Science.gov

Sample records for ether polymer maleic

  1. 40 CFR 721.10316 - Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic anhydride and alkyl alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10316 Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10316 - Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic anhydride and alkyl alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10316 Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10316 - Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic anhydride and alkyl alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10316 Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic...

  4. Complexation between poly(maleic acid/octyl vinyl ether) and poly(vinyl caprolactam) in aqueous solution and at the alumina/water interface.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Q; Somasundaran, P

    2002-09-01

    Solution and interfacial properties of binary polymer mixtures of poly(maleic acid/octyl vinyl ether) (PMAOVE) and poly(vinyl caprolactam) (PVCAP) have been studied for the alumina/water system. To test the hydrophobic effect, mixtures of poly(maleic acid/methyl vinyl ether) (PMAMVE) and PVCAP are also investigated and compared to the behavior of PMAOVE/PVCAP. At low pH, both polymer mixtures become turbid upon mixing. The turbidity increases at low mixing ratios of PVCAP to the vinyl ether component, reaches a maximum, and then decreases at higher mixing ratios. Upon shifting the pH to the alkaline range, i.e., pH 7.5 and above, the turbid solution becomes clear for both the polymer mixtures. Cloud point measurements indicate the absence of complexation of PVCAP with PMAMVE under the alkaline conditions, but strong interaction with PMAOVE. This is attributed to the different forces involved in the complexation among the polymers: H bonding for PVCAP/PMAMVE and both H bonding and hydrophobic effects for PVCAP/PMAOVE. At the alumina/water interface, the normally nonadsorbing PVCAP is triggered to adsorb by PMAOVE, attributed to the hydrophobic complexation between the two. However, the adsorption of PVCAP shows a maximum as a function of the concentration of PMAOVE. At concentrations of PMAOVE above the onset of its own plateau adsorption, the amount of PVCAP triggered to adsorb is reduced possibly due to the polymer complex formation in solution. PMID:16290852

  5. Cross-Linked Hydrogels Formed through Diels-Alder Coupling of Furan- and Maleimide-Modified Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid).

    PubMed

    Stewart, S Alison; Backholm, Matilda; Burke, Nicholas A D; Stöver, Harald D H

    2016-02-23

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition between furan- and maleimide-functional polyanions was used to form cross-linked synthetic polymer hydrogels. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) was reacted with furfurylamine or N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide in acetonitrile to form pairs of furan- and maleimide-functionalized poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)s. Mixtures of these mutually reactive polyanions in water gelled within 15 min to 18 h, depending on degree of functionalization and polymer concentrations. Solution and magic-angle spinning (1)H NMR were used to confirm the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct, to analyze competing hydrolytic side reactions, and demonstrate postgelation functionalization. The effect of the degree of furan and maleimide functionalization, polymer concentration, pH, and calcium ion concentration, on gelation time, gel mechanical properties, and equilibrium swelling, are described. Release of dextran as a model drug was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, as a function of gel composition and calcium treatment. PMID:26800849

  6. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  8. Influence of the backbone structure on the release of bioactive volatiles from maleic acid-based polymer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Damien L; Paret, Nicolas; Trachsel, Alain; Herrmann, Andreas

    2010-11-17

    Poly(maleic acid monoester)-based β-mercapto ketones were synthesized and investigated as potential delivery systems for the controlled release of bioactive, volatile, α,β-unsaturated enones (such as damascones and damascenones) by retro 1,4-addition. The bioconjugates were prepared in a one-pot synthesis using 2-mercaptoethanol as a linker. The thiol group of 2-mercaptoethanol adds to the double bond of the enone to form a β-mercapto ketone, which was then grafted via nucleophilic ring-opening of the remaining alcohol function onto a series of alternating copolymers of maleic anhydride and 1-octadecene, ethylene, isobutylene, and methyl vinyl ether. The influence of copolymer backbones on the release of δ-damascone was investigated in buffered aqueous solution as a function of pH and time. In the presence of a cationic surfactant, the polymer conjugates were transferred from an aqueous medium to a cotton surface. The deposition and the release of δ-damascone from the cotton surface as a function of the polymer backbone structure were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic headspace analysis, respectively. All polymer conjugates were found to deliver higher amounts of the volatile into the headspace than the reference consisting of unmodified δ-damascone. Polymers with a hydrophobic backbone were generally efficiently deposited on the cotton surface, but released δ-damascone only moderately in solution. Conjugates with a more hydrophilic backbone release the active compound more efficiently in water, but are deposited to a lower extent onto the target surface. A good balance of the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the polymer backbone is the key factor to maximize the deposition of the conjugates on the target surface and to optimize the release of the bioactive volatiles. PMID:20936844

  9. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone targeted poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid) nanoparticles for doxorubicin delivery to MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Ghazzavi, Jila

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a targeted anti-cancer drug delivery system for breast cancer. Therefore, doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by ionic cross-linking method using Zn(2+) ions. To optimise the effect of DOX/polymer ratio, Zn/polymer ratio, and stirrer rate a full factorial design was used and their effects on particle size, zeta potential, loading efficiency (LE, %), and release efficiency in 72 h (RE72, %) were studied. Targeted NPs were prepared by chemical coating of tiptorelin/polyallylamin conjugate on the surface of NPs by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carboiimid HCl as cross-linking agent. Conjugation efficiency was measured by Bradford assay. Conjugated triptorelin and targeted NPs were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The cytotoxicity of DOX loaded in targeted NPs and non-targeted ones were studied on MCF-7 cells which overexpress luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors and SKOV3 cells as negative LHRH receptors using Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay. The best results obtained from NPs prepared by DOX/polymer ratio of 5%, Zn/polymer ratio of 50%, and stirrer rate of 960 rpm. FTIR spectrum confirmed successful conjugation of triptorelin to NPs. The conjugation efficiency was about 70%. The targeted NPs showed significantly less IC50 for MCF-7 cells compared to free DOX and non-targeted NPs. PMID:27463791

  10. Synthesis and characterization of CdS nanocrystals in Maleic anhydride-Octene-1-Vinylbutyl Ether terpolymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akperov, Oktay H.; Muradov, Mustafa B.; Malikov, Elvin Y.; Akperov, Elchin O.; Mammadova, Rasmiyya E.; Eyvazova, Goncha M.; Kukovecz, Ákos; Kónya, Zoltán

    2016-07-01

    A Maleic anhydride-Octene-1-Vinylbutyl Ether terpolymer was synthesized via the radical terpolymerization method in order to prepare a new matrix for CdS nanocrystal synthesis. CdS nanocrystals were synthesized through the reaction of thiourea with cadmium chloride. The synthesized terpolymer/CdS nanocrystal composites were characterized by several methods. Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis, Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods. The room temperature UV-visible absorption spectra show a shift of the absorption edge towards higher energies. The band gap of the CdS nanocomposite is bigger than that of bulk CdS. Raman spectrum exhibits characteristic peaks of CdS. Images of the nanocomposite obtained with Atomic Force Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy are the evidences of CdS nanocrystal formation in the terpolymer. Thermal investigation shows that the nanocomposite is more thermostable than the terpolymer which could be useful for application in thermo aggressive medium.

  11. Relationship of molecular weight to antiviral and antitumor activities and toxic effects of maleic anhydride-divinyl ether (MVE) polyanions.

    PubMed

    Morahan, P S; Barnes, D W; Munson, A E

    1978-11-01

    The molecular weight (MW) and dose dependency of several of the toxic effects and antitumor and antiviral activities of a new series of five maleic anhydride-divinyl ether copolymers (MVE) were established. Each polyanion preparation was relatively homogeneous and exhibited a narrow MW range, from 12,500 (MVE-1) to greater than 52,000 (MVE-5). All of the polyanions were effective as adjuvants to surgery against the metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma, and also exhibited marked antitumor activity against the P815 mastocytoma. MVE-1 retained antitumor activity while losing considerable antiviral activity. This polyanion also exhibited the least toxicity with regard to criteria such as sensitization to the lethal effects of endotoxin, inhibition of reticuloendothelial function, and depression of the microsomal mixed functional oxidase system. The MVE-4 (MW, 32,000) and MVE-5 (MW, 52,600) polyanions exhibited potent antitumor and antiviral activity, but also demonstrated dose-dependent toxic effects. PMID:103618

  12. Prolonged Hypocalcemic Effect by Pulmonary Delivery of Calcitonin Loaded Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether Maleic Acid) Bioadhesive Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Varshosaz, J.; Minaiyan, M.; Forghanian, M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design a pulmonary controlled release system of salmon calcitonin (sCT). Therefore, poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid) [P(MVEMA)] nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking method using Fe2+ and Zn2+ ions. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were studied in vitro. The stability of sCT in the optimized nanoparticles was studied by electrophoretic gel method. Plasma calcium levels until 48 h were determined in rats as pulmonary-free sCT solution or nanoparticles (25 μg·kg−1), iv solution of sCT (5 μg·kg−1), and pulmonary blank nanoparticles. The drug remained stable during fabrication and tests on nanoparticles. The optimized nanoparticles showed proper physicochemical properties. Normalized reduction of plasma calcium levels was at least 2.76 times higher in pulmonary sCT nanoparticles compared to free solution. The duration of hypocalcemic effect of pulmonary sCT nanoparticles was 24 h, while it was just 1 h for the iv solution. There was not any significant difference between normalized blood calcium levels reduction in pulmonary drug solution and iv injection. Pharmacological activity of nanoparticles after pulmonary delivery was 65% of the iv route. Pulmonary delivery of P(MVEMA) nanoparticles of sCT enhanced and prolonged the hypocalcemic effect of the drug significantly. PMID:24701588

  13. Immobilization of saccharides and peptides on 96-well microtiter plates coated with methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer.

    PubMed

    Satoh, A; Kojima, K; Koyama, T; Ogawa, H; Matsumoto, I

    1998-06-15

    We have previously reported a method to immobilize protein ligands on microtiter plates coated with methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer (MMAC) [Isosaki, K., et al. (1992) J. Chromatogr. 597, 123-128]. In this study, we improved the MMAC method to efficiently immobilize not only small ligands such as peptides and oligosaccharides, which could not be efficiently immobilized previously, but also heparin via its reducing end. Amino and hydrazino groups were introduced to MMAC-coated microtiter plate wells by coupling to acid anhydride groups of MMAC with 1,6-hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid dihydrazide, respectively. The amino groups introduced were allowed to react with peptides by use of divalent cross-linkers. Hydrazino groups were allowed to react with formyl groups of saccharides by reductive amination. Peptides and oligosaccharides were immobilized in a dose-dependent manner by these methods. In the case of the angiotensin peptide thus immobilized, the detection limit by monoclonal antibodies was as low as 0.1-1 fmol peptide per well. Application of 20-200 nmol oligosaccharides to the well was sufficient to immobilize and subsequently detect lectins. Furthermore, heparin immobilized on the hydrazinocoated wells was successfully used for the binding assay of annexin IV. PMID:9648659

  14. Supramolecular polymers constructed by crown ether-based molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; Wang, Feng; Dong, Shengyi; Huang, Feihe

    2012-03-01

    Supramolecular polymers, polymeric systems beyond the molecule, have attracted more and more attention from scientists due to their applications in various fields, including stimuli-responsive materials, healable materials, and drug delivery. Due to their good selectivity and convenient enviro-responsiveness, crown ether-based molecular recognition motifs have been actively employed to fabricate supramolecular polymers with interesting properties and novel applications in recent years. In this tutorial review, we classify supramolecular polymers based on their differences in topology and cover recent advances in the marriage between crown ether-based molecular recognition and polymer science. PMID:22012256

  15. Poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft polystyrene as a photoactive polymer micelle and stabilizer for polystyrene latexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, T.; Yin, W.; Webber, S.E. )

    1994-12-05

    Polymerization of maleic anhydride and 2-vinylnaphthalene produces alternating polymers. Imidization of the polymer with amino-terminated polystyrene yields different loadings of an alternating polymer with polystyrene combs''. Upton rigorous hydrolysis one obtains poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-polystyrene (P2VNMA-PS), which is a fluorescent polymer with unusual solution properties and with significant surface activity. P2VNMA-PS forms a small micelle structure in solution or can be used as a surfactant for an emulsion polymerization of polystyrene (no cosurfactant is required), producing monodisperse latex particles which are stable for pH > 3.9. Centrifugation shows that >90% of the P2VNMA-PS is associated with the latex particles. Fluorescence quenching studies of the naphthalene excimer with Tl[sup +] indicate that approximately 84% and 77% of the naphthalene groups remain exposed to the aqueous phase when this polymer is micellized or incorporated onto a latex particle, respectively. These data imply that the P2VNMA-PS polymer is permanently associated with the exterior of the latex particle, as one would expect given the amphiphilic nature of this polymer.

  16. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  6. Sulfonated Poly(Ether-Ether-Ketone) Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodakovska, J.; Kleperis, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the work, sulfonated poly(ether-ether-ketone) (SPEEK) ionomers were synthesized using an original (submitted for patent) and simple method. The resulting membranes were tested to determine parameters that are important for the use of this material in fuel cells (water absorption, sulfonation degree, conductivity, etc.). The thermo-gravimetric analysis has shown a good thermal stability in the range from RT to 200-220 °C, and two characteristic regions of weight loss - 7.4% at ~140 °C (reversible water loss) and 10.3% at 200-220 °C (due to polymer degradation when cross-linked polymer chains permanently break down and their SO3H-groups are lost). The conductivity values obtained by the through-plane measurements of SPEEK membranes were 12 mS/cm at RT and 23 mS/cm at 80 °C.

  7. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  16. Aluminum–phthalocyanine chloride associated to poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) nanoparticles as a new third-generation photosensitizer for anticancer photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Ma, Beatriz Chiyin; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Almeida Santos, Maria de Fátima Menezes; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is generally considered to be safer than conventional anticancer therapies, and it is effective against different kinds of cancer. However, its clinical application has been significantly limited by the hydrophobicity of photosensitizers. In this work, a system composed of the hydrophobic photosensitizer aluminum–phthalocyanine chloride (AlPc) associated with water dispersible poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) nanoparticles is described. AlPc was associated with nanoparticles produced by a method of solvent displacement. This system was analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics, and for its photodynamic activity in vitro in cancerous (murine mammary carcinoma cell lineage 4T1, and human mammary adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7) and noncancerous (murine fibroblast cell lineage NIH/3T3, and human mammary epithelial cell lineage MCF-10A) cell lines. Cell viability and the elicited mechanisms of cell death were evaluated after the application of photodynamic therapy. This system showed improved photophysical and photochemical properties in aqueous media in comparison to the free photosensitizer, and it was effective against cancerous cells in vitro. PMID:24634582

  17. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phenols, glycidyl ether. 721.7046 Section 721.7046 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phenols, glycidyl ether. 721.7046 Section 721.7046 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phenols, glycidyl ether. 721.7046 Section 721.7046 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  20. Transparent Films from CO2 -Based Polyunsaturated Poly(ether carbonate)s: A Novel Synthesis Strategy and Fast Curing.

    PubMed

    Subhani, Muhammad Afzal; Köhler, Burkhard; Gürtler, Christoph; Leitner, Walter; Müller, Thomas E

    2016-04-25

    Transparent films were prepared by cross-linking polyunsaturated poly(ether carbonate)s obtained by the multicomponent polymerization of CO2 , propylene oxide, maleic anhydride, and allyl glycidyl ether. Poly(ether carbonate)s with ABXBA multiblock structures were obtained by sequential addition of mixtures of propylene oxide/maleic anhydride and propylene oxide/allyl glycidyl ether during the polymerization. The simultaneous addition of both monomer mixtures provided poly(ether carbonate)s with AXA triblock structures. Both types of polyunsaturated poly(ether carbonate)s are characterized by diverse functional groups, that is, terminal hydroxy groups, maleate moieties along the polymer backbone, and pendant allyl groups that allow for versatile polymer chemistry. The combination of double bonds substituted with electron-acceptor and electron-donor groups enables particularly facile UV- or redox-initiated free-radical curing. The resulting materials are transparent and highly interesting for coating applications. PMID:27028458

  1. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  3. Multifunctional Poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-graft-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Amphiphilic Copolymer as an Oral High-Performance Delivery Carrier of Tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Pan, Xiaolei; Wang, Shang; Zhai, Yinglei; Guan, Jibin; Fu, Qiang; Hao, Xiaoli; Qi, Wanpeng; Wang, Yingli; Lian, He; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Yongjun; Sun, Yinghua; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve oral bioavailability of tacrolimus (FK506), a novel poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-graft-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin amphiphilic copolymer (CD-PVM/MA) is developed, combining the bioadhesiveness of PVM/MA, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and cytochrome P450-inhibitory effect of CD into one. The FK506-loaded nanoparticles (CD-PVM/MA-NPs) were obtained by solvent evaporation method. The physiochemical properties and intestinal absorption mechanism of FK506-loaded CD-PVM/MA-NPs were characterized, and the pharmacokinetic behavior was investigated in rats. FK506-loaded CD-PVM/MA-NPs exhibited nanometer-sized particles of 273.7 nm, with encapsulation efficiency as high as 73.3%. FK506-loaded CD-PVM/MA-NPs maintained structural stability in the simulated gastric fluid, and about 80% FK506 was released within 24 h in the simulated intestinal fluid. The permeability of FK506 was improved dramatically by CD-PVM/MA-NPs compared to its solution, probably due to the synergistic inhibition effect of P-gp and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). The intestinal biodistribution of fluorescence-labeled CD-PVM/MA-NPs confirmed its good bioadhesion to the rat intestinal wall. Two endocytosis pathways, clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, were involved in the cellular uptake of CD-PVM/MA-NPs. The important role of lymphatic transport in nanoparticles' access to the systemic circulation, about half of the contribution to oral bioavailability, was observed in mesenteric lymph duct ligated rats. The AUC0-24 of FK506 loaded in nanoparticles was enhanced up to 20-fold compared to FK506 solutions after oral administration. The present study suggested that the novel multifunctional CD-PVM/MA is a promising efficient oral delivery carrier for FK506, due to its ability in solubilization, inhibitory effects on both P-gp and CYP 3A, high bioadhesion, and sustained release capability. PMID:26024817

  4. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols polyglycidyl ethers (generic name). 721.6980... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols polyglycidyl ethers (generic name). 721.6980... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols polyglycidyl ethers (generic name). 721.6980... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol...

