Science.gov

Sample records for ethical aspects

  1. Ethical aspects of surrogacy.

    PubMed

    Walters, W A

    1989-08-01

    Ethical issues related to surrogacy are explored and an argument made for its ethical approval in circumstances where the particularities of the case warrant this approach to reproduction. Despite recent and impending legislation to prohibit commercial surrogacy in some States of Australia, although data are difficult to obtain, unofficial and anecdotal reports from medical practitioners specializing in the management of infertility throughout the country indicate an increasing number of requests for surrogacy and increasing referral of infertile couples to the USA for commercial surrogacy arrangements. PMID:2619681

  2. [Ethical aspects of biotechnology].

    PubMed

    de Jong, O J

    1987-01-15

    The relationship between man and animals usually receives little if any attention in ethics. Albert Schweitzer and his 'reverence for life' (1923) was the only exception. The rapid and recent developments of biotechnological possibilities in the field of veterinary medicine have so far not been considered from the point of view of ethics. In agreement with Schweitzer, Karl Barth (1951) stressed the principle of life which man and animals have in common. Passages in the Bible attribute one and the same 'life' ('soul') to both (Book of Proverbs 12: 10) and presuppose 'salvation' or 'preservation' of the two (Psalm 36:7c). Human responsibility in associating with this related species will therefore have to be apparent from careful maintenance of the conditions of this form of life, in research as well as in management. PMID:3824339

  3. [Hospital infection--ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Hossne, W S

    1995-01-01

    The author focuses the question of hospital infection, analysing the background on which the control committees were created. The hospital infection is discussed under bioethical principles and the Medical Ethics Code, examining the aspects related to the government, the Hospital Directorship, the Committee and the Control Service of Hospital Infection, and the assisting physician. A closer integration between the activities of the Program of Control of Hospital Infections and those of the Medical Ethics Committee is proposed, aiming at the patient and at the community, "targets of total medical attention". PMID:7550409

  4. [Animal experiments: legal, scientific and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Houvenaghel, A

    2000-01-01

    Among the legal aspects the following topics are treated: the definitions of an experimental animal, an animal experiment and alternative methods with special reference to the 3 R's (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments); the qualifications, education and training of researchers and animal technicians; the licence for animal experimentation; the control on animal welfare; the origin and identification of experimental animals; statistical data on the number of experimental animals; ethics committees and their structure and functions in The Netherlands and Flanders. Extrapolation, species specificity and variability are the most important scientific limitations of animal experimentation. After a short historical survey on the man-animal relation, the following ethical aspects are discussed: the instrumental versus intrinsic value of an experimental animal; the hybrid status of the animal; the objectives of animal rights movements; the balance between the human benefit of an animal experiment and the discomfort for the animal; the problem of animal rights and animal suffering and pain. PMID:10818819

  5. Surrogacy: ethical, legal, and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Bromham, D R

    1995-09-01

    In considering the interrelated ethical, legal and social aspects of surrogacy we acknowledge that society has long accepted the delegation of various parenteral functions and explore the role of a surrogate in relationship to this as well as alluding to commoner comparisons with prostitution and adultery. In particular, the "birth mother" rule, the public antipathy to "commercial" surrogacy and restrictive legislation are explored and found to be inappropriate. It is concluded that the regulation, surveillance and assessment needed to ensure the best outcome for all concerned would perhaps be easiest achieved in programmes that are formally licensed under permissive legislation and adequately funded by "commercial" means. PMID:8589569

  6. [Interfamilial violence, medicolegal and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Beauthier, J P

    2010-09-01

    Domestic or interfamilial violence--which is certainly not confined to disadvantaged social or cultural classes--is a process in which one partner carries against his spouse within the framework of private and privileged relationship (marriage, cohabitation, etc.), aggressive, violent and destructive behavior. All sectors of society are affected, whether urban or rural, and regardless of education or ethnic origin or religion. Such violence particularly affects women, but there are also violence perpetrated against men. This violence can take many forms, but we will only consider here the forensic clinical aspects, emphasizing the relevant legislation and medical ethics. PMID:21089423

