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Sample records for ether polymer maleic

  1. 40 CFR 721.10316 - Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic anhydride and alkyl alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10316 Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10316 - Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic anhydride and alkyl alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10316 Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10316 - Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic anhydride and alkyl alcohols (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10316 Dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dicyclopentadiene polymer with maleic...

  4. Complexation between poly(maleic acid/octyl vinyl ether) and poly(vinyl caprolactam) in aqueous solution and at the alumina/water interface.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Q; Somasundaran, P

    2002-09-01

    Solution and interfacial properties of binary polymer mixtures of poly(maleic acid/octyl vinyl ether) (PMAOVE) and poly(vinyl caprolactam) (PVCAP) have been studied for the alumina/water system. To test the hydrophobic effect, mixtures of poly(maleic acid/methyl vinyl ether) (PMAMVE) and PVCAP are also investigated and compared to the behavior of PMAOVE/PVCAP. At low pH, both polymer mixtures become turbid upon mixing. The turbidity increases at low mixing ratios of PVCAP to the vinyl ether component, reaches a maximum, and then decreases at higher mixing ratios. Upon shifting the pH to the alkaline range, i.e., pH 7.5 and above, the turbid solution becomes clear for both the polymer mixtures. Cloud point measurements indicate the absence of complexation of PVCAP with PMAMVE under the alkaline conditions, but strong interaction with PMAOVE. This is attributed to the different forces involved in the complexation among the polymers: H bonding for PVCAP/PMAMVE and both H bonding and hydrophobic effects for PVCAP/PMAOVE. At the alumina/water interface, the normally nonadsorbing PVCAP is triggered to adsorb by PMAOVE, attributed to the hydrophobic complexation between the two. However, the adsorption of PVCAP shows a maximum as a function of the concentration of PMAOVE. At concentrations of PMAOVE above the onset of its own plateau adsorption, the amount of PVCAP triggered to adsorb is reduced possibly due to the polymer complex formation in solution. PMID:16290852

  5. Cross-Linked Hydrogels Formed through Diels-Alder Coupling of Furan- and Maleimide-Modified Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid).

    PubMed

    Stewart, S Alison; Backholm, Matilda; Burke, Nicholas A D; Stöver, Harald D H

    2016-02-23

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition between furan- and maleimide-functional polyanions was used to form cross-linked synthetic polymer hydrogels. Poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) was reacted with furfurylamine or N-(2-aminoethyl)maleimide in acetonitrile to form pairs of furan- and maleimide-functionalized poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic acid)s. Mixtures of these mutually reactive polyanions in water gelled within 15 min to 18 h, depending on degree of functionalization and polymer concentrations. Solution and magic-angle spinning (1)H NMR were used to confirm the formation of the Diels-Alder adduct, to analyze competing hydrolytic side reactions, and demonstrate postgelation functionalization. The effect of the degree of furan and maleimide functionalization, polymer concentration, pH, and calcium ion concentration, on gelation time, gel mechanical properties, and equilibrium swelling, are described. Release of dextran as a model drug was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, as a function of gel composition and calcium treatment. PMID:26800849

  6. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  8. Influence of the backbone structure on the release of bioactive volatiles from maleic acid-based polymer conjugates.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Damien L; Paret, Nicolas; Trachsel, Alain; Herrmann, Andreas

    2010-11-17

    Poly(maleic acid monoester)-based β-mercapto ketones were synthesized and investigated as potential delivery systems for the controlled release of bioactive, volatile, α,β-unsaturated enones (such as damascones and damascenones) by retro 1,4-addition. The bioconjugates were prepared in a one-pot synthesis using 2-mercaptoethanol as a linker. The thiol group of 2-mercaptoethanol adds to the double bond of the enone to form a β-mercapto ketone, which was then grafted via nucleophilic ring-opening of the remaining alcohol function onto a series of alternating copolymers of maleic anhydride and 1-octadecene, ethylene, isobutylene, and methyl vinyl ether. The influence of copolymer backbones on the release of δ-damascone was investigated in buffered aqueous solution as a function of pH and time. In the presence of a cationic surfactant, the polymer conjugates were transferred from an aqueous medium to a cotton surface. The deposition and the release of δ-damascone from the cotton surface as a function of the polymer backbone structure were measured by fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic headspace analysis, respectively. All polymer conjugates were found to deliver higher amounts of the volatile into the headspace than the reference consisting of unmodified δ-damascone. Polymers with a hydrophobic backbone were generally efficiently deposited on the cotton surface, but released δ-damascone only moderately in solution. Conjugates with a more hydrophilic backbone release the active compound more efficiently in water, but are deposited to a lower extent onto the target surface. A good balance of the hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity of the polymer backbone is the key factor to maximize the deposition of the conjugates on the target surface and to optimize the release of the bioactive volatiles. PMID:20936844

  9. Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone targeted poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid) nanoparticles for doxorubicin delivery to MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Varshosaz, Jaleh; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Ghazzavi, Jila

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a targeted anti-cancer drug delivery system for breast cancer. Therefore, doxorubicin (DOX) loaded poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by ionic cross-linking method using Zn(2+) ions. To optimise the effect of DOX/polymer ratio, Zn/polymer ratio, and stirrer rate a full factorial design was used and their effects on particle size, zeta potential, loading efficiency (LE, %), and release efficiency in 72 h (RE72, %) were studied. Targeted NPs were prepared by chemical coating of tiptorelin/polyallylamin conjugate on the surface of NPs by using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carboiimid HCl as cross-linking agent. Conjugation efficiency was measured by Bradford assay. Conjugated triptorelin and targeted NPs were studied by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The cytotoxicity of DOX loaded in targeted NPs and non-targeted ones were studied on MCF-7 cells which overexpress luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptors and SKOV3 cells as negative LHRH receptors using Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay. The best results obtained from NPs prepared by DOX/polymer ratio of 5%, Zn/polymer ratio of 50%, and stirrer rate of 960 rpm. FTIR spectrum confirmed successful conjugation of triptorelin to NPs. The conjugation efficiency was about 70%. The targeted NPs showed significantly less IC50 for MCF-7 cells compared to free DOX and non-targeted NPs. PMID:27463791

  10. Synthesis and characterization of CdS nanocrystals in Maleic anhydride-Octene-1-Vinylbutyl Ether terpolymer matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akperov, Oktay H.; Muradov, Mustafa B.; Malikov, Elvin Y.; Akperov, Elchin O.; Mammadova, Rasmiyya E.; Eyvazova, Goncha M.; Kukovecz, Ákos; Kónya, Zoltán

    2016-07-01

    A Maleic anhydride-Octene-1-Vinylbutyl Ether terpolymer was synthesized via the radical terpolymerization method in order to prepare a new matrix for CdS nanocrystal synthesis. CdS nanocrystals were synthesized through the reaction of thiourea with cadmium chloride. The synthesized terpolymer/CdS nanocrystal composites were characterized by several methods. Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis, Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods. The room temperature UV-visible absorption spectra show a shift of the absorption edge towards higher energies. The band gap of the CdS nanocomposite is bigger than that of bulk CdS. Raman spectrum exhibits characteristic peaks of CdS. Images of the nanocomposite obtained with Atomic Force Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy are the evidences of CdS nanocrystal formation in the terpolymer. Thermal investigation shows that the nanocomposite is more thermostable than the terpolymer which could be useful for application in thermo aggressive medium.

  11. Relationship of molecular weight to antiviral and antitumor activities and toxic effects of maleic anhydride-divinyl ether (MVE) polyanions.

    PubMed

    Morahan, P S; Barnes, D W; Munson, A E

    1978-11-01

    The molecular weight (MW) and dose dependency of several of the toxic effects and antitumor and antiviral activities of a new series of five maleic anhydride-divinyl ether copolymers (MVE) were established. Each polyanion preparation was relatively homogeneous and exhibited a narrow MW range, from 12,500 (MVE-1) to greater than 52,000 (MVE-5). All of the polyanions were effective as adjuvants to surgery against the metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma, and also exhibited marked antitumor activity against the P815 mastocytoma. MVE-1 retained antitumor activity while losing considerable antiviral activity. This polyanion also exhibited the least toxicity with regard to criteria such as sensitization to the lethal effects of endotoxin, inhibition of reticuloendothelial function, and depression of the microsomal mixed functional oxidase system. The MVE-4 (MW, 32,000) and MVE-5 (MW, 52,600) polyanions exhibited potent antitumor and antiviral activity, but also demonstrated dose-dependent toxic effects. PMID:103618

  12. Prolonged Hypocalcemic Effect by Pulmonary Delivery of Calcitonin Loaded Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether Maleic Acid) Bioadhesive Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Varshosaz, J.; Minaiyan, M.; Forghanian, M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design a pulmonary controlled release system of salmon calcitonin (sCT). Therefore, poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid) [P(MVEMA)] nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking method using Fe2+ and Zn2+ ions. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were studied in vitro. The stability of sCT in the optimized nanoparticles was studied by electrophoretic gel method. Plasma calcium levels until 48 h were determined in rats as pulmonary-free sCT solution or nanoparticles (25 μg·kg−1), iv solution of sCT (5 μg·kg−1), and pulmonary blank nanoparticles. The drug remained stable during fabrication and tests on nanoparticles. The optimized nanoparticles showed proper physicochemical properties. Normalized reduction of plasma calcium levels was at least 2.76 times higher in pulmonary sCT nanoparticles compared to free solution. The duration of hypocalcemic effect of pulmonary sCT nanoparticles was 24 h, while it was just 1 h for the iv solution. There was not any significant difference between normalized blood calcium levels reduction in pulmonary drug solution and iv injection. Pharmacological activity of nanoparticles after pulmonary delivery was 65% of the iv route. Pulmonary delivery of P(MVEMA) nanoparticles of sCT enhanced and prolonged the hypocalcemic effect of the drug significantly. PMID:24701588

  13. Immobilization of saccharides and peptides on 96-well microtiter plates coated with methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer.

    PubMed

    Satoh, A; Kojima, K; Koyama, T; Ogawa, H; Matsumoto, I

    1998-06-15

    We have previously reported a method to immobilize protein ligands on microtiter plates coated with methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride copolymer (MMAC) [Isosaki, K., et al. (1992) J. Chromatogr. 597, 123-128]. In this study, we improved the MMAC method to efficiently immobilize not only small ligands such as peptides and oligosaccharides, which could not be efficiently immobilized previously, but also heparin via its reducing end. Amino and hydrazino groups were introduced to MMAC-coated microtiter plate wells by coupling to acid anhydride groups of MMAC with 1,6-hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid dihydrazide, respectively. The amino groups introduced were allowed to react with peptides by use of divalent cross-linkers. Hydrazino groups were allowed to react with formyl groups of saccharides by reductive amination. Peptides and oligosaccharides were immobilized in a dose-dependent manner by these methods. In the case of the angiotensin peptide thus immobilized, the detection limit by monoclonal antibodies was as low as 0.1-1 fmol peptide per well. Application of 20-200 nmol oligosaccharides to the well was sufficient to immobilize and subsequently detect lectins. Furthermore, heparin immobilized on the hydrazinocoated wells was successfully used for the binding assay of annexin IV. PMID:9648659

  14. Supramolecular polymers constructed by crown ether-based molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bo; Wang, Feng; Dong, Shengyi; Huang, Feihe

    2012-03-01

    Supramolecular polymers, polymeric systems beyond the molecule, have attracted more and more attention from scientists due to their applications in various fields, including stimuli-responsive materials, healable materials, and drug delivery. Due to their good selectivity and convenient enviro-responsiveness, crown ether-based molecular recognition motifs have been actively employed to fabricate supramolecular polymers with interesting properties and novel applications in recent years. In this tutorial review, we classify supramolecular polymers based on their differences in topology and cover recent advances in the marriage between crown ether-based molecular recognition and polymer science. PMID:22012256

  15. Poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft polystyrene as a photoactive polymer micelle and stabilizer for polystyrene latexes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, T.; Yin, W.; Webber, S.E. )

    1994-12-05

    Polymerization of maleic anhydride and 2-vinylnaphthalene produces alternating polymers. Imidization of the polymer with amino-terminated polystyrene yields different loadings of an alternating polymer with polystyrene combs''. Upton rigorous hydrolysis one obtains poly(2-vinylnaphthalene-alt-maleic acid)-graft-polystyrene (P2VNMA-PS), which is a fluorescent polymer with unusual solution properties and with significant surface activity. P2VNMA-PS forms a small micelle structure in solution or can be used as a surfactant for an emulsion polymerization of polystyrene (no cosurfactant is required), producing monodisperse latex particles which are stable for pH > 3.9. Centrifugation shows that >90% of the P2VNMA-PS is associated with the latex particles. Fluorescence quenching studies of the naphthalene excimer with Tl[sup +] indicate that approximately 84% and 77% of the naphthalene groups remain exposed to the aqueous phase when this polymer is micellized or incorporated onto a latex particle, respectively. These data imply that the P2VNMA-PS polymer is permanently associated with the exterior of the latex particle, as one would expect given the amphiphilic nature of this polymer.

  16. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  6. Sulfonated Poly(Ether-Ether-Ketone) Polymer Membranes for Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodakovska, J.; Kleperis, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the work, sulfonated poly(ether-ether-ketone) (SPEEK) ionomers were synthesized using an original (submitted for patent) and simple method. The resulting membranes were tested to determine parameters that are important for the use of this material in fuel cells (water absorption, sulfonation degree, conductivity, etc.). The thermo-gravimetric analysis has shown a good thermal stability in the range from RT to 200-220 °C, and two characteristic regions of weight loss - 7.4% at ~140 °C (reversible water loss) and 10.3% at 200-220 °C (due to polymer degradation when cross-linked polymer chains permanently break down and their SO3H-groups are lost). The conductivity values obtained by the through-plane measurements of SPEEK membranes were 12 mS/cm at RT and 23 mS/cm at 80 °C.

  7. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10605 - Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with..., polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... polyoxyalkylene ether, polymer with aliphatic diisocyanate, homopolymer, alkanol-blocked (PMN P-11-485) is...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide...

  16. Aluminum–phthalocyanine chloride associated to poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) nanoparticles as a new third-generation photosensitizer for anticancer photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Ma, Beatriz Chiyin; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Almeida Santos, Maria de Fátima Menezes; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is generally considered to be safer than conventional anticancer therapies, and it is effective against different kinds of cancer. However, its clinical application has been significantly limited by the hydrophobicity of photosensitizers. In this work, a system composed of the hydrophobic photosensitizer aluminum–phthalocyanine chloride (AlPc) associated with water dispersible poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) nanoparticles is described. AlPc was associated with nanoparticles produced by a method of solvent displacement. This system was analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics, and for its photodynamic activity in vitro in cancerous (murine mammary carcinoma cell lineage 4T1, and human mammary adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7) and noncancerous (murine fibroblast cell lineage NIH/3T3, and human mammary epithelial cell lineage MCF-10A) cell lines. Cell viability and the elicited mechanisms of cell death were evaluated after the application of photodynamic therapy. This system showed improved photophysical and photochemical properties in aqueous media in comparison to the free photosensitizer, and it was effective against cancerous cells in vitro. PMID:24634582

  17. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phenols, glycidyl ether. 721.7046 Section 721.7046 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phenols, glycidyl ether. 721.7046 Section 721.7046 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phenols, glycidyl ether. 721.7046 Section 721.7046 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  20. Transparent Films from CO2 -Based Polyunsaturated Poly(ether carbonate)s: A Novel Synthesis Strategy and Fast Curing.

    PubMed

    Subhani, Muhammad Afzal; Köhler, Burkhard; Gürtler, Christoph; Leitner, Walter; Müller, Thomas E

    2016-04-25

    Transparent films were prepared by cross-linking polyunsaturated poly(ether carbonate)s obtained by the multicomponent polymerization of CO2 , propylene oxide, maleic anhydride, and allyl glycidyl ether. Poly(ether carbonate)s with ABXBA multiblock structures were obtained by sequential addition of mixtures of propylene oxide/maleic anhydride and propylene oxide/allyl glycidyl ether during the polymerization. The simultaneous addition of both monomer mixtures provided poly(ether carbonate)s with AXA triblock structures. Both types of polyunsaturated poly(ether carbonate)s are characterized by diverse functional groups, that is, terminal hydroxy groups, maleate moieties along the polymer backbone, and pendant allyl groups that allow for versatile polymer chemistry. The combination of double bonds substituted with electron-acceptor and electron-donor groups enables particularly facile UV- or redox-initiated free-radical curing. The resulting materials are transparent and highly interesting for coating applications. PMID:27028458

  1. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7046 - Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7046 Formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols... substance identified as formaldehyde, polymer with substituted phenols, glycidyl ether (PMN P-93-955)...

  3. Multifunctional Poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-graft-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin Amphiphilic Copolymer as an Oral High-Performance Delivery Carrier of Tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong; Pan, Xiaolei; Wang, Shang; Zhai, Yinglei; Guan, Jibin; Fu, Qiang; Hao, Xiaoli; Qi, Wanpeng; Wang, Yingli; Lian, He; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Yongjun; Sun, Yinghua; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve oral bioavailability of tacrolimus (FK506), a novel poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride)-graft-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin amphiphilic copolymer (CD-PVM/MA) is developed, combining the bioadhesiveness of PVM/MA, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and cytochrome P450-inhibitory effect of CD into one. The FK506-loaded nanoparticles (CD-PVM/MA-NPs) were obtained by solvent evaporation method. The physiochemical properties and intestinal absorption mechanism of FK506-loaded CD-PVM/MA-NPs were characterized, and the pharmacokinetic behavior was investigated in rats. FK506-loaded CD-PVM/MA-NPs exhibited nanometer-sized particles of 273.7 nm, with encapsulation efficiency as high as 73.3%. FK506-loaded CD-PVM/MA-NPs maintained structural stability in the simulated gastric fluid, and about 80% FK506 was released within 24 h in the simulated intestinal fluid. The permeability of FK506 was improved dramatically by CD-PVM/MA-NPs compared to its solution, probably due to the synergistic inhibition effect of P-gp and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A). The intestinal biodistribution of fluorescence-labeled CD-PVM/MA-NPs confirmed its good bioadhesion to the rat intestinal wall. Two endocytosis pathways, clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, were involved in the cellular uptake of CD-PVM/MA-NPs. The important role of lymphatic transport in nanoparticles' access to the systemic circulation, about half of the contribution to oral bioavailability, was observed in mesenteric lymph duct ligated rats. The AUC0-24 of FK506 loaded in nanoparticles was enhanced up to 20-fold compared to FK506 solutions after oral administration. The present study suggested that the novel multifunctional CD-PVM/MA is a promising efficient oral delivery carrier for FK506, due to its ability in solubilization, inhibitory effects on both P-gp and CYP 3A, high bioadhesion, and sustained release capability. PMID:26024817

  4. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols polyglycidyl ethers (generic name). 721.6980... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols polyglycidyl ethers (generic name). 721.6980... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols polyglycidyl ethers (generic name). 721.6980... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol...

  7. Maleic anhydride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Maleic anhydride ; CASRN 108 - 31 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  8. Maleic hydrazide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Maleic hydrazide ; CASRN 123 - 33 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  9. Transparent Films from CO2‐Based Polyunsaturated Poly(ether carbonate)s: A Novel Synthesis Strategy and Fast Curing

    PubMed Central

    Subhani, Muhammad Afzal; Köhler, Burkhard; Gürtler, Christoph; Leitner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transparent films were prepared by cross‐linking polyunsaturated poly(ether carbonate)s obtained by the multicomponent polymerization of CO2, propylene oxide, maleic anhydride, and allyl glycidyl ether. Poly(ether carbonate)s with ABXBA multiblock structures were obtained by sequential addition of mixtures of propylene oxide/maleic anhydride and propylene oxide/allyl glycidyl ether during the polymerization. The simultaneous addition of both monomer mixtures provided poly(ether carbonate)s with AXA triblock structures. Both types of polyunsaturated poly(ether carbonate)s are characterized by diverse functional groups, that is, terminal hydroxy groups, maleate moieties along the polymer backbone, and pendant allyl groups that allow for versatile polymer chemistry. The combination of double bonds substituted with electron‐acceptor and electron‐donor groups enables particularly facile UV‐ or redox‐initiated free‐radical curing. The resulting materials are transparent and highly interesting for coating applications. PMID:27028458

  10. Polymer containing pendant vinyl ether groups useful in enhanced oil recovery using

    SciTech Connect

    Irani, C.A.; Harris, T.V.; Aetzer, W.R.

    1990-08-07

    This patent describes an improvement in a method for recovering oil from an underground oil-bearing earth formation penetrated by an injection well and a producing well, in which method carbon dioxide is injected into the formation to displace oil towards the producing well from which oil is produced to the surface. It comprises: injecting into the formation carbon dioxide, the viscosity of which is increased at least three-fold by the presence of a sufficient amount of polymer containing pendant vinyl ether groups and a sufficient amount of a cosolvent to form a solution of the polymer in the carbon dioxide, wherein the minimum solubility parameter of the polymer is reduced to 6.85(cal/cc)1/1/2 or less by control of the number of pendant vinyl ether groups and by the selection of the vinyl ether groups.

  11. Semifluorinated polymers via cycloaddition and nucleophilic addition reactions of aromatic trifluorovinyl ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacono, Scott Thomas

    This dissertation encompasses the synthesis, characterization, and properties of semifluorinated polymers derived from thermal polymerization of aryl trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) monomers. This work is divided into two parts based on the methodology of thermal polymerization using aryl TFVE monomers. The first part of this work involves the thermal [2 + 2] cyclodimerization of aryl TFVE monomers affording perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) aryl ether polymers. Chapter 1 provides an overview of PFCB aryl ether polymers as a next-generation class of high performance fluoropolymers that have been successfully employed for a myriad of technologies. PFCB aryl ether polymers are highly desired because of their high thermal stability, processability, and tailorability for specific material applications. Chapter 2 introduces a general perspective of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) that were modified with PFCB aryl ether polymer for property enhancement, specifically for low surface energy materials. Chapter 3 and 4 show the synthesis, characterization, and properties of POSS modified PFCB aryl ether polymers as blends and a variety of copolymer architectures, respectively. The second portion of this dissertation focuses on the development of a new, facile step-growth polymerization of diols/bisphenols and aryl TFVEs to afford fluoroethylene/vinylene alkyl/aryl ether (FAE) polymers. Chapter 5 is a prelude to the development of FAE polymers which entails optimizing the methodology and mechanistic rationale of nucleophile addition to aryl TFVEs. Chapter 6 details the FAE polymerization kinetics, physical properties, and strategy for functionalization. Chapter 7 illustrates the modular modification of FAE polymers for the development of tunable light emissive materials for potential use as transport layer material for organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and also chemical sensors. Chapter 8 introduces postfunctionaliztion of FAE polymers resulting with sulfonated biaryl

  12. Rheological Analysis of Polymer Interactions and Ageing of Poly(Methylvinylether-Co-Maleic Anhydride)/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Binary Networks and Their Effects on Mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin P; Laverty, Thomas P; Jones, David S

    2015-12-01

    Polymer blends of poly(vinylalcohol, PVA) and poly(methylvinylether-co-maleic anhydride, PMVE/MA) were formulated and their viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties characterised. The viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties were dependent on polymer concentration, molecular weight of PVA and PVA:PMVE/MA ratio. Alteration of these properties allowed platforms to be designed to offer defined rheological and mucoadhesive properties, properties that could not be achieved using monopolymeric platforms. A strong correlation was noted between the modulus of the polymeric blends and mucoadhesion. After storage, the polymeric blends underwent rheological structuring (ageing) with an attendant enhancement of mucoadhesion. In certain blends containing the highest molecular weight of PVA (146-186 kDa), storage ultimately resulted in an increase and then a significant decrease in the rheological and mucoadhesive properties, the latter phenomenon being accredited to polymer recrystallisation. Ageing of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties was modelled using an exponential growth model, allowing predictions of the storage period associated with the maxima in viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties. These observations highlight the possible implications whenever interactive polymeric blends are employed in drug delivery. Caution is therefore urged whenever a formulation strategy based on interactive polymer blends is employed to ensure that ageing is fully understood and mathematically characterised. PMID:26502109

  13. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10054 - Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3-[(2-aminocyclohexyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10054 Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2... substance identified generically as a phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2-hydroxypropyl ethers (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10054 - Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3-[(2-aminocyclohexyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10054 Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2... substance identified generically as a phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2-hydroxypropyl ethers (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10054 - Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3-[(2-aminocyclohexyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10054 Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2... substance identified generically as a phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2-hydroxypropyl ethers (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10054 - Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3-[(2-aminocyclohexyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10054 Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2... substance identified generically as a phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2-hydroxypropyl ethers (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10054 - Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3-[(2-aminocyclohexyl)amino]-2-hydroxypropyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10054 Phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2... substance identified generically as a phenol, polymer with formaldehyde, 3- -2-hydroxypropyl ethers (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6980 - Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky-lenepolyols...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene... Substances § 721.6980 Dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol A-diglycidyl ether, and alky... reporting. (1) The chemical substance dimer acids, polymer with polyalkylene glycol, bisphenol...

  20. Carbon-13 cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance investigation of the interactions between maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene and wood polymers.

    PubMed

    Rude, Erica; Laborie, Marie-Pierre G

    2008-05-01

    The chemical interactions between maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) and wood were studied with solid-state carbon-13 cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C CPMAS NMR) spectroscopy. MAPP was synthesized with 100% (13)C enrichment at the C(1) and C(4) carbons to allow detection of the [1,4-(13)C(2)]MAPP functional groups and was melt blended with cellulose, lignin, and maple wood. In the cellulose/MAPP blend, changes in (13)C CPMAS NMR corrected signal intensities for the anhydride and dicarboxylic maleic acid functionalities suggested that esterification may have occurred predominantly from the more numerous diacid carbons. A single proton longitudinal relaxation in the rotating frame, (H)T(1rho), for the MAPP and the cellulose carbons in the blend suggested that they were spin coupled, i.e., homogeneous on a 10-200 Angstrom scale. Esterification was also suggested in the lignin/MAPP blend. Furthermore, the more significant changes in the intensities of the carbonyl signals and (H)T(1rho) values suggested that lignin may be more reactive to MAPP than cellulose. Finally, when maple was melt blended with MAPP, the same trends in the (13)C CP-MAS NMR spectra and (H)T(1rho) behavior were observed as when MAPP was blended with cellulose or lignin. This study therefore clarifies that during melt compounding of wood with MAPP, esterification occurs with wood polymers, preferentially with lignin. Understanding the interactions of MAPP with wood is of significance for the development of natural-fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites. PMID:18498698

  1. 75 FR 4288 - Oxirane, 2-Methyl-, Polymer with Oxirane, Dimethyl Ether; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ...This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of oxirane, 2-methyl-,polymer with oxirane, dimethyl ether (CAS Reg. No. 61419-46-3); minimum number average molecular weight (in AMW) 2,800; when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation under 40 CFR 180.960. BASF Corporation, 100 Campus Dr., Florham Park, NJ 07932 submitted a......

  2. Synthesis and applications of sulfopropyl ether γ-cyclodextrin polymer as chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bao, James J; Jia, Feifei; Li, Youxin; Liang, Qinggang; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-01

    A novel sulfopropyl ether γ-cyclodextrin polymer (SPE-γ-CDP) through polycondensating sulfated cyclodextrins (SCDs) was synthesized. This synthesis approach also has the potential of preparing other derived cyclodextrins (CDs) polymers. The polymerized SCDs took on both the properties of SCDs and certain characteristics of polymers, such as chiral selectivity and high viscosity. Synthesis parameters, including reactions sequence, sulfation, and polycondensation conditions were investigated systematically. The product was characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (IR), and indirect UV detections prior to use as background electrolytes additive. The separation conditions, including the concentration of SPE-γ-CDP, the concentration and pH of running buffer, separation voltage, as well as the additional organic solution were optimized during chiral separation of neutral, acidic, and basic enantiomers in capillary electrophoresis (CE). SPE-γ-CDP was proven to be an effective chiral resolving agent in CE with the advantages of simple synthesis process, low cost, similar ratio of charge-to-mass, low current, great reproducibility, and reusability. Graphical Abstract Synthesis and applications of sulfopropyl ether γ-cyclodextrin polymer. PMID:26993309

  3. pH-Responsive Polymer Conjugate of Pirarubicin With Styrene Maleic Acid Copolymer as a Potential Therapeutic for Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lifeng; Sun, Jinghua; Yin, Hongzhuan; Fang, Jun; Jin, Xianyu

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies indicated the potential of styrene maleic acid copolymer (SMA)-conjugated pirarubicin (4'-O-tetrahydropyranyldoxorubicin [THP]) for targeted anticancer therapy based on the enhanced permeability and retention effect. In this study, to achieve further improved therapeutic efficacy, a pH-responsive SMA-conjugated THP-containing hydrazone bond (SMA-hyd-THP) was synthesized and evaluated in vitro and ex vivo using human ovarian cancer cells and tissues. SMA-hyd-THP showed good water solubility, forming micelles with a mean particle size of 48.0 nm, which is applicable for enhanced permeability and retention-based tumor accumulation. The THP loading in this preparation was 15% (wt/wt), and release rate of free THP from SMA-hyd-THP at physiological pH (7.4) was approximately 10% in 72 h. However, it increased rapidly at pH 6.5 (42%) and 5.5 (83%), which indicates that tumor environment of weak acidic condition (pH 6.5-6.9) is favorable for release of THP. This notion was partly proved by incubating SMA-hyd-THP with tumor tissues from ovarian cancer patients. In addition, release of THP was not affected by serum, suggesting that SMA-hyd-THP is relatively stable in circulation. Finally, SMA-hyd-THP showed much increased cytotoxicity against various ovarian cancer cells at acidic tumor pH (6.5). These findings may provide an option for targeted therapy against ovarian cancer. PMID:27020984

  4. Polymer containing pendant silyl ether groups useful in enhanced oil recovery using CO sub 2 flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Irani, C.A.; Harris, T.V.; Pretzer, W.R.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes improvement in a method for recovering oil from an underground oil-bearing earth formation penetrated by an injection well and a producing well, in which method carbon dioxide is injected into the formation to displace oil towards the producing well from which oil is produced to the surface. The improvement comprises injecting into the formation carbon dioxide, the viscosity of which is increased at least three- fold by the presence of a sufficient amount of a polymer containing pendant groups selected from the group consisting of silyl ether groups and polydialkylsiloxane groups and a sufficient amount of a cosolvent to form a solution of the polymer in the carbon dioxide, wherein the minimum solubility parameter of the polymer is reduced to 6.85 (cal/cc){sup 1/2} or less by control of the number of pendant groups and by the selection of the pendant groups.

  5. Epoxies from maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Tumi, S.O.; Bashish, M.; El-Abib, A.R.

    1989-02-01

    The epoxidation of maleic anhydride by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sodium molybdate catalyst is first order with respect to both maleic anhydride and sodium molybdate concentration. The reaction is zero order with respect to hydrogen peroxide concentration. The calculated rates are reported and a reaction mechanism is proposed.

  6. Phenylethynyl Terminated Arylene Ether Oxadiazole and Triazole Oligomers and Their Cured Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    Several novel phenylethynyl terminated arylene ether oligomers containing oxadiazole and triazole rings were prepared as part of an effort to develop high performance polymers with an attractive combination of properties (e.g. processability and mechanical performance) for future NASA applications. The oligomers displayed low melt viscosities and good solubilities. Thin films cast from solutions of the oligomers and cured for one hour at 350 C in air gave good tensile properties. Titanium to titanium (6Al-4V) tensile shear specimens were readily fabricated and provided moderate strengths. The chemistry and properties of these new materials are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of polymer inclusion membranes containing crown ethers for selective cesium separation from nuclear waste solution.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, P K; Lakshmi, D S; Bhattacharyya, A; Manchanda, V K

    2009-09-30

    Transport behaviour of (137)Cs from nitric acid feed was investigated using cellulose triacetate plasticized polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) containing several crown ether carriers viz. di-benzo-18-crown-6 (DB18C6), di-benzo-21-crown-7 (DB21C7) and di-tert-butylbenzo-18-crown-6 (DTBB18C6). The PIM was prepared from cellulose triacetate (CTA) with various crown ethers and plasticizers. DTBB18C6 and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) were found to give higher transport rate for (137)Cs as compared to other carriers and plasticizers. Effect of crown ether concentration, nitric acid concentration, plasticizer and CTA concentration on the transport rate of Cs was also studied. The Cs selectivity with respect to various fission products obtained from an irradiated natural uranium target was found to be heavily dependent on the nature of the plasticizer. The present work shows that by choosing a proper plasticizer, one can get either good transport efficiency or selectivity. Though TBP plasticized membranes showed good transport efficiency, it displayed poor selectivities. On the other hand, an entirely opposite separation behaviour was observed with 2-nitrophenyloctylether (NPOE) plasticized membranes suggesting the possible application of the later membranes for the removal of bulk (137)Cs from the nuclear waste. The stability of the membrane was tested by carrying out transport runs for nearly 25 days. PMID:19398153

  8. Toughening of BIS maleimide resins: Synthesis and characterization of maleimide terminated poly(arylene ether) oligomers and polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, J. E.; Lyle, G. D.; Jurek, M. J.; Mohanty, D.; Hedrick, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Amine functional poly(arylene ether) sulfones were previously reported. Herein, the chemistry was extended to amorphous poly(arylene ether) ketones because of their higher fracture toughness values, relative to the polysulfones. It was demonstrated that the amino functional oligomers undergo a self-crosslinking reaction at temperatures above about 220 C. This produces an insoluble, but ductile network that has excellent resistance. A ketamine structure hypothesis was proposed and verified using solid state magic angle NMR. In most cases, the water generated upon ketamine formation is too low to produce porosity and solid networks are obtained. The stability of the ketamine networks towards hydrolysis is excellent. The chemistry was further demonstrated to be able to crosslink preformed nonfunctional poly(arylene ether) ketones if a difunctional amine was utilized. This concept has the possibility of greatly improving the creep resistance of thermoplastics. Also, a new technique was developed for converting the amine functional oligomers cleanly into maleimide structures. This method involves reacting maleic anhydride with monomeric aminophenols in the presence of solvent mixtures.

  9. Amorphous phase separation in crystallizable polymer blends based on poly (aryl ether ketones) and poly (ether imide)

    SciTech Connect

    Kalika, D.S.; Bristow, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    The morphology of a series of miscible crystallizable blends based on poly (aryl ether ketones) [PAEK] and poly (ether imide) [PEI] has been investigated as a function of blend composition and crystallization condition by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. For blends of poly (ether ether ketone) [PEEK] and PEI, dielectric scans of the crystallized samples reveal two glass-rubber relaxations corresponding to the coexistence of a mixed interlamellar amorphous phase, and a pure PEI phase located in interfibrillar/interspherulitic regions. The exclusion of a significant fraction of PEI outside of the crystal lamellae reflects a fundamental change in the nature of interaction between the interlamellar PEEK segments and the PEI chains owing to the constraints imposed on the PEEK segments by the crystal surfaces. The degree of PEI exclusion is dependent upon kinetic factors, i.e. the rate of PEEK crystallization relative to the rate of PEI diffusion away from the advancing crystal front. As a result, lower crystallization temperatures lead to an increase in the amount of PEI trapped in the interlamellar regions. In this work, the morphological characteristics of the PEEK/PEI blends are compared with those of blends comprised of poly (ether ketone ketone) [PEKK] and PEI. The introduction of the {open_quotes}kinked{close_quote} isophthalate moiety in the PEKK backbone has been shown to disrupt the persistence of order at the crystal-amorphous interface, and thereby leads to a reduction in the degree of constraint imposed by the crystal lamellae on the amorphous (interlamellar) PEKK segments. The impact of this reduction in crystalline constraint on the nature of the PEKK/PEI intersegmental interactions and the corresponding PEI segregation is discussed.

  10. Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups and poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups are readily prepared from bisphenols containing ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups. The resulting polymers are cured up to 350.degree. C. to provide crosslinked poly(arylene ether)s with good solvent resistance, high strength and modulus.

  11. Study of improved resins for advanced supersonic technology composites. Part 1: Heteroaromatic polymers containing ether groups. Part 2: Curing chemistry of aromatic polymers and composite studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takekoshi, T.; Hillig, W. B.; Mellinger, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Fourteen ether-containing, aromatic dianhydrides have been synthesized from N-phenyl-3 or 4-nitrophthalimide and various bisphenols. The process involves nucleophilic displacement of activated nitro groups with bisphenolate ions. Ether-containing dianhydrides were indefinitely stable in the presence of atmospheric moisture. One-step, high temperature solution polymerization of the ether-containing dianhydrides with m-phenylene diamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline and 1, 3-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene afforded 42 polyetherimides. The polyetherimides were all soluble in m-cresol except two which were found to be crystalline. The glass transition temperatures of the polyetherimides ranged from 178 to 277 C. Soluble polybenzimidazopyrrolones containing ether groups were also prepared from the same ether-containing dianhydrides and aromatic tetraamines by one-step solution polymerization. Using low molecular weight polyetherimides, various thermoset resin systems were developed and tested as matrices for fiber-reinforced composites. The curing chemistry involving reaction of the phthalonitrile group and the o-diaminophenyl group was found to be generally applicable to crosslinking various aromatic polymers other than polyimides.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing mesonaphthobifluorene for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youngdon; Seo, Dongwan; Lee, Soonho; Hossain, Md Awlad; Lim, Jinseong; Lee, Sangyoung; Hong, Taehoon; Kim, Whangi

    2014-10-01

    The novel sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing mesonaphthobifluorene (MNF) moiety were synthesized and characterized their properties. The prepared polymers have highly conjugated aromatic structure due to the MNF group which is an allotrope of carbon and one atom thick planar sheets of sp2-bonded carbon atoms. Poly(ether sulfone)s bearing tetraphenylethylene on polymer backbone were synthesized by polycondensation and followed intra-cyclization from tetraphenylethylene to form MNF by Friedel-craft reaction with Lewis acid (FeCl3). The sulfonation was performed selectively on MNF units with conc. sulfuric acid. The structural properties of the sulfonated polymers were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied by ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, and proton conductivity. The synthesized polymer electrolyte membranes showed better thermal and dimensional stabilities owing to the inducted highly conjugated aromatic structure in the polymer backbone. The water uptake of the synthesized membranes ranged from 23-52%, compared with 32.13% for Nafion 211 at 80 degrees C. The synthesized membranes exhibited proton conductivities (80 degrees C, RH 90%) of 74.6-100.4 mS/cm, compared with 102.7 mS/cm for Nafion 211. PMID:25942900

  13. Proton-conducting electrolyte membranes based on organosiloxane network/sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) interpenetrating polymer networks embedding sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sung Yeon; Park, Junghwa; Kim, Dukjoon

    2013-12-01

    Composite membranes based on organosiloxane network (OSPN)/sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) structures with sulfonated mesoporous benzene-silica (SMBS) proton conductors embedded are fabricated. The flexibility and toughness properties of OSPN are expected to compensate for the brittleness of the sPEEK membranes. The 2D-hexagonal cylindrical mesopore structures of SMBS maintain the water content at a high level to enhance the conductivity, even at low relative humidity. Compared to the pristine sPEEK membranes, the ternary composite membranes can endure about 10 times more elongation before breaking. Both OSPN and SMBS components enhance the proton conductivity of sPEEK membranes in a hydrated state, while maintaining the water uptake at below 55% even at temperatures as high as 100 °C. The SAXS patterns of the composite membranes explain the water-related membrane properties of composite membranes. The maximum power densities of Nafion membrane-based MEAs are 178.4 mA cm-2, 132.2 mA cm-2, and 90.9 mA cm-2, but those of composite membrane-based ones are 159.1 mA cm-2, 134.2 mA cm-2, and 110.8 mA cm-2 at 95%, 70%, and 45% relative humidity, respectively.

  14. A new strategy for designing high-performance sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) polymer electrolyte membranes using inorganic proton conductor-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunli; Zheng, Xuan; Liu, Hai; Wang, Guangjin; Cheng, Fan; Zheng, Genwen; Wen, Sheng; Law, Wing-Cheung; Tsui, Chi-Pong; Tang, Chak-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Remarkable progress has been made on the use of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) for renewable-energy-related research. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as versatile nanomaterials to modify PEMs. However, the inert ionic conduction ability and possible short-circuiting risk are the two major obstacles to their further development. In this work, CNTs are firstly functionalized with an inorganic proton conductor, boron phosphate (BPO4), using a facile polydopamine-assisted sol-gel method to yield BPO4@CNTs. This new additive is then used to modify sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK). Polydopamine coating layer can act as an extraordinary glue to homogeneously adhere BPO4 nanoparticles on CNTs, thereby not only reducing the risk of short-circuiting, but also fabricating new proton-conducting pathways in the composite membranes. A comprehensive characterization reveals that the thermal stability, tensile properties, and dimensional stability of PEMs are significantly improved. Compared with pure SPEEK, the proton conductivity of SPEEK/BPO4@CNTs-2 is improved by 45% and 150% at 20 °C and at 80 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the H2/O2 cell performance of SPEEK/BPO4@CNTs-2 membrane exhibits a peak power density of 340.7 mW cm-2 at 70 °C, which is significantly better than that of pure SPEEK (254.2 mW cm-2), demonstrating the great potential of proton conductors-functionalized CNTs in PEMs.

  15. Preparation and characterization of polymer blend based on sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) and polyetherimide (SPEEK/PEI) as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Nordiana; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan; Lepit, Ajis; Rasmidi, Rosfayanti; Subban, Ri Hanum Yahaya; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan

    2015-08-01

    Blends of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyetherimide (PEI) were prepared in five different weight ratios using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent by the solution cast technique. The degree of sulfonation (DS) of the sulfonated PEEK was determined from deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d6) solution of the purified polymer using 1H NMR method. The properties studied in the present investigation includes conductivity, water uptake, thermal stability and structure analysis of pure SPEEK as well as SPEEK-PEI polymer blend membranes. The experimental results show that the conductivity of the membranes increased with increase in temperature from 30 to 80°C, except for that of pure SPEEK membrane which increased with temperature from 30 to 60°C while its conductivity decreased with increasing temperature from 60 to 80°C. The conductivity of 70wt.%SPEEK-30wt.%PEI blend membrane at 80% relative humidity (RH) is found to be 1.361 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 30°C and 3.383 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 80°C respectively. It was also found that water uptake and thermal stability of the membranes slightly improved upon blending with PEI. Structure analysis was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which revealed considerable interactions between sulfonic acid group of SPEEK and imide groups of PEI. Modification of SPEEK by blending with PEI shows good potential for improving the electrical and physical properties of proton exchange membranes.

