pentylenetetrazole.

Gahlot, Kavita; Lal, Vijay Kumar; Jha, Shivesh

2013-01-01

266

Biorefinery process for protein extraction from oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) using ethanol stillage  

PubMed Central

Large volumes of treated process water are required for protein extraction. Evaporation of this water contributes greatly to the energy consumed in enriching protein products. Thin stillage remaining from ethanol production is available in large volumes and may be suitable for extracting protein rich materials. In this work protein was extracted from ground defatted oriental mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.) meal using thin stillage. Protein extraction efficiency was studied at pHs between 7.6 and 10.4 and salt concentrations between 3.4 × 10-2 and 1.2 M. The optimum extraction efficiency was pH 10.0 and 1.0 M NaCl. Napin and cruciferin were the most prevalent proteins in the isolate. The isolate exhibited high in vitro digestibility (74.9 ± 0.80%) and lysine content (5.2 ± 0.2 g/100 g of protein). No differences in the efficiency of extraction, SDS-PAGE profile, digestibility, lysine availability, or amino acid composition were observed between protein extracted with thin stillage and that extracted with NaCl solution. The use of thin stillage, in lieu of water, for protein extraction would decrease the energy requirements and waste disposal costs of the protein isolation and biofuel production processes.

2012-01-01

267

Salt effects in extraction of ethanol, 1-butanol and acetone from aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

Experimental studies were performed to assess the effect of salt addition on the extraction of 1-butanol, ethanol and acetone from dilute aqueous solutions using cyclopentanol, n-valeraldehyde, tert-amyl alcohol, and Adol 85NF as extractants. The liquid-liquid partitioning was examined for a few strong electrolytes in a broad range of concentrations. Results demonstrate that the distribution coefficient and selectivity in systems with reduced water activity resulting from salt addition were markedly increased. These observations can be qualitatively explained on the basis of the hydration theory. It was also determined that strong electrolytes added to the aqueous feed reduced extractant solubility in the aqueous phase, thus contributing to lower solvent losses. The results showed that the extraction efficiency was not significantly affected by increasing salt content beyond a level that reduces the water activity to a value of 0.92.

Malinowski, J.J.; Daugulis, A.J. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-09-01

268

[Evaluation of non-host plant ethanol extracts against Plutella xylostella population].  

PubMed

Through establishing experimental and natural population life tables, and by using the index of population trend (1) and interference index of population control (IIPC), this paper evaluated 8 kinds of non-host plant ethanol extracts against experimental population of Plutella xylostella, and 3 kinds of these extracts and their mixture against Plutella xylostella natural population. The experimental population life table of DBM showed that the index of population trend (I) was 69. 8964 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.3702, 4.4842, 8.0945, 11.1382, 6.8937, 6.1609, 5.5199 and 9.8052, respectively in treatments of Zanthoxylum bungeanum, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Nicotiana tabacum, Broussonetia papyrifera, Bauhinia variegata, Duranta repens, Euphorbia hirta and Camellia oleifera ethanol extracts, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.0768, 0.0642, 0.1158, 0.1594, 0.0986, 0.0881, 0.0790 and 0. 1403, respectively. The natural population life tables of DBM showed that the index of population trend (I) was 21.6232 in control, and decreased dramatically to 5.1997, 7.4160, 7. 3644 and 3.1399, respectively in treatments of the ethanol extracts of E. tereticornis, N. tabacum, C. oleifera and their mixture, while the corresponding IIPC was 0.2405, 0.3695, 0.3549 and 0.1608, respectively. All of these indicated that the test plant extracts could interfere the development of P. xylostella population significantly, and had the potential as an effective measure for controlling insect pest. PMID:16180759

Wei, Hui; Hou, Youming; Yang, Guang; Fu, Jianwei; You, Minsheng

2005-06-01

269

Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds ( Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175°C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components were carried out by

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

2007-01-01

270

Research note Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction (SCWE), hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction were compared for the extraction of essential oil from coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum L.). The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 ? C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4 ml\\/min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components

Mohammad H. Eikani; Fereshteh Golmohammad; Soosan Rowshanzamir

271

Ethanol production from nonsterilized carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells using fed-batch culture  

SciTech Connect

The production of ethanol from carob pod extract by free and immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in batch and fed-batch culture was investigated. Fed-batch culture proved to be a better fermentation system for the production of ethanol than batch culture. In fed-batch culture, both free and immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave the same maximum concentration of final ethanol at an initial sugar concentration of 300 g/L and F = 167 mL/h. The maximum ethanol productivity was obtained with both free and immobilized cells at a substrate concentration of 300 g/L and F = 334 mL/h. In repeated fed-batch culture, immobilized S. cerevisiae cells gave a higher overall ethanol concentration compared with the free cells. The immobilized S. cerevisiae cells in Ca-alginate beads retained their ability to produce ethanol for 10 days.

Roukas, T. (Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Food Science and Technology)

1994-02-05

272

Relaxant effect of the ethanol extract of Helichrysum plicatum (Asteraceae) on isolated rat ileum contractions.  

PubMed

Helichrysum plicatum (Turkish Helichrysum) has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastric and hepatic disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the relaxant activity of an extract of H. plicatum flowers on isolated rat ileum. Segments of ileum of rats were suspended in an organ bath. Cumulative concentrations of H. plicatum ethanol extract induced a relaxant effect on spontaneous rat ileum contractions. H. plicatum extract caused a mean contractile response of 81.68 +/- 6.17% (at a dose of 0.01 mg/mL) and 30.08 +/- 9.07% (at a dose of 1 mg/mL). A similar effect was observed with papaverine (0.01-3 microg/mL). H. plicatum extract (0.01-1 mg/mL) relaxed high K+ (80 mM) precontractions, an effect similar to that caused by papaverine (0.01-3 microg/mL). The plant extract (0.03-0.3 mg/mL) also induced a significant depression of the cumulative concentration response curve for acetylcholine (5-1500 nM) (p < 0.01). Atropine (140 nM) abolished the acetylcholine effect. The extract (0.03-0.3 mg/mL) reduced the histamine (1-300 nM) and BaCl2 (3-900 microM) induced contractions (p < 0.01). Our results showed the relaxant effect of the ethanol extract of Helichrysum plicatum flowers on the isolated rat intestine Extract of H. plicatum can inhibit the spontaneous ileum contractions and contractions induced by acetylcholine, histamine, barium and potassium ions. PMID:20657488

Bigovic, Dubravka; Brankovic, Suzana; Kitic, Dusanka; Radenkovic, Mirjana; Jankovic, Teodora; Savikin, Katarina; Zivanovic, Slavoljub

2010-05-01

273

Preparation and characterization of nano liposomes of Orthosiphon stamineus ethanolic extract in soybean phospholipids  

PubMed Central

Background O. stamineus is a medicinal herb with remarkable pharmacological properties. However, poor solubility of the active principles limits its medicinal value. This study sought to prepare nano liposomes of OS ethanolic extract in unpurified soybean phospholipids in order to improve its solubility and permeability. OS liposomes were prepared by the conventional film method, and were characterized for solubility, entrapment efficiency, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), particle size and zeta potential, release, absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs, and DPPH scavenging effect. Results OS liposomes showed substantial enhancement of extract’s solubility from 956?±?34 to 3979?±?139 ?g/ml, with entrapment efficiency of 66.2?±?0.9%. FTIR study indicates interaction between soybean phospholipids and OS extract. TEM and dynamic light scattering showed presence of round anionic nano liposomes with particle size and zeta potential of 152.5?±?1.1 nm and ?49.8?±?1.0 mV, respectively. A study using the fluorescent probe pyrene showed the critical micellar concentration is 9.2?±?2.9 ?g/ml. Release studies showed 94?±?0.1% release in non-formulated extract and 62.4?±?0.1% in OS liposomes. Released extract from OS liposomes showed improvement in DPPH scavenging effect, IC50?=?23.5?±?1.1 ?g/ml compared to 32.4?±?0.5 ?g/ml in non-formulated extract. OS liposomes were stable at pH 5.5 and 7.4, but showed reversible agglomeration at pH 1.6. Absorption in everted rat intestinal sacs showed substantial improvement in permeability of 3?-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4?-tetramethoxyflavone, sinensetin, eupatorin, and 3 other unknown compounds. Conclusions Enhanced solubility, absorption and antioxidant effect may improve the overall pharmacological effects and medicinal value of OS ethanolic extract.

2014-01-01

274

Legume seed exudates and Physcomitrella patens extracts influence swarming behavior in Rhizobium leguminosarum.  

PubMed

Plants are known to secrete chemical compounds that can change the behavior of rhizosphere-inhabiting bacteria. We investigated the effects of extracts from legume host plants on the swarming behavior of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. We also investigated the effects on swarming when Rhizobium is exposed to extracts from an ancestor to vascular plants, the model bryophyte Physcomitrella patens. Lentil and faba bean seed exudates enhanced and inhibited swarming motility, respectively, whereas pea seed exudates had no observable effect on swarming. Swarming was also enhanced by the moss extracts. Exposure to lentil seed exudates and the moss extract increased flaA expression 2-fold, while faba bean seed exudates exposure decreased expression 3-fold, suggesting that the swarming effect could, in part, be due to regulation of flagellin gene expression. However, the exudates and extracts did not significantly affect flaA gene expression in planktonic motile cells, indicating that the response to flagellar regulation is specific to a physiology unique to the swarming cell. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that addition of the lentil seed exudate and the moss extract results in earlier differentiation into swarmer cells, which could contribute to the development of a larger swarming surface area. To gain further mechanistic insight into the effect of the moss extract on swarming, a moss strigolactone-deficient mutant (Ppccd8?) was tested. A reduction in the promotive effect was observed, suggesting that the plant hormone strigolactone may be a signalling molecule activating swarming motility in R. leguminosarum. PMID:24392922

Tambalo, Dinah D; Vanderlinde, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Shawn; Halmillawewa, Anupama; Hynes, Michael F; Yost, Christopher K

2014-01-01

275

A new lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new compound, neoarctin A (1), together with nine known compounds (2–10), were obtained from the ethanolic extract of the seeds of Arctium lappa. The structure of 1 was elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical evidence.

Min Yong; Gu Kun; Min-Hua Qiu

2007-01-01

276

Hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaves against garlic-induced oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) leaf is a darkish-green leafy vegetable popularly used in soup and in herbal preparations for the management of many diseases in Nigeria. In this study, the hepatoprotective property of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. occidentalis leaf (earlier confirmed to have a high level of antioxidant activity) against garlic induced-oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes was investigated. Oxidative stress was induced in Wistar strain albino rats by overdosing them with raw garlic (4%) for 14 days, and this caused a significant increase (P < .05) in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), while there was no significant change (P > .05) in serum bilirubin, albumin, globulin, and total proteins. However, intubation of some of the rats fed raw garlic with 5 mg or 10 mg/0.5 mL of T. occidentalis leaf extract (ethanolic or aqueous) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in serum ALP, GOT, and GPT when compared with rats fed raw garlic without intubation with the T. occidentalis leaf extract. Moreover, 10 mg/0.5 mL of extract was more effective than 5 mg/0.5 mL of extract, while the aqueous extracts appeared to be more effective than the ethanolic extracts in protecting hepatocytes. It could be inferred that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaf have hepatoprotective properties, although the aqueous extract is more effective than the ethanolic extract, which could be attributed to the higher antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract than the ethanolic extracts of T. occidentalis leaves. PMID:16379574

Oboh, Ganiyu

2005-01-01

277

Extraction of oil from Jatropha curcas L. seed kernels by combination of ultrasonication and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction.  

PubMed

Use of ultrasonication as a pretreatment before aqueous oil extraction and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction was found to be useful in the case of extraction of oil from the seeds of Jatropha curcas L. The use of ultrasonication for 10 min at pH 9.0 followed by aqueous oil extraction gave a yield of 67%. However, the maximum yield of 74% was obtained by ultrasonication for 5 min followed by aqueous enzymatic oil extraction using an alkaline protease at pH 9.0. Use of ultrasonication also resulted in reducing the process time from 18 to 6 h. PMID:15364090

Shah, Shweta; Sharma, Aparna; Gupta, M N

2005-01-01

278

Identification of COX inhibitors in the hexane extract of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds.  

PubMed

Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seed extract inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX), but its active constituents have not been identified. In the present study, COX inhibitors were isolated from the hexane extract of this seed by means of 4 steps of liquid chromatography and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. The COX inhibitors in the extract of Japanese horse chestnut seeds were identified as linoleic acid, linolenic acid, and oleic acid. Their efficacies were in the following order: linolenic acid = linoleic acid > oleic acid. These active constituents are C18 unsaturated fatty acids; stearic acid, a C18 saturated fatty acid, had no activity. Linolenic acid and linoleic acid had high selectivity toward COX-2 (selectivity index = 10), whereas oleic acid had no selectivity. Considering the efficacy and yield of each fatty acid, linoleic acid may be the principal COX inhibitor in this seed. PMID:17675801

Sato, Itaru; Kofujita, Hisayoshi; Tsuda, Shuji

2007-07-01

279

Separation of lignocellulosic materials by combined processes of pre-hydrolysis and ethanol extraction.  

PubMed

In this paper, we proposed a new modification for an ethanol-based pulping process, which would consist of the pre-hydrolysis (pre-extraction) of wood chips for removing hemicelluloses; the ethanol extraction of pre-hydrolyzed wood chips for removing lignin; and the post purification of cellulose, leading to the production of pure cellulose. We also experimentally evaluated the separation of hemicelluloses from the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL) obtained from a pulp mill. To remove lignin from the PHL, it was acidified to a pH of 2, which resulted in 47% lignin precipitation. The lignin separation from the acidified PHL was further improved via adding polyethylene oxide and poly aluminum chloride or adding ethyl acetate. To recover the hemicelluloses from the acidified PHL, ethanol was added to the acidified PHL with a volumetric ratio of 4 to 1. The isolated lignin and hemicelluloses were characterized by a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and a gas permeation chromatography (GPC). PMID:20829035

Liu, Zehua; Fatehi, Pedram; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ni, Yonghao

2011-01-01

280

Effect of Garden Cress Seeds Powder and Its Alcoholic Extract on the Metabolic Activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4  

PubMed Central

The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates.

Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I.; Al-Thukair, Areej A.; Abbas, Fawkeya A.; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M.; Alkharfy, Khalid M.; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A.

2014-01-01

281

Effect of Garden Cress Seeds Powder and Its Alcoholic Extract on the Metabolic Activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4.  