  7. Ethical aspects of paternal preconception lifestyle modification.

    PubMed

    van der Zee, Boukje; de Wert, Guido; Steegers, Eric A; de Beaufort, Inez D

    2013-07-01

    This Clinical Opinion points to a potential conflict between the scarcity of evidence on paternal preconception risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes and the view that preconception care should be also directed at men. We argue that from an ethical perspective, responsible fatherhood starts already before conception, as long as the evidence increases on the benefits of paternal preconception lifestyle (modification). Our explorative study suggests that the strength of the evidence for paternal preconception lifestyle modification is important for men. We argue that 5 aspects together determine the moral responsibility of prospective fathers to modify their behavior: the strength of the evidence of the risk factor, the modifiability of the risk, the efforts necessary to eliminate or diminish the risk factor, the severity of harm, and the probability that harm will occur and that it will be prevented by modifying the risk factor. The case of paternal preconception smoking illustrates the analysis. PMID:23313726

  8. Teaching the Ethical Aspects of Environmental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental and societal issues are often inherently linked, especially in coastal and estuarine environments, and science and social values must often be balanced in ecosystem management and decision-making. A new seminar course has been developed for the Marine Estuarine and Environmental Science (MEES) graduate program, an inter-institutional program within the University System of Maryland, to examine these issues. This 1-credit course, offered for the first time in Spring 2015, takes a complex systems perspective on major environmental and societal challenges to examine these linked issues in a variety of contexts. After a brief introduction to the emerging field of "geoethics," students develop a list of issues to examine throughout the seminar. Example topics could include fracking, offshore wind technology, dam removal, and iron fertilization, among others. A case-study approach is taken, with each class meeting focusing on one issue. For each case study, students are asked to 1) identify relevant scientific principles and major knowledge gaps, 2) predict potential outcomes, 3) identify stakeholders and likely viewpoints, and 4) construct communication plans to disseminate findings to these stakeholders. At the end of the semester, students give a brief presentation of the ethical aspects of their own research topics.

  9. Publication aspects of ethics in photogrammetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Morris M.

    1991-01-01

    According to the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the principles on which ethics are founded consist of honesty, justice, and courtesy, forming a moral philosophy associated with mutual interest among men. We will cover in particular the ethical problems of publication of photogrammetric material in the various media. There are many such problems, and we often face a dilemma in selecting a course which is the right thing to do.

  10. Ethical Aspects of Spirituality in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Rheta LeAnne; Engels, Dennis; Thweatt, W. Tom, III

    2006-01-01

    The authors review the professional literature related to spirituality and ethics in counseling. The American Counseling Association's (1995, 2005) code of ethics was used as a basis for exploring the possibilities and limits/ boundaries appropriate for discussion of spirituality in counseling. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  11. Ethical aspects of malaria control and research.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; de la Fuente-Núñez, Vânia; Reis, Andreas; Ringwald, Pascal; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Malaria currently causes more harm to human beings than any other parasitic disease, and disproportionally affects low-income populations. The ethical issues raised by efforts to control or eliminate malaria have received little explicit analysis, in comparison with other major diseases of poverty. While some ethical issues associated with malaria are similar to those that have been the subject of debate in the context of other infectious diseases, malaria also raises distinct ethical issues in virtue of its unique history, epidemiology, and biology. This paper provides preliminary ethical analyses of the especially salient issues of: (i) global health justice, (ii) universal access to malaria control initiatives, (iii) multidrug resistance, including artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistance, (iv) mandatory screening, (v) mass drug administration, (vi) benefits and risks of primaquine, and (vii) malaria in the context of blood donation and transfusion. Several ethical issues are also raised by past, present and future malaria research initiatives, in particular: (i) controlled infection studies, (ii) human landing catches, (iii) transmission-blocking vaccines, and (iv) genetically-modified mosquitoes. This article maps the terrain of these major ethical issues surrounding malaria control and elimination. Its objective is to motivate further research and discussion of ethical issues associated with malaria--and to assist health workers, researchers, and policy makers in pursuit of ethically sound malaria control practice and policy. PMID:26693920

  12. Ethical and legal aspects of oncogenomics.

    PubMed

    Stankov, K; Draskovic, D; Mikov, M

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the genes and cellular pathways that play fundamental roles in several diseases, and the understanding of many diseases at a molecular level due to the advances in the field of genomics, have revolutionized the diagnosis, therapy and prevention of human diseases. Application of genetic testing in numerous medical fields, including pharmacogenomics and oncogenomics, raised numerous ethical questions and introduced legal instruments that are aimed at ensuring the appropriate protection of human research participants. For the effective development of human genomics and translation of novel, validated biomarkers into potentially useful clinical applications in personalized medicine, there is a need for clear ethical standards and principles in all phases of clinical research. PMID:22740222

  13. [Ethical questions related to nutrition and hidration: basic aspects].