  16. Preparation and characterization of polymer blend based on sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) and polyetherimide (SPEEK/PEI) as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Nordiana; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan; Lepit, Ajis; Rasmidi, Rosfayanti; Subban, Ri Hanum Yahaya; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan

    2015-08-28

    Blends of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyetherimide (PEI) were prepared in five different weight ratios using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent by the solution cast technique. The degree of sulfonation (DS) of the sulfonated PEEK was determined from deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d{sub 6}) solution of the purified polymer using {sup 1}H NMR method. The properties studied in the present investigation includes conductivity, water uptake, thermal stability and structure analysis of pure SPEEK as well as SPEEK-PEI polymer blend membranes. The experimental results show that the conductivity of the membranes increased with increase in temperature from 30 to 80°C, except for that of pure SPEEK membrane which increased with temperature from 30 to 60°C while its conductivity decreased with increasing temperature from 60 to 80°C. The conductivity of 70wt.%SPEEK-30wt.%PEI blend membrane at 80% relative humidity (RH) is found to be 1.361 × 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1} at 30°C and 3.383 × 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1} at 80°C respectively. It was also found that water uptake and thermal stability of the membranes slightly improved upon blending with PEI. Structure analysis was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which revealed considerable interactions between sulfonic acid group of SPEEK and imide groups of PEI. Modification of SPEEK by blending with PEI shows good potential for improving the electrical and physical properties of proton exchange membranes.

  17. Evaluation of thermal gelation behavior of different cellulose ether polymers by rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaghi, S.; Edelby, Y.; Senge, B.

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and Methylcellulose (MC) are cellulose ethers which can be dispersed in water and used as thickeners, emulsifiers, binders, film formers, and water-retention agents due to their hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics. In this study, various types of HPMCs, in comparison with two types of MCs were examined. The formed gels of the different cellulose ethers showed specific and various structural formation and network properties. The degree of methylation (Meth.) and hydroxypropylation (HyPr.) affected drastically the heat-induced gelation of the examined cellulose ethers.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. 177.1820 Section 177.1820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated...

  19. Polymer Physics and Structure/property Relationships of Thermally Stable Polyarylene Ethers for Second Order Nonlinear Optics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Chu-Yun Stacey

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have been actively involved in developing nonlinear optical polymers for device applications. One major obstacle with the current polymers is that the chromophores doped or covalently bonded to the backbones disorient following electric field poling and thus the nonlinear optical signal decreases with time. The optical stability must thus be optimized before useful devices made from these materials will be feasible. Although several synthetic approaches have been employed to optimize polymer structures and glass transition temperatures in order to maximize stability, the studies of the polymer physics of these high temperature stable polymers are still limited. It is critical to understand the polymer physics governing the relaxation behavior of these nonlinear optical polymers so that one can better predict the long-term thermal and temporal stability and changes in properties throughout the anticipated service life when utilizing them for device applications. The goal of this research is to investigate the structure/property relationships that influence the relaxation behavior of a class of thermally stable polymers called polyarylene ethers (synthesized by Dr. Duane B. Priddy, Jr., Mr. Greg D. Lyle, and Dr. James E. McGrath at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University). Specific issues such as the effects of polymer backbone structures, dopant/polymer interactions, chromophore functionalization, and chromophore concentration on the dopant orientational dynamics and intermolecular cooperativity in these polymer systems were studied. Attempts to correlate the molecular level parameters including the molecular weight and polydispersities to the observed physical properties were made. The effect of physical aging during poling on the chromophore orientational dynamics was also examined. Second harmonic generation, a second order nonlinear optical effect, and dielectric relaxation are the two techniques employed for these

  20. Anhydrous state proton and lithium ion conducting solid polymer electrolytes based on sulfonated bisphenol-A-poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha Thakurta, Soma

    Sulfonated polymer based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have received considerable interest in recent years because of their wide variety of applications particularly in fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and electrochromic devices. The present research was focused on three interrelated subtopics. First, two different bisphenol-A-poly(arylene ethers), polyetherimide (PEI) and polysulfone (PSU) were sulfonated by a post sulfonation method to various degrees of sulfonation, and their thermal and mechanical properties were examined. The effects of poly(arylene ether) chemical structure, reaction time, concentration, and types of sulfonating agents on sulfonation reaction were investigated. It was found that deactivation of bisphenol A unit caused by the electron withdrawing imide, retarded the sulfonation of PEI compared to PSU. Sulfonation conducted with a high concentration of sulfonating agent and/or prolonged reaction time exhibited evidence of degradation at the isopropylidene unit. The degradation occurred through the same mechanistic pathway with the two different sulfonating agents, chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) and trimethylsilyl chlorosulfonate (TMSCS). The degradation was faster with CSA than its silyl ester, TMSCS, and was evident even at low acid concentration. Second, novel anhydrous proton conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) were prepared by the incorporation of 1H-1,2,4-triazole (Taz) as a proton solvent in sulfonated polyetherimide (SPEI) matrix. The size, shape, and state of dispersion (crystal morphology) of triazole crystals in SPEI were examined as a function of degree of sulfonation and triazole concentration. Increasing sulfonic acid content caused reduction of triazole crystallite size, hence the depression of melting temperature and their uniform distribution throughout the sulfonated polymer matrix. The increased rate of structure diffusion within the smaller size crystals due to the improved molecular mobility contributed

  1. Generation of a Focused Poly(amino ether) Library: Polymer-mediated Transgene Delivery and Gold-Nanorod based Theranostic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lucas; Ramos, James; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Rege, Kaushal

    2012-01-01

    A focused library of twenty-one cationic poly(amino ethers) was synthesized following ring-opening polymerization of two diglycidyl ethers by different oligoamines. The polymers were screened in parallel for plasmid DNA (pDNA) delivery, and transgene expression efficacies of individual polymers were compared to those of 25 kDa polyethylenimine (PEI), a current standard for polymer-mediated transgene delivery. Seven lead polymers that demonstrated higher transgene expression than PEI in pancreatic and prostate cancer cells lines were identified from the screen. All seven lead polymers showed highest transgene expression at a polymer:pDNA weight ratio of 5:1 in the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. Among the conditions studied, transgene expression efficacy correlated with minimal polymer cytotoxicity but not polyplex sizes. In addition, this study indicated that methylene spacing between amine centers in the monomers, amine content, and molecular weight of the polymers are all significant factors and should be considered when designing polymers for transgene delivery. A lead effective polymer was employed for coating gold nanorods, leading to theranostic nanoassemblies that possess combined transgene delivery and optical imaging capabilities, leading to potential theranostic systems. PMID:23382773

  2. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10220 - Phosphoric acid, polymer with cycloaliphatic diglycidyl ether, alkylethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, polymer with... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10220 Phosphoric acid, polymer with... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as phosphoric acid, polymer...

  6. An effective approach for alleviating cation-induced backbone degradation in aromatic ether-based alkaline polymer electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Han, Juanjuan; Liu, Qiong; Li, Xueqi; Pan, Jing; Wei, Ling; Wu, Ying; Peng, Hanqing; Wang, Ying; Li, Guangwei; Chen, Chen; Xiao, Li; Lu, Juntao; Zhuang, Lin

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic ether-based alkaline polymer electrolytes (APEs) are one of the most popular types of APEs being used in fuel cells. However, recent studies have demonstrated that upon being grafted by proximal cations some polar groups in the backbone of such APEs can be attacked by OH(-), leading to backbone degradation in an alkaline environment. To resolve this issue, we performed a systematic study on six APEs. We first replaced the polysulfone (PS) backbone with polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) and polyphenylether (PPO), whose molecular structures contain fewer polar groups. Although improved stability was seen after this change, cation-induced degradation was still obvious. Thus, our second move was to replace the ordinary quaternary ammonia (QA) cation, which had been closely attached to the polymer backbone, with a pendant-type QA (pQA), which was linked to the backbone through a long side chain. After a stability test in a 1 mol/L KOH solution at 80 °C for 30 days, all pQA-type APEs (pQAPS, pQAPPSU, and pQAPPO) exhibited as low as 8 wt % weight loss, which is close to the level of the bare backbone (5 wt %) and remarkably lower than those of the QA-type APEs (QAPS, QAPPSU, and QAPPO), whose weight losses under the same conditions were >30%. The pQA-type APEs also possessed clear microphase segregation morphology, which led to ionic conductivities that were higher, and water uptakes and degrees of membrane swelling that were lower, than those of the QA-type APEs. These observations unambiguously indicate that designing pendant-type cations is an effective approach to increasing the chemical stability of aromatic ether-based APEs. PMID:25594224

  7. Sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, methods for producing the same, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hofmann, Michael A.

    2006-11-14

    The present invention is directed to sulfonimide-containing polymers, specifically sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, and processes for making the sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, for use conductive membranes and fuel cells.

  8. Ac conduction in conducting poly pyrrole-poly vinyl methyl ether polymer composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, S.K.; Mandal, T.K.; Mandal, B.M.; Chakravorty, D.

    1997-03-01

    Composite materials containing conducting polypyrrole and insulating poly (vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) have been synthesized by oxidative polymerization of pyrrole in ethanol using FeCl{sub 3} oxidant in the presence of PVME. The ac conductivity measurements have been carried out in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz and in the temperature range of 110 to 350 K. The frequency dependent conductivity has been explained on the basis of a small polaron tunnelling mechanism. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Maleic anhydride from normal butane

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, S.D.; Doshi, B.

    1987-01-01

    Worldwide about one billion pounds of maleic anhydride is used annually in the manufacture of a number of commercially valuable products, including unsaturated polyester resins, agricultural chemicals, and lubricating oil additives. Maleic anhydride is not found in nature. It was first prepared in 1834 by heating malic acid (hydroxy-succinic acid, a compound found in apples and many other fruits). Maleic anhydride was not available commercially until ca. 1930 when the catalytic air oxidation of benzene was begun by National Aniline and Chemical on an industrial scale. The estimated worldwide production in 1985 was 1023 million pounds coming from more than 35 plants varying in capacity from 6 million pounds to 170 million pounds annually.

  10. Interfacial interactions of poly(ether ketone ketone) polymer coatings onto oxide-free phosphate films on an aluminum surface

    SciTech Connect

    Asunskis, A. L.; Sherwood, P. M. A.

    2007-07-15

    This article continues a series of papers that shows how thin (10 nm or less) oxide-free phosphate films can be formed on a number of metals. The films formed have potential as corrosion resistant films. Previous papers have shown that it is possible to extend the range of the surface coatings that can be formed by placing a thin polymer layer over the phosphate layer. In this work it is shown how the water insoluble polymer poly(ether ketone ketone) (PEKK) can be placed over a thin oxide-free phosphate film on aluminum metal. The surface and the interfaces involved were studied by valence band and core level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Difference spectra in the valence band region were used to show that there is a chemical interaction between the PEKK and phosphate thin films on the aluminum metal. Three different phosphate film compositions were studied using different phosphorous containing acids, H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, H{sub 3}PO{sub 3}, and H{sub 3}PO{sub 2}. This type of interaction illustrates the potential of phosphates to act as adhesion promoters. The valence band spectra are interpreted by calculations.

  11. Cycloolefin-maleic anhydride copolymers for 193-nm resist compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. D.; Bae, Jun-Bom; Cook, Michelle M.; Durham, Dana L.; Kudo, Takanori; Kim, Woo-Kyu; Padmanaban, Munirathna; Dammel, Ralph R.

    2000-06-01

    Cycloolefin/maleic anhydride systems are a favorable approach to dry etch resistant resists for 193 nm lithography. This paper reports on poly(BNC/HNC/NC/MA) tetrapolymers, from t- butylnorbornene carboxylate (BNC), hydroxyethyl-norbornene carboxylate (HNC), norbornene carboxylic acid (NC) and maleic anhydride (MA). It was found that moisture has to be excluded in the synthesis of these systems if reproducible results are to be obtained. Lithographic evaluation of an optimized, modified polymer has shown linear isolated line resolution down to 100 nm using conventional 193 nm illumination. Possible reactions of the alcohol and anhydride moieties are discussed, and the effect of the anhydride unit on polymer absorbance is discussed using succinnic anhydride as a model compound.

  12. Acetylene-derived polymers and their applications in hair and skin care.

    PubMed

    Petter, P J

    1989-02-01

    Synopsis Since the introduction over 30 years ago of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the first synthetic hairspray resin, acetylene-derived polymers have found wide and increasing applications in the cosmetics and toiletries industry. This review covers the two main classes of acetylenic polymers. In the first class, in which the chemistry may be traced back to reaction of acetylene with formaldehyde, are included PVP homopolymers and copolymers of VP with vinyl acetate, dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate, vinylcaprolactam and styrene. In the second class, stemming from reaction of acetylene with methanol, are the poly (vinyl methyl ether/maleic acid) monoester resins. PMID:19456933

  13. Volume fraction of ether is a significant factor in controlling conductivity in proton conducting polyether based polymer sol-gel electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Yancey, Benjamin; Jones, Jonathan; Ritchie, Jason E

    2014-11-13

    We have synthesized several copolymers of methyl polyethylene glycol siloxane (MePEG7SiO3)m and methyl polypropylene glycol siloxane (MePPGnSiO3)m as hydrogen ion (H(+)) conducting polymer electrolytes. These copolymers were prepared by a sol-gel polymerization of mixtures of the MePEG and MePPG monomers. We synthesized these H(+) conducting polymer electrolytes in order to study the relationship between observed ionic conductivity and structural properties such as viscosity, fractional free volume, and volume fraction of ether. We found that viscosity increased as the fraction of the smaller comonomer increased. For the MePPG2/MePPG3 copolymer, an increase in fractional free volume increased the fluidity. The heterogeneous copolymers (PEG/PPG copolymers) obeyed the Doolittle equation, while the homogeneous (PEG/PEG and PPG/PPG) copolymers did not. The increase of FFV did not, however, correspond to an increase in conductivity, as would have been predicted by the Forsythe equation. The conductivity data did correspond to a modified Forsythe equation substituting Volume Fraction of Ether (V(f,ether)) for FFV. We conclude that the proton conductivity of MePEG copolymers is more dependent on the volume fraction of ether than on the fractional free volume. PMID:25313939

  14. Theoretical study of binding and permeation of ether-based polymers through interfaces.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Susruta; Hezaveh, Samira; Roccatano, Danilo

    2013-11-27

    We present a molecular dynamics simulation study on the interactions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), and their ABA-type block copolymer, poloxamers, at water/n-heptane and 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospatidycholine (DMPC) lipid bilayer/water interfaces. The partition coefficients in water/1-octanol of the linear polyethers up to three monomers were calculated. The partition coefficients evidenced a higher hydrophobicity of the PPO in comparison to PEO. At the water/n-heptane interface, the polymers tend to adopt elongated conformations in agreement with similar experimental ellipsometry studies of different poloxamers. In the case of the poloxamers at the n-heptane/water interface, the stronger preference of the PPO block for the hydrophobic phase resulted in bottle-brush-type polymer conformations. At lipid bilayer/water interface, the PEO polymers, as expected from their hydrophilic nature, are weakly adsorbed on the surface of the lipid bilayer and locate in the water phase close to the headgroups. The free energy barriers of permeation calculated for short polymer chains suggest a thermodynamics propensity for the water phase that increase with the chain length. The lower affinity of PEO for the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer resulted in the spontaneous expulsion within the simulation time. On the contrary, PPO chains and poloxamers have a longer residence time inside the bilayer, and they tend to concentrate in the tail region of the bilayer near the polar headgroups. In addition, polymers with PPO unit length comparable to the thickness of the hydrophobic region of the bilayer tend to span across the bilayer. PMID:24219592

  15. Ammonium-crown ether supramolecular cation-templated assembly of an unprecedented heterobicluster-metal coordination polymer with enhanced NLO properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfang; Jia, Ding; Humphrey, Mark G; Meng, Suci; Zaworotko, Michael J; Cifuentes, Marie P; Zhang, Chi

    2016-03-01

    An ammonium-crown ether host-guest supramolecular cation-templated synthetic methodology has been developed to construct a structurally unprecedented heterobicluster-metal coordination polymer (HCM-CP 1) based on tetranuclear clusters [WS4Cu3](+) with different connection environments, pentanuclear clusters [WS4Cu4](2+), and Cu(+) building metal ions. HCM-CP 1 exhibits enhanced NLO properties, which may be ascribed to the incorporation of diverse building cluster components. PMID:26864604

  16. Newly developed poly(allyl glycidyl ether/divinyl benzene) polymer for phosphopeptides enrichment and desalting of biofluids.

    PubMed

    Najam-ul-Haq, Muhammad; Saeed, Adeela; Jabeen, Fahmida; Maya, Fernando; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem; Sharif, Ahsan

    2014-03-12

    The polymeric materials have contributed significantly in the area of bioanalytical science. The functionalization of polymeric backbone after its development brings unique selectivity towards the target biomolecules. In present work, the functionalities of choice have been introduced through the ring-opening of allyl glycidyl ether. The utility of polymer is widened through derivatizations to immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic (IMAC) material for the phosphopeptides enrichment and Reversed Phase (C-18) for the desalting prior to MALDI-MS analysis. The polymer-IMAC in addition to Fe(3+) is also immobilized with lanthanide ions like La(3+), Eu(3+), and Er(3+). The amount of Fe(3+) immobilized is determined as 0.7928 mg/g. Spherical morphology with narrow particle size dispersion is revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The surface area, pore volume and size distribution is determined by nitrogen adsorption porosimetery. The elemental composition and purity level is confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) data. The derivatization to IMAC and RP is evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The polymer enables the efficient phosphopeptide enrichment to equal degree from casein variants, non-fat milk, egg yolk, human serum, and HeLa cell extract. The identification of phosphorylation sites can lead to the phosphorylation pathways to understand the post-translational modifications. The identification with their sequence coverage is made using Mascot and Phosphosite Plus. It is sensitive to enrich the phosphopeptides down to 2 femtomoles with very high selectivity of 1:2000 with BSA background. These attributes are linked to the higher surface area (173.1554 m(2)/g) of the designed polymer. The non-specific bindings, particularly the Fe(3+) linked acidic residues are also avoided. Four characteristic phosphopeptides (fibrinopeptide A and their hydrolytic products) from fibrinogen α-chain are identified from the

  17. Effect of Poly(Ether Urethane) Introduction on the Performance of Polymer Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan-Fang; Xiang, Wan-Chun; Fang, Shi-Bi; Chen, Shen; Zhou, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Lin, Yuan

    2009-12-01

    The introduction of poly(ether urethane) (PEUR) into polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide), LiI and I2, has significantly increased the ionic conductivity by nearly two orders of magnitudes. An increment of I-3 diffusion coefficient is also observed. All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells are constructed using the polymer electrolytes. It was found that PEUR incorporation has a beneficial effect on the enhancement of open circuit voltage Voc by shifting the band edge of TiO2 to a negative value. Scanning electron microscope images indicate the perfect interfacial contact between the TiO2 electrode and the blend electrolyte.

  18. Monodisperse porous polymer particles containing macrocyclic ether as a new class of sorbent for SR(II) separation

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Yuxiao; Bai, Feifei; Ye, Gang; Wei, Jichao; Wang, Jianchen; Chen, Jing

    2013-07-01

    Strontium{sup 90} is one of the typical fission products that may be found in high level liquid waste (HLLW). Separation of Sr{sup 90} prior to the vitrification is beneficial to the final treatment of solid radioactive waste. In this study, a new class of sorbent for Sr(II) was developed by loading the macrocyclic ether DtBuCH18C6 into the monodisperse porous polymer particles (MPPPs). The MPPPs are well-known as a promising chromatographic material due to the uniform particle size, porous morphology, good compatibility with organic extractants, and rigid matrix. The structure and micro-morphology of the sorbent particles were characterized. The adsorption behavior towards Sr(II) in HNO{sub 3} media was investigated by both batch and column experiments. High adsorption efficiency and selective separation of Sr(II) was obtained. The sorbent particles can be recycled for at least several times before obvious lose of the adsorption ability. This kind of sorbent possesses the potential to be used for strontium separation in radioactive liquid waste.

  19. Performance of vapor-fed direct dimethyl ether fuel cell utilizing high temperature polybenzimidazole polymer electrolyte membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neutzler, Jay; Qian, Guoqing; Huang, Kevin; Benicewicz, Brian

    2012-10-01

    There is increasing interest in dimethyl ether (DME) as a synthetic fuel. It has present-day relevance and introduces an effective path forward as an energy-dense, low-pressure hydrogen carrier/storage fuel for fuel cells with applications in transportation, stationary, and portable power. Direct reaction DME fuel cells have particular relevance to portable power. This study presents the performance of the vapor-fed direct reaction of DME using high temperature Polybenzimidazole (PBI) Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM). Catalyzed PBI membrane utilized a Pt/Ru black anode and a Pt/C supported cathode. Performance was evaluated from temperatures of 180 °C-210 °C and at pressures from 100 kPa to 300 kPa. A strong performance correlation was observed in this study for these temperatures and pressures. A peak power density of 50 mW cm-2 was achieved at 180 °C without back pressure, whereas, an increase to 129 mW cm-2 was achieved at 210 °C at 300 kPa pressure. The performance of high temperature PBI PEMFCs with direct vapor-fed DME are investigated with emphasis on the critical variables of cell operation; temperature, back pressure, and humidity.

  20. Enhancing water retention and low-humidity proton conductivity of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) composite membrane enabled by the polymer-microcapsules with controllable hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangwei; Li, Yifan; Li, Zongyu; Nie, Lingli; Wu, Hong; Yang, Xinlin; Zhao, Yuning; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-02-01

    Four kinds of polymer microcapsules (PMCs) with different hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity are synthesized via distillation-precipitation polymerization (polymer microcapsules form by self-crosslinking of monomers/crosslinkers in this process) and incorporated into sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) matrix to prepare composite membranes. To improve the water retention of the PMCs, the hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity of the PMCs is manipulated by regulating the proportion of hydrophilic ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) and hydrophobic divinylbenzene (DVB) crosslinkers in the synthesis formula. The hydrophilicity of the PMCs decreases with increasing the content of polyDVB in the PMCs. The four kinds of PMCs exhibit different water retention properties. The PMCs with appropriate hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance (EGDMA: DVB = 1:1) possess the best water retention properties. Incorporation of PMCs into SPEEK matrix enhances the water-retention properties, and consequently increases proton conductivity to 0.0132 S cm-1 under 20% relative humidity, about thirteen times higher than that of the SPEEK control membrane. Moreover, the incorporation of PMCs reduces the activation energy for proton conduction and the methanol permeability of the membranes. This study may be helpful to rational design of excellent water-retention materials.

  1. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sieve No. 20. 2. Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer modified with butadiene, (CAS Reg. No. 27288-99-9... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. 177.1820... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1820 Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. Styrene-maleic...

  2. Polymers at liquid-liquid interfaces: Photophysics and photoredox chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, S.E.

    1990-11-01

    Research continued on polymers at liquid-liquid interfaces. This quarter, work concentrated on: preparation of poly(styrene-alt-maleic acid-co-chromophore) polymers; studies of vinylnapthalene-maleic acid polymers as emulsifying agents for water-octane; and assembly of optical fiber reticon-based transient absorption system. 3 refs., 1 fig. (CBS)

  3. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyethylenepolyamine and alkanediol...

  4. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyethylenepolyamine and alkanediol...

  8. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyethylenepolyamine and alkanediol...

  10. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyethylenepolyamine and alkanediol...

  11. 40 CFR 721.522 - Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3,5,5,-trimethylhexyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.522 Oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono(3...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, methyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  12. Inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and borane/poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydın, Hamide; Şenel, Mehmet; Erdemi, Hamit; Baykal, Abdülhadi; Tülü, Metin; Ata, Ali; Bozkurt, Ayhan

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (PEGME) using borane-tetrahydrofuran (BH 3/THF) complex. Molecular weights of both PVA and PEGME were varied prior to reaction. Boron containing comb-branched copolymers were produced and abbreviated as PVA1PEGMEX and PVA2PEGMEX. Then polymer electrolytes were successfully prepared by doping of the host matrix with CF 3SO 3Li at several stoichiomeric ratios with respect to EO to Li. The materials were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 11B NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The ionic conductivity of these novel polymer electrolytes were studied by dielectric-impedance spectroscopy. Li-ion conductivity of these polymer electrolytes depends on the length of the side units as well as the doping ratio. Such electrolytes possess satisfactory ambient temperature ionic conductivity (>10 -4 S cm -1). Cyclic voltammetry results illustrated that the electrochemical stability domain extends over 4 V.

  13. Interface-engineering additives of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) for low-band gap polymer solar cells consisting of PCDTBT:PCBM₇₀ bulk-heterojunction layers.

    PubMed

    Huh, Yoon Ho; Park, Byoungchoo

    2013-01-14

    We herein report on the improved photovoltaic (PV) effects of using a polymer bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) layer that consists of a low-band gap electron donor polymer of poly(N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)) (PCDTBT) and an acceptor of [6,6]-phenyl C₇₁ butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM₇₀), doped with an interface-engineering surfactant additive of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) (PTE). The presence of an interface-engineering additive in the PV layer results in excellent performance; the addition of PTE to a PCDTBT:PCBM₇₀ system produces a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.0%, which is much higher than that of a reference device without the additive (4.9%). We attribute this improvement to an increased charge carrier lifetime, which is likely to be the result of the presence of PTE molecules oriented at the interfaces between the BHJ PV layer and the anode and cathode, as well as at the interfaces between the phase-separated BHJ domains. Our results suggest that the incorporation of the PTE interface-engineering additive in the PCDTBT:PCBM₇₀ PV layer results in a functional composite system that shows considerable promise for use in efficient polymer BHJ PV cells. PMID:23389265

  14. The influence of the cations of salts on the electrochemical stability of a solid polymer electrolyte based on segmented poly(ether urethane)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Nam-Ju; Kim, Min-Kyung; Kang, Sung-Won; Ryu, Kwang-Sun

    2010-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) based on segmented poly(ether urethane) (SPEU) and lithium perchlorate or magnesium perchlorate (LiClO4 or Mg(ClO4)2) were prepared. By analyzing the Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of the SPE, it was confirmed that the interaction of the magnesium ion with the oxygen of the polyether chain was stronger than that of the lithium ion. The highest ionic conductivities of 1.5×10-5 and 4.5×10-6 S cm-1 were obtained at room temperature for the SPEs containing LiClO4 and Mg(ClO4)2, respectively. The results of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) show that an SPE consisting of SPEU and magnesium salt has good electrochemical stability up to the working voltage of 1.9 V at [O]/[Mg2+]=50.

  15. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... program. A significant new use of this substance is any manner or method of manufacture, import,...

  16. Model study by FT-IR of the interaction of select cholate dissolution inhibitors with poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) and its derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbagh, Gary; Houlihan, Francis M.; Rushkin, Ilya; Hutton, Richard S.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Reichmanis, Elsa; Gabor, Allen H.; Medina, Arturo N.

    1999-06-01

    The fundamental nature of the interaction between the polymer matrix and the cholate based dissolution inhibitors are being studied by Fourier Transform-IR (FTIR) spectroscopy. It was found that the simple cholate derivatives undergo, in a blend with poly(norbornene-alt- maleic anhydride) and in a blend with the terpolymers poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride-co-t-butylacrylate) and poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride-co-acrylic acid), stronger interaction as seen by shifts in the OH region of the spectra than do blends with dimeric or oligomeric cholates.

  17. Functionalization of poly(aryl ether ether ketone)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Fei; Roovers, J.

    1993-12-31

    Bromomethyl and dibromomethyl substituted poly(aryl ether ether ketone) have been prepared from methyl poly(aryl ether ether ketone) by bromination with bromine. These brominated polymers are intermediates that can be further functionalized by: hydrolysis, oxidation, substitution etc. A series of new functionalized PEEK polymers has been prepared. The functional group includes -CH{sub 2}OH, -CH{sub 2}OCH{sub 3}, -CHO, -COOH, -COOCH{sub 3}, -CH{sub 2}CN, -CH{sub 2}COOH, -CH{sub 2}OCOCH{sub 3}, -CH{sub 2}N{sup +}H(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 2}Br{sup {minus}}, -CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 2}, -CH{sub 2}N{sup +}H(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Br{sup {minus}}.

  18. Preparation of hydrophilic styrene maleic anhydride copolymer fibers for use in papermaking

    DOEpatents

    Rave, Terence W.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrophilic fibers may be prepared by discharging a heated and pressurized dispersion of a styrene-maleic anhydride copolymer into a zone of reduced temperature and pressure, and then modifying the fibers so produced by treatment with an aqueous admixture of selected cationic and anionic water-soluble, nitrogen-containing polymers. Blends of the hydrophilic fibers with wood pulp provide paper products having improved physical properties.

  19. Supramolecular Alternating Polymer from Crown Ether and Pillar[5]arene-Based Double Molecular Recognition for Preparation of Hierarchical Materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Fan, Xiaodong; Qi, Miao; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Haitao; Tian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A novel supramolecular alternating polymer is constructed based on double molecular recognition events of benzo-21-crown-7 with a secondary ammonium salt and of pillar[5]arene with a neutral guest. The resulting polymer is utilized to prepare hierarchical materials with different dimensionalities for the first time. These materials included zero-dimensional spherical aggregates, one-dimensional nanofibers, two-dimensional microstructured films, and three-dimensional ordered glue. This development will be helpful for designing and preparing supramolecular hierarchical materials with different dimensionalities. PMID:26555439

  20. Antimocrobial Polymer

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Huang, Zhi-Heng; Wright, Stacy C.

    2005-09-06

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from quaternary ammonium compounds, gentian violet compounds, substituted or unsubstituted phenols, biguanide compounds, iodine compounds, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A)3P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the antimicrobial agent is chlorhexidine, dimethylchlorophenol, cetyl pyridinium chloride, gentian violet, triclosan, thymol, iodine, and mixtures thereof.

  1. Antimicrobial Polymer

    DOEpatents

    McDonald, William F.; Wright, Stacy C.; Taylor, Andrew C.

    2004-09-28

    A polymeric composition having antimicrobial properties and a process for rendering the surface of a substrate antimicrobial are disclosed. The polymeric composition comprises a crosslinked chemical combination of (i) a polymer having amino group-containing side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, (ii) an antimicrobial agent selected from metals, metal alloys, metal salts, metal complexes and mixtures thereof, and (iii) a crosslinking agent containing functional groups capable of reacting with the amino groups. In one example embodiment, the polymer is a polyamide formed from a maleic anhydride or maleic acid ester monomer and alkylamines thereby producing a polyamide having amino substituted alkyl chains on one side of the polyamide backbone; the crosslinking agent is a phosphine having the general formula (A).sub.3 P wherein A is hydroxyalkyl; and the metallic antimicrobial agent is selected from chelated silver ions, silver metal, chelated copper ions, copper metal, chelated zinc ions, zinc metal and mixtures thereof.

  2. Thermomechanical and shape-memory properties of epoxy-based shape-memory polymer using diglycidyl ether of ethoxylated bisphenol-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Mengjin; Yu, Heng; Li, Xiangyuan; Cheng, Jue; Zhang, Junying

    2013-05-01

    A series of epoxy-based shape-memory polymers (SMPs) was prepared by using diglycidyl ether of ethoxylated bisphenol-A containing two oxyethylene units and the curing agents iso-phorone diamine and Jeffamine D230. The thermal properties, dynamic mechanical properties, mechanical properties and shape-memory properties of the epoxy-based SMPs were systematically studied by DSC, DMTA, universal tester and fold-deploy experiments, respectively. The results showed that as the content of D230 increased, the glass transition temperature of the SMPs decreased from 77.5 ± 1.1 to 40 ± 0.7 °C according to DSC, the rubber modulus decreased gradually according to DMTA, and the tensile strength at room temperature (RT) decreased from 58.5 ± 0.3 to 27.0 ± 3.3 MPa according to tensile tests. Tensile tests above RT showed that the tensile stress and elongation at break depended heavily on the experimental temperature, and fold-deploy experiments showed that these SMPs had shape retention ratios higher than 95% and shape recovery ratios close to 100%.

  3. Interface Properties between Lithium Metal and a Composite Polymer Electrolyte of PEO18Li(CF3SO2)2N-Tetraethylene Glycol Dimethyl Ether

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Matsui, Masaki; Takeda, Yasuo; Yamamoto, Osamu; Im, Dongmin; Lee, Dongjoon; Imanishi, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of a composite solid polymer electrolyte, consisting of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) was examined as a protective layer between lithium metal and a water-stable lithium ion-conducting glass ceramic of Li1+x+y(Ti,Ge)2−xAlxP3−ySiyO12 (LTAP). The lithium ion conductivity and salt diffusion coefficient of PEO18LiTFSI were dramatically enhanced by the addition of TEGDME. The water-stable lithium electrode with PEO18LiTFSI-2TEGDME, as the protective layer, exhibited a low and stable electrode resistance of 85 Ω·cm2 at 60 °C, after 28 days, and low overpotentials of 0.3 V for lithium plating and 0.4 V for lithium stripping at 4.0 mA·cm−2 and 60 °C. A Li/PEO18LiTFSI-2TEGDME/LTAP/saturated LiCl aqueous solution/Pt, air cell showed excellent cyclability up to 100 cycles at 2.0 mAh·cm−2. PMID:24957059

  4. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride, acid copolymer, and... maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture...

  5. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride, acid copolymer, and... maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3500 - Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture adhesive is a device composed of polyvinylmethylether maleic anhydride, acid copolymer, and... maleic anhydride (PVM-MA), acid copolymer, and carboxymethylcellulose sodium (NACMC) denture...

  7. Phenylethynl-terminated poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Bryant, Robert G. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) are prepared in a wide range of molecular weights by adjusting monomer ratio and adding an appropriate amount of 4-fluoro- 4'-phenylethynyl benzophenone during polymer synthesis. The resulting phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) react and crosslink upon curing for one hour at 350 C to provide materials with improved solvent resistance, higher modulus, and better high temperature properties than the linear, uncrosslinked polymers.

  8. LaRC-ITPI/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Working, Dennis C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an effort to develop high performance structural resins for aerospace applications, work has continued on block copolymers containing imide and arylene ether segments. The arylene ether block used in this study contains a bulky fluorene group in the polymer backbone while the imide block contains an arylene ketone segment similar to that in the arylene ether block and has been named LaRC-ITPI. A series of imide/arylene ether block and segmented copolymers were prepared and characterized. Films were prepared from these copolymers and mechanical properties were measured.

  9. Pentabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Pentabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 32534 - 81 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  10. Hexabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 36483 - 60 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  11. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  12. Tetrabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetrabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 40088 - 47 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  13. Nonabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nonabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 63936 - 56 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  14. Tribromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tribromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 49690 - 94 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  15. Octabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 32536 - 52 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  16. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... units by weight and not more than 20 percent styrene-butadiene and/or butadiene rubber units by weight... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. 177.1820... copolymers. Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... units by weight and not more than 20 percent styrene-butadiene and/or butadiene rubber units by weight... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers. 177.1820... copolymers. Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be...

  18. Maleic acid solvation in mixed water-ethanol solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usacheva, T. R.; Kuz'mina, I. A.; Sharnin, V. A.; Tukumova, I. R.

    2012-04-01

    Heat effects of maleic acid dissolution in mixed water-ethanol solvents at 298.15 K are determined by means of calorimetry. A rise in exothermicity of maleic acid solvation is observed upon changes in the solvent copmosition in the direction of H2O → EtOH, the minimum being at ˜0.2 mol fraction of EtOH.

  19. Maleate/vinyl ether UV-cured coatings: Effects of composition on curing and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Noren, G.K.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of the composition of the maleate polyester and the vinyl ether terminated compound on their UV-curing and properties has been investigated. Linear unsaturated polyester resins based on maleic anhydride and 1,5-pentane diol were synthesized. The molecular weight of the unsaturated polyesters was varied by changing the ratio of maleic anhydride to 1,5-pentane diol and the double bond equivalent weight was varied by replacing maleic anhydride with succinic anhydride. Coating formulations containing these unsaturated polyesters, triethylene glycol divinyl ether and a free radical photoinitiator were crosslinked in the presence of UV light. The coatings were very brittle, exhibiting tensile strengths in the range of 1.5-4.0 MPa and elongations of only 3-7%. Diethyl maleate and isobutyl vinyl ether were effective diluents for reducing viscosity but reduced the cure speed. A vinyl ether urethane oligomer was synthesized and enhanced the flexibility and toughness of the coatings when substituted for triethylene glycol divinyl ether.

  20. Diclofenac sodium (DS) loaded bioerodible polymer based constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piras, M.; Chiellini, F.; Nikkola, L.; Ashammakhi, N.; Chiellini, E.

    2008-02-01

    Pain is a prevalent problem that can raise morbidity of patients. Pain killer releasing biodegradable materials have been developed by using different techniques and biomaterials. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the use of a new bioerodible polymer for release of diclofenac sodium (DS). 1-butanol hemiester poly(maleic anhydride-alt-2-methoxyethyl vinyl ether) (PAM14) was prepared in the university of Pisa and selected as polymer of choice for the study. Polymer solutions of 5-10% (in ethanol or in acetic acid) were prepared, half of them containing 2% DS. The solutions were then electrospun to produce nanomats that were subsequently characterized using SEM. Fiber diameter was 160 nm 1 μm. Increasing polymer concentration increased the size of the fibers but reduced the number of beads (with or without DS). In the specimens obtained from acetic acid solution, the addition of DS resulted in a reduction in fiber diameter and an increase in the inter-bead distance. Corresponding ethanol solutions gave more homogeneous specimens than did acetic acid, having a lower number of beads. With the addition of DS a reduction in fiber diameter was observed for the acetic acid specimens. However, in ethanol, adding DS resulted in increased fiber diameter. Accordingly, it can be concluded that it is feasible to develop electrospun diclofenac releasing bioerodible nanostructures that have potential use in pain management. Their further evaluation is however, needed both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Effect of reagent access on the reactivity of coals. Final report. [Maleic anhydride; dialkylmaleates

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.

    1983-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the extent to which the mass transport of reagents into solid coals limits the reactivity of those coals. The purpose of task one is to determine the effect of reagent access on the acid catalyzed depolymerization of coals using phenols and/or alkyl phenyl ethers. For task two, the purpose is to determine the effect of coal swelling on its rate of reaction with a dienophile. Work on depolymerization of coals in hot, acidic phenol has been completed. The conclusion is that due to incomplete depolymerization, the complications of competing Friedel-Crafts alkylation, and the condensation reactions of the solvent, the depolymerization of coals in hot, acidic phenol is not a useful technique for solubilizing coals for structural investigations. In task two, the rate of the Diels-Alder reaction between bituminous coals and maleic anhydride was found to be diffusion controlled. The observations of simple Fickian diffusion and reaction rate constants much slower than the Diels-Alder reaction of maleic anhydride and anthracene have no other reasonable explanation than rate limiting mass transport. The diffusion rates were found to be independent of the degree of solvent swelling of the coal. In addition, the dependence of the observed rates on temperature and the size of the dienophile were measured. Results obtained using a series of dialkylmaleates are presented. Size was found to play only a small role as long as the reagent is planar. 2 tables.

  2. Polyimides Containing Carbonyl and Ether Connecting Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1987-01-01

    Semicrystallinity gives rise to tough, solvent-resistant polymers. New polyimides prepared from reaction of aromatic dianhydrides with new diamines containing carbonyl and ether connecting groups between aromatic rings. Damines prepared from reaction of 4-aminophenol with activated aromatic difluoro compounds in presence of potassium carbonate. These types of polymers have potential applications in molded products, films, adhesives, and composites.

  3. Process for the manufacture of catalysts for the production of maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.C.

    1987-10-13

    A process is described for the manufacture of a phosphorus-vanadium oxide catalyst suitable for use in the manufacture of maleic anhydride from butane. The process comprises reacting at a temperature of about 0/sup 0/C to about 200/sup 0/C a vanadium compound in an organic ether solvent having from about 2 to about 10 carbon atoms, with a phosphoryl halide in the presence of water or an aliphatic alcohol having from about 1 to about 8 carbon atoms, eliminating the solvent and activating the catalyst by the addition of butane, benzene or another C/sub 4/ hydrocarbon feedstock and water and a phosphorus compound at a temperature of about 300/sup 0/C to about 500/sup 0/C wherein the amount of water added is about 1000 parts per million to about 40,000 parts per million by weight of the reactor feed gas stream.