PubMed

The powder and alcoholic extract of dried seeds of garden cress were investigated for their effect on metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In vitro and clinical studies were conducted on human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects, respectively. Dextromethorphan was used as a common marker for measuring metabolic activity of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 enzymes. In in vitro studies, microsomes were incubated with NADPH in presence and absence of different concentrations of seeds extract. Clinical investigations were performed in two phases. In phase I, six healthy female volunteers were administered a single dose of dextromethorphan and in phase II volunteers were treated with seeds powder for seven days and dextromethorphan was administered with last dose. The O-demethylated and N-demethylated metabolites of dextromethorphan were measured as dextrorphan (DOR) and 3-methoxymorphinan (3-MM), respectively. Observations suggested that garden cress inhibits the formation of DOR and 3-MM metabolites. This inhibition of metabolite level was attributed to the inhibition of CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity. Garden cress decreases the level of DOR and 3-MM in urine and significantly increases the urinary metabolic ratio of DEX/DOR and DEX/3-MM. The findings suggested that garden cress seeds powder and ethanolic extract have the potential to interact with CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 substrates. PMID:24711855

Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Thukair, Areej A; Alam, Mohd Aftab; Abbas, Fawkeya A; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Al-Suwayeh, Saleh A

2014-01-01

282

Evaluation of the Wound-healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf  

PubMed Central

Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) is one of the most important traditional Polynesian medicinal plants. The primary indigenous use of this plant appears to be of the leaves, as a topical treatment for wound healing. The ethanol extract of noni leaves (150 mg kg?1 day?1) was used to evaluate the wound-healing activity on rats, using excision and dead space wound models. Animals were randomly divided into two groups of six for each model. Test group animals in each model were treated with the ethanol extract of noni orally by mixing in drinking water and the control group animals were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, time until complete epithelialization, granulation tissue weight and hydoxyproline content. On day 11, the extract-treated animals exhibited 71% reduction in the wound area when compared with controls which exhibited 57%. The granulation tissue weight and hydroxyproline content in the dead space wounds were also increased significantly in noni-treated animals compared with controls (P < 0.002). Enhanced wound contraction, decreased epithelialization time, increased hydroxyproline content and histological characteristics suggest that noni leaf extract may have therapeutic benefits in wound healing.

Sandiford, Steve; Maxwell, Anderson

2009-01-01

283

Cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract of Lophocereus schottii: a Mexican medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Lophocereus schottii is a Mexican cactus known as garambullo whose bark is used for the treatment of cancer, diabetes, ulcers, sores, stomach disorders and tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the ethanolic extract of bark of L. Schottii. To assess these effects we established a flow of experiments in a model of BALB/c mice murine lymphoma. We value first survival of mice inoculated with 2 × 10(4) L5178Y murine lymphoma cells, orally treated with 10 mg/Kg of the extract for 10 consecutive days; the second assessment was to determine the influence of the immune system, we carry out studies of lymphoproliferation in mice with the same conditions of the previous study, only that the treatment was for 22 days before the completion cell cultures; the third study was to establish the cytotoxic effect of extract of L. schottii using different concentrations, by murine lymphoma cell cultures and splenocytes from healthy mice and finally we assessed the effect in vivo of extract of L. Schottii in a model of solid murine lymphoma inoculating 1 × 10(7) lymphoma cells in the gastrocnemius muscle observing the development of the tumor. We observed that oral treatment of 10 mg/kg of extract of L. schottii increased survival rate in treated mice; additionally, an intratumoral injection of 50 and 100 mg/kg in a solid murine lymphoma located in the gastrocnemius muscle, allowed a significantly slower tumor evolution. In vitro studies determined that extract inhibited 63% of lymphoma cell growth. With these evidences it is feasible to scientifically validate that ethanolic extract of L. schottii had an effect on L5178Y murine cells lymphoma and could have the same effect in human tumors. PMID:24146465

Orozco-Barocio, Arturo; Paniagua-Domínguez, Brenda Lizbeth; Benítez-Saldaña, Pedro Alberto; Flores-Torales, Edgardo; Velázquez-Magaña, Salvador; Nava, Hilda Julieta Arreola

2013-01-01

284

Effects of papaya seed extract and benzyl isothiocyanate on vascular contraction.  

PubMed

To investigate their potentially toxic effects on mammalian vascular smooth muscle, pentane extracts of papaya seeds and the chief active ingredient in the extracts, benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), were tested for their effects on the contraction of strips of dog carotid artery. BITC and the papaya seed extract caused relaxation when added to tissue strips that had been pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE). Incubation of the tissue with papaya seed extract or BITC caused inhibition of contraction when the strips were subsequently contracted with KCl or PE. This relaxation and inhibition of contraction did not appear to be endothelium-dependent, as endothelium-denuded rings showed the same degree of relaxation or inhibition of contraction in response to the preparations/drugs as those with the endothelium intact. The effects of both BITC and the extract were irreversible, i.e., the tissue did not recover to normal contractile ability after extensive washing. Exposure of the tissue to the papaya seed extract caused slower relaxation of the tissue, compared to controls, both after contraction with PE and subsequent addition of carbachol (CCh), and after contraction with KCl and then washing. Calcium imaging studies using cultured endothelial cells showed strong influxes of Ca2+ into the cells in response to addition of the papaya seed extract. We conclude that these extracts, when present in high concentration, are cytotoxic by increasing the membrane permeability to Ca2+, and that the vascular effects of papaya seed extracts are consistent with the notion that BITC is the chief bio-active ingredient. PMID:12052434

Wilson, Ruth K; Kwan, Tony K; Kwan, Chiu-Yin; Sorger, George J

2002-06-21

285

Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

Chatelain, Kourt; Phippen, Spencer; McCabe, Jonathan; Teeters, Christopher A.; O'Malley, Susan; Kingsley, Karl

2011-01-01

286

Cytotoxic activity of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and oil against human cancer cell lines  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the cytotoxic properties of both the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cervical cancer, human breast cancer, human colon cancer and human lung cancer cell lines. Methods The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed extract and kenaf seed oil on human cancer cell lines was evaluated by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and sulforhodamine B assays. Cell morphological changes were observed by using an inverted light microscope. Results The kenaf seed extract (KSE) exhibited a lower IC50 than kenaf seed oil (KSO) in all of the cancer cell lines. Morphological alterations in the cell lines after KSE and KSO treatment were observed. KSE and KSO possessed effective cytotoxic activities against all the cell lines been selected. Conclusions KSE and KSO could be potential sources of natural anti-cancer agents. Further investigations on using kenaf seeds for anti-proliferative properties are warranted.

Wong, Yu Hua; Tan, Wai Yan; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

2014-01-01

287

Characterization of chia seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oil yield, fatty acid composition and the physicochemical and quality characteristics of chia crude seed oils obtained by pressing and solvent extraction were determined. The extraction methods assayed influenced significantly the oil yield, obtaining about 30% more oil by solvent than by pressing. The main fatty acids ranked in the following order of abundance: ?-linolenic acid (? Ln)>linoleic acid

Vanesa Y. Ixtaina; Marcela L. Martínez; Viviana Spotorno; Carmen M. Mateo; Damián M. Maestri; Bernd W. K. Diehl; Susana M. Nolasco; Mabel C. Tomás

2011-01-01

288

Coagulation–flocculation process for POME treatment using Moringa oleifera seeds extract: Optimization studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of palm oil mill effluent, POME is an important issue for the minimization of water pollution. The coagulation–flocculation process using Moringa oleifera seeds after oil extraction as natural coagulant is reported for POME treatment in the present study. The important process parameters pH, settling time, M. oleifera (after oil extraction) dosage and flocculant (NALCO 7751) dosage were optimized

Subhash Bhatia; Zalina Othman; Abdul Latif Ahmad

2007-01-01

289

Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.  

PubMed

Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients. PMID:23869935

Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

2013-08-14

290

Subchronic 3-month oral toxicity study of grape seed and grape skin extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meganatural™ brand grape seed extract (GSE) and grape skin extract (GSKE), containing proanthocyanidin (PAC) polyphenolic compounds, are intended for use in food as functional ingredients exhibiting antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidins, as well as the minor constituent phenolic compounds in GSE and GSKE, are present naturally in many foods such as fruits, vegetables, chocolate, tea, etc., and on average people consume 460–1000

S. S Bentivegna; K. M Whitney

2002-01-01

291

In vitro and in vivo anticandidal activity of Swietenia mahogani methanolic seed extract.  

PubMed

Swietenia mahogani crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract was investigated for the antifungal activity against Candida albicans which has not been evaluated previously. The antifungal activity was evaluated against C. albicans via disk diffusion, minimum inhibition concentration (MIC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and time killing profile. The MIC value of SMCM seed extract is 12.5 mg/ml. The SEM and TEM findings showed there is morphological changes and cytological destruction of C. albicans at the MIC value. Animal model was used to evaluate the in vivo antifungal activity of SMCM seed extract. The colony forming unit (CFU) were calculated per gram of kidney sample and per ml of blood sample respectively for control, curative and ketaconazole treated groups. There was significant reduction for the CFU/ml of blood and CFU/g of kidney. This indicated that the extract was observed to be effective against C. albicans in vitro and in vivo conditions. PMID:21602779

Sahgal, G; Ramanathan, S; Sasidharan, S; Mordi, M N; Ismail, S; Mansor, S M

2011-04-01

292

Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.  

PubMed

Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory. PMID:21762099

Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

2011-10-01

293

IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

?uk, M.; Dymi?ska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; M?czka, M.; Zaj?c, A.; Szo?tysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

2011-03-01

294

Antimalaria Effect of the Ethanolic Stem Bark Extracts of Ficus platyphylla Del  

PubMed Central

The antimalarial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Ficus platyphylla Del was evaluated against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Nontreated, experimental control mice died of fulminant parasitemia from day 7 to 9 post-infection but mice treated with the extract at 300?mg/kg showed markedly reduced parasitaemia bouts of 43.50% and a mean survival time of 28 days postinfection. The plant extract prevented a drastic reduction in PCV showing its efficacy in ameliorating anaemic conditions in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Histological examination of liver tissues of treated and untreated mice further supports the antimalaria potential of this plant. This observation validates the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of malaria.

Shittu, Isma'il; Emmanuel, Amlabu; Nok, Andrew Jonathan

2011-01-01

295

Ethanolic and aqueous extracts derived from Australian fungi inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro.  

PubMed

Fifteen Australian macrofungi were investigated for cytotoxic activity. Ethanol, cold and hot water extracts of each species were screened for cytotoxic activity against normal mouse fibroblast cells (NIH/3T3), healthy human epithelial kidney cells (HEK-293), four cancer cell lines, gastric adenocarcinoma cells (AGS), two mammary gland adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231, MCF7) and colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29) with a validated MTT assay. Most extracts derived from Omphalotus nidiformis, Cordyceps cranstounii and Cordyceps gunnii demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity toward a variety of cancer cell lines. In contrast only some extracts from Coprinus comatus, Cordyceps hawkesii, Hypholoma fasciculare, Lepista nuda, Leratiomyces ceres and Ophiocordyceps robertsii displayed significant cytotoxic activity, which was usually selective for only one or two cancer cell lines tested. The least cytotoxic species evaluated in this study were Agaricus bitorquis, Coprinopsis atrametaria, Psathyrella asperospora, Russula clelandii, Tricholoma sp. AU2 and Xerula mundroola. PMID:21262985

Beattie, Karren D; Ulrich, Rahel; Grice, I Darren; Uddin, Shaikh J; Blake, Tony B; Wood, Kyle A; Steele, Jules; Iu, Fontaine; May, Tom W; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

296

Anticancer effects of ethanolic neem leaf extract on prostate cancer cell line (PC-3).  

PubMed

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most prevalent cancer and the leading cause of male cancer death. Azadirachta indica (neem tree) has been used successfully centuries to reduce tumors by herbalists throughout Southeast Asia. Here the present study indicated that an ethanolic extract of neem has been shown to cause cell death of prostate cancer cells (PC-3) by inducing apoptosis as evidenced by a dose-dependent increase in DNA fragmentation and a decrease in cell viability. Western blot studies indicated that treatment with neem extract showed decreased level of Bcl-2, which is anti-apoptotic protein and increased the level of Bax protein. So the neem extract could be potentially effective against prostate cancer treatment. PMID:16378700

Kumar, Suresh; Suresh, P K; Vijayababu, M R; Arunkumar, A; Arunakaran, J

2006-04-21

297

Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fraction of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods M. scandens leaf extract/fractions (37–111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of 7 hours for acute study and 14 days for prolonged study. Lipid profiles of the treated diabetic rats were determined after the period of treatment. Results Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting bloodglucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. The extract/fractions exerted a significant reduction in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL of extract with increases in HDL levels of the diabetic rats. Conclusions These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

Akpan, Enomfon J; Okokon, Jude E; Offong, Emem

2012-01-01

298

Comparative study on hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts of fenugreek seeds.  

PubMed

The hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts (water, methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, dichloro-methane) of fenugreek seeds were investigated in cholesterol-fed rats. Only the ethyl acetate extract reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet (HCD). Furthermore, the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver, heart and kidney decreased significantly after oral administration of the ethyl acetate extract, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The phenolic and flavonoïd contents were highest in the methanol and the ethyl acetate extracts. These results showed that the ethyl acetate extract of the fenugreek seeds had a significant hypocholesterolemic effect and antioxidant activity in cholesterol-fed rats, whether this is partly due to the presence of flavonoïds in the extract needs further study. PMID:23411266

Belguith-Hadriche, Olfa; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Jamoussi, Kamel; Simmonds, Monique S J; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Makni-Ayedi, Fatma

2013-06-01

299

Effects of crude aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in male albino mice.  

PubMed

The effect of an aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds (5 mg/kg body/day im and 20 mg/kg body wt/day oral) were investigated in male mice treated for 60 days. Reversibility studies were also carried out to elucidate if any induced effects were transient. The aqueous extract did not manifest any estrogenic effects in male mice, and LD50 studies indicated its nontoxic nature. The body weight or the weights of reproductive organs, kidney, and adrenal were not affected, indicating that the extract did not promote body weight gain through obesity or water retention. The serum SGOT, SGPT, protein, and cholesterol levels were also within the normal range in the extract-treated mice, suggesting that the extract does not influence liver function or cholesterol and protein metabolism. These data suggest that the aqueous extracts of papaya seeds is safe and could serve as an effective male contraceptive in rodents. PMID:8186628

Chinoy, N J; D'Souza, J M; Padman, P

1994-01-01

300

Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.  

PubMed

Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and ?-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-?B, TNF-? and transforming growth factor-?1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors. PMID:22289614

Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

2012-10-01

301

Effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: The effects and benefits of Acacia auriculiformis on health are not well established. This study was planned to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis leaves on learning and memory in rats. Materials and Methods: Learning and memory were evaluated using passive avoidance paradigm and rewarded alternation test (T-maze) after the oral administration of two doses (200mg/kg and 400mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of Acacia auriculiformis with rivastigmine as positive control. Forty eight rats were divided into 4 groups in each study model. Estimation of brain cholinesterase activity was done to substantiate the results of the above mentioned tests. Data was analyzed using one way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post-hoc test using GraphPad InStat software, version 3.06. Results: The extract produced a dose-dependent improvement in the memory score namely the step through latency in passive avoidance model (P < 0.001) and the percentage of correct responses in rewarded alternation test (P < 0.05). Dose-dependent inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity (P < 0.001) was also noted. Conclusion: The acetylcholinesterase inhibiting property of Acacia auriculiformis contributes to its memory enhancing potential. Further large scale studies are required to elucidate its benefits on cognitive function. This may offer a promising new option for the treatment of dementia and other cognitive deficits.