    PubMed

    Collazo Chao, E; Girela, E

    2011-01-01

    Conditions that pose ethical problems related to nutrition and hydration are very common nowdays, particularly within Hospitals among terminally ill patients and other patients who require nutrition and hydration. In this article we intend to analyze some circumstances, according to widely accepted ethical values, in order to outline a clear action model to help clinicians in making such difficult decisions. The problematic situations analyzed include: should hydration and nutrition be considered basic care or therapeutic measures?, and the ethical aspects of enteral versus parenteral nutrition. PMID:22411365

  14. Ethical aspects of blood and organ donation.

    PubMed

    Whyte, G

    2003-08-01

    Ethics of blood and organ donation in Australia has been influenced by voluntarism and the Red Cross. The General Agreement on Trade in Services may threaten the principle of voluntary blood donation and self sufficiency of blood in Australia. However, a cooperative approach to managing the public good is more sustainable than individual self interest and the author argues that voluntary blood and organ donation should be retained. PMID:12895168

  15. [Basic ethical aspects of living organ donation].

    PubMed

    Nagel, E; Mayer, J

    2003-06-01

    A characteristic feature of transplanting organs from living donors is that not only patients in need for treatment but also healthy individuals are submitted to medical interventions. Ethical considerations in this field have to deal with the question of property attributes of the human body and conflicts with traditional medical principles. Altruistic organ donation, appreciated by Christianity as a sign of charity, is indeed contradictory to the classic maxim of medical ethics "primum nihil nocere, " meaning "first of all, do not harm." The autonomous choice of a potential donor has to be balanced thoroughly against his personal physical and psychological risks. Apart from organ donation with altruistic motives, commercial incentives or payment for organ donation, which are increasingly under discussion in many nations, need profound ethical reflection. Organ selling does not lead to long-term economic benefit for individual donors in developing countries and is associated with a decline in health. A market system of organ sales would foster exploitation of the poor, and it is substantially doubtful whether autonomy and self determination are valid under circumstances of poverty and coercion. Commodification of the human body risks viewing persons as marketable objects. The human body,however, is an integral element of an individual's personality and not a resource to be removed. It is therefore fundamental that the social good of altruism is preserved as the major principle in organ donation. PMID:12883802

  16. [Genetic therapy in oncology: ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Bucci, L M; Fazio, V M

    2001-01-01

    The more advanced oncologic therapies are directing toward new frontiers, on account of the remarkable undesirable effects of chemio- and radio-therapies. This new therapeutic experiences are of type biological (vaccines), or genic (substitution again genes with shutters meaning-tumoral). This therapies involve, to be effected, some ethical shrewdnesses: choice of the patient, the engineering modality of the genes, the transfer of the genes in cells of the exclusively somatic line, the elimination of the pathogenic risk of the vector virus, the obligatory use of sterile rooms, the attention to the administration of the drug, a legal issue of the judgment of notoriety. PMID:11725612

  17. The ethical aspects of regulating production.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J C

    2008-02-01

    Polls and surveys conducted within the United States show general agreement that there is public support for the protection of farm livestock and poultry. Concurrent with the growing public sentiment is the recent adoption of socially responsible corporate policies by major food retailers relative to animal welfare. The animal welfare assurance and audit programs developed by the private sector are an attempt to assure consumers that best practice measures and independent oversight result in a reasonable quality of life for food-producing animals. These programs represent voluntary self-regulation and arguably a market-based approach to secure the welfare of food-producing animals. Animal advocacy organizations historically seek regulatory oversight of animal care practice. Legislative routes that require government promulgation and enforcement of animal care regulations represent an involuntary form of animal welfare assurance. There are ethical considerations concerning the employment of voluntary or involuntary regulation of the welfare of food-producing animals. For example, degree of public endangerment, economic impact, viability of small to medium producers, food price, food quality, and food security are prominent among the ethical considerations in deliberating whether to impose regulatory mandates on production. In either regulatory approach, the public must be convinced that the welfare of food-producing animals can be secured in a transparent and convincing manner. PMID:18212384