  4. Influence of lipid bilayer properties on nanodisc formation mediated by styrene/maleic acid copolymers.

    PubMed

    Cuevas Arenas, Rodrigo; Klingler, Johannes; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro

    2016-08-11

    Copolymers of styrene and maleic acid (SMA) have gained great attention as alternatives to conventional detergents, as they offer decisive advantages for studying membrane proteins and lipids in vitro. These polymers self-insert into artificial and biological membranes and, at sufficiently high concentrations, solubilise them into disc-shaped nanostructures containing a lipid bilayer core surrounded by a polymer belt. We have used (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering to systematically study the solubilisation of vesicles composed of saturated or unsaturated phospholipids by an SMA copolymer with a 3 : 1 styrene/maleic acid molar ratio at different temperatures. Solubilisation was thermodynamically rationalised in terms of a three-stage model that treats various lipid/polymer aggregates as pseudophases. The solubilising capacity of SMA(3 : 1) towards a saturated lipid is higher in the gel than in the liquid-crystalline state of the membrane even though solubilisation is slower. Although the solubilisation of mixed fluid membranes is non-selective, the presence of a non-bilayer phospholipid lowers the threshold at which the membrane becomes saturated with SMA(3 : 1) but raises the polymer concentration required for complete solubilisation. Both of these trends can be explained by considering the vesicle-to-nanodisc transfer free energies of the lipid and the polymer. On the basis of the phase diagrams thus obtained, re-association of polymer-solubilised lipids with vesicles is possible under mild conditions, which has implications for the reconstitution of proteins and lipids from nanodiscs into vesicular membranes. Finally, the phase diagrams provide evidence for the absence of free SMA(3 : 1) in vesicular lipid suspensions. PMID:27471007

  5. Towards elucidation of the drug release mechanism from compressed hydrophilic matrices made of cellulose ethers. I. Pulse-field-gradient spin-echo NMR study of sodium salicylate diffusivity in swollen hydrogels with respect to polymer matrix physical structure.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Carmen; Massuelle, Danielle; Jeannerat, Damien; Doelker, Eric

    2008-05-22

    Cellulose ethers have been increasingly used in the formulation of controlled release dosage forms; among them, compressed hydrophilic matrices for the oral route of administration are of special importance. Much interest has also been expressed in the study of the drug release mechanism from such swellable systems, in particular, in trying to explain deviations from Fickian diffusion. Thus, swelling-controlled transport is often invoked without any rationale. It is the purpose of the present work to provide independently determined diffusivity data for elucidating the drug release mechanism from the water-soluble cellulose derivatives. In the first part of this work, pulsed-field-gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-SE NMR) was used to investigate the self-diffusion of the model solute sodium salicylate and, incidentally, that of water, in hydrogels made of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) of varying polymer weight fraction and molecular weight in D2O. In parallel, the extent of bound water in the gels was determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the presence of liquid crystals in the gels was examined by polarized light microscopy, as these are the structural factors capable of affecting drug diffusion. Solute diffusivity was not significantly affected by the substitution type of the cellulose ether, and an exponential polymer weight fraction dependence of the solute's self-diffusion coefficient was observed, ascertaining the validity of the free-volume theory, with extrapolated self-diffusion coefficient values similar to those in pure solvent. This also indicates that diffusion also takes place in the so-called bound water (which represents about 40% of the hydrogel weight). This questions the existence of thermodynamically different classes of water. Slightly reduced solute diffusion was measured in the HPC hydrogel of the highest polymer concentration (45 wt

  6. Process for the continuous separation of maleic anhydride from process gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ceisel, S.C.; Conrad, J.F.; Lestan, E.M.; Nelson, A.P.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a process for recovery of maleic anhydride from a gaseous mixture of a reactor effluent gas stream containing maleic anhydride. It comprises: contacting the mixture with maleic anhydride in a gas phase wherein the maleic anhydride is injected into a gas stream effluent from an oxidation reactor. The gas stream effluent is at a temperature of from about 200{degrees}F. to about 350{degrees}F., and maleic anhydride is recovered in a condenser.

  7. Adsorption of maleic anhydride on Pt(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Godhuli; Heikkinen, Olli; Vestberg, Matias; Mether, Lotta; Nordlund, Kai; Lahtinen, Jouko

    2014-02-01

    The surface chemistry of maleic anhydride (MA) has been studied on Pt(111) with temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Adsorption of MA takes place at 170 K forming multilayers. We have studied the behavior of distinct carbon and oxygen species of MA depending on the surface temperature. MA-TPD indicates three main desorption temperatures; at 240 K, approximately 60% of total MA on the surface shows molecular desorption. At high temperatures (360 and 550 K) MA shows dissociative decomposition with production of C2H2, CO and CO2 fragments. A plausible decomposition pathway of MA on the Pt(111) surface is discussed. DFT calculations provide details of the adsorption geometry.

  8. Process for the production of maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Click, G.T.; Barone, B.J.

    1986-06-24

    A process is described for the vapor phase oxidation of hydrocarbons having 4 carbon atoms to produce maleic anhydride comprising contacting the hydrocarbons with a fixed bed vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen catalyst, containing P:V in an atomic ration of 1/2 to 3:1 whereby the catalyst gradually decreases in selectivity, wherein the improvement comprises contacting the catalyst with phosphorus compound of phosphorus halide, phosphorus oxyhalide, organic phospines, organic phosphites, organic phosphates or mixtures thereof at a temperature in the range of about 0/sup 0/ to 600/sup 0/C and thereafter contacting the catalyst with a flow of stream at a temperature in the range of 300/sup 0/ to 600/sup 0/C in an amount and for a sufficient duration whereby the catalyst is regenerated.

  9. Synthesis and characterizations of electrospun sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasbullah, N.; Sekak, K. A.; Ibrahim, I.

    2016-07-01

    A novel electrospun polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) based on Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ketone) were prepared and characterized. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK was sulfonated using concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature for 60 hours reaction time. The degree sulfonation (DS) of the SPEEK are 58% was determined by H1 NMR using area under the peak of the hydrogen shielding at aromatic ring of the SPEEK. Then, the functional group of the SPEEK was determined using Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) showed O-H vibration at 3433 cm-1 of the sulfonated group (SO2-OH). The effect of the solvent and polymer concentration toward the electrospinning process was investigated which, the DMAc has electrospun ability compared to the DMSO. While, at 20 wt.% of the polymer concentration able to form a fine and uniform nanofiber, this was confirmed by FESEM that shown electrospun fiber mat SPEEK surface at nano scale diameter.

  10. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10401 - Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono-C11-15-sec-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10401 Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10400 - Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane, mono-C12-14-sec-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10400 Oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane...) The chemical substance identified as oxirane, 2-ethyl-, polymer with oxirane,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6900 - Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal ether, substituted al-kenes, and but-a-diene.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i-dal... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6900 Polymer of bisphenol A di-glyc-i... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as polymer of bisphenol...

  17. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Maleic anhydride has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), for maleic anhydride is 0.10 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value for maleic anhydride is 100.

  18. Ring-opening copolymerization of maleic anhydride with epoxides: a chain-growth approach to unsaturated polyesters.

    PubMed

    DiCiccio, Angela M; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2011-07-20

    We report the ring-opening copolymerization of maleic anhydride with a variety of epoxides catalyzed by a chromium(III) salen complex. Quantitative isomerization of the cis-maleate form of all polymers affords the trans-fumarate analogues. Addition of chain transfer reagents yields low M(n), narrow PDI polymer samples. This method provides access to a range of new unsaturated polyesters with versatile functionality, as well as the first synthesis of high molecular weight poly(propylene fumarate). PMID:21699247

  19. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    DOEpatents

    East, Anthony; Jaffe, Michael; Zhang, Yi; Catalani, Luiz H

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  20. Optimization of the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of wheat straw is optimized, using pretreatment time, temperature and maleic acid concentration as design variables. A central composite design was applied to the experimental set up. The response factors used in this study are: (1) glucose benefits from improved enzymatic digestibility of wheat straw solids; (2) xylose benefits from the solubilization of xylan to the liquid phase during the pretreatment; (3) maleic acid replenishment costs; (4) neutralization costs of pretreated material; (5) costs due to furfural production; and (6) heating costs of the input materials. For each response factor, experimental data were fitted mathematically. After data translation to €/Mg dry straw, determining the relative contribution of each response factor, an economic optimization was calculated within the limits of the design variables. Results When costs are disregarded, an almost complete glucan conversion to glucose can be reached (90% from solids, 7%-10% in liquid), after enzymatic hydrolysis. During the pretreatment, up to 90% of all xylan is converted to monomeric xylose. Taking cost factors into account, the optimal process conditions are: 50 min at 170°C, with 46 mM maleic acid, resulting in a yield of 65 €/Mg (megagram = metric ton) dry straw, consisting of 68 €/Mg glucose benefits (from solids: 85% of all glucan), 17 €/Mg xylose benefits (from liquid: 80% of all xylan), 17 €/Mg maleic acid costs, 2.0 €/Mg heating costs and 0.68 €/Mg NaOH costs. In all but the most severe of the studied conditions, furfural formation was so limited that associated costs are considered negligible. Conclusions After the dilute maleic acid pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, almost complete conversion of wheat straw glucan and xylan is possible. Taking maleic acid replenishment, heating, neutralization and furfural formation into account, the optimum in the dilute maleic acid pretreatment of

  1. Controlled delivery of paclitaxel from stent coatings using novel styrene maleic anhydride copolymer formulations.

    PubMed

    Richard, Robert; Schwarz, Marlene; Chan, Ken; Teigen, Nikolai; Boden, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The controlled release of paclitaxel (PTx) from stent coatings comprising an elastomeric polymer blended with a styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) copolymer is described. The coated stents were characterized for morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and for drug release using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure the extent of interaction between the PTx and polymers in the formulation. Coronary stents were coated with blends of poly(b-styrene-b-isobutylene-b-styrene) (SIBS) and SMA containing 7% or 14% maleic anhydride (MA) by weight. SEM examination of the stents showed that the coating did not crack or delaminate either before or after stent expansion. Examination of the coating surface via AFM after elution of the drug indicated that PTx resides primarily in the SMA phase and provided information about the mechanism of PTx release. The addition of SMA altered the release profile of PTx from the base elastomer coatings. In addition, the presence of the SMA enabled tunable release of PTx from the elastomeric stent coatings, while preserving mechanical properties. Thermal analysis reveled no shift in the glass transition temperatures for any of the polymers at all drug loadings studied, indicating that the PTx is not miscible with any component of the polymer blend. An in vivo evaluation indicated that biocompatibility and vascular response results for SMA/SIBS-coated stents (without PTx) are similar to results for SIBS-only-coated and bare stainless steel control stents when implanted in the non-injured coronary arteries of common swine for 30 and 90 days. PMID:18563805

  2. Chemistry and adhesive properties of poly(arylene ether)s containing heterocyclic units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing heterocyclic units were prepared, characterized, and evaluated as adhesives and composite matrices. The polymers were prepared by reacting a heterocyclic bisphenol with an activated aromatic dihalide in a polar aprotic solvent, using potassium carbonate. The polymerizations were generally carried out in N,N-dimethylacetamide at 155 C. In some cases, where the polymers were semicrystalline, higher temperatures and thus higher boiling solvents were necessary to keep the polymers in solution. Heterocyclic rings incorporated into the poly(arylene ether) backbone include phenylquinoxaline, phenylimidazole, benzimidazole, benzoxazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, and 1,2,4-triazole. The polymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, solution viscosity, X-ray diffraction, thin film, and adhesive and (in some cases) composite properties. The glass transition temperatures, crystalline melt temperature, solubility, and mechanical properties varied depending upon the heterocyclic ring. The chemistry and properties of these materials are discussed.

  3. Simultaneous separation of chlorinated/brominated dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated derivatives from hydroxylated analogues on molecularly imprinted polymers prior to gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2015-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important contaminants in the environment. In recent years also polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) have been reported as emerging environmental stressors. It has been suggested that hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are important - may be even the most important - precursors of brominated dioxins/furans. The aim of this study was to develop a robust, time-saving analytical procedure to collectively separate in animal tissues such compounds prior to determination of individual substances with a gas/liquid chromatograph coupled to an ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC/IT-MS or UPLC/TOF-MS). Two OH-CB/BDE separation methods including alkaline extraction and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were compared. Performance of both methods was validated: absolute recovery values were in the 47-90% range depending on the compound, while recovery relative standard deviation was below 20% in most cases. Levels of the studied compounds have been assessed in some real life samples. PMID:26452807

  4. Maleic hydrazide: sprout suppression of potatoes in the field.

    PubMed

    De Blauwer, V; Demeulemeester, K; Demeyere, A; Hofmans, E

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the active substance maleic hydrazide was released on the Belgian market. Maleic hydrazide is authorized in potatoes as foliar treatment for instore sprout suppression and control of volunteers. The mode of action is based on blocking cell division whilst cell elongation is not affected. The product must be applied at once during the growing season, only after at least 80% of the tubers have reached 25 mm diameter and not later than 3 weeks before haulm killing. The first 24 h after application, no meaningful precipitation should occur to insure sufficiently uptake of the product by the crop. Field trials were set up for 4 years (2005-2008) and 4 locations per year with application of maleic hydrazide in four different cultivars (Bintje, Fontane, Asterix and Cilena). After application, the cultivar Asterix showed almost every year a temporarily phytotoxicity (bronze discoloration). On the first place yield was determined. When maleic hydrazide was applied too early (80% tubers % 25mm diameter) yield was negatively affected (3 years on 4) except for the cultivar Cilena (fresh market). Internal quality (dry matter and fry quality) was not influenced by the application of maleic hydrazide. Only Fontane had a slightly lower dry matter content. Maleic hydrazide also influenced appearance of secondary growth. However, the results were very variable depending on cultivar, location and time of application. After harvest, the tubers were kept in storage and assessed monthly on germination. Potatoes treated late in the growing season, showed a shorter dormancy period. A part of the tubers was replanted the following spring to verify volunteer control. Additional trials were set up by the Flemish government for two years (2010-2011). The results of previous trials were confirmed. Additional, the influence of maleic hydrazide on internal germination during storage was examined on the cultivar Innovator. The tests clearly showed a positive effect for this parameter

  5. In situ fourier transform infrared study of crotyl alcohol, maleic acid, crotonic acid, and maleic anhydride oxidation on a V-P-O industrial catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wenig, R.W.; Schrader, G.L.

    1987-10-22

    Crotyl alcohol, maleic acid, crotonic (2-butenoic) acid, and maleic anhydride were fed to an in situ infrared cell at 300/sup 0/C containing a P/V = 1.1 vanadium-phosphorous-oxide (V-P-O) catalyst used for the selective oxidation of n-butane. Crotyl alcohol was used as a mechanistic probe for the formation of reactive olefin species observed during previous n-butane and 1-butene studies. Crotonic acid, maleic acid, and maleic anhydride were fed as probes for the existence of other possible adsorbed intermediates. Olefin species and maleic acid are proposed as possible reaction intermediates in n-butane selective oxidation to maleic anhydride. The involvement of peroxide species in the oxidation of butadiene to maleic acid is also discussed.

  6. Imide/arylene ether copolymers with pendent trifluoromethyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    A series of imide/arylene ether block copolymers were prepared using an arylene ether block containing a hexafluoroisopropylidene group and an imide block containing a hexafluoroisopropylidene and a trifluoromethyl group in the polymer backbone. The copolymers were characterized and mechanical properties were determined and compared to the homopolymers.

  7. Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an open-ended experiment which has students exploring polymer chemistry and reverse osmosis. This activity involves construction of a polymer membrane, use of it in a simple osmosis experiment, and application of its principles in solving a science-technology-society problem. (ML)

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers listed as Stockholm Convention POPs, other brominated flame retardants and heavy metals in e-waste polymers in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sindiku, Omotayo; Babayemi, Joshua; Osibanjo, Oladele; Schlummer, Martin; Schluep, Mathias; Watson, Alan; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were the first brominated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in the Stockholm Convention. Parties to the convention are currently establishing inventories for developing action plans for the environmentally sound management of PBDE-containing materials. The major use of commercial octabromodiphenyl ether (c-OctaBDE) has been in casings from cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and computer monitors. Large quantities of used e-waste and electronic equipment have been exported to developing countries with Nigeria being a major importer in Africa. The casings from 382 TVs and computers imported from major world regions to Nigeria were sampled in backyards and waste dumps. The samples were screened with X-ray flourescence (XRF) for bromine and analysed by gas chromatography/ electron capture detection (GC/ECD) for brominated flame retardants (BFRs). A high proportion of the CRT casings (61 %) contained more than 10,000 ppm bromine from BFRs. Decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) was the major flame retardant used in TV sets and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) for computer CRTs.The screening suggests that average PBDE levels (of c-OctaBDE + DecaBDE) in Nigerian-stockpiled CRT casings were 1.1 % for TV and 0.13 % for PC CRTs. These are above the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) limit and should be separated for RoHS compliant recycling. The Nigerian e-waste inventory of 237,000 t of CRT plastic would therefore contain approx. 594 t c-OctaBDE and 1,880 t of DecaBDE. In Nigeria, as for most developing countries, there is currently no adequate e-waste management, plastic separation or destruction capacity. The data highlight the urgent need to develop environmentally sound management for this large material flow. PMID:25062546

  9. Grafting of poly (lactic acid) with maleic anhydride using supercritical carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khankrua, R.; Pivsa-Art, S.; Hiroyuki, H.; Suttiruengwong, S.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to modify poly lactic acid (PLA) via free radical grafting with maleic anhydride (MA) by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2). Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was used as an initiator. The solubility of MA in SCCO2 was first determined to estimate the suitable grafting conditions and equilibrium. From the solubility study of MA in SCCO2, it was found that the solubility of MA in SCCO2 increased with the increasing pressure and dissolution time. PLA films were first prepared by compression molding. The ratio of MA to BPO was 2:1. The reaction temperature and pressure were 70°C and 100 bar respectively. The grafting reaction and the degree of grafting were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and titration, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique and contact angle were used to confirm the changes in physical properties of PLA film grafted MA. NMR spectrum indicated that the grafting of MA onto PLA was successively achieved. Degree of grafting by using SCCO2 was as high as 0.98%. This provided rather high grafting degree compared with other processes. SEM pictures showed the rough surface structure on modified PLA film. In addition, contact angle results showed an improvement of the hydrophilicity by maleic anhydride grafting onto polymers.

  10. A review of environmental and health risks of maleic hydrazide

    SciTech Connect

    Ponnampalam, R.; Mondy, N.I.; Babish, J.G.

    1983-03-01

    The cellular metabolism, acute toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity of maleic hydrazide have been reviewed. It seems that this chemical is a mutagen and a carcinogen in cell cultures and animals, but no evidence is available on human carcinogenicity regardless of population exposure in manufacturing, agriculture, and the food chain (i.e., potatoes, potato chips). Because of the level of exposure of the general public to this compound, an epidemiologic survey should be conducted to ascertain possible human health effects. Long-term feeding experiments should be conducted in several animal species to establish whether maleic hydrazide is carcinogenic by this route. Biotransformation and pharmacokinetic studies should be undertaken to obtain better understanding of the chemical's metabolism and excretion. Such investigations would firmly establish whether the tolerance for maleic hydrazide should remain unchanged or whether the use of the compound should be more restricted.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10512 - Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10512 Fatty acid maleic acid amides (generic). (a) Chemical substance... fatty acid maleic acid amides (PMNs P-07-563 and P-07-564) are subject to reporting under this...

  13. Anaerobic biodegradation of ether compounds by ether bond-cleaving bacteria and methanogenic consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Ether compounds are manufactured for use in nonionic detergents, plastics, pesticides and other products and occur as toxic organic compounds, the most famous being tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Ether compounds were considered recalcitrant to anaerobic biodegradation due to the lack of an appropriate oxidant for ether bond-cleavage in reducing environments. Many of these compounds reside in anaerobic environments or are exposed to anaerobic waste treatment processes. Thus, it is of interest to identify: (i) whether ether compounds are anaerobically biodegradable, (ii) the anaerobic microorganisms able to degrade these compounds, and (iii) the mechanism(s) of anaerobic ether bond-cleavage. The ether bonds of polyethylene glycol (PEG; HO-(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}-O-){sub n}H), phenyl ether ((C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}O), and dibenzo-p-dioxin ((C{sub 6}H{sub 4}){sub 2}O{sub 2}) were shown to be degraded in methanogenic consortia enriched with these compounds and polyethoxylate (nonionic) surfactants as substrates. Two anaerobic microorganisms which used PEGs as sole substrates were isolated and characterized. Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain DG2 degraded the monomer ethylene glycol and oligomers up to tetraethylene glycol (HO-(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}-O-){sub 4}H) in length. Bacteroides sp. strain PG1 degraded diethylene glycol and all other polymer lengths of PEG. PEGs were degraded by Bacteroides sp. strain PG1 via an external depolymerization which was either a hydrolytic or a reductive cleavage of the ether bond. The ether bond of diaryl ethers was apparently cleaved by a reductive mechanism which produced benzene and phenol as products from phenyl ether degradation and benzene and, by indirect analysis, catechol from dibenzo-dioxin.

  14. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03

    Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and

  15. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Development of quantitative structure property relationships for poly(arylene ether)s.

    PubMed

    Hamerton, I; Howlin, B J; Larwood, V

    1995-02-01

    The technique of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) is well accepted by the drug design community. The analogous technique of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPR) has applications in the field of polymer chemistry. A variety of molecular modeling and molecular orbital techniques was used to find molecular descriptors that could be used to derive an empirical equation to describe the glass transition temperature of two related classes of poly(arylene ether)s. The derived equation was then used to predict the thermal characteristics of another polymer of the same type. PMID:7794828

  17. Pre-irradiation-induced graft reaction of maleic anhydride onto polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X. M.; Xu, Y. S.; Wang, C. L.

    2006-09-01

    The radiation induced graft polymerization is a well-known method to obtain new materials. Until recently, only conventional radiation sources, such as Co-60 and electron beams, were used. Moreover, part of the damage induced in polymers by heavy ions can produce active sites (peroxides and hydroperoxides) that are useful to initiate grafting reactions. Maleic anhydride (MAH) was grafted onto polypropylene (PP) wax with a number-average molecular weight (Mn) of 8000 by gamma pre-irradiation technique. Effects of total dose, monomer concentration, reaction time, and temperature on percentage of grafting are studied in detail. It is shown that the optimum conditions for grafting are temperature of 70 degrees C and total dose of 14.4 kGy. PP-g-MAH is characterized by infrared spectrum. Differential scanning calorimetry shows that the compatibility of PP-g-MAH is better than that of PP.

  18. The styrene-maleic acid copolymer: a versatile tool in membrane research.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Jonas M; Scheidelaar, Stefan; Koorengevel, Martijn C; Dominguez, Juan J; Schäfer, Marre; van Walree, Cornelis A; Killian, J Antoinette

    2016-01-01

    A new and promising tool in membrane research is the detergent-free solubilization of membrane proteins by styrene-maleic acid copolymers (SMAs). These amphipathic molecules are able to solubilize lipid bilayers in the form of nanodiscs that are bounded by the polymer. Thus, membrane proteins can be directly extracted from cells in a water-soluble form while conserving a patch of native membrane around them. In this review article, we briefly discuss current methods of membrane protein solubilization and stabilization. We then zoom in on SMAs, describe their physico-chemical properties, and discuss their membrane-solubilizing effect. This is followed by an overview of studies in which SMA has been used to isolate and investigate membrane proteins. Finally, potential future applications of the methodology are discussed for structural and functional studies on membrane proteins in a near-native environment and for characterizing protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions. PMID:26639665

  19. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elimination of microbial and/or enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot-water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases. Other so...

  20. 21 CFR 177.1820 - Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled water at specified temperatures, times, and particle size Maximum extractable fraction in n-heptane at specified temperatures, times, and particle size 1. Styrene-maleic anhydride copolymers... weight percent 0.006 weight percent at reflux temperature for 1 hr utilizing particles of a size...

  1. 40 CFR 180.175 - Maleic hydrazide; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues. 180.175 Section 180.175 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... § 180.175 Maleic hydrazide; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances for residues of the... exceed 160 parts per million by weight of the finished food. (b) Section 18 emergency exemptions....

  2. Mixed-ligand complex compounds of rare-earth elements (REE) with acetylacetone and fumaric or maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Panyushkin, V.T.; Akhrimenko, N.V.

    1994-10-01

    Previously the authors investigated the possibility of synthesis of the f-block element mixed complexes with {beta}-diketones and organic unsaturated acids. The mixed-ligand complexes of lanthanides [Ln = Nd(III), Sm(III), Eu(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), Ho(III), and Yb(III)] with acetylacetone (acac) and fumaric or maleic acid (AcidH{sub 2}) were synthesized. The mixed-ligand complexes were prepared by the interaction of REE tris(acetylacetonates) [Ln(acac){sub 3}{center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O] with half as much excess of the organic acid in a solution of diethyl ether. According to the data of elemental analysis and thermogravimetric and spectroscopic investigations, the mixed complexes studied are of composition Ln(acac){sub 2}(AcidH){center_dot}H{sub 2}O.

  3. Light scattering experiments on aqueous solutions of selected cellulose ethers: contribution to the study of polymer-mineral interactions in a new injectable biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Bohic, Sylvain; Weiss, Pierre; Roger, Philippe; Daculsi, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) is used as a ligand for a bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic (the filler) in a ready-to-use injectable sterilized biomaterial for bone and dental surgery. Light scattering experiments were usually used to study high water-soluble polymers and to determine the basic macromolecular parameters. In order to gain a deeper understanding of polymer/mineral interactions in this type of material, we have investigated the effect of divalent and trivalent ions (Ca2+, PO43−) and steam sterilization on dilute solutions of HPMC and HEC. The sterilization process may cause some degradation of HEC taking into account its high molecular weight and some rigidity of the polymer chain. Moreover, in the case of HPMC, the changes in the conformations rather than degradation process are supposed. These effects of degradation and flocculation are strengthened in alkaline medium. Experimental data suggested the formation of chelate complexes between Ca2+ and HPMC which improve its affinity to the mineral blend and consolidate the injectable biomaterial even in the case of its hydration by biological fluid. PMID:15348303

  4. Comparison of proton conducting polymer electrolyte membranes prepared from multi-block and random copolymers based on poly(arylene ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kyuhyun; Kim, Dukjoon

    2015-05-01

    Multi-block and random copolymers based on poly(arylene ether ketone) with the similar IEC values are synthesized. The chemical structure of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic oligomers and the copolymers synthesized from them is identified using 1H - and 19F- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The development of distinguished hydrophobic-hydrophilic phase separation is confirmed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) spectroscopy. The proton conductivity and water uptake along with the thermal, mechanical, oxidative stabilities are measured to investigate the effect of the copolymer structure on the membrane properties. While water uptake is similar with respect to each other, the proton conductivity of the multi-block copolymer membrane is higher than that of random one at the same levels of IEC. It results from much more distinct hydrophobic-hydrophilic phase separation formed in the multi-block copolymer membrane than the random one. The ion cluster dimension of the multi-block copolymer membranes is larger than that of the random copolymer membranes from the SAXS analysis. Also, the ion cluster dimension distribution of the block copolymer membranes is much narrower than that of random ones. The multi-block copolymer membranes illustrate superior oxidation stability to the random copolymer membrane due to the same phase separation difference.

  5. Poly(arlyene ether sulfone) based semi-interpenetrating polymer network membranes containing cross-linked poly(vinyl phosphonic acid) chains for fuel cell applications at high temperature and low humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kihyun; Heo, Pilwon; Ko, Taeyun; Kim, Ki-hyun; Kim, Sung-Kon; Pak, Chanho; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-10-01

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) membranes are prepared by in-situ casting and thermal-initiated radical polymerization of vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and bis(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl) phosphate (BMAEP) in N,N-dimethylacetamide solutions of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES). The incorporation of VPA units into the SPAES membranes improves proton conductivity especially at high temperature and low humidity conditions. In addition the cross-linker, BMAEP, prevents the decrease of the mechanical and chemical stabilities by the aliphatic linear poly(vinyl phosphonic acid) chains in the semi-IPN membranes, and furthermore the phosphonic acid group in BMAEP can prevent the decrease of the proton conductivity by the formation of cross-linked structures. Therefore, the resulting semi-IPN membranes show high proton conductivities up to 15 mS cm-1 at 120 °C and 40% RH. The fuel cell performance (187 mW cm-2 at 120 °C and 40% RH) of membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) from the semi-IPN membrane is found to be superior to that (145 mW cm-2 at 120 °C and 40% RH) of MEA from the SPAES membrane. The durability test result at the operating conditions indicates that the semi-IPN membrane is electrochemically very stable maintaining the low hydrogen cross-over and high power densities.

  6. HematoPorphyrin Monomethyl Ether polymer contrast agent for ultrasound/photoacoustic dual-modality imaging-guided synergistic high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Sijing; LU, Min; Ding, Xiaoya; Chen, Fei; He, Xuemei; Xu, Chunyan; Zhou, Hang; Wang, Qi; Hao, Lan; Zou, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    This study is to prepare a hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcapsules (HMME/PLGA), which could not only function as efficient contrast agent for ultrasound (US)/photoacoustic (PA) imaging, but also as a synergistic agent for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Sonosensitizer HMME nanoparticles were integrated into PLGA microcapsules with the double emulsion evaporation method. After characterization, the cell-killing and cell proliferation-inhibiting effects of HMME/PLGA microcapsules on ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells were assessed. The US/PA imaging-enhancing effects and synergistic effects on HIFU were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. HMME/PLGA microcapsules were highly dispersed with well-defined spherical morphology (357 ± 0.72 nm in diameter, PDI = 0.932). Encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading efficiency were 58.33 ± 0.95% and 4.73 ± 0.15%, respectively. The HMME/PLGA microcapsules remarkably killed the SKOV3 cells and inhibited the cell proliferation, significantly enhanced the US/PA imaging results and greatly enhanced the HIFU ablation effects on ovarian cancer in nude mice by the HMME-mediated sono-dynamic chemistry therapy (SDT). HMME/PLGA microcapsules represent a potential multifunctional contrast agent for HIFU diagnosis and treatment, which might provide a novel strategy for the highly efficient imaging-guided non-invasive HIFU synergistic therapy for cancers by SDT in clinic. PMID:27535093

  7. HematoPorphyrin Monomethyl Ether polymer contrast agent for ultrasound/photoacoustic dual-modality imaging-guided synergistic high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Sijing; Lu, Min; Ding, Xiaoya; Chen, Fei; He, Xuemei; Xu, Chunyan; Zhou, Hang; Wang, Qi; Hao, Lan; Zou, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    This study is to prepare a hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microcapsules (HMME/PLGA), which could not only function as efficient contrast agent for ultrasound (US)/photoacoustic (PA) imaging, but also as a synergistic agent for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. Sonosensitizer HMME nanoparticles were integrated into PLGA microcapsules with the double emulsion evaporation method. After characterization, the cell-killing and cell proliferation-inhibiting effects of HMME/PLGA microcapsules on ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells were assessed. The US/PA imaging-enhancing effects and synergistic effects on HIFU were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. HMME/PLGA microcapsules were highly dispersed with well-defined spherical morphology (357 ± 0.72 nm in diameter, PDI = 0.932). Encapsulation efficiency and drug-loading efficiency were 58.33 ± 0.95% and 4.73 ± 0.15%, respectively. The HMME/PLGA microcapsules remarkably killed the SKOV3 cells and inhibited the cell proliferation, significantly enhanced the US/PA imaging results and greatly enhanced the HIFU ablation effects on ovarian cancer in nude mice by the HMME-mediated sono-dynamic chemistry therapy (SDT). HMME/PLGA microcapsules represent a potential multifunctional contrast agent for HIFU diagnosis and treatment, which might provide a novel strategy for the highly efficient imaging-guided non-invasive HIFU synergistic therapy for cancers by SDT in clinic. PMID:27535093

  8. Needlelike and spherical polyelectrolyte complex nanoparticles of poly(l-lysine) and copolymers of maleic acid.

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Reihs, T; Ouyang, W

    2005-01-01

    We report on the bulk and surface properties of dispersions consisting of nonstoichiometric polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles. PEC nanoparticles were prepared by mixing poly(l-lysine) (PLL) or poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) with poly(maleic acid-co-alpha-methylstyrene) (PMA-MS) or poly(maleic acid-co-propylene) (PMA-P). The monomolar mixing ratio was n-/n+ = 0.6, and the concentration ranged from 1 to 6 mmol/L. Subsequent centrifugation enabled the separation of the excess polycation, resulting in a stable coacervate phase further used in the experiments. The bulk phase parameters turbidity and hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) of the PEC nanoparticles showed a linear dependence on the total polymer content independently of the mixed polyelectrolytes. This can be interpreted by the increased collision probability of the polyelectrolyte chains when the overlap concentration is approached or exceeded. Different morphologies of the cationic PEC nanoparticles, which were solution-cast onto Si supports, were obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The combinations of PLL/PMA-MS and PDADMAC/PMA-MS revealed more or less hemispherical particle shapes, whereas that of PLL/PMA-P revealed an elongated needlelike particle shape. Circular dichroism and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) measurements proved the alpha-helical conformation for the PEC PLL/PMA-P and the random coil conformation for the PEC PLL/PMA-MS. We conclude that stiff alpha-helical PLL induces anisotropic elongated PEC nanoparticles, whereas randomly coiled PLL forms isotropic spherical PEC nanoparticles. PMID:15620340

  9. Maleic anhydride catalysts and process for their manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, M.S.; Meyers, B.L.; Eryman, W.S.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a catalyst for the production of maleic anhydride by the oxidation of a member of the group consisting of benzene, butane, butene and butadiene. It comprises a phosphorus-vanadium-mixed oxide and exists in the form of geometric shapes, the shapes having been heated in an inert atmosphere at a temperature of about 650{degrees} to about 1300{degrees} F. prior to being exposed to an oxygen-containing gas at an elevated temperature.

  10. Use fluid bed reactor for maleic anhydride from butane

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, S.C.; Neri, A.; Suciu, G.D.; Verde, L.

    1985-09-01

    A new process is described that incorporates three major improvements over the conventional air oxidation of benzene in a fixed-bed reactor system. The new ALMA Process was developed jointly by Alusuisse Italia and Lummus Crest. It includes the following process improvements: n-Butane feedstock, fluidized-bed reactor system, and a continuous maleic anhydride recovery system using an organic solvent. A summary of the process is given, as well as the steps in its development and its economic advantages.

  11. Retention of functional polymers in liquid adsorption chromatography: effect of the end groups in PEGs and their methyl ethers in different mobile phases.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V Cuong; Trathnigg, Bernd

    2010-04-01

    It is shown that the end group parameter, which describes the influence of the end group on retention, can be determined in RP chromatography from two chromatograms of a nonfunctional and a monofunctional sample, if a sufficient number of peaks with the same number of repeat units in each sample can be reasonably resolved and identified. The same procedure can also be applied for pairs of di- and monofunctional polymers. End group parameters have been determined in three different mobile phases: acetonitrile-water, acetone-water and methanol-water of different compositions. The temperature dependence of the interaction parameter of the repeat unit and the end group parameter has been found to be different, which allows a fine-tuning of retention. PMID:20187029

  12. The anodic oxidation of p-benzoquinone and maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Bock, C.; MacDougall, B.

    1999-08-01

    The oxidation of organics, in particular of p-benzoquinone and maleic acid, at high anodic potentials has been studied using a range of anode materials such as noble-metal-based oxides and antimony-doped tin oxides. The influence of the current density was also investigated showing that the oxidation rate of p-benzoquinone increased only slightly with increasing current density. The efficiency of the p-benzoquinone oxidation was found to depend on several properties of the anode material, not just its chemical nature. Furthermore, efficiencies for the partial oxidation of p-benzoquinone using specially prepared noble-metal-oxide-based anodes were found to be only somewhat smaller or even as high as those observed for PbO{sub 2} or antimony-doped tin oxide anodes, respectively. The anodic electrolysis of maleic acid solutions was found to decrease the activity of IrO{sub 2} for the oxidation of organic compounds. This was not observed when PbO{sup 2} was employed for the oxidation of maleic acid.

  13. Crown ethers in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  14. Crown ethers in graphene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basicmore » structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.« less

  15. The Photochemical Isomerization of Maleic to Fumaric Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Albert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment on the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid. Background information, chemical reactions involved, and experimental procedures are included. (JN)

  16. Crown ethers in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-01

    Crown ethers are at their most basic level rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity. Here we present atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures should also extend to their selectivity towards specific metal cations. Crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be systematically tested and modelled. Thus, we expect that our finding will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  17. Azidated Ether-Butadiene-Ether Block Copolymers as Binders for Solid Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappello, Miriam; Lamia, Pietro; Mura, Claudio; Polacco, Giovanni; Filippi, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Polymeric binders for solid propellants are usually based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), which does not contribute to the overall energy output. Azidic polyethers represent an interesting alternative but may have poorer mechanical properties. Polybutadiene-polyether copolymers may combine the advantages of both. Four different ether-butadiene-ether triblock copolymers were prepared and azidated starting from halogenated and/or tosylated monomers using HTPB as initiator. The presence of the butadiene block complicates the azidation step and reduces the storage stability of the azidic polymer. Nevertheless, the procedure allows modifying the binder properties by varying the type and lengths of the energetic blocks.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10072 - Benzene, 1,1′-methylenebis[4-isocyanato-, polymer with benzenedicarboxylic acid, butyl dialkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....-hydro-.omega.-hydroxy-, oxirane, alkyl-, polymer with oxirane, ether with propanepolyol and Sartomer's... , .alpha.-hydro-.omega.-hydroxy-, oxirane, alkyl-, polymer with oxirane, ether with propanepolyol and... , .alpha.-hydro-.omega.-hydroxy-, oxirane, alkyl-, polymer with oxirane, ether with propanepolyol...

  19. New polymers for phase partitioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The synthesizing of several polyethylene glycols having crown ethers attached is reported. This work led to the identification of three new polymer types which promise to be more effective at selectively binding specific cell types. Work was completed on identification of chemical properties of the new polymer crowns and on development of new techniques for determination of polymer-phase composition.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of Maleic Acid as a Food Adulterant Determined by Microdialysis in Rat Blood and Kidney Cortex.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mei-Ling; Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Chi-Hung; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Maleic acid has been shown to be used as a food adulterant in the production of modified starch by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration. Due to the potential toxicity of maleic acid to the kidneys, this study aimed to develop an analytical method to investigate the pharmacokinetics of maleic acid in rat blood and kidney cortex. Multiple microdialysis probes were simultaneously inserted into the jugular vein and the kidney cortex for sampling after maleic acid administration (10 or 30 mg/kg, i.v., respectively). The pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that maleic acid produced a linear pharmacokinetic phenomenon within the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg. The area under concentration versus time curve (AUC) of the maleic acid in kidney cortex was 5-fold higher than that in the blood after maleic acid administration (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.v., respectively), indicating that greater accumulation of maleic acid occurred in the rat kidney. PMID:26999094

  1. INTRAVENOUS ETHER ANESTHESIA

    PubMed Central

    Eger, Edmond I.; Johnson, Edward A.

    1963-01-01

    From a study of intravenous ether anesthesia, it was concluded that ether diluted to a 5 per cent solution in 5 per cent dextrose and water may be used to induce and maintain a smooth and easily controlled anesthetic state similar to that obtained with inhalation ether but without the dependence of the latter technique on ventilation. Cough and laryngospasm were absent. Adequate spontaneous respiration can be maintained with this technique. The technique is particularly useful in endoscopy during which the airway is often not available for anesthetic administration. PMID:14051486

  2. Vinyl ether silicones

    SciTech Connect

    Herzig, C.; Dauth, J.; Deubzer, B.; Weis, J.

    1995-12-01

    Siloxanes with vinyl ether groups are prepared by hydrosilylation reaction of dihydrosiloxanes with divinyl ethers in excess. Different stoichiometry, produces linear copolymers of different viscosities and double bond concentrations always with an active vinyl ether group at each chain end. Polymerisations triggered by UV light were done with mixtures of these compounds and a series of onium salts. Very fast cure is observed even with low doses at 290 nm. V.E. silicones are found to cure essentially quantitative. The comparison with other highly reactive cationic monomers revealed that compounds are among the fastest curing prepolymers in cationic chemistry.

  3. Genotoxicity of glycol ethers.

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, D B

    1984-01-01

    The genetic toxicology of glycol ethers is reviewed. Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and diglyme have been more extensively studied than other members of this series. Most results indicate a lack of genotoxic potential, but certain tests have yielded positive responses with certain compounds. Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) induced sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in cultured cells. Both EGME and diglyme induced mouse sperm head morphological changes, male rat weak dominant lethal mutations and marked, but reversible, loss of male rat fertility. PMID:6541999

  4. Catalytic oxidation of dimethyl ether

    DOEpatents

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang; Johnston, Christina M.; Li, Qing

    2016-05-10

    A composition for oxidizing dimethyl ether includes an alloy supported on carbon, the alloy being of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium. A process for oxidizing dimethyl ether involves exposing dimethyl ether to a carbon-supported alloy of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium under conditions sufficient to electrochemically oxidize the dimethyl ether.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of CdS nanoparticle based multiwall carbon nanotube-maleic anhydride-1-octene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malikov, E. Y.; Altay, M. C.; Muradov, M. B.; Akperov, O. H.; Eyvazova, G. M.; Puskás, R.; Madarász, D.; Kukovecz, Á.; Kónya, Z.

    2015-05-01

    CdS nanoparticles were synthesized by sonication from cadmium chloride and thiourea using a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-maleic anhydride (MA)-1-octene system as the matrix. The matrix was obtained by the "grafting from" approach from oxidized carbon nanotubes and maleic anhydride-1-octene. Multiwall carbon nanotubes used for reinforcing the matrix were synthesized by Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition using Fe-Co/Al2O3 as the catalyst. The obtained nanostructures were characterized by FTIR, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, SEM and UV-vis spectroscopy. The average CdS particle diameter was 7.9 nm as confirmed independently by TEM and XRD. UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that the obtained nanostructure is an appropriate base material for making optical devices. The novelty of this work is the use of the MWCNT-MA-1-octene matrix obtained via the "grafting from" approach for the synthesis of uniformly dispersed CdS nanocrystals by ultrasonic cavitation to obtain a polymer nanocomposite.

  6. Initiation precursors and initiators in laser-induced copolymerization of styrene and maleic anhydride in acetone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Gilda A.; Meador, Willard E.; Chang, C. Ken

    1990-01-01

    The initiation step of photopolymerized styrene/maleic anhydride copolymer was investigated at 365 nm. UV absorption measurements provide decisive evidence that the styrene/maleic anhydride charge transfer complex is the sole absorbing species; however, key laser experiments suggest intermediate reactions lead to a monoradical initiating species. A mechanism for the photoinitiation step of the copolymer is proposed.