Sharma, Ajitha; Shetty, Manjunath; Parida, Amrita; Adiga, Shalini; Kamath, Shobha; Sowjanya

2014-01-01

302

Ethanol Extract of Ulmus pumila Root Bark Inhibits Clinically Isolated Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria  

PubMed Central

In this study, root bark of Ulmus pumila (U. pumila) was extracted with ethanol, and then the antimicrobial effects were tested on clinically isolated 12 MRSA strains and 1 standard MRSA strain. U. pumila showed antibacterial activities against all MRSA strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of U. pumila root bark against all MRSA strains revealed a range from 125 to 250??g/mL. These results may provide the scientific basis on which U. pumila root bark has traditionally been used against infectious diseases in Korea. In real-time PCR analysis, the sub-MIC (64–125??g/mL) concentrations of U. pumila root bark extract showed the inhibition of the genetic expressions of virulence factors such as mecA, sea, agrA, and sarA in standard MRSA. Phytochemical analyses of U. pumila root bark showed relatively strong presence of phenolics, steroids, and terpenoids. These results suggest that the ethanol extract of U. pumila root bark may have antibacterial activity against MRSA, which may be related to the phytochemicals such as phenolics, steroids, and terpenoids. Further studies are needed to determine the active constituents of U. pumila root bark responsible for such biomolecular activities.

You, Yong-Ouk; Kim, Kang-Ju

2013-01-01

303

Gastroprotective Effects of Glutinous Rice Extract against Ethanol-, Indomethacin-, and Stress-induced Ulcers in Rats.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of an orally administered aqueous extract of glutinous rice (GRE) to protect against acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by ethanol, indomethacin, and water immersion restraint stress in rats and to characterize the active substances responsible for the protection. GRE was shown to dose-dependently prevent the gastric lesions induced by the above ulcerogenic treatments at doses of 30 to 300 mg/kg. GRE treatment increased the gastric mucin content and partially blocked the ethanol-induced depletion of the gastric mucus layer. Also, it increased the nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration in the gastric mucosa. The gastroprotective action of GRE was markedly enhanced by co-treatment with 4-8 mg/kg tea extracts. The activity of GRE was completely lost by heat treatment at 80? for 3 min or treatment with 0.01% pepsin at 37? for 1 h. Protein extraction studies indicated that prolamins are involved in the gastroprotective activity of GRE. Our results suggest that glutinous rice proteins are useful for the prevention and treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer. PMID:24855601

Song, Dong Up; Jang, Mi Sun; Kim, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Hyun Joong; Chay, Kee Oh; Joo, Young Eun; Jung, Young Do; Yang, Sung Yeul; Ahn, Bong Whan

2014-04-01

304

Retarded hippocampal development following prenatal exposure to ethanolic leaves extract of Datura metel in wistar rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Datura metel contains atropine alkaloids and has been used to treat complication like asthma and, bronchitis, because of its anticholinergic properties. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prenatal effects of ethanolic extract of D. metel leaves exposure on the development of hippocampus. Materials and Methods: Twenty rats (12 females and 8 males) were purchased. The females were grouped into four groups (A_D). Group A were given 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract on the first day of fertilization to the end of gestation period, Group B were given 500 mg/kg body weight on the 8th day of fertilization to the end of gestation period, Group C were given 500 mg/kg body weight on 15th day of fertilization to the end of gestation period and Group D were given normal saline throughout the gestation period. Results: Rats in Group A showed no implantation, rats in Group B had abortion on the 7th day after administration, and rats in Group C gave birth with their litters showing retarded hippocampus development and neural degeneration and rats in Group D (control) showed normal development. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of D. metel leaf is teratogenic in the late stage of pregnancy, is abortificient and can serve as a contraceptive.

Ishola, Azeez Olakunle; Adeniyi, Philip Adeyemi

2013-01-01

305

Gastroprotective Effects of Glutinous Rice Extract against Ethanol-, Indomethacin-, and Stress-induced Ulcers in Rats  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of an orally administered aqueous extract of glutinous rice (GRE) to protect against acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by ethanol, indomethacin, and water immersion restraint stress in rats and to characterize the active substances responsible for the protection. GRE was shown to dose-dependently prevent the gastric lesions induced by the above ulcerogenic treatments at doses of 30 to 300 mg/kg. GRE treatment increased the gastric mucin content and partially blocked the ethanol-induced depletion of the gastric mucus layer. Also, it increased the nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration in the gastric mucosa. The gastroprotective action of GRE was markedly enhanced by co-treatment with 4-8 mg/kg tea extracts. The activity of GRE was completely lost by heat treatment at 80? for 3 min or treatment with 0.01% pepsin at 37? for 1 h. Protein extraction studies indicated that prolamins are involved in the gastroprotective activity of GRE. Our results suggest that glutinous rice proteins are useful for the prevention and treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer.

Song, Dong Up; Jang, Mi Sun; Kim, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Hyun Joong; Chay, Kee Oh; Joo, Young Eun; Jung, Young Do; Yang, Sung Yeul

2014-01-01

306

In vitro antimicrobial effects of grape seed extract on peri-implantitis microflora in craniofacial implants  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the antimicrobial effects of grape seed on peri-implantitis microflora. Methods The grape seed extract was tested against peri-implantitis microflora most commonly found in craniofacial implants including reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Candida albicans (C. albicans) and clinical strains of S. aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumonia) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) by disk diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum cidal concentrations (MCC) were determined using modified agar dilution millpore method. The extract was further combined with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol, and was tested for antimicrobial effects. Results Grape seed extract showed positive inhibitory effects with S. aureus at MIC of 0.625 mg/mL and MCC of 1.25 mg/mL respectively. However the extracts showed minimal or no reactivity against strains of E. coli, K. pneumonia, C. parapsilosis and C. albicans. The use of grape seed extract in combination with polyethylene glycol and propylene glycol also showed dose dependent inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Conclusions The results of the study showed that grape seed has potential antimicrobial effects which can be further studied and developed to be used in the treatment of infected skin-abutment interface of craniofacial implants.

Shrestha, Binit; Theerathavaj, M.L. Srithavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit

2012-01-01

307

Improvement of extraction method of coagulation active components from Moringa oleifera seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the extraction of the active coagulation component from Moringa oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the ordinary water extraction method (MOC–DW). In the new method, 1.0moll?1 solution of sodium chloride (MOC–SC) and other salts were used for extraction of the active coagulation component. Batch coagulation experiments were conducted using 500ml of low turbid water (50

Tetsuji Okuda; Aloysius U Baes; Wataru Nishijima; Mitsumasa Okada

1999-01-01

308

Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds.  

PubMed

Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) seeds aqueous extract was screened for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The antioxidant activities (reducing power, DPPH and liposome model system) showed a good antioxidant activity. The extract was also found to possess antibacterial activity with a MIC values with respect to Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica found to be 750 and 1000 ppm, respectively. The antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the extract implicate its potential for natural preservation. PMID:17651916

Chauhan, Attar Singh; Negi, Pradeep Singh; Ramteke, Ramesh Shyam

2007-12-01

309

Effect of methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seed on the immune response of mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the methanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens seed was evaluated in mice with regards to delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DTR), primary and secondary antibody response\\u000a and in vivo inflammatory leucocyte mobilization. The extract at 250 and 500 mg\\/kg produced significant (p?extract caused elevation of secondary SRBCs-specific\\u000a antibody titre

James Ifeanyichukwu Eze; Sunday Ndukwe

310

Dormancy break of celery (Apium graveolens L.) seeds by plant derived smoke extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy of a highly-dormant cultivar of celery (Apium graveolens L.) was broken by combinations of plant-derived smoke extract or N6-benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellins A4\\/7 (GA4\\/7) in the dark at temperatures between 18 and 26°C. A less dormant cultivar which responded to GA4\\/7 alone showed no additional response to smoke extract or BA. Neither smoke extract nor BA affected either

T. H. Thomas; J. Staden

1995-01-01

311

A toxicological investigation of a celery seed extract having anti-inflammatory activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  An extract of the seed from celery (Apium graviolens) (CSE), and fractions thereof, have been found to possess anti-inflammatory activity, gastro-protective activity, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. In view of the potential for employing these extracts for therapeutic use, toxicological investigations were undertaken\\u000a with an alcoholic extract (A-CSE) which has previously been shown to have the above pharmacological activities.

M. C. Powanda; K. D. Rainsford

2011-01-01

312

[Antifeedant and antioviposition activities of Momordica charantia leaf ethanol extract against Liriomyza sativae].  

PubMed

Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is one of the important pests harming a wide variety of vegetables and ornamental plants throughout the world. The leaf ethanol extract of Momordica charantia at the concentration of 2000-4000 microg x ml(-1) displayed significant antifeedant and antioviposition activities against L. sativae adults. For further purifying the extract, four solvents, i. e., cyclohexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, were used to extract the ethanol extract, and the antifeedant and antioviposition activities of the extracts against L. sativae adults were tested. The results showed that after treated with the extracts at the concentration of 1000 microg x ml(-1) for 2 days, the antifeedant index (AFI) of cyclohexane-, ethyl acetate-, n-butanol- and water extracts against L. sativae adults was 11.08%, 34.89%, 22.99% and 0, and the antioviposition index (AOI) was 0, 30.91%, 6.45% and 0, respectively. Ethyl acetate extract had the highest bioactivity. At the concentration of 4000 microg x ml(-1), the AFI and AOI of ethyl acetate extract were 70.95% and 69.49%, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract was then isolated by silica gel column chromatography, and three compounds, i.e., (19S, 23E)-5beta,19-epoxy-19-methoxy-cucurbita-6,23-dien-3beta and 25-diol (compound 1), (19R, 23E)-5beta,19-epoxy-19-methoxy-cucurbita-6,23-dien-3beta and 25-diol (compound 2), and 3beta, 7beta,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (compound 3), were obtained. These three compounds at concentration of 100-400 microg x ml(-1) all had inhibitory effects on the feeding and oviposition of L. sativae. At the concentration of 400 microg x ml(-1), the AFI and AOI were 66.89% , 53.53% and 78.02% , and 76.32%, 58.36% and 78.36% for compound 1, 2 and 3, respectively. PMID:19565764

Ling, Bing; Xiang, Ya-Lin; Wang, Guo-Cai; Chen, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Mao-Xin

2009-04-01

313

Augmentation of sebaceous lipogenesis by an ethanol extract of Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) in hamsters in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed

Grifola frondosa (Maitake mushroom) is an edible and medicinal mushroom with versatile effects such as antitumor and immunomodulating actions. Here, we demonstrated that an ethanol extract of G. frondosa fruiting body (Maitake extract) augmented intracellular lipid droplet formation and the production of triacylglycerols (TG), a major component of sebum, along with the activation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase, a rate-limiting enzyme of TG synthesis in cultured hamster sebocytes. The topical treatment of Maitake extract on the skin of hamster auricles augmented sebum accumulation in sebaceous glands and ducts. However, in comparison with the Maitake extract, another ethanol extract prepared from Agaricus blazei Murill showed less activity in sebaceous lipogenesis in hamsters in vivo and in vitro. These results provide novel evidence that Maitake extract augments sebaceous lipogenesis in hamsters in vivo and in vitro. Thus, Maitake extract is likely to be a unique agent leading to the remission of dry skin. PMID:19228191

Nagao, Mie; Sato, Takashi; Akimoto, Noriko; Kato, Yuya; Takahashi, Masao; Ito, Akira

2009-08-01

314

Effect of ethanolic fruit extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. on antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in urolithiasis induced wistar albino rats  

PubMed Central

Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels.

Balakrishnan, A.; Kokilavani, R; Gurusamy, K.; Teepa, K. S. Ananta; Sathya, M.

2011-01-01

315

Characterization of Crude Watermelon Seed Oil by Two Different Extractions Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper was to study the physical–chemical composition of the watermelon seed oil extracted by a mechanical\\u000a process using an expeller and by a chemical process using hexane as the solvent. The watermelon seed oil had a high concentration\\u000a of unsaturated fatty acids. The two primary sterols were stigmasterol and ?-sitosterol, which corresponded to approximately\\u000a 47 and

Leilane Costa de ContoMarco; Marco Antonio Lefevre Gragnani; Diogo Maus; Hiria Cristina Ifanger Ambiel; Ming Chih Chiu; Renato Grimaldi; Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo Gonçalves

316

Effect of storage temperature and extraction methods on dormancy and germination of true potato seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed treatments, methods of extraction and storage temperature were examined for effects on viability and dormancy of true\\u000a potato seed. Dormancy of 4x?2x (S. tuberosum ×S. phureja) hybrids was eliminated after 7 months at room temperature and after 10 months at 4 C. However, data on the velocity and\\u000a uniformity of germination (coefficient of velocity) revealed the presence of a

Vincent L. D’Antonio; Neil A. McHale

1988-01-01

317

Toxicological evaluation of the ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus L. for use as a dietary supplement and in functional foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

TARRALIN™ is an ethanolic extract of Artemisia dracunculus (Russian tarragon), a common medicinal and culinary herb with centuries of use. Artemisia dracunculus is a close relative of the French or cooking tarragon and contains components common to many herbs that are routinely consumed without reported adverse effects. Since safety information of Artemisia dracunculus and its extract is limited to historical

David M. Ribnicky; Alexander Poulev; Joseph O'Neal; Gary Wnorowski; Dolores E. Malek; Ralf Jäger; Ilya Raskin

2004-01-01

318

Ethanolic Extracts of California Mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) Are Cytotoxic against Normal and Cancerous Human Cells  

PubMed Central

California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana Besser) is used by many tribes throughout California to treat a variety of conditions, including colds, allergies, and pain. California mugwort is also utilized as women’s medicine. Its use is on the rise outside of Native communities, often without the guidance of a traditional healer or experienced herbalist. Because it has been shown to have antiproliferative activity against plant and animal cells, we investigated whether California mugwort extracts have an effect on normal human cells as well as estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor negative (ER?) human breast cancer cells. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of A. douglasiana leaves were tested for cytotoxicity against unstimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC), as well as against an ER+ human breast cancer cell line (BT-474) and an ER? human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231). An ethanolic leaf extract killed hPBMC, BT-474, and MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 values of 23.6 ± 0.3, 27 ± 5, and 37 ± 4 ?g/ml, respectively. An aqueous extract killed hPBMC with an IC50 value of 60 ± 10 ?g/ml, but had no effect on the two cancer cell lines at concentrations up to 100 ?g/ml. The results of this study indicate that the cytotoxicity of California mugwort extends to normal human cells, as well as cancerous cells. Therefore, until further is known about the safety of this medicine, caution should be taken when consuming extracts of California mugwort, whether as a tincture or as a tea.

Somaweera, Himali; Lai, Gary C.; Blackeye, Rachel; Littlejohn, Beverly; Kirksey, Justine; Aguirre, Richard M.; LaPena, Vince; Pasqua, Anna; Hintz, Mary McCarthy

2013-01-01

319

Detection of ethanol and acetaldehyde released from cabbage seeds of different quality: Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy versus FTIR and headspace gas chromatography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detecting early ageing stages of seeds in storage is of great concern to vegetable seed companies. Despite their reliability conventional germination tests are destructive and time consuming. One alternative towards assessing the quality of seed is to monitor the concentration of certain volatiles (acting as biological markers) evolved from the seeds; examples are ethanol (EtOH), acetaldehyde, ethane, methanol, etc. Most of the presently used methods have only moderate insensitivity and are therefore not suitable for the on-line measurements. In this work CO laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) was used to investigate the on-line evolution of EtOH and acetaldehyde from the imbibed nonaged and aged seeds of cabbage. The overall performance of LPAS was superior to that of Fourier transform infrared and of gas chromatography.