  7. Maleic anhydride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Maleic anhydride ; CASRN 108 - 31 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  8. Maleic hydrazide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Maleic hydrazide ; CASRN 123 - 33 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  9. Transparent Films from CO2‐Based Polyunsaturated Poly(ether carbonate)s: A Novel Synthesis Strategy and Fast Curing

    PubMed Central

    Subhani, Muhammad Afzal; Köhler, Burkhard; Gürtler, Christoph; Leitner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transparent films were prepared by cross‐linking polyunsaturated poly(ether carbonate)s obtained by the multicomponent polymerization of CO2, propylene oxide, maleic anhydride, and allyl glycidyl ether. Poly(ether carbonate)s with ABXBA multiblock structures were obtained by sequential addition of mixtures of propylene oxide/maleic anhydride and propylene oxide/allyl glycidyl ether during the polymerization. The simultaneous addition of both monomer mixtures provided poly(ether carbonate)s with AXA triblock structures. Both types of polyunsaturated poly(ether carbonate)s are characterized by diverse functional groups, that is, terminal hydroxy groups, maleate moieties along the polymer backbone, and pendant allyl groups that allow for versatile polymer chemistry. The combination of double bonds substituted with electron‐acceptor and electron‐donor groups enables particularly facile UV‐ or redox‐initiated free‐radical curing. The resulting materials are transparent and highly interesting for coating applications. PMID:27028458

  10. Polymer containing pendant vinyl ether groups useful in enhanced oil recovery using

    SciTech Connect

    Irani, C.A.; Harris, T.V.; Aetzer, W.R.

    1990-08-07

    This patent describes an improvement in a method for recovering oil from an underground oil-bearing earth formation penetrated by an injection well and a producing well, in which method carbon dioxide is injected into the formation to displace oil towards the producing well from which oil is produced to the surface. It comprises: injecting into the formation carbon dioxide, the viscosity of which is increased at least three-fold by the presence of a sufficient amount of polymer containing pendant vinyl ether groups and a sufficient amount of a cosolvent to form a solution of the polymer in the carbon dioxide, wherein the minimum solubility parameter of the polymer is reduced to 6.85(cal/cc)1/1/2 or less by control of the number of pendant vinyl ether groups and by the selection of the vinyl ether groups.

  11. Semifluorinated polymers via cycloaddition and nucleophilic addition reactions of aromatic trifluorovinyl ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacono, Scott Thomas

    This dissertation encompasses the synthesis, characterization, and properties of semifluorinated polymers derived from thermal polymerization of aryl trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) monomers. This work is divided into two parts based on the methodology of thermal polymerization using aryl TFVE monomers. The first part of this work involves the thermal [2 + 2] cyclodimerization of aryl TFVE monomers affording perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) aryl ether polymers. Chapter 1 provides an overview of PFCB aryl ether polymers as a next-generation class of high performance fluoropolymers that have been successfully employed for a myriad of technologies. PFCB aryl ether polymers are highly desired because of their high thermal stability, processability, and tailorability for specific material applications. Chapter 2 introduces a general perspective of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) that were modified with PFCB aryl ether polymer for property enhancement, specifically for low surface energy materials. Chapter 3 and 4 show the synthesis, characterization, and properties of POSS modified PFCB aryl ether polymers as blends and a variety of copolymer architectures, respectively. The second portion of this dissertation focuses on the development of a new, facile step-growth polymerization of diols/bisphenols and aryl TFVEs to afford fluoroethylene/vinylene alkyl/aryl ether (FAE) polymers. Chapter 5 is a prelude to the development of FAE polymers which entails optimizing the methodology and mechanistic rationale of nucleophile addition to aryl TFVEs. Chapter 6 details the FAE polymerization kinetics, physical properties, and strategy for functionalization. Chapter 7 illustrates the modular modification of FAE polymers for the development of tunable light emissive materials for potential use as transport layer material for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and also chemical sensors. Chapter 8 introduces postfunctionaliztion of FAE polymers resulting with sulfonated biaryl

  12. Rheological Analysis of Polymer Interactions and Ageing of Poly(Methylvinylether-Co-Maleic Anhydride)/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Binary Networks and Their Effects on Mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin P; Laverty, Thomas P; Jones, David S

    2015-12-01

    Polymer blends of poly(vinylalcohol, PVA) and poly(methylvinylether-co-maleic anhydride, PMVE/MA) were formulated and their viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties characterised. The viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties were dependent on polymer concentration, molecular weight of PVA and PVA:PMVE/MA ratio. Alteration of these properties allowed platforms to be designed to offer defined rheological and mucoadhesive properties, properties that could not be achieved using monopolymeric platforms. A strong correlation was noted between the modulus of the polymeric blends and mucoadhesion. After storage, the polymeric blends underwent rheological structuring (ageing) with an attendant enhancement of mucoadhesion. In certain blends containing the highest molecular weight of PVA (146-186 kDa), storage ultimately resulted in an increase and then a significant decrease in the rheological and mucoadhesive properties, the latter phenomenon being accredited to polymer recrystallisation. Ageing of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties was modelled using an exponential growth model, allowing predictions of the storage period associated with the maxima in viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties. These observations highlight the possible implications whenever interactive polymeric blends are employed in drug delivery. Caution is therefore urged whenever a formulation strategy based on interactive polymer blends is employed to ensure that ageing is fully understood and mathematically characterised. PMID:26502109

  13. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10054 - Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3-[(2-aminocyclohexyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10054 Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2... substance identified generically as a phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2-hydroxypropyl ethers (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10054 - Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3-[(2-aminocyclohexyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10054 Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2... substance identified generically as a phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2-hydroxypropyl ethers (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10054 - Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3-[(2-aminocyclohexyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10054 Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2... substance identified generically as a phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2-hydroxypropyl ethers (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10054 - Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3-[(2-aminocyclohexyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10054 Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2... substance identified generically as a phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2-hydroxypropyl ethers (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10054 - Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3-[(2-aminocyclohexyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10054 Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2... substance identified generically as a phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2-hydroxypropyl ethers (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol...

  20. Carbon-13 cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the interactions between maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene and wood polymers.

    PubMed

    Rude, Erica; Laborie, Marie-Pierre G

    2008-05-01

    The chemical interactions between maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) and wood were studied with solid-state carbon-13 cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CPMAS NMR) spectroscopy. MAPP was synthesized with 100% (13)C enrichment at the C(1) and C(4) carbons to allow detection of the [1,4-(13)C(2)]MAPP functional groups and was melt blended with cellulose, lignin, and maple wood. In the cellulose/MAPP blend, changes in (13)C CPMAS NMR corrected signal intensities for the anhydride and dicarboxylic maleic acid functionalities suggested that esterification may have occurred predominantly from the more numerous diacid carbons. A single proton longitudinal relaxation in the rotating frame, (H)T(1rho), for the MAPP and the cellulose carbons in the blend suggested that they were spin coupled, i.e., homogeneous on a 10-200 Angstrom scale. Esterification was also suggested in the lignin/MAPP blend. Furthermore, the more significant changes in the intensities of the carbonyl signals and (H)T(1rho) values suggested that lignin may be more reactive to MAPP than cellulose. Finally, when maple was melt blended with MAPP, the same trends in the (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectra and (H)T(1rho) behavior were observed as when MAPP was blended with cellulose or lignin. This study therefore clarifies that during melt compounding of wood with MAPP, esterification occurs with wood polymers, preferentially with lignin. Understanding the interactions of MAPP with wood is of significance for the development of natural-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites. PMID:18498698

  1. 75 FR 4288 - Oxirane, 2-Methyl-, Polymer with Oxirane, Dimethyl Ether; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of oxirane, 2-methyl-,polymer with oxirane, dimethyl ether (CAS Reg. No. 61419-46-3); minimum number average molecular weight (in AMW) 2,800; when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation under 40 CFR 180.960. BASF Corporation, 100 Campus Dr., Florham Park, NJ 07932 submitted a......

  2. Synthesis and applications of sulfopropyl ether γ-cyclodextrin polymer as chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bao, James J; Jia, Feifei; Li, Youxin; Liang, Qinggang; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-01

    A novel sulfopropyl ether γ-cyclodextrin polymer (SPE-γ-CDP) through polycondensating sulfated cyclodextrins (SCDs) was synthesized. This synthesis approach also has the potential of preparing other derived cyclodextrins (CDs) polymers. The polymerized SCDs took on both the properties of SCDs and certain characteristics of polymers, such as chiral selectivity and high viscosity. Synthesis parameters, including reactions sequence, sulfation, and polycondensation conditions were investigated systematically. The product was characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and indirect UV detections prior to use as background electrolytes additive. The separation conditions, including the concentration of SPE-γ-CDP, the concentration and pH of running buffer, separation voltage, as well as the additional organic solution were optimized during chiral separation of neutral, acidic, and basic enantiomers in capillary electrophoresis (CE). SPE-γ-CDP was proven to be an effective chiral resolving agent in CE with the advantages of simple synthesis process, low cost, similar ratio of charge-to-mass, low current, great reproducibility, and reusability. Graphical Abstract Synthesis and applications of sulfopropyl ether γ-cyclodextrin polymer. PMID:26993309

  3. pH-Responsive Polymer Conjugate of Pirarubicin With Styrene Maleic Acid Copolymer as a Potential Therapeutic for Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lifeng; Sun, Jinghua; Yin, Hongzhuan; Fang, Jun; Jin, Xianyu

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies indicated the potential of styrene maleic acid copolymer (SMA)-conjugated pirarubicin (4'-O-tetrahydropyranyldoxorubicin [THP]) for targeted anticancer therapy based on the enhanced permeability and retention effect. In this study, to achieve further improved therapeutic efficacy, a pH-responsive SMA-conjugated THP-containing hydrazone bond (SMA-hyd-THP) was synthesized and evaluated in vitro and ex vivo using human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. SMA-hyd-THP showed good water solubility, forming micelles with a mean particle size of 48.0 nm, which is applicable for enhanced permeability and retention-based tumor accumulation. The THP loading in this preparation was 15% (wt/wt), and release rate of free THP from SMA-hyd-THP at physiological pH (7.4) was approximately 10% in 72 h. However, it increased rapidly at pH 6.5 (42%) and 5.5 (83%), which indicates that tumor environment of weak acidic condition (pH 6.5-6.9) is favorable for release of THP. This notion was partly proved by incubating SMA-hyd-THP with tumor tissues from ovarian cancer patients. In addition, release of THP was not affected by serum, suggesting that SMA-hyd-THP is relatively stable in circulation. Finally, SMA-hyd-THP showed much increased cytotoxicity against various ovarian cancer cells at acidic tumor pH (6.5). These findings may provide an option for targeted therapy against ovarian cancer. PMID:27020984

  4. Polymer containing pendant silyl ether groups useful in enhanced oil recovery using CO sub 2 flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Irani, C.A.; Harris, T.V.; Pretzer, W.R.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes improvement in a method for recovering oil from an underground oil-bearing earth formation penetrated by an injection well and a producing well, in which method carbon dioxide is injected into the formation to displace oil towards the producing well from which oil is produced to the surface. The improvement comprises injecting into the formation carbon dioxide, the viscosity of which is increased at least three- fold by the presence of a sufficient amount of a polymer containing pendant groups selected from the group consisting of silyl ether groups and polydialkylsiloxane groups and a sufficient amount of a cosolvent to form a solution of the polymer in the carbon dioxide, wherein the minimum solubility parameter of the polymer is reduced to 6.85 (cal/cc){sup 1/2} or less by control of the number of pendant groups and by the selection of the pendant groups.

  5. Epoxies from maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Tumi, S.O.; Bashish, M.; El-Abib, A.R.

    1989-02-01

    The epoxidation of maleic anhydride by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sodium molybdate catalyst is first order with respect to both maleic anhydride and sodium molybdate concentration. The reaction is zero order with respect to hydrogen peroxide concentration. The calculated rates are reported and a reaction mechanism is proposed.

  6. Phenylethynyl Terminated Arylene Ether Oxadiazole and Triazole Oligomers and Their Cured Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    Several novel phenylethynyl terminated arylene ether oligomers containing oxadiazole and triazole rings were prepared as part of an effort to develop high performance polymers with an attractive combination of properties (e.g. processability and mechanical performance) for future NASA applications. The oligomers displayed low melt viscosities and good solubilities. Thin films cast from solutions of the oligomers and cured for one hour at 350 C in air gave good tensile properties. Titanium to titanium (6Al-4V) tensile shear specimens were readily fabricated and provided moderate strengths. The chemistry and properties of these new materials are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of polymer inclusion membranes containing crown ethers for selective cesium separation from nuclear waste solution.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P K; Lakshmi, D S; Bhattacharyya, A; Manchanda, V K

    2009-09-30

    Transport behaviour of (137)Cs from nitric acid feed was investigated using cellulose triacetate plasticized polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing several crown ether carriers viz. di-benzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), di-benzo-21-crown-7 (DB21C7) and di-tert-butylbenzo-18-crown-6 (DTBB18C6). The PIM was prepared from cellulose triacetate (CTA) with various crown ethers and plasticizers. DTBB18C6 and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) were found to give higher transport rate for (137)Cs as compared to other carriers and plasticizers. Effect of crown ether concentration, nitric acid concentration, plasticizer and CTA concentration on the transport rate of Cs was also studied. The Cs selectivity with respect to various fission products obtained from an irradiated natural uranium target was found to be heavily dependent on the nature of the plasticizer. The present work shows that by choosing a proper plasticizer, one can get either good transport efficiency or selectivity. Though TBP plasticized membranes showed good transport efficiency, it displayed poor selectivities. On the other hand, an entirely opposite separation behaviour was observed with 2-nitrophenyloctylether (NPOE) plasticized membranes suggesting the possible application of the later membranes for the removal of bulk (137)Cs from the nuclear waste. The stability of the membrane was tested by carrying out transport runs for nearly 25 days. PMID:19398153

  8. Toughening of BIS maleimide resins: Synthesis and characterization of maleimide terminated poly(arylene ether) oligomers and polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, J. E.; Lyle, G. D.; Jurek, M. J.; Mohanty, D.; Hedrick, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Amine functional poly(arylene ether) sulfones were previously reported. Herein, the chemistry was extended to amorphous poly(arylene ether) ketones because of their higher fracture toughness values, relative to the polysulfones. It was demonstrated that the amino functional oligomers undergo a self-crosslinking reaction at temperatures above about 220 C. This produces an insoluble, but ductile network that has excellent resistance. A ketamine structure hypothesis was proposed and verified using solid state magic angle NMR. In most cases, the water generated upon ketamine formation is too low to produce porosity and solid networks are obtained. The stability of the ketamine networks towards hydrolysis is excellent. The chemistry was further demonstrated to be able to crosslink preformed nonfunctional poly(arylene ether) ketones if a difunctional amine was utilized. This concept has the possibility of greatly improving the creep resistance of thermoplastics. Also, a new technique was developed for converting the amine functional oligomers cleanly into maleimide structures. This method involves reacting maleic anhydride with monomeric aminophenols in the presence of solvent mixtures.

  9. Amorphous phase separation in crystallizable polymer blends based on poly (aryl ether ketones) and poly (ether imide)

    SciTech Connect

    Kalika, D.S.; Bristow, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    The morphology of a series of miscible crystallizable blends based on poly (aryl ether ketones) [PAEK] and poly (ether imide) [PEI] has been investigated as a function of blend composition and crystallization condition by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. For blends of poly (ether ether ketone) [PEEK] and PEI, dielectric scans of the crystallized samples reveal two glass-rubber relaxations corresponding to the coexistence of a mixed interlamellar amorphous phase, and a pure PEI phase located in interfibrillar/interspherulitic regions. The exclusion of a significant fraction of PEI outside of the crystal lamellae reflects a fundamental change in the nature of interaction between the interlamellar PEEK segments and the PEI chains owing to the constraints imposed on the PEEK segments by the crystal surfaces. The degree of PEI exclusion is dependent upon kinetic factors, i.e. the rate of PEEK crystallization relative to the rate of PEI diffusion away from the advancing crystal front. As a result, lower crystallization temperatures lead to an increase in the amount of PEI trapped in the interlamellar regions. In this work, the morphological characteristics of the PEEK/PEI blends are compared with those of blends comprised of poly (ether ketone ketone) [PEKK] and PEI. The introduction of the {open_quotes}kinked{close_quote} isophthalate moiety in the PEKK backbone has been shown to disrupt the persistence of order at the crystal-amorphous interface, and thereby leads to a reduction in the degree of constraint imposed by the crystal lamellae on the amorphous (interlamellar) PEKK segments. The impact of this reduction in crystalline constraint on the nature of the PEKK/PEI intersegmental interactions and the corresponding PEI segregation is discussed.

  10. Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups and poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups are readily prepared from bisphenols containing ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups. The resulting polymers are cured up to 350.degree. C. to provide crosslinked poly(arylene ether)s with good solvent resistance, high strength and modulus.

  11. Study of improved resins for advanced supersonic technology composites. Part 1: Heteroaromatic polymers containing ether groups. Part 2: Curing chemistry of aromatic polymers and composite studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takekoshi, T.; Hillig, W. B.; Mellinger, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen ether-containing, aromatic dianhydrides have been synthesized from N-phenyl-3 or 4-nitrophthalimide and various bisphenols. The process involves nucleophilic displacement of activated nitro groups with bisphenolate ions. Ether-containing dianhydrides were indefinitely stable in the presence of atmospheric moisture. One-step, high temperature solution polymerization of the ether-containing dianhydrides with m-phenylene diamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline and 1, 3-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene afforded 42 polyetherimides. The polyetherimides were all soluble in m-cresol except two which were found to be crystalline. The glass transition temperatures of the polyetherimides ranged from 178 to 277 C. Soluble polybenzimidazopyrrolones containing ether groups were also prepared from the same ether-containing dianhydrides and aromatic tetraamines by one-step solution polymerization. Using low molecular weight polyetherimides, various thermoset resin systems were developed and tested as matrices for fiber-reinforced composites. The curing chemistry involving reaction of the phthalonitrile group and the o-diaminophenyl group was found to be generally applicable to crosslinking various aromatic polymers other than polyimides.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing mesonaphthobifluorene for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youngdon; Seo, Dongwan; Lee, Soonho; Hossain, Md Awlad; Lim, Jinseong; Lee, Sangyoung; Hong, Taehoon; Kim, Whangi

    2014-10-01

    The novel sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing mesonaphthobifluorene (MNF) moiety were synthesized and characterized their properties. The prepared polymers have highly conjugated aromatic structure due to the MNF group which is an allotrope of carbon and one atom thick planar sheets of sp2-bonded carbon atoms. Poly(ether sulfone)s bearing tetraphenylethylene on polymer backbone were synthesized by polycondensation and followed intra-cyclization from tetraphenylethylene to form MNF by Friedel-craft reaction with Lewis acid (FeCl3). The sulfonation was performed selectively on MNF units with conc. sulfuric acid. The structural properties of the sulfonated polymers were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied by ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, and proton conductivity. The synthesized polymer electrolyte membranes showed better thermal and dimensional stabilities owing to the inducted highly conjugated aromatic structure in the polymer backbone. The water uptake of the synthesized membranes ranged from 23-52%, compared with 32.13% for Nafion 211 at 80 degrees C. The synthesized membranes exhibited proton conductivities (80 degrees C, RH 90%) of 74.6-100.4 mS/cm, compared with 102.7 mS/cm for Nafion 211. PMID:25942900

  13. Proton-conducting electrolyte membranes based on organosiloxane network/sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) interpenetrating polymer networks embedding sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sung Yeon; Park, Junghwa; Kim, Dukjoon

    2013-12-01

    Composite membranes based on organosiloxane network (OSPN)/sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structures with sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silica (SMBS) proton conductors embedded are fabricated. The flexibility and toughness properties of OSPN are expected to compensate for the brittleness of the sPEEK membranes. The 2D-hexagonal cylindrical mesopore structures of SMBS maintain the water content at a high level to enhance the conductivity, even at low relative humidity. Compared to the pristine sPEEK membranes, the ternary composite membranes can endure about 10 times more elongation before breaking. Both OSPN and SMBS components enhance the proton conductivity of sPEEK membranes in a hydrated state, while maintaining the water uptake at below 55% even at temperatures as high as 100 °C. The SAXS patterns of the composite membranes explain the water-related membrane properties of composite membranes. The maximum power densities of Nafion membrane-based MEAs are 178.4 mA cm-2, 132.2 mA cm-2, and 90.9 mA cm-2, but those of composite membrane-based ones are 159.1 mA cm-2, 134.2 mA cm-2, and 110.8 mA cm-2 at 95%, 70%, and 45% relative humidity, respectively.