  7. Relationship between the electrochemical activity of Raney nickel and the rate of hydrogenation of maleic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Pervii, E.N.; Sofronkov, A.N.; Fedyshina, N.M.

    1986-02-10

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the conditions in which a direct correlation exists between the rate of hydrogenation of maleic acid and the electrochemical activity of catalysts of hydrogen ionization. The rate of maleic acid hydrogenation in presence of Raney nickel catalyst was studied by a combination of volumetric and potentiometric methods.

  8. Polymerization in the liquid crystalline state of vinyl ether monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, H.; Jonsson, H.; Gedde, U.W.; Hult, A.

    1993-12-31

    Liquid crystalline phenylbenzoate vinyl ether was polymerized cationically in both anisotropic and isotropic monomeric melts, using photochemical initiation by onium salts. High molecular mass polymers with a narrow molecular mass distribution (around 2) were produced by cationic polymerization at high temperatures ({<=}{degrees}C). The initial state of the monomer, nematic or isotropic, did not affect neither molecular mass, molecular mass distribution, nor polymerization rate. {sup 13}C-NMR studies show that the polymer formed is atactic. Ordered 30-50 {mu}m films were produced by polymerization of mesogenic vinyl ether monomers oriented in the nematic and smectic phase.

  9. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs... maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. (a) Identification. A carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive is a...

  13. Novel high T{sub g} high-strength poly(aryl ether)s

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Maier, G.

    1999-08-01

    A novel 2-perfluoroalkyl-activated bisfluoro monomer has been synthesized successfully using a Pd(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of 4-fluoro-3-trifluoromethyl phenyl boronic acid with 4,4{prime}-dibromodiphenylbenzene. This monomer was converted to novel poly(aryl ether)s by nucleophilic displacement of the fluorine atoms on the benzene ring with several bisphenols. The products obtained by displacement of the fluorine atoms exhibit weight average molar masses up to 1.06 {times} 10{sup 5} g/mol in GPC. These poly(aryl ether)s showed outstanding thermooxidative stability up to 534 C for 5% weight loss in TGA under synthetic air and high glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) even up to 300 C in DSC and DMTA. These polymers are soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, e.g., CHCl{sub 3}, THF, NMP, DMF, toluene, etc., and are insoluble in DMSO and acetone. Transparent thin films of these polymers cast from DMF exhibited tensile strengths up to 115 MPa, moduli up to 2.59 GPa, and elongations up to 120% depending on their exact repeating unit structures. These values are comparable to those of high performance thermoplastic materials such as PEEK or Ultem PEI.

  14. Novel high T[sub g] high-strength poly(aryl ether)s

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Maier, G. . Lehrstuhl fuer Makromolekulare Stoffe)

    1999-08-01

    A novel 2-perfluoroalkyl-activated bisfluoro monomer has been synthesized successfully using a Pd(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of 4-fluoro-3-trifluoromethyl phenyl boronic acid with 4,4[prime]-dibromodiphenylbenzene. This monomer was converted to novel poly(aryl ether)s by nucleophilic displacement of the fluorine atoms on the benzene ring with several bisphenols. The products obtained by displacement of the fluorine atoms exhibit weight average molar masses up to 1.06 [times] 10[sup 5] g/mol in GPC. These poly(aryl ether)s showed outstanding thermooxidative stability up to 534 C for 5% weight loss in TGA under synthetic air and high glass transition temperatures (T[sub g]) even up to 300 C in DSC and DMTA. These polymers are soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, e.g., CHCl[sub 3], THF, NMP, DMF, toluene, etc., and are insoluble in DMSO and acetone. Transparent thin films of these polymers cast from DMF exhibited tensile strengths up to 115 MPa, moduli up to 2.59 GPa, and elongations up to 120% depending on their exact repeating unit structures. These values are comparable to those of high performance thermoplastic materials such as PEEK or Ultem PEI.

  15. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. PMID:27262718

  16. A sulfonated poly (aryl ether ether ketone ketone) isomer: synthesis and DMFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Liu, Baijun; Hu, Wei; Jiang, Zhenhua; Robertson, Gilles; Guiver, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily-prepared PEEKK post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported analogues and eveluated Nafion membranes.

  17. Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang; Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe; Sapelkin, Andrei; King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard; Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri

    2014-06-21

    Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

  18. Triclosan antimicrobial polymers

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan antimicrobial molecular fluctuating energies of nonbonding electron pairs for the oxygen atom by ether bond rotations are reviewed with conformational computational chemistry analyses. Subsequent understanding of triclosan alternating ether bond rotations is able to help explain several material properties in Polymer Science. Unique bond rotation entanglements between triclosan and the polymer chains increase both the mechanical properties of polymer toughness and strength that are enhanced even better through secondary bonding relationships. Further, polymer blend compatibilization is considered due to similar molecular relationships and polarities. With compatibilization of triclosan in polymers a more uniform stability for nonpolar triclosan in the polymer solid state is retained by the antimicrobial for extremely low release with minimum solubility into aqueous solution. As a result, triclosan is projected for long extended lifetimes as an antimicrobial polymer additive. Further, triclosan rapid alternating ether bond rotations disrupt secondary bonding between chain monomers in the resin state to reduce viscosity and enhance polymer blending. Thus, triclosan is considered for a polymer additive with multiple properties to be an antimicrobial with additional benefits as a nonpolar toughening agent and a hydrophobic wetting agent. The triclosan material relationships with alternating ether bond rotations are described through a complete different form of medium by comparisons with known antimicrobial properties that upset bacterial cell membranes through rapid fluctuating mechanomolecular energies. Also, triclosan bond entanglements with secondary bonding can produce structural defects in weak bacterial lipid membranes requiring pliability that can then interfere with cell division. Regarding applications with polymers, triclosan can be incorporated by mixing into a resin system before cure, melt mixed with thermoplastic polymers that set on cooling

  19. Nanoparticle self-assembly in mixtures of phospholipids with styrene/maleic acid copolymers or fluorinated surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Carolyn; Arenas, Rodrigo Cuevas; Frotscher, Erik; Keller, Sandro

    2015-12-01

    Self-assembling nanostructures in aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming surfactants are relevant to in vitro studies on biological and synthetic membranes and membrane proteins. Considerable efforts are currently underway to replace conventional detergents by milder alternatives such as styrene/maleic acid (SMA) copolymers and fluorinated surfactants. However, these compounds and their nanosized assemblies remain poorly understood as regards their interactions with lipid membranes, particularly, the thermodynamics of membrane partitioning and solubilisation. Using 19F and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, static and dynamic light scattering, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have systematically investigated the aggregational state of a zwitterionic bilayer-forming phospholipid upon exposure to an SMA polymer with a styrene/maleic acid ratio of 3 : 1 or to a fluorinated octyl phosphocholine derivative called F6OPC. The lipid interactions of SMA(3 : 1) and F6OPC can be thermodynamically conceptualised within the framework of a three-stage model that treats bilayer vesicles, discoidal or micellar nanostructures, and the aqueous solution as distinct pseudophases. The exceptional solubilising power of SMA(3 : 1) is reflected in very low membrane-saturating and solubilising polymer/lipid molar ratios of 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. Although F6OPC saturates bilayers at an even lower molar ratio of 0.031, this nondetergent does not solubilise lipids even at >1000-fold molar excess, thus highlighting fundamental differences between these two types of mild membrane-mimetic systems. We rationalise these findings in terms of a new classification of surfactants based on bilayer-to-micelle transfer free energies and discuss practical implications for membrane-protein research.Self-assembling nanostructures in aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming surfactants are relevant to in vitro studies on biological and

  20. Anhydric maleic functionalization and polyethylene glycol grafting of lactide-co-trimethylene carbonate copolymers.

    PubMed

    Díaz, A; Del Valle, L; Franco, L; Sarasua, J R; Estrany, F; Puiggalí, J

    2014-09-01

    Lactide and trimethylene carbonate copolymers were successfully grafted with polyethylene glycol via previous functionalization with maleic anhydride and using N,N'-diisopropylcarbodiimide as condensing agent. Maleinization led to moderate polymer degradation. Specifically, the weight average molecular weight decreased from 36,200 to 30,200 g/mol for the copolymer having 20 mol% of trimethylene carbonate units. Copolymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction. Morphology of spherulites and lamellar crystals was evaluated with optical and atomic force microscopies, respectively. The studied copolymers were able to crystallize despite the randomness caused by the trimethylene carbonate units and the lateral groups. Contact angle measurements indicated that PEG grafted copolymers were more hydrophilic than parent copolymers. This feature justified that enzymatic degradation in lipase medium and proliferation of both epithelial-like and fibroblast-like cells were enhanced. Grafted copolymers were appropriate to prepare regular drug loaded microspheres by the oil-in-water emulsion method. Triclosan release from loaded microspheres was evaluated in two media. PMID:25063149

  1. Reactive blending of thermoplastic starch and polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride with chitosan as compatibilizer.

    PubMed

    Jantanasakulwong, Kittisak; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Wongsuriyasak, Somchai; Techapun, Charin; Ougizawa, Toshiaki

    2016-11-20

    Cassava starch was melt-blended with glycerol (70/30wt%/wt%) at 140°C to prepare thermoplastic starch (TPS). Chitosan (CTS) was premixed with starch and glycerol, in acidified water (lactic acid 2wt%), at 1, 5 and 10wt%/wt%. TPS/CTS was then melt-blended (160°C) with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-MAH). Phase determination and scanning electron microscopy indicated TPS/PE-MAH/CTS had a co-continuous morphology and CTS-induced phase inversion to give dispersed PE-MAH particles in a TPS matrix. Tensile strength at break and elongation, melt viscosity, fracture toughness and water contact angle of TPS/PE-MAH were improved by CTS incorporation. TPS/PE-MAH/CTS blends decreased the melting temperature of TPS and PE-MAH compared to the neat polymers. FTIR confirmed a reaction had occurred between amino groups (NH2) of CTS and the MAH groups of PE-MAH. This reaction and the enhanced miscibility between TPS and CTS improved the mechanical properties of the TPS/PE-MAH/CTS blend, particularly at 5wt%/wt% CTS. PMID:27561475

  2. Nanoparticle self-assembly in mixtures of phospholipids with styrene/maleic acid copolymers or fluorinated surfactants.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Carolyn; Arenas, Rodrigo Cuevas; Frotscher, Erik; Keller, Sandro

    2015-12-28

    Self-assembling nanostructures in aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming surfactants are relevant to in vitro studies on biological and synthetic membranes and membrane proteins. Considerable efforts are currently underway to replace conventional detergents by milder alternatives such as styrene/maleic acid (SMA) copolymers and fluorinated surfactants. However, these compounds and their nanosized assemblies remain poorly understood as regards their interactions with lipid membranes, particularly, the thermodynamics of membrane partitioning and solubilisation. Using (19)F and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, static and dynamic light scattering, and isothermal titration calorimetry, we have systematically investigated the aggregational state of a zwitterionic bilayer-forming phospholipid upon exposure to an SMA polymer with a styrene/maleic acid ratio of 3 : 1 or to a fluorinated octyl phosphocholine derivative called F(6)OPC. The lipid interactions of SMA(3 : 1) and F(6)OPC can be thermodynamically conceptualised within the framework of a three-stage model that treats bilayer vesicles, discoidal or micellar nanostructures, and the aqueous solution as distinct pseudophases. The exceptional solubilising power of SMA(3 : 1) is reflected in very low membrane-saturating and solubilising polymer/lipid molar ratios of 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. Although F(6)OPC saturates bilayers at an even lower molar ratio of 0.031, this nondetergent does not solubilise lipids even at >1000-fold molar excess, thus highlighting fundamental differences between these two types of mild membrane-mimetic systems. We rationalise these findings in terms of a new classification of surfactants based on bilayer-to-micelle transfer free energies and discuss practical implications for membrane-protein research. PMID:26599076

  3. Radiation-induced graft polymerization of maleic acid and maleic anhydride onto ultra-fine powdered styrene butadiene rubber (UFSBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jing; Xia, Haibing; Zhai, Maolin; Li, Jiuqiang; Qiao, Jinliang; Wei, Genshuan

    2007-11-01

    The functionalization of ultra-fine powdered styrene-butadiene rubber (UFSBR) was carried out using gamma radiation-induced graft polymerization of maleic acid (MA) and maleic anhydride (MAH), respectively. It was found that the graft yield of MA onto UFSBR increased rapidly up to the peak and then decreased with increasing MA content. Moreover, the peak shifted to the direction of lower MA content with increasing absorbed dose. Similarly, there was the peak of graft yield with increasing MAH content for grafting of MAH onto UFSBR, whereas the peak of graft yield was achieved at 10 wt% MAH content at different absorbed doses. On the other hand, increasing absorbed dose and decreasing monomer contents are useful to improve the graft efficiency of MA and MAH. At high dose and low monomer content, the graft yield of MAH onto UFSBR is higher than that of MA. FTIR spectra confirmed that both MA and MAH can be grafted successfully onto the UFSBR under gamma irradiation, respectively. Comparing with maleation of rubber by melt grafting, the graft yield of MAH on UFSBR is higher, which can be attributed to the network structure and nanometer size of UFSBR as well as high energy provided by radiation.

  4. Vibrational spectroscopic study of pure and silica-doped sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangasamy, Vijay Shankar; Thayumanasundaram, Savitha; Seo, Jin Won; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-01

    We report the vibrational properties of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes, used as electrolytes in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We discuss the changes in the vibrational modes of the functional groups present in the polymer arising due to the sulfonation process and the subsequent incorporation of silica particles functionalized with sulfonic acid group. From the infrared spectra, we confirm the incorporation of sulfonic acid group in the polymer chain as well as in the functionalized silica particles. We have also measured the variations in the peak area ratio of the characteristic out-of-plane vibrations of the aromatic rings in the PEEK polymer at 1280 cm-1 with respect to a reference peak at 1305 cm-1. These values were correlated to the crystallinity (XC) values experimentally determined by DSC technique, providing a non-destructive means to calculate the crystallinity of polymer membranes. The calculated XC values were in good agreement with the experimental values. The crystallinity was observed to decrease with increasing degree of sulfonation (DS), indicating the crystalline-to-amorphous phase modification of the polymer by sulfonation, which along with the enhanced ion-exchange capacity and water uptake, is responsible for the improved ionic conductivity at higher DS values.

  5. SMA-SH: Modified Styrene-Maleic Acid Copolymer for Functionalization of Lipid Nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Lindhoud, Simon; Carvalho, Vanessa; Pronk, Joachim W; Aubin-Tam, Marie-Eve

    2016-04-11

    Challenges in purification and subsequent functionalization of membrane proteins often complicate their biochemical and biophysical characterization. Purification of membrane proteins generally involves replacing the lipids surrounding the protein with detergent molecules, which can affect protein structure and function. Recently, it was shown that styrene-maleic acid copolymers (SMA) can dissolve integral membrane proteins from biological membranes into nanosized discs. Within these nanoparticles, proteins are embedded in a patch of their native lipid bilayer that is stabilized in solution by the amphipathic polymer that wraps the disc like a bracelet. This approach for detergent-free purification of membrane proteins has the potential to greatly simplify purification but does not facilitate conjugation of functional compounds to the membrane proteins. Often, such functionalization involves laborious preparation of protein variants and optimization of labeling procedures to ensure only minimal perturbation of the protein. Here, we present a strategy that circumvents several of these complications through modifying SMA by grafting the polymer with cysteamine. The reaction results in SMA that has solvent-exposed sulfhydrils (SMA-SH) and allows tuning of the coverage with SH groups. Size exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy demonstrate that SMA-SH dissolves lipid bilayer membranes into lipid nanodiscs, just like SMA. In addition, we demonstrate that, just like SMA, SMA-SH solubilizes proteoliposomes into protein-loaded nanodiscs. We covalently modify SMA-SH-lipid nanodiscs using thiol-reactive derivatives of Alexa Fluor 488 and biotin. Thus, SMA-SH promises to simultaneously tackle challenges in purification and functionalization of membrane proteins. PMID:26974006

  6. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  7. Patterning poly(maleic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) copolymer bioconjugates for controlled release of drugs.

    PubMed

    Nita, Loredana E; Chiriac, Aurica P; Mititelu-Tartau, Liliana; Stoleru, Elena; Doroftei, Florica; Diaconu, Alina

    2015-09-30

    Owing to the special characteristics and abilities polymeric networks have received special interest for a range of biomedical applications especially for drug delivery systems. This study was devoted to preparation of new polymeric compounds based on maleic anhydride and 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane copolymer (poly maleic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) (PMAU) patterned as a network for bioconjugation and tested as drug carrier systems. The PMAU copolymer was improved in its functionality by opening the maleic anhydride ring with different amounts of erythritol, which is free of side effects in regular use and a multifunctional compound, and also confers antioxidant character for the new compounds. The new polymeric matrices were loaded with acetaminophen, codeine and their fixed dose combinations. The investigation demonstrated the capability of the new structures to be used as polymer networks for linking bioactive compounds and to perform controlled delivery. The physico-chemical investigations--Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, contact angle, zeta potential (ZP - z, PMAU and its derivatives samples loaded with medicines present decreased values of zeta potential attesting the bioconjugate formation and as well their stability), and hydrodynamic radius, near infrared chemical imaging evaluation (new specific bands being registered for bio-conjugate with acetaminophen around of 1150-1200 nm and 1700 nm, and also between 1150 and 1200 nm in case of the codeine bio-conjugate), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, X-ray diffraction analysis--evidenced the formation of the bioconjugates in relation to the chemical composition of the polymer matrices, while in vitro release study and in vivo tests confirm the capacity for drug delivery of the prepared bioactive systems. PMID:26220652

  8. Characterization of carbon black modified by maleic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asokan, Vijayshankar; Kosinski, Pawel; Skodvin, Tore; Myrseth, Velaug

    2013-09-01

    We present here a method for modifying the surface of carbon black (CB) using a simple heat treatment in the presence of a carboxylic acid as well as water or ethylene glycol as a solvent. CB was mixed with maleic acid and either water or ethylene glycol, and heated at 250°C. Unlike the traditional surface modification processes which use heat treatment of carbon with mineral acids the present modification method using a carboxylic acid proved to be simple and time efficient. CB from two different vendors was used, and the modified samples were characterized by TGA, BET surface area measurement, XRD, particle size and zeta potential measurements, and FTIR. It was found that several material properties, including thermal stability and surface area, of the modified CB are significantly altered relative to the parental carbon samples. This method provides a rapid and simple route to tailor new materials with desired properties.

  9. Development of ALMA process: Advances maleic anhydride production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoia, S.C.; Komeya, M.; Pedretti, D.; Stanecki, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Shin-Daikyowa Petrochemical Co. (SDPC) has initiated a project to build a 15,000 MTA maleic anhydride plant at Yokkaichi, Japan. For technology, SDPC evaluated many alternatives and elected to utilize the ALMA Process in what will be the first full-scale plant for this new process. Startup is scheduled for late 1988. This paper describes the economic advantages of the ALMA Process and their technical bases which have led to its selection by SDPC. The advantages are in variable costs (primarily feed and energy) for any size plant, and in initial capital as well for plants larger than 10,000 MTA. They are derived from the use of n-butane feed, a fluidized-bed reactor system, and a non-aqueous recovery system.

  10. Solvent-induced crystallization of poly(ether ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPeak, Jennifer Lynne

    The purpose of this study was learn how the diffusion, swelling, and crystallization processes are coupled during solvent-induced crystallization of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). Unoriented amorphous PEEK films were immersed in aprotic organic liquids at ambient temperature and bulk properties or characteristics were monitored as a function of immersion time. The sorption behavior, T g and Tm° suppression, crystallinity, and dynamic mechanical response were correlated as a function of solvent chemistry and immersion time. The saturation time of methylene chloride, 1,3-dichloropropane, tetrahydrofuran, cyclopentanone, chlorobenzene, toluene, diethyl ketone, and ethylbenzene in amorphous PEEK films were found to range from hours to days depending on the level of polymer-solvent interactions. In-situ isochronal DMA spectra show that the Tg of PEEK was suppressed from 150°C to below ambient temperature such that crystallization was kinetically feasible during ambient immersion. In addition, an increase in viscoelastic dispersion was attributed to the presence of crystallinity. From dynamic mass uptake and wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD) results, it was found that the bulk sorption rate was equal to the bulk crystallization rate for all solvent systems that promoted SINC and PEEK exhibited diffusion-limited crystallization, irrespective of the nature of the transport mechanism. In addition, the solvent-induced crystals exhibit preferred orientation as supported by photographic WAXD. A distinct sorption front, observed with scanning electron microscopy, further supports the scenario of diffusion-controlled crystallization and one-dimensional diffusion. Isothermal DMA spectra for THF, cyclopentanone, and chlorobenzene, indicate that, as the solvent diffuses into the films, the stiffness of the polymer decreases at short times, begins to increase, and then reaches a relatively time-independent value. It was determined that the initial decrease in the storage

  11. Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 112 - 50 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  12. Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether ; CASRN 143 - 22 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  13. Propylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 52125 - 53 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  14. p-Bromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Bromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 101 - 55 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  15. Chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chloromethyl methyl ether ( CMME ) ; CASRN 107 - 30 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  16. Studying the effect of high pressure on the cycloaddition reactions of maleic anhydride and substituted anthracenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. D.; Shakirova, I. I.; Kornilov, D. A.; Kashaeva, E. A.; Potapova, L. N.; Konovalov, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics (rate, activation, and volume) of the high-pressure (up to 2500 bar) Diels-Alder reactions of maleic anhydride with 9-phenylanthracene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene in toluene is investigated.

  17. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants. 3. Unsaturated aliphatics: Acrolein, acrylonitrile, maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Detailed mechanisms are outlined for the chemical reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the unsaturated aliphatic contaminants acrolein, acrylonitrile, and maleic anhydride. In-situ formation of small amounts of acrolein and maleic anhydride may involve the reaction of OH (and O{sub 3}) with 1,3-dienes and the reaction of OH with aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. There is no known pathway for in-situ formation of acrylonitrile. Rapid removal of acrolein (half-life = less than one day) and of maleic anhydride (half-life = several hours) is expected from their rapid reactions with OH (major), O{sub 3}, and NO{sub 3}. These reactions lead to formaldehyde and glyoxal from acrolein and to dicarbonyls from maleic anhydride. Acrylonitrile is removed at a slower rate (half-life = 2-7 days) by reaction with OH, leading to formaldehyde and formyl cyanide.

  18. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, J.V.

    1996-10-22

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of the above formula together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  19. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  20. Glycol Ethers As Groundwater Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Benjamin; Johannson, Gunnar; Foster, Gregory D.; Eckel, William P.

    1992-01-01

    Ether derivatives of dihydroxy alcohols, which are formed from ethylene or propylene, comprise an important group of groundwater contaminants known as glycol ethers. Compounds in this group are used as solvents, cleaning agents, and emulsifiers in many chemical products and manufacturing operations. Glycol ethers have been associated with a variety of toxic effects, and some compounds in the group are relatively potent teratogens. The limited information available suggests that glycol ethers are contaminants in groundwater, especially in anaerobic plumes emanating from disposal of mixed industrial and household waste. Most methods used to analyze groundwater samples cannot adequately detect μg/? (ppb) concentrations of glycol ethers, and the existing methods perform worst for the most widely used and toxic species. A new method capable of analyzing μg/? concentrations of glycol ethers was recently developed, and its use is recommended for groundwater samples where glycol ethers are likely to be present.

  1. Chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to develop high-temperature high-performance structural resins for aerospace applications, the chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles) were investigated. The polymers were prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of aromatic bis(imidazolephenols) with activated aromatic difluoro compounds. The amorphous thermoplastic polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures from 230 to 301 C, inherent viscosities from 0.46 to 1.46 dL/g, and number-average molecular weights as high as 59,300 g/mole. The polymers exhibit good toughness, adhesive, composite, and film properties. The chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of these materials are discussed.

  2. High temperature fuel cell membranes based on poly(arylene ether)s containing benzimidazole groups

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae Sik; Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan - Soo; Boncella, James M; Kuiper, David; Guiver, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Development of new high-performance polymer membranes that retain their proton conductivity under low humidity conditions is one of the most critical requirements to commercialize PEMFC systems. Current sulfonated proton exchange membranes acquire proton conductivity by water that solvates ion and carries proton. Consequently, a loss of water under low RH conditions immediately results in a loss of proton conductivity. One approach to maintain proton conductivity under low RH conditions is to replace water with a less volatile proton solvent. Kreuer has pointed out the possibility to develop fully polymeric proton-conducting membranes based on nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as imidazole, benzimidazole, and pyrazole. We have attempted to blend those less volatile proton solvent with sulfonated copolymers such as polystyrene sulfonic acid, Nafion, poly(arylene ether sulfone, BPSH-xx). [Ref. DOE review meeting 2007 and 2008] However, we observed that imidazole was slowly sublimated out as temperature and humidity increases which could cause poisoning of electro-catalyst, corrosion and losing conductivity. In this presentation, we report the synthesis of novel poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing benzimidazole groups These benzimidazole containing polymer was blended with sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone). In the blend system, benzimidazole group attached to the polysulfone acts as a medium through the basic nitrogen for transfer of protons between the sulfonic acid groups. Proton conductivity of the blend membranes was investigated as a function of water content at 80 C and compared the performance with water based proton conduction system.

  3. trans-cis Configuration regulated supramolecular polymer gels and chirality transfer based on a bolaamphiphilic histidine and dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunfeng; Wang, Tianyu; Fu, Yunzhi; Liu, Minghua

    2016-01-25

    Supramolecular polymer gels based on the co-assembly of bolaamphiphilic l-histidine(BolaHis) and dicarboxylic acids are dependent on the molar ratios, flexibility and cis-trans configuration of acid molecules. Thus, oligomerized rigid cis-maleic acid or flexible trans-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid can form chiral supramolecular polymer gels with l-BolaHis. PMID:26617194

  4. High performance polymer development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    The term high performance as applied to polymers is generally associated with polymers that operate at high temperatures. High performance is used to describe polymers that perform at temperatures of 177 C or higher. In addition to temperature, other factors obviously influence the performance of polymers such as thermal cycling, stress level, and environmental effects. Some recent developments at NASA Langley in polyimides, poly(arylene ethers), and acetylenic terminated materials are discussed. The high performance/high temperature polymers discussed are representative of the type of work underway at NASA Langley Research Center. Further improvement in these materials as well as the development of new polymers will provide technology to help meet NASA future needs in high performance/high temperature applications. In addition, because of the combination of properties offered by many of these polymers, they should find use in many other applications.

  5. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    2002-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  6. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gohdes, J.W.

    1999-04-06

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  7. Water-soluble polymers and compositions thereof

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robison, Thomas W.; Gohdes, Joel W.

    1999-01-01

    Water-soluble polymers including functionalization from the group of amino groups, carboxylic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, phosphonic ester groups, acylpyrazolone groups, hydroxamic acid groups, aza crown ether groups, oxy crown ethers groups, guanidinium groups, amide groups, ester groups, aminodicarboxylic groups, permethylated polyvinylpyridine groups, permethylated amine groups, mercaptosuccinic acid groups, alkyl thiol groups, and N-alkylthiourea groups are disclosed.

  8. Cathodic delaminations of poly(phenyl ether ether ketone) (PEEK) coatings overlaid on zinc phosphate-deposited steels

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Carciello, N.R. . Dept. of Applied Science)

    1993-12-10

    The melt-crystallized poly(phenyl) ether ether ketone (PEEK) polymer was overlaid on crystalline zinc phosphate (Zn [center dot] Ph) conversion coating-deposited and nondeposited cold-rolled steels at 400 C in air or in N[sub 2] environments. The ability of these coatings systems to protect the steel against corrosion was evaluated from the rate of cathodic delamination of the coating layer from the steel. Because the cathodic reaction, H[sub 2]O + 1/20[sub 2] + 2e[sup [minus

  9. Molecular Model for the Solubilization of Membranes into Nanodisks by Styrene Maleic Acid Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Scheidelaar, Stefan; Koorengevel, Martijn C.; Pardo, Juan Dominguez; Meeldijk, Johannes D.; Breukink, Eefjan; Killian, J. Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    A recent discovery in membrane research is the ability of styrene-maleic acid (SMA) copolymers to solubilize membranes in the form of nanodisks allowing extraction and purification of membrane proteins from their native environment in a single detergent-free step. This has important implications for membrane research because it allows isolation as well as characterization of proteins and lipids in a near-native environment. Here, we aimed to unravel the molecular mode of action of SMA copolymers by performing systematic studies using model membranes of varying compositions and employing complementary biophysical approaches. We found that the SMA copolymer is a highly efficient membrane-solubilizing agent and that lipid bilayer properties such as fluidity, thickness, lateral pressure profile, and charge density all play distinct roles in the kinetics of solubilization. More specifically, relatively thin membranes, decreased lateral chain pressure, low charge density at the membrane surface, and increased salt concentration promote the speed and yield of vesicle solubilization. Experiments using a native membrane lipid extract showed that the SMA copolymer does not discriminate between different lipids and thus retains the native lipid composition in the solubilized particles. A model is proposed for the mode of action of SMA copolymers in which membrane solubilization is mainly driven by the hydrophobic effect and is further favored by physical properties of the polymer such as its relatively small cross-sectional area and rigid pendant groups. These results may be helpful for development of novel applications for this new type of solubilizing agent, and for optimization of the SMA technology for solubilization of the wide variety of cell membranes found in nature. PMID:25606677

  10. Uranyl ion uptake capacity of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide/maleic acid) copolymeric hydrogels prepared by gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kam, Erol; Taşdelen, Betul; Osmanlioglu, A. Erdal

    2012-06-01

    The effect of gel composition, absorbed dose and pH of the solution on the uranyl ion uptake capacity of N-isopropylacrylamide/maleic acid copolymeric hydrogels containing 0-3 mol% of maleic acid at 48 kGy have been investigated. Uranyl uptake capacity of hydrogels are found to increase from 18.5 to 94.8 mg [UO22+]/g dry gel as the mole % of maleic acid content in the gel structure increased from 0 to 3. The percent swelling, equilibrium swelling and diffusion coefficient values have been evaluated for poly(N-isopropylacrylamide/maleic acid) hydrogels at 500 ppm of uranyl nitrate solution.

  11. The influence of a small amount of maleic acid on crystal deposition phenomena of methacrylic acid in melt crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Tomomichi; Kato, Shinpei; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Crystal deposition phenomena were investigated in the suspension melt crystallization of an organic acid. Methacrylic acid was used as the target substance, a certain amount of methanol was used as the solvent, and the effect of a small amount of maleic acid by-produced in methacrylic acid synthesis was focused on. Batch crystallizations were carried out on a laboratory scale using various concentrations of maleic acid. In the presence of maleic acid, a certain deviation from equilibrium of the pure binary system was observed in the final composition of mother liquor. Moreover, nevertheless the final temperature in the crystallizer was same, the amount of crystal deposition in the presence of maleic acid was smaller than in the absence of maleic acid. It was suggested that the final amount of crystal deposition decreased in the presence of maleic acid. Additionally, it was observed that the obtained crystal size was smaller in the presence of maleic acid. Hence, a simplified kinetic analysis of crystal deposition rates was carried out to make the effect of maleic acid clear. Consequently, it was suggested that the cause of the above-mentioned phenomena was the existence of the maleic acid concentration dependent pseudo-liquidus line.

  12. A high performance semi-crystalline electrostatic stabilizer for aqueous dispersion prepregging: Poly(pyridine ether-co-ether ether ketone)

    SciTech Connect

    Brink, A.E.; Lin, M.C.; Riffle, J.S. |

    1993-12-31

    Aqueous dispersion prepregging is a relatively new, alternate method for processing polymer matrix composites, which could potentially circumvent many of the environmental and processing problems prominent in melt or solution prepregging. However, this method requires the high performance thermoplastic matrix resin to be in the form of small particles dispersed in a stable aqueous suspension. The preparation of submicron particles of the high performance semicrystalline poly(ether ether ketone) has previously been reported (Polymer, accepted 1992). Suspensions of these particles in water were demonstrated, but the suspending agents used were not thermally stable materials. This paper discusses the development of a high performance stabilizer which can be used for suspending PEEK particles in water (forming stable colloids), thereby facilitating the development of processes for aqueous dispersion prepegging. The stabilizer is a copolymer formed from 4,4`-difluoro (N-benzohydroxylidene aniline), 2,6-dichloropyridine, and hydroquinone.

  13. Poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) binders containing lithium for high-performance Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Jun-Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Ham, Dong-Jin; Song, Min-Sang; Shon, Jeong-Kuk; Ji, Sang-Min; Choi, Jae-Man; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    Anode materials including graphite are known to be thermodynamically unstable toward organic solvents and salts and become covered by a passivating film (Solid electrolyte interphase, SEI) which retards the kinetics because of the high electronic resistivity. To achieve high performance in lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the SEIs are required to be mechanically stable during repeated cycling and possess highly ion-conductive. In this work, we have investigated an artificial pre-SEI on graphite electrode using a polymer binder containing lithium (i.e., a Li-copolymer of isobutylene and maleic anhydride, Li-PIMA) and its effect on the anode performances. During charging, the polymer binder with the functional group (-COOLi) acts as a SEI component, reducing the electrolyte decomposition and providing a stable passivating layer for the favorable penetration of lithium ions. Hence, by using the binder containing lithium, we have been able to obtain the first Coulombic efficiency of 84.2% (compared to 77.2% obtained using polyvinylidene fluoride as the binder) and a capacity retention of 99% after 100 cycles. The results of our study demonstrate that binder containing lithium we have used is a favorable candidate for the development of high-performance LIBs.

  14. Effects of hydrophobicity of diffusion layer on the electroreduction of biomass derivatives in polymer electrolyte membrane reactors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; He, Gaohong; Ge, Feilong; Xiao, Wu; Benziger, Jay; Wu, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, the hydrophobicity design of a diffusion layer based on the volatility of hydrogenation reactants in aqueous solutions is reported. The hydrophobicity of the diffusion layer greatly influences the hydrogenation performance of two model biomass derivatives, namely, butanone and maleic acid, in polymer electrolyte membrane reactors operated at atmospheric pressure. Hydrophobic carbon paper repels aqueous solutions, but highly volatile butanone can permeate in vapor form and achieve a high hydrogenation rate, whereas, for nonvolatile maleic acid, great mass transfer resistance prevents hydrogenation. With a hydrophilic stainless-steel welded mesh diffusion layer, aqueous solutions of both butanone and maleic acid permeate in liquid form. Hydrogenation of maleic acid reaches a similar level as that of butanone. The maximum reaction rate is 340 nmol cm(-2)  s(-1) for both hydrogenation systems and the current efficiency reaches 70 %. These results are better than those reported in the literature. PMID:25319718

  15. Bacterial degradation of glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Kawai, F

    1995-12-01

    Assimilation of ethyleneglycol (EG) ethers by polyethyleneglycol-utilizing bacteria was examined. Ethyleneglycol ether-utilizing bacteria were also isolated from soil and activated sludge samples by enrichment-culture techniques. Three strains (4-5-3, EC 1-2-1 and MC 2-2-1) were selected and characterized as Pseudomonas sp. 4-5-3, Xanthobacter autotrophicus, and an unidentified gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod respectively. Their growth characteristics were examined: Pseudomonas sp. 4-5-3 assimilated EG (diethyleneglycol, DEG) monomethyl, monoethyl and monobutyl ethers, DEG, propanol and butanol. X. autotrophicus EC 1-2-1 grew well on EG monoethyl and monobutyl ethers, EG and primary alcohols (C1-C4), and slightly on EG monomethyl ether. The strain MC 2-2-1 grew on EG monomethyl ether, EG, primary alcohols (C1-C4), and 1,2-propyleneglycol (PG). The mixed culture of Pseudomonas sp. 4-5-3 and X. autotrophicus EC 1-2-1 showed better growth and improved degradation than respective single cultures towards EG monomethyl, monoethyl or monobutyl ethers. Intact cells of Pseudomonas sp. 4-5-3 degraded various kinds of monoalkyl ethers, which cannot be assimilated by the strain. Metabolic products were characterized from reaction supernatants of intact cells of Pseudomonas sp. 4-5-3 with EG or DEG monoethyl ethers: they were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography and GC-MS and found to be ethoxyacetic acid and ethoxyglycoxyacetic acid. Also, PG monoalkyl ethers (C1-C4), dipropyleneglycol monoethyl and monomethyl ethers and tripropyleneglycol monomethyl ether were assimilated by polypropyleneglycol-utilizing Corynebacterium sp. 7. PMID:8597556

  16. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of divalent europium-poly(methacrylate containing crown ether structure) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, N.; Nakamura, H.; Mishima, T.; Shiokawa, J.; Adachi, G. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports on divalent europium complexes with poly(methacrylate containing crown ether structure)s, poly(crown ether)s, prepared and their fluorescence properties studied. The polymers used were poly(15-crown-5-methyl methacrylate) (PMA15C5), copoly(15- crown-5-methyl methacrylate-X) (copoly(MA15C5-X)); (X = MMA, EMA, BMA, 2-methoxyethyl methacrylate (MAGI) 3,6,9,12,15- pentaoxahexadecyl methacrylate (MAG5)), poly(18-crown-6- methyl methacrylate) (PMA18C6), and copoly(18-crown-6-methyl methacrylate-MMA) (copoly(MA18C6-MMA)), which were obtained by bulk polymerization. The fluorescence properties of Eu{sup 2+} polymers activated by complexing Eu{sup 2+} ions with crown ether groups were measured in powder form. The Eu{sup 2+}-poly (crown ether)s irradiated by UV light generally gave blue bright emission in the region of 420-465 nm. It was Eu{sup 2+}-copoly(Ma15C5-X); (X = MMA, EMA, and MAG1) that showed the largest emission intensity among the Eu{sup 2+} polymers, and its emission intensity was ca. 20% of that for CaWO{sub 4}:Pb (NBS1026) whose quantum efficiency is about 76%. The intensities of emission for the Eu{sup 2+} polymers containing 15-crown-5 were much larger than that for the ones containing 18-crown-6.

  17. Thermally resistant polymers for fuel tank sealants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Imide-linked perfluoroalkylene ether polymers, that were developed for the high temperature fuel tank sealant application, are discussed. Modifications of polymer structure and properties were realized through use of a new aromatic dianhydride intermediate containing an ether-linked perfluoroalkylene segment. Tests of thermal, oxidative and hydrolytic stability, fuel resistance, and adhesion are discussed along with tensile strength and elongation results. Efforts to effect a low temperature condensation of amic acid prepolymer to form imide links inside are described.

  18. Poly(arylene ether)s That Resist Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing phosphine oxide (PAEPO's) made via aromatic nucleophilic displacement reactions of activated aromatic dihalides (or, in some cases, activated aromatic dinitro compounds) with new bisphenol monomers containing phosphine oxide. Exhibited favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties and resistance to monatomic oxygen in oxygen plasma environment. Useful as adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, moldings, and composite matrices.

  19. Aliphatic polycarbonates based on carbon dioxide, furfuryl glycidyl ether, and glycidyl methyl ether: reversible functionalization and cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Hilf, Jeannette; Scharfenberg, Markus; Poon, Jeffrey; Moers, Christian; Frey, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Well-defined poly((furfuryl glycidyl ether)-co-(glycidyl methyl ether) carbonate) (P((FGE-co-GME)C)) copolymers with varying furfuryl glycidyl ether (FGE) content in the range of 26% to 100% are prepared directly from CO2 and the respective epoxides in a solvent-free synthesis. All materials are characterized by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The furfuryl-functional samples exhibit monomodal molecular weight distributions with Mw/Mn in the range of 1.16 to 1.43 and molecular weights (Mn) between 2300 and 4300 g mol(-1). Thermal properties reflect the amorphous structure of the polymers. Both post-functionalization and cross-linking are performed via Diels-Alder chemistry using maleimide derivatives, leading to reversible network formation. This transformation is shown to be thermally reversible at 110 °C. PMID:25407342

  20. Ether and Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhoudi, Mehrdad; Yousefian, Maysam

    2016-05-01

    We consider one of the fundamental debates in performing the relativity theory, namely, the ether and the relativity points of view, in a way to aid the learning of the subjects. In addition, we present our views and prospects while describing the issues that being accessible to many physicists and allowing broader views. Also, we very briefly review the two almost recent observations of the Webb redshift and the ultra high energy cosmic rays, and the modified relativity models that have been presented to justify them, wherein we express that these justifications have not been performed via a single model with a single mechanism.

  1. Structure-property study of keto-ether polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezern, James F.; Croall, Catharine I.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an on-going effort to develop an understanding of how changes in the chemical structure affect polymer properties, an empirical study was performed on polyimides containing only ether and/or carbonyl connecting groups in the polymer backbone. During the past two decades the structure-property relationships in linear aromatic polyimides have been extensively investigated. More recently, work has been performed to study the effect of isomeric attachment of keto-ether polyimides on properties such as glass transition temperature and solubility. However, little work has been reported on the relation of polyimide structure to mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of structural changes in the backbone of keto-ether polyimides on their mechanical properties, specifically, unoriented thin film tensile properties. This study was conducted in two stages. The purpose of the initial stage was to examine the physical and mechanical properties of a representative group (four) of polyimide systems to determine the optimum solvent and cure cycle requirements. These optimum conditions were then utilized in the second stage to prepare films of keto-ether polyimides which were evaluated for mechanical and physical properties. All of the polyimides were prepared using isomers of oxydianiline (ODA) and diaminobenzophenone (DABP) in combination with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA).

  2. Metal ion complexation by ionizable crown ethers. Progress report, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bartsch, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    Cyclic and acyclic polyether compounds with pendent carboxylic acid, phosphonic acid monoethyl ester, sulfonic acid, phosphinic acid and hydroxamic acid groups have been synthesized. The proton-ionizable polyethers can come with and without lipophilic groups. Two types of lipophilic di-ionizable lariat ethers have been prepared. Conformations of proton-ionizable lariat ethers have been probed. Competitive alkali metal cation transport by syn-(decyl)dibenzo-16-crown-5-oxyacetic acid and lipophilic proton-ionizable dibenzo lariat ethers in polymer-supported liquid membranes was studied. Complexation of alkali metal cations with ionized lariat ethers was studied. Condensation polymerization of cyclic and acyclic dibenzo polyethers containing pendent mono-ionizable groups with formaldehyde produces novel ion exchange resins with both ion exchange sites for metal ion complexation and polyether binding sites for metal ion recognition. Resins prepared from lariat ether dibenzo phosphonic acid monoethyl esters show strong sorption of divalent heavy metal cations with selectivity for Pb{sup 2+}.