Bicanic, D.; Persijn, S.; Taylor, A.; Cozijnsen, J.; van Veldhuyzen, B.; Lenssen, G.; Wegh, H.

2003-01-01

320

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected medicinal plants--effects of high pressure and added ethanol on yield of extracted substances.  

PubMed

The possibilities and limitations of supercritical fluid extraction of natural products of low, medium and high polarity under very high pressure and with polar modifiers has been investigated. The medicinal herbs marigold (Calendula officinalis), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) were used as models in this study. Extraction profiles and the spectra of extractable metabolites were recorded following extraction with mixtures of carbon dioxide:ethanol of varying proportions (0-20% ethanol) and at various pressures in the range 300-689 bar. Components were identified by HPLC-PAD-MS or GC-MS and quantified by HPLC or GC as appropriate. Extraction yields under the varying conditions depended to a large extent on the profiles of secondary metabolites present in the three drugs. Whereas the extractability of lipophilic compounds increased substantially at pressures above 300 bar, the yields of polyphenolic and glycosidic compounds remained low even at 689 bar and with 20% modifier in the extraction fluid. PMID:14979527

Hamburger, M; Baumann, D; Adler, S

2004-01-01

321

Investigating Apoptotic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema glabrum Seed on WEHI-164 Cells.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment. PMID:23956872

Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

2013-01-01

322

Cytotoxic Effects of Alcoholic Extract of Dorema Glabrum Seed on Cancerous Cells Viability  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In the present study cytotoxic effects of the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed on viability of WEHI-164 cells, mouse Fibrosarcoma cell line and L929 normal cells were compared with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol (anticancer and apoptosis inducer drug).Methods: To find out the plant extract cytotoxic effects, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay, the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis were performed on cultured and treated cells.Results: According to the findings the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed can alter cells morphology and because of chromatin condensation and other changes they shrink and take a spherical shape, and lose their attachment too. So the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time and dose dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA.Conclusion: Our data well established the anti-proliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro, but the mechanism of its activities remained unknown. These results demonstrated that Dorema Glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment in clinical practices.

Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemieh, Hosein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; baradaran, behzad

2013-01-01

323

Cytotoxic effects of alcoholic extract of dorema glabrum seed on cancerous cells viability.  

PubMed

Purpose: In the present study cytotoxic effects of the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed on viability of WEHI-164 cells, mouse Fibrosarcoma cell line and L929 normal cells were compared with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol (anticancer and apoptosis inducer drug). Methods: To find out the plant extract cytotoxic effects, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay, the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis were performed on cultured and treated cells. Results: According to the findings the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed can alter cells morphology and because of chromatin condensation and other changes they shrink and take a spherical shape, and lose their attachment too. So the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time and dose dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Conclusion: Our data well established the anti-proliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro, but the mechanism of its activities remained unknown. These results demonstrated that Dorema Glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment in clinical practices. PMID:24312867

Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemieh, Hosein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

2013-01-01

324

Investigating Apoptotic Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema glabrum Seed on WEHI-164 Cells  

PubMed Central

We aimed to investigate the apoptotic effects of the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed on WEHI-164, cancerous cells in comparison with L929, normal cells and compared them with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol. So, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay were performed on cultured and treated cells. Also electrophoresis which was followed by immunoblotting was done to survey the production of Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins, and to inquire into their relative genes expression, RT-PCR was used. According to our findings, the methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed can alter cells morphology as they shrink and take a spherical shape and lose their attachment too. So, the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time- and dose-dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Induction of apoptosis by the plant extract was proved by the reduction of pro-Caspase-3 and Bcl2 proteins and increase in Caspase-3 gene expression and decrease in that of bcl2 too. Our data well established the antiproliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that Dorema glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment.

Bannazadeh Amirkhiz, Maryam; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh; Nazemiyeh, Hossein; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Mohammadnejad, Leila; Baradaran, Behzad

2013-01-01

325

Microscopic modeling of País grape seed extract absorption in the small intestine.  

PubMed

The concentration profiles and the absorbed fraction (F) of the País grape seed extract in the human small intestine were obtained using a microscopic model simulation that accounts for the extracts' dissolution and absorption. To apply this model, the physical and chemical parameters of the grape seed extract solubility (C s), density (?), global mass transfer coefficient between the intestinal and blood content (k) (effective permeability), and diffusion coefficient (D) were experimentally evaluated. The diffusion coefficient (D = 3.45 × 10(-6) ± 5 × 10(-8) cm(2)/s) was approximately on the same order of magnitude as the coefficients of the relevant constituents. These results were chemically validated to discover that only the compounds with low molecular weights diffused across the membrane (mainly the (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin compounds). The model demonstrated that for the País grape seed extract, the dissolution process would proceed at a faster rate than the convective process. In addition, the absorbed fraction was elevated (F = 85.3%). The global mass transfer coefficient (k = 1.53 × 10(-4) ± 5 × 10(-6) cm/s) was a critical parameter in the absorption process, and minor changes drastically modified the prediction of the extract absorption. The simulation and experimental results show that the grape seed extract possesses the qualities of a potential phytodrug. PMID:24158737

Morales, Cristian; Roeckel, Marlene; Fernández, Katherina

2014-02-01

326

The anti-diabetic effects of ethanol extract from two variants of Artemisia princeps Pampanini in C57BL\\/KsJ- db\\/ db mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anti-diabetic effects of two variants of Artemisia princeps Pampanini, sajabalssuk (SB) and sajuarissuk (SS), were investigated in type 2 diabetic animal using their ethanol extracts. Male C57BL\\/KsJ-db\\/db (db\\/db) mice were divided into control, SB ethanol extract (SBE), SS ethanol extract (SSE), or rosiglitazone (RG) groups and their age-matched littermates (db\\/+) were used. Supplementation of the SBE (0.171g\\/100g diet), SSE

U. J. Jung; N.-I. Baek; H.-G. Chung; M.-H. Bang; J.-S. Yoo; T. S. Jeong; K.-T. Lee; Y. J. Kang; M. K. Lee; H. J. Kim; J. Y. Yeo; M. S. Choi

2007-01-01

327

Antitumor Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Dendrobium formosum in T-Cell Lymphoma: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study  

PubMed Central

Dendrobium, a genus of orchid, was found to possess useful therapeutic activities like anticancer, hypoglycaemic, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities. The study was aimed to evaluate the anticancer property of the ethanolic extract of Dendrobium formosum on Dalton's lymphoma. In vitro cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay, apoptosis was determined by fluorescence microscopy, and cell cycle progression was analysed using flow cytometry; in vivo antitumor activity was performed in Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice. The IC50 value of ethanolic extract was obtained at 350??g/mL in Dalton's lymphoma cells. Fluorescence microscopy analysis showed significant increase in apoptotic cell death in dose- and time-dependent manner which was further confirmed through the resulting DNA fragmentation. Further, flow cytometry analysis showed that the ethanolic extract arrests the cells in G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The in vivo anticancer activity study illustrates significant increase in the survival time of Dalton's lymphoma bearing mice on treatment with ethanolic extract when compared to control. These results substantiate the antitumor properties of ethanolic extract of Dendrobium formosum and suggest an alternative in treatment of cancer. Further studies are required regarding the isolation and characterization of bioactive components along with the analysis of molecular mechanism involved.

Prasad, Ritika; Koch, Biplob

2014-01-01

328

A Comparison between Water and Ethanol Extracts of Rumex acetosa for Protective Effects on Gastric Ulcers in Mice  

PubMed Central

Rumex acetosa is a perennial herb that is widely distributed across eastern Asia. Although the hot water extract of R. acetosa has been used to treat gastritis or gastric ulcers as a folk medicine, no scientific report exists for the use of this plant to treat gastric ulcers. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the anti-ulcer activity of water and 70% ethanol extracts obtained from R. acetosa, using an HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. Anti-inflammatory and free radical-scavenging activities of these two extracts were also evaluated and compared. As a result, the administration of R. acetosa extracts significantly reduced the occurrence of gastric ulcers. However, significant differences in protective activity against gastric ulcers were observed between the two samples. In the case of the group pretreated with an ethanol extract dosage of 100 mg/kg, the protective effect (90.9%) was higher than that of water extract (41.2%). Under histological evaluation, pretreatment with R. acetosa extracts reversed negative effects, such as inflammation, edema, moderate hemorrhaging and loss of epithelial cells, presented by HCl/ ethanol-treated stomachs. Meanwhile, R. acetosa extracts showed potent DPPH radical-scavenging activity and decreased NO production in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cellular viability. The greater anti-ulcer and NO production inhibitory activities exhibited by ethanol extracts compared to water extracts could be ascribed to the higher emodin levels, a major anthraquinone component of this plant.

Bae, Ji-Yeong; Lee, Yoon Seok; Han, Sun Young; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Kong, Jae Yang; Lee, Dong Hoon; Cho, Kyeong Jae; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Ahn, Mi-Jeong

2012-01-01

329

Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques.  

PubMed

Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using classic Soxhlet as well as under power ultrasound (US), microwaves (MWs; closed vessel) and MW-integrated Soxhlet. Supercritical CO? was also employed and compared to the other techniques in term of yield, extraction time, fatty acid profiles and organoleptic properties. All these non-conventional techniques are fast, effective and safe. A sensory evaluation test showed the presence of off-flavours in oil samples extracted by Soxhlet and US, an indicator of partial degradation. PMID:21644177

Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bicchi, Carlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Binello, Arianna; Tomao, Valerie; Chemat, Farid

2011-06-01

330

Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20?mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500?mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as compared with omeprazole or extract which shows significant protection towards gastric mucosal injury the plant promotes ulcer protection as it shows significant reduction of ulcer area grossly, and histology showed marked reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared with ulcer group. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of Hsp70 protein and downexpression of Bax protein in rats pretreated with extract. Significant increased in the pH, mucus of gastric content and high levels of PGE2, SOD and reduced amount of MDA was observed.

AlRashdi, Ahmed S.; Salama, Suzy M.; Alkiyumi, Salim S.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Abdelwahab, Siddig I.; Taha, Manal M.; Hussiani, Jamal; Asykin, Nur

2012-01-01

331

Induction of seed germination in Orobanche spp. by extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs.  

PubMed

The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche. PMID:22527522

Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming

2012-03-01

332

Inhibition of immediate allergic reactions by ethanol extract from Plumbago zeylanica stems.  

PubMed

The antiallergic properties of the 70% ethanol extract from Plumbago zeylanica stems (EPZ) were investigated in the present study. The extract (500, 1000 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited systemic anaphylactic shock induced by compound 48/80 in mice, reduced homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis and skin reactions induced by histamine or serotonin in rats, significant differences were observed at the dose of 1000 mg/kg. In vitro, EPZ (5, 20, 50 microg/ml) concentration-dependently reduced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells caused by compound 48/80 and antigen. EPZ (50 microg/ml) markedly increased intracellular cAMP content of rat mast cells. These findings demonstrate that EPZ inhibits mast cell-dependent immediate allergic reactions, which is probably mediated by reducing the release of mediators such as histamine from mast cells via elevating intracellular cAMP level and weakening the inflammatory action of mediators. PMID:14993817

Dai, Yue; Hou, Li-Fei; Chan, Yiu-Pong; Cheng, Ling; But, Paul Pui-Hay

2004-03-01

333

Antifertility activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract in male rats  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Complementary medicine has grown over time with more botanicals emerging and remaining integral parts of medicare. Such botanicals include Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. AIM: This study investigated the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract on male reproductive system using rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Control and treated rats were maintained on control diet. Treated rats also received graded doses of the extract. RESULTS: When compared with the controls, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta treatment led to significant testosterone suppression associated with consequent significant rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) and decrease in sperm count. Treatment with Cryptolepis sanguinolenta did not result in significant attenuation of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and testicular morphometry. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also comparable in all groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity.

Ajayi, Ayodeji F; Akhigbe, Roland E

2012-01-01

334

Quantification of polyphenols and pharmacological analysis of water and ethanol-based extracts of cultivated agarwood leaves.  

PubMed

Mangiferin (3) and genkwanin 5-O-?-primeveroside (5) are the two major bioactive polyphenols with laxative property present in the extracts of agarwood (Aquilaria sinensis) leaves (AL). Here we developed an HPLC method to determine these bioactive components and four other major polyphenols in AL extracts and evaluated the pharmacological equivalence of organic and water extracts. Using mobile phase gradient conditions combined with UV detection at 330 nm, all six compounds were separated and we determined the relative extraction ratios of the six compounds present in A. sinensis extracts that were prepared under different conditions and compared the contents of the two laxative polyphenols present in the 60% ethanol extracts of A. sinensis and A. crassna. The polyphenols present in water extracts of 13 commercially cultivated A. crassna plants have also been analyzed. The laxative properties of 60% ethanol and four water extracts of A. crassna were evaluated by the frequency and weight of stools in loperamide-induced constipation model mice. The pharmacological equivalence of 60% ethanol extract and hot water (95°C) extract was identified in mice. PMID:22790572

Ito, Tetsuro; Kakino, Mamoru; Tazawa, Shigemi; Watarai, Tatsuya; Oyama, Masayoshi; Maruyama, Hiroe; Araki, Yoko; Hara, Hideaki; Iinuma, Munekazu

2012-01-01

335

Protective effects of Lactuca sativa ethanolic extract on carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative damage in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the protective effects of the ethanolic extract of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia) leaves against the toxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in reproductive system of rats. Methods Lettuce leaves were dried and extracted with ethanol (plant: solvent, 1:10, w/v). The extract was filtered and evaporated to yield dried lettuce extract. Animals were divided into seven groups and treated with CCl4 and different concentrations of lettuce extract. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were sacrificed and blood was collected and centrifuged for serum separation. Body weights, testis size, histopathology of testis and liver, catalase (CAT) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, peroxidase (POD) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), nitrite level, and serum hormones were determined. Results Oxidative stress induced by CCl4 (2 mL/kg body weight) in rat decreases the increase in body weight and relative testis weight. It also markedly increases the level of TBARS and nitrites along with corresponding decrease in reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in testis (i.e., CAT, POD, SOD and GSH-Px). Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone was decreased while estradiol and prolactin were increased during CCl4 treatment. Histopathology of CCl4-treated rats indicated the partial degeneration of germ and leydig cells along with deformities in spermatogenesis. Supplementation of lettuce extract (100, 150, 200 mg/kg body weight orally) once a week for 10 weeks results in decrease of TBARS and nitrite, while increase in antioxidant enzymes; CAT, POD, SOD, GSH-Px and GSH contents. Serum level of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, prolactin, histology, body weight and relative testis weight was also concomitantly restored to near normal level by lettuce extract supplementation to CCl4-intoxicated rat. Conclusions The results clearly demonstrate that lettuce extract treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism against CCl4-induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

Hefnawy, Hefnawy Taha M.; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

2013-01-01

336

Antifertility effect of ethanolic extract of Juniperus phoenica (L.) in male albino rats.  