  14. A new strategy for designing high-performance sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) polymer electrolyte membranes using inorganic proton conductor-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunli; Zheng, Xuan; Liu, Hai; Wang, Guangjin; Cheng, Fan; Zheng, Genwen; Wen, Sheng; Law, Wing-Cheung; Tsui, Chi-Pong; Tang, Chak-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Remarkable progress has been made on the use of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) for renewable-energy-related research. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as versatile nanomaterials to modify PEMs. However, the inert ionic conduction ability and possible short-circuiting risk are the two major obstacles to their further development. In this work, CNTs are firstly functionalized with an inorganic proton conductor, boron phosphate (BPO4), using a facile polydopamine-assisted sol-gel method to yield BPO4@CNTs. This new additive is then used to modify sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK). Polydopamine coating layer can act as an extraordinary glue to homogeneously adhere BPO4 nanoparticles on CNTs, thereby not only reducing the risk of short-circuiting, but also fabricating new proton-conducting pathways in the composite membranes. A comprehensive characterization reveals that the thermal stability, tensile properties, and dimensional stability of PEMs are significantly improved. Compared with pure SPEEK, the proton conductivity of SPEEK/BPO4@CNTs-2 is improved by 45% and 150% at 20 °C and at 80 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the H2/O2 cell performance of SPEEK/BPO4@CNTs-2 membrane exhibits a peak power density of 340.7 mW cm-2 at 70 °C, which is significantly better than that of pure SPEEK (254.2 mW cm-2), demonstrating the great potential of proton conductors-functionalized CNTs in PEMs.

  15. Preparation and characterization of polymer blend based on sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) and polyetherimide (SPEEK/PEI) as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Nordiana; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan; Lepit, Ajis; Rasmidi, Rosfayanti; Subban, Ri Hanum Yahaya; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan

    2015-08-01

    Blends of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyetherimide (PEI) were prepared in five different weight ratios using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent by the solution cast technique. The degree of sulfonation (DS) of the sulfonated PEEK was determined from deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d6) solution of the purified polymer using 1H NMR method. The properties studied in the present investigation includes conductivity, water uptake, thermal stability and structure analysis of pure SPEEK as well as SPEEK-PEI polymer blend membranes. The experimental results show that the conductivity of the membranes increased with increase in temperature from 30 to 80°C, except for that of pure SPEEK membrane which increased with temperature from 30 to 60°C while its conductivity decreased with increasing temperature from 60 to 80°C. The conductivity of 70wt.%SPEEK-30wt.%PEI blend membrane at 80% relative humidity (RH) is found to be 1.361 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 30°C and 3.383 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 80°C respectively. It was also found that water uptake and thermal stability of the membranes slightly improved upon blending with PEI. Structure analysis was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which revealed considerable interactions between sulfonic acid group of SPEEK and imide groups of PEI. Modification of SPEEK by blending with PEI shows good potential for improving the electrical and physical properties of proton exchange membranes.

  16. Preparation and characterization of polymer blend based on sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) and polyetherimide (SPEEK/PEI) as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Nordiana; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan; Lepit, Ajis; Rasmidi, Rosfayanti; Subban, Ri Hanum Yahaya; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan

    2015-08-28

    Blends of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyetherimide (PEI) were prepared in five different weight ratios using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent by the solution cast technique. The degree of sulfonation (DS) of the sulfonated PEEK was determined from deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d{sub 6}) solution of the purified polymer using {sup 1}H NMR method. The properties studied in the present investigation includes conductivity, water uptake, thermal stability and structure analysis of pure SPEEK as well as SPEEK-PEI polymer blend membranes. The experimental results show that the conductivity of the membranes increased with increase in temperature from 30 to 80°C, except for that of pure SPEEK membrane which increased with temperature from 30 to 60°C while its conductivity decreased with increasing temperature from 60 to 80°C. The conductivity of 70wt.%SPEEK-30wt.%PEI blend membrane at 80% relative humidity (RH) is found to be 1.361 × 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1} at 30°C and 3.383 × 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1} at 80°C respectively. It was also found that water uptake and thermal stability of the membranes slightly improved upon blending with PEI. Structure analysis was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which revealed considerable interactions between sulfonic acid group of SPEEK and imide groups of PEI. Modification of SPEEK by blending with PEI shows good potential for improving the electrical and physical properties of proton exchange membranes.

  17. Evaluation of thermal gelation behavior of different cellulose ether polymers by rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaghi, S.; Edelby, Y.; Senge, B.

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and Methylcellulose (MC) are cellulose ethers which can be dispersed in water and used as thickeners, emulsifiers, binders, film formers, and water-retention agents due to their hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics. In this study, various types of HPMCs, in comparison with two types of MCs were examined. The formed gels of the different cellulose ethers showed specific and various structural formation and network properties. The degree of methylation (Meth.) and hydroxypropylation (HyPr.) affected drastically the heat-induced gelation of the examined cellulose ethers.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. 177.1820 Section 177.1820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated...

  19. Polymer Physics and Structure/property Relationships of Thermally Stable Polyarylene Ethers for Second Order Nonlinear Optics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chu-Yun Stacey

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have been actively involved in developing nonlinear optical polymers for device applications. One major obstacle with the current polymers is that the chromophores doped or covalently bonded to the backbones disorient following electric field poling and thus the nonlinear optical signal decreases with time. The optical stability must thus be optimized before useful devices made from these materials will be feasible. Although several synthetic approaches have been employed to optimize polymer structures and glass transition temperatures in order to maximize stability, the studies of the polymer physics of these high temperature stable polymers are still limited. It is critical to understand the polymer physics governing the relaxation behavior of these nonlinear optical polymers so that one can better predict the long-term thermal and temporal stability and changes in properties throughout the anticipated service life when utilizing them for device applications. The goal of this research is to investigate the structure/property relationships that influence the relaxation behavior of a class of thermally stable polymers called polyarylene ethers (synthesized by Dr. Duane B. Priddy, Jr., Mr. Greg D. Lyle, and Dr. James E. McGrath at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University). Specific issues such as the effects of polymer backbone structures, dopant/polymer interactions, chromophore functionalization, and chromophore concentration on the dopant orientational dynamics and intermolecular cooperativity in these polymer systems were studied. Attempts to correlate the molecular level parameters including the molecular weight and polydispersities to the observed physical properties were made. The effect of physical aging during poling on the chromophore orientational dynamics was also examined. Second harmonic generation, a second order nonlinear optical effect, and dielectric relaxation are the two techniques employed for these

  20. Anhydrous state proton and lithium ion conducting solid polymer electrolytes based on sulfonated bisphenol-A-poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha Thakurta, Soma

    Sulfonated polymer based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have received considerable interest in recent years because of their wide variety of applications particularly in fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and electrochromic devices. The present research was focused on three interrelated subtopics. First, two different bisphenol-A-poly(arylene ethers), polyetherimide (PEI) and polysulfone (PSU) were sulfonated by a post sulfonation method to various degrees of sulfonation, and their thermal and mechanical properties were examined. The effects of poly(arylene ether) chemical structure, reaction time, concentration, and types of sulfonating agents on sulfonation reaction were investigated. It was found that deactivation of bisphenol A unit caused by the electron withdrawing imide, retarded the sulfonation of PEI compared to PSU. Sulfonation conducted with a high concentration of sulfonating agent and/or prolonged reaction time exhibited evidence of degradation at the isopropylidene unit. The degradation occurred through the same mechanistic pathway with the two different sulfonating agents, chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) and trimethylsilyl chlorosulfonate (TMSCS). The degradation was faster with CSA than its silyl ester, TMSCS, and was evident even at low acid concentration. Second, novel anhydrous proton conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) were prepared by the incorporation of 1H-1,2,4-triazole (Taz) as a proton solvent in sulfonated polyetherimide (SPEI) matrix. The size, shape, and state of dispersion (crystal morphology) of triazole crystals in SPEI were examined as a function of degree of sulfonation and triazole concentration. Increasing sulfonic acid content caused reduction of triazole crystallite size, hence the depression of melting temperature and their uniform distribution throughout the sulfonated polymer matrix. The increased rate of structure diffusion within the smaller size crystals due to the improved molecular mobility contributed

  1. Generation of a Focused Poly(amino ether) Library: Polymer-mediated Transgene Delivery and Gold-Nanorod based Theranostic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lucas; Ramos, James; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Rege, Kaushal

    2012-01-01

    A focused library of twenty-one cationic poly(amino ethers) was synthesized following ring-opening polymerization of two diglycidyl ethers by different oligoamines. The polymers were screened in parallel for plasmid DNA (pDNA) delivery, and transgene expression efficacies of individual polymers were compared to those of 25 kDa polyethylenimine (PEI), a current standard for polymer-mediated transgene delivery. Seven lead polymers that demonstrated higher transgene expression than PEI in pancreatic and prostate cancer cells lines were identified from the screen. All seven lead polymers showed highest transgene expression at a polymer:pDNA weight ratio of 5:1 in the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. Among the conditions studied, transgene expression efficacy correlated with minimal polymer cytotoxicity but not polyplex sizes. In addition, this study indicated that methylene spacing between amine centers in the monomers, amine content, and molecular weight of the polymers are all significant factors and should be considered when designing polymers for transgene delivery. A lead effective polymer was employed for coating gold nanorods, leading to theranostic nanoassemblies that possess combined transgene delivery and optical imaging capabilities, leading to potential theranostic systems. PMID:23382773

  2. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  6. An effective approach for alleviating cation-induced backbone degradation in aromatic ether-based alkaline polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juanjuan; Liu, Qiong; Li, Xueqi; Pan, Jing; Wei, Ling; Wu, Ying; Peng, Hanqing; Wang, Ying; Li, Guangwei; Chen, Chen; Xiao, Li; Lu, Juntao; Zhuang, Lin

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic ether-based alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) are one of the most popular types of APEs being used in fuel cells. However, recent studies have demonstrated that upon being grafted by proximal cations some polar groups in the backbone of such APEs can be attacked by OH(-), leading to backbone degradation in an alkaline environment. To resolve this issue, we performed a systematic study on six APEs. We first replaced the polysulfone (PS) backbone with polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) and polyphenylether (PPO), whose molecular structures contain fewer polar groups. Although improved stability was seen after this change, cation-induced degradation was still obvious. Thus, our second move was to replace the ordinary quaternary ammonia (QA) cation, which had been closely attached to the polymer backbone, with a pendant-type QA (pQA), which was linked to the backbone through a long side chain. After a stability test in a 1 mol/L KOH solution at 80 °C for 30 days, all pQA-type APEs (pQAPS, pQAPPSU, and pQAPPO) exhibited as low as 8 wt % weight loss, which is close to the level of the bare backbone (5 wt %) and remarkably lower than those of the QA-type APEs (QAPS, QAPPSU, and QAPPO), whose weight losses under the same conditions were >30%. The pQA-type APEs also possessed clear microphase segregation morphology, which led to ionic conductivities that were higher, and water uptakes and degrees of membrane swelling that were lower, than those of the QA-type APEs. These observations unambiguously indicate that designing pendant-type cations is an effective approach to increasing the chemical stability of aromatic ether-based APEs. PMID:25594224

  7. Sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, methods for producing the same, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hofmann, Michael A.

    2006-11-14

    The present invention is directed to sulfonimide-containing polymers, specifically sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, and processes for making the sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, for use conductive membranes and fuel cells.

  8. Ac conduction in conducting poly pyrrole-poly vinyl methyl ether polymer composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, S.K.; Mandal, T.K.; Mandal, B.M.; Chakravorty, D.

    1997-03-01

    Composite materials containing conducting polypyrrole and insulating poly (vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) have been synthesized by oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in ethanol using FeCl{sub 3} oxidant in the presence of PVME. The ac conductivity measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz and in the temperature range of 110 to 350 K. The frequency dependent conductivity has been explained on the basis of a small polaron tunnelling mechanism. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Maleic anhydride from normal butane

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, S.D.; Doshi, B.

    1987-01-01

    Worldwide about one billion pounds of maleic anhydride is used annually in the manufacture of a number of commercially valuable products, including unsaturated polyester resins, agricultural chemicals, and lubricating oil additives. Maleic anhydride is not found in nature. It was first prepared in 1834 by heating malic acid (hydroxy-succinic acid, a compound found in apples and many other fruits). Maleic anhydride was not available commercially until ca. 1930 when the catalytic air oxidation of benzene was begun by National Aniline and Chemical on an industrial scale. The estimated worldwide production in 1985 was 1023 million pounds coming from more than 35 plants varying in capacity from 6 million pounds to 170 million pounds annually.

  10. Interfacial interactions of poly(ether ketone ketone) polymer coatings onto oxide-free phosphate films on an aluminum surface

    SciTech Connect

    Asunskis, A. L.; Sherwood, P. M. A.

    2007-07-15

    This article continues a series of papers that shows how thin (10 nm or less) oxide-free phosphate films can be formed on a number of metals. The films formed have potential as corrosion resistant films. Previous papers have shown that it is possible to extend the range of the surface coatings that can be formed by placing a thin polymer layer over the phosphate layer. In this work it is shown how the water insoluble polymer poly(ether ketone ketone) (PEKK) can be placed over a thin oxide-free phosphate film on aluminum metal. The surface and the interfaces involved were studied by valence band and core level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Difference spectra in the valence band region were used to show that there is a chemical interaction between the PEKK and phosphate thin films on the aluminum metal. Three different phosphate film compositions were studied using different phosphorous containing acids, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, H{sub 3}PO{sub 3}, and H{sub 3}PO{sub 2}. This type of interaction illustrates the potential of phosphates to act as adhesion promoters. The valence band spectra are interpreted by calculations.

  11. Cycloolefin-maleic anhydride copolymers for 193-nm resist compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. D.; Bae, Jun-Bom; Cook, Michelle M.; Durham, Dana L.; Kudo, Takanori; Kim, Woo-Kyu; Padmanaban, Munirathna; Dammel, Ralph R.

    2000-06-01

    Cycloolefin/maleic anhydride systems are a favorable approach to dry etch resistant resists for 193 nm lithography. This paper reports on poly(BNC/HNC/NC/MA) tetrapolymers, from t- butylnorbornene carboxylate (BNC), hydroxyethyl-norbornene carboxylate (HNC), norbornene carboxylic acid (NC) and maleic anhydride (MA). It was found that moisture has to be excluded in the synthesis of these systems if reproducible results are to be obtained. Lithographic evaluation of an optimized, modified polymer has shown linear isolated line resolution down to 100 nm using conventional 193 nm illumination. Possible reactions of the alcohol and anhydride moieties are discussed, and the effect of the anhydride unit on polymer absorbance is discussed using succinnic anhydride as a model compound.

  12. Acetylene-derived polymers and their applications in hair and skin care.

    PubMed

    Petter, P J

    1989-02-01

    Synopsis Since the introduction over 30 years ago of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the first synthetic hairspray resin, acetylene-derived polymers have found wide and increasing applications in the cosmetics and toiletries industry. This review covers the two main classes of acetylenic polymers. In the first class, in which the chemistry may be traced back to reaction of acetylene with formaldehyde, are included PVP homopolymers and copolymers of VP with vinyl acetate, dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, vinylcaprolactam and styrene. In the second class, stemming from reaction of acetylene with methanol, are the poly (vinyl methyl ether/maleic acid) monoester resins. PMID:19456933

  13. Volume fraction of ether is a significant factor in controlling conductivity in proton conducting polyether based polymer sol-gel electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Benjamin; Jones, Jonathan; Ritchie, Jason E

    2014-11-13

    We have synthesized several copolymers of methyl polyethylene glycol siloxane (MePEG7SiO3)m and methyl polypropylene glycol siloxane (MePPGnSiO3)m as hydrogen ion (H(+)) conducting polymer electrolytes. These copolymers were prepared by a sol-gel polymerization of mixtures of the MePEG and MePPG monomers. We synthesized these H(+) conducting polymer electrolytes in order to study the relationship between observed ionic conductivity and structural properties such as viscosity, fractional free volume, and volume fraction of ether. We found that viscosity increased as the fraction of the smaller comonomer increased. For the MePPG2/MePPG3 copolymer, an increase in fractional free volume increased the fluidity. The heterogeneous copolymers (PEG/PPG copolymers) obeyed the Doolittle equation, while the homogeneous (PEG/PEG and PPG/PPG) copolymers did not. The increase of FFV did not, however, correspond to an increase in conductivity, as would have been predicted by the Forsythe equation. The conductivity data did correspond to a modified Forsythe equation substituting Volume Fraction of Ether (V(f,ether)) for FFV. We conclude that the proton conductivity of MePEG copolymers is more dependent on the volume fraction of ether than on the fractional free volume. PMID:25313939

  14. Theoretical study of binding and permeation of ether-based polymers through interfaces.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Susruta; Hezaveh, Samira; Roccatano, Danilo

    2013-11-27

    We present a molecular dynamics simulation study on the interactions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), and their ABA-type block copolymer, poloxamers, at water/n-heptane and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospatidycholine (DMPC) lipid bilayer/water interfaces. The partition coefficients in water/1-octanol of the linear polyethers up to three monomers were calculated. The partition coefficients evidenced a higher hydrophobicity of the PPO in comparison to PEO. At the water/n-heptane interface, the polymers tend to adopt elongated conformations in agreement with similar experimental ellipsometry studies of different poloxamers. In the case of the poloxamers at the n-heptane/water interface, the stronger preference of the PPO block for the hydrophobic phase resulted in bottle-brush-type polymer conformations. At lipid bilayer/water interface, the PEO polymers, as expected from their hydrophilic nature, are weakly adsorbed on the surface of the lipid bilayer and locate in the water phase close to the headgroups. The free energy barriers of permeation calculated for short polymer chains suggest a thermodynamics propensity for the water phase that increase with the chain length. The lower affinity of PEO for the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer resulted in the spontaneous expulsion within the simulation time. On the contrary, PPO chains and poloxamers have a longer residence time inside the bilayer, and they tend to concentrate in the tail region of the bilayer near the polar headgroups. In addition, polymers with PPO unit length comparable to the thickness of the hydrophobic region of the bilayer tend to span across the bilayer. PMID:24219592

  15. Ammonium-crown ether supramolecular cation-templated assembly of an unprecedented heterobicluster-metal coordination polymer with enhanced NLO properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfang; Jia, Ding; Humphrey, Mark G; Meng, Suci; Zaworotko, Michael J; Cifuentes, Marie P; Zhang, Chi

    2016-03-01

    An ammonium-crown ether host-guest supramolecular cation-templated synthetic methodology has been developed to construct a structurally unprecedented heterobicluster-metal coordination polymer (HCM-CP 1) based on tetranuclear clusters [WS4Cu3](+) with different connection environments, pentanuclear clusters [WS4Cu4](2+), and Cu(+) building metal ions. HCM-CP 1 exhibits enhanced NLO properties, which may be ascribed to the incorporation of diverse building cluster components. PMID:26864604

  16. Newly developed poly(allyl glycidyl ether/divinyl benzene) polymer for phosphopeptides enrichment and desalting of biofluids.