  3. Sorbents based on crown ethers: preparation and application for the sorption of strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezhin, N. A.; Dovhyi, I. I.

    2015-12-01

    The key approaches to the synthesis of crown ether-based sorbents, including immobilization both with and without covalent bonding, are reviewed. Examples of sorbent preparation using anodic oxidation, chemical modification of polymers, polycondensation reactions, chemical modification of inorganic supports and radiochemical synthesis for covalent bonding of crown ether moieties are considered. Immobilization methods without covalent bonding including support synthesis in the presence of crown ethers, impregnation of supports with a crown ether solution and the use of powdered crown ether as a sorbent are presented. The applications of sorbents for selective removal of strontium from solutions of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, for radiochemical analysis (determination of strontium in water, soil and biological materials) and for separation of strontium and yttrium isotopes are discussed. The bibliography includes 114 references.

  4. Allene ether Nazarov cyclization.

    PubMed

    Tius, Marcus A

    2014-05-01

    The ease of synthesis and the exceptional reactivity of alkoxyallenes has led to their use in a large number of highly diverse applications. This Report describes their use in various versions of the allene ether Nazarov cyclization. Following a brief introduction to the Nazarov cyclization (Section 1), the oxidative cyclization of vinyl alkoxyallenes is discussed first (Section 2). Nazarov cyclizations of α-alkoxyallenyl vinyl ketones and of α-alkoxyallenyl vinyl tertiary carbinols are covered (Section 3). The discovery and the subsequent rational design of acetals that serve as chiral auxiliaries on the allene in highly enantioselective Nazarov cyclizations is explained (Section 4). Interrupted Nazarov cyclizations of alkoxyallenes that are generated in situ from the isomerization of propargyl ethers on solid supports are discussed, including the evolution of a highly diastereoselective, chiral auxiliary controlled version of the reaction. Some applications of the methodology to natural products total synthesis have been included so as to provide the reader with benchmarks with which to judge the utility of the methodology. PMID:24196585

  5. Silyl ether-coupled poly(epsilon-caprolactone)s with stepwise hydrolytic degradation profiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Zhang, Q; Wooley, K L

    2001-01-01

    Silyl ether-coupled poly(epsilon-caprolactone)s (PCLs) with stepwise degradation profiles were synthesized via the cross-dehydrocoupling polymerizations between 1,4-bis(dimethylsilyl)benzene (BDSB) and telechelic, diol-terminated PCL macromonomers. With the presence of 10 wt % palladium on activated carbon as the catalyst, the condensations between BDSB and diol-terminated PCL macromonomers having molecular weights of 1200, 2010, and 5500 g/mol were performed in toluene at 100 degrees C under argon. Hydrogen was eliminated as the condensate upon the formation of silyl ether bonds linking the PCL blocks, yielding within 24 h, silyl ether-coupled PCLs of molecular mass 7590, 29,900, and 29,500 g/mol, respectively. The characterization of each polymer included (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and (29)Si NMR spectroscopies, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), and differential scanning calorimetry. The hydrolytic degradation properties of the polymers in solution were studied, and the molecular weight reductions over time were monitored by SEC. The silyl ether linkages of the polymers underwent hydrolysis in the presence of mineral acids, whereas the PCL segments released from the cleavage of the labile silyl ether coupling unit did not undergo detectable molecular weight reduction over 15 days. In the presence of acetic acid, the silyl ether functionalities were cleaved with a half-life of 3 days; however, the PCL chain required reaction with trifluoroacetic acid to give a number-average molecular weight loss half-life of 4 days. The silyl ether-coupled PCLs underwent degradation in a gradient fashion, therefore, by a protocol that involved the addition of acetic acid for cleavage of the silyl ether functionalities, followed by further addition of trifluoroacetic acid to bring the hydrolysis of the silyl ether functionalities to completion and to trigger the degradation of PCL segments. PMID:11777394

  6. Crystal structure of 2,3-di-methyl-maleic anhydride: continuous chains of electrostatic attraction.

    PubMed

    Wiscons, Ren A; Zeller, Matthias; Rowsell, Jesse L C

    2015-08-01

    In the crystal structure of 2,3-di-methyl-maleic anhydride, C6H6O3, the closest non-bonding inter-molecular distances, between the carbonyl C and O atoms of neighboring mol-ecules, were measured as 2.9054 (11) and 3.0509 (11) Å, which are well below the sum of the van der Waals radii for these atoms. These close contacts, as well as packing motifs similar to that of the title compound, were also found in the crystal structure of maleic anhydride itself and other 2,3-disubstituted maleic anhydrides. Computational modeling suggests that this close contact is caused by strong electrostatic inter-actions between the carbonyl C and O atoms. PMID:26396764

  7. UNIFAC parameters for maleic anhydride and 2-methyl furan in p-dioxane system

    SciTech Connect

    Daumn, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a method for calculating equilibrium concentrations for reversible liquid phase reactions from a minimum of experimental data. The example reaction studied was the Diels Alder reaction between 2-methyl furan and maleic anhydride. Specifically, interaction parameters of the UNIFAC model for groups in the compounds 2-methyl furan, maleic anhydride and the solvent, p-dioxane, were determined. The activity coefficient of each substance was then predicted by the UNIFAC method. Equilibrium constants at 45/sup 0/C for the Diels Alder reaction between 2-methyl furan and maleic anhydride were then calculated from these activity coefficients and two previously determined sets of equilibrium concentrations at 45/sup 0/C. These two equilibrium constants were within 12% of each other, which demonstrated the validity of the method.

  8. Single bubble sonochemistry: decomposition of alkyl bromide and the isomerization reaction of maleic acid.

    PubMed

    Troia, A; Ripa, D Madonna; Spagnolo, R; Maurino, V

    2006-07-01

    Single bubble cavitation offers an unique opportunity to evaluate the effect of bubble activity in promoting chemical reactions. In this paper we study the isomerization reaction of maleic acid into fumaric acid using an aqueous solution of maleic acid saturated with CH2Br2. The Br* radicals are generated at the bubble surface and a whitish thread forms. For comparison, the same reaction was conducted in a sonochemical bath. A possible scheme of the reactions activated at bubble surface after the decomposition of organic brominated substances is proposed. PMID:16168698

  9. Novel Ordered Crown Ether-Containing Polyimides for Ion Conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvin, Jennifer A.; Stasko, Daniel; Fallis, Stephen; Guenthner, Andrew J.; Webber, Cynthia; Blackwell, John; Chvalun, Sergei N.

    2003-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of thermally-stable polyimides for use as battery and fuel cell electrolyte membranes. Dianhydrides used were 1,4,5,8- naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride and/or 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride. Diamines used were anti-4,4-diaminodibenzo-l8-crown-6, 4,4'- diaminodibenzo-24-crown-8, 2,2-bis(4-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane, and/or 2,5- diaminobenzenesulfonic acid. The polymers were characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. Polymers containing the hexafluoroisopropylidene (HFIP) group were soluble in common organic solvents, while polymers without the HFIP group were very poorly soluble. Sulfonation yields polymers that are sparingly soluble in aqueous base and/or methanol. Degree of sulfonation, determined by titration, was between one and three sulfonate groups per repeat unit. Proton conductivity was determined as a function of water content, with a maximum conductivity of l x 10(exp -2) per centimeter when fully hydrated. Crown ether-containing polymers exhibit a high degree of order that may be indicative of crown ether channel formation, which may facilitate Li(+) transport for use in battery membranes.

  10. Fluorescent Ag nanoclusters prepared in aqueous poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) solutions: a spectroscopic study of their excited state dynamics, size and local environment.

    PubMed

    Dandapat, Manika; Mandal, Debabrata

    2016-01-28

    Stable, fluorescent Ag nanoclusters were prepared in aqueous solutions of Na(+) salt of the carboxylate-rich polymer poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) under brief spells of UV irradiation. The nanoclusters were nearly spherical, with diameters within 1.90 ± 0.50 nm, but displayed a prominent red edge excitation shift (REES) of fluorescence upon exciting within the visible absorption band, indicating heterogeneity of energy level distributions. Spectroscopic studies revealed that irrespective of whether the nanoclusters are excited in their UV or visible absorption bands, their fluorescence always ensues from the same manifold of emissive states, with a broad range of fluorescence lifetimes from ∼150 fs to 1 ns. PMID:26700465

  11. Polyarylene Ethers with Improved Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (Inventor); Jensen, B. J. (Inventor); Havens, S. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to novel polyarylene ethers which possess the combination of high strength, toughness, and high use temperature with ease of extrusion and formation into complex objects. These polyarylene ethers are suitable for use in adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, and composite matrices. The polyarylene ethers of this invention are the polycondensation products from the reaction of either 1,3-bis (4-chloro or fluorobenzoyl) benzene with any one of the following bisphenolic compounds: bis (3-hydroxyphenyl) methane; bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) methane; 1,1-dimethyl-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)methane, or 9,9-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene. Random and block copolymers are also comprehended.

  12. Imide/Arylene Ether Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Bass, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    New imide/arylene ether copolymers prepared by reacting anhydride-terminated poly(amic acids) with amine-terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents. Each resulting copolymer may have one glass-transition temperature or two, depending on chemical structure and/or compatibility of block units. Most of copolymers form tough, solvent-resistant films with high tensile properties. Films cast from solution tough and flexible, and exhibit useful thermal and mechanical properties. Potentially useful as moldings, adhesives, or composite matrices. Because of flexible arylene ether blocks, these copolymers easier to process than polyimides.

  13. Chemistry and properties of poly(arylene ether 1,3,4-oxadiazole)s and poly(arylene ether 1,2,4-triazole)s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Wolf, P.

    1992-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing l,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,4-triazole units were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of bisphenol oxadiazole and bisphenol triazole compounds with activated aromatic dihalides. The polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures (Tg) ranging from 182 to 242 C, and several polymers exhibited melting transitions (Tm) ranging from 265 to 390 C. Inherent viscosities ranged from 1.02 to 3.40 dl/g, indicating relatively high molecular weights. Thin films exhibited tensile strengths, moduli, and elongations at 23 C of 90-110 MPa, 2.7-3.6 GPa, and 4-7 percent, respectively. Titanium-to-titanium tensile shear specimens of a poly(arylene ether 1,3,4-oxadiazole) exhibited tensile shear strengths at 23 and 150 C of 22.1 and 17.9 MPa, respectively.

  14. MALEIC ANHYDRIDE HYDROGENATION OF PD/AL2O3 CATALYST UNDER SUPERCRITICAL CO2 MEDIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrogenation of maleic anhydride (MA) to either y-butyrolactone of succinic anhydride over simple Pd/Al2O3 impregnated catalyst in supercritical CO2 medium has been studied at different temperatures and pressures. A comparison of the supercritical CO2 medium reaction with the c...

  15. Charge-Transfer Complex of p-Aminodiphenylamine with Maleic Anhydride: Spectroscopic, Electrochemical, and Physical Properties.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Erhan; Kaplan Can, Hatice; Bozkaya, Uğur; Özçiçek Pekmez, Nuran

    2016-07-01

    A new charge-transfer complex and the amide formed by the interaction between the electron donor of the p-aminodiphenylamine and the electron acceptor of maleic anhydride are investigated by spectroscopic methods. The amidation reaction is caused by proton and charge transfer between the maleic anhydride and p-aminodiphenylamine molecules. The Benesi-Hildebrand equation is used to determine the formation constant, the molar extinction coefficient and the standard Gibbs free energy of the complex by using UV/Vis spectroscopy. To reveal the electronic and spectroscopic properties of these molecules, theoretical computations are performed on the structures of maleic anhydride, p-aminodiphenylamine and the conformers of their charge-transfer complex. The charge-transfer complex and amidation reaction mechanism are also confirmed by IR and NMR spectroscopy and HRMS. The nature of the maleic anhydride-p-aminodiphenylamine complex is characterized by cyclic voltammetry, thermogravimetric analysis, XRD and SEM. Solid microribbons of this complex show higher thermal stability than p-aminodiphenylamine. PMID:26990700

  16. Fuel compositions containing maleic derivatives of 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole

    SciTech Connect

    Karol, T.J.

    1989-11-14

    This patent describes a diesel fuel composition. It is characterized by improved wear properties. It comprises: a major portion of middle distillates boiling in the range of about 163{degrees}to 400{degrees}C. and a minor wear improving amount of a reaction product of a maleic compound and 2,5-dimercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole.

  17. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Maleic Acid at Moderate Pressures: A Laboratory Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoa, Kwesi

    2007-01-01

    Moderate-pressure catalytic hydrogenation is often overlooked as a classroom demonstration because of the awkwardness of the equipment and the time constraints required for the conversion of reactants to products. This article demonstrates the reduction of maleic acid in about 90 minutes. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  18. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  2. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  3. pH-responsive supramolecular polymerization in aqueous media driven by electrostatic attraction-enhanced crown ether-based molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaofan; Zhu, Kelong; Yan, Xuzhou; Ma, Yingjie; Li, Jinying; Hu, Bingjie; Yu, Yihua; Huang, Feihe

    2012-07-26

    All the previously reported supramolecular polymers based on crown ether-based molecular recognition have been prepared in anhydrous organic solvents. This is mainly due to the weakness of crown ether-based molecular recognition in the presence of water. Here we report a linear supramolecular polymer constructed from a heteroditopic monomer in an aqueous medium driven by crown ether-based molecular recognition through the introduction of electrostatic attraction. In addition, the reversible transition between the linear supramolecular polymer and oligomers is achieved by adding acid and base. This study realizes the breakthrough of the solvent for supramolecular polymerization driven by crown ether-based molecular recognition from anhydrous organic solvents to aqueous media. It is helpful for achieving supramolecular polymerization driven by crown ether-based molecular recognition in a completely aqueous medium. PMID:22495805

  4. Vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen industrial catalysts for C/sub 4/ hydrocarbon selective oxidation to maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Wenig, R.W.

    1987-06-01

    The selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride by vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen (V-P-O) industrial catalysts varying in P-to-V ratio has been studied in a fixed bed integral reactor system. Catalyst characterization studies including x-ray diffraction, laser Raman spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, and BET surface area measurements were used. A strong effect of P-to-V synthesis ratio on catalyst structure, catalyst morphology, vanadium oxidation state, and reactivity in n-butane selective oxidation was observed. A slight ''excess'' of catalyst phosphorus (P/V = 1.1 catalyst) was found to stabilize an active and selective (VO)/sub 2/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ phase. The mechanism of n-butane selective oxidation to maleic anhydride was studied by in situ infrared spectroscopy using n-butane, 1-butene, 1,3-butadiene, crotyl alcohol, maleic acid, crotonic acid, and maleic anhydride feeds. During paraffin selective oxidation, highly reactive olefin species and maleic acid were observed on the surfaces of V-P-O catalysts. Further evidence in support of conjugated or possibly strained olefin and maleic acid reaction intermediates in n-butane and 1-butene partial oxidation to maleic anhydride was gathered.

  5. Rearrangements of Cycloalkenyl Aryl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Törincsi, Mercedesz; Nagy, Melinda; Bihari, Tamás; Stirling, András; Kolonits, Pál; Novak, Lajos

    2016-01-01

    Rearrangement reactions of cycloalkenyl phenol and naphthyl ethers and the acid-catalyzed cyclization of the resulting product were investigated. Claisen rearrangement afforded 2-substituted phenol and naphthol derivatives. Combined Claisen and Cope rearrangement resulted in the formation of 4-substituted phenol and naphthol derivatives. In the case of cycloocthylphenyl ether the consecutive Claisen and Cope rearrangements were followed by an alkyl migration. The mechanism of this novel rearrangement reaction is also discussed. PMID:27104504

  6. Imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and by chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The resulting block copolymers have one glass transition temperature or two, depending upon the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these block copolymers form tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties.

  7. Adsorption and reaction of maleic anhydride on Mo(110), monolayer Pd(111)/Mo(110), and multilayer Pd(111)/Mo(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, C.; Goodman, D.W.

    1996-04-03

    The adsorption and reaction of maleic anhydride and deuterated maleic anhydride on Mo(110), monolayer Pd/Mo(110), and multilayer Pd(111)/Mo(110) surfaces have been studied using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). Maleic anhydride adsorbs irreversibly on the Mo(110) surface at 100 K. Heating to 1200 K yields adsorbed carbon (C{sub ads}) and gas-phase CO and H{sub 2}. In contrast, the adsorption of maleic anhydride on monolayer Pd(111)/Mo(110) and multilayer Pd(111)/Mo(110) surfaces is largely reversible with the chemisorbed maleic anhydride desorbing at 365 and 375 K, respectively. Approximately 15% of the chemisorbed maleic anhydride decomposes upon heating to 400K, forming CO, CO{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}; C{sub 2}H{sub 2} further dehydrogenates upon heating to C{sub ads} and gas-phase H{sub 2}. The HREELS measurements indicate that maleic anhydride is bonded to multilayer Pd(111)/Mo(110) through the olefin bond in a di-{sigma} configuration, while on monolayer Pd(111)/Mo(110), the maleic anhydride is bonded to the surface through the olefin via a {pi}-bond. On the Mo(110) surface, maleic anhydride is bonded to the surface through the ring oxygen with the molecular plane perpendicular to the surface. As a result of this modified adsorption geometry, the carbonyl stretching mode is red-shifted nearly 150 cm{sup -1} on the monolayer Pd(111)/Mo(110) surface, unshifted on the multilayer Pd(111)/Mo(110) surface, and blue-shifted by nearly 100 cm{sup -1} on the Mo(110) surface. 31 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Iptycene-derived crown ether hosts for molecular recognition and self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Meng, Zheng; Ma, Ying-Xian; Chen, Chuan-Feng

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: Synthetic macrocyclic hosts have played key roles in the development of host-guest chemistry. Crown ethers are a class of macrocyclic molecules with unique flexible structures. They have served as the first generation of synthetic hosts, and researchers have extensively studied them in molecular recognition. However, the flexible structures of simple crown ethers and their relatively limited modes of complexation with guests have limited the further applications of these molecules. In recent years, researchers have moved toward fabricating interlocking molecules, supramolecular polymers, and other assemblies with specific structures and properties. Therefore, researchers have developed more complex crown ether-based macrocyclic hosts with multicavity structures and multicomplexation modes that provide more diverse and sophisticated host-guest systems. In this Account, we summarize our research on the synthesis and characterization of iptycene-derived crown ether hosts, their use as host molecules, and their applications in self-assembled complexes. Iptycenes including triptycenes and pentiptycenes are a class of aromatic compounds with unique rigid three-dimensional structures. As a result, they are promising building blocks for the synthesis of novel macrocyclic hosts and the construction of novel self-assembled complexes with specific structures and properties. During the last several years, we have designed and synthesized a new class of iptycene-derived crown ether hosts including macrotricyclic polyethers, molecular tweezer-like hosts, and tritopic tris(crown ether) hosts, which are all composed of rigid iptycene building blocks linked by flexible crown ether chains. We have examined the complexation behavior of these hosts with different types of organic guest molecules. Unlike with conventional crown ethers, the combination of iptycene moieties and crown ether chains provides the iptycene-derived crown ether hosts with complexation properties

  9. Analysis of polyanionic macromolecular carrier poly-(N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-maleic acid) and its bioconjugats by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Györffy, E; Pató, J; Horváth, A; Erchegyi, J; Teplán, I; Kéri, G; Idei, M

    1998-02-01

    Anionic carrier poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone-co-maleic acid) and its conjugates, prepared with coupling of 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-5-amino-2-pentenoyc(4-trifluoromethyl anilide) or (6', 7'-dimethyl-l'-quinoxalinyl)-4-(2' amino) acetanilide to the carrier, were analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) in the following buffers: 0.25 N triethylammonium phosphate (TEAP); sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; 25-150 mM) in TEAP (pH 2.25-6.30); 0.1 N Na-borate buffer (pH range 7-11) and SDS (25-150 mM) in Na-borate buffer (pH range 7-11). The presence of strong carboxyl groups (dissociated even at pH 2.25) on the polymer chain was proved by the CZE method. It was also proved by potentiometric titration that carboxyls with a wide range of acidity were on the polymer chain. CZE was able to differentiate among the analytes possessing carboxyl groups of different acidic strengths at pH 2.25. These components were not distinguished by CZE at high pH values (11.0). Interaction between the analyte and SDS affected the separation at this pH, and hence good resolution was obtained by MEKC. Informative separations were achieved both for the carrier and the conjugates in TEAP buffer at pH 2.25 by the CZE method. Optimal separation was achieved in borate buffer containing 75 mM SDS at pH 11.0 for the carrier and at pH 7.7 for the conjugates in MEKC. PMID:9548294

  10. High absorbing resists based on trifluoromethacrylate-vinyl ether copolymers for EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, Matthew D.; Meyer, Matthew M.; Ongayi, Owendi; Valeri, David; Wagner, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Highly sensitive EUV photoresists remain a critical challenge to enable high volume manufacturing with EUV lithography. Chemically amplified resists continue to provide the best sensitivity for EUV photoresists, but the high EUV transparency of most resists continues to waste a large percentage of EUV photons that pass through the resist film without photochemically generating acid. Highly fluorinated polymers have been proposed as more sensitive resist materials because fluorine increases EUV absorption of a material. Thus, methacrylate-like polymers with fluorinated backbones are an attractive possibility for new EUV resist materials. Trifluoromethacrylates are known to undergo free radical polymerization with electron rich comonomers such as vinyl ethers. The resulting polymers have backbone trifluoromethyl groups that enhance the absorption of EUV photons while retaining the potential for solubility change by acid-catalyzed tertiary ester deprotection similar to methacrylate-based chemically amplified resists. Interestingly, copolymerizations of trifluoromethacrylates and vinyl ethers are not particularly sensitive to traditional experimental parameters that influence polymer molecular weight. Instead, we have found that the structure of the vinyl ether comonomer has a profound impact on polymer molecular weight with acyclic vinyl ethers generating very high molecular weight polymers (Mw exceeding 100,000 g/mol) and cyclic vinyl ethers generating very low molecular weight polymers (Mw less than 10,000 g/mol) under similar conditions. Combination of cyclic and non-cyclic vinyl ethers in the monomer feed enables the synthesis of polymers at a desired molecular weight with a narrow polydispersity (PDI less than 2). Initial EUV contrast curves demonstrate potential for highly sensitive photoresists using these backbone-fluorinated polymers. A variety of polymers have been prepared to determine optimum compositions of leaving group, sensitizing, and etch resistant

  11. Space, Time, Ether, and Kant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wing-Chun Godwin

    This dissertation focused on Kant's conception of physical matter in the Opus postumum. In this work, Kant postulates the existence of an ether which fills the whole of space and time with its moving forces. Kant's arguments for the existence of an ether in the so-called Ubergang have been acutely criticized by commentators. Guyer, for instance, thinks that Kant pushes the technique of transcendental deduction too far in trying to deduce the empirical ether. In defense of Kant, I held that it is not the actual existence of the empirical ether, but the concept of the ether as a space-time filler that is subject to a transcendental deduction. I suggested that Kant is doing three things in the Ubergang: First, he deduces the pure concept of a space-time filler as a conceptual hybrid of the transcendental object and permanent substance to replace the category of substance in the Critique. Then he tries to prove the existence of such a space-time filler as a reworking of the First Analogy. Finally, he takes into consideration the empirical determinations of the ether by adding the concept of moving forces to the space -time filler. In reconstructing Kant's proofs, I pointed out that Kant is absolutely committed to the impossibility of action-at-a-distance. If we add this new principle of no-action-at-a-distance to the Third Analogy, the existence of a space-time filler follows. I argued with textual evidence that Kant's conception of ether satisfies the basic structure of a field: (1) the ether is a material continuum; (2) a physical quantity is definable on each point in the continuum; and (3) the ether provides a medium to support the continuous transmission of action. The thrust of Kant's conception of ether is to provide a holistic ontology for the transition to physics, which can best be understood from a field-theoretical point of view. This is the main thesis I attempted to establish in this dissertation.

  12. Statistical modelling of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties of aqueous poly(methylvinylether-co-maleic acid) networks: Redefining biomedical applications and the relationship between viscoelasticity and mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Jones, David S; Laverty, Thomas P; Morris, Caoimhe; Andrews, Gavin P

    2016-08-01

    Poly(methylvinylether-co-maleic acid) (PMVE/MA) is commonly used as a component of pharmaceutical platforms, principally to enhance interactions with biological substrates (mucoadhesion). However, the limited knowledge on the rheological properties of this polymer and their relationships with mucoadhesion has negated the biomedical use of this polymer as a mono-component platform. This study presents a comprehensive study of the rheological properties of aqueous PMVE/MA platforms and defines their relationships with mucoadhesion using multiple regression analysis. Using dilute solution viscometry the intrinsic viscosities of un-neutralised PMVE/MA and PMVE/MA neutralised using NaOH or TEA were 22.32±0.89dLg(-1), 274.80±1.94dLg(-1) and 416.49±2.21dLg(-1) illustrating greater polymer chain expansion following neutralisation using Triethylamine (TEA). PMVE/MA platforms exhibited shear-thinning properties. Increasing polymer concentration increased the consistencies, zero shear rate (ZSR) viscosities (determined from flow rheometry), storage and loss moduli, dynamic viscosities (defined using oscillatory analysis) and mucoadhesive properties, yet decreased the loss tangents of the neutralised polymer platforms. TEA neutralised systems possessed significantly and substantially greater consistencies, ZSR and dynamic viscosities, storage and loss moduli, mucoadhesion and lower loss tangents than their NaOH counterparts. Multiple regression analysis enabled identification of the dominant role of polymer viscoelasticity on mucoadhesion (r>0.98). The mucoadhesive properties of PMVE/MA platforms were considerable and were greater than those of other platforms that have successfully been shown to enhance in vivo retention when applied to the oral cavity, indicating a positive role for PMVE/MA mono-component platforms for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. PMID:27085044

  13. Phase Behavior of Oxygen-Containing Polymers in CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Killic, Sevgi; Michalik, Stephen; Wang, Yang; Johnson, J.K.; Enick, R.M.; Beckman, E.J.

    2007-02-20

    The cloud point curves of a series of oxygen-containing polymers in CO2 were measured to attempt to deduce the effect of oxygen functional groups within a polymer on the polymer/CO2 phase behavior. The addition of an ether oxygen to a hydrocarbon polymer, either in the backbone or the side chain, enhances "CO2-philicity" by providing sites for specific interactions with CO2 as well as by enhancing the entropy of mixing by creating more flexible chains with higher free volume. Ab initio calculations show that both ether and ester oxygens provide very attractive interaction sites for CO2 molecules. The binding energy for an isolated ether oxygen with CO2 is larger in magnitude than that for a carbonyl oxygen/CO2 complex. However, acetate functionalized polymers are more CO2-soluble than polymers with only ether functionalities-possibly because acetate functional groups contain a total of three binding modes for CO2 interactions, compared with only one for the ether functional group. Experiments clearly indicate that adding a single methylene group as a spacer between a polymer backbone and either an ether or acetate group exhibits a strong deleterious effect on phase behavior. This effect cannot be explained from our ab initio calculations.

  14. Trifluoromethyl-substituted polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, Patrick E.

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of polymers is discussed. It includes: (1) the synthesis of fluorine-containing crosslinked poly(ether ketones); (2) the synthesis and characterization of poly(imide amides) and their N-methylated analogues; (3) the synthesis of fluorine-containing aromatic polyethers; (4) the synthesis of novel fluorine-containing aromatic polysiloxanes; and (5) the conversion of 6F-containing polythioethers to polysulfones. It is hoped that these polymers will find use as low dielectric materials in electronic applications, function as thermal control coatings, or be suitable elastomeric sealants for extreme service conditions.

  15. Proton-exchange membrane materials based on blends of poly(ether ketone ketone) and poly(ether imide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swier, S.; Gasa, J.; Shaw, M. T.; Weiss, R. A.

    2004-03-01

    The development of materials for proton-exchange membranes (PEM) involves finding a compromise between high proton conductivities and sufficient mechanical and chemical stability to withstand the conditions in the fuel cell. The currently used perfluorinated polymer electrolyte membranes tend to be expensive and have problems in case of extensive application. New polymer electrolytes based on hydrocarbon polymers are therefore the focus of a considerable research effort. Blends of sulfonated poly(ether ketone ketone) (SPEKK) and poly(ether imide) (PEI) were evaluated as PEMs. Sulfonation of PEKK was achieved by using a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid and fuming sulfuric acid, and blend membranes were prepared by casting a solution of the two polymers in N-methyl-2- pyrrolidone. The hydration level of the membrane decreased with increasing PEI concentration, but a proton conductivity comparable to NafionTM was obtained for blends containing less than 20 wt% PEI. The fuel cell performance of the membranes was affected by the sulfonation level of the PEKK, the blend composition and the casting procedure employed. The state of water in the membrane was evaluated from the depression of the glass transition and from the melting endotherms associated with water. Proton conductivity depended strongly on the hydration number (water molecules per sulfonate group), which depended on the sulfonation level of the PEKK and the blend morphology. Sorption data from gravimetric techniques provided important transport information like the solubility and diffusivity of water and methanol.

  16. Model study by FT-IR and 13C NMR of the interaction of poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) and its derivatives with select cholate dissolution inhibitors or with select iodonium and sulfonium phot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbagh, Gary; Houlihan, Francis M.; Rushkin, Ilya L.; Hutton, Richard S.; Nalamasu, Omkaram; Reichmanis, Elsa; Yan, Zhenglin; Reiser, Arnost

    2000-06-01

    The fundamental nature of the interactions between poly (norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) based resins and cholate based dissolution inhibitors (DIs) were studied by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy. We also studied the role that photo-acid generators (PAGs) play in the dissolution of these polymer resins. We attempted to disentangle the hydrophobic effects of the DIs and PAGs from the specific interactions (Van der Waal's, hydrogen bonding or ionic) that these materials have within the polymer system. We employed solubility studies of DIs and PAGs using cloud point determinations and dissolution inhibition experiments on spun films to determine the extent that hydrophobicity and polymer interactions play in development. We found that for simple cholate derivatives the interactions with maleic anhydride repeating units parallel the dissolution inhibition sequence (t-butyllithocholate > t-butyldeoxycholate > t-butylcholate). For a wider range of cholate derivatives, the cloud point in water is a useful predictive tool, in that it takes into account both the hydrophobicity and the propensity to interact with other moieties. Thus for these materials, dissolution inhibition is governed by both interactions between the DI and the polymer, and the hydrophobic nature of the DIs. In contrast, for the PAGs, the cloud point is not a good predictive tool for dissolution inhibition. We found for onium salt materials, that the extent of dissolution inhibition is predicated by the size of the anion. For example, large sterically hindered anions which give rise to PAGs that exhibit poor solubility in water, paradoxically also show poor dissolution inhibition. This may be because the steric hinderance disfavors interactions with the polymer matrix.

  17. Preparation of Soy Polymers by a Green Processing Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ring opening polymerization of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate was conducted in liquid carbon dioxide. The resulting polymers (RPESO) were characterized using Infrared (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 1H NM...

  18. Poly(arylene)-based anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Bae, Chulsung

    2015-06-09

    Poly(arylene) electrolytes including copolymers lacking ether groups in the polymer may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  19. Comparison of surface modification of poly(ether urethanes) on physical properties and blood compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Cash, D.L.; Hermes, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Because of their good elastomeric properties including the ability to undergo repeated flexing without failure, polyurethanes are used in a number of biomedical applications including flexing diaphragms or coatings on surfaces in artificial hearts and heart assist devices. In particular, the poly(ether urethanes), are preferred for use in biomedical applications because of their greater hydrolytic stability as compared to poly(ester urethanes). However, poly(ether urethanes), as other polymeric materials in contact with blood, cause formation of thrombus and bacterial infections. These problems might be overcome by incorporation of antithrombogenic substances and/or antibacterial agents in the surface of the polymer. We have explored both of these methods by examining the infusion of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) into commercially available poly(ether urethanes) and the graft polymerization of N-vinyl pyrrolidone onto poly(ether urethanes). Preliminary results are presented here. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Comparison of surface modifications of poly(ether urethanes) by chemical infusion and graft polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Cash, D.L.; Hermes, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Our approach to surface modification uses the chemical infusion process to introduce materials into the outermost layer of the polymeric material, thereby altering the surface without changing the bulk properties of the polymer. The infused materials may slowly diffuse out of the infusion layer if they are volatile or highly mobile. However, if polymeric infusant materials are employed, they may become chain entangled with the host polymer and result in a permanently modified surface. A second approach utilizes photo-initiated graft polymerization of poly(ether urethanes) with an appropriate monomer. We have explored both of these methods by examining the infusion of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) into commercially available poly(ether urethanes) and the graft polymerization of N-vinyl pyrrolidone onto poly(ether urethanes). Results are presented here. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Process for crosslinking and extending conjugated diene-containing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Vernon L. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A process using a Diels-Alder reaction which increases the molecular weight and/or crosslinks polymers by reacting the polymers with bisunsaturated dienophiles is developed. The polymer comprises at least 75% by weight based on the reaction product, has a molecular weight of at least 5000 and a plurality of conjugated 1,3-diene systems incorporated into the molecular structure. A dienophile reaction with the conjugated 1,3-diene of the polymer is at least 1% by weight based on the reaction product. Examples of the polymer include polyesters, polyamides, polyethers, polysulfones and copolymers. The bisunsaturated dienophiles may include bis-maleimides, bis maleic and bis tumaric esters and amides. This method for expanding the molecular weight chains of the polymers, preferable thermoplastics, is advantageous for processing or fabricating thermoplastics. A low molecular weight thermoplastic is converted to a high molecular weight plastic having improved strength and toughness for use in the completed end use article.

  2. Photothermal and morphological characterization of PLA/PCL polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Sabino, M. A.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Loaiza, M.

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays, some synthetic polymers have been replaced by biodegradable polymers in order to avoid environmental contamination. Among these biodegradables polymers, aliphatic polyesters such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) have been widely used. In the present study, solvent-casting films of PLA, PCL and polymer blends with and without compatibilizer (PLA grafted with maleic anhydride) were prepared. The thermal diffusivity ( α) of each sample was obtained by using the open photoacoustic cell technique. Morphology and thermal properties were determined by using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. The blends showed lower thermal diffusivity compared to pure polymers. However, when the compatibilizer was used, the highest value of thermal diffusivity was obtained. Also, cold crystallization with the highest value of enthalpy of fusion was observed for the compatibilized sample, which was revealed by DSC. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the thermal diffusivity of these biodegradable polymer blends is reported.

  3. Enhanced diisobutene production in the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1983-03-01

    In the liquid phase reaction of isobutene in the presence of resin cation exchange resins with itself in a C[sub 4] hydrocarbon stream to form dimers, the formation of higher polymers, oligomers, and co-dimer by-products is suppressed by the presence of 0.0001 to 1 mole per mole of isobutene of methyl tertiary butyl ether. 1 fig.

  4. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. 177.1970 Section 177.1970 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single...

  5. Wheat Gluten Blends with Maleic Anhydride-Functionalized Polyacrylate Cross-Linkers for Improved Properties.

    PubMed

    Diao, Cheng; Xia, Hongwei; Parnas, Richard S

    2015-10-14

    A family of polyacrylate-based cross-linkers was synthesized to maximize the toughness of high Tg, high modulus wheat gluten blends in the glassy state. Mechanical testing and damping measurements were conducted to provide an example where the work of fracture and strength of the blend substantially exceeds polystyrene while maintaining flexure stiffness in excess of 3 GPa. The new rubbery cross-linkers, polymethyl acrylate-co-maleic anhydride and polyethyl acrylate-co-maleic anhydride, improve WG mechanical properties and reduce water absorption simultaneously. MDSC, FTIR, HPLC, and NMR data confirmed the cross-linking reaction with wheat gluten. Flexural, DMA, and water absorption testing were carried out to characterize the property improvements. DMA was conducted to investigate the relationship between energy damping and mechanical property improvement. If the cross-linker damping temperature is close to the testing temperature, the entire sample exhibits high damping, toughness, and strength. PMID:26394179

  6. Synthesis and testing of catalysts for the production of maleic anhydride from a fermentation feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Yedur, S.K.; Berglund, K.A.; Dulebohn, J.; Werpy, T.

    1996-03-01

    It is necessary to develop alternate pathways for the production of chemicals that are traditionally produced from fossil fuels to reduce dependency on nonrenewable energy sources. In this paper, an alternate technology is presented for producing maleic anhydride from a fermentation feedstock. The process involves the catalytic oxydehydrogenation of fermentation-derived succinic anhydride to produce maleic anhydride. Various catalysts have been synthesized and tested for the oxydehydrogenation reaction. Iron phosphate based catalysts are found to be the best on the basis of high conversions and selectivities obtained. The effects of temperature, oxygen concentration, contact time, and the total time on stream on the performance of the catalyst are investigated, and an optimum set of conditions for the operation of the bench-scale reactor is presented. The bulk and surface compositions, the surface areas, and the bulk crystallographic structure of the catalysts are also reported.

  7. Crystallization of poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone) - Effect of thermal history of the melt on crystallization kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Deslandes, Y.; Day, M.; Suprunchuk, T.; Sabir, N.F. )

    1989-10-01

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and optical microscopy were used to investigate the effect of the thermal history of the melt on the crystallization of a commercial sample of poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK). Heating a film of PEEK at a temperature above the melt temperature for various periods of time changes the nucleation and crystal growth rate upon cooling the sample. Destruction of existing nuclei, formation of new nuclei, chain branching, cross linking, and chemical degradation of the macromolecular chains are all believed to take place at different times and to different extents during the thermal melt processing of the polymer. This study suggests that the thermal history of the melt plays an important role in the crystallization of PEEK samples. 45 refs.

  8. pH-Sensitive Biocompatible Nanoparticles of Paclitaxel-Conjugated Poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) for Anticancer Drug Delivery in Solid Tumors of Syngeneic Mice.

    PubMed

    Dalela, Manu; Shrivastav, T G; Kharbanda, Surender; Singh, Harpal

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we have synthesized poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride), a biocompatible copolymer that was further conjugated with paclitaxel (PTX) via ester linkage and self-assembled to form poly(styrene-co-maleic acid)-paclitaxel (PSMAC-PTX) nanoparticles (NPs). The in vitro release of PTX from PSMAC-PTX NPs showed a higher release at lower pH than at the physiological pH of 7.4, confirming its pH-dependent release. The cell viability of PSMAC-PTX nanoparticles was evaluated using MTT assay. IC50 values of 9.05-18.43 ng/mL of PTX equivalent were observed in various cancer cell lines after 72 h of incubation. Confocal microscopy, Western blotting, and Flow cytometry results further supported that the cellular uptake and apoptosis of cancer cells with PSMAC-PTX NPs. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the conjugation of PTX to the PSMAC co-polymer not only increased the plasma and tumor C(max) of PTX but also prolonged its plasma half-life and retention in tumor via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Administration of PSMAC-PTX NPs showed significant tumor growth inhibition with improved apoptosis effects in vivo on Ehrlich Ascites Tumor (EAT)-bearing BALB/c syngeneic mice in comparison with Taxol, without showing any cytotoxicity. On the basis of preliminary results, no subacute toxicity was observed in major organs, tissues and hematological system up to a dosage of 60 mg/kg body weight in mice. Therefore, PSMAC-PTX NPs may be considered as an alternative nanodrug delivery system for the delivery of PTX in solid tumors. PMID:26528585

  9. Preparation of chitin nanofibers by surface esterification of chitin with maleic anhydride and mechanical treatment.

    PubMed

    Aklog, Yihun Fantahun; Nagae, Tomone; Izawa, Hironori; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Ifuku, Shinsuke

    2016-11-20

    Esterification with maleic anhydride significantly improved the mechanical disintegration of chitin into uniform 10-nm nanofibers. Nanofibers with 0.25° of esterification were homogeneously dispersed in basic water due to the carboxylate salt on the surface. Esterification proceeded on the surface and did not affect the relative crystallinity. A cast film of the esterified chitin nanofibers was highly transparent, since the film was free from light scattering. PMID:27561471

  10. Whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of maleic acid-pretreated rice straw for ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of whole slurry (pretreated lignocellulose) saccharification and fermentation for producing ethanol from maleic acid-pretreated rice straw. The optimized conditions for pretreatment were to treat rice straw at a high temperature (190 °C) with 1 % (w/v) maleic acid for a short duration (3 min ramping to 190 °C and 3 min holding at 190 °C). Enzymatic digestibility (based on theoretical glucose yield) of cellulose in the pretreated rice straw was 91.5 %. Whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of pretreated rice straw resulted in 83.2 % final yield of ethanol based on the initial quantity of glucan in untreated rice straw. These findings indicate that maleic acid pretreatment results in a high yield of ethanol from fermentation of whole slurry even without conditioning or detoxification of the slurry. Additionally, the separation of solids and liquid is not required; therefore, the economics of cellulosic ethanol fuel production are significantly improved. We also demonstrated whole slurry saccharification and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulose, which has rarely been reported. PMID:25930209

  11. 40 CFR 721.3380 - Anilino ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anilino ether. 721.3380 Section 721... Anilino ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as anilino ether (P-83-910) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721... Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to reporting under...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3364 - Aliphatic ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic ether. 721.3364 Section 721... Aliphatic ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an aliphatic ether (PMN P-93-1381) is subject to reporting under...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3374 - Alkylenediolalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylenediolalkyl ether. 721.3374... Substances § 721.3374 Alkylenediolalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an alkylenediolalkyl ether (PMN P-93-362) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3437 - Dialkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dialkyl ether. 721.3437 Section 721... Dialkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dialkyl ether (PMN P-93-1308) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3374 - Alkylenediolalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylenediolalkyl ether. 721.3374... Substances § 721.3374 Alkylenediolalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an alkylenediolalkyl ether (PMN P-93-362) is subject...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3437 - Dialkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyl ether. 721.3437 Section 721... Dialkyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as dialkyl ether (PMN P-93-1308) is subject to reporting under this...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  3. Carbon nanoscrolls by pyrolysis of a polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Prasad; Warule, Sambhaji; Jog, Jyoti; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2012-12-01

    3D network of carbon nanoscrolls was synthesized starting from pyrolysis of poly(acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt. It is a catalyst-free process where pyrolysis of polymer leads to formation of carbon form and sodium carbonate. Upon water soaking of pyrolysis product, the carbon form undergoes self-assembly to form carbon nanoscrolls. The interlayer distance between the walls of carbon nanoscroll was found to be 0.34 nm and the carbon nanoscrolls exhibited a surface area of 188 m2/g as measured by the BET method.