  18. Ethical aspects of human biobanks: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Budimir, Danijela; Polašek, Ozren; Marušić, Ana; Kolčić, Ivana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boraska, Vesna; Jerončić, Ana; Boban, Mladen; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Aim To systematically assess the existing literature on ethical aspects of human biobanks. Method We searched the Web of Science and PubMed databases to find studies addressing ethical problems in biobanks with no limits set (study design, study population, time period, or language of publication). All identified articles published until November 2010 were included. We analyzed the type of published articles, journals publishing them, involvement of countries/institutions, year of publication, and citations received, and qualitatively assessed every article in order to identify ethical issues addressed by the majority of published research on human biobanking. Results Hundred and fifty four studies satisfied our review criteria. The studies mainly came from highly developed countries and were all published in the last two decades, with over half of them published in 2009 or 2010. They most commonly discussed the informed consent, privacy and identifiability, return of results to participants, importance of public trust, involvement of children, commercialization, the role of ethics boards, international data exchange, ownership of samples, and benefit sharing. Conclusions The focus on ethical aspects is strongly present through the whole biobanking research field. Although there is a consensus on the old and most typical ethical issues, with further development of the field and increasingly complex structure of human biobanks, these issues will likely continue to arise and accumulate, hence requiring constant re-appraisal and continuing discussion. PMID:21674823

  19. [PERSONALIZED MEDICINE AND EBM: ETHICAL ASPECTS].

    PubMed

    Radermecker, R P

    2015-01-01

    More patients are actually treated due to the incredible improvements of medical care, especially in the field of pharmacotherapy. Medical guidelines are based on the results of controlled trials. This kind of medicine, also called Evidence Based Medicine (EBM), is actually the cornerstone of good clinical practice. Nevertheless, it remains a lot of patients disappointed by the fact that they have no medical gain of their treatment. The reason is that each patient has his/her own metabolic characteristics. Better is, the characterization of such patients, better will be the treatment targeting them. It is what is called the personalized medicine. To reach this challenge, pharmacogenetic advances would be helpful. From an antagonism between EBM and personalized medicine, this new medical paradigm has to consider these approaches as partners. To reach this goal, medical doctors, legal authorities and pharmaceutical companies have to be responsible in front of these new ethical challenges. PMID:26285464

  20. Oocyte donation: particular technical and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Englert, Y; Govaerts, I

    1998-05-01

    This paper analyses the reasons that oocyte and sperm donation are experienced very differently by couples, despite their apparent similarity, and stresses the impact of the difficulties on donor recruitment in all oocyte donation programmes. The various types of donors (occasional, relational, in-vitro fertilization patient and professional) are described together with their motivations, resistance, advantages and disadvantages. The contradictory consequences with free or paid donation, the particular risks of oocyte donation (in comparison with sperm donation) both for the donor and for the recipient are highlighted. The problem of maintaining anonymity is then analysed in ethical terms but also in terms of technical efficacy. A strategy is described which, due to the decision of retaining anonymity, authorizes the sharing of oocytes between recipients. This has as a consequence, an increase in treatment efficacy by avoiding wastage of oocytes offered as a donation. PMID:9665329

  1. Ethical and regulatory aspects of genome editing.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Donald B; Porteus, Matthew H; Scharenberg, Andrew M

    2016-05-26

    Gene editing is a rapidly developing area of biotechnology in which the nucleotide sequence of the genome of living cells is precisely changed. The use of genome-editing technologies to modify various types of blood cells, including hematopoietic stem cells, has emerged as an important field of therapeutic development for hematopoietic disease. Although these technologies offer the potential for generation of transformative therapies for patients suffering from myriad disorders of hematopoiesis, their application for therapeutic modification of primary human cells is still in its infancy. Consequently, development of ethical and regulatory frameworks that ensure their safe and effective use is an increasingly important consideration. Here, we review a number of issues that have the potential to impact the clinical implementation of genome-editing technologies, and suggest paths forward for resolving them such that new therapies can be safely and rapidly translated to the clinic. PMID:27053531