    PubMed

    Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Saeed, Adeela; Jabeen, Fahmida; Maya, Fernando; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Sharif, Ahsan

    2014-03-12

    The polymeric materials have contributed significantly in the area of bioanalytical science. The functionalization of polymeric backbone after its development brings unique selectivity towards the target biomolecules. In present work, the functionalities of choice have been introduced through the ring-opening of allyl glycidyl ether. The utility of polymer is widened through derivatizations to immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic (IMAC) material for the phosphopeptides enrichment and Reversed Phase (C-18) for the desalting prior to MALDI-MS analysis. The polymer-IMAC in addition to Fe(3+) is also immobilized with lanthanide ions like La(3+), Eu(3+), and Er(3+). The amount of Fe(3+) immobilized is determined as 0.7928 mg/g. Spherical morphology with narrow particle size dispersion is revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface area, pore volume and size distribution is determined by nitrogen adsorption porosimetery. The elemental composition and purity level is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data. The derivatization to IMAC and RP is evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The polymer enables the efficient phosphopeptide enrichment to equal degree from casein variants, non-fat milk, egg yolk, human serum, and HeLa cell extract. The identification of phosphorylation sites can lead to the phosphorylation pathways to understand the post-translational modifications. The identification with their sequence coverage is made using Mascot and Phosphosite Plus. It is sensitive to enrich the phosphopeptides down to 2 femtomoles with very high selectivity of 1:2000 with BSA background. These attributes are linked to the higher surface area (173.1554 m(2)/g) of the designed polymer. The non-specific bindings, particularly the Fe(3+) linked acidic residues are also avoided. Four characteristic phosphopeptides (fibrinopeptide A and their hydrolytic products) from fibrinogen α-chain are identified from the

  17. Effect of Poly(Ether Urethane) Introduction on the Performance of Polymer Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan-Fang; Xiang, Wan-Chun; Fang, Shi-Bi; Chen, Shen; Zhou, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Lin, Yuan

    2009-12-01

    The introduction of poly(ether urethane) (PEUR) into polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide), LiI and I2, has significantly increased the ionic conductivity by nearly two orders of magnitudes. An increment of I-3 diffusion coefficient is also observed. All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells are constructed using the polymer electrolytes. It was found that PEUR incorporation has a beneficial effect on the enhancement of open circuit voltage Voc by shifting the band edge of TiO2 to a negative value. Scanning electron microscope images indicate the perfect interfacial contact between the TiO2 electrode and the blend electrolyte.

  18. Monodisperse porous polymer particles containing macrocyclic ether as a new class of sorbent for SR(II) separation

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Yuxiao; Bai, Feifei; Ye, Gang; Wei, Jichao; Wang, Jianchen; Chen, Jing

    2013-07-01

    Strontium{sup 90} is one of the typical fission products that may be found in high level liquid waste (HLLW). Separation of Sr{sup 90} prior to the vitrification is beneficial to the final treatment of solid radioactive waste. In this study, a new class of sorbent for Sr(II) was developed by loading the macrocyclic ether DtBuCH18C6 into the monodisperse porous polymer particles (MPPPs). The MPPPs are well-known as a promising chromatographic material due to the uniform particle size, porous morphology, good compatibility with organic extractants, and rigid matrix. The structure and micro-morphology of the sorbent particles were characterized. The adsorption behavior towards Sr(II) in HNO{sub 3} media was investigated by both batch and column experiments. High adsorption efficiency and selective separation of Sr(II) was obtained. The sorbent particles can be recycled for at least several times before obvious lose of the adsorption ability. This kind of sorbent possesses the potential to be used for strontium separation in radioactive liquid waste.

  19. Performance of vapor-fed direct dimethyl ether fuel cell utilizing high temperature polybenzimidazole polymer electrolyte membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neutzler, Jay; Qian, Guoqing; Huang, Kevin; Benicewicz, Brian

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing interest in dimethyl ether (DME) as a synthetic fuel. It has present-day relevance and introduces an effective path forward as an energy-dense, low-pressure hydrogen carrier/storage fuel for fuel cells with applications in transportation, stationary, and portable power. Direct reaction DME fuel cells have particular relevance to portable power. This study presents the performance of the vapor-fed direct reaction of DME using high temperature Polybenzimidazole (PBI) Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM). Catalyzed PBI membrane utilized a Pt/Ru black anode and a Pt/C supported cathode. Performance was evaluated from temperatures of 180 °C-210 °C and at pressures from 100 kPa to 300 kPa. A strong performance correlation was observed in this study for these temperatures and pressures. A peak power density of 50 mW cm-2 was achieved at 180 °C without back pressure, whereas, an increase to 129 mW cm-2 was achieved at 210 °C at 300 kPa pressure. The performance of high temperature PBI PEMFCs with direct vapor-fed DME are investigated with emphasis on the critical variables of cell operation; temperature, back pressure, and humidity.

  20. Enhancing water retention and low-humidity proton conductivity of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) composite membrane enabled by the polymer-microcapsules with controllable hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangwei; Li, Yifan; Li, Zongyu; Nie, Lingli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Xinlin; Zhao, Yuning; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-02-01

    Four kinds of polymer microcapsules (PMCs) with different hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity are synthesized via distillation-precipitation polymerization (polymer microcapsules form by self-crosslinking of monomers/crosslinkers in this process) and incorporated into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) matrix to prepare composite membranes. To improve the water retention of the PMCs, the hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity of the PMCs is manipulated by regulating the proportion of hydrophilic ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and hydrophobic divinylbenzene (DVB) crosslinkers in the synthesis formula. The hydrophilicity of the PMCs decreases with increasing the content of polyDVB in the PMCs. The four kinds of PMCs exhibit different water retention properties. The PMCs with appropriate hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance (EGDMA: DVB = 1:1) possess the best water retention properties. Incorporation of PMCs into SPEEK matrix enhances the water-retention properties, and consequently increases proton conductivity to 0.0132 S cm-1 under 20% relative humidity, about thirteen times higher than that of the SPEEK control membrane. Moreover, the incorporation of PMCs reduces the activation energy for proton conduction and the methanol permeability of the membranes. This study may be helpful to rational design of excellent water-retention materials.

  1. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sieve No. 20. 2. Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer modified with butadiene, (CAS Reg. No. 27288-99-9... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. 177.1820... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1820 Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. Styrene-maleic...

  2. Polymers at liquid-liquid interfaces: Photophysics and photoredox chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, S.E.

    1990-11-01

    Research continued on polymers at liquid-liquid interfaces. This quarter, work concentrated on: preparation of poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid-co-chromophore) polymers; studies of vinylnapthalene-maleic acid polymers as emulsifying agents for water-octane; and assembly of optical fiber reticon-based transient absorption system. 3 refs., 1 fig. (CBS)

  3. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyethylenepolyamine and alkanediol...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyethylenepolyamine and alkanediol...

  6. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyethylenepolyamine and alkanediol...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyethylenepolyamine and alkanediol...

  11. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  12. Inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and borane/poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydın, Hamide; Şenel, Mehmet; Erdemi, Hamit; Baykal, Abdülhadi; Tülü, Metin; Ata, Ali; Bozkurt, Ayhan

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (PEGME) using borane-tetrahydrofuran (BH 3/THF) complex. Molecular weights of both PVA and PEGME were varied prior to reaction. Boron containing comb-branched copolymers were produced and abbreviated as PVA1PEGMEX and PVA2PEGMEX. Then polymer electrolytes were successfully prepared by doping of the host matrix with CF 3SO 3Li at several stoichiomeric ratios with respect to EO to Li. The materials were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 11B NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The ionic conductivity of these novel polymer electrolytes were studied by dielectric-impedance spectroscopy. Li-ion conductivity of these polymer electrolytes depends on the length of the side units as well as the doping ratio. Such electrolytes possess satisfactory ambient temperature ionic conductivity (>10 -4 S cm -1). Cyclic voltammetry results illustrated that the electrochemical stability domain extends over 4 V.

  13. Interface-engineering additives of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) for low-band gap polymer solar cells consisting of PCDTBT:PCBM₇₀ bulk-heterojunction layers.

    PubMed

    Huh, Yoon Ho; Park, Byoungchoo

    2013-01-14

    We herein report on the improved photovoltaic (PV) effects of using a polymer bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) layer that consists of a low-band gap electron donor polymer of poly(N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)) (PCDTBT) and an acceptor of [6,6]-phenyl C₇₁ butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM₇₀), doped with an interface-engineering surfactant additive of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) (PTE). The presence of an interface-engineering additive in the PV layer results in excellent performance; the addition of PTE to a PCDTBT:PCBM₇₀ system produces a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.0%, which is much higher than that of a reference device without the additive (4.9%). We attribute this improvement to an increased charge carrier lifetime, which is likely to be the result of the presence of PTE molecules oriented at the interfaces between the BHJ PV layer and the anode and cathode, as well as at the interfaces between the phase-separated BHJ domains. Our results suggest that the incorporation of the PTE interface-engineering additive in the PCDTBT:PCBM₇₀ PV layer results in a functional composite system that shows considerable promise for use in efficient polymer BHJ PV cells. PMID:23389265

  14. The influence of the cations of salts on the electrochemical stability of a solid polymer electrolyte based on segmented poly(ether urethane)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Nam-Ju; Kim, Min-Kyung; Kang, Sung-Won; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2010-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on segmented poly(ether urethane) (SPEU) and lithium perchlorate or magnesium perchlorate (LiClO4 or Mg(ClO4)2) were prepared. By analyzing the Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of the SPE, it was confirmed that the interaction of the magnesium ion with the oxygen of the polyether chain was stronger than that of the lithium ion. The highest ionic conductivities of 1.5×10-5 and 4.5×10-6 S cm-1 were obtained at room temperature for the SPEs containing LiClO4 and Mg(ClO4)2, respectively. The results of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) show that an SPE consisting of SPEU and magnesium salt has good electrochemical stability up to the working voltage of 1.9 V at [O]/[Mg2+]=50.

  15. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... program. A significant new use of this substance is any manner or method of manufacture, import,...

  16. Model study by FT-IR of the interaction of select cholate dissolution inhibitors with poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbagh, Gary; Houlihan, Francis M.; Rushkin, Ilya; Hutton, Richard S.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Reichmanis, Elsa; Gabor, Allen H.; Medina, Arturo N.

    1999-06-01

    The fundamental nature of the interaction between the polymer matrix and the cholate based dissolution inhibitors are being studied by Fourier Transform-IR (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the simple cholate derivatives undergo, in a blend with poly(norbornene-alt- maleic anhydride) and in a blend with the terpolymers poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride-co-t-butylacrylate) and poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride-co-acrylic acid), stronger interaction as seen by shifts in the OH region of the spectra than do blends with dimeric or oligomeric cholates.

  17. Functionalization of poly(aryl ether ether ketone)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fei; Roovers, J.

    1993-12-31

    Bromomethyl and dibromomethyl substituted poly(aryl ether ether ketone) have been prepared from methyl poly(aryl ether ether ketone) by bromination with bromine. These brominated polymers are intermediates that can be further functionalized by: hydrolysis, oxidation, substitution etc. A series of new functionalized PEEK polymers has been prepared. The functional group includes -CH{sub 2}OH, -CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}, -CHO, -COOH, -COOCH{sub 3}, -CH{sub 2}CN, -CH{sub 2}COOH, -CH{sub 2}OCOCH{sub 3}, -CH{sub 2}N{sup +}H(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 2}Br{sup {minus}}, -CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 2}, -CH{sub 2}N{sup +}H(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Br{sup {minus}}.

  18. Preparation of hydrophilic styrene maleic anhydride copolymer fibers for use in papermaking

    DOEpatents

    Rave, Terence W.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrophilic fibers may be prepared by discharging a heated and pressurized dispersion of a styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer into a zone of reduced temperature and pressure, and then modifying the fibers so produced by treatment with an aqueous admixture of selected cationic and anionic water-soluble, nitrogen-containing polymers. Blends of the hydrophilic fibers with wood pulp provide paper products having improved physical properties.

  19. Supramolecular Alternating Polymer from Crown Ether and Pillar[5]arene-Based Double Molecular Recognition for Preparation of Hierarchical Materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Fan, Xiaodong; Qi, Miao; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Haitao; Tian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A novel supramolecular alternating polymer is constructed based on double molecular recognition events of benzo-21-crown-7 with a secondary ammonium salt and of pillar[5]arene with a neutral guest. The resulting polymer is utilized to prepare hierarchical materials with different dimensionalities for the first time. These materials included zero-dimensional spherical aggregates, one-dimensional nanofibers, two-dimensional microstructured films, and three-dimensional ordered glue. This development will be helpful for designing and preparing supramolecular hierarchical materials with different dimensionalities. PMID:26555439

  20. Antimocrobial Polymer

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi-Heng; Wright, Stacy C.

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  1. Antimicrobial Polymer

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Wright, Stacy C.; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2004-09-28

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The polymeric composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from metals, metal alloys, metal salts, metal complexes and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the metallic antimicrobial agent is selected from chelated silver ions, silver metal, chelated copper ions, copper metal, chelated zinc ions, zinc metal and mixtures thereof.

  2. Interface Properties between Lithium Metal and a Composite Polymer Electrolyte of PEO18Li(CF3SO2)2N-Tetraethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Matsui, Masaki; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Osamu; Im, Dongmin; Lee, Dongjoon; Imanishi, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of a composite solid polymer electrolyte, consisting of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) was examined as a protective layer between lithium metal and a water-stable lithium ion-conducting glass ceramic of Li1+x+y(Ti,Ge)2−xAlxP3−ySiyO12 (LTAP). The lithium ion conductivity and salt diffusion coefficient of PEO18LiTFSI were dramatically enhanced by the addition of TEGDME. The water-stable lithium electrode with PEO18LiTFSI-2TEGDME, as the protective layer, exhibited a low and stable electrode resistance of 85 Ω·cm2 at 60 °C, after 28 days, and low overpotentials of 0.3 V for lithium plating and 0.4 V for lithium stripping at 4.0 mA·cm−2 and 60 °C. A Li/PEO18LiTFSI-2TEGDME/LTAP/saturated LiCl aqueous solution/Pt, air cell showed excellent cyclability up to 100 cycles at 2.0 mAh·cm−2. PMID:24957059

  3. Thermomechanical and shape-memory properties of epoxy-based shape-memory polymer using diglycidyl ether of ethoxylated bisphenol-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Mengjin; Yu, Heng; Li, Xiangyuan; Cheng, Jue; Zhang, Junying

    2013-05-01

    A series of epoxy-based shape-memory polymers (SMPs) was prepared by using diglycidyl ether of ethoxylated bisphenol-A containing two oxyethylene units and the curing agents iso-phorone diamine and Jeffamine D230. The thermal properties, dynamic mechanical properties, mechanical properties and shape-memory properties of the epoxy-based SMPs were systematically studied by DSC, DMTA, universal tester and fold-deploy experiments, respectively. The results showed that as the content of D230 increased, the glass transition temperature of the SMPs decreased from 77.5 ± 1.1 to 40 ± 0.7 °C according to DSC, the rubber modulus decreased gradually according to DMTA, and the tensile strength at room temperature (RT) decreased from 58.5 ± 0.3 to 27.0 ± 3.3 MPa according to tensile tests. Tensile tests above RT showed that the tensile stress and elongation at break depended heavily on the experimental temperature, and fold-deploy experiments showed that these SMPs had shape retention ratios higher than 95% and shape recovery ratios close to 100%.

  4. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride, acid copolymer, and... maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride, acid copolymer, and... maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride, acid copolymer, and... maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture...

  7. Phenylethynl-terminated poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) are prepared in a wide range of molecular weights by adjusting monomer ratio and adding an appropriate amount of 4-fluoro- 4'-phenylethynyl benzophenone during polymer synthesis. The resulting phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) react and crosslink upon curing for one hour at 350 C to provide materials with improved solvent resistance, higher modulus, and better high temperature properties than the linear, uncrosslinked polymers.

  8. LaRC-ITPI/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Working, Dennis C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an effort to develop high performance structural resins for aerospace applications, work has continued on block copolymers containing imide and arylene ether segments. The arylene ether block used in this study contains a bulky fluorene group in the polymer backbone while the imide block contains an arylene ketone segment similar to that in the arylene ether block and has been named LaRC-ITPI. A series of imide/arylene ether block and segmented copolymers were prepared and characterized. Films were prepared from these copolymers and mechanical properties were measured.

  9. Pentabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Pentabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 32534 - 81 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  10. Hexabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 36483 - 60 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  11. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  12. Tetrabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetrabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 40088 - 47 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  13. Nonabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nonabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 63936 - 56 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  14. Tribromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tribromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 49690 - 94 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  15. Octabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 32536 - 52 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  16. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... units by weight and not more than 20 percent styrene-butadiene and/or butadiene rubber units by weight... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. 177.1820... copolymers. Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... units by weight and not more than 20 percent styrene-butadiene and/or butadiene rubber units by weight... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. 177.1820... copolymers. Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  18. Maleic acid solvation in mixed water-ethanol solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usacheva, T. R.; Kuz'mina, I. A.; Sharnin, V. A.; Tukumova, I. R.

    2012-04-01

    Heat effects of maleic acid dissolution in mixed water-ethanol solvents at 298.15 K are determined by means of calorimetry. A rise in exothermicity of maleic acid solvation is observed upon changes in the solvent copmosition in the direction of H2O → EtOH, the minimum being at ˜0.2 mol fraction of EtOH.