  4. Lacinilene C 7-methyl ether

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lacinilene C 7-methyl ether is an antimicrobial compound produced by the cotton plant in response to attack by pathogens. For the first time, we now report the crystal structure of this compound. This may prove useful in studies on the interaction of the compound with pathogenic fungal cells....

  5. Desoxyhemigossypol-6-methyl-ether

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desoxyhemigossypol-6-methyl ether is an antimicrobial compound produced by the cotton plant in response to attack by pathogens. For the first time, we now report the crystal structure of this compound. This may prove useful in studies on the interaction of the compound with pathogenic fungal cells...

  6. Bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( chloromethyl ) ether ( BCME ) ; CASRN 542 - 88 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  7. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol monomethyl ether ( PGME ) ; CASRN 107 - 98 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  8. Bis(chloroethyl)ether (BCEE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( chloroethyl ) ether ( BCEE ) ; CASRN 111 - 44 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  9. p,p\\'-Dibromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p , p ' - Dibromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 2050 - 47 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  10. Composites of vinyl polystyrylpyridine/bismaleimide-aliphatic ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimbuch, Alvin H.; Rosser, Robert W.; Hsu, Ming-Ta S.

    1989-01-01

    An aliphatic ether bismaleimide was prepared and coreacted with a polyvinylstyrylpyridine (VPSP) oligomer. Studies showed that a controlled ratio of aliphatic to aromatic units in the polymer backbone improved both processibility and interlaminar shear properties for the carbon-fiber composite system. This modified resin was readily soluble in tetrahydrofuran, allowing for better fiber impregnation and thus enhancing adhesive properties and reproducibility. DSC studies have shown a lower cure temperature for the copolymer than for the neat aliphatic bismaleimide, and a glass transition temperature of 260 C, which is more than adequate for most applications. Limited measurements indicated an improvement in toughness (impact resistance).

  11. Spin labelled polymers for composite interface studies: Synthesis and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, A.W.; Pace, M.D.

    1993-12-31

    For the purpose of investigating the epoxy resin composite interface, a series of spin labelled epoxy polymers and model compounds were synthesized and characterized. Linear epoxy polymers were prepared by reacting systematically varying quantities of 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperid-1-yloxy and cyclohexyl amine with an equivalence bisphenol A diglycidyl ether. The adducts of phenylgylcidyl ether and 4-cumylphenylgylcidyl ether with 4-amino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperid-1-yloxy were synthesized as model compounds. Characterization determined that the 125{degrees}C polymerization temperature did not cause significant decomposition of the nitroxyl free radical, magnetic dilution of the spin label in the epoxy polymer to 3% of the amine repeat units is sufficient for observation of unobscured nitroxyl hyperfine structure in the ESR spectrum of the labelled epoxy polymer in the solid state, and a polymer glass transition temperature of 66{degrees}C as not affected by variation in the amine composition.

  12. Development of nanocomposites reinforced with carboxylated poly(ether ether ketone) grafted to zinc oxide with superior antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Díez-Vicente, Angel L

    2014-03-12

    Novel poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) based nanocomposites have been fabricated via melt-blending by addition of a carboxylated polymer derivative covalently grafted onto the surface of hydroxyl-terminated ZnO nanoparticles. Their morphology, thermal, mechanical, tribological, and antibacterial properties have been analyzed and compared with those of composites reinforced with pristine ZnO. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra corroborate the success of the grafting reaction, showing the appearance of signals related to ester linkages. Microscopic observations demonstrate that the polymer grafting improves the nanoparticle dispersion within the matrix. A progressive rise in thermal stability and flame retardant ability is found with increasing ZnO concentration, with an exceptional increment in the maximum degradation rate temperature of 70 °C at 5.0 wt % loading. The crystallization and melting temperature of PEEK decrease upon incorporation of the grafted nanofillers, attributed to the restrictions on polymer chain mobility and crystal growth imposed by the strong ZnO-matrix interactions. Nanocomposites with polymer-grafted nanoparticles exhibit higher stiffness, strength, ductility, toughness and glass transition temperature whilst lower coefficient of friction and wear rate than the neat polymer and composites with bare ZnO. Further, they show superior antibacterial activity against both the Gram-negative Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The antimicrobial effect increases upon raising nanoparticle content, and is stronger on E. coli. The approach used in this work is a simple, scalable, and efficient method to improve the performance of PEEK/ZnO nanocomposites for use in biomedical applications such as trauma, orthopedics, and spinal implants. PMID:24552261

  13. A new alternative to expandable pedicle screws: Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell.

    PubMed

    Demir, Teyfik

    2015-05-01

    Screw pullout is a very common problem in the fixation of sacrum with pedicle screws. The principal cause of this problem is that the cyclic micro motions in the fixation of sacrum are higher than the other regions of the vertebrae that limit the osteo-integration between bone and screw. In addition to that, the bone quality is very poor at sacrum region. This study investigated a possible solution to the pullout problem without the expandable screws' handicaps. Newly designed poly-ether-ether-ketone expandable shell and classical pedicle screws were biomechanically compared. Torsion test, pullout tests, fatigue tests, flexion/extension moment test, axial gripping capacity tests and torsional gripping capacity tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM F543, F1798 and F1717. Standard polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were used as embedding medium for pullout tests. Classical pedicle screw pullout load on polyurethane foam was 564.8 N compared to the failure load for calf vertebrae's 1264 N. Under the same test conditions, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell system's pullout loads from polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were 1196.3 and 1890 N, respectively. The pullout values for expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell were 33% and 53% higher than classical pedicle screw on polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae, respectively. The expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited endurance on its 90% of yield load. Contrary to poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, classical pedicle screw exhibited endurance on 70% of its yield load. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited much higher pullout performance than classical pedicle screw. Fatigue performance of expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is also higher than classical pedicle screw due to damping the micro motion capacity of the poly-ether-ether-ketone. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is a safe alternative to all other expandable pedicle screw systems on mechanical perspective

  14. Contributions of polymers to bentonite and saponite fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Panfil, D.J. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1991-02-01

    Polymers have been used in drilling fluids for many years. However, the confusion surrounding the use of polymers in the oil field has severely limited their effectiveness. Many oilfield workers simply put all polymers in the same category without regard to the many differences that exist among them. Homopolymers and copolymers of acrylic acid and a copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride are found to have profound effects on the rheological and filtration properties of clay-based fluids up to 300{degrees}F. These contributions of the polymers are greatly diminished when the clay/polymer fluids were autoclaved at 400{degrees}F. Thus, the effects of these polymers are expected to be negligible at and above 400{degrees}F. Homo- and co-polymers of acrylic acid with molecular weights below 5000 almost eliminate the anomalous viscosity rise of the bentonite fluids at temperatures between 250--450{degrees}F. A homopolymer of acrylic acid with a molecular weight of 60,000 and a co-polymer of styrene and maleic anhydride with very high molecular weight further enhances the anomalous viscosity rise of the bentonite fluid. The original viscosity profile of the saponite fluid is characterized with a high initial viscosity up to 200{degrees}F which is followed by a steep thinning at higher temperatures. The addition of homo- and co-polymer of acrylic acid causes a complete reversal in the fluid viscosity. They become thin at lower temperatures (up to 250{degrees}F) and experience a sudden viscosity rise at higher temperatures. All the above polymers greatly improve the filtration losses of the fluids at room temperatures as indicated by the API test. The filtration tests at high pressure and high temperatures were inconclusive due to the frequent blow-outs that occur during the tests.

  15. Preparation of ordered and crosslinked films from liquid crystalline vinyl ether monomers

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, H.; Sahlen, F.; Gedde, U.W.; Hult, A.

    1993-12-31

    Highly ordered densely crosslinked liquid crystalline poly(vinyl ether) films have been prepared by in-situ photopolymerization of oriented bifunctional mesogenic vinyl ether monomers. Orientation was achieved either by a simple surface treatment, using an unidirectionally rubbed polyimide film or by a magnetic field. Polymerization from various monomer phases resulted in LC polymer network films with different molecular organizations. The films were analyzed with small-angle X-ray scattering, polarized light microscopy and infrared-dichroism measurements. It was shown that films with nematic, smectic A and smectic B structures were obtained, the latter having a very high degree of orientation.

  16. Liquid Densities of Fluorinated Ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Noriaki; Sako, Takeshi; Nakane, Takashi; Sekiya, Akira; Kawamura, Mitsutaka; Sato, Masahito; Mochizuki, Yuji; Takada, Naoto; Yasumoto, Masahiko

    The liquid densities of thirteen fluorinated ethers which are expected as promising candidates of CFC alternatives were measured at temperatures from 278 K to 323 K and atmospheric pressure. The fluorinated ethers used in this study are 1-difluoromethoxy-1,1, 2- trifluoroethane, 1-methoxy-1, 1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1-methoxy-2,2 ,3 ,3- tetrafluoropropane, 1-methoxy-1-trifluoromethy1-2,2 ,2- trifluoroethane, 1-methoxy-1,1,2,2, 3-hexafluoropropane,1-difluoromethoxy-2,2, 3, 3 -tetrafluoropropane, 1-methoxy-heptafluoropropane,1-difluoromethoxy-2, 2, 3, 3, 3-pentafluoropropane, 1- (2, 2, 2-trifruoroethoxy) -1, 1, 2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1-pentafluoroethoxy-1, 1, 2, 2-tetrafluoroethane,2-trifluoromethoxy-1, 1, 1,2-tetrafluorobutane, 1-proxynonafluorobutane, and 1-ethoxy-undecafluoropentane. The liquid density has been measured by the vibrating tube densitometer (ANTON PARR, DMA 602) within an error of 0.07%. The liquid densities decrease monotonically with increase of temperature.

  17. Low-temperature radiation copolymerization of tetrafluoroethylene with perfluorovinyl ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, I.P.; Pirozhnaya, L.N.; Loginova, N.N.; Barkalov, I.M.

    1986-12-01

    The copolymerization of perfluorovinyl ethers with tetrafluoroethylene at low temperature was studied and compared with the process conducted with chemical initiation in bulk or aqueous medium. A calorimetric method was used for studying the kinetics of copolymerization, the phase state of the system, and the phase transition dynamics. Ampules containing the samples of monomers and mixtures were irradiated at 77/sup 0/K with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays with a dose rate of 25 kGy/h. Radiolysis in the solid phase at 77/sup 0/K with a 130 kGy dose resulted in the formation of 0.5-1.0 wt.% of a polymer, and this polymer was soluble in the monomer.

  18. Size-exclusion chromatography of ultrahigh molecular weight methylcellulose ethers and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ethers for reliable molecular weight distribution characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfu; Shen, Hongwei; Lyons, John W; Sammler, Robert L; Brackhagen, Meinolf; Meunier, David M

    2016-03-15

    Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) and differential refractive index (DRI) detectors was employed for determination of the molecular weight distributions (MWD) of methylcellulose ethers (MC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ethers (HPMC) having weight-average molecular weights (Mw) ranging from 20 to more than 1,000kg/mol. In comparison to previous work involving right-angle light scattering (RALS) and a viscometer for MWD characterization of MC and HPMC, MALLS yields more reliable molecular weight for materials having weight-average molecular weights (Mw) exceeding about 300kg/mol. A non-ideal SEC separation was observed for cellulose ethers with Mw>800kg/mol, and was manifested by upward divergence of logM vs. elution volume (EV) at larger elution volume at typical SEC flow rate such as 1.0mL/min. As such, the number-average molecular weight (Mn) determined for the sample was erroneously large and polydispersity (Mw/Mn) was erroneously small. This non-ideality resulting in the late elution of high molecular weight chains could be due to the elongation of polymer chains when experimental conditions yield Deborah numbers (De) exceeding 0.5. Non-idealities were eliminated when sufficiently low flow rates were used. Thus, using carefully selected experimental conditions, SEC coupled with MALLS and DRI can provide reliable MWD characterization of MC and HPMC covering the entire ranges of compositions and molecular weights of commercial interest. PMID:26794765

  19. Thermal stability of sulfonated polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Audibert, A.; Argillier, J.F.

    1995-11-01

    Polyacrylamides which are used in oil applications i.e. polymer flooding and water based muds, are hydrolyzed versus time and temperature. This leads to a lack of tolerance towards electrolyte contamination and to a rapid degradation inducing a loss of their properties. Modifications of polyacrylamide structure have been proposed to postpone their thermal stability to higher temperatures. Monomers such as acrylamido methylpropane sulfonate (AMPS) or sulfonated styrene/maleic anhydride can be used to prevent acrylamide comonomer from hydrolysis. The aim of this work is to study under controlled conditions, i.e. anaerobic atmosphere, neutral pH, the stability of sulfonated polymers in order to distinguish between hydrolysis and radical degradation reactions. It has been observed that up to 100 C, the AMPS group is stable and protects the acrylamide function from hydrolysis up to 80%. At higher temperature, even the hydrolysis of the AMPS group occurs, giving acrylate and {beta},{beta} dimethyl taurine, with a kinetics that depends on temperature and time. Degradation in terms of molecular weight then occurs indicating that it follows a radical decarboxylation reaction. It can be limited either by the use of free radical scavenger or when the polymer is in the presence of a mineral phase such as bentonite. These results provide valuable data for the determination of the limits of use of sulfonated copolymers and guidelines for optimizing chemical structure of sulfonated polymers used in water based formulation, in particular to enhance their thermal stability.

  20. Measuring exposures to glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Clapp, D E; Zaebst, D D; Herrick, R F

    1984-08-01

    In 1981, NIOSH began investigating the potential reproductive health effects resulting from exposures to a class of organic solvents known generically as glycol ethers (GE). This research was begun as a result of the NIOSH criteria document development program which revealed little data available on the health effects of glycol ether exposure. Toxicologic research was begun by NIOSH and other researchers which suggested substantial reproductive effects in animals. These animal data motivated a study of human exposures in the occupational setting. In 1981 and 1982 NIOSH conducted several walk-through surveys which included preliminary measurements of exposures in a variety of industries including painting trades, coal mining, production blending and distribution facilities, aircraft fueling, and communications equipment repair facilities. The human exposure data from these surveys is summarized in this paper with most results well below 1 parts per million (ppm) and only a few values approaching 10 ppm. Blood samples were collected at one site resulting in GE concentrations below the limit of detection. Exposures to airborne glycol ethers, in the industries investigated during the collection of this data, revealed several problems in reliably sampling GE at low concentrations. It became apparent, from the data and observations of work practices, that air monitoring alone provided an inadequate index of GE exposure. Further field studies of exposure to GE are anticipated, pending location of additional groups of exposed workers and development of more reliable methods for characterizing exposure, especially biological monitoring. PMID:6499824

  1. Shifting from hydrogen bond network to π-π stacking: a key mechanism for reversible thermochromic sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone).

    PubMed

    Jarumaneeroj, Chatchai; Tashiro, Kohji; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2014-08-01

    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) thin film performs reversible thermochromic property by developing the color to be yellowish at the temperature above 190 °C. The detailed analyses based on temperature-dependent techniques suggest the thermal treatment inducing the shifting of the hydrogen bond network between the sulfonated group and the hydrated water molecules to the π-π stacking among aromatic rings in SPEEK chains. Although it is general that the polymer chain packing is unfavorable at high temperature, the present work shows a good example that when the polymer chains can form specific molecular interaction, such as π-π stacking, even in harsh thermal treatment, a rearrangement will effectively occur, which leads to an external stimuli-responsive property. PMID:24942891

  2. Crystal structure of 2,3-di­methyl­maleic anhydride: continuous chains of electrostatic attraction

    PubMed Central

    Wiscons, Ren A.; Zeller, Matthias; Rowsell, Jesse L. C.

    2015-01-01

    In the crystal structure of 2,3-di­methyl­maleic anhydride, C6H6O3, the closest non-bonding inter­molecular distances, between the carbonyl C and O atoms of neighboring mol­ecules, were measured as 2.9054 (11) and 3.0509 (11) Å, which are well below the sum of the van der Waals radii for these atoms. These close contacts, as well as packing motifs similar to that of the title compound, were also found in the crystal structure of maleic anhydride itself and other 2,3-disubstituted maleic anhydrides. Computational modeling suggests that this close contact is caused by strong electrostatic inter­actions between the carbonyl C and O atoms. PMID:26396764

  3. In situ FTIR study of n-butane selective oxidation to maleic anhydride on V-P-O catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wenig, R.W.; Schrader, G.L.

    1986-11-20

    The selective oxidation of n-butane to maleic anhydride on vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen (V-P-O) catalysts having P to V ratios of 0.9, 1.0, and 1.1 was studied by transmission infrared spectroscopy. Catalysts were exposed to mixtures of 1.5% n-butane in air at temperatures from 100 to 500/sup 0/C. Adsorbed n-butane, maleic anhydride, and carbon oxide species were observed on the catalyst surfaces. In addition, adsorbed maleic acid and highly reactive olefinic species could be detected. The nature of the adsorbed species present on the catalyst surface was dependent on the catalyst phosphorus loading, the reaction temperature, and the time of exposure under reaction conditions.

  4. Genotoxicity of maleic hydrazide, acridine and DEHP in Allium cepa root cells performed by two different laboratories.

    PubMed

    Rank, J; Lopez, L C; Nielsen, M H; Moretton, J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to compare the results of the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay between two laboratories under the same test protocol and at the same time, use chemicals and onions obtained in their own homeland. For this study three chemicals were selected: di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), maleic hydrazide, and acridine. Both laboratories found genotoxicity with a positive dose-response relationship for maleic hydrazide and acridine. However, for DEHP the results were quite different--one of the laboratories found this compound not genotoxic but the other found a positive response. Although the comparative study was inconclusive for DEHP, it was successful for the maleic hydrazide, acridine and also for the positive control (methyl methanesulfonate). Further studies need to be performed in the case of DEPH. PMID:12184484

  5. Oxidative coupling and ring opening of furan on Ag(110): Formation of maleic anhydride, benzene, and bifuran

    SciTech Connect

    Crew, W.W.; Madix, R.J. )

    1993-01-27

    TPRS, EELS, and isotope experiments show that furan reacts with active oxygen on Ag(110) to form CO[sub 2], H[sub 2]O, and small amounts of the partially oxidized products maleic anhydride, bifuran, and benzene that evolve between 520 and 560 K. The first step in furan combustion is C-H bond activation by O[sub (a)], followed by O[sub (a)] attack at the [alpha]-carbon at 308 K. [sup 18]O[sub (a)] experiments prove that maleic anhydride is formed via intermediates where the furan ring has been cleaved. This contrasts with mechanisms proposed for maleic anhydride production from furan over VPO catalysts. 36 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Kinetics and fixed-bed reactor modeling of butane oxidation to maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.K.; Cresswell, D.L. ); Newson, E.J. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on selective oxidation kinetics of n-butane to maleic anhydride in air studied over a commercial, fixed-bed vanadium-phosphor oxide catalyst. The temperature range was 573-653 K with butane concentrations up to 3 mol % in the feed, which is within flammability limits but below ignition temperatures. The rate data were modeled using power law kinetics with product inhibition and included total oxidation and decomposition reactions. Kinetic parameters were estimated using a multiresponse, nonlinear regression algorithm showing intercorrelation effects. The kinetics were combined with independent measurements of catalyst diffusivity and reactor heat transfer using a one- dimensional heterogeneous reactor model.

  7. Maleic anhydride-polyether-polyamine reaction product and motor fuel composition containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.

    1987-04-21

    A material is described having a use as a motor fuel additive for controlling engine octane requirement increase (ORI), controlling and reducing hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide engine emissions, and having carburetor detergency properties. The material is the reaction product of maleic anhydride, a polyether polyamine, preferably a polyether diamine, and a hydrocarbyl polyamine, preferably an n-alkyl-alkylene diamine. A concentrate comprising the prescribed reaction product dissolved in a hydrocarbon solvent is also described. Motor fuels containing the reaction product additive of the instant invention show improved ORI control and carburetor detergency in comparison with motor fuels without the reaction product additive.

  8. Teratologic assessment of maleic hydrazide and daminozide, and formulations of ethoxyquin, thiabendazole and naled in rats.

    PubMed

    Khera, K S; Whalen, C; Trivett, G; Angers, G

    1979-01-01

    Teratogenicity studies were conducted in rats treated orally from days 6-15 of gestation with single daily doses of 400-1600 mg/kg of maleic hydrazide, 300-1000 mg/kg daminozide, 125-500 mg/kg ethoxyquin or thiabendazole, or 25-100 mg/kg naled. Dams were killed on the 22nd day of gestation, and fetuses were evaluated by routine teratologic methods. No adverse effect was related to any treatment other than an increased incidence of anomalous fetuses at the highest dose (500 mg/kg) of thiabendazole. PMID:512293

  9. Fundamental studies of dissolution inhibition in poly(norbornene-alt-maleic anhydride) based resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlihan, F. M.; Dabbagh, G.; Rushkin, I.; Hutton, R.; Bolan, K.; Reichmanis, E.; Nalamasu, O.; Yan, Z.; Reiser, A.

    2001-07-01

    The dissolution inhibition mechanism for tert-butylcarboxylate (e.g. tert-butyl cholate) dissolution inhibitors and onium salt photoacid generators (PAG's) were examined in terpolymers of poly(norbornene-maleic anhydride-acrylic acid) (P(NB/MA/AA)). For tert-butyl carboxylates, increasing hydrophobicity increased the dissolution inhibition ability. Dissolution promotion tracked with the number of carboxylic acid moieties and the hydrophobicity of carboxylic acids moieties released upon acidolytic cleavage of the tert-butyl carboxylate. For onium salt PAG's, increasing the hydrophobicity and size of fluorinated anions decreased dissolution inhibition.

  10. Maleic acid-styrene encapsulated silica cation exchanger in high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yang, R; Jiang, S; Chen, L

    2001-12-24

    The use of poly(maleic acid-styrene)-encapsulated silica for the determination of monovalent and divalent cations is well accepted in ion chromatography. The separation of Mn(2+), alkali and alkaline earth metal cations is obtained under the same chromatographic conditions. The influences of pH and the concentration of eluent on the retention of cations have been studied. The preparation conditions of packings were studied. The metal ions in the boiler water samples from a thermal power plant were quantitatively determined using this column. The results are in agreement with those determined by ICP and Volumetric analysis methods. PMID:18968461

  11. A New Approach to Prepare Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymers from vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, were prepared by cationic polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2) was selected as catalyst. The resulting polymers have molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nu...

  12. Confocal Raman micro-spectroscopy for rapid and label-free detection of maleic acid-induced variations in human sperm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Chen, Diling; Xu, Yan; Liu, Songhao; Zhang, Heming

    2014-01-01

    Confocal Raman microspectroscopy is a valuable analytical tool in biological and medical research, allowing the detection of sample variations without external labels or extensive preparation. To determine whether this method can assess the effect of maleic acid on sperm, we prepared human sperm samples incubated in different concentrations of maleic acid, after which Raman spectra from the various regions of sperm cells were recorded. Following the maleic acid treatment, Raman spectra indicated significant changes. Combined with other means, we found that the structures and chemical compositions of sperm membranes were damaged, and even the sperm DNA was damaged by the incorporation of maleic acid. Thus, this technique can be used for detection and identification of maleic acid-induced changes in human sperm at a molecular level. Although this particular application of Raman microspectroscopy still requires further validation, it has potentially promise as a diagnostic tool for reproductive medicine. PMID:24877025

  13. Crystalline Imide/Arylene Ether Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Bass, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    Series of imide/arylene ether block copolymers prepared by using arylene ether blocks to impart low melt viscosity, and imide blocks to provide high strength and other desirable mechanical properties. Work represents extension of LAR-14159 on imide/arylene ether copolymers in form of films, moldings, adhesives, and composite matrices. Copolymers potentially useful in variety of high-temperature aerospace and microelectronic applications.

  14. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  15. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  16. Simulated space environmental effects on some experimental high performance polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    1993-01-01

    High performance polymers for potential space applications were evaluated under simulated space environmental conditions. Experimental resins from blends of acetylene terminated materials, poly(arylene ether)s and low color polyimides were exposed to high energy electron and ultraviolet radiation in an attempt to simulate space environmental effects. Thin films, neat resin moldings, and carbon fiber reinforced composites were exposed, and the effect on certain polymer properties were determined. Recent research involving the effects of various radiation exposures on the physical, optical, and mechanical properties of several experimental polymer systems is reviewed.

  17. Hydrogen bond cross-linked sulfonated poly(imino ether ether ketone) (PIEEK) for fuel cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Guanjun; Shang, Zhenfang; Yang, Li

    2015-05-01

    A new diamine monomer, 3,3‧-dihydroxydiphenylamine, is prepared by the palladium catalyzed C-N coupling reaction and the following reduction reaction of 3-bromoanisole and m-anisidine. A series of novel hydrogen bond cross-linked sulfonated poly(imino ether ether ketone) (SPIEEK) are obtained by the copolymerization of sodium 5,5‧-carbonylbis(2-fluorobenzene sulfonate), 4,4‧-difluorobenzophenone with 3,3‧-dihydroxydiphenylamine. The structures of resulting polymers are characterized by means of FT-IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis; the results show an agreement with the proposed structure. The resulting SPIEEK membranes display much better resistance to swelling than these without imino groups due to the strong interchain interaction through imino and sulfonic acid groups. The SPIEEK-60 and SPIEEK-80 membrane show the proton conductivity of 0.118 and 0.154 S cm-1 at 80 °C which is higher than Nafion 117 (0.082 S cm-1 at 80 °C). Moreover, the SPIEEK membranes exhibit good mechanical properties and lower methanol permeability due to the hydrogen bondings between the polymer chains.

  18. Characterization of the hyperline of D1/D0 conical intersections between the maleic acid and fumaric acid anion radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ohgi; Sumita, Masato

    2004-10-01

    The cation and anion radicals of symmetrical 1,2-disubstituted ethylenes are expected to have a symmetry-allowed conical intersection (CI) between the ground doublet state (D0) and the lowest excited doublet state (D1) near a 90°-twisted geometry. By the complete active space self-consistent field method, we characterized the hyperline formed by D1/D0 CIs between the anion radicals of maleic acid (cis) and fumaric acid (trans). An implication of the results for the known one-way cis→trans photoisomerization of the maleic acid anion radical and other related ion radicals is presented.

  19. Linear-cyclic polymer structural transformation and its reversible control using a rational rotaxane strategy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takahiro; Usuki, Naoya; Nakazono, Kazuko; Koyama, Yasuhito; Takata, Toshikazu

    2015-04-01

    Linear-cyclic polymer structural transformation and its reversibility are demonstrated by a simple but rational strategy using the structural characteristics of crown ether-based rotaxanes. The structure of a polymer containing a [1]rotaxane unit at one end was controlled by conventional protection-deprotection reactions, giving rise to a reversible linear-cyclic polymer structural transformation. PMID:25531061

  20. Ketimine modifications as a route to novel amorphous and derived semicrystalline poly(arylene ether ketone) homo- and copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohanty, D. K.; Lowery, R. C.; Lyle, G. D.; Mcgrath, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    A series of amine terminal amorphous poly(arylene ether ketone) oligomers of controlled molecular weights (2-15 K) were synthesized. These oligomers have been found to undergo 'self-crosslinking' reactions upon heating above 220 C, via the reaction of the terminal amine groups with the in-chain keto carbonyl functionalities. The resulting networks are ductile, chemically resistant, and nonporous. The networks obtained via generated ketimine functionality were characterized by solid state NMR. They have also been found to be remarkably stable toward hydrolysis. Ketimine functional bishalide monomers have also been synthesized. Such monomers have been utilized to synthesize a wide variety of amorphous poly(arylene ether) ketimine polymers. A high molecular weight hydroquinone functional poly(arylene ether) ketimine has been acid treated to regenerate a poly(arylene ether ketone) backbone in solution. This novel procedure thus allows for the synthesis of important matrix resins under relatively mild conditions.

  1. Relaxation behavior in model compounds of poly(aryl-ether-ketone-ketone) as revealed by dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezquerra, T. A.; Zolotukhin, M.; Privalko, V. P.; Baltá-Calleja, F. J.; Nequlqueo, G.; García, C.; de la Campa, J. G.; de Abajo, J.

    1999-05-01

    The relaxation behavior of a series of ether-ketone oligomers, considered as model compounds of poly(ether-ketone-ketone), was studied by means of dielectric spectroscopy. The dynamics of the α relaxation of ether-ketone model compounds as compared with that of poly(arylether-ketone-ketone) (PEKK) (50/50), shows up differences which can be attributed to the variation of inter- and intramolecular correlations with the chain length. Model compounds exhibit a nearly similar degree of cooperativity regardless the differences in Tg values. The PEKK (50/50) polymer exhibits stronger cooperativity than the oligomers suggesting that in poly(ether-ketone-ketone)s molecular motions above Tg extend to more than one monomeric unit.

  2. Hydrogen-bonded polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guigley, Kevin Scott

    This thesis discusses three topics in the general area of hydrogen bonded polymer blends. The first pertains to the blending of flame retardant polyphosphazenes. Poly[bis(n-alkyoxy)phosphazenes] blends with poly(butyl methacrylate- co-4-vinyl phenol) (BMAVPh) were initially studied. These results were compared to BMAVPh blends of analogous poly (vinyl n-alkyl ethers) and the phase behavior was similar. Next, poly[bis(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] blends with a structural polyurethane foam were prepared via reactive mixing. The combustion behavior of these foams was analyzed qualitatively, by a horizontal flame test, and quantitatively, by oxygen index (OI) measurements. Both of these tests indicated a modest increase in flame resistance at loadings of 20 wt% and above. In the second topic, equilibrium constants determined from low molecular weight mixtures were used to successfully predict the phase behavior of analogous polymer blends. Due consideration was given to intramolecular screening and functional group accessibility, factors that are a direct consequence of chain connectivity. In the third topic, polymer blends involving an alternating 1:1 copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and a hexafluoroisopropanol modified vinyl ether (HFIPVE) were studied. This copolymer is interesting for both experimental and theoretical studies of the phase behavior of polymer blends because (1) it is amorphous and has a relatively low glass transition temperature (12°C); (2) it has a relatively low solubility parameter (≈7 (cal.cm-3)-0.5); (3) it is soluble in moderately polar solvents, and (4) it contains the hexafluoroisopropanol group that is a strong hydrogen bond donor. Experimental infrared and thermal analysis studies of polymer blends with (co)polymers containing acetoxy, methacrylate and aliphatic ether groups were studied and compared to theoretical predictions of miscibility maps.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(maleic Anhydride)s Cross-linked Polyimide Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.

    2015-01-01

    With the development of technology for aerospace applications, new thermal insulation materials are required to be flexible and capable of surviving high heat flux. For instance, flexible insulation is needed for inflatable aerodynamic decelerators which are used to slow spacecraft for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations. Polyimide aerogels have low density, high porosity, high surface area, and better mechanical properties than silica aerogels and can be made into flexible thin films, thus they are potential candidates for aerospace needs. The previously reported cross-linkers such as octa(aminophenyl)silsesquioxane (OAPS) and 1,3,5-triaminophenoxybenzene (TAB) are either expensive or not commercially available. Here, we report the synthesis of a series of polyimide aerogels cross-linked using various commercially available poly(maleic anhydride)s, as seen in Figure 1. The amine end capped polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and diamine combinations of dimethylbenzidine (DMBZ) and 4, 4-oxydianiline (ODA). The resulting aerogels have low density (0.12 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3), high porosity (90) and high surface area (380-554 m2g). The effect of the different poly(maleic anhydride) cross-linkers and polyimide backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed.

  4. Flexible Polyimide Aerogel Cross-linked by Poly(maleic Anhydride-alt-alkylene)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Haiquan; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Wilkewitz, Brittany Marie

    2014-01-01

    Aerogels are potential materials for aerospace applications due to their lower thermal conductivity, lighter weight, and low dielectric constant. However, silica aerogels are restricted due to their inherent fragility, hygroscopic nature, and poor mechanical properties, especially in extreme aerospace environments. In order to fit the needs of aerospace applications, developing new thermal insulation materials that are flexible, and moisture resistant is needed. To this end, we fabricated a series of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with different poly(maleic anhydride-alt-alkylene)s as seen in Scheme 1. The polyimide oligomers were made with 3,3,4,4-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and different diamines or diamine combinations. The resulting aerogels have low density (0.06 gcm3 to 0.16 gcm3) and high surface area (240-440 m2g). The effect of the different backbone structures on density, shrinkage, porosity, surface area, mechanical properties, moisture resistance and thermal properties will be discussed. These novel polyalkylene-imide aerogels may be potential candidates for applications such as space suit insulation for planetary surface missions, insulation for inflatable structures for habitats, inflatable aerodynamic decelerators for entry, descent and landing (EDL) operations, and cryotank insulation for advance space propulsion systems. Scheme 1. Network of polyimide aerogels crosslinked with deifferent poly(maleic anhydride).

  5. GPCR-styrene maleic acid lipid particles (GPCR-SMALPs): their nature and potential.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, Mark; Charlton, Jack; Jamshad, Mohammed; Routledge, Sarah J; Bailey, Sian; La-Borde, Penelope J; Azam, Maria T; Logan, Richard T; Bill, Roslyn M; Dafforn, Tim R; Poyner, David R

    2016-04-15

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest class of membrane proteins and are an important target for therapeutic drugs. These receptors are highly dynamic proteins sampling a range of conformational states in order to fulfil their complex signalling roles. In order to fully understand GPCR signalling mechanisms it is necessary to extract the receptor protein out of the plasma membrane. Historically this has universally required detergents which inadvertently strip away the annulus of lipid in close association with the receptor and disrupt lateral pressure exerted by the bilayer. Detergent-solubilized GPCRs are very unstable which presents a serious hurdle to characterization by biophysical methods. A range of strategies have been developed to ameliorate the detrimental effect of removing the receptor from the membrane including amphipols and reconstitution into nanodics stabilized by membrane scaffolding proteins (MSPs) but they all require exposure to detergent. Poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) (SMA) incorporates into membranes and spontaneously forms nanoscale poly(styrene-co-maleic acid) lipid particles (SMALPs), effectively acting like a 'molecular pastry cutter' to 'solubilize' GPCRs in the complete absence of detergent at any stage and with preservation of the native annular lipid throughout the process. GPCR-SMALPs have similar pharmacological properties to membrane-bound receptor, exhibit enhanced stability compared with detergent-solubilized receptors and being non-proteinaceous in nature, are fully compatible with downstream biophysical analysis of the encapsulated GPCR. PMID:27068979

  6. Influence of maleic acid copolymers on calcium orthophosphates crystallization at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelin, Irina M.; Popescu, Irina; Suflet, Dana M.; Aflori, Magdalena; Bulacovschi, Victor

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the maleic acid copolymers role on calcium orthophosphates crystallization at low temperature. In this respect, two maleic acid copolymers with different structures [poly(sodium maleate-co-vinyl acetate) and poly(sodium maleate-co-methyl methacrylate)] were used. The syntheses of the calcium orthophosphates in the absence and in the presence of the copolymers were performed through the wet chemical method using calcium nitrate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium hydroxide as reactants. The syntheses were monitored in situ by potentiometric and conductometric measurements. To ensure the transformation of less thermodynamically stable calcium orthophosphates into more stable forms, the samples were aged 30 days in mother solutions, at room temperature. The presence of the copolymers in the final products was evidenced by FTIR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and laser light scattering measurements gave information about the composites morphology and the size of the formed structures. X-ray diffraction evidenced that, as a function of comonomer structure and of copolymer concentration, the products could contain hydroxyapatite with low crystallinity, calcium-deficient or carbonated hydroxyapatite. At high concentration of poly(sodium maleate-co-methyl methacrylate) the transformation of brushite into apatitic structures was inhibited.

  7. Adsorptions of some heavy metal ions in aqueous solutions by acrylamide/maleic acid hydrogels

    SciTech Connect

    Saraydin, D.; Karadag, E.; Gueven, O.

    1995-10-01

    In this study, acrylamide-maleic acid (AAm/MA) hydrogels in the form of rod have been prepared by {gamma}-radiation. They have been used for adsorption of some heavy metal ions such as uranium, iron, and copper. For the hydrogel containing 40 mg of maleic acid and irradiated at 3.73 kGy, maximum and minimum swellings in the aqueous solutions of the heavy metal ions have been observed with water (1480%) and the aqueous solution of iron(III) nitrate (410%), respectively. Diffusions of water and heavy metal ions onto hydrogels have been found to be of the non-Fickian type of diffusion. In experiments of uranyl ions adsorption, Type II adsorption has been found. One gram of AAa/MA hydrogels sorbed 14-86 mg uranyl ions from solutions of uranyl acetate, 14-90 mg uranyl ions from solutions of uranyl nitrate, 16-39 mg iron ions from solutions of iron(IV) nitrate, and 28-81 mg copper ions from solutions of copper acetate, while acrylamide hydrogel did not sorb any heavy metals ions.

  8. Flow-Induced Crystallization of Poly(ether ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazari, Behzad; Rhoades, Alicyn; Colby, Ralph

    The effects of an interval of shear above the melting temperature Tm on subsequent isothermal crystallization below Tm is reported for the premier engineering thermoplastic, poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). The effect of shear on the crystallization rate of PEEK is investigated by means of rheological techniques and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under a protocol of imposing shear in a rotational cone and plate rheometer and monitoring crystallization after quenching. The rate of crystallization at 320 °C was not affected by shear for shear rates <7 s-1 at 350 °C, whereas intervals of adequate shear at higher shear rates prior to the quench to 320 °C accelerated crystallization significantly. As the duration of the interval of shear above 7 s-1 is increased, the crystallization time decreases but at each shear rate eventually saturates once the applied specific work exceeds ~120 MPa. The annealing of the flow-induced precursors was also investigated. The nuclei were fairly persistent at temperatures close to 350 °C, however very unstable at temperatures above 375 °C. This suggests that the nanostructures formed under shear might be akin to crystalline lamellae of greater thickness, compared to quiescently crystallized lamellae.

  9. Multifunctional electroactive electrospun nanofiber structures from water solution blends of PVA/ODA–MMT and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid): effects of Ag, organoclay, structural rearrangement and NaOH doping factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şimşek, Murat; Rzayev, Zakir M. O.; Bunyatova, Ulviya

    2016-06-01

    Novel multifunctional colloidal polymer nanofiber electrolytes were fabricated by green reactive electrospinning nanotechnology from various water solution/dispersed blends of poly (vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) (PVA)/octadecyl amine-montmorillonite (ODA–MMT) as matrix polymer nanocomposite and poly(maleic acid-alt-acrylic acid) (poly(MAc-alt-AA) and/or its Ag-carrying complex as partner copolymers. Polymer nanofiber electrolytes were characterized using FTIR, XRD, thermal (DSC, TGA–DTG), SEM, and electrical analysis methods. Effects of partner copolymers, organoclay, in situ generated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and annealing procedure on physical and chemical properties of polymer composite nanofibers were investigated. The electrical properties (resistance, conductivity, activation energy) of nanofibers with/without NaOH doping agent were also evaluated. This work presented a structural rearrangement of nanofiber mats by annealing via decarboxylation of anhydride units with the formation of new conjugated double bond sites onto partner copolymer main chains. It was also found that the semiconductor behaviors of nanofiber structures were essentially improved with increasing temperature and fraction of partner copolymers as well as presence of organoclay and AgNPs in nanofiber composite.

  10. Triazolinediones as monomers for polymer synthesis and polymer modification

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, G.B.

    1993-12-31

    Triazolinediones are exceptionally strong electron acceptors, and are among the most powerful dienophiles and enophiles known. Reaction occurs rapidly with alkenes, vinyl ethers and esters, styrenes and B-diketones to yield a variety of novel copolymers. Recently, these powerful electron acceptors have been shown to undergo uncatalyzed electrophilic aromatic substitution with electron-rich aromatic compounds, for example, N,N-dimethyl aniline, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, and n-methylpyrrole. Appropriately substituted monomers and/or polymers when treated with triazolinedions lead to a variety of novel polymers. These reactions also lend themselves to modification of preformed polymers, as well as copolymers. Polydienes are readily modified with triazolinediones to orderly change the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance in the polymer over the entire spectrum. The relationship of the reactions of triazolinediones with electron donors to the problem of alternating copolymerization is apparent. The major emphasis of this paper will be placed on qualitative and quantitative comparisons between these two systems.

  11. Preparation and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(maleic anhydride-co-diallyl phthalate) grafted carbon black through γ-ray irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Yang; Cui, Jiayang; Cai, Yangben; Xu, Shiai

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the grafting polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer and maleic anhydride/diallyl phthalate (MAH/DAP) co-monomer onto the surface of carbon black (CB) were carried out at room temperature and normal pressure by γ-ray irradiation. The surface chemistry of grafted CBs were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that there are some remanent polymers on the surface of modified CBs after extract for 48 h, indicating that poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(MAH-co-DAP) have been successfully grafted onto the surface of CB without using initiator due to the high energy of γ-ray irradiation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal that the grafted CBs have smaller average aggregate size and better dispersibility than that of CB in absolute ethanol. In addition, it was found that the amount of oxygen groups and the irradiation doses/dose rates have little effect on the grafting degree of CB.