PubMed

The plant Juniperus phoenica (L.) (Cupressaceae) is widely growing on the rocky soils of the Mediterranean regions. In Jordan, the plant is distributed in different locations and is used as a folk medicine to treat rheumatism, edema, and urinary tract diseases. This study aimed to investigate the antifertility effect of J. phoenica in male albino rats. Animals were administered single daily intraperitoneal injections of 400 or 800 mg/kg of J. phoenica cones ethanol extract or the vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide) for 21 consecutive days. A marked dose-dependent decrease in the counts and motility of the sperms collected from the cauda epididymis of treated rats was observed compared with the control. Furthermore, pregnancy rate in females markedly reduced by 60% and 80% after mating with males treated with 400 or 800 mg/kg, respectively. At the same time, significant decreases were detected in seminal vesicles and testicular weight of rats that received 800 mg/kg as compared with control rats. Testosterone levels were decreased significantly in both treated groups as compared with control. Histologically, seminiferous tubules of treated rats showed marked arrests of spermatogenesis and a marked decrease in the number of mature sperms. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that the ethanolic extract of the cones of J. phoenica possesses potential antifertility effects. PMID:18928140

Shkukani, Hanada G; Salhab, Abdulazim S; Disi, Ahmad M; Shomaf, Maha S; Al Quadan, Farouk

2007-01-01

337

Presence of chemical additives and microbial inhibition capacity in grapefruit seed extracts used in apiculture.  

PubMed

American foulbrood, caused by Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae (White 1906) is one of the most serious diseases of honey bees, causing beekeepers and health workers to make difficult, complex decisions and leading to the development of 'organic' treatments, such as grapefruit seed extract, with minor residue problems in the end product. This study evaluates the chemical composition of grapefruit seed extracts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the detection of benzethonium chloride, cetrimonium bromide and decyltrimethylammonium chloride. The results obtained suggest a close correlation between the microbial effect and the presence of chemical additives in the samples analysed. PMID:20411504

Spinosi, Valerio; Semprini, Primula; Langella, Vincenzo; Scortichini, Giampiero; Calvarese, Silvano

2007-01-01

338

Extraction, Characterization and Modification of Castor Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper carried out experimental study, through extraction and characterization of both crude and refined castor oil. Normal hexane was used as solvent for the extraction process. The oil produced was refined through degumming, neutralization and bleaching process using local adsorbent (activated clay). The characterization analysis revealed that tested parameters, which include specific gravity, refractive index, acid value, saponification value

U. G. AKPAN; A. JIMOH; A. D. MOHAMMED

339

Pressurized liquid extraction of polar and nonpolar lipids in corn and oats with hexane, methylene chloride, isopropanol, and ethanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of freshly ground corn kernels and freshly ground rolled oats were extracted via pressurized liquid extraction (accelerated solvent extraction) using four different organic solvents [hexane, methylene chloride\\u000a (also known as dichloromethane), isopropanol, and ethanol] at two temperatures (40 and 100C). Lipid yields varied from 2.9\\u000a to 5.9 wt% for ground corn and from 5.5 to 6.7 wt% for ground

Robert A. Moreau; Michael J. Powell; Vijay Singh

2003-01-01

340

Supercritical fluid reactive extraction of Jatropha curcas L. seeds with methanol: A novel biodiesel production method.  

PubMed

The novel biodiesel production technology using supercritical reactive extraction from Jatropha curcas L. oil seeds in this study has a promising role to fill as a more cost-effective processing technology. Compared to traditional biodiesel production method, supercritical reactive extraction can successfully carry out the extraction of oil and subsequent esterification/transesterification process to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) simultaneously in a relatively short total operating time (45-80 min). Particle size of the seeds (0.5-2.0 mm) and reaction temperature/pressure (200-300 degrees C) are two primary factors being investigated. With 300 degrees C reaction temperature, 240 MPa operating pressure, 10.0 ml/g methanol to solid ratio and 2.5 ml/g of n-hexane to seed ratio, optimum oil extraction efficiency and FAME yield can reach up to 105.3% v/v and 103.5% w/w, respectively which exceeded theoretical yield calculated based on n-hexane Soxhlet extraction of Jatropha oil seeds. PMID:20395131

Lim, Steven; Hoong, Shuit Siew; Teong, Lee Keat; Bhatia, Subhash

2010-09-01

341

Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats.  

PubMed

Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5?mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20?mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250?mg/kg and 500?mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5?mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2?g/kg and 5?g/kg). PMID:24783203

Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Golbabapour, Shahram; Ismail, Salmah; Tayyab, Saad; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

2014-01-01

342

Gastroprotective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Leaf against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Herbal medicines appeared promising in prevention of many diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the gastroprotective effect of Curcuma xanthorrhiza leaf in the rats induced gastric ulcer by ethanol. Normal and ulcer control received carboxymethycellulose (5?mL/kg) orally, positive control was administered with 20?mg/kg omeprazole (reference drug) and 2 groups were received 250?mg/kg and 500?mg/kg of the leaf extract, respectively. To induce of gastric ulcers formation, ethanol (5?mL/kg) was given orally to all groups except normal control. Gross ulcer areas, histology, and amount of prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde were assessed to determine the potentiality of extract in prevention against gastric ulcers. Oral administration of extract showed significant gastric protection effect as the ulcer areas was remarkably decreased. Histology observation showed less edema and leucocytes infiltration as compared with the ulcer control which exhibited severe gastric mucosa injury. Furthermore, the leaf extract elevated the mucus weight, level of prostaglandin E2 and superoxide dismutase. The extract also reduced malondialdehyde amount significantly. Results showed leaf extract of Curcuma xanthorrhiza can enhanced the gastric protection and sustained the integrity of gastric mucosa structure. Acute toxicity test did not showed any sign of toxicity (2?g/kg and 5?g/kg).

Rahim, Nurhidayah Ab.; Tayyab, Saad

2014-01-01

343

Production of biodiesel from winery waste: extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil.  

PubMed

In regions with a large wine production the usage of their natural waste to make biodiesel can result an interesting alternative. In this work, different methods of extraction, refining and transesterification of grape seed oil were assayed. Two techniques of oil extraction were compared: solvent extraction and pressing. Two conventional transesterifications of the refined oil were carried out using methanol and bioethanol, being the methyl and ethyl ester contents higher than 97 wt.%. Finally, several in situ transesterifications were done. In situ transesterification did not reach either the oil yield extraction or the alkyl ester contents but the obtained biodiesel had better oxidation stability in comparison with the conventional process. PMID:20435475

Fernández, Carmen María; Ramos, María Jesús; Pérez, Angel; Rodríguez, Juan Francisco

2010-09-01

344

Effects of hydro-ethanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis on blood glucose levels and pathology of organs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluated the differential effects of ethanol extraction of Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis) on the blood glucose concentration and pathology of pancreas, liver, lungs, kidney and gastrointestinal tract in the alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 adult female Albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The first group was treated with the extract of C. colocynthis seed (300 mg/kg) and the rats of the second group, as an untreated diabetic group, received ordinary diet. Ten non diabetic rats remained as a normal control group. Results The results of this study indicate that C. colocynthis was able to reduce blood glucose significantly compared with the control diabetic group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, alloxan resulted in severe necrotic changes in the pancreatic islets, especially in the central area of the islets. Tissue sections of the pancreas in the treated rats demonstrated enhanced regeneration of B cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Liver of the treated diabetic rats revealed significant improvement of the hepatic tissue compared to those of the untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions The present study indicated a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect of C. colocynthis seed and supported its traditional usage in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Oryan, Ahmad; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Hamidi, Ahmad-Reza; Mohammadalipour, Adel

2014-01-01

345

Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the Uncaria tomentosa bark were evaluated. The analysis included trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOD) and quantitation of total tannins (TT) and total phenolic compounds (TPC). The obtained results indicate high antioxidant capacity of the studied materials in comparison to the other extracts of fruits, vegetables, cereals and medicinal plants. Higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of the alcoholic preparations -- TEAC=0.57 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.52 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.39 U/mg than of the aqueous preparation -- TEAC=0.34 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.19 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.10 U/mg were observed. These results might suggest higher medical suitability of alcoholic extracts. However, the highly elevated level of tannins in alcoholic extracts may cause undesirable gastric effects. PMID:16202551

Pilarski, Rados?aw; Zieli?ski, Henryk; Ciesio?ka, Danuta; Gulewicz, Krzysztof

2006-03-01

346

Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava) Root  

PubMed Central

In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava) roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol?:?chloroform fraction (BDF 5) had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48?h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200??g?mL?1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

Srivastava, Rakhi; Saluja, Daman; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.; Chopra, Madhu

2011-01-01

347

Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

2013-11-01

348

Comparison of chemical composition of Aerva javanica seed essential oils obtained by different extraction methods.  

PubMed

Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schult. seed essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and dry steam distillation (SD) extracting methods and analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Twenty and eighteen components representing 90.5% and 95.6% of the seed essential oil were identified, using hydrodistillation and dry steam distillation, respectively. The major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by HD were heptacosane (25.4%), 3-allyl-6-methoxyphenol (14.1%), pentacosane (12.1%), 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentade-canone (7.9%), nonacosane (7.1%), tricosane (3.6%), ?-farnesene (3.5%), dodecanal (2.7%) and octacosane (2.1%). Whereas the major constituent identified from seed essential oil obtained by SD were heptacosane (41.4%), pentacosane (21.2%), nonacosane (14.8%), tricosane (6.3%), octacosane (4.2%) and tetracosane (3.0%). PMID:23811454

Samejo, Muhammad Qasim; Memon, Shahabuddin; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Khan, Khalid Mohammed

2013-07-01

349

Phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic seed extract.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. The antimicrobial activity of the oily extract against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, yeast and fungus strains was evaluated based on the inhibition zone using disc diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values. The crude extract was subjected to various phytochemicals analysis. The demonstrated qualitative phytochemical tests exhibited the presences of common phytocompounds including alkaloids, terpenoids, antraquinones, cardiac glycosides, saponins, and volatile oils as major active constituents. The SMCM seed extract had inhibitory effects on the growth of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Streptococcus faecalis and Proteus mirabillase and illustrated MIC and MBC values ranging from 25 mg/ml to 50 mg/ml. PMID:20237441

Sahgal, G; Ramanathan, S; Sasidharan, S; Mordi, M N; Ismail, S; Mansor, S M

2009-12-01

350

Effect of the grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on the free radical and energy metabolism indicators during the movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the mechanism of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against exercise- induced fatigue, the mice movement model was used, and the free radical and energy metabolism indicators during movement were measured. The results show that grape seed proanthocyanidin extract can improve the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD and GSH-Px in the liver in exercised mice,

Ying Shan; Xiao-hang Ye; Hui Xin

2010-01-01

351

The Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Cardiovascular Risk Markers: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent animal studies have suggested that grape seed extract has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Randomized trials in human beings have yielded conflicting results. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of grape seed extract on changes in blood pressure, heart rate, lipid levels, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We searched MEDLINE (January 1, 1950,

Harm H. H. Feringa; Dayne A. Laskey; Justine E. Dickson; Craig I. Coleman

2011-01-01

352

Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from achiote seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have explored the application of natural dyes extracted from the seeds of the achiote shrub (Bixa orellana L.) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The main pigments are bixin and norbixin, which were obtained by separation and purification from the dark-red extract (annatto). The dyes were characterized using 1H-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy, and UV–Vis spectrophotometry. Solar cells were prepared using TiO2

N. M. Gómez-Ortíz; I. A. Vázquez-Maldonado; A. R. Pérez-Espadas; G. J. Mena-Rejón; J. A. Azamar-Barrios; G. Oskam

2010-01-01

353

Ascorbate, green tea and grape seed extracts increase the shelf life of low sulphite beef patties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green tea (GTE) and grape seed (GSE) extracts are proposed as preservatives for increasing the shelf life of low sulphite raw beef patties. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of both extracts were compared with ascorbate. Five groups were established for the patties: Control (with no additives), S (100 SO2), SA (100 SO2+400 sodium ascorbate), ST (100 SO2+300 GTE) and SG

Sancho Bañón; Pedro Díaz; Mariano Rodríguez; María Dolores Garrido; Alejandra Price

2007-01-01

354

Extractable amounts of trans-resveratrol in seed and berry skin in Vitis evaluated at the germplasm level.  

PubMed

Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins and seeds were studied in 120 grape (Vitis) germplasm cultivars during two consecutive years to determine the distribution of resveratrol among the main grape genotypes. Interspecific rootstock cultivars had much higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in skin and seed than all other grape genotypes studied in both years. Extremely high extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skins [>100 microg g(-1) of skin fresh weight (FW)] and seeds (>20 microg g(-1) of seed FW) were observed on two rootstock cultivars obtained from hybrids of V. monticula x V. riparia. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berries of rootstock cultivars that are the descendants of V. riparia were also very high. The cultivated European type (V. vinifera) cultivars and their hybrids with V. labrusca had relatively low levels of extractable resveratrol in berry skin and seed, and the extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were, with a few exceptions, <2 microg g(-1) of skin or seed FW. Extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin and seeds were closely related with fruit traits or purpose of uses and climate. Significantly higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin were found in seeded cultivars than in seedless ones, in both berry skin and seeds in winemaking grapes than in table grapes, and in red grapes than in green ones. Moreover, rainfall during fruit development resulted in higher extractable amounts of resveratrol in berry skin, whereas resveratrol synthesis and accumulation in grape seeds were not related to climate change. PMID:17090126

Li, Xiaodong; Wu, Benhong; Wang, Lijun; Li, Shaohua

2006-11-15

355

Optimization of extraction, antioxidant activity and functional properties of quince seed mucilage by RSM.  

PubMed

The effect of extraction temperature (25-65°C), extraction time (5-25min) and water to seed ratio (10:1-50:1) on yield, protein content, turbidity, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability of quince seed mucilage was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Experiments were designed according to Central Composite Face Center Design with these seven factors, including central and axial points. Numerical optimization determined the optimum extraction conditions based on the highest yield, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability and the lowest protein content and turbidity as being time 5min, temperature 65°C and water to seed ratio 25.1:1. At this optimum point, extraction yield, protein content, turbidity, viscosity, antioxidant activity, emulsion stability and foam stability were found to be 11.58 (%), 2.71 (%), 068 (Å), 1473.96 (mPas), 29.88 (%), 94.89 (%) and 21.36 (%), respectively. The results demonstrated that quince seed mucilage had desirable antioxidant activity, viscosity, emulsifying and foaming properties. PMID:24556115

Jouki, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Yazdi, Farideh Tabatabaei; Koocheki, Arash

2014-05-01

356

Effect of grape seed extract on blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to determine whether grape seed extracts (GSE) that contain powerful vasodilator phenolic compounds lower blood pressure in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. The subjects were randomized into 3 groups—(a) placebo, (b) 150 mg GSE per day, and (c) 300 mg GSE per day—and treated for 4 weeks. Serum lipids and blood glucose were measured at the

Brahmesh Sivaprakasapillai; Indika Edirisinghe; Jody Randolph; Francene Steinberg; Tissa Kappagoda

2009-01-01

357

Nigella sativa (Black Cumin) Seed Extract Alleviates Symptoms of Allergic Diarrhea in Mice, Involving Opioid Receptors  

PubMed Central

The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA) -sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa- (U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFN?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy.