  19. Maleate/vinyl ether UV-cured coatings: Effects of composition on curing and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Noren, G.K.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of the composition of the maleate polyester and the vinyl ether terminated compound on their UV-curing and properties has been investigated. Linear unsaturated polyester resins based on maleic anhydride and 1,5-pentane diol were synthesized. The molecular weight of the unsaturated polyesters was varied by changing the ratio of maleic anhydride to 1,5-pentane diol and the double bond equivalent weight was varied by replacing maleic anhydride with succinic anhydride. Coating formulations containing these unsaturated polyesters, triethylene glycol divinyl ether and a free radical photoinitiator were crosslinked in the presence of UV light. The coatings were very brittle, exhibiting tensile strengths in the range of 1.5-4.0 MPa and elongations of only 3-7%. Diethyl maleate and isobutyl vinyl ether were effective diluents for reducing viscosity but reduced the cure speed. A vinyl ether urethane oligomer was synthesized and enhanced the flexibility and toughness of the coatings when substituted for triethylene glycol divinyl ether.

  20. Diclofenac sodium (DS) loaded bioerodible polymer based constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, M.; Chiellini, F.; Nikkola, L.; Ashammakhi, N.; Chiellini, E.

    2008-02-01

    Pain is a prevalent problem that can raise morbidity of patients. Pain killer releasing biodegradable materials have been developed by using different techniques and biomaterials. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the use of a new bioerodible polymer for release of diclofenac sodium (DS). 1-butanol hemiester poly(maleic anhydride-alt-2-methoxyethyl vinyl ether) (PAM14) was prepared in the university of Pisa and selected as polymer of choice for the study. Polymer solutions of 5-10% (in ethanol or in acetic acid) were prepared, half of them containing 2% DS. The solutions were then electrospun to produce nanomats that were subsequently characterized using SEM. Fiber diameter was 160 nm 1 μm. Increasing polymer concentration increased the size of the fibers but reduced the number of beads (with or without DS). In the specimens obtained from acetic acid solution, the addition of DS resulted in a reduction in fiber diameter and an increase in the inter-bead distance. Corresponding ethanol solutions gave more homogeneous specimens than did acetic acid, having a lower number of beads. With the addition of DS a reduction in fiber diameter was observed for the acetic acid specimens. However, in ethanol, adding DS resulted in increased fiber diameter. Accordingly, it can be concluded that it is feasible to develop electrospun diclofenac releasing bioerodible nanostructures that have potential use in pain management. Their further evaluation is however, needed both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Effect of reagent access on the reactivity of coals. Final report. [Maleic anhydride; dialkylmaleates

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.

    1983-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the extent to which the mass transport of reagents into solid coals limits the reactivity of those coals. The purpose of task one is to determine the effect of reagent access on the acid catalyzed depolymerization of coals using phenols and/or alkyl phenyl ethers. For task two, the purpose is to determine the effect of coal swelling on its rate of reaction with a dienophile. Work on depolymerization of coals in hot, acidic phenol has been completed. The conclusion is that due to incomplete depolymerization, the complications of competing Friedel-Crafts alkylation, and the condensation reactions of the solvent, the depolymerization of coals in hot, acidic phenol is not a useful technique for solubilizing coals for structural investigations. In task two, the rate of the Diels-Alder reaction between bituminous coals and maleic anhydride was found to be diffusion controlled. The observations of simple Fickian diffusion and reaction rate constants much slower than the Diels-Alder reaction of maleic anhydride and anthracene have no other reasonable explanation than rate limiting mass transport. The diffusion rates were found to be independent of the degree of solvent swelling of the coal. In addition, the dependence of the observed rates on temperature and the size of the dienophile were measured. Results obtained using a series of dialkylmaleates are presented. Size was found to play only a small role as long as the reagent is planar. 2 tables.

  2. Polyimides Containing Carbonyl and Ether Connecting Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1987-01-01

    Semicrystallinity gives rise to tough, solvent-resistant polymers. New polyimides prepared from reaction of aromatic dianhydrides with new diamines containing carbonyl and ether connecting groups between aromatic rings. Damines prepared from reaction of 4-aminophenol with activated aromatic difluoro compounds in presence of potassium carbonate. These types of polymers have potential applications in molded products, films, adhesives, and composites.

  3. Process for the manufacture of catalysts for the production of maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.C.

    1987-10-13

    A process is described for the manufacture of a phosphorus-vanadium oxide catalyst suitable for use in the manufacture of maleic anhydride from butane. The process comprises reacting at a temperature of about 0/sup 0/C to about 200/sup 0/C a vanadium compound in an organic ether solvent having from about 2 to about 10 carbon atoms, with a phosphoryl halide in the presence of water or an aliphatic alcohol having from about 1 to about 8 carbon atoms, eliminating the solvent and activating the catalyst by the addition of butane, benzene or another C/sub 4/ hydrocarbon feedstock and water and a phosphorus compound at a temperature of about 300/sup 0/C to about 500/sup 0/C wherein the amount of water added is about 1000 parts per million to about 40,000 parts per million by weight of the reactor feed gas stream.

  4. Influence of lipid bilayer properties on nanodisc formation mediated by styrene/maleic acid copolymers.

    PubMed

    Cuevas Arenas, Rodrigo; Klingler, Johannes; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro

    2016-08-11

    Copolymers of styrene and maleic acid (SMA) have gained great attention as alternatives to conventional detergents, as they offer decisive advantages for studying membrane proteins and lipids in vitro. These polymers self-insert into artificial and biological membranes and, at sufficiently high concentrations, solubilise them into disc-shaped nanostructures containing a lipid bilayer core surrounded by a polymer belt. We have used (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering to systematically study the solubilisation of vesicles composed of saturated or unsaturated phospholipids by an SMA copolymer with a 3 : 1 styrene/maleic acid molar ratio at different temperatures. Solubilisation was thermodynamically rationalised in terms of a three-stage model that treats various lipid/polymer aggregates as pseudophases. The solubilising capacity of SMA(3 : 1) towards a saturated lipid is higher in the gel than in the liquid-crystalline state of the membrane even though solubilisation is slower. Although the solubilisation of mixed fluid membranes is non-selective, the presence of a non-bilayer phospholipid lowers the threshold at which the membrane becomes saturated with SMA(3 : 1) but raises the polymer concentration required for complete solubilisation. Both of these trends can be explained by considering the vesicle-to-nanodisc transfer free energies of the lipid and the polymer. On the basis of the phase diagrams thus obtained, re-association of polymer-solubilised lipids with vesicles is possible under mild conditions, which has implications for the reconstitution of proteins and lipids from nanodiscs into vesicular membranes. Finally, the phase diagrams provide evidence for the absence of free SMA(3 : 1) in vesicular lipid suspensions. PMID:27471007

  5. Towards elucidation of the drug release mechanism from compressed hydrophilic matrices made of cellulose ethers. I. Pulse-field-gradient spin-echo NMR study of sodium salicylate diffusivity in swollen hydrogels with respect to polymer matrix physical structure.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Carmen; Massuelle, Danielle; Jeannerat, Damien; Doelker, Eric

    2008-05-22

    Cellulose ethers have been increasingly used in the formulation of controlled release dosage forms; among them, compressed hydrophilic matrices for the oral route of administration are of special importance. Much interest has also been expressed in the study of the drug release mechanism from such swellable systems, in particular, in trying to explain deviations from Fickian diffusion. Thus, swelling-controlled transport is often invoked without any rationale. It is the purpose of the present work to provide independently determined diffusivity data for elucidating the drug release mechanism from the water-soluble cellulose derivatives. In the first part of this work, pulsed-field-gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-SE NMR) was used to investigate the self-diffusion of the model solute sodium salicylate and, incidentally, that of water, in hydrogels made of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) of varying polymer weight fraction and molecular weight in D2O. In parallel, the extent of bound water in the gels was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the presence of liquid crystals in the gels was examined by polarized light microscopy, as these are the structural factors capable of affecting drug diffusion. Solute diffusivity was not significantly affected by the substitution type of the cellulose ether, and an exponential polymer weight fraction dependence of the solute's self-diffusion coefficient was observed, ascertaining the validity of the free-volume theory, with extrapolated self-diffusion coefficient values similar to those in pure solvent. This also indicates that diffusion also takes place in the so-called bound water (which represents about 40% of the hydrogel weight). This questions the existence of thermodynamically different classes of water. Slightly reduced solute diffusion was measured in the HPC hydrogel of the highest polymer concentration (45 wt

  6. Process for the continuous separation of maleic anhydride from process gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ceisel, S.C.; Conrad, J.F.; Lestan, E.M.; Nelson, A.P.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a process for recovery of maleic anhydride from a gaseous mixture of a reactor effluent gas stream containing maleic anhydride. It comprises: contacting the mixture with maleic anhydride in a gas phase wherein the maleic anhydride is injected into a gas stream effluent from an oxidation reactor. The gas stream effluent is at a temperature of from about 200{degrees}F. to about 350{degrees}F., and maleic anhydride is recovered in a condenser.

  7. Adsorption of maleic anhydride on Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Godhuli; Heikkinen, Olli; Vestberg, Matias; Mether, Lotta; Nordlund, Kai; Lahtinen, Jouko

    2014-02-01

    The surface chemistry of maleic anhydride (MA) has been studied on Pt(111) with temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Adsorption of MA takes place at 170 K forming multilayers. We have studied the behavior of distinct carbon and oxygen species of MA depending on the surface temperature. MA-TPD indicates three main desorption temperatures; at 240 K, approximately 60% of total MA on the surface shows molecular desorption. At high temperatures (360 and 550 K) MA shows dissociative decomposition with production of C2H2, CO and CO2 fragments. A plausible decomposition pathway of MA on the Pt(111) surface is discussed. DFT calculations provide details of the adsorption geometry.

  8. Process for the production of maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Click, G.T.; Barone, B.J.

    1986-06-24

    A process is described for the vapor phase oxidation of hydrocarbons having 4 carbon atoms to produce maleic anhydride comprising contacting the hydrocarbons with a fixed bed vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen catalyst, containing P:V in an atomic ration of 1/2 to 3:1 whereby the catalyst gradually decreases in selectivity, wherein the improvement comprises contacting the catalyst with phosphorus compound of phosphorus halide, phosphorus oxyhalide, organic phospines, organic phosphites, organic phosphates or mixtures thereof at a temperature in the range of about 0/sup 0/ to 600/sup 0/C and thereafter contacting the catalyst with a flow of stream at a temperature in the range of 300/sup 0/ to 600/sup 0/C in an amount and for a sufficient duration whereby the catalyst is regenerated.

  9. Synthesis and characterizations of electrospun sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasbullah, N.; Sekak, K. A.; Ibrahim, I.

    2016-07-01

    A novel electrospun polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) based on Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ketone) were prepared and characterized. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK was sulfonated using concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature for 60 hours reaction time. The degree sulfonation (DS) of the SPEEK are 58% was determined by H1 NMR using area under the peak of the hydrogen shielding at aromatic ring of the SPEEK. Then, the functional group of the SPEEK was determined using Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) showed O-H vibration at 3433 cm-1 of the sulfonated group (SO2-OH). The effect of the solvent and polymer concentration toward the electrospinning process was investigated which, the DMAc has electrospun ability compared to the DMSO. While, at 20 wt.% of the polymer concentration able to form a fine and uniform nanofiber, this was confirmed by FESEM that shown electrospun fiber mat SPEEK surface at nano scale diameter.

  10. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10401 - Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono-C11-15-sec-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10401 Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10400 - Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono-C12-14-sec-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10400 Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol...

  17. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Maleic anhydride has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), for maleic anhydride is 0.10 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value for maleic anhydride is 100.

  18. Ring-opening copolymerization of maleic anhydride with epoxides: a chain-growth approach to unsaturated polyesters.

    PubMed

    DiCiccio, Angela M; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2011-07-20

    We report the ring-opening copolymerization of maleic anhydride with a variety of epoxides catalyzed by a chromium(III) salen complex. Quantitative isomerization of the cis-maleate form of all polymers affords the trans-fumarate analogues. Addition of chain transfer reagents yields low M(n), narrow PDI polymer samples. This method provides access to a range of new unsaturated polyesters with versatile functionality, as well as the first synthesis of high molecular weight poly(propylene fumarate). PMID:21699247

  19. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    DOEpatents

    East, Anthony; Jaffe, Michael; Zhang, Yi; Catalani, Luiz H

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  20. Optimization of the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw is optimized, using pretreatment time, temperature and maleic acid concentration as design variables. A central composite design was applied to the experimental set up. The response factors used in this study are: (1) glucose benefits from improved enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw solids; (2) xylose benefits from the solubilization of xylan to the liquid phase during the pretreatment; (3) maleic acid replenishment costs; (4) neutralization costs of pretreated material; (5) costs due to furfural production; and (6) heating costs of the input materials. For each response factor, experimental data were fitted mathematically. After data translation to €/Mg dry straw, determining the relative contribution of each response factor, an economic optimization was calculated within the limits of the design variables. Results When costs are disregarded, an almost complete glucan conversion to glucose can be reached (90% from solids, 7%-10% in liquid), after enzymatic hydrolysis. During the pretreatment, up to 90% of all xylan is converted to monomeric xylose. Taking cost factors into account, the optimal process conditions are: 50 min at 170°C, with 46 mM maleic acid, resulting in a yield of 65 €/Mg (megagram = metric ton) dry straw, consisting of 68 €/Mg glucose benefits (from solids: 85% of all glucan), 17 €/Mg xylose benefits (from liquid: 80% of all xylan), 17 €/Mg maleic acid costs, 2.0 €/Mg heating costs and 0.68 €/Mg NaOH costs. In all but the most severe of the studied conditions, furfural formation was so limited that associated costs are considered negligible. Conclusions After the dilute maleic acid pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, almost complete conversion of wheat straw glucan and xylan is possible. Taking maleic acid replenishment, heating, neutralization and furfural formation into account, the optimum in the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of

  1. Controlled delivery of paclitaxel from stent coatings using novel styrene maleic anhydride copolymer formulations.

    PubMed

    Richard, Robert; Schwarz, Marlene; Chan, Ken; Teigen, Nikolai; Boden, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The controlled release of paclitaxel (PTx) from stent coatings comprising an elastomeric polymer blended with a styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) copolymer is described. The coated stents were characterized for morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and for drug release using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure the extent of interaction between the PTx and polymers in the formulation. Coronary stents were coated with blends of poly(b-styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (SIBS) and SMA containing 7% or 14% maleic anhydride (MA) by weight. SEM examination of the stents showed that the coating did not crack or delaminate either before or after stent expansion. Examination of the coating surface via AFM after elution of the drug indicated that PTx resides primarily in the SMA phase and provided information about the mechanism of PTx release. The addition of SMA altered the release profile of PTx from the base elastomer coatings. In addition, the presence of the SMA enabled tunable release of PTx from the elastomeric stent coatings, while preserving mechanical properties. Thermal analysis reveled no shift in the glass transition temperatures for any of the polymers at all drug loadings studied, indicating that the PTx is not miscible with any component of the polymer blend. An in vivo evaluation indicated that biocompatibility and vascular response results for SMA/SIBS-coated stents (without PTx) are similar to results for SIBS-only-coated and bare stainless steel control stents when implanted in the non-injured coronary arteries of common swine for 30 and 90 days. PMID:18563805

  2. Chemistry and adhesive properties of poly(arylene ether)s containing heterocyclic units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing heterocyclic units were prepared, characterized, and evaluated as adhesives and composite matrices. The polymers were prepared by reacting a heterocyclic bisphenol with an activated aromatic dihalide in a polar aprotic solvent, using potassium carbonate. The polymerizations were generally carried out in N,N-dimethylacetamide at 155 C. In some cases, where the polymers were semicrystalline, higher temperatures and thus higher boiling solvents were necessary to keep the polymers in solution. Heterocyclic rings incorporated into the poly(arylene ether) backbone include phenylquinoxaline, phenylimidazole, benzimidazole, benzoxazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, and 1,2,4-triazole. The polymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, solution viscosity, X-ray diffraction, thin film, and adhesive and (in some cases) composite properties. The glass transition temperatures, crystalline melt temperature, solubility, and mechanical properties varied depending upon the heterocyclic ring. The chemistry and properties of these materials are discussed.

  3. Simultaneous separation of chlorinated/brominated dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated derivatives from hydroxylated analogues on molecularly imprinted polymers prior to gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2015-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important contaminants in the environment. In recent years also polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) have been reported as emerging environmental stressors. It has been suggested that hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are important - may be even the most important - precursors of brominated dioxins/furans. The aim of this study was to develop a robust, time-saving analytical procedure to collectively separate in animal tissues such compounds prior to determination of individual substances with a gas/liquid chromatograph coupled to an ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC/IT-MS or UPLC/TOF-MS). Two OH-CB/BDE separation methods including alkaline extraction and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were compared. Performance of both methods was validated: absolute recovery values were in the 47-90% range depending on the compound, while recovery relative standard deviation was below 20% in most cases. Levels of the studied compounds have been assessed in some real life samples. PMID:26452807

  4. Maleic hydrazide: sprout suppression of potatoes in the field.

    PubMed

    De Blauwer, V; Demeulemeester, K; Demeyere, A; Hofmans, E

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the active substance maleic hydrazide was released on the Belgian market. Maleic hydrazide is authorized in potatoes as foliar treatment for instore sprout suppression and control of volunteers. The mode of action is based on blocking cell division whilst cell elongation is not affected. The product must be applied at once during the growing season, only after at least 80% of the tubers have reached 25 mm diameter and not later than 3 weeks before haulm killing. The first 24 h after application, no meaningful precipitation should occur to insure sufficiently uptake of the product by the crop. Field trials were set up for 4 years (2005-2008) and 4 locations per year with application of maleic hydrazide in four different cultivars (Bintje, Fontane, Asterix and Cilena). After application, the cultivar Asterix showed almost every year a temporarily phytotoxicity (bronze discoloration). On the first place yield was determined. When maleic hydrazide was applied too early (80% tubers % 25mm diameter) yield was negatively affected (3 years on 4) except for the cultivar Cilena (fresh market). Internal quality (dry matter and fry quality) was not influenced by the application of maleic hydrazide. Only Fontane had a slightly lower dry matter content. Maleic hydrazide also influenced appearance of secondary growth. However, the results were very variable depending on cultivar, location and time of application. After harvest, the tubers were kept in storage and assessed monthly on germination. Potatoes treated late in the growing season, showed a shorter dormancy period. A part of the tubers was replanted the following spring to verify volunteer control. Additional trials were set up by the Flemish government for two years (2010-2011). The results of previous trials were confirmed. Additional, the influence of maleic hydrazide on internal germination during storage was examined on the cultivar Innovator. The tests clearly showed a positive effect for this parameter

  5. In situ fourier transform infrared study of crotyl alcohol, maleic acid, crotonic acid, and maleic anhydride oxidation on a V-P-O industrial catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wenig, R.W.; Schrader, G.L.

    1987-10-22

    Crotyl alcohol, maleic acid, crotonic (2-butenoic) acid, and maleic anhydride were fed to an in situ infrared cell at 300/sup 0/C containing a P/V = 1.1 vanadium-phosphorous-oxide (V-P-O) catalyst used for the selective oxidation of n-butane. Crotyl alcohol was used as a mechanistic probe for the formation of reactive olefin species observed during previous n-butane and 1-butene studies. Crotonic acid, maleic acid, and maleic anhydride were fed as probes for the existence of other possible adsorbed intermediates. Olefin species and maleic acid are proposed as possible reaction intermediates in n-butane selective oxidation to maleic anhydride. The involvement of peroxide species in the oxidation of butadiene to maleic acid is also discussed.