  2. Saving lives in road traffic—ethical aspects

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Aim This article aims at giving an overview of five ethical problem areas relating to traffic safety, thereby providing a general framework for analysing traffic safety from an ethical perspective and encouraging further discussion concerning problems, policies and technology in this area. Subjects and methods The problems presented in the article are criminalisation, paternalism, privacy, justice and responsibility, and the reasons for choosing these are the following. First, they are all important areas in moral philosophy. Second, they are fairly general and it should be possible to categorise more specific problems under these headings. Ethical aspects of road traffic have not received the philosophical attention they deserve. Every year, more than 1 million people die globally in traffic accidents, and 20 to 50 million people are injured. Ninety per cent of the road traffic fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries, where it is a growing problem. Politics, economics, culture and technology affect the number of fatalities and injuries, and the measures used to combat deaths in traffic as well as the role of road traffic should be ethically scrutinised. The topics are analysed and discussed from a moral-philosophical perspective, and the discussion includes both theory and applications. Results and conclusion The author concludes with some thoughts on how the ethical discussion can be included in the public debate on how to save lives in road traffic. People in industrialised societies are so used to road traffic that it is almost seen as part of nature. Consequently, we do not acknowledge that we can introduce change and that we can affect the role we have given road traffic and cars. By acknowledging the ethical aspects of road traffic and illuminating the way the choices society makes are ethically charged, it becomes clear that there are alternative ways to design the road traffic system. The most important general conclusion is that discussion

  3. Environmental aspects of ethical animal production.

    PubMed

    Siegford, J M; Powers, W; Grimes-Casey, H G

    2008-02-01

    distribution, may also differ from prevalent industrial production practices. Clearly, consumers and producers considering the benefits and costs of ethical animal production practices need to understand the system-wide environmental impacts of these approaches to meeting demand for animal products. PMID:18212385

  4. Medicine, media communication and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    On World Press Freedom Day (3rd of May 2009) details of the Frida Haus ranking list of press freedom in countries around the world were officially disclosed. Bosnia and Herzegovina is ranked at 98 place, and in the region better ranked is only Montenegro, which is located between 78 and 80 place along with Botswana and Eastern Timor. Top rated is Iceland with 9 points and on the last place is North Korea, with 98 points. Almost every profession has its deontology/ethical principles. However, medicine and the media are specifically targeted by public controversy with regard to the consequences of their responsibilities for the individual and the overall population. Until twenty years ago, the media were the main social system or a reflection of the social system and dominated the field of public communication, which implicitly reflected in the organization, operation and effects of companies, corporations, etc. as the overall social system, increasing the gross national product and its various categories enabled boom. Medicine and health represent to a wide range of people, perhaps, the most interesting source of information, and probably there isn't a person that once was not interested in quality professional and verified information regarding some of their medical condition or overall health status. It is estimated that today there are more than a million Web sites on health and diseases, which means that the availability of health information for users is better today than ever before. However, it is important to patients and users of web sites with health information to learn how to properly use them, and learn to assess whether the information published on this site are of reliable quality, which depends on the authors who put the information on the web site, their topicality, simplicity in use and especially the diversity of the medical content of these web pages. It is the Internet that allows the revolution in relation patient-health care- health services