  12. Effect of maleic acid content on the thermal stability, swelling behaviour and network structure of gelatin-based hydrogels prepared by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, M.; Abdel-Ghaffar, M. A.; Dessouki, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The highly swelling Poly (acrylamide/maleic acid/gelatin) P(AAm/MA/G) hydrogels were prepared by gamma-irradiation at low dose rate (0.94 kGy/h) and moderate dose rate (3.84 kGy/h). The hydrogels were confirmed by FTIR. The effect of copolymer composition, dose and dose rate on the swelling behaviour was discussed. Increasing of MA content and G in the initial mixture leads to an increase in the amount of MA and G in the gel system and decrease in the gelation %. The swelling behaviours of the hydrogel prepared at moderate dose rate increased with increasing MA mole content in the gel system but, there is no systematic dependence of swelling on MA content was observed for the hydrogels obtained at low dose rate. Pore structure of the hydrogels was monitored by using scanning electron microscopy. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the rate of the thermal decomposition of P(AAm/MA/G) hydrogels has been evaluated to give a better understanding of the thermal stability of polymers, The X-ray data of P(AAm/MA/G) hydrogels was discussed to investigate some features namely the degree of ordering and crystallite size.

  13. PVDF-HFP/ether-modified polysiloxane membranes obtained via airbrush spraying as active separators for application in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Seidel, S M; Jeschke, S; Vettikuzha, P; Wiemhöfer, H-D

    2015-08-01

    Improved hybrid polymer electrolyte membranes are introduced based on ether-modified polysiloxanes and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) yielding a safe separator membrane, which is able to be sprayed directly onto lithium ion battery active materials, with an active role for enhanced ion transport. PMID:26121633

  14. Degradation of imidazolium- and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone) anion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongyang; Hickner, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    Imidazolium and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s were synthesized successfully with the same degree of cationic functionalization and identical polymer backbones for a comparative study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for solid-state alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Both anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a new methyl-containing monomer that avoided the use of toxic chloromethylation reagents. The polymer chemical structures were confirmed by ¹H NMR and FTIR. The derived AEMs were fully characterized by water uptake, anion conductivity, stability under aqueous basic conditions, and thermal stability. Interestingly, both the cationic groups and the polymer backbone were found to be degraded in 1 M NaOH solution at 60 °C over 48 h as measured by changes of ion exchange capacity and intrinsic viscosity. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s had similar aqueous alkaline stability to quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials at 60 °C but much lower stability at 80 °C. This work demonstrates that quaternary ammonium and imidazolium cationic groups are not stable on poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones under relatively mild conditions. Additionally, the poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbone, which is one of the most common polymers used in ion exchange membrane applications, is not stable in the types of molecular configurations analyzed. PMID:23067022

  15. Preparation and characterization of poly (arylene ether isoxazole)s by fluoride ion-mediated aromatic nucleophilic displacement reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, C. G.; Bass, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a continuing effort to prepare novel thermally stable high-performance polymers, poly(arylene ether isoxazole)s have been prepared by fluoride ion-catalyzed aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions with bis(trimethylsiloxyphenyl) isoxazoles and activated bisarylhalides in diphenyl sulfone. Initial investigation involving the preparation of these materials with isoxazole bisphenols and activated bisarylhalides in the presence of potassium carbonate indicated that, under reaction conditions necessary to prepare high-molecular-weight materials, the isoxazole monomer was converted to an enamino ketone. This side reaction was avoided by using fluoride as a base. However, trimethylsilyl ether derivatives of the isoxazole bisphenols were required in these polymerizations for the preparation of high-molecular-weight materials. Moderate to high inherent viscosity eta(sub inh): 0.43-0.87 dl/g) materials with good thermal stability (air: 409-477 C, helium: 435-512 C) can be prepared by the silyl ether method. Glass transition temperatures ranged from 182 to 225 C for polymers with phenyl pendants and from 170 to 214 C for those without. Molecular weight control by 2% endcapping and the incorporation of a phenyl pendant at the 4 position of the isoxazole is necessary to yield polymers soluble in polar aprotic solvents at room temperature. There is evidence, however, indicating the existence of crosslinks between the polymer chains when the silyl ether approach is utilized.

  16. Degradation of Imidazolium- and Quaternary Ammonium-Functionalized Poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone) Anion Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, DY; Hickner, MA

    2012-11-01

    Imidazolium and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s were synthesized successfully with the same degree of cationic functionalization and identical polymer backbones for a comparative study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for solid-state alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Both anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a new methyl-containing monomer that avoided the use of toxic chloromethylation reagents. The polymer chemical structures were confirmed by H-1 NMR and FTIR. The derived AEMs were fully characterized by water uptake, anion conductivity, stability under aqueous basic conditions, and thermal stability. Interestingly, both the cationic groups and the polymer backbone were found to be degraded in 1 M NaOH solution at 60 degrees C over 48 h as measured by changes of ion exchange capacity and intrinsic viscosity. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s had similar aqueous alkaline stability to quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials at 60 degrees C but much lower stability at 80 degrees C. This work demonstrates that quaternary ammonium and imidazolium cationic groups are not stable on poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones under relatively mild conditions. Additionally, the poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbone, which is one of the most common polymers used in ion exchange membrane applications, is not stable in the types of molecular configurations analyzed.

  17. Low dielectric fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketone) film and coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, Patrick E. (Inventor); Tullos, Gordon L. (Inventor); St.clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention relates to film and coating materials prepared from novel fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketones). A fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketone) is prepared by reacting a bisphenol with 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2,2-bis 4-(4-halobenzoyl) phenyl propane (wherein halo is fluoro or chloro), which is a novel monomer formed as the reaction product of halobenzene (wherein halo is fluoro or chloro) and 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2,2-bis (p-chloro formyl phenyl) propane. Especially beneficial results of this invention are that films and coating materials prepared from the novel fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketone) are essentially optically transparent/colorless and have a lower dielectric constant than otherwise comparable, commercially available poly(phenylene ether ketones). Moreover, unlike the otherwise comparable commercially available materials, the novel fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketones) of the present invention can be solution cast or sprayed to produce the films and coatings. Furthermore, the long term thermal stability of the polymers of the present invention is superior to that of the commercially available materials.

  18. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  19. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  20. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  1. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  2. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor....

  3. Bacterial Utilization of Ether Glycols

    PubMed Central

    Fincher, Edward L.; Payne, W. J.

    1962-01-01

    A soil bacterium capable of using oligo- and polyethylene glycols and ether alcohols as sole sources of carbon for aerobic growth was isolated. The effects of substituent groups added to the ether bonds on the acceptability of the compounds as substrates were studied. Mechanisms for the incorporation of two-carbon compounds were demonstrated by the observation that acetate, glyoxylate, ethylene glycol, and a number of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates served as growth substrates in minimal media. The rate of oxidation of the short-chained ethylene glycols by adapted resting cells varied directly with increasing numbers of two-carbon units in the chains from one to four. The amount of oxygen consumed per carbon atom of oligo- and polyethylene glycols was 100% of theoretical, but only 67% of theoretical for ethylene glycol. Resting cells oxidized oligo- and polyethylene glycols with 2 to 600 two-carbon units in the chains. Longer chained polyethylene glycols (up to 6,000) were oxidized at a very slow rate by these cells. Dehydrogenation of triethylene glycol by adapted cells was observed, coupling the reaction with methylene blue reduction. PMID:13945208

  4. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  5. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  6. Morphology and activity of vanadium-containing catalysts for the selective oxidation of benzene to maleic anhydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dosumov, K.; Ergazieva, G. E.

    2012-11-01

    The morphology and activity of vanadium catalysts are studied using a number of physicochemical methods: electron microscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, and infrared spectroscopy. It is found that the active agent of the conversion of benzene to maleic anhydride over modified vanadium catalysts is the V4+ ion in the vanadyl configuration.

  7. Selective conversion of furfural to maleic anhydride and furan with VO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalysts.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Fagúndez, Noelia; Granados, Manuel López; Mariscal, Rafael; Ojeda, Manuel

    2012-10-01

    Furfural can be converted into maleic anhydride (73 % yield) through selective gas phase oxidation at 593 K with O(2) by using VO(x)/Al(2)O(3) (10 at(V) nm(-2)) as solid catalysts. The use of lower temperatures and/or O(2) pressures result in the additional formation of furan (maximum 9 % yield). Mechanistically, furfural (C(5)H(4)O(2)) is oxidized stepwise to furan (C(4)H(4)O), 2-furanone (C(4)H(4)O(2)), and finally, maleic anhydride (C(4)H(2)O(3)). The specific structure of the supported vanadium oxides and reaction conditions (temperature and reactants pressures) all influence furfural oxidation catalysis. We have found that Al(2)O(3)-supported polyvanadates are intrinsically more active (2.70 mmol h(-1) g-at V(-1)) than monovanadates (VO(4)) and V(2)O(5) crystals (0.89 and 0.70 mmol h(-1) g-at V(-1), respectively) in maleic anhydride and furan formation rates (553 K, 1.6 kPa furfural, 2.5 kPa O(2)). Our alternative approach enables the use of biomass instead of petroleum to synthesize maleic anhydride and furan from furfural. The potential variety of industrial applications is of enormous interest for the development of future biorefineries. PMID:22847991

  8. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3490 - Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carboxymethylcellulose sodium and/or polyvinylmethylether maleic acid calcium-sodium double salt denture adhesive. 872.3490 Section 872.3490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices §...

  14. Synthesis and characterization of poly(ether ketone)s containing phosphorus and fluorine

    SciTech Connect

    Youngman, P.W.; Fitch, J.W.; Cassidy, P.E. |

    1996-10-01

    Because of the excellent properties exhibited by fluorinated poly(ether ketone)s, modifications were sought to further improve this polymer toward atomic oxygen resistance. For this purpose a phosphorous-containing monomer [bis(4-fluorophenyl)phenyl phosphine oxide] was synthesized and incorporated into a poly(ether ketone) backbone by reaction with 2,2-bis[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)phenyl]hexafluoropropane in varying proportions with bisphenol AF to produce polymers with different amounts of the phosphine oxide repeating unit in the backbone. Colorless, film-forming materials were produced with a slight increase in Tg due to the phosphine oxide function. The incorporation of this moiety also resulted in a very small increase in the dielectric constant and an improved resistance to atomic oxygen ablation.

  15. Novel nonadride, heptadride and maleic acid metabolites from the byssochlamic acid producer Byssochlamys fulva IMI 40021 - an insight into the biosynthesis of maleidrides.

    PubMed

    Szwalbe, Agnieszka J; Williams, Katherine; O'Flynn, Daniel E; Bailey, Andrew M; Mulholland, Nicholas P; Vincent, Jason L; Willis, Christine L; Cox, Russell J; Simpson, Thomas J

    2015-12-14

    The filamentous fungus Byssochlamys fulva strain IMI 40021 produces (+)-byssochlamic acid 1, its novel dihydroanalogue 2 and four related secondary metabolites. Agnestadrides A, 17 and B, 18 constitute a novel class of seven-membered ring, maleic anhydride-containing (hence termed heptadride) natural products. The putative maleic anhydride precursor 5 for both nonadride and heptadride biosynthesis was isolated as a fermentation product for the first time and its structure confirmed by synthesis. Acid 5 undergoes facile decarboxylation to anhydride 6. The generic term maleidrides is proposed to encompass biosynthetically-related compounds containing maleic anhydride moieties fused to an alicyclic ring, varying in size and substituents. PMID:26452099

  16. Preparing alkaline anion exchange membrane with enhanced hydroxide conductivity via blending imidazolium-functionalized and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Zhongyi; Tian, Huimin; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Bei; Cao, Ying; He, Guangwei; Li, Zongyu; Wu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    The development of alkaline anion exchange membrane (AEM) with both high ion conductivity and stabilities is of great significance for fuel cell applications. In this study, a facile acid-base blending method is designed to improve AEM performances. Basic imidazolium-functionalized poly (ether ether ketone) with a high functionalization degree is employed as polymer matrix to pursue high ion-exchange capacity (IEC) as well as high hydroxide conductivity, meanwhile acidic sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) is employed as the cross-linking agent to enhance the stabilities of the blend membranes. Particularly, an in-situ Menshutkin/crosslinking method is exploited to prevent the flocculation in the preparation process of blend membranes. As a result, dense and defect-free blend membranes are obtained. The blend membranes exhibit high level of IEC up to 3.15 mmol g-1, and consequently possess elevated hydroxide conductivity up to 31.59 mS cm-1 at 30 °C. In addition, benefiting from the strong electrostatic interaction introduced by the acid-base blending, the stabilities and methanol resistance of blend membranes are enhanced.

  17. Tailoring chemical and physical properties of fibrous scaffolds from block copolyesters containing ether and thio-ether linkages for skeletal differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Gigli, Matteo; Gualandi, Chiara; Truckenmüller, Roman; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Lotti, Nadia; Munari, Andrea; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive scaffolds for tissue engineering call for demands on new materials which can enhance traditional biocompatibility requirements previously considered for clinical implantation. The current commercially available thermoplastic materials, such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and their copolymers, have been used to fabricate scaffolds for regenerative medicine. However, these polymers have limitations including lacking of broadly tuning mechanical and degradable properties, and activation of specific cell-scaffold interactions, which limit their further application in tissue engineering. In the present study, electrospun scaffolds were successfully fabricated from a new class of block poly(butylene succinate)-based (PBS-based) copolyesters containing either butylene thiodiglycolate (BTDG) or butylene diglycolate (BDG) sequences. The polyesters displayed tunable mechanical properties and hydrolysis rate depending on the molecular architecture and on the kind of heteroatom introduced along the polymer backbone. To investigate their potential for skeletal regeneration, human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on the scaffolds in basic, osteogenic and chondrogenic media. Our results demonstrated that PBS-based copolyesters containing thio-ether linkages (i.e. BTDG segments) were more favorable for chondrogenesis of hMSCs than those containing ether linkages (i.e. BDG sequences). In contrast, PBS-based copolyesters containing ether linkages showed enhanced mineralization. Therefore, these new functional scaffolds might hold potential for osteochondral tissue engineering applications. PMID:26546918

  18. The guanidine and maleic acid (1:1) complex. The additional theoretical and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Marek; Dudzic, Damian

    2012-04-01

    On the basis of experimental literature data the theoretical studies for guanidinium and maleic acid complex with using DFT method are performed. In these studies the experimental X-ray data for two different forms of investigated crystal were used. During the geometry optimization process one equilibrium structure was found, only. According to this result the infrared spectrum for one theoretical molecule was calculated. On the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) analysis the clear-cut assignments of observed bands were performed. For the calculated molecule with energy minimum the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were obtained and graphically illustrated. The energy difference (GAP) between HOMO and LUMO was analyzed. Additionally, the nonlinear properties of this molecule were calculated. The α and β (first and second order) hyperpolarizability values are obtained. On the basis of these results the title crystal was classified as new second order NLO generator.

  19. Process for the production of 1:4 butanediol from maleic anhydride via ester hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Towers, R.G.; Harris, N.; McKee, D.

    1986-01-01

    A process has been developed for the production of 1:4 butanediol (1:4 BDO from maleic anhydride (MA). The three process steps are:- a) Esterifiction of MA to produce a dialkyl maleate ester based on a modification of commercially proven esterification technology; b) Hydrogenation of the ester, at moderate temperatures and pressures, to 1:4 BD using novel low pressure ester hydrogenation technology. Gamma-Butyrolactone (gamma-BL) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) are produced as co-products. The 1:4 BD/Gamma-BL product ratio can be adjusted to respond to market requirements by recycle of the less desirable product, and THF productivity controlled over wide limits by variation of process parameters; c) Product separation by distillation.

  20. Thermal-induced conversion of maleic and fumaric acid anion radicals in poly(methyl methacrylate)

    SciTech Connect

    Torikai, A.; Fukumoto, M.

    1980-04-01

    Thermal-induced conversion of maleic and fumaric acid anion radicals produced by ..gamma.. irradiation at 77/sup 0/K in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) and optical absorption spectroscopic measurements. The ESR spectra of these acid anion radicals change into two-line spectra with a line separation of ca. 10 G by thermal annealing. This spectrum is assigned to a protonated radical of each acid anion radical. Anion radicals of the solutes are relatively stable below the ..gamma.. transition point of PMMA and the conversion reaction takes place near this point. This means that the molecular motion of matrix molecule affects the radical conversion reaction.

  1. Surface modification of a biomedical poly(ether)urethane by a remote air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, J. E.; Norton, P. R.; Griffiths, K.

    2003-07-01

    Plasma modification of polymer surfaces is widely used, but the plasma/polymer interaction is very complex and still not fully understood. In this paper, the interaction of a biomedical poly(ether)urethane with a remote air plasma treatment has been studied. Atomic force microscopy studies show the domain structure of the polymer as well as the absence of any surface roughening due to plasma treatment. Contact angle goniometry shows an improved wettability of the surface after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates an increase in CO and CC at the surface, as well as the presence of new functional groups such as alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and imines. There is also evidence that the energy imparted to the polymer during plasma treatment causes surface segregation of polyol segments.

  2. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, Brian A.; Taylor, A. Michael

    1998-01-01

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene.

  3. Redox polymer electrodes for advanced batteries

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, B.A.; Taylor, A.M.

    1998-11-24

    Advanced batteries having a long cycle lifetime are provided. More specifically, the present invention relates to electrodes made from redox polymer films and batteries in which either the positive electrode, the negative electrode, or both, comprise redox polymers. Suitable redox polymers for this purpose include pyridyl or polypyridyl complexes of transition metals like iron, ruthenium, osmium, chromium, tungsten and nickel; porphyrins (either free base or metallo derivatives); phthalocyanines (either free base or metallo derivatives); metal complexes of cyclams, such as tetraazacyclotetradecane; metal complexes of crown ethers and metallocenes such as ferrocene, cobaltocene and ruthenocene. 2 figs.

  4. Radiation effects on high performance polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwoll, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Polymer matrix materials are candidates for use in large space antennas and space platforms that may be deployed in geosynchronous orbit 22,500 miles above the Earth. A principal concern is the long term effects of an environment that is hostile to organic polymers, including high energy electromagnetic radiation, bombardment by charged particles, and large abrupt changes in temperature. Two polyarylene ethers which might be utilized as models for polymers in space applications were subjected to dosages of 70 keV electrons up to 3.4 x 10 to the 10th power rad. The irradiated films were then examined to determine the effects of the high-energy electrons.

  5. Perfluoroalkylene-Ether Triazine Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Chen, T. S.; Cheng, C.

    1984-01-01

    New process yields product that resists heat and action of oxygen and water. Ring closing step, which gives elastomer its stability, imidoylamidine dinitrile reacts with perfluoroether acide, yielding prepolymer. Prepolymer then treated with ammonia and cured by heating to form polymer. Elastomers are highly resistant to heat, oxidation, and hydrolysis.

  6. Thin film composite nanofiltration membranes fabricated from quaternized poly(ether ether ketone) with crosslinkable moiety using a benign solvent.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Zhang, Qifeng; Zhang, Suobo; Li, Shenghai

    2016-02-01

    Thin film composite nanofiltration membranes were fabricated through dip-coating and in situ cross-linking of quaternized poly(ether ether ketone) containing a certain amount of tertiary amine groups (QAPEEKs) on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) support. The effects of the variables in membrane formation such as the coating polymer concentration, the curing temperature, and the cross-linking agent types on resultant membrane were studied and the membrane properties such as the barrier layer chemical structure, the surface element composition and morphology were investigated. The obtained performance of uncross-linked and cross-linked QAPEEK-70 thin film composites in nanofiltration test was compared. The results indicated that the cross-linking improved the composite membranes' performance. For instance, the membrane cross-linked by bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BPADGE) named M-C-BPADGE exhibited a MgCl2 rejection of 97.8%, a water flux of 11.8Lm(-2)h(-1), a MWCO of 800Da and corresponding pore size of 0.69nm, while for its uncross-linked membrane named M-U, a MgCl2 rejection of 91.2%, a water flux of 13.5Lm(-2)h(-1), a MWCO with 960Da and a pore size of 0.77nm were found. Furthermore, the M-C-BPADGE membrane exhibited selectivities of 16.0 for separation of mixed Mg(2+) and Na(+) cations, much larger than selectivity of 5.2 obtained for M-U, suggesting that the cross-linked membranes are promising in cation separation. PMID:26606594

  7. A DFT study of the formation of xanthydrol motifs during electrophilic poly(aryl ether ketone) synthesis.

    PubMed

    Melissen, Sigismund T A G; Tognetti, Vincent; Dupas, Georges; Jouanneau, Julien; Lê, Guillaume; Joubert, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    The reaction pathway of the cyclization of 2-phenoxybenzophenone into 9-phenyl-9H-xanthen-9-ol in the presence of acid and an excess of AlCl33 was studied using density functional theory. This type of reaction is known to occur during the Friedel-Crafts polycondensation of poly(aryl ether ketones) following the undesired benzoylation of nucleophilic positions ortho- to the growing polymer's ether groups. The formed defect acts as an undesired terminator of the polymer chain, causing severe problems in the polymer's melt state. A branched, multistep mechanism reminiscent of the Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction is discovered; the reaction starts with the protonation of the carbonyl oxygen, followed by intramolecular electrophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon that determines the turnover frequency of the catalytic cycle and ends by deprotonation of the Wheland intermediate. PMID:26696543

  8. Microbial degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether in an aerobic sludge and the DGGE analysis of diversity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Yao; Wang, Chun-Kang; Shih, Yang-Hsin

    2010-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were applied as flame retardant additives in polymers for many plastic and electronic products. Due to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment, potential toxicity to human and tendency for bioaccumulation, PBDEs have raised public safety concern. In this study we examined the degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether (4-BDE) in aerobic sludge, as a model for PBDE biodegradation. Degradation of 4-BDE was observed in aerobic sludge. Co-metabolism with toluene or diphenyl ether facilitated 4-BDE biodegradation in terms of kinetics and efficiency. Diphenyl ether seems to perform slightly better as an auxiliary carbon source than toluene in facilitating 4-BDE degradation. During the experiment we identified diphenyl ether by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry(GC/MS), which indicates that an anaerobic debromination has occurred. Bacterial community composition was monitored with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The fragments enriched in 4-BDE-degrading aerobic sludge samples belong to presumably a novel anaerobic Clostridiales species distantly related to all known debrominating microbes. This suggests that 4-BDE biodegradation can occur in anaerobic micro-niche in an apparently aerobic environment, by a previously unknown bacterial species. These findings can provide better understandings of biodegradation of brominated diphenyl ethers and can facilitate the prediction of the fate of PBDEs in the environment. PMID:20512728

  9. Novel composite proton-exchange membrane based on proton-conductive glass powders and sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Zhigang; Xie, Qiang; Li, Haibin; Mao, Dali; Li, Ming; Zhou, Daowu; Li, Lu

    2015-01-01

    The SiO2-Nafion/sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) composite membranes are fabricated by using the simple mechanical ball-milling process to combine SiO2 glass powders with small portion of Nafion, in which SiO2 glass powders are prepared by modified sol-gel progress and Nafion is embedded in situ into a highly porous silica network. The morphology, thermal and mechanical properties, pore structure, proton conductivity and fuel cell performance of the SiO2-Nafion/SPEEK composite membranes are investigated. The poor miscibility of Nafion and sulfonated aromatic polymer is solved by fixing Nafion into SiO2 glass powders. The composite membranes perform well even if the proportion of inorganic component in membranes is as high as 40 wt.%. A maximum of proton conductivity, 0.018 S cm-1, is obtained from the membrane of 4(8Si-2N)/6SPEEK at 80 °C and 90% relative humidity, which is owing to its enhanced hygroscopicity and highly dispersed Nafion clusters. In addition, a single fuel cell equipped with the composite membrane shows a peak power density of 589.2 mW cm-2 at 70 °C.

  10. Relaxation behavior and nonlinear properties of thermally stable polymers based on glycidyl derivatives of quercetin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishurov, Dmytro; Voronkin, Andrii; Roshal, Alexander; Brovko, Oleksandr

    2016-07-01

    Cross-linked polymers on the basis of di-, tri and tetraglycidyl ethers of quercetin (3,3‧,4‧,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) were synthesized, and then, poled in electrical field of corona discharge. Investigations of structural, thermal and optical parameters of the polymer films were carried out. It was found that the polymers obtained from di- and triglycidyl quercetin ethers had high values of macroscopic quadratic susceptibilities and substantial stability of nonlinear optical (NLO) properties after the poling. Tetraglycidyl ether of quercetin forms the polymer of lower quadratic susceptibility, which demonstrates noticeable relaxation process resulting in decrease of the NLO effect. It is supposed that the difference of the NLO properties is due to peculiarities of physical network of the polymers, namely to the ratio between numbers of hydrogen bonds formed by hydroxyl groups of chromophore fragments and by the ones of interfragmental parts of the polymeric chains.

  11. Silver-containing polymer composition used in spacecraft and semiconductor optoelectronics control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. A.; Tuev, V. I.

    2015-10-01

    The copolymer of the vinyl chloride-maleic anhydride and silver nano- and microparticle (70 wt %) composition is offered as a conductive adhesive for fixing various chips on the dielectric substrate. The wiring volume resistivity is up to 3.1×10-8 Ohm×m. The adhesive strength of the silver-containing polymer composition (70% of Ag) applied under a shear on the dielectric substrate is 106 N/mm2. Adhesive layers obtained from these substances have a high thermal conductivity up to λ = 199.93 W/m×K that depends on the amount of Ag in the polymer composition.

  12. Fire and heat resistant laminating resins based on maleimido substituted aromatic cyclotriphosphazene polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Devendra (Inventor); Fohlen, George M. (Inventor); Parker, John A. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    4-Aminophenoxy cyclotriphosphazenes are reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleamic acids which are converted to the maleimides. The maleimides are polymerized. By selection of starting materials (e.g., hexakis amino or trisaminophenoxy trisphenoxy cyclotriphosphazenes), selection of molar proportions of reactants, use of mixtures of anhydrides and use of dianhydrides as bridging groups a variety of maleimides and polymers are produced. The polymers have high limiting oxygen indices, high char yields and other useful heat and fire resistant properties making them useful as, for example, impregnants of fabrics.

  13. Silver-containing polymer composition used in spacecraft and semiconductor optoelectronics control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. A. Tuev, V. I.

    2015-10-27

    The copolymer of the vinyl chloride-maleic anhydride and silver nano- and microparticle (70 wt %) composition is offered as a conductive adhesive for fixing various chips on the dielectric substrate. The wiring volume resistivity is up to 3.1×10{sup −8} Ohm×m. The adhesive strength of the silver-containing polymer composition (70% of Ag) applied under a shear on the dielectric substrate is 106 N/mm{sup 2}. Adhesive layers obtained from these substances have a high thermal conductivity up to λ = 199.93 W/m×K that depends on the amount of Ag in the polymer composition.

  14. Imide/arylene ether copolymers. I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation of a series of novel imide/arylene ether copolymers is described together with the results of viscosity and DSC Tg(Tm) measurements. The copolymers were synthesized from an arylene ether block and either an amorphous or semicrystalline imide block. One block copolymer was end-capped, and the molecular weight was controlled to improve compression moldability. The paper also presents results of mechanical properties tests on copolymer samples.

  15. Hydrocarbon soluble polymer complexes useful as viscosifiers in fracturing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sedillo, L.P.; Newlove, J.C.; Peiffer, D.G.; Lundberg, R.D.

    1986-10-07

    A process is described for fracturing a subterranean formation surrounding a gas or oil well which comprises injecting into the subterranean formation under hydraulic pressure a fluid comprising about 0.01 to about 25 weight percent of a water insoluble polymer complex dissolved in a solvent system comprising a nonpolar organic liquid. The polymer complex comprises the interaction product of a metal neutralized sulfonated polymer and an amine containing polymer. The sulfonate content of the sulfonated polymer is about 4 meq. per 100 grams of polymer to about 100 meq. per 100 gram of polymer and the basic nitrogen content of the amine containing polymer is about 4 meq. per 100 gram of polymer to about 500 meq. per 100 gram of polymer. The organic liquid is selected from the group consisting of paraffinic hydrocarbons, naphthenic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic aliphatic ethers, aliphatic ethers and organic aliphatic esters and mixtures thereof. The amine containing polymer is a copolymer of vinyl-pyridine with other vinyl monomers which are selected from the group consisting of acrylates, methacrylates, alkyl acrylates, alkyl methacrylates, N-alkylacrylamide and N-alkylmethacrylamides and mixtures thereof, the acrylates or methacrylates, etc. having from about 6 to about 26 carbon atoms.

  16. Co-processing as a tool to improve aqueous dispersibility of cellulose ethers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Payal; Modi, Sameer R; Bansal, Arvind K

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose ethers are important materials with numerous applications in pharmaceutical industry. They are widely employed as stabilizers and viscosity enhancers for dispersed systems, binders in granulation process and as film formers for tablets. These polymers, however, exhibit challenge during preparation of their aqueous dispersions. Rapid hydration of their surfaces causes formation of a gel that prevents water from reaching the inner core of the particle. Moreover, the surfaces of these particles become sticky, thus leading to agglomeration, eventually reducing their dispersion kinetics. Numerous procedures have been tested to improve dispersibility of cellulose ethers. These include the use of cross-linking agents, alteration in the synthesis process, adjustment of water content of cellulose ether, modification by attaching hydrophobic substituents and co-processing using various excipients. Among these, co-processing has provided the most encouraging results. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms responsible for the poor dispersibility of cellulose ethers and the role of co-processing technologies in overcoming the challenge. An attempt has been made to highlight various co-processing techniques and specific role of excipients used for co-processing. PMID:26161940

  17. Synthesize and polymerization of novel photocurable vinyl ether monomers containing perfluorinated aromatic units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Zou, Ying Quan

    2012-03-01

    A series of novel UV-curable vinyl ether monomers with perfluorinated aromatic units for photoresist had been designed and synthesized. Perfluorinated vinyl ether monomer I-1was prepared from the reactions of 2-vinyloxy ethanol and hexafluorobenzene in the presence of sodium hydride in DMF. And perfluorinated vinyl ether monomer I-2 was prepared from the reactions of I-1 and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol in the presence of sodium carbonate in DMF. The photocrosslinked perfluorinated polymers obtained by PAG201 (a kind of cationic photo-initiator) initiating. When PAG201 was introduced into the monomers, the conversion of vinyl ether double bond increased sharply. The final conversion was close to 90%, and when the light intensity was 478μW/cm2, at 25 sec, the polymerization achieved maximum. Generally, the UV-curing performance of monomers with 3wt.% PAG201 concentration is superior to 2wt.% PAG201 concentration. And their physical and chemical properties satisfied the material requirements for photoresist or UV imaging materials.

  18. Conformations and Barriers to Methyl Group Internal Rotation in Two Asymmetric Ethers: Propyl Methyl Ether and Butyl Methyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B. E.; Dechirico, F.; Cooke, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    The conformational preferences of the O-C-C-C unit are important in many biological systems with the unit generally preferring a gauche configuration compared to an anti configuration. Butyl methyl ether and propyl methyl ether provide very simple systems for this phenomenom to manifest. Pure rotational spectra of the title molecules have been recorded using chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). In the case of butyl methyl ether, only one conformer has been observed. This conformer has torsional angles of COCC = 180°, OCCC = 62° and CCCC = 180° (anti-gauche-anti) and rotational constants of A = 10259.4591(33) MHz, B = 1445.6470(13) MHz, and C = 1356.2944(14) MHz. The rotational spectrum was doubled and has been analyzed to produce an effective barrier to methyl group internal rotation of 780(35) cm-1. A prior rotational spectroscopic study on propyl methyl ether had focused only on the high energy anti-anti conformer. We have analyzed spectra from the lowest energy anti-gauche conformer and the spectroscopic constants will be presented. A summary of the differences in conformational energies and methyl group internal rotation barriers for the class of aliphatic asymmetric ethers will be presented. K. N. Houk, J. E. Eksterowicz, Y.-D. Wu, C. D. Fuglesang, D. B. Mitchell. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (4170), 1993. Hiroshi Kato, Jun Nakagawa, Michiro Hayashi. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 80 (272), 1980.

  19. Four 3-cyanodifurazanyl ethers: potential propellants.

    PubMed

    Averkiev, Boris B; Antipin, Mikhail Yu; Sheremetev, Aleksey B; Timofeeva, Tatiana V

    2003-07-01

    In earlier papers, we described the synthesis and structures of bis(3-nitrofurazan-4-yl) ether, C(4)N(6)O(7), (I), bis[3-(nitro-N,N,O-azoxy)furazan-4-yl] ether, C(4)N(10)O(9), (II), and bis[3-(5H-[1,2,3]triazolo[4,5-c]furazan-5-yl)furazan-4-yl] ether, C(8)N(14)O(5), (III). Here we compare the structures of (I)-(III) with those of four 3-cyanodifurazanyl ethers, namely bis(3-cyanofurazan-4-yl) ether, C(6)N(6)O(3), (IV), 3-cyanofurazanyl 3-nitrofurazanyl ether, C(5)N(6)O(5), (V), 3,4-bis(3-cyanofurazan-4-yloxy)furazan, C(8)N(8)O(5), (VI), and bis[3-(3-cyanofurazan-4-yloxy)furazan-4-yl]diazene, C(10)N(12)O(6), (VII). It was found that the geometric parameters of the difurazanyl ether fragments are similar in these structures and therefore not influenced by substituent effects; however, the conformation of this fragment is different, viz. structures (I), (III), (V) and (VI) have approximate C(2) symmetry, and structures (II), (IV) and (VII) have C(s) symmetry. Dense crystal packing (1.626-1.898 Mg m(-3)) is characteristic for all these hydrogen-free compounds. A linear correlation is also determined between crystal density and 'molecular density' (M/V), where M is the mass of a molecule and V is the molecular volume. PMID:12855864

  20. Microgravity Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A one-day, interactive workshop considering the effects of gravity on polymer materials science was held in Cleveland, Ohio, on May 9, 1985. Selected programmatic and technical issues were reviewed to introduce the field to workshop participants. Parallel discussions were conducted in three disciplinary working groups: polymer chemistry, polymer physics, and polymer engineering. This proceedings presents summaries of the workshop discussions and conclusions.

  1. Chemistry and properties of poly(arylene ether benzoxazole)s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1992-01-01

    Several new poly(arylene ether benzoxazole)s (PAEBs) were prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of activated aromatic difluorides with two novel bis(hydroxyphenyl benzoxazole), using potassium carbonate. The 6F-containing PAEBs exhibited better solubility and higher Tgs than did the 6,6'-bis-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole)-derived polymers. Several of the 6,6'bis(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole)-derived polymers exhibited crystallinity by DSC and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. Unorientated thin film properties of the 6F-containing PAEBs were comparable to those of other 6F-containing PAEBS that were previously reported. The chemistry and the physical and mechanical properties of the above polymers are discussed.

  2. Synthesis of novel fluorine containing poly(arylene ether-pyrazoles)

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, R.G.; Srinivasan, K.R.

    1993-12-31

    Several novel poly(arylene ether-pyrazoles) (PAE-pyrazoles) containing N-tetrafluorophenyl or octafluorobiphenal groups have been prepared. Polymers containing N-tetrafluorophenyl groups were prepared from two new monomers namely, 3,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)pyrazole and 3,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-phenyl-1-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)pyrazole, respectively. Several bisphenol pyrazole monomers were polymerized with decafluorobiphenyl under controlled reaction conditions to obtain PAE-pyrazoles containing octafluorobiphenyl moieties. All polymers were obtained as white granular or fibrous solids with inherent viscosities of 0.19-1.40 dL/g, and were stable up to 480{degrees}C in air and helium. In general, the thermal properties of fluorine containing PAE-pyrazoles were comparable or lower than their corresponding non-fluorine containing systems. The preparation and thermal properties of these polymers will be discussed.

  3. Zero-birefringence photosensitive poly(arylene ether) for optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang-Dan; Zhong, Zhen-Xin; Kim, Jang Joo; Lee, Myong-Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Novel photosensitive fluorinated poly(arylene ether) containing chalcone unit (F-PAECh) in the main chain was synthesized from decafluorinated chalcone and fluorinated bisphenol at low temperature for polymer optical waveguide application. Upon UV irradiation on the resulting polymer film, [2+2] cycloaddition of chalocone moiety induced the anisotropic decrease of the refractive indices (nTE and nTM) accompanied with crosslinking of polymer film. The decrease was more significant in in-plane direction than out-of-plane direction, and consequently, zero birefringence was obtained with 4.5 min of exposure. Zero-birefringence as well as its excellent optical properties of F-PAECh makes it a promising candidate material for use in high-performance wavelength division multiplexing components such as polarization-independent arrayed waveguide gratings and Bragg wavelength filters.

  4. Determination of the maleic acid in rat urine and serum samples by isotope dilution-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with on-line solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Chang; Wu, Charlene; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2015-05-01

    A rapid and simple on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with isotope dilution-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-ID-LC-MS/MS) method was developed to quantitate maleic acid in serum and urine of SpragueDawley (SD) rats. The aforementioned biological samples were spiked with (13)C2-maleic acid, vigorously vortexed, added with acetonitrile to precipitate proteins, and then injected into the on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS system for quantification. Upon validation, this method demonstrated excellent feasibility and sensitivity: calibration curves for maleic acid in serum and urine display excellent linearity with the coefficient of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.999; the limits of detection and quantitation (LOD and LOQ) for maleic acid were determined at 0.2 and 0.5μg L(-1), respectively. Additionally, intra-day accuracy for maleic acid in serum and urine samples ranged from 94.0% to 100.2% and 101.3% to 104.4%, respectively. Furthermore, inter-day accuracy ranged from 93.6% to 101.0% and from 102.3% to 111.4% in serum and urine samples, respectively. Intra-day precision %RSD of maleic acid in serum and urine samples was 13.8% or less, whereas the inter-day precision was 6.1% or less. The matrix effects were not found to be statistically significant (p=0.9145 and p=0.5378, correspondingly) based on the calculations of recovery functions. The collected serum and urine samples were analyzed using SPE-ID-LC-MS/MS. Our results reveal trace levels of maleic acid in the control rats, demonstrating that this method is capable of analyzing background levels of contaminants in biofluids with excellent sensitivity and specificity at part-per-billion levels concentrations in complex matrices. PMID:25702978

  5. The Use of Maleic Hydrazide for Effective Hybridization of Setaria viridis.

    PubMed

    Rizal, Govinda; Karki, Shanta; Garcia, Richard; Larazo, Nikki; Alcasid, Michael; Quick, William Paul

    2015-01-01

    An efficient method for crossing green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is currently lacking. S. viridis is considered to be the new model plant for the study of C4 system in monocots and so an effective crossing protocol is urgently needed. S. viridis is a small grass with C4-NADP (ME) type of photosynthesis and has the advantage of having small genome of about 515 Mb, small plant stature, short life cycle, multiple tillers, and profuse seed set, and hence is an ideal model species for research. The objectives of this project were to develop efficient methods of emasculation and pollination, and to speed up generation advancement. We assessed the response of S. viridis flowers to hot water treatment (48°C) and to different concentrations of gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, maleic hydrazide (MH), and kinetin. We found that 500 μM of MH was effective in the emasculation of S. viridis, whilst still retaining the receptivity of the stigma to pollination. We also report effective ways to accelerate the breeding cycle of S. viridis for research through the germination of mature as well as immature seeds in optimized culture media. We believe these findings will be of great interest to researchers using Setaria. PMID:25910193

  6. Radiation grafting of maleic anhydride onto polypropylene in solid state via ultrafine blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xiumin

    2014-05-01

    A novel method to prepare maleic anhydride grafting onto poly (propylene) (PP-g-MAH) was described. It was performed by γ-irradiation in solid state via ultrafine blend in the absence of any initiator and the grafting mechanism was proposed based on the experimental results. First, ultrafine blend of MAH and PP was prepared through ultrasonic initiation in melt state and then cooled rapidly. Second, the blend was radiated by γ-irradiation in the circumstance of atmosphere. Effects of irradiation dose and MAH concentration on the amount of grafted MAH were investigated. Compared with the conventional solid-state radiation grafting method, PP-g-MAH obtained via this method shows a higher graft rate of MAH. This novel method also has the advantages of solventless, energy efficient, low cost and simple operation. Furthermore, it is very easy to get purified products. The molecular structures of grafted copolymer were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscope were used to determine the degree of crystallinity and crystalline structure.