  6. Imide/arylene ether copolymers with pendent trifluoromethyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    A series of imide/arylene ether block copolymers were prepared using an arylene ether block containing a hexafluoroisopropylidene group and an imide block containing a hexafluoroisopropylidene and a trifluoromethyl group in the polymer backbone. The copolymers were characterized and mechanical properties were determined and compared to the homopolymers.

  7. Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an open-ended experiment which has students exploring polymer chemistry and reverse osmosis. This activity involves construction of a polymer membrane, use of it in a simple osmosis experiment, and application of its principles in solving a science-technology-society problem. (ML)

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers listed as Stockholm Convention POPs, other brominated flame retardants and heavy metals in e-waste polymers in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sindiku, Omotayo; Babayemi, Joshua; Osibanjo, Oladele; Schlummer, Martin; Schluep, Mathias; Watson, Alan; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were the first brominated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in the Stockholm Convention. Parties to the convention are currently establishing inventories for developing action plans for the environmentally sound management of PBDE-containing materials. The major use of commercial octabromodiphenyl ether (c-OctaBDE) has been in casings from cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and computer monitors. Large quantities of used e-waste and electronic equipment have been exported to developing countries with Nigeria being a major importer in Africa. The casings from 382 TVs and computers imported from major world regions to Nigeria were sampled in backyards and waste dumps. The samples were screened with X-ray flourescence (XRF) for bromine and analysed by gas chromatography/ electron capture detection (GC/ECD) for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). A high proportion of the CRT casings (61 %) contained more than 10,000 ppm bromine from BFRs. Decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) was the major flame retardant used in TV sets and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) for computer CRTs.The screening suggests that average PBDE levels (of c-OctaBDE + DecaBDE) in Nigerian-stockpiled CRT casings were 1.1 % for TV and 0.13 % for PC CRTs. These are above the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) limit and should be separated for RoHS compliant recycling. The Nigerian e-waste inventory of 237,000 t of CRT plastic would therefore contain approx. 594 t c-OctaBDE and 1,880 t of DecaBDE. In Nigeria, as for most developing countries, there is currently no adequate e-waste management, plastic separation or destruction capacity. The data highlight the urgent need to develop environmentally sound management for this large material flow. PMID:25062546

  9. Grafting of poly (lactic acid) with maleic anhydride using supercritical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khankrua, R.; Pivsa-Art, S.; Hiroyuki, H.; Suttiruengwong, S.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to modify poly lactic acid (PLA) via free radical grafting with maleic anhydride (MA) by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2). Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was used as an initiator. The solubility of MA in SCCO2 was first determined to estimate the suitable grafting conditions and equilibrium. From the solubility study of MA in SCCO2, it was found that the solubility of MA in SCCO2 increased with the increasing pressure and dissolution time. PLA films were first prepared by compression molding. The ratio of MA to BPO was 2:1. The reaction temperature and pressure were 70°C and 100 bar respectively. The grafting reaction and the degree of grafting were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and titration, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique and contact angle were used to confirm the changes in physical properties of PLA film grafted MA. NMR spectrum indicated that the grafting of MA onto PLA was successively achieved. Degree of grafting by using SCCO2 was as high as 0.98%. This provided rather high grafting degree compared with other processes. SEM pictures showed the rough surface structure on modified PLA film. In addition, contact angle results showed an improvement of the hydrophilicity by maleic anhydride grafting onto polymers.

  10. A review of environmental and health risks of maleic hydrazide

    SciTech Connect

    Ponnampalam, R.; Mondy, N.I.; Babish, J.G.

    1983-03-01

    The cellular metabolism, acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of maleic hydrazide have been reviewed. It seems that this chemical is a mutagen and a carcinogen in cell cultures and animals, but no evidence is available on human carcinogenicity regardless of population exposure in manufacturing, agriculture, and the food chain (i.e., potatoes, potato chips). Because of the level of exposure of the general public to this compound, an epidemiologic survey should be conducted to ascertain possible human health effects. Long-term feeding experiments should be conducted in several animal species to establish whether maleic hydrazide is carcinogenic by this route. Biotransformation and pharmacokinetic studies should be undertaken to obtain better understanding of the chemical's metabolism and excretion. Such investigations would firmly establish whether the tolerance for maleic hydrazide should remain unchanged or whether the use of the compound should be more restricted.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  13. Anaerobic biodegradation of ether compounds by ether bond-cleaving bacteria and methanogenic consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Ether compounds are manufactured for use in nonionic detergents, plastics, pesticides and other products and occur as toxic organic compounds, the most famous being tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Ether compounds were considered recalcitrant to anaerobic biodegradation due to the lack of an appropriate oxidant for ether bond-cleavage in reducing environments. Many of these compounds reside in anaerobic environments or are exposed to anaerobic waste treatment processes. Thus, it is of interest to identify: (i) whether ether compounds are anaerobically biodegradable, (ii) the anaerobic microorganisms able to degrade these compounds, and (iii) the mechanism(s) of anaerobic ether bond-cleavage. The ether bonds of polyethylene glycol (PEG; HO-(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}-O-){sub n}H), phenyl ether ((C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}O), and dibenzo-p-dioxin ((C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}O{sub 2}) were shown to be degraded in methanogenic consortia enriched with these compounds and polyethoxylate (nonionic) surfactants as substrates. Two anaerobic microorganisms which used PEGs as sole substrates were isolated and characterized. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain DG2 degraded the monomer ethylene glycol and oligomers up to tetraethylene glycol (HO-(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}-O-){sub 4}H) in length. Bacteroides sp. strain PG1 degraded diethylene glycol and all other polymer lengths of PEG. PEGs were degraded by Bacteroides sp. strain PG1 via an external depolymerization which was either a hydrolytic or a reductive cleavage of the ether bond. The ether bond of diaryl ethers was apparently cleaved by a reductive mechanism which produced benzene and phenol as products from phenyl ether degradation and benzene and, by indirect analysis, catechol from dibenzo-dioxin.

  14. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03

    Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and

  15. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Development of quantitative structure property relationships for poly(arylene ether)s.

    PubMed

    Hamerton, I; Howlin, B J; Larwood, V

    1995-02-01

    The technique of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) is well accepted by the drug design community. The analogous technique of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) has applications in the field of polymer chemistry. A variety of molecular modeling and molecular orbital techniques was used to find molecular descriptors that could be used to derive an empirical equation to describe the glass transition temperature of two related classes of poly(arylene ether)s. The derived equation was then used to predict the thermal characteristics of another polymer of the same type. PMID:7794828

  17. Pre-irradiation-induced graft reaction of maleic anhydride onto polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X. M.; Xu, Y. S.; Wang, C. L.

    2006-09-01

    The radiation induced graft polymerization is a well-known method to obtain new materials. Until recently, only conventional radiation sources, such as Co-60 and electron beams, were used. Moreover, part of the damage induced in polymers by heavy ions can produce active sites (peroxides and hydroperoxides) that are useful to initiate grafting reactions. Maleic anhydride (MAH) was grafted onto polypropylene (PP) wax with a number-average molecular weight (Mn) of 8000 by gamma pre-irradiation technique. Effects of total dose, monomer concentration, reaction time, and temperature on percentage of grafting are studied in detail. It is shown that the optimum conditions for grafting are temperature of 70 degrees C and total dose of 14.4 kGy. PP-g-MAH is characterized by infrared spectrum. Differential scanning calorimetry shows that the compatibility of PP-g-MAH is better than that of PP.

  18. The styrene-maleic acid copolymer: a versatile tool in membrane research.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Jonas M; Scheidelaar, Stefan; Koorengevel, Martijn C; Dominguez, Juan J; Schäfer, Marre; van Walree, Cornelis A; Killian, J Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    A new and promising tool in membrane research is the detergent-free solubilization of membrane proteins by styrene-maleic acid copolymers (SMAs). These amphipathic molecules are able to solubilize lipid bilayers in the form of nanodiscs that are bounded by the polymer. Thus, membrane proteins can be directly extracted from cells in a water-soluble form while conserving a patch of native membrane around them. In this review article, we briefly discuss current methods of membrane protein solubilization and stabilization. We then zoom in on SMAs, describe their physico-chemical properties, and discuss their membrane-solubilizing effect. This is followed by an overview of studies in which SMA has been used to isolate and investigate membrane proteins. Finally, potential future applications of the methodology are discussed for structural and functional studies on membrane proteins in a near-native environment and for characterizing protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions. PMID:26639665

  19. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled water at specified temperatures, times, and particle size Maximum extractable fraction in n-heptane at specified temperatures, times, and particle size 1. Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers... weight percent 0.006 weight percent at reflux temperature for 1 hr utilizing particles of a size...

  20. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elimination of microbial and/or enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot-water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases. Other so...

  1. 40 CFR 180.175 - Maleic hydrazide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues. 180.175 Section 180.175 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.175 Maleic hydrazide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the... exceed 160 parts per million by weight of the finished food. (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions....

  2. Mixed-ligand complex compounds of rare-earth elements (REE) with acetylacetone and fumaric or maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Panyushkin, V.T.; Akhrimenko, N.V.

    1994-10-01

    Previously the authors investigated the possibility of synthesis of the f-block element mixed complexes with {beta}-diketones and organic unsaturated acids. The mixed-ligand complexes of lanthanides [Ln = Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), and Yb(III)] with acetylacetone (acac) and fumaric or maleic acid (AcidH{sub 2}) were synthesized. The mixed-ligand complexes were prepared by the interaction of REE tris(acetylacetonates) [Ln(acac){sub 3}{center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O] with half as much excess of the organic acid in a solution of diethyl ether. According to the data of elemental analysis and thermogravimetric and spectroscopic investigations, the mixed complexes studied are of composition Ln(acac){sub 2}(AcidH){center_dot}H{sub 2}O.

  3. Light scattering experiments on aqueous solutions of selected cellulose ethers: contribution to the study of polymer-mineral interactions in a new injectable biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Bohic, Sylvain; Weiss, Pierre; Roger, Philippe; Daculsi, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) is used as a ligand for a bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic (the filler) in a ready-to-use injectable sterilized biomaterial for bone and dental surgery. Light scattering experiments were usually used to study high water-soluble polymers and to determine the basic macromolecular parameters. In order to gain a deeper understanding of polymer/mineral interactions in this type of material, we have investigated the effect of divalent and trivalent ions (Ca2+, PO43−) and steam sterilization on dilute solutions of HPMC and HEC. The sterilization process may cause some degradation of HEC taking into account its high molecular weight and some rigidity of the polymer chain. Moreover, in the case of HPMC, the changes in the conformations rather than degradation process are supposed. These effects of degradation and flocculation are strengthened in alkaline medium. Experimental data suggested the formation of chelate complexes between Ca2+ and HPMC which improve its affinity to the mineral blend and consolidate the injectable biomaterial even in the case of its hydration by biological fluid. PMID:15348303

  4. Comparison of proton conducting polymer electrolyte membranes prepared from multi-block and random copolymers based on poly(arylene ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kyuhyun; Kim, Dukjoon

    2015-05-01

    Multi-block and random copolymers based on poly(arylene ether ketone) with the similar IEC values are synthesized. The chemical structure of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic oligomers and the copolymers synthesized from them is identified using 1H - and 19F- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The development of distinguished hydrophobic-hydrophilic phase separation is confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) spectroscopy. The proton conductivity and water uptake along with the thermal, mechanical, oxidative stabilities are measured to investigate the effect of the copolymer structure on the membrane properties. While water uptake is similar with respect to each other, the proton conductivity of the multi-block copolymer membrane is higher than that of random one at the same levels of IEC. It results from much more distinct hydrophobic-hydrophilic phase separation formed in the multi-block copolymer membrane than the random one. The ion cluster dimension of the multi-block copolymer membranes is larger than that of the random copolymer membranes from the SAXS analysis. Also, the ion cluster dimension distribution of the block copolymer membranes is much narrower than that of random ones. The multi-block copolymer membranes illustrate superior oxidation stability to the random copolymer membrane due to the same phase separation difference.

  5. Poly(arlyene ether sulfone) based semi-interpenetrating polymer network membranes containing cross-linked poly(vinyl phosphonic acid) chains for fuel cell applications at high temperature and low humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kihyun; Heo, Pilwon; Ko, Taeyun; Kim, Ki-hyun; Kim, Sung-Kon; Pak, Chanho; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-10-01

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) membranes are prepared by in-situ casting and thermal-initiated radical polymerization of vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and bis(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl) phosphate (BMAEP) in N,N-dimethylacetamide solutions of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES). The incorporation of VPA units into the SPAES membranes improves proton conductivity especially at high temperature and low humidity conditions. In addition the cross-linker, BMAEP, prevents the decrease of the mechanical and chemical stabilities by the aliphatic linear poly(vinyl phosphonic acid) chains in the semi-IPN membranes, and furthermore the phosphonic acid group in BMAEP can prevent the decrease of the proton conductivity by the formation of cross-linked structures. Therefore, the resulting semi-IPN membranes show high proton conductivities up to 15 mS cm-1 at 120 °C and 40% RH. The fuel cell performance (187 mW cm-2 at 120 °C and 40% RH) of membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) from the semi-IPN membrane is found to be superior to that (145 mW cm-2 at 120 °C and 40% RH) of MEA from the SPAES membrane. The durability test result at the operating conditions indicates that the semi-IPN membrane is electrochemically very stable maintaining the low hydrogen cross-over and high power densities.

  6. HematoPorphyrin Monomethyl Ether polymer contrast agent for ultrasound/photoacoustic dual-modality imaging-guided synergistic high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Sijing; LU, Min; Ding, Xiaoya; Chen, Fei; He, Xuemei; Xu, Chunyan; Zhou, Hang; Wang, Qi; Hao, Lan; Zou, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    This study is to prepare a hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcapsules (HMME/PLGA), which could not only function as efficient contrast agent for ultrasound (US)/photoacoustic (PA) imaging, but also as a synergistic agent for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Sonosensitizer HMME nanoparticles were integrated into PLGA microcapsules with the double emulsion evaporation method. After characterization, the cell-killing and cell proliferation-inhibiting effects of HMME/PLGA microcapsules on ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells were assessed. The US/PA imaging-enhancing effects and synergistic effects on HIFU were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. HMME/PLGA microcapsules were highly dispersed with well-defined spherical morphology (357 ± 0.72 nm in diameter, PDI = 0.932). Encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading efficiency were 58.33 ± 0.95% and 4.73 ± 0.15%, respectively. The HMME/PLGA microcapsules remarkably killed the SKOV3 cells and inhibited the cell proliferation, significantly enhanced the US/PA imaging results and greatly enhanced the HIFU ablation effects on ovarian cancer in nude mice by the HMME-mediated sono-dynamic chemistry therapy (SDT). HMME/PLGA microcapsules represent a potential multifunctional contrast agent for HIFU diagnosis and treatment, which might provide a novel strategy for the highly efficient imaging-guided non-invasive HIFU synergistic therapy for cancers by SDT in clinic. PMID:27535093

  7. HematoPorphyrin Monomethyl Ether polymer contrast agent for ultrasound/photoacoustic dual-modality imaging-guided synergistic high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Sijing; Lu, Min; Ding, Xiaoya; Chen, Fei; He, Xuemei; Xu, Chunyan; Zhou, Hang; Wang, Qi; Hao, Lan; Zou, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    This study is to prepare a hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcapsules (HMME/PLGA), which could not only function as efficient contrast agent for ultrasound (US)/photoacoustic (PA) imaging, but also as a synergistic agent for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Sonosensitizer HMME nanoparticles were integrated into PLGA microcapsules with the double emulsion evaporation method. After characterization, the cell-killing and cell proliferation-inhibiting effects of HMME/PLGA microcapsules on ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells were assessed. The US/PA imaging-enhancing effects and synergistic effects on HIFU were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. HMME/PLGA microcapsules were highly dispersed with well-defined spherical morphology (357 ± 0.72 nm in diameter, PDI = 0.932). Encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading efficiency were 58.33 ± 0.95% and 4.73 ± 0.15%, respectively. The HMME/PLGA microcapsules remarkably killed the SKOV3 cells and inhibited the cell proliferation, significantly enhanced the US/PA imaging results and greatly enhanced the HIFU ablation effects on ovarian cancer in nude mice by the HMME-mediated sono-dynamic chemistry therapy (SDT). HMME/PLGA microcapsules represent a potential multifunctional contrast agent for HIFU diagnosis and treatment, which might provide a novel strategy for the highly efficient imaging-guided non-invasive HIFU synergistic therapy for cancers by SDT in clinic. PMID:27535093

  8. Needlelike and spherical polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles of poly(l-lysine) and copolymers of maleic acid.

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Reihs, T; Ouyang, W

    2005-01-01

    We report on the bulk and surface properties of dispersions consisting of nonstoichiometric polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles. PEC nanoparticles were prepared by mixing poly(l-lysine) (PLL) or poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with poly(maleic acid-co-alpha-methylstyrene) (PMA-MS) or poly(maleic acid-co-propylene) (PMA-P). The monomolar mixing ratio was n-/n+ = 0.6, and the concentration ranged from 1 to 6 mmol/L. Subsequent centrifugation enabled the separation of the excess polycation, resulting in a stable coacervate phase further used in the experiments. The bulk phase parameters turbidity and hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) of the PEC nanoparticles showed a linear dependence on the total polymer content independently of the mixed polyelectrolytes. This can be interpreted by the increased collision probability of the polyelectrolyte chains when the overlap concentration is approached or exceeded. Different morphologies of the cationic PEC nanoparticles, which were solution-cast onto Si supports, were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The combinations of PLL/PMA-MS and PDADMAC/PMA-MS revealed more or less hemispherical particle shapes, whereas that of PLL/PMA-P revealed an elongated needlelike particle shape. Circular dichroism and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements proved the alpha-helical conformation for the PEC PLL/PMA-P and the random coil conformation for the PEC PLL/PMA-MS. We conclude that stiff alpha-helical PLL induces anisotropic elongated PEC nanoparticles, whereas randomly coiled PLL forms isotropic spherical PEC nanoparticles. PMID:15620340

  9. Retention of functional polymers in liquid adsorption chromatography: effect of the end groups in PEGs and their methyl ethers in different mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V Cuong; Trathnigg, Bernd

    2010-04-01

    It is shown that the end group parameter, which describes the influence of the end group on retention, can be determined in RP chromatography from two chromatograms of a nonfunctional and a monofunctional sample, if a sufficient number of peaks with the same number of repeat units in each sample can be reasonably resolved and identified. The same procedure can also be applied for pairs of di- and monofunctional polymers. End group parameters have been determined in three different mobile phases: acetonitrile-water, acetone-water and methanol-water of different compositions. The temperature dependence of the interaction parameter of the repeat unit and the end group parameter has been found to be different, which allows a fine-tuning of retention. PMID:20187029

  10. Maleic anhydride catalysts and process for their manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, M.S.; Meyers, B.L.; Eryman, W.S.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a catalyst for the production of maleic anhydride by the oxidation of a member of the group consisting of benzene, butane, butene and butadiene. It comprises a phosphorus-vanadium-mixed oxide and exists in the form of geometric shapes, the shapes having been heated in an inert atmosphere at a temperature of about 650{degrees} to about 1300{degrees} F. prior to being exposed to an oxygen-containing gas at an elevated temperature.