  5. Medicine, Media Communication and Ethical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2010-01-01

    Summary On World Press Freedom Day (3rd of May 2009) details of the Frida Haus ranking list of press freedom in countries around the world were officially disclosed. Bosnia and Herzegovina is ranked at 98 place, and in the region better ranked is only Montenegro, which is located between 78 and 80 place along with Botswana and Eastern Timor. Top rated is Iceland with 9 points and on the last place is North Korea, with 98 points. Almost every profession has its deontology/ethical principles. However, medicine and the media are specifically targeted by public controversy with regard to the consequences of their responsibilities for the individual and the overall population. Until twenty years ago, the media were the main social system or a reflection of the social system and dominated the field of public communication, which implicitly reflected in the organization, operation and effects of companies, corporations, etc. as the overall social system, increasing the gross national product and its various categories enabled boom. Medicine and health represent to a wide range of people, perhaps, the most interesting source of information, and probably there isn’t a person that once was not interested in quality professional and verified information regarding some of their medical condition or overall health status. It is estimated that today there are more than a million Web sites on health and diseases, which means that the availability of health information for users is better today than ever before. However, it is important to patients and users of web sites with health information to learn how to properly use them, and learn to assess whether the information published on this site are of reliable quality, which depends on the authors who put the information on the web site, their topicality, simplicity in use and especially the diversity of the medical content of these web pages. It is the Internet that allows the revolution in relation patient-health care- health

  6. [Use of data: legal and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Ciacci, Gianluigi

    2015-09-01

    Health care professionals and organizations, in carrying out their activities, consistently handle information related to identified or identifiable (even indirectly) natural persons, therefore "personal data". The application of Legislative Decree 30 June 2003 n. 196--the Code concerning the protection of personal data--as integrated by the pronunciations of the authority tasked with the application of such a complex legislation, the Authority for the Protection of Personal Data, consequently follows. The aforementioned legislation is seldom fully applied even 12 years after its publication, and even so not properly or with the adequate level of care. As a consequence, the data processed is often not adequately safeguarded, and compliance is hindered at an organisational level: this is particularly true with reference to the state of the art in medical technology, which is characterized by the utilization of ICT technologies such as the ones used with clinical registries and the Electronic Health Record. This chapter shows that, even when processing personal data that is of a sensitive nature, and at the same time of great importance, it is possible to reconcile the need to access and manage information with the protection of the individuals to whom such information refers to. This possibility is however closely linked to the awareness of the issues involved, awareness that in turn comes from an indispensable knowledge of the different aspects of that complex legislation. PMID:26418507

  7. [Establishing and operating a human biobank. Ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Jahns, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Particularly in the past decade which has been marked by efforts to foster individualized/personalized medicine the need for well-characterized high-quality collections of human biological material has significantly increased. When establishing and operating a human biobank the interests and the "freedom" of biomedical research must always be weighed against the interests and rights of patients and/or donors; in this process ethical aspects should be considered systematically. In addition, the importance of quality control and quality assurance has largely increased in human biobanking, both from a scientific and even more from an ethical point of view, because donated biological materials are potentially stored for decades and (on request) might serve for currently not foreseeable biomedical research purposes. In addition, the compatibility of national human biobanks with international biobank networks becomes increasingly important. PMID:26753862

  8. [Triploid cloned human embryos: ethical, social, and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Bellver Capella, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    This work attempts to place the experiment within the scientific and social framework of pluripotent-stem-cell research and offer reflections of an ethical and (to a lesser extent) legal nature on the results obtained by this research group. To these ends, the work is divided into two parts. The first part describes the most important aspects of Noggle and Egli's announcement and the biotechnological and media context in which it was made. The second part is concerned with the bioethical issues raised by the experiment. There are basically four issues, which relate to: (1) the nuclear transfer technique, (2) the use of human ovules to carry out the experiment, (3) the destruction of human blastocysts, and (4) the ethical requirements of scientific publications. PMID:23115823

  9. [Euthanasia/assisted suicide. Ethical and socio-religious aspects].

    PubMed

    Chiriţă, V; Chiriţă, Roxana; Duică, Lavinia; Talau, Gh

    2009-01-01

    Euthanasia/Assisted Suicide are viewed differently by moral and religious references. In a religious way, cardinal confessions (Christianity, Judaism, Islamism, Buddhism) condemn euthanasia/assisted suicide and, in the same time have a more relaxed attitude regarding passive euthanasia. Other aspects of euthanasia regard financial/economic and ethical-medical considerations. All these contradictory standpoints are expressed in some legal acts that make specifications on the concept of "euthanasia"--Oregon's Death with Dignity Act (1994) and Netherlands's Euthanasia Law (2001). PMID:20191812