  7. Separation of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene using multidimensional high-temperature liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, K N; Macko, T; Brüll, R; Remerie, K; Tacx, J; Garg, P; Ginzburg, A

    2016-04-01

    Functionalization addresses a property gap of polyolefins and opens new perspectives due to improved surface properties in applications like composites (e.g., glass fiber reinforced polypropylene) and anti-corrosive coatings for metals. Various techniques have been developed to characterize functionalized polyolefins, yet no analytical approach addressing their chemical heterogeneity exists. Using High Temperature Size Exclusion Chromatography (HT-SEC) coupled to infrared spectroscopy we could show for two model samples of polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA), differing in their nominal MA content, that the grafting density increases with decreasing molar mass. Crystallization Analysis Fractionation (CRYSTAF) does not enable to separate these samples according to their composition to the extent required. Yet, when using High Temperature High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HT-HPLC), with either silica gel or Mica as stationary phase and a gradient mobile phase, a deformulation into a grafted and a non-grafted fraction could be achieved. This was confirmed by analyzing the eluted fractions by infrared spectroscopy. Hyphenating the separation according to composition with a separation according to molar mass (HT-HPLC x HT-SEC) enabled for the first time to reveal the bivariate distribution of PP-g-MA with regard to the molar mass and composition. Using on-line infrared detection quantitative information on the compositional and molar mass parameters of the individual fractions could be obtained. PMID:26961914

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic analysis of maleic hydrazide adsorbed on gold surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Can; Gu, Huaimin; Lv, Meng; He, Ruoyu; Zhang, Juling

    2014-03-25

    In this paper, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of maleic hydrazide (MH, 6-hydroxy-3(2H)-pyridazinone) were studied by using citrate-reduced gold colloidal nanoparticles. Comparisons between the prominent SERS bands and the precise mode descriptions predicted through density functional theory (DFT) simulations at the B3LYP/6-311++g(d,p) level allowed an in-depth orientation analysis of the adsorbed species on gold surfaces. And main forms of hydrogen bonds in the solid state of MH were also determined to be O-H⋯O. Furthermore, the effects of concentration and pH on the SERS spectra of the molecule were discussed. It is found that with the different adsorbate concentration, the SERS spectra of MH show significant changes in their features, indicating different orientations and adsorption sites of the molecule on the gold colloidal surface. The SERS and absorption spectra under different pH conditions show that a basic environment leads to the deprotonation of N2 and the nearly parallel orientation of the MH molecule on the gold surface. Moreover, the enhanced characteristic bands were observed at MH concentrations down to about 1 ppm with the gold colloids, demonstrating a potential of the technique in the analysis of MH residues. PMID:24295778

  9. The Use of Maleic Hydrazide for Effective Hybridization of Setaria viridis

    PubMed Central

    Rizal, Govinda; Karki, Shanta; Garcia, Richard; Larazo, Nikki; Alcasid, Michael; Quick, William Paul

    2015-01-01

    An efficient method for crossing green foxtail (Setaria viridis) is currently lacking. S. viridis is considered to be the new model plant for the study of C4 system in monocots and so an effective crossing protocol is urgently needed. S. viridis is a small grass with C4-NADP (ME) type of photosynthesis and has the advantage of having small genome of about 515 Mb, small plant stature, short life cycle, multiple tillers, and profuse seed set, and hence is an ideal model species for research. The objectives of this project were to develop efficient methods of emasculation and pollination, and to speed up generation advancement. We assessed the response of S. viridis flowers to hot water treatment (48°C) and to different concentrations of gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, maleic hydrazide (MH), and kinetin. We found that 500 μM of MH was effective in the emasculation of S. viridis, whilst still retaining the receptivity of the stigma to pollination. We also report effective ways to accelerate the breeding cycle of S. viridis for research through the germination of mature as well as immature seeds in optimized culture media. We believe these findings will be of great interest to researchers using Setaria. PMID:25910193

  10. Synthesis and characterization of new VPO catalysts for partial n-butane oxidation to maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Batis, N.H.; Batis, H. ); Ghorbell, A.; Vedrine, J.C.; Volta, J.C. )

    1991-03-01

    In order to try to control the V{sup 4+}/V{sup 5+} ratio of VPO catalysts for butane oxidation to maleic anhydride, a new method of preparation of these catalysts has been developed: it consists of the reaction of VC1{sub 3} (V{sup 3+}) with V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (V{sup 5+}) for the preparation of the precursor. Two series of catalysts have been prepared in aqueous and organic media. The V{sup 3+}/V{sup 5+} ratio has been varied and its influence on the physicochemical features and on the catalytic properties of the catalysts has been studied. The best catalysts in both preparation media correspond to V{sup 3+}/V{sup 5+} = 1 in the starting material. Catalysts have been characterized using X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, UV diffuse reflectance, Raman spectroscopy, {sup 31}P MAS NMR, and XPS techniques. The combination of all these techniques let the authors to conclude that the best catalyst consisted of an oxidized surface ({gamma}-VOPO{sub 4}) (V{sup 5+}) in interaction with reduced matrix ((VO){sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7}) (V{sup 4+}).

  11. Unique Curing Properties through Living Polymerization in Crosslinking Materials: Polyurethane Photopolymers from Vinyl Ether Building Blocks.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Stefan; Landfester, Katharina; Taden, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Photopolymers with unique curing capabilities were produced by combining living cationic polymerization with network formation and restricted polymer motion. A vinyl ether diol was synthesized as a functional building block and reacted with isophorone diisocyanate to form a highly functionalized vinyl ether polyurethane as a model system with high crosslinking ability. When using a cationic photoinitiator, fast polymerization is observed upon short UV irradiation. Curing proceeds in the absence of light and under ambient conditions without oxygen inhibition. Cationic active sites become trapped dormant species upon network-induced vitrification and surprisingly remain living for several days. The polymerization can be reactivated by additional UV irradiation and/or raised temperature. The curing behavior was studied in detail by using UV and FT-NIR coupled rheology and photo-DSC to simultaneously study spectroscopic and mechanical information, as well as thermal effects. PMID:25776255

  12. Biodegradable poly(ether ester urethane)urea elastomers based on poly(ether ester) triblock copolymers and putrescine: synthesis, characterization and cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jianjun; Sacks, Michael S; Beckman, Eric J; Wagner, William R

    2004-01-01

    Polymers with elastomeric mechanical properties, tunable biodegradation properties and cytocompatibility would be desirable for numerous biomedical applications. Toward this end a series of biodegradable poly(ether ester urethane)urea elastomers (PEEUUs) based on poly(ether ester) triblock copolymers were synthesized and characterized. Poly(ether ester) triblock copolymers were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone with polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEEUUs were synthesized from these triblock copolymers and butyl diisocyanate, with putrescine as a chain extender. PEEUUs exhibited low glass transition temperatures and possessed tensile strengths ranging from 8 to 20MPa and breaking strains from 325% to 560%. Increasing PEG length or decreasing poly(caprolactone) length in the triblock segment increased PEEUU water absorption and biodegradation rate. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured in a medium supplemented with PEEUU biodegradation solution suggested a lack of degradation product cytotoxicity. Endothelial cell adhesion to PEEUUs was less than 60% of tissue culture polystyrene and was inversely related to PEEUU hydrophilicity. Surface modification of PEEUUs with ammonia gas radio-frequency glow discharge and subsequent immobilization of the cell adhesion peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser increased endothelial adhesion to a level equivalent to tissue culture polystyrene. These biodegradable PEEUUs thus possessed properties that would be amenable to applications where high strength and flexibility would be desirable and exhibited the potential for tuning with appropriate triblock segment selection and surface modification. PMID:14580912

  13. Mutagenicity of aromatic glycidyl ethers with Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Rosman, L B; Chakraborty, P K; Messerly, E A; Sinsheimer, J E

    1988-09-01

    6 aromatic glycidyl ethers containing naphthyl, biphenyl or benzylphenyl substituents were synthesized. These epoxides together with the commercially available compounds 2-biphenylyl glycidyl ether were examined for dose-mutagenicity relationships using the plate incorporation Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA1535. Structure-mutagenicity relationships were further examined for these compounds and 3 phenyl glycidyl ethers by concurrent testing at a single dose with strain TA100. Meaningful correlations could not be established for the mutagenicity of these epoxides to their molecular volumes, partition values, nor to their reactivities with the model nucleophile, 4-(4-nitrobenzyl) pyridine. However, it was noted that increased conjugated aromatic unsaturation with its resulting planarity led to increased mutagenicity and that this effect decreased when it was further removed from the epoxide moiety. PMID:3045534

  14. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... diisocyanate. (2) List of substances: Adipic acid. 1,4-Butanediol. 1,3-Butylene glycol. 1,4-Cyclohexane.... Maleic anhydride. Methyl oxirane polymer with oxirane (CAS Reg. No. 9003-11-6). Methyl oxirane polymer... amine to the adipic acid less than 0.1 to 1. Poly(oxycarbonylpentamethylene). Polyoxypropylene ethers...

  15. Inhalation anaesthesia: from diethyl ether to xenon.

    PubMed

    Bovill, J G

    2008-01-01

    Modern anaesthesia is said to have began with the successful demonstration of ether anaesthesia by William Morton in October 1846, even though anaesthesia with nitrous oxide had been used in dentistry 2 years before. Anaesthesia with ether, nitrous oxide and chloroform (introduced in 1847) rapidly became commonplace for surgery. Of these, only nitrous oxide remains in use today. All modern volatile anaesthetics, with the exception of halothane (a fluorinated alkane), are halogenated methyl ethyl ethers. Methyl ethyl ethers are more potent, stable and better anaesthetics than diethyl ethers. They all cause myocardial depression, most markedly halothane, while isoflurane and sevoflurane cause minimal cardiovascular depression. The halogenated ethers also depress the normal respiratory response to carbon dioxide and to hypoxia. Other adverse effects include hepatic and renal damage. Hepatitis occurs most frequently with halothane, although rare cases have been reported with the other agents. Liver damage is not caused by the anaesthetics themselves, but by reactive metabolites. Type I hepatitis occurs fairly commonly and takes the form of a minor disturbance of liver enzymes, which usually resolves without treatment. Type II, thought to be immune-mediated, is rare, unpredictable and results in a severe fulminant hepatitis with a high mortality. Renal damage is rare, and was most often associated with methoxyflurane because of excessive plasma fluoride concentrations resulting from its metabolism. Methoxyflurane was withdrawn from the market because of the high incidence of nephrotoxicity. Among the contemporary anaesthetics, the highest fluoride concentrations have been reported with sevoflurane, but there are no reports of renal dysfunction associated with its use. Recently there has been a renewed interest in xenon, one of the noble gases. Xenon has many of the properties of an ideal anaesthetic. The major factor limiting its more widespread is the high cost, about

  16. 41. LOOKING WEST AT BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. LOOKING WEST AT BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, (LEFT) AND BUILDING NO. 521, ETHER VAULT, (RIGHT) IN FOREGROUND - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  17. 37. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING. BUILDING NO. 521 (ETHER VAULT) IN BACKGROUND LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  18. Crystalline imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Crystalline imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly)arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The block copolymers of the invention have one glass transition temperature or two, depending on the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these crystalline block copolymers for tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties. While all of the copolymers produced by the present invention are crystalline, testing reveals that copolymers with longer imide blocks or higher imide content have increased crystallinity.

  19. Vinyl ethers containing an epoxy group. XVI. Reaction of glycidol vinyloxyethyl ether with acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Nedolya, N.A.; Khil'ko, M.Ya.; Trofimov, B.A.; Sigalov, M.V.

    1988-10-10

    In order to obtain branched acetals with epoxide groups (prospective monomers and intermediates) the authors investigated the reaction of acetaldehyde diethyl and di(1,1,3-trihydrotetrafluoropropyl) acetals with glycidol vinyloxyethyl ether. The addition of acetals to vinyl epoxy ethers was realized, and the first representative of compounds of this type, i.e., 9-glycidyloxy-6-ethoxy-4-methyl-3,7-dioxanonane, was obtained. It was also impossible to add a fluoroacetal to butyl vinyl ether (0.08-1.00 wt. % of catalyst CF/sub 3/COOH, BF/sub 3//times/ OEt/sub 2/, 20-80/degree/C, 0.5-3 h).

  20. Synthesis of Fluorinated Polymers and Evaluation of Wettability.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tamami; Kasuya, Maria Carmelita; Hatanaka, Kenichi; Matsuoka, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Two kinds of fluorinated polymers were synthesized: an acrylate polymer having a fluorinated triethylene glycol as a pendant group (2a) and a fluoroalkyl acrylate polymer (2b). The contact angle of these fluorinated polymers against water, non-fluorinated alcohols and fluorinated alcohols were evaluated. As compared with the fluoroalkyl polymer (2b), fluoroethylene glycol polymer (2a) showed smaller contact angle against water and non-fluorinated alcohols. This supports the proposition that changing the alkyl chain into the ethylene glycol-type chain gave some interaction between etheric oxygen and water or non-fluorinated alcohols. In addition, fluoroalkyl acrylate polymer (2b) showed remarkably low values of critical surface tension. PMID:26999097

  1. Functional Aromatic Poly(1,3,4-Oxadiazole-Ether)s with Benzimidazole Pendants: Synthesis, Thermal and Dielectric Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Shimoga D.; Pai, Vasantakumar K.; Kariduraganavar, Mahadevappa Y.; Jayanna, Madhu B.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazole-ether) with reactive carboxylic acid pendants was synthesized from solution polymerization via nucleophilic displacement polycondensation among 2,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (BFPOx) and 4,4′-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) valeric acid (BHPA). Without altering the polymeric segments, benzimidazole modified poly(1,3,4-oxadiazole-ether)s were prepared by varying stoichiometric ratios of 1,2-phenylenediamine. The molecular structural characterization of these polymers was achieved by, FT-IR, NMR, TGA, elemental analysis, and analytical techniques. The weight-average molecular weight of virgin polymer with carboxylic acid functionality was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and was found to be 22400 (Mw/Mn = 2.07). All the synthesized polyethers were compressed into pellets and electrical contacts were established to perform dielectric properties. PMID:27437448

  2. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  3. New Development of Polymer-Based Cotton for Breathable Material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we converted the poly (ethylene oxide) dibromide to poly (ethylene oxide) diazides and reacted to study cycloaddition polymerization with bisphenol-A dipropargyl ether to produce elastomers compatible with cotton (Polymer Preprints, 2005, 46(1), 737-738). The reactants were characterized w...

  4. Preparation of soybean oil polymers with high molecular weight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cationic polymerization of soybean oils was initiated by boron trifluoride diethyl etherate BF3.O(C2H5)2 in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. The resulting polymers had molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gel perme...

  5. 39. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, LOOKING AT SOUTHWEST CORNER WITH BUILDING NO. 521, ETHER VAULT, AND BUILDING NO. 519-A, ETHER & ALOCOHL STORAGE TANKS, IN BACKGROUND RIGHT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  6. 40 CFR 721.10551 - Bisphenol S mono ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10551 Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol S mono ether (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10551 - Bisphenol S mono ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10551 Bisphenol S mono ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as bisphenol S mono ether (PMN...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3440 - Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers... Substances § 721.3440 Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers (PMN P-85-368 and...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520... Substances § 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3440 - Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers... Substances § 721.3440 Haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances haloalkyl substituted cyclic ethers (PMN P-85-368 and...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3438 - Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3438 Chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance... chlorohydroxyalkyl butyl ether (PMN P-99-1295) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers... Substances § 721.3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ethers (PMNs P-90-1844, P-90-1845, and P-90-1846) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3480 - Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers... Substances § 721.3480 Halogenated biphenyl glycidyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... ethers (PMNs P-90-1844, P-90-1845, and P-90-1846) are subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3486 - Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether... Substances § 721.3486 Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-nonylphenyl) ether (PMN P-94-2230) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3465 - Stilbene diglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stilbene diglycidyl ether. 721.3465... Substances § 721.3465 Stilbene diglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as stilbene diglycidyl ether (PMN P-96-1427) is subject...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721... Substances § 721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.3486 - Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether... Substances § 721.3486 Polyglycerin mono(4-nonylphenyl) ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-nonylphenyl) ether (PMN P-94-2230) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3430 - 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. 721.3430... Substances § 721.3430 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether (CAS No. 101-55-3) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3500 - Perhalo alkoxy ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Perhalo alkoxy ether. 721.3500 Section... Substances § 721.3500 Perhalo alkoxy ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as perhalo alkoxy ether (PMN P-83-1227)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3550 - Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. 721... Substances § 721.3550 Dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as dipropylene glycol dimethyl ether (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3420 - Brominated arylalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brominated arylalkyl ether. 721.3420... Substances § 721.3420 Brominated arylalkyl ether. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as brominated arylalkyl ether (P-83-906)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3500 - Perhalo alkoxy ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Perhalo alkoxy ether. 721.3500 Section... Substances § 721.3500 Perhalo alkoxy ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as perhalo alkoxy ether (PMN P-83-1227)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10069 - Ether amine phosphonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10069 Ether amine phosphonate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ether amine phosphonate (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3430 - 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. 721.3430... Substances § 721.3430 4-Bromophenyl phenyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance 4-bromophenyl phenyl ether (CAS No. 101-55-3) is subject to...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3520 - Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. 721.3520... Substances § 721.3520 Aliphatic polyglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance aliphatic polyglycidyl ether (PMN P-89-1036) is subject...

  8. Alkyl Aryl Ether Bond Formation with PhenoFluor**

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao; Neumann, Constanze N.; Kleinlein, Claudia; Claudia, Nathaniel W.; Ritter, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    An alkyl aryl ether bond formation reaction between phenols and primary and secondary alcohols with PhenoFluor has been developed. The reaction features a broad substrate scope and tolerates many functional groups, and substrates that are challenging for more conventional ether bond forming processes may be coupled. A preliminary mechanistic study indicates reactivity distinct from conventional ether bond formation. PMID:25800679

  9. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each molasses-based block contains 2.2 percent polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether. (b) Sponsor. See No. 067949 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks....

  10. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each molasses-based block contains 2.2 percent polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether. (b) Sponsor. See No. 067949 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks....

  11. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each molasses-based block contains 2.2 percent polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether. (b) Sponsor. See No. 067949 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks....

  12. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. (a) Specifications. Each molasses-based block contains 2.2 percent polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether. (b) Sponsor. See No. 067949 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks....

  13. Transgene Delivery using Poly(amino ether)-Gold Nanorod Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, James; Rege, Kaushal

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) have emerged as promising nanomaterials for biosensing, imaging, photothermal treatment and therapeutic delivery for several diseases, including cancer. We have generated poly(amino ether)-functionalized gold nanorods (PAE-GNRs) using a layer-by-layer deposition approach; polymers from a poly(amino ether) library recently synthesized in our laboratory were employed to generate the PAE-GNR assemblies. PAE-GNR assemblies demonstrate long-term colloidal stability as well as the capacity to bind plasmid DNA by means of electrostatic interactions. Sub-toxic concentrations of PAE-GNRs were employed to deliver plasmid DNA to prostate cancer cells in vitro. PAE-GNRs generated using 1,4C-1,4Bis, a cationic polymer from our laboratory demonstrated significantly higher transgene expression and exhibited lower cytotoxicities when compared to similar assemblies generated using 25 kDa poly(ethylene imine) (PEI25k-GNRs), a current standard for polymer-mediated gene delivery. The roles of polyelectrolyte chemistry and zeta-potential in determining transgene expression efficacies of PAE-GNR assemblies were investigated. Our results indicate that stable and effective PAE-GNR assemblies are a promising engineered platform for transgene delivery. PAE-GNRs also have the potential to be used simultaneously for photothermal ablation, photothermally enhanced drug and gene delivery, and biological imaging, thus making them a powerful theranostic platform. PMID:22170455

  14. Discovery of Antibiotics-derived Polymers for Gene Delivery using Combinatorial Synthesis and Cheminformatics Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Potta, Thrimoorthy; Zhen, Zhuo; Grandhi, Taraka Sai Pavan; Christensen, Matthew D.; Ramos, James; Breneman, Curt M.; Rege, Kaushal

    2014-01-01

    We describe the combinatorial synthesis and cheminformatics modeling of aminoglycoside antibiotics-derived polymers for transgene delivery and expression. Fifty-six polymers were synthesized by polymerizing aminoglycosides with diglycidyl ether cross-linkers. Parallel screening resulted in identification of several lead polymers that resulted in high transgene expression levels in cells. The role of polymer physicochemical properties in determining efficacy of transgene expression was investigated using Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) cheminformatics models based on Support Vector Regression (SVR) and ‘building block’ polymer structures. The QSAR model exhibited high predictive ability, and investigation of descriptors in the model, using molecular visualization and correlation plots, indicated that physicochemical attributes related to both, aminoglycosides and diglycidyl ethers facilitated transgene expression. This work synergistically combines combinatorial synthesis and parallel screening with cheminformatics-based QSAR models for discovery and physicochemical elucidation of effective antibiotics-derived polymers for transgene delivery in medicine and biotechnology. PMID:24331709

  15. Review of glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents used in the coating industry.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R L

    1984-01-01

    Ethylene oxide-based glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents have been used in the coatings industry for the past fifty years. Because of their excellent performance properties (evaporation rate, blush resistance, flow-out and leveling properties, solubility for coating resins, solvent activity, mild odor, good coupling ability, good solvent release) a complete line of ethylene oxide-based solvents of various molecular weights has been developed. These glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents have better solvent activity for coating resin than ester or ketone solvents in their evaporation rate range. The gloss, flow and leveling, and general performance properties of many coating systems are dependent on the use of these products in the coating formula. Because of the concern about the toxicity of certain ethylene oxide-based solvents, other products are being evaluated as replacements in coating formulas. PMID:6499793

  16. Volatility and oxidative aging of aqueous maleic acid aerosol droplets and the dependence on relative humidity.

    PubMed

    Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Marshall, Frances H; Miles, Rachael E H; Preston, Thomas C; Reid, Jonathan P

    2014-07-31

    The microphysical structure and heterogeneous oxidation by ozone of single aerosol particles containing maleic acid (MA) has been studied using aerosol optical tweezers and cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The evaporation rate of MA from aqueous droplets has been measured over a range of relative humidities and the pure component vapor pressure determined to be (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10(-3) Pa. Variation in the refractive index (RI) of an aqueous MA droplet with relative humidity (RH) allowed the subcooled liquid RI of MA to be estimated as 1.481 ± 0.001. Measurements of the hygroscopic growth are shown to be consistent with equilibrium model predictions from previous studies. Simultaneous measurements of the droplet composition, size, and refractive index have been made during ozonolysis at RHs in the range 50-80%, providing insight into the volatility of organic products, changes in the droplet hygroscopicity, and optical properties. Exposure of the aqueous droplets to ozone leads to the formation of products with a wide range of volatilities spanning from involatile to volatile. Reactive uptake coefficients show a weak dependence on ozone concentration, but no dependence on RH or salt concentration. The time evolving RI depends significantly on the RH at which the oxidation proceeds and can even show opposing trends; while the RI increases with ozone exposure at low relative humidity, the RI decreases when the oxidation proceeds at high relative humidity. The variations in RI are broadly consistent with a framework for predicting RIs for organic components published by Cappa et al. ( J. Geophys. Res. 2011 , 116 , D15204 ). Once oxidized, particles are shown to form amorphous phases on drying rather than crystallization, with slow evaporation kinetics of residual water. PMID:25003240

  17. Chitosan-tethered poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) hollow fiber membrane for lipase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Ye, Peng; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Che, Ai-Fu; Wu, Jian; Seta, Patrick

    2005-11-01

    A protocol was used to prepare a dual-layer biomimetic membrane as support for enzyme immobilization by tethering chitosan on the surface of poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) (PANCMA) ultrafiltration hollow fiber membrane in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxylsuccin-imide (NHS). The chemical change of the chitosan-modified PANCMA membrane surface was confirmed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Lipase from Candida rugosa was immobilized on this dual-layer biomimetic membrane using glutaraldehyde (GA), and on the nascent PANCMA membrane using EDC/NHS as coupling agent. The properties of the immobilized enzymes were assayed and compared with those of the free one. It was found that both the activity retention of the immobilized lipase and the amount of bound protein on the dual-layer biomimetic membrane (44.5% and 66.5 mg/m2) were higher than those on the nascent PANCMA membrane (33.9% and 53.7 mg/m2). The kinetic parameters of the free and immobilized lipases, Km and Vmax, were also assayed. The Km values were similar for the immobilized lipases, while the Vmax value of the immobilized lipase on the dual-layer biomimetic membrane was higher than that on the nascent PANCMA membrane. Results indicated that the pH and thermal stabilities of lipase increased upon immobilization. The residual activity of the immobilized lipase after 10 uses was 53% on the dual-layer biomimetic membrane and 62% on the nascent PANCMA membrane. PMID:15919112

  18. Nanofibrous poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) membranes functionalized with gelatin and chitosan for lipase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Ye, Peng; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Wu, Jian; Innocent, Christophe; Seta, Patrick

    2006-08-01

    Nanofibrous membranes with an average diameter of 100 and 180 nm were fabricated from poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) (PANCMA) by the electrospinning process. These nanofibrous membranes contain reactive groups which can be used to covalently immobilize biomacromolecules. Two natural macromolecules, chitosan and gelatin, were tethered on these nanofibrous membranes to fabricate dual-layer biomimetic supports for enzyme immobilization in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(dimethyl-aminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS). Lipase from Candida rugosa was then immobilized on these dual-layer biomimetic supports using glutaraldehyde (GA), and on the nascent PANCMA fibrous membrane using EDC/NHS as coupling agent, respectively. The properties of the immobilized lipases were assayed. It was found that there is an increase of the activity retention of the immobilized lipase on the chitosan-modified nanofibrous membrane (45.6+/-1.8%) and on the gelatin-modified one (49.7+/-1.8%), compared to that on the nascent one (37.6+/-1.8%). The kinetic parameters of the free and immobilized lipases, K(m) and V(max), were also assayed. In comparison with the immobilized lipase on the nascent nanofibrous membrane, there is an increase of the V(max) value for the immobilized lipases on the chitosan- and gelatin-modified nanofibrous membranes. Results also indicate that the pH and thermal stabilities of lipases increase upon immobilization. The residual activities of the immobilized lipases are 55% on the chitosan-modified nanofibrous membrane and 60% on the gelatin-modified one, after 10 uses. PMID:16584770

  19. Anticlastogenic effect of Spirulina maxima extract on the micronuclei induced by maleic hydrazide in Tradescantia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Flores, L Elvia; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo; Salazar, María; Chamorro, Germán

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine if extracts of Spirulina maxima reduce the genotoxic damage induced by maleic hydrazide (MH) using the Tradescantia biosssay. Two types of extracts from the alga were prepared: an aqueous extract with two different concentrations, 100 and 500 mg/ml, and a second one, the extract of a 1% solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which corresponded to 100 mg/ml of the alga. The capacity of MH to induce micronuclei (MN) was initially established by administering 0.005, 0.01, and 0.015 mg/ml of the chemical to the Tradescantia inflorescences, and observing its effect after 24 h.The results of this experiment showed a significant MN increase with the two high concentrations tested, although no dose-response effect was observed. For the anticlastogenic assay, the extracts of Spirulina were applied to the inflorescences alone or immediately before the application of MH (0.01 mg/ml) and the induced MN were observed 24 h later. We found that none of the extracts increased the MN level with respect to the untreated plants; also, that MH more or less doubled the basal micronuclei frequency, and finally, that all tested extracts reduced the genotoxic damage caused by MH. The inhibitory indices obtained for the aqueous extracts (100 and 500 mg/ml) and for the DMSO extract were respectively 59, 85, and 56.3%. These data indicate that Spirulina is an anticlastogenic agent and suggest that it is advisable to extend studies on this matter using other biological models. PMID:12527032

  20. Synthesis and therapeutic effect of styrene–maleic acid copolymer-conjugated pirarubicin

    PubMed Central

    Tsukigawa, Kenji; Liao, Long; Nakamura, Hideaki; Fang, Jun; Greish, Khaled; Otagiri, Masaki; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we prepared a pirarubicin (THP)-encapsulated micellar drug using styrene–maleic acid copolymer (SMA) as the drug carrier, in which active THP was non-covalently encapsulated. We have now developed covalently conjugated SMA-THP (SMA-THP conjugate) for further investigation toward clinical development, because covalently linked polymer–drug conjugates are known to be more stable in circulation than drug-encapsulated micelles. The SMA-THP conjugate also formed micelles and showed albumin binding capacity in aqueous solution, which suggested that this conjugate behaved as a macromolecule during blood circulation. Consequently, SMA-THP conjugate showed significantly prolonged circulation time compared to free THP and high tumor-targeting efficiency by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. As a result, remarkable antitumor effect was achieved against two types of tumors in mice without apparent adverse effects. Significantly, metastatic lung tumor also showed the EPR effect, and this conjugate reduced metastatic tumor in the lung almost completely at 30 mg/kg once i.v. (less than one-fifth of the maximum tolerable dose). Although SMA-THP conjugate per se has little cytotoxicity in vitro (1/100 of free drug THP), tumor-targeted accumulation by the EPR effect ensures sufficient drug concentrations in tumor to produce an antitumor effect, whereas toxicity to normal tissues is much less. These findings suggest the potential of SMA-THP conjugate as a highly favorable candidate for anticancer nanomedicine with good stability and tumor-targeting properties in vivo. PMID:25529761

  1. Distribution of ether in two postmortem cases.

    PubMed

    Cox, Dawn; DeRienz, Rebecca; Jufer Phipps, Rebecca A; Levine, Barry; Jacobs, Aaron; Fowler, David

    2006-10-01

    Diethyl ether (ether) is a volatile liquid that was used in the 1800s as an anesthetic agent; however, it is no longer used for this purpose, partly because of its odor and flammability. Two postmortem cases in which ether was detected are presented. The first case was an 18-year-old male found hanging from a basement ceiling brace in a semi-sitting position with a gas mask covering his face. A container of Prestone starting fluid and a bong were found on the floor close to the body. The second case was a 20-year-old male found unresponsive in his dormitory room with two black plastic trash bags secured over his head. Two saturated rags and a resealable bag containing a clear liquid were contained within these trash bags. An almost empty can of Tradco starting fluid was also found at the scene. Ether concentrations were determined by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selective ion monitoring mode. In case #1, the medical examiner ruled that the cause of death was asphyxia due to hanging; the manner of death was undetermined. In case #2, the medical examiner ruled that the cause of death was asphyxia and the manner of death was suicide. PMID:17132265

  2. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI CATFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

  3. Elastic electron scattering by ethyl vinyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Khakoo, M. A.; Hong, L.; Kim, B.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2010-02-15

    We report measured and calculated results for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by ethyl vinyl ether (ethoxyethene), a prototype system for studying indirect dissociative attachment processes that may play a role in DNA damage. The integral cross section displays the expected {pi}{sup *} shape resonance. The agreement between the calculated and measured cross sections is generally good.

  4. The introduction of ether in Paris revisited.

    PubMed

    Defalque, Ray J; Wright, A J

    2008-04-01

    Modern accounts of the introduction of ether anesthesia in France are mainly based on a letter written in February 1947 to the editor of the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal by Francis Willis Fisher, a young Boston surgeon at that time a student in Paris. Fisher's letter hints that his efforts were the main impetus to the acceptance of ether by the French academic surgeons. The authors have reviewed the contemporary medical literature, especially the numerous French journals, relative to that event. Their review suggests that Fisher was largely ignored by the French surgeons and by his young competitors then studying in Paris. He seems to have exaggerated his role in the acceptance of ether anesthesia in France. The reviewed literature also provides some additional details and some corrections to Fisher's account. Modern accounts of the introduction of ether in France have relied heavily on a letter sent in February 1847 to the editor of the Boston Medical & Surgical Journal by Francis W. Fisher, a young Boston physician then studying in Paris. Fisher's report is often vague, occasionally incorrect, and probably exaggerates his role in the acceptance of anesthesia in Paris. This review attempts to complement and correct Fisher's account. PMID:20506770

  5. "Crown Ether" Synthesis: An Organic Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kurt W.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This experiment is designed to acquaint the student with a macromolecular synthesis of a crown ether type compound. The starting materials are readily available and the product, a cyclic polyether, belongs to a class of compounds that has aroused the interest of chemist and biologist alike. (Author/BB)

  6. Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( 2 - chloro - 1 - methylethyl ) ether ; CASRN 108 - 60 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  7. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl tert - butyl ether ( MTBE ) ; CASRN 1634 - 04 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  8. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) (2-Butoxyethanol)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether ( EGBE ) ( 2 - Butoxyethanol ) ; CASRN 111 - 76 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I (

  9. Biomonitoring Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lactating Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen for biomonitoring lipid-soluble polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The goal of this project was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk of lactating women from the Seacoast region of New Hampshire and to examine potential relationships betw...

  10. Dimensionally Stable Ether-Containing Polyimide Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Catharine C. (Inventor); St.Clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Novel polyimide copolymers containing ether linkages were prepared by the reaction of an equimolar amount of dianhydride and a combination of diamines. The polyimide copolymers described herein possess the unique features of low moisture uptake, dimensional stability, good mechanical properties, and moderate glass transition temperatures. These materials have potential application as encapsulants and interlayer dielectrics.

  11. Imide/arylene ether block copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Two series of imide/arylene either block copolymers were prepared using an arylene ether block and either an amorphous or semi-crystalline imide block. The resulting copolymers were characterized and selected physical and mechanical properties were determined. These results, as well as comparisons to the homopolymer properties, are discussed.

  12. Maleic Acid – but Not Structurally Related Methylmalonic Acid – Interrupts Energy Metabolism by Impaired Calcium Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bei-Tzu; Okun, Jürgen Günther; Kölker, Stefan; Morath, Marina Alexandra; Sauer, Sven Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Maleic acid (MA) has been shown to induce Fanconi syndrome via disturbance of renal energy homeostasis, though the underlying pathomechanism is still under debate. Our study aimed to examine the pathomechanism underlying maleic acid-induced nephrotoxicity. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is structurally similar to MA and accumulates in patients affected with methymalonic aciduria, a defect in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids, odd-chain fatty acids and cholesterol, which is associated with the development of tubulointerstitial nephritis resulting in chronic renal failure. We therefore used MMA application as a control experiment in our study and stressed hPTECs with MA and MMA to further validate the specificity of our findings. MMA did not show any toxic effects on proximal tubule cells, whereas maleic acid induced concentration-dependent and time-dependent cell death shown by increased lactate dehydrogenase release as well as ethidium homodimer and calcein acetoxymethyl ester staining. The toxic effect of MA was blocked by administration of single amino acids, in particular L-alanine and L-glutamate. MA application further resulted in severe impairment of cellular energy homeostasis on the level of glycolysis, respiratory chain, and citric acid cycle resulting in ATP depletion. As underlying mechanism we could identify disturbance of calcium homeostasis. MA toxicity was critically dependent on calcium levels in culture medium and blocked by the extra- and intracellular calcium chelators EGTA and BAPTA-AM respectively. Moreover, MA-induced cell death was associated with activation of calcium-dependent calpain proteases. In summary, our study shows a comprehensive pathomechanistic concept for MA-induced dysfunction and damage of human proximal tubule cells. PMID:26086473

  13. Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

    2011-05-01

    Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

  14. Catalytic effect of gallium chloride in the diels-alder reaction between maleic anhydride and its derivatives and unsubstituted and substituted anthracenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, V.D.; Konovalov, A.I.; Shakirov, I.M.

    1985-11-10

    The stability of n, v complexes between gallium chloride and unsubstituted and substituted maleic anhydrides was determined in benzene by a thermochemical method; it was shown that the stability of the complexes decreases in the transition from maleic anhydrides with electron-donating substituents to maleic anhydrides with electron-withdrawing substituents. The reactivity of these dienophiles in the uncatalyzed Diels-Alder reactions with unsubstituted and substituted anthracenes in benzene and in the reactions catalyzed by gallium chloride was studied. The reactivity of the dienophiles varies similarly in the reactions with the investigated dienes, and this rules out treatment of steric hindrances as the reason for the reduced reactivity of the substituted dienophiles. A decrease in the catalytic effect was observed for the unreactive diene-dienophile pairs.

  15. Attachment and phospholipase A2-induced lysis of phospholipid bilayer vesicles to plasma-polymerized maleic anhydride/SiO2 multilayers.

    PubMed

    Chifen, Anye N; Förch, Renate; Knoll, Wolfgang; Cameron, Petra J; Khor, Hwei L; Williams, Thomas L; Jenkins, A Toby A

    2007-05-22

    This article describes a method by which intact vesicles can be chemically attached to hydrolyzed maleic anhydride films covalently bound to plasma-polymerized SiO2 on Au substrates. Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) combined with surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) was used to monitor the activation of plasma-deposited maleic anhydride (pp-MA) film with EDC/NHS and the subsequent coupling of lipid vesicles. The vesicles were formed from a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipids, with a water-soluble fluorophore encapsulated within. Vesicle attachment was measured in real time on plasma films formed under different pulse conditions (plasma duty cycle). Optimum vesicle attachment was observed on the pp-MA films containing the highest density of maleic anhydride groups. Phospholipase A2 was used to lyse the surface-bound vesicles and to release the encapsulated fluorophore. PMID:17447800

  16. Relaxation behavior of polymers through the study of oligomer model compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezquerra, T. A.

    2000-06-01

    The relaxation behavior of a series of ether-ketone oligomers was studied by means of dielectric spectroscopy. In order to isolate chain stiffness from other intermolecular factors, we studied chemically homogeneous, strictly monodisperse, low molecular weight ether-ketone model compounds. The dynamics of the α relaxation of ether-ketone model compounds as compared with that of the homologous polymer PEKK (50/50), shows up differences which can be attributed to the variation of inter and intra molecular correlations with the chain length. Model compounds exhibit a nearly similar degree of cooperativity regardless the differences in Tg values. The PEKK(50/50) polymer exhibits stronger cooperativity than the oligomers suggesting that in poly(ether-ketone-ketone)s molecular motions above Tg extend to more than one monomeric unit. .

  17. Importance of relative humidity in the oxidative ageing of organic aerosols: case study of the ozonolysis of maleic acid aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallimore, P. J.; Achakulwisut, P.; Pope, F. D.; Davies, J. F.; Spring, D. R.; Kalberer, M.

    2011-12-01

    Many important atmospheric aerosol processes depend on the chemical composition of the aerosol, e.g. water uptake and particle cloud interactions. Atmospheric ageing processes, such as oxidation reactions, significantly and continuously change the chemical composition of aerosol particles throughout their lifetime. These ageing processes are often poorly understood. In this study we utilize an aerosol flow tube set up and an ultra-high resolution mass spectrometer to explore the effect of relative humidity (RH) in the range of <5-90% on the ozonolysis of maleic acid aerosol which is employed as model organic aerosol system. Due to the slow reaction kinetics relatively high ozone concentrations of 160-200 ppm were used to achieve an appreciable degree of oxidation of maleic acid. The effect of oxidative ageing on the hygroscopicity of maleic acid particles is also investigated using an electrodynamic balance and thermodynamic modelling. RH has a profound effect on the oxidation of maleic acid particles. Very little oxidation is observed at RH < 50% and the only observed reaction products are glyoxylic acid and formic acid. In comparison, when RH > 50% there are about 15 oxidation products identified. This increased oxidation was observed even when the particles were exposed to high humidities long after a low RH ozonolysis reaction. This result might have negative implications for the use of water as an extraction solvent for the analysis of oxidized organic aerosols. These humidity-dependent differences in the composition of the ozonolyzed aerosol demonstrate that water is both a key reactant in the oxidation scheme and a determinant of particle phase and hence diffusivity. The measured chemical composition of the processed aerosol is used to model the hygroscopic growth, which compares favourably with water uptake results from the electrodynamic balance measurements. A reaction mechanism is presented which takes into account the RH dependent observations. This

  18. Model vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen catalysts for the selective oxidation of C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons to maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, T.P.

    1987-06-01

    Two model vanadium-phosphorus-oxygen catalysts, ..beta..-VOPO/sub 4/ and (VO)/sub 2/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/, were investigated for the selective oxidation of C/sub 4/ hydrocarbons to maleic anhydride. In situ laser Raman spectroscopy was used. Complementary techniques including x-ray powder diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used for characterization of the fresh and used catalytic materials. The direct observation of phase stability and the participation of lattice oxygen during catalysis was possible using the in situ Raman technique. In particular, ..beta..-VOPO/sub 4/ and (VO)/sub 2/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ demonstrated bulk structural integrity during n-butane oxidation. The relatively greater reducing capacity of 1-butene induced the ..beta..-VOPO/sub 4/ to (VO)/sub 2/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/ phase transformation. Direct structural identification of catalytically active centers for paraffin and olefin oxidation were investigated using an /sup 18/O-enriched ..beta..-VOPO/sub 4/ phase catalyst. Active sites responsible for complete combustion (Site I) and selective oxidation (Site II) were identified. The selective route for 1-butene oxidation involved predominantly Site II centers, while Site I centers were associated with complete combustion. In contrast, n-butane oxidation required the highly active Site I centers for initial activation and for the formation of an intermediate containing two oxygen atoms. Raman band assignments indicated these oxygen sites were associated with PO/sub 4/ units in the ..beta..-VOPO/sub 4/ lattice. Maleic anhydride conversion was particularly sensitive to the catalytic phase present. Significant combustion activity was observed when maleic anhydride was fed directly to an integral flow reactor charged with model catalysts. The combustion activity was least for (VO)/sub 2/P/sub 2/O/sub 7/, nominally a V(IV) phase. The ..beta..-VOPO/sub 4/ catalyst, nominally a V(V) phase, resulted in increased conversions of maleic anhydride.

  19. Polyaryl ethers and related polysiloxane copolymer molecular coatings preparation and radiation degrdation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, J. E.; Hedrick, J. L.; Webster, D. C.; Johnson, B. C.; Mohanty, D. K.; Yilgor, I.

    1983-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether sulfones) comprise a class of materials known as engineering thermoplastics which have a variety of important applications. These polymers are tough, rigid materials with good mechanical properties over a wide temperature range, and they are processed by conventional methods into products typically having excellent hydrolytic, thermal, oxidative and dimensional stability. Wholly aromatic random copolymers of hydroquinone and biphenol with 4.4 prime dichlorodiphenyl sulfone were synthesized via mechanical nucleophilic displacement. Their structures were characterized and mechanical behavior studied. These tough, ductile copolymers show excellent radiation resistance to electron beam treatment and retain much of the mechanical properties up to at least 700 Mrads under argon.

  20. Polyaryl ethers and related polysiloxane copolymer molecular coatings preparation and radiation degradation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mcgrath, J.E.; Hedrick, J.L.; Webster, D.C.; Johnson, B.C.; Mohanty, D.K.; Yilgor, I.

    1983-06-01

    Poly(arylene ether sulfones) comprise a class of materials known as engineering thermoplastics which have a variety of important applications. These polymers are tough, rigid materials with good mechanical properties over a wide temperature range, and they are processed by conventional methods into products typically having excellent hydrolytic, thermal, oxidative and dimensional stability. Wholly aromatic random copolymers of hydroquinone and biphenol with 4.4 prime dichlorodiphenyl sulfone were synthesized via mechanical nucleophilic displacement. Their structures were characterized and mechanical behavior studied. These tough, ductile copolymers show excellent radiation resistance to electron beam treatment and retain much of the mechanical properties up to at least 700 Mrads under argon.