  11. Use fluid bed reactor for maleic anhydride from butane

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, S.C.; Neri, A.; Suciu, G.D.; Verde, L.

    1985-09-01

    A new process is described that incorporates three major improvements over the conventional air oxidation of benzene in a fixed-bed reactor system. The new ALMA Process was developed jointly by Alusuisse Italia and Lummus Crest. It includes the following process improvements: n-Butane feedstock, fluidized-bed reactor system, and a continuous maleic anhydride recovery system using an organic solvent. A summary of the process is given, as well as the steps in its development and its economic advantages.

  12. The anodic oxidation of p-benzoquinone and maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, C.; MacDougall, B.

    1999-08-01

    The oxidation of organics, in particular of p-benzoquinone and maleic acid, at high anodic potentials has been studied using a range of anode materials such as noble-metal-based oxides and antimony-doped tin oxides. The influence of the current density was also investigated showing that the oxidation rate of p-benzoquinone increased only slightly with increasing current density. The efficiency of the p-benzoquinone oxidation was found to depend on several properties of the anode material, not just its chemical nature. Furthermore, efficiencies for the partial oxidation of p-benzoquinone using specially prepared noble-metal-oxide-based anodes were found to be only somewhat smaller or even as high as those observed for PbO{sub 2} or antimony-doped tin oxide anodes, respectively. The anodic electrolysis of maleic acid solutions was found to decrease the activity of IrO{sub 2} for the oxidation of organic compounds. This was not observed when PbO{sup 2} was employed for the oxidation of maleic acid.

  13. Crown ethers in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  14. Crown ethers in graphene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basicmore » structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.« less

  15. The Photochemical Isomerization of Maleic to Fumaric Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Albert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment on the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid. Background information, chemical reactions involved, and experimental procedures are included. (JN)

  16. Crown ethers in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-01

    Crown ethers are at their most basic level rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity. Here we present atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures should also extend to their selectivity towards specific metal cations. Crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be systematically tested and modelled. Thus, we expect that our finding will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  17. Azidated Ether-Butadiene-Ether Block Copolymers as Binders for Solid Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappello, Miriam; Lamia, Pietro; Mura, Claudio; Polacco, Giovanni; Filippi, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric binders for solid propellants are usually based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), which does not contribute to the overall energy output. Azidic polyethers represent an interesting alternative but may have poorer mechanical properties. Polybutadiene-polyether copolymers may combine the advantages of both. Four different ether-butadiene-ether triblock copolymers were prepared and azidated starting from halogenated and/or tosylated monomers using HTPB as initiator. The presence of the butadiene block complicates the azidation step and reduces the storage stability of the azidic polymer. Nevertheless, the procedure allows modifying the binder properties by varying the type and lengths of the energetic blocks.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10072 - Benzene, 1,1′-methylenebis[4-isocyanato-, polymer with benzenedicarboxylic acid, butyl dialkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....-hydro-.omega.-hydroxy-, oxirane, alkyl-, polymer with oxirane, ether with propanepolyol and Sartomer's... , .alpha.-hydro-.omega.-hydroxy-, oxirane, alkyl-, polymer with oxirane, ether with propanepolyol and... , .alpha.-hydro-.omega.-hydroxy-, oxirane, alkyl-, polymer with oxirane, ether with propanepolyol...

  19. New polymers for phase partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesizing of several polyethylene glycols having crown ethers attached is reported. This work led to the identification of three new polymer types which promise to be more effective at selectively binding specific cell types. Work was completed on identification of chemical properties of the new polymer crowns and on development of new techniques for determination of polymer-phase composition.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Maleic Acid as a Food Adulterant Determined by Microdialysis in Rat Blood and Kidney Cortex.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mei-Ling; Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Chi-Hung; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Maleic acid has been shown to be used as a food adulterant in the production of modified starch by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration. Due to the potential toxicity of maleic acid to the kidneys, this study aimed to develop an analytical method to investigate the pharmacokinetics of maleic acid in rat blood and kidney cortex. Multiple microdialysis probes were simultaneously inserted into the jugular vein and the kidney cortex for sampling after maleic acid administration (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.v., respectively). The pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that maleic acid produced a linear pharmacokinetic phenomenon within the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg. The area under concentration versus time curve (AUC) of the maleic acid in kidney cortex was 5-fold higher than that in the blood after maleic acid administration (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.v., respectively), indicating that greater accumulation of maleic acid occurred in the rat kidney. PMID:26999094

  1. INTRAVENOUS ETHER ANESTHESIA

    PubMed Central

    Eger, Edmond I.; Johnson, Edward A.

    1963-01-01

    From a study of intravenous ether anesthesia, it was concluded that ether diluted to a 5 per cent solution in 5 per cent dextrose and water may be used to induce and maintain a smooth and easily controlled anesthetic state similar to that obtained with inhalation ether but without the dependence of the latter technique on ventilation. Cough and laryngospasm were absent. Adequate spontaneous respiration can be maintained with this technique. The technique is particularly useful in endoscopy during which the airway is often not available for anesthetic administration. PMID:14051486

  2. Genotoxicity of glycol ethers.

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, D B

    1984-01-01

    The genetic toxicology of glycol ethers is reviewed. Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and diglyme have been more extensively studied than other members of this series. Most results indicate a lack of genotoxic potential, but certain tests have yielded positive responses with certain compounds. Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) induced sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in cultured cells. Both EGME and diglyme induced mouse sperm head morphological changes, male rat weak dominant lethal mutations and marked, but reversible, loss of male rat fertility. PMID:6541999

  3. Vinyl ether silicones

    SciTech Connect

    Herzig, C.; Dauth, J.; Deubzer, B.; Weis, J.

    1995-12-01

    Siloxanes with vinyl ether groups are prepared by hydrosilylation reaction of dihydrosiloxanes with divinyl ethers in excess. Different stoichiometry, produces linear copolymers of different viscosities and double bond concentrations always with an active vinyl ether group at each chain end. Polymerisations triggered by UV light were done with mixtures of these compounds and a series of onium salts. Very fast cure is observed even with low doses at 290 nm. V.E. silicones are found to cure essentially quantitative. The comparison with other highly reactive cationic monomers revealed that compounds are among the fastest curing prepolymers in cationic chemistry.

  4. Catalytic oxidation of dimethyl ether

    DOEpatents

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang; Johnston, Christina M.; Li, Qing

    2016-05-10

    A composition for oxidizing dimethyl ether includes an alloy supported on carbon, the alloy being of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium. A process for oxidizing dimethyl ether involves exposing dimethyl ether to a carbon-supported alloy of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium under conditions sufficient to electrochemically oxidize the dimethyl ether.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of CdS nanoparticle based multiwall carbon nanotube-maleic anhydride-1-octene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malikov, E. Y.; Altay, M. C.; Muradov, M. B.; Akperov, O. H.; Eyvazova, G. M.; Puskás, R.; Madarász, D.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.

    2015-05-01

    CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by sonication from cadmium chloride and thiourea using a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-maleic anhydride (MA)-1-octene system as the matrix. The matrix was obtained by the "grafting from" approach from oxidized carbon nanotubes and maleic anhydride-1-octene. Multiwall carbon nanotubes used for reinforcing the matrix were synthesized by Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition using Fe-Co/Al2O3 as the catalyst. The obtained nanostructures were characterized by FTIR, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, SEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. The average CdS particle diameter was 7.9 nm as confirmed independently by TEM and XRD. UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that the obtained nanostructure is an appropriate base material for making optical devices. The novelty of this work is the use of the MWCNT-MA-1-octene matrix obtained via the "grafting from" approach for the synthesis of uniformly dispersed CdS nanocrystals by ultrasonic cavitation to obtain a polymer nanocomposite.

  6. Initiation precursors and initiators in laser-induced copolymerization of styrene and maleic anhydride in acetone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Gilda A.; Meador, Willard E.; Chang, C. Ken

    1990-01-01

    The initiation step of photopolymerized styrene/maleic anhydride copolymer was investigated at 365 nm. UV absorption measurements provide decisive evidence that the styrene/maleic anhydride charge transfer complex is the sole absorbing species; however, key laser experiments suggest intermediate reactions lead to a monoradical initiating species. A mechanism for the photoinitiation step of the copolymer is proposed.

  7. Relationship between the electrochemical activity of Raney nickel and the rate of hydrogenation of maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Pervii, E.N.; Sofronkov, A.N.; Fedyshina, N.M.

    1986-02-10

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the conditions in which a direct correlation exists between the rate of hydrogenation of maleic acid and the electrochemical activity of catalysts of hydrogen ionization. The rate of maleic acid hydrogenation in presence of Raney nickel catalyst was studied by a combination of volumetric and potentiometric methods.

  8. Polymerization in the liquid crystalline state of vinyl ether monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, H.; Jonsson, H.; Gedde, U.W.; Hult, A.

    1993-12-31

    Liquid crystalline phenylbenzoate vinyl ether was polymerized cationically in both anisotropic and isotropic monomeric melts, using photochemical initiation by onium salts. High molecular mass polymers with a narrow molecular mass distribution (around 2) were produced by cationic polymerization at high temperatures ({<=}{degrees}C). The initial state of the monomer, nematic or isotropic, did not affect neither molecular mass, molecular mass distribution, nor polymerization rate. {sup 13}C-NMR studies show that the polymer formed is atactic. Ordered 30-50 {mu}m films were produced by polymerization of mesogenic vinyl ether monomers oriented in the nematic and smectic phase.

  9. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  13. Novel high T{sub g} high-strength poly(aryl ether)s

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Maier, G.

    1999-08-01

    A novel 2-perfluoroalkyl-activated bisfluoro monomer has been synthesized successfully using a Pd(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of 4-fluoro-3-trifluoromethyl phenyl boronic acid with 4,4{prime}-dibromodiphenylbenzene. This monomer was converted to novel poly(aryl ether)s by nucleophilic displacement of the fluorine atoms on the benzene ring with several bisphenols. The products obtained by displacement of the fluorine atoms exhibit weight average molar masses up to 1.06 {times} 10{sup 5} g/mol in GPC. These poly(aryl ether)s showed outstanding thermooxidative stability up to 534 C for 5% weight loss in TGA under synthetic air and high glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) even up to 300 C in DSC and DMTA. These polymers are soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, e.g., CHCl{sub 3}, THF, NMP, DMF, toluene, etc., and are insoluble in DMSO and acetone. Transparent thin films of these polymers cast from DMF exhibited tensile strengths up to 115 MPa, moduli up to 2.59 GPa, and elongations up to 120% depending on their exact repeating unit structures. These values are comparable to those of high performance thermoplastic materials such as PEEK or Ultem PEI.

  14. Novel high T[sub g] high-strength poly(aryl ether)s

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Maier, G. . Lehrstuhl fuer Makromolekulare Stoffe)

    1999-08-01

    A novel 2-perfluoroalkyl-activated bisfluoro monomer has been synthesized successfully using a Pd(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of 4-fluoro-3-trifluoromethyl phenyl boronic acid with 4,4[prime]-dibromodiphenylbenzene. This monomer was converted to novel poly(aryl ether)s by nucleophilic displacement of the fluorine atoms on the benzene ring with several bisphenols. The products obtained by displacement of the fluorine atoms exhibit weight average molar masses up to 1.06 [times] 10[sup 5] g/mol in GPC. These poly(aryl ether)s showed outstanding thermooxidative stability up to 534 C for 5% weight loss in TGA under synthetic air and high glass transition temperatures (T[sub g]) even up to 300 C in DSC and DMTA. These polymers are soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, e.g., CHCl[sub 3], THF, NMP, DMF, toluene, etc., and are insoluble in DMSO and acetone. Transparent thin films of these polymers cast from DMF exhibited tensile strengths up to 115 MPa, moduli up to 2.59 GPa, and elongations up to 120% depending on their exact repeating unit structures. These values are comparable to those of high performance thermoplastic materials such as PEEK or Ultem PEI.

  15. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. PMID:27262718

  16. A sulfonated poly (aryl ether ether ketone ketone) isomer: synthesis and DMFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Liu, Baijun; Hu, Wei; Jiang, Zhenhua; Robertson, Gilles; Guiver, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily-prepared PEEKK post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported analogues and eveluated Nafion membranes.

  17. Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang; Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe; Sapelkin, Andrei; King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard; Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri

    2014-06-21

    Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

  18. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are enhanced even better through secondary bonding relationships. Further, polymer blend compatibilization is considered due to similar molecular relationships and polarities. With compatibilization of triclosan in polymers a more uniform stability for nonpolar triclosan in the polymer solid state is retained by the antimicrobial for extremely low release with minimum solubility into aqueous solution. As a result, triclosan is projected for long extended lifetimes as an antimicrobial polymer additive. Further, triclosan rapid alternating ether bond rotations disrupt secondary bonding between chain monomers in the resin state to reduce viscosity and enhance polymer blending. Thus, triclosan is considered for a polymer additive with multiple properties to be an antimicrobial with additional benefits as a nonpolar toughening agent and a hydrophobic wetting agent. The triclosan material relationships with alternating ether bond rotations are described through a complete different form of medium by comparisons with known antimicrobial properties that upset bacterial cell membranes through rapid fluctuating mechanomolecular energies. Also, triclosan bond entanglements with secondary bonding can produce structural defects in weak bacterial lipid membranes requiring pliability that can then interfere with cell division. Regarding applications with polymers, triclosan can be incorporated by mixing into a resin system before cure, melt mixed with thermoplastic polymers that set on cooling

  19. Nanoparticle self-assembly in mixtures of phospholipids with styrene/maleic acid copolymers or fluorinated surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Carolyn; Arenas, Rodrigo Cuevas; Frotscher, Erik; Keller, Sandro

    2015-12-01

    Self-assembling nanostructures in aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming surfactants are relevant to in vitro studies on biological and synthetic membranes and membrane proteins. Considerable efforts are currently underway to replace conventional detergents by milder alternatives such as styrene/maleic acid (SMA) copolymers and fluorinated surfactants. However, these compounds and their nanosized assemblies remain poorly understood as regards their interactions with lipid membranes, particularly, the thermodynamics of membrane partitioning and solubilisation. Using 19F and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, static and dynamic light scattering, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have systematically investigated the aggregational state of a zwitterionic bilayer-forming phospholipid upon exposure to an SMA polymer with a styrene/maleic acid ratio of 3 : 1 or to a fluorinated octyl phosphocholine derivative called F6OPC. The lipid interactions of SMA(3 : 1) and F6OPC can be thermodynamically conceptualised within the framework of a three-stage model that treats bilayer vesicles, discoidal or micellar nanostructures, and the aqueous solution as distinct pseudophases. The exceptional solubilising power of SMA(3 : 1) is reflected in very low membrane-saturating and solubilising polymer/lipid molar ratios of 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. Although F6OPC saturates bilayers at an even lower molar ratio of 0.031, this nondetergent does not solubilise lipids even at >1000-fold molar excess, thus highlighting fundamental differences between these two types of mild membrane-mimetic systems. We rationalise these findings in terms of a new classification of surfactants based on bilayer-to-micelle transfer free energies and discuss practical implications for membrane-protein research.Self-assembling nanostructures in aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming surfactants are relevant to in vitro studies on biological and

  20. Reactive blending of thermoplastic starch and polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride with chitosan as compatibilizer.

    PubMed

    Jantanasakulwong, Kittisak; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Wongsuriyasak, Somchai; Techapun, Charin; Ougizawa, Toshiaki

    2016-11-20

    Cassava starch was melt-blended with glycerol (70/30wt%/wt%) at 140°C to prepare thermoplastic starch (TPS). Chitosan (CTS) was premixed with starch and glycerol, in acidified water (lactic acid 2wt%), at 1, 5 and 10wt%/wt%. TPS/CTS was then melt-blended (160°C) with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-MAH). Phase determination and scanning electron microscopy indicated TPS/PE-MAH/CTS had a co-continuous morphology and CTS-induced phase inversion to give dispersed PE-MAH particles in a TPS matrix. Tensile strength at break and elongation, melt viscosity, fracture toughness and water contact angle of TPS/PE-MAH were improved by CTS incorporation. TPS/PE-MAH/CTS blends decreased the melting temperature of TPS and PE-MAH compared to the neat polymers. FTIR confirmed a reaction had occurred between amino groups (NH2) of CTS and the MAH groups of PE-MAH. This reaction and the enhanced miscibility between TPS and CTS improved the mechanical properties of the TPS/PE-MAH/CTS blend, particularly at 5wt%/wt% CTS. PMID:27561475

  1. Anhydric maleic functionalization and polyethylene glycol grafting of lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate copolymers.