Duncker, Swantje C.; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

2012-01-01

358

Protective effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract against oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cisplatin is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic antitumor drugs. Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cisplatin-induced toxicity. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the antioxidant potential of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) against the toxicity of cisplatin in male rats. Cisplatin treated animals revealed a significant elevation in plasma, heart, kidney and liver thiobarbituric

M. I. Yousef; A. A. Saad; L. K. El-Shennawy

2009-01-01

359

Application of Moringa Oleifer Seed Extract and Polyaluminum Chloride in Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of synthetic coagulants is not regarded as suitable due to health and economic considerations. Studies were carried out in laboratory scale on deionised water containing synthetic turbidity of kaolinite. Experiments were carried out in four turbidity ranges: 10, 50, 500, 1000 (NTU) and the pH range 5-8. The efficiency of moringa oleifera seed extract and polyaluminum chloride was

M. Yarahmadi; M. Hossieni; B. Bina; M. H. Mahmoudian; A. Naimabadie; A. Shahsavani

2009-01-01

360

NSAID gastropathy: prevention by celery seed extracts in disease-stressed rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies showed that some anti-inflammatory celery seed extracts (CSEs) were not gastrotoxic, in contrast to many OTC NSAIDs, when dosed to arthritic rats. The present investigation was designed to quantify the potential activity of CSEs against NSAID injury in rats with severe acute or chronic inflammation and to define the possible relationship of this to effects on mucosal prostaglandin

M. W. Whitehouse; D. E. Butters; M. L. Clarke; K. D. Rainsford

2001-01-01

361

Oral Grape Seed Extract Inhibits Prostate Tumor Growth and Progression in TRAMP Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate cancer chemoprevention is an alternative and potential strategy to control this malignancy. Herein, we evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of grape seed extract (GSE) against prostate cancer in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice where animals were fed with GSE by oral gavage at 200 mg\\/kg body weight dose during 4 to 28 weeks of age. Our results

Komal Raina; Rana P. Singh; Rajesh Agarwal; Chapla Agarwal

362

Haematopoetic effect of methanol seed extract of Citrus paradisi Macfad (grape fruit) in Wistar rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the blood-forming effects of (100% methanol seed extract) of Citrus paradisi Macfad in adult Wistar rats for 30 days as a way of evaluat- ing its traditional use in the treatment of blood deficiencies. Acute oral toxicity study was also conducted using limit dose test of the Up and Down Procedure statistical program

A. A. Adeneye

363

Nigella sativa (black cumin) seed extract alleviates symptoms of allergic diarrhea in mice, involving opioid receptors.  

PubMed

The incidence of food hypersensitivity and food allergies is on the rise and new treatment approaches are needed. We investigated whether N. sativa, one of its components, thymoquinone, or synthetic opioid receptor (OR)-agonists can alleviate food allergy. Hence, ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized BALB/c-mice were pre-treated either with a hexanic N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, kappa-(U50'4889) or mu-OR-agonists (DAMGO) and subsequently challenged intra-gastrically with OVA. All 4 treatments significantly decreased clinical scores of OVA-induced diarrhea. N. sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, and U50'488 also decreased intestinal mast cell numbers and plasma mouse mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1). DAMGO, in contrast, had no effect on mast cell parameters but decreased IFN?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 concentration after ex vivo re-stimulation of mesenteric lymphocytes. The effects on allergy symptoms were reversible by OR-antagonist pre-treatment, whereas most of the effects on immunological parameter were not. We demonstrate that N. sativa seed extract significantly improves symptoms and immune parameters in murine OVA-induced allergic diarrhea; this effect is at least partially mediated by thymoquinone. ORs may also be involved and could be a new target for intestinal allergy symptom alleviation. N. sativa seed extract seems to be a promising candidate for nutritional interventions in humans with food allergy. PMID:22768141

Duncker, Swantje C; Philippe, David; Martin-Paschoud, Christine; Moser, Mireille; Mercenier, Annick; Nutten, Sophie

2012-01-01

364

Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia.  

PubMed

Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>?-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress. PMID:24471131

Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

2013-09-01

365

Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic Content of Agriophyllum pungens Seed Extracts from Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are an important group of medicinal preventive compounds as well as being food additives inhibiting detrimental changes of easily oxidizable nutrients. The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts of Agriophyllum pungens seeds by various in vitro systems. The anti-oxidative activities of these samples were determined using four methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging activities. Additionally, total flavonoids and phenolic contents (TPC) were also determined. Yield of extracts varied widely among solvents and was the highest for water extract (5.642% based on dry weight basis), while ethyl acetate extract exhibited the highest total phenolic content (0.149 mg/mL), total flavonoid content (0.111 mg/mL), and antioxidant activities (P<0.05). The ABTS radical scavenging activity of A. pungens seeds occurred in the following order: ascorbic acid (92.9157%)>BHA (90.1503%)>?-tocopherol (87.7527%)>APEA (83.9887%) >APWR (75.5633%); the antioxidant activity of the extracts might be attributed to the presence of these phenolics. This suggests that A. pungens seed extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress.

Birasuren, Bayarmaa; Kim, Na Yeon; Jeon, Hye Lyun; Kim, Mee Ree

2013-01-01

366

Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from Moringa oleifera seed by salt solution.  

PubMed

It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The active component was isolated and purified from the crude extract through a sequence of steps that included salting-out by dialysis, removal of lipids and carbohydrates by homogenization with acetone, and anion exchange. Specific coagulation activity of the active material increased up to 34 times more than the crude extract after the ion exchange. The active component was not the same as that of water extract. The molecular weight was about 3000 Da. The Lowry method and the phenol-sulfuric acid method indicated that the active component was neither protein nor polysaccharide. The optimum pH of the purified active component for coagulation of turbidity was pH 8 and above. Different from the conventional water extracts, the active component can be used for waters with low turbidity without increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration. PMID:11228992

Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

2001-02-01

367

Tyrosinase Inhibitory Effect and Antioxidative Activities of Fermented and Ethanol Extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica  

PubMed Central

This is the first study to investigate the biological activities of fermented extracts of Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) and Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae). Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 fermented and ethanol extracts of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica were prepared and the antioxidative activities of different concentrations of samples were evaluated using in vitro antioxidative assays. Tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using the dopachrome method with L-DOPA as substrate. The results demonstrated that inhibitory effects (ED50 values) on mushroom tyrosinase of fermented Rhodiola rosea, fermented Lonicera japonica, ethanol extract of Lonicera japonica, and ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea were 0.78, 4.07, 6.93, and >10?mg/ml, respectively. The DPPH scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea (ED50 = 0.073?mg/ml) and fermented Lonicera japonica (ED50 = 0.207?mg/ml) were stronger than effects of their respective ethanol extracts. Furthermore, the scavenging effect increases with the presence of high content of total phenol. However, the superoxide scavenging effects of fermented Rhodiola rosea was less than effects of fermented Lonicera japonica. The results indicated that fermentation of Rhodiola rosea and Lonicera japonica can be considered as an effective biochemical process for application in food, drug, and cosmetics.

Chen, Yuh-Shuen; Liou, Hua-Chian

2013-01-01

368

Effect of enzymes on extraction of volatiles from celery seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Celery (Apium graveolens L.), belonging to the family Apiaceae, is widely used as a spice, in perfumery and pharmaceutical applications. It is reported to possess several nutraceutical attributes, such as anticoagulation activity of blood plasma and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Effects of various enzymes on the extraction of volatile oil of celery are reported in the present study. The oil

H. B. Sowbhagya; P. Srinivas; N. Krishnamurthy

2010-01-01

369

Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Pluchea quitoc (DC.) ethanolic extract.  

PubMed

Pluchea quitoc DC. (Asteraceae), a plant widely distributed throughout Brazil and popularly known as "quitoco", "madre-cravo" or "tabacarana", is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, as well as of digestive and respiratory diseases. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the ethanolic extract (EE) from aerial parts of this plant were evaluated in mice and rats. Oral treatment with the EE (1-2g/kg, p.o.) decreased the paw oedema induced by carrageenan in rats, showed anti-nociceptive effects on the tail-flick test and on acid-induced writhing in mice, and inhibited both phases of pain (neurogenic and inflammatory) of the formalin test in rats. Topical application (EE 1.25, 2.5 and 5.0mg) inhibited the ear oedema induced by croton oil in mice. The results support the folkloric use of the plant in inflammatory processes. PMID:16600542

Barros, I M C; Lopes, L D G; Borges, M O R; Borges, A C R; Ribeiro, M N S; Freire, S M F

2006-07-19

370

Evaluation of antioxidative and mutagenic properties of 50% ethanolic extract from red beans fermented by Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

Various bean products fermented by microorganisms are commonly consumed in Asian diets; however, the safety or functional properties of fermented beans can vary with different microbial species and with different processes being applied to different beans. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidative and mutagenic properties of 50% ethanolic extracts from red beans fermented by Aspergillus oryzae. The extracts' antioxidative activities, including alpha,alpha;-diphenyl-beta-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effects, Fe(2+)-chelating ability, and reducing power, were studied in vitro. The antioxidative effects provided by the extracts depended strongly on their concentrations. In general, antioxidative activity increased with extract concentration to a certain point and then leveled off as the concentration further increased. The fermented red bean extracts showed less of a scavenging effect on the DPPH radical and less reducing power than the commercial antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene, but better Fe(2+)-chelating ability. No mutagenicity or toxicity effect on any of the tested strains (Salmonella Typhimurium TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102, and TA1535) was found for the 50% ethanolic extracts of fermented red beans with the Ames mutagenicity assay. These results suggest that the 50% ethanolic extracts were not mutagenic. PMID:12233859

Chou, Su-Tze; Chang, Cheng-Tien; Chao, Wen-Wan; Chung, Yun-Chin

2002-09-01

371

Antioxidant capacities and total polyphenol contents of hydro-ethanolic extract of phytococktail from trans-Himalaya.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of hydro-ethanolic extract of a novel phytococktail comprising of sea buckthorn, apricot, and Rhodiola (SAR) from trans-Himalaya. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of the extract increased in a dose-dependent manner (upto 0.1 mg/mL), and was found to be about 38% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/mL. The hydro-ethanolic extract of SAR also scavenged the ABTS(.+) radical generated by ABTS/potassium persulfate (PPS) system and was found to be about 62% of that of ascorbic acid at 0.1 mg/ mL. The total antioxidant power of the extract was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content was found to be 1.28016 × 10(-3) mol gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g extract. Total flavonoid and flavonol contents were estimated to be 2.5970 × 10(-4) mol and 4.87 × 10(-4) mol quercetin equivalent/g extract, respectively. The hydro-ethanolic extract of this phytococktail indicated presence of essential phytoconstituents of polyphenols, flavonoids, flavonols, and ascorbic acid, which contributed significantly to its antioxidant capacity. The combination of the 3 plants may well support their use in traditional medicine to combat oxidative stress and high-altitude sickness. PMID:22225422

Dhar, P; Tayade, A B; Bajpai, P K; Sharma, V K; Das, S K; Chaurasia, O P; Srivastava, R B; Singh, S B

2012-02-01

372

Pharmacological actions of Pongamia pinnata seeds--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Direct ethanolic and sequential petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and ethanolic extracts (50-100 mg/kg, i.p.) of P. pinnata seeds given 30-60 min before revealed anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-ulcerogenic activities in rats. The activities were present maximum in petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. However, the extracts also showed shortening of pentobarbitone induced 'sleep time' in rats. PMID:9246911

Singh, R K; Joshi, V K; Goel, R K; Gambhir, S S; Acharya, S B

1996-12-01

373

Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on methanolic seeds' extract of Dolichos biflorus.  

PubMed

The Dolichos biflorus is a well known medicinal plant in folklore for its medicinal properties. In herbal medicine the seeds of it are mainly used as tonic, astringent, diuretic, and are also recommended in asthma, bronchitis, urinary discharges, hiccoughs, ozoena, heart trouble and other diseases of brain. The main purpose of this study is to explore and to provide experimental data on the traditional use of plant Dolichos biflorus. For this purpose we investigated the plant seed extract phytochemically and pharmacologically. Phytochemical analysis was performed on extract and powder form of the drug. Procedure use for evaluation were Identification of chemical constituent by color reaction, Fluorescence analysis of powder drug, pH (in powder and extract forms), loss on drying, Thin layer chromatography, Infrared spectroscopy, acid and saponification values. In pharmacological studies (diuretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities) were tested on the extract of plant seed. The tests were carried out over albino mice taking different concentration of seed extract. Seeds extract of Dolichos biflorus has exhibited mild analgesic activity, the results were (84.6±6.68) at dose 300mg/kg and (92.2±6.81) at dose 500mg/kg which were not much significant as compared to reference drug Aspirin (300mg/kg) having result (36.4±2.27). While seed extract of Dolichos biflorus exhibited remarkable diuretic activity, the values at 300 mg/kg was (1.33±0.13) and at 500 mg/kg were (2.66±0.31) which are highly significant as compared to drug Lasix (20mg /kg) having result (2.38±0.23). Anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract of Dolichos biflorus obtained at 0.06mg/kg and 01mg/kg were (26.6±2.96) and (36±1.67) respectively. While the value for aspirin as standard drug (300mg/kg) were (17.44±1.59).This study provides a platform for further investigation for the isolation of active principles responsible for biological activity. PMID:24577923

Ahmad, Mansoor; Sharif, Sadaf; Mehjabeen; Sharif, Hina; Jahan, Noor; Naqvi, Ghazala Raza

2014-03-01

374

Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract of Artemisia morrisonensis Hayata in Mice  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the ethanolic extract of A. morrisonensis Hayata (AMEtOH). Two models were employed for evaluation of the analgesic effects: acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The results demonstrated that AMEtOH decreased writhing response for both the acetic acid assay and the licking time in the formalin test. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by paw edema of mice induced by ?-carrageenan. AMEtOH significantly decreased induced paw edema three to four hours after ?-carrageenan injection. Additionally, the results indicated that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of AMEtOH may be due to the declined levels of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the edematous paw. Furthermore, AMEtOH decreased the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, leading to the reduction of prostaglandins and subsequently alleviated edema. Isolation and purification of the AMEtOH extract determined p-hydroxyacetophenone to be a major component at 130?mg/g of extract. No mortality was observed in the acute toxicity test given at the dose of 10?g/kg. This study demonstrated the possible mechanisms for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of AMEtOH for mice and provided evidence for the ethnobotanical uses of A. morrisonensis in treating inflammatory diseases.

Chou, Shen-Chieh; Chiu, Yung-Jia; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lin, Ying-Chih; Wu, Chung-Hao; Chao, Chien-Ti; Chang, Ching-Wen; Peng, Wen-Huang

2012-01-01

375

Ethanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum as a green corrosion inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of ethanol extract of Ocimum gratissimum as a green inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel in H2SO4 was investigated using gasometric, gravimetric, and thermometric methods of monitoring corrosion. The results obtained, indicated that ethanol extract of O. gratissimum is an adsorption inhibitor for the corrosion of mild steel. The inhibition efficiency of the inhibitor was found to

Nnabuk O. Eddy; Stevens A. Odoemelam; Ibiam N. Ama

2010-01-01

376

Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.  

PubMed

Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia. PMID:19650877

Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

2010-12-01

377

Ethanolic extract of sharah, Plectranthus aegyptiacus, enhances healing of skin wound in rats.  