    PubMed

    Díaz, A; Del Valle, L; Franco, L; Sarasua, J R; Estrany, F; Puiggalí, J

    2014-09-01

    Lactide and trimethylene carbonate copolymers were successfully grafted with polyethylene glycol via previous functionalization with maleic anhydride and using N,N'-diisopropylcarbodiimide as condensing agent. Maleinization led to moderate polymer degradation. Specifically, the weight average molecular weight decreased from 36,200 to 30,200 g/mol for the copolymer having 20 mol% of trimethylene carbonate units. Copolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction. Morphology of spherulites and lamellar crystals was evaluated with optical and atomic force microscopies, respectively. The studied copolymers were able to crystallize despite the randomness caused by the trimethylene carbonate units and the lateral groups. Contact angle measurements indicated that PEG grafted copolymers were more hydrophilic than parent copolymers. This feature justified that enzymatic degradation in lipase medium and proliferation of both epithelial-like and fibroblast-like cells were enhanced. Grafted copolymers were appropriate to prepare regular drug loaded microspheres by the oil-in-water emulsion method. Triclosan release from loaded microspheres was evaluated in two media. PMID:25063149

  2. Nanoparticle self-assembly in mixtures of phospholipids with styrene/maleic acid copolymers or fluorinated surfactants.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Carolyn; Arenas, Rodrigo Cuevas; Frotscher, Erik; Keller, Sandro

    2015-12-28

    Self-assembling nanostructures in aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming surfactants are relevant to in vitro studies on biological and synthetic membranes and membrane proteins. Considerable efforts are currently underway to replace conventional detergents by milder alternatives such as styrene/maleic acid (SMA) copolymers and fluorinated surfactants. However, these compounds and their nanosized assemblies remain poorly understood as regards their interactions with lipid membranes, particularly, the thermodynamics of membrane partitioning and solubilisation. Using (19)F and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, static and dynamic light scattering, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have systematically investigated the aggregational state of a zwitterionic bilayer-forming phospholipid upon exposure to an SMA polymer with a styrene/maleic acid ratio of 3 : 1 or to a fluorinated octyl phosphocholine derivative called F(6)OPC. The lipid interactions of SMA(3 : 1) and F(6)OPC can be thermodynamically conceptualised within the framework of a three-stage model that treats bilayer vesicles, discoidal or micellar nanostructures, and the aqueous solution as distinct pseudophases. The exceptional solubilising power of SMA(3 : 1) is reflected in very low membrane-saturating and solubilising polymer/lipid molar ratios of 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. Although F(6)OPC saturates bilayers at an even lower molar ratio of 0.031, this nondetergent does not solubilise lipids even at >1000-fold molar excess, thus highlighting fundamental differences between these two types of mild membrane-mimetic systems. We rationalise these findings in terms of a new classification of surfactants based on bilayer-to-micelle transfer free energies and discuss practical implications for membrane-protein research. PMID:26599076

  3. Radiation-induced graft polymerization of maleic acid and maleic anhydride onto ultra-fine powdered styrene butadiene rubber (UFSBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jing; Xia, Haibing; Zhai, Maolin; Li, Jiuqiang; Qiao, Jinliang; Wei, Genshuan

    2007-11-01

    The functionalization of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (UFSBR) was carried out using gamma radiation-induced graft polymerization of maleic acid (MA) and maleic anhydride (MAH), respectively. It was found that the graft yield of MA onto UFSBR increased rapidly up to the peak and then decreased with increasing MA content. Moreover, the peak shifted to the direction of lower MA content with increasing absorbed dose. Similarly, there was the peak of graft yield with increasing MAH content for grafting of MAH onto UFSBR, whereas the peak of graft yield was achieved at 10 wt% MAH content at different absorbed doses. On the other hand, increasing absorbed dose and decreasing monomer contents are useful to improve the graft efficiency of MA and MAH. At high dose and low monomer content, the graft yield of MAH onto UFSBR is higher than that of MA. FTIR spectra confirmed that both MA and MAH can be grafted successfully onto the UFSBR under gamma irradiation, respectively. Comparing with maleation of rubber by melt grafting, the graft yield of MAH on UFSBR is higher, which can be attributed to the network structure and nanometer size of UFSBR as well as high energy provided by radiation.

  4. Vibrational spectroscopic study of pure and silica-doped sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangasamy, Vijay Shankar; Thayumanasundaram, Savitha; Seo, Jin Won; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-01

    We report the vibrational properties of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes, used as electrolytes in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We discuss the changes in the vibrational modes of the functional groups present in the polymer arising due to the sulfonation process and the subsequent incorporation of silica particles functionalized with sulfonic acid group. From the infrared spectra, we confirm the incorporation of sulfonic acid group in the polymer chain as well as in the functionalized silica particles. We have also measured the variations in the peak area ratio of the characteristic out-of-plane vibrations of the aromatic rings in the PEEK polymer at 1280 cm-1 with respect to a reference peak at 1305 cm-1. These values were correlated to the crystallinity (XC) values experimentally determined by DSC technique, providing a non-destructive means to calculate the crystallinity of polymer membranes. The calculated XC values were in good agreement with the experimental values. The crystallinity was observed to decrease with increasing degree of sulfonation (DS), indicating the crystalline-to-amorphous phase modification of the polymer by sulfonation, which along with the enhanced ion-exchange capacity and water uptake, is responsible for the improved ionic conductivity at higher DS values.

  5. SMA-SH: Modified Styrene-Maleic Acid Copolymer for Functionalization of Lipid Nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Lindhoud, Simon; Carvalho, Vanessa; Pronk, Joachim W; Aubin-Tam, Marie-Eve

    2016-04-11

    Challenges in purification and subsequent functionalization of membrane proteins often complicate their biochemical and biophysical characterization. Purification of membrane proteins generally involves replacing the lipids surrounding the protein with detergent molecules, which can affect protein structure and function. Recently, it was shown that styrene-maleic acid copolymers (SMA) can dissolve integral membrane proteins from biological membranes into nanosized discs. Within these nanoparticles, proteins are embedded in a patch of their native lipid bilayer that is stabilized in solution by the amphipathic polymer that wraps the disc like a bracelet. This approach for detergent-free purification of membrane proteins has the potential to greatly simplify purification but does not facilitate conjugation of functional compounds to the membrane proteins. Often, such functionalization involves laborious preparation of protein variants and optimization of labeling procedures to ensure only minimal perturbation of the protein. Here, we present a strategy that circumvents several of these complications through modifying SMA by grafting the polymer with cysteamine. The reaction results in SMA that has solvent-exposed sulfhydrils (SMA-SH) and allows tuning of the coverage with SH groups. Size exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that SMA-SH dissolves lipid bilayer membranes into lipid nanodiscs, just like SMA. In addition, we demonstrate that, just like SMA, SMA-SH solubilizes proteoliposomes into protein-loaded nanodiscs. We covalently modify SMA-SH-lipid nanodiscs using thiol-reactive derivatives of Alexa Fluor 488 and biotin. Thus, SMA-SH promises to simultaneously tackle challenges in purification and functionalization of membrane proteins. PMID:26974006

  6. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  7. Patterning poly(maleic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) copolymer bioconjugates for controlled release of drugs.

    PubMed

    Nita, Loredana E; Chiriac, Aurica P; Mititelu-Tartau, Liliana; Stoleru, Elena; Doroftei, Florica; Diaconu, Alina

    2015-09-30

    Owing to the special characteristics and abilities polymeric networks have received special interest for a range of biomedical applications especially for drug delivery systems. This study was devoted to preparation of new polymeric compounds based on maleic anhydride and 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane copolymer (poly maleic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) (PMAU) patterned as a network for bioconjugation and tested as drug carrier systems. The PMAU copolymer was improved in its functionality by opening the maleic anhydride ring with different amounts of erythritol, which is free of side effects in regular use and a multifunctional compound, and also confers antioxidant character for the new compounds. The new polymeric matrices were loaded with acetaminophen, codeine and their fixed dose combinations. The investigation demonstrated the capability of the new structures to be used as polymer networks for linking bioactive compounds and to perform controlled delivery. The physico-chemical investigations--Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, contact angle, zeta potential (ZP - z, PMAU and its derivatives samples loaded with medicines present decreased values of zeta potential attesting the bioconjugate formation and as well their stability), and hydrodynamic radius, near infrared chemical imaging evaluation (new specific bands being registered for bio-conjugate with acetaminophen around of 1150-1200 nm and 1700 nm, and also between 1150 and 1200 nm in case of the codeine bio-conjugate), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, X-ray diffraction analysis--evidenced the formation of the bioconjugates in relation to the chemical composition of the polymer matrices, while in vitro release study and in vivo tests confirm the capacity for drug delivery of the prepared bioactive systems. PMID:26220652

  8. Characterization of carbon black modified by maleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asokan, Vijayshankar; Kosinski, Pawel; Skodvin, Tore; Myrseth, Velaug

    2013-09-01

    We present here a method for modifying the surface of carbon black (CB) using a simple heat treatment in the presence of a carboxylic acid as well as water or ethylene glycol as a solvent. CB was mixed with maleic acid and either water or ethylene glycol, and heated at 250°C. Unlike the traditional surface modification processes which use heat treatment of carbon with mineral acids the present modification method using a carboxylic acid proved to be simple and time efficient. CB from two different vendors was used, and the modified samples were characterized by TGA, BET surface area measurement, XRD, particle size and zeta potential measurements, and FTIR. It was found that several material properties, including thermal stability and surface area, of the modified CB are significantly altered relative to the parental carbon samples. This method provides a rapid and simple route to tailor new materials with desired properties.

  9. Development of ALMA process: Advances maleic anhydride production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoia, S.C.; Komeya, M.; Pedretti, D.; Stanecki, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Shin-Daikyowa Petrochemical Co. (SDPC) has initiated a project to build a 15,000 MTA maleic anhydride plant at Yokkaichi, Japan. For technology, SDPC evaluated many alternatives and elected to utilize the ALMA Process in what will be the first full-scale plant for this new process. Startup is scheduled for late 1988. This paper describes the economic advantages of the ALMA Process and their technical bases which have led to its selection by SDPC. The advantages are in variable costs (primarily feed and energy) for any size plant, and in initial capital as well for plants larger than 10,000 MTA. They are derived from the use of n-butane feed, a fluidized-bed reactor system, and a non-aqueous recovery system.

  10. Solvent-induced crystallization of poly(ether ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPeak, Jennifer Lynne

    The purpose of this study was learn how the diffusion, swelling, and crystallization processes are coupled during solvent-induced crystallization of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). Unoriented amorphous PEEK films were immersed in aprotic organic liquids at ambient temperature and bulk properties or characteristics were monitored as a function of immersion time. The sorption behavior, T g and Tm° suppression, crystallinity, and dynamic mechanical response were correlated as a function of solvent chemistry and immersion time. The saturation time of methylene chloride, 1,3-dichloropropane, tetrahydrofuran, cyclopentanone, chlorobenzene, toluene, diethyl ketone, and ethylbenzene in amorphous PEEK films were found to range from hours to days depending on the level of polymer-solvent interactions. In-situ isochronal DMA spectra show that the Tg of PEEK was suppressed from 150°C to below ambient temperature such that crystallization was kinetically feasible during ambient immersion. In addition, an increase in viscoelastic dispersion was attributed to the presence of crystallinity. From dynamic mass uptake and wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD) results, it was found that the bulk sorption rate was equal to the bulk crystallization rate for all solvent systems that promoted SINC and PEEK exhibited diffusion-limited crystallization, irrespective of the nature of the transport mechanism. In addition, the solvent-induced crystals exhibit preferred orientation as supported by photographic WAXD. A distinct sorption front, observed with scanning electron microscopy, further supports the scenario of diffusion-controlled crystallization and one-dimensional diffusion. Isothermal DMA spectra for THF, cyclopentanone, and chlorobenzene, indicate that, as the solvent diffuses into the films, the stiffness of the polymer decreases at short times, begins to increase, and then reaches a relatively time-independent value. It was determined that the initial decrease in the storage

  11. Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 112 - 50 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  12. Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether ; CASRN 143 - 22 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  13. Propylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 52125 - 53 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  14. p-Bromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Bromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 101 - 55 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  15. Chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chloromethyl methyl ether ( CMME ) ; CASRN 107 - 30 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  16. Studying the effect of high pressure on the cycloaddition reactions of maleic anhydride and substituted anthracenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. D.; Shakirova, I. I.; Kornilov, D. A.; Kashaeva, E. A.; Potapova, L. N.; Konovalov, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics (rate, activation, and volume) of the high-pressure (up to 2500 bar) Diels-Alder reactions of maleic anhydride with 9-phenylanthracene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene in toluene is investigated.

  17. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants. 3. Unsaturated aliphatics: Acrolein, acrylonitrile, maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Detailed mechanisms are outlined for the chemical reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the unsaturated aliphatic contaminants acrolein, acrylonitrile, and maleic anhydride. In-situ formation of small amounts of acrolein and maleic anhydride may involve the reaction of OH (and O{sub 3}) with 1,3-dienes and the reaction of OH with aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. There is no known pathway for in-situ formation of acrylonitrile. Rapid removal of acrolein (half-life = less than one day) and of maleic anhydride (half-life = several hours) is expected from their rapid reactions with OH (major), O{sub 3}, and NO{sub 3}. These reactions lead to formaldehyde and glyoxal from acrolein and to dicarbonyls from maleic anhydride. Acrylonitrile is removed at a slower rate (half-life = 2-7 days) by reaction with OH, leading to formaldehyde and formyl cyanide.

  18. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, J.V.

    1996-10-22

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of the above formula together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  19. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  20. Glycol Ethers As Groundwater Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Benjamin; Johannson, Gunnar; Foster, Gregory D.; Eckel, William P.

    1992-01-01

    Ether derivatives of dihydroxy alcohols, which are formed from ethylene or propylene, comprise an important group of groundwater contaminants known as glycol ethers. Compounds in this group are used as solvents, cleaning agents, and emulsifiers in many chemical products and manufacturing operations. Glycol ethers have been associated with a variety of toxic effects, and some compounds in the group are relatively potent teratogens. The limited information available suggests that glycol ethers are contaminants in groundwater, especially in anaerobic plumes emanating from disposal of mixed industrial and household waste. Most methods used to analyze groundwater samples cannot adequately detect μg/? (ppb) concentrations of glycol ethers, and the existing methods perform worst for the most widely used and toxic species. A new method capable of analyzing μg/? concentrations of glycol ethers was recently developed, and its use is recommended for groundwater samples where glycol ethers are likely to be present.

  1. Chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to develop high-temperature high-performance structural resins for aerospace applications, the chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles) were investigated. The polymers were prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of aromatic bis(imidazolephenols) with activated aromatic difluoro compounds. The amorphous thermoplastic polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures from 230 to 301 C, inherent viscosities from 0.46 to 1.46 dL/g, and number-average molecular weights as high as 59,300 g/mole. The polymers exhibit good toughness, adhesive, composite, and film properties. The chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of these materials are discussed.

  2. High temperature fuel cell membranes based on poly(arylene ether)s containing benzimidazole groups

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae Sik; Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan - Soo; Boncella, James M; Kuiper, David; Guiver, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Development of new high-performance polymer membranes that retain their proton conductivity under low humidity conditions is one of the most critical requirements to commercialize PEMFC systems. Current sulfonated proton exchange membranes acquire proton conductivity by water that solvates ion and carries proton. Consequently, a loss of water under low RH conditions immediately results in a loss of proton conductivity. One approach to maintain proton conductivity under low RH conditions is to replace water with a less volatile proton solvent. Kreuer has pointed out the possibility to develop fully polymeric proton-conducting membranes based on nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as imidazole, benzimidazole, and pyrazole. We have attempted to blend those less volatile proton solvent with sulfonated copolymers such as polystyrene sulfonic acid, Nafion, poly(arylene ether sulfone, BPSH-xx). [Ref. DOE review meeting 2007 and 2008] However, we observed that imidazole was slowly sublimated out as temperature and humidity increases which could cause poisoning of electro-catalyst, corrosion and losing conductivity. In this presentation, we report the synthesis of novel poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing benzimidazole groups These benzimidazole containing polymer was blended with sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone). In the blend system, benzimidazole group attached to the polysulfone acts as a medium through the basic nitrogen for transfer of protons between the sulfonic acid groups. Proton conductivity of the blend membranes was investigated as a function of water content at 80 C and compared the performance with water based proton conduction system.

  3. trans-cis Configuration regulated supramolecular polymer gels and chirality transfer based on a bolaamphiphilic histidine and dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunfeng; Wang, Tianyu; Fu, Yunzhi; Liu, Minghua

    2016-01-25

    Supramolecular polymer gels based on the co-assembly of bolaamphiphilic l-histidine(BolaHis) and dicarboxylic acids are dependent on the molar ratios, flexibility and cis-trans configuration of acid molecules. Thus, oligomerized rigid cis-maleic acid or flexible trans-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid can form chiral supramolecular polymer gels with l-BolaHis. PMID:26617194

  4. High performance polymer development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    The term high performance as applied to polymers is generally associated with polymers that operate at high temperatures. High performance is used to describe polymers that perform at temperatures of 177 C or higher. In addition to temperature, other factors obviously influence the performance of polymers such as thermal cycling, stress level, and environmental effects. Some recent developments at NASA Langley in polyimides, poly(arylene ethers), and acetylenic terminated materials are discussed. The high performance/high temperature polymers discussed are representative of the type of work underway at NASA Langley Research Center. Further improvement in these materials as well as the development of new polymers will provide technology to help meet NASA future needs in high performance/high temperature applications. In addition, because of the combination of properties offered by many of these polymers, they should find use in many other applications.

  5. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  6. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  7. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  8. Cathodic delaminations of poly(phenyl ether ether ketone) (PEEK) coatings overlaid on zinc phosphate-deposited steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Carciello, N.R. . Dept. of Applied Science)

    1993-12-10

    The melt-crystallized poly(phenyl) ether ether ketone (PEEK) polymer was overlaid on crystalline zinc phosphate (Zn [center dot] Ph) conversion coating-deposited and nondeposited cold-rolled steels at 400 C in air or in N[sub 2] environments. The ability of these coatings systems to protect the steel against corrosion was evaluated from the rate of cathodic delamination of the coating layer from the steel. Because the cathodic reaction, H[sub 2]O + 1/20[sub 2] + 2e[sup [minus

  9. Molecular Model for the Solubilization of Membranes into Nanodisks by Styrene Maleic Acid Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Scheidelaar, Stefan; Koorengevel, Martijn C.; Pardo, Juan Dominguez; Meeldijk, Johannes D.; Breukink, Eefjan; Killian, J. Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    A recent discovery in membrane research is the ability of styrene-maleic acid (SMA) copolymers to solubilize membranes in the form of nanodisks allowing extraction and purification of membrane proteins from their native environment in a single detergent-free step. This has important implications for membrane research because it allows isolation as well as characterization of proteins and lipids in a near-native environment. Here, we aimed to unravel the molecular mode of action of SMA copolymers by performing systematic studies using model membranes of varying compositions and employing complementary biophysical approaches. We found that the SMA copolymer is a highly efficient membrane-solubilizing agent and that lipid bilayer properties such as fluidity, thickness, lateral pressure profile, and charge density all play distinct roles in the kinetics of solubilization. More specifically, relatively thin membranes, decreased lateral chain pressure, low charge density at the membrane surface, and increased salt concentration promote the speed and yield of vesicle solubilization. Experiments using a native membrane lipid extract showed that the SMA copolymer does not discriminate between different lipids and thus retains the native lipid composition in the solubilized particles. A model is proposed for the mode of action of SMA copolymers in which membrane solubilization is mainly driven by the hydrophobic effect and is further favored by physical properties of the polymer such as its relatively small cross-sectional area and rigid pendant groups. These results may be helpful for development of novel applications for this new type of solubilizing agent, and for optimization of the SMA technology for solubilization of the wide variety of cell membranes found in nature. PMID:25606677

  10. Uranyl ion uptake capacity of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide/maleic acid) copolymeric hydrogels prepared by gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Erol; Taşdelen, Betul; Osmanlioglu, A. Erdal

    2012-06-01

    The effect of gel composition, absorbed dose and pH of the solution on the uranyl ion uptake capacity of N-isopropylacrylamide/maleic acid copolymeric hydrogels containing 0-3 mol% of maleic acid at 48 kGy have been investigated. Uranyl uptake capacity of hydrogels are found to increase from 18.5 to 94.8 mg [UO22+]/g dry gel as the mole % of maleic acid content in the gel structure increased from 0 to 3. The percent swelling, equilibrium swelling and diffusion coefficient values have been evaluated for poly(N-isopropylacrylamide/maleic acid) hydrogels at 500 ppm of uranyl nitrate solution.