PubMed

Sharah, Plectranthus aegyptiacus (Forssk.) C. Chr. is a common native plant in the Taif region of Saudi Arabia. An ethanolic extract of freeze dried sharah leaves was added as 10% (w/w) to an ointment base of beeswax and sesame oil. The resultant ointment was examined as a potential enhancer of wound healing. Excision wounds in the nape region of the skin were induced in sixty albino Wistar rats. Animals were allocated in 4 groups (n=15) and kept individually in clean cages. The first group served as negative untreated controls without medication; the second group was treated with ointment base (vehicle); the third group represented the positive control and was treated with a reference ointment and the fourth one served as the experimental group and received the test plant extract (as ointment). Animal groups received the respective medications for 14 successive days. Wounds were measured and photographed every 3 days till the end of the experiment (day 21) in order to determine the wound closure rate (WCR). Specimens from wounds and surrounding skin were collected from sacrificed animals for histological and molecular studies. Both morphometric (based on WCR) and histological findings showed that the healing in animals treated with the sharah plant extract was better than those in control group or vehicle-treated group and was similar to that in the group that received the reference ointment. Moreover, the molecular findings concerning the expression levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (c-Met) displayed a reasonable healing enhancing effect of the plant extract with the expression levels of both being higher in the extract-treated group than in the control group. PMID:24382517

Alkafafy, Mohamed; Montaser, Metwally; El-Shazly, Samir A; Bazid, Saleh; Ahmed, Mohamed M

2014-05-01

378

Resveratrol derivative-rich melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract suppresses multiple angiogenesis-related endothelial cell functions and tumor angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is a promising target for cancer prevention and treatment. This study aimed to determine the antiangiogenic effects of melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract and its resveratrol derivative components, such as gnetin C (GC), gnetin L (GL), gnemonoside A (GMA), gnemonoside C (GMC), and gnemonoside D (GMD). An ethanol extract of melinjo seeds (EEMS) and the two gnetins markedly inhibited the proliferation and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) stimulated with vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor. The inhibitory effects of GC and GL were much stronger than those of resveratrol. GMC and GMD inhibited only proliferation, whereas GMA had almost no effect on the two endothelial cell functions. The EEMS and GC also reduced the cell viability of tube-forming HUVEC, with accompanying ERK1/2 inactivation, and suppressed the migration of HUVEC. Furthermore, dietary intake of EEMS significantly inhibited tumor angiogenesis in a mouse dorsal air sac assay. In conclusion, we found that the EEMS and its resveratrol derivatives, particularly GC, suppress multiple angiogenesis-related endothelial cell functions and/or tumor angiogenesis, indicating that the melinjo seeds and the natural resveratrol derivatives may be useful for cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:21936049

Kunimasa, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Toshiro; Tani, Hiroko; Kato, Eishin; Eguchi, Ryoji; Kaji, Kazuhiko; Ikeda, Katsumi; Mori, Hideki; Mori, Mari; Tatefuji, Tomoki; Yamori, Yukio

2011-11-01

379

Chemical composition of Nigella sativa L. seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

Chemical composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide at two different conditions that result in total extract (28 MPa/50°C, SFE 1) and major volatile part (12 MPa/40°C, SFE 2) and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of SFE-1 (HD SFE). SFE have been carried out to characterize the compounds and the variation of quinones and phenolics. The extracts were analysed by GC and GC-MS and the presence of phenolic compounds was further confirmed by 2D HSQCT (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Forty-seven volatile compounds were detected where sixteen compounds were reported for the first time in the oil of this seed. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ), dithymoquinone (DTQ), thymohydroquinone (THQ) and thymol (THY) were the major phenolic compounds. It can be concluded that the chemical composition of extracts obtained by SC CO2 extraction of the seeds showed better recovery of phenolic compounds than HD SFE and proved the occurrence of thermally labile or photosensitive bioactive volatiles of four major quinonic phenol compounds. PMID:23572692

Tiruppur Venkatachallam, Suresh Kumar; Pattekhan, Hajimalang; Divakar, Soundar; Kadimi, Udaya Sankar

2010-12-01

380

Total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four pomegranate cultivars  

PubMed Central

The total phenolic distribution of juice, peel, and seed extracts of four Turkish pomegranate, Punica granatum L., cultivars (“Lefan,” “Katirbasi,” “Cekirdeksiz-IV,” and “Asinar”) was investigated. Total phenolic compounds were determined with the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. In all cultivars, the highest levels of total phenolic content were obtained from the peel extracts. The total phenolic content ranged from 1775.4 to 3547.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/L among the cultivars. However, the total phenolic content of pomegranate juice and seed extract ranged from 784.4 to 1551.5 mg GAE/L and 117.0 to 177.4 mg GAE/L, respectively. “Lefan” displayed the highest amount of the total phenolic content among the four popular cultivars tested.

Gozlekci, Sadiye; Saracoglu, Onur; Onursal, Ebru; Ozgen, Mustafa

2011-01-01

381

Antifertility investigations on the crude chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn. seeds in male albino rats.  

PubMed

Crude chloroform extract of C. papaya seeds (5 mg/animal/day, po, for 20, 40 and 60 days) was investigated for contraceptive efficacy and related side effects in male albino rats. The crude extract reduced fertility to zero per cent by 40 to 60 days of treatment. Suppression of cauda epididymal sperm motility was the most pronounced effect of the drug administration. Scanning electron microscopic observations revealed treatment induced abnormalities in sperms. Cauda epididymal and testicular sperm counts decreased following treatment. Clinical parameters did not show any alterations. Results suggest that the contraceptive effects of chloroform extract of papaya seeds are mainly post-testicular in nature without influencing toxicological profile and libido of the animals. PMID:1293029

Lohiya, N K; Goyal, R B

1992-11-01

382

Effects of Carica papaya seed extracts on the physiology of the vas deferens of albino rats.  

PubMed

The physiology of vas deferens after administrating papaya seed extract (1 mg/0.2 ml/day/rat) for 7 and 15 days was studied with reference to organ weights, fertility rate, some biochemical parameters and contractile pattern of isolated right and left vas deferens. Studies on combined extract + ascorbic acid feeding and discontinuation of treatment for 1 and 2 1/2 months were also carried out. The results revealed that the treatment altered the biochemical parameters except cholesterol levels and the contractile pattern was reduced in comparison to control. However, significant recovery occurred by withdrawal of treatment in all parameters studied. AA feeding was efficaceous in restoring the androgenicity of vas deferens under treated conditions. On the whole, the distal vas deferens was affected more by the seed extract treatment than proximal vas and recovery was slower probably due to its higher threshold requirement for androgen. The results are discussed in the light of recent work. PMID:6730867

Chinoy, N J; Ranga Geetha, M

1984-01-01

383

Extraction and characterization of Dimorphotheca pluvialis seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimorphotheca pluvialis is increasingly recognized as an interesting industrial new oilseed crop because it contains up to 60% of the unusual fatty\\u000a acid dimorphecolic acid (9-hydroxy,10t,12t-18?2) (DA) for which new applications are being developed. In this paper, the yield, composition and quality are evaluated\\u000a for dimorphotheca oils (DMO) which were recovered by pressing, conventional solvent extraction and supercritical carbon dioxide

Bart G. Muuse; F. Petrus Cuperus; Johannes T. P. Derksen

1994-01-01

384

Anticoagulant effect of polyphenols-rich extracts from black chokeberry and grape seeds.  

PubMed

Blood coagulation consists of a series of zymogens that can be converted by limited proteolysis to active enzymes leading to the generation of thrombin. Fresh plasma and human thrombin was incubated with extracts from berries of Aronia melanocarpa or seeds of Vitis vinifera (0.5; 5; 50 ?g/ml). The in vitro experiments showed that both extracts prolonged clotting time and decreased the maximal velocity of fibrin polymerization in human plasma. Moreover thrombin incubation with both extracts results in the inhibition of amidolytic activity of this enzyme. It gives hopes for development of diet supplements, which may be preventing thrombosis in pathological states. PMID:21596108

Bijak, Micha?; Bobrowski, Mateusz; Borowiecka, Marta; Pods?dek, Anna; Gola?ski, Jacek; Nowak, Pawe?

2011-09-01

385

Reactive extraction of Jatropha curcas L. seed for production of biodiesel: process optimization study.  

PubMed

Biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. seed is conventionally produced via a two-step method: extraction of oil and subsequent esterification/transesterification to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), commonly known as biodiesel. Contrarily, in this study, a single step in situ extraction, esterification and transesterification (collectively known as reactive extraction) of J. curcas L. seed to biodiesel, was investigated and optimized. Design of experiments (DOE) was used to study the effect of various process parameters on the yield of FAME. The process parameters studied include reaction temperature (30-60 degrees C), methanol to seed ratio (5-20 mL/g), catalyst loading (5-30 wt %), and reaction time (1-24 h). The optimum reaction condition was then obtained by using response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with central composite design (CCD). Results showed that an optimum biodiesel yield of 98.1% can be obtained under the following reaction conditions: reaction temperature of 60 degrees C, methanol to seed ratio of 10.5 mL/g, 21.8 wt % of H(2)SO(4), and reaction period of 10 h. PMID:20455588

Shuit, Siew Hoong; Lee, Keat Teong; Kamaruddin, Azlina Harun; Yusup, Suzana

2010-06-01

386

Effect of heat treatment of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the antioxidant potential of their extracts.  

PubMed

The effect of different heat treatments of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of their hydrolyzed extracts was investigated. The results showed that total phenol contents increased in thermally treated seeds. Heat treatment affected also the quantities of individual phenolic compounds in extracts. Phenolics in unheated camelina seeds existed in bound rather than in free form. A temperature of 160 °C was required for release of insoluble bound phenolics, whereas lower temperatures were found to be optimal to liberate those present as soluble conjugates. The best reducing power and alkyl peroxyl radical scavenging activity in the emulsion was expressed by phenolics which were bound to the cell wall, whereas the best iron chelators and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) radical scavengers were found to be those present in free form. The heat treatment of seeds up to 120 °C increased the reducing power and DPPH• radical scavenging ability of extracts, but negatively affected iron chelating ability and their activity in an emulsion against alkyl peroxyl radicals. PMID:21744787

Terpinc, Petra; Polak, Tomaz; Ulrih, Natasa Poklar; Abramovic, Helena

2011-08-24

387

Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) on sexual behaviour of normal male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry. (clove) has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually

Tajuddin; Shamshad Ahmad; Abdul Latif; Iqbal Ahmad Qasmi

2004-01-01

388

EFFECT OF SUB CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF CROTON ZAMBESICUS ON HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Ethanolic leaf extract of Croton zambesicus was administered to rats at doses of 100 - 400mg \\/ kg for 21 days to investigate its effect on the haematological indices of rats. Haematological indices, namely packed cell volume (PCV), Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) Red blood cell count (RBC), Mean cell Haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), Mean cell volume (MCV), and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin

J. E. OKOKON; K. C. IYADI; C. O. EFFIONG

389

Effect of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants with laxative properties on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia.  

PubMed

The effects of ethanol extracts of three Chinese medicinal plants Dahuang (Rheum palmatum L.), Badou (Croton tiglium L.), and Huomaren (Cannabis sativa L.), on ion transport of the rat intestinal epithelia were studied. Rat intestinal epithelia mounted in an Ussing chamber attached with voltage/current clamp were used for measuring changes of the short-circuit current across the epithelia. The intestinal epithelia were activated with current raised by serosal administration of forskolin 5 microM. Ethanol extracts of the three plants all augmented the current additively when each was added after forskolin. In subsequent experiments, ouabain and bumetanide were added prior to ethanol extracts of these medicinal plants to determine their effect on Na(+) and Cl(-) movement. The results suggest that ethanol extracts of the three medicinal plants may affect the Cl(-) movement more directly than Na(+) movement in the intestinal epithelial cells. The results provide evidence for the pharmacologic mechanism of the three Chinese medicinal plants on the intestinal tract. PMID:14758025

Tsai, Jong-Chang; Tsai, Shuli; Chang, Weng-Cheng

2004-02-01

390

Permittivity of Mixtures of Saponaria vaccaria and Ethanol–Water Solution for RF Heating Assisted Extraction of Saponins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saponins are used for the treatments of cancers and various infections. The use of radio frequency heating in extracting them from the mixture of particulate Saponaria vaccaria and ethanol-water solution has potentials in pharmaceutical and neu- traceutical industries. This technique requires a thorough under- standing of the dielectric properties of the mixtures. The dielectric properties of the mixtures were measured

Bijay L. Shrestha; Oon-Doo Baik

2011-01-01

391

Effect of yeast extract and vitamin B sub 12 on ethanol production from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B  

SciTech Connect

Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B{sub 12}, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B{sub 12} alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Honnami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Chiba (Japan))

1992-02-01

392

Estrogenic activities of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed extracts and main constituents.  

PubMed

Estrogenic activities of ethanol extract and its active components from Psoralea corylifolia L. were studied using various in vitro assays. The main components from ethanol extract were analyzed to be bakuchiol, psoralen, isobavachalcone, isobavachromene, and bavachinin. In a fractionation procedure, hexane and chloroform fractions showed estrogenic activity in yeast transactivation assay and E-screen assay. In yeast transactivation assay, ethanol extract, hexane, and chloroform fractions showed significantly higher activities at a concentration of 1.0 ng/ml, and bakuchiol at the concentration of 10(-6) M was showed the highest activity, especially, which was higher than genistein at the same concentration. In E-screen assay, cell proliferation of bakuchiol (10(-6) M) showed similar estrogenic activity with genistein (10(-6) M). In ER binding assay, bakuchiol displayed the strongest ER-binding affinity (IC(50) for ER?=1.01×10(-6) M, IC(50) for ER?=1.20×10(-6) M) and bakuchiol showed five times higher affinity for ER? than for ER?. PMID:21382704

Lim, Sun-Hye; Ha, Tae-Youl; Ahn, Jiyun; Kim, Suna

2011-03-15

393

Mechanisms involved in the antinociception caused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from Melissa officinalis L. and of the rosmarinic acid in chemical behavioral models of nociception and investigates some of the mechanisms underlying this effect. The extract (3–1000 mg\\/kg), given orally (p.o.) 1 h prior to testing, produced dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain, with ID50 value of 241.9 mg\\/kg. In the

Giselle Guginski; Ana Paula Luiz; Morgana Duarte Silva; Murilo Massaro; Daniel Fernandes Martins; Juliana Chaves; Robson Willain Mattos; Damaris Silveira; Vânia M. M. Ferreira; João Batista Calixto; Adair R. S. Santos

2009-01-01

394

Comparative study of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of hot water and ethanol extracts from the mushroom Inonotus obliquus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus is a traditional and widely used multi-functional fungus. Hot water (50 °C, 70 °C, and 80 °C) and ethanol crude extracts of I. obliquus were investigated for their antioxidant activity with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl) (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity assays. We also investigated the antiproliferative effects and ability of the extracts to induce apoptosis in human colon cancer

Honghai Hu; Zhenya Zhang; Zhongfang Lei; Yingnan Yang; Norio Sugiura

2009-01-01

395

Spasmolytic Activity of the Ethanol Extract of Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr. on the Isolated Rat Ileum Contractions  

PubMed Central

Abstract Sideritis raeseri spp. raeseri Boiss. & Heldr., known as “mountain tea,” has been widely used in the Mediterranean region as a spice and in folk medicine as a very popular decoction because of its anti-inflammatory, carminative, analgesic, antitussive, stomachic, and antimicrobial properties. The study was aimed to investigate the effects of an ethanol extract of S. raeseri on intestinal activity. Air-dried and powdered aerial parts were extracted with 96% ethanol. The rat ileum preparations were incubated in Tyrode's solution gassed (95% O2/5% CO2) at 37°C. The ethanol extract of S. raeseri (0.03–0.3?mg/mL) relaxed spontaneous contractions in isolated rat ileum, similar to that produced by papaverine. The plant extract in a concentration-dependent manner (0.015–0.15?mg/mL) significantly inhibited the contractile response to acetylcholine (P<.01). Atropine inhibited the response to acetylcholine. A similar relaxation-inducing effect of the S. raeseri extract was observed on the precontracted ileum by histamine and barium chloride. Plant extract (0.03–0.3?mg/mL) significantly shifted the histamine concentration–response curve to the right and down (P<.01). The S. raeseri extract (0.03–0.3?mg/mL) significantly inhibited the contractions induced by barium chloride (P<.01). The results show that the ethanol extract of S. raeseri can produce inhibition of the the spontaneous rat ileum contractions and contractions induced by different spasmogens. These data indicate that S. raeseri acts as a spasmolytic on intestinal smooth muscle, which justifies its use in gastrointestinal disorders.

Kitic, Dusanka; Radenkovic, Mirjana; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Jankovic, Teodora; Savikin, Katarina; Zdunic, Gordana

2011-01-01

396

Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction of Kalahari Melon Seed Oil: Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymatic extraction of oil from Kalahari melon seeds was investigated and evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM).\\u000a Two commercial protease enzyme products were used separately: Neutrase® 0.8 L and Flavourzyme® 1000 L from Novozymes (Bagsvaerd, Denmark). RSM was applied to model and optimize the reaction conditions namely concentration\\u000a of enzyme (20–50 g kg?1 of seed mass), initial pH of mixture (pH 5–9), incubation temperature

Kar Lin Nyam; Chin Ping Tan; Oi Ming Lai; Kamariah Long; Yaakob B. Che Man

2009-01-01

397

Effects of extracts and neferine from the embryo of Nelumbo nucifera seeds on the central nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of embryos of the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera on the central nervous system were studied in mice. MeOH extracts of embryos of Nelumbo nucifera seeds significantly inhibited locomotor activity in mice. The MeOH extract was successively partitioned between H2O and n-hexane, between H2O and CHCl3, and between H2O and n-BuOH. CHCl3 extracts strongly inhibited locomotor activity in mice,

Yumi Sugimoto; Sachiko Furutani; Atsuko Itoh; Takao Tanahashi; Hiroshi Nakajima; Hideo Oshiro; Shujian Sun; Jun Yamada

2008-01-01

398

New mixes based on collagen extracts with bioactive properties, for treatment of seeds in sustainable agriculture.  

PubMed

The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate. PMID:24372268

Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai

2014-10-01

399

Aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) protect against sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

We evaluated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil) on sodium arsenite-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. We observed that treatment of the animals with the extracts before or just after sodium arsenite administration significantly (p < 0.05) reduced mean liver and serum ?-Glutamyl transferase (?GT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities when compared with the group administered the toxin alone. In addition, treatments of the animals with aqueous or ethanolic extract of O. basilicum before the administration of sodium arsenite resulted in the attenuation of the sodium arsenite-induced aspartate and alanine aminotransferase activities: ALT (from 282.6% to 167.7% and 157.8%), AST (from 325.1% to 173.5% and 164.2%) for the group administered sodium arsenite alone, the aqueous extracts plus sodium arsenite, and ethanolic extracts plus sodium arsenite respectively, expressed as percentage of the negative control. These findings support the presence of hepatoprotective activity in the O.basilicum extracts. PMID:22314900

Gbadegesin, M A; Odunola, O A

2010-01-01

400

Antioxidant activity of white and black sesame seeds and their hull fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant status (TAS), free radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and metal chelating capacity of extracts of whole black and whole white sesame seeds and their hull fractions in 80% aqueous ethanol were investigated. The TPC of whole black sesame seeds and hull extracts were 29.9±0.6 and 146.6±0.6mgcatechinequivalents\\/g crude ethanolic

Fereidoon Shahidi; Chandrika M. Liyana-Pathirana; Dana S. Wall

2006-01-01

401

Rheological characterization of galactomannans extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima.  

PubMed

The galactomannan from the seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima L. was isolated and purified by precipitation method using alcohol to get C. pulcherrima (CP) gum. CP gum was studied for its physicochemical and rheological properties. The composition of CP gum was found to contain mannose:galactose:glucose:xylose in a proportion of 2.8:1:0.1:0.08, with M/G ratio 2.80. The molecular weight (Mw) for CP gum was obtained to be approximately 2.72×10(6) Da by static light scattering measurements and 2.79×10(6) Da using Mark-Houwink relationship. The intrinsic viscosity by Huggins and Kraemer plots using capillary viscometry was obtained as 12-12.5 dl/g. The rheological behavior of aqueous galactomannan solutions was studied at 25°C, using steady-shear and dynamic oscillatory measurements. The various concentrations of CP gum exhibits shear thinning non newtonian behavior at high shear rate and newtonian flow at low shear rate. Experimental data in steady shear has been correlated and found a better fitting with the Cross and Carreau models. A graph of the specific viscosity at zero shear rate (?(sp0)) against coil overlap parameter (C[?]) was plotted and the slope of the lines in dilute and semi-dilute regions were found to be 1.23 and 4.1 respectively. The critical concentration (C*) was found to be about 3.8/[?]. The linear viscoelastic region for CP gum solutions presented nature as that of macromolecular solutions. At all shear rates and frequencies, ?(ap) and ?* had almost similar magnitudes, which shows its reasonable agreement with the Cox-Merz rule. The present investigation shows the suitability of CP gum as a pharmaceutical aid application like viscosity modifier, release retardants, binders. PMID:23544573

Thombre, Nilima A; Gide, Paraag S

2013-04-15

402

The antiangiogenic activities of ethanolic crude extracts of four Salvia species  

PubMed Central

Background Angiogenesis is one of cancer hallmarks that are required for both cancer progression and metastasis. In this study we examined the antiangiogenic properties of the ethanolic crude extracts of four Salvia species grown in Jordan. Methods The direct antiangiogenic activity was evaluated using various models: ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, in vitro assessment of HUVEC proliferation and migration, and in vivo CAM assay, while we used the changes in the expression of HIF-1? and VEGF in breast cancer cells (MCF 7) as an indicative for the indirect antiangiogenic activity. Results All four crude extracts showed a potential antiangiogenic activity in the rat aortic assay, however two species were found to be cytotoxic against Fibroblast cell line (PLF); the finding that caused the exclusion of these two extracts from further studies. Of the two remaining extracts, S. triloba showed very promising direct and indirect antiangiogenic activities. S. triloba inhibited the HUVEC proliferation with an IC50 of 90 ?g/mL and HUVEC migration by 82% at 150 ?g/mL. Furthermore, the in vivo CAM assay also illustrated the high impact of S. triloba against the newly formed vessel in the chicken embryonic membrane. Interestingly, the S. triloba inhibited the expression of VEGF at the mRNA and protein and the HIF-1? mRNA in the MCF 7 breast cancer cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusions Taken together, all these findings of the direct and indirect angiogenic investigations nominated S. triloba as a highly potent antiangiogenic plant that may have chemotherapeutic and/or chemoprevention potentials.

2013-01-01

403

Antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract on the experimental model against chronic ethanol toxicity.  

PubMed

The possible protective effect of Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNFEt) was investigated for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity against ethanol-induced toxicity in rats. The experimental animals were intoxicated with 20% ethanol (7.9 g/kg/day) for 30 days via gastric intubation. SNFEt was administered at the dose of 250 mg/kg body weight along with the daily dose of ethanol for 30 days. From the result it was observed that ethanol-induced rats showed a significant elevation in the levels of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which lowered the antioxidant defense systems, such as, reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamins C and E, when compared to the controls. In the lipid profiles, the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoproteins (LDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), free fatty acids (FFA), and phospholipids were significantly elevated in the ethanol-induced group, whereas, the high density lipoproteins (HDL) were found to be reduced in the plasma, and the phospholipid levels were significantly decreased in the tissues. Supplementation of SNFEt improved the antioxidant status by decreasing the levels of TBARS and altering the lipid profiles to near normal. These activities were also compared to the standard drug silymarin (25 mg/kg body weight). Thus the findings of the present study indicated a significant antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity of Solanum nigrum fruits, which offered protection against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:20548935

Arulmozhi, Vadivel; Krishnaveni, Mani; Karthishwaran, Kandhan; Dhamodharan, Ganesan; Mirunalini, Sankaran

2010-01-01

404

Hepatoprotective activity of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et. Thonn. extract in ethanol treated rats: in vitro and in vivo studies.  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect and possible mechanism of aqueous extract from Phyllanthus amarus Schum. et. Thonn. (PA) on ethanol-induced rat hepatic injury. In the in vitro study, PA (1-4 mg/ml) increased %MTT reduction assay and decreased the release of transaminases (AST and ALT) in rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol. Hepatotoxic parameters studied in vivo included serum transaminases (AST and ALT), serum triglyceride (STG), hepatic triglyceride (HTG), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), together with histopathological examination. In acute toxicity study, single dose of PA (25, 50 and 75 mg/kg, p.o.) or SL (silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent, 5 mg/kg), 24h before ethanol (5 g/kg, p.o.) lowered the ethanol-induced levels of transaminases (AST and/or ALT). The 75 mg/kg PA dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PA (75 mg/(kg day), p.o.) or SL (5 g/(kg day), p.o.) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4 g/(kg day), p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT, HTG and TNF-alpha back to normal. Histopathological observations confirmed the beneficial roles of PA and SL against ethanol-induced liver injury in rats. Possible mechanism may involve their antioxidant activity. PMID:17870264

Pramyothin, Pornpen; Ngamtin, Chanon; Poungshompoo, Somlak; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

2007-11-01

405

Aloe vera gel extract attenuates ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation by suppressing the expression of lipogenic genes in mice.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that Aloe vera gel had hypoglycemic activity and anti-obesity effects, although the effect on alcoholic fatty liver was unclear. We examined in this present study the effect of an Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) on hepatic lipid metabolism by using an ethanol-induced transient fatty liver mouse model. Ethanol (3 g/kg of mouse weight) was orally administered to induce an accumulation of triglyceride (TG) and increase the mRNA expression of such lipogenic genes as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in the liver. Although ethanol ingestion caused a 5.4-fold increase in liver TG, pre-treating with AVGE (1 mg/kg/d) for 1 week significantly suppressed this elevation of the ethanol-induced liver TG level. The expression of lipogenic genes was also lower in the AVGE pre-treatment group than in the control group. This inhibitory effect on the ethanol-induced accumulation of TG was attributed to a reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes that were increased by ethanol. PMID:23132591

Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamada, Muneo; Yamauchi, Kouji; Iwatsuki, Keiji

2012-01-01

406

Blackberry seed extracts and isolated polyphenolic compounds showing protective effect on human lymphocytes DNA.  

PubMed

The tentative identification of seed extracts from 3 cultivars of blackberry (blackberry seed extracts [BSEs]) constituents was performed by LC/UV/MS technique. The identified compounds belonged to ellagitannins, galic acid derivatives, and ellagic acid derivatives. Two ellagitannins, Lambertianin C and Sanguiniin H-6, and an ellagic acid derivative, 4-?-L-arabinofuranosylellagic acid, were isolated using semipreparative High-performance liquid chromatography. The structure elucidations were based on high resolution-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance studies. The BSEs and 3 isolated pure compounds were tested for in vitro protective effect on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using cytochalasin-B blocked micronucleus (MN) assay. The frequency of MN was scored in binucleated cells, and nuclear proliferation index was calculated. Among the tested extracts, the seeds of cv. Thornfree at concentration of 1 ?g/mL exhibit the most prominent effect decreasing the frequency of MN by 62.4%, when compared with the controls cell cultures. Antioxidant potential of pure ellagitannins cannot explain the strong effect of BSEs. The assumption was that better antioxidant effect of BSEs result from synergistic effects of individual compounds contained in the extracts and/or some minor components possessed strong activity. PraCTICAL APPLICATION: Our results provide evidence of protective effects of BSEs and isolated pure compounds on cytogenetic damages in human lymphocytes. Thus, BSEs could exert beneficial effects in quite a few diseases, because many of the biological actions have been attributed to their antioxidant properties. PMID:21824137

Go?evac, Dejan; Teševi?, Vele; Vajs, Vlatka; Milosavljevi?, Slobodan; Stankovi?, Miroslava

2011-09-01

407

Evaluation of the In Vitro and In Vivo Antioxidant Potentials of Aframomum melegueta Methanolic Seed Extract  

PubMed Central

Aframomum melegueta Schum (Zingiberaceae) is a perennial herb widely cultivated for its valuable seeds in the tropical region of Africa. The present study evaluated the antioxidant effects of methanolic seed extract of A. melegueta. The antioxidant effects were evaluated using in vitro, 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay and in vivo serum catalase, superoxide dismutase and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay method. The extract (25–400??g/mL concentration) produced concentration dependent increase in antioxidant activity in 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhydrazine photometric assay. The extract (400?mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in serum catalase and superoxide dismutase activity when compared with the control group. The extract (400?mg/kg) showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the serum level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance when compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the seed of A. melegueta has potent antioxidant activity which may be responsible for some of its reported pharmacological activities and can be used as antioxidant supplement.

Onoja, Samuel Okwudili; Omeh, Yusuf Ndukaku; Ezeja, Maxwell Ikechukwu; Chukwu, Martins Ndubuisi

2014-01-01

408

A case of beta-carboline alkaloid intoxication following ingestion of Peganum harmala seed extract.  

PubMed

Beta-carboline alkaloids harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine can stimulate the central nervous system by inhibiting the metabolism of amine neurotransmitters, or by direct interaction with specific receptors; they are found in numerous plants, including Peganum harmala, Passiflora incarnata and Banisteriopsis caapi, and in the entheogen preparation Ayahuasca, which is traditionally brewed using B. caapi to enhance the activity of amine hallucinogenic drugs. The ingestion of plant preparations containing beta-carboline alkaloids may result in toxic effects, namely visual and auditory hallucinations, locomotor ataxia, nausea, vomiting, confusion and agitation. We report a case of intoxication following intentional ingestion of P. harmala seed infusion; P. harmala seeds were bought over the Internet. The harmala alkaloids were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the seed extract and the patient's urine. This is, to our knowledge, the first case of P. harmala intoxication corroborated by toxicological findings. PMID:18603389

Frison, Giampietro; Favretto, Donata; Zancanaro, Flavio; Fazzin, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo Davide

2008-08-01

409

Antistress Effects of the Ethanolic Extract from Cymbopogon schoenanthus Growing Wild in Tunisia.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the antistress properties of the ethanol extract of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (CSEE), growing wild in the southern part of Tunisia. The effect of extracts on H2O2-induced cytotoxicity and stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Its effect on stress-induced in ICR mice was exposed to force swim and tail suspension, in concordance with heat shock protein expression (HSP27 and HSP90), corticosterone, and catecholamine neurotransmitters level. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CSEE at 1/2000, 1/1000, and 1/500?v/v dilutions significantly inversed H2O2-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, CSEE treatments sign