  10. Some Ethical Aspects of Being an Information Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wengert, Robert G.

    2001-01-01

    Questions whether a focus on ethics and rights leads to a narrow idea of the library profession and its clients, using issues of censorship as examples. Highlights include a proposed definition of information; information flow; privacy; ethical debates and consequences for libraries; and the American Library Association Code of Ethics. (Author/LRW)

  11. Research on embryos in Turkey with ethical and legal aspects

    PubMed Central

    Vatanoğlu-Lutz, Emine Elif

    2012-01-01

    Technically, the term embryo refers to the products of conception after implantation into the wall of the womb, usually nearly two weeks after fertilization, up until the eighth week. Embryos contain stem cells which, according to scientists, could be used to cure a wide range of conditions. Stem cells can be coaxed into growing cells of any other type, which makes them potentially very useful indeed. However, removing stem cells from an embryo will kill the embryo, which some people object to. From the mid 1970s, IVF was being developed and research was carried out on the spare embryos produced. This research helped to improve IVF techniques, as well as to better understand the earliest stages of human development. Research also shed light on a variety of inheritable disorders. In Turkish Law, assisted reproduction treatment (ART) services are regulated with the Regulation of Assisted Reproductive Treatment Centers Act (RAPTCA) The Regulation was issued in 1987, but it has been amended several times since. Also, article 90 of the Turkish Penal Code covers some aspects of research on embryos. At the same time, the Biomedicine Convention (Oviedo Convention), signed by Turkey and which entered into force in 2003, has binding regulations about this issue. Different legal regulations and some ethical guidelines are in conflict with each other, creating much confusion for the researchers. In this paper these conflicts are discussed, giving some practical proposals. PMID:24592037

  12. Gastroscopy in pediatric surgery: indications, complications, outcomes, and ethical aspects.

    PubMed

    Roth, Louise; Salö, Martin; Hambraeus, Mette; Stenström, Pernilla; Arnbjörnsson, Einar

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to map gastroscopies performed at a single tertiary pediatric surgery centre to investigate indications, complications, outcomes, and ethical aspects. Material and Methods. A retrospective study of gastroscopies performed during two time periods (2001-2004 and 2011-2014) was conducted. Data regarding indications, outcomes, and complications of pediatric gastroscopies were analysed from a prospectively collected database. Results. The indications for gastroscopies changed over time. Therefore, 376 gastroscopies performed from 2011 through 2014 were studied separately. The median patient was four years old. The predominant indications were laparoscopic gastrostomy (40%), investigation of gastroenterological conditions (22%), obstruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract (20%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (15%), and other indications (3%). Percentages of gastroscopies with no positive findings for each condition were laparoscopic gastrostomy, 100%; gastroenterological conditions, 46%; obstruction in the upper gastrointestinal tract, 36%; GERD, 51%. Furthermore, gastroscopies did not lead to any further action or change in treatment in 45% of gastroenterological conditions and 72% of GERD cases. The overall complication rate was 1%. Conclusion. The results are valuable to educate pediatric surgeons and to inform health care planning when including gastroscopy within clinical practice. PMID:25883646

  13. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    PubMed

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them. PMID:23130743

  14. Ethical and legal aspects of assisted reproduction practice in Asia.

    PubMed

    Schenker, J G; Shushan, A

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the ethical and legal aspects of assisted reproduction technology (ART) that have been instituted in Asian countries. The data were collected by a questionnaire circulated to ART units in Asia. These are Taiwan, Singapore, Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan, Iran, India, Jordan, Malaysia, China, Israel, Hong Kong, Pakistan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Persian Gulf countries. According to the survey, there are approximately 260 ART centers in Asia (half of which are in Japan). On a global basis each ART centre in Asia serves an average population of 13 million people. On the other hand, in those Asian countries where the standards of living are relatively high, the availability of ART services, including the more sophisticated and costly ART procedures like micromanipulation, is similar to that in the Western world. In most of the Asian countries practising ART, however, no state registry exists. Taiwan is the only country that has specific legislation, and in six other countries some kind of ministerial regulations are practised. We conclude that ART is now practised in 20 countries in Asia. The prevailing rules and cultural heritage in many of these Asian countries has a major influence on the implementation of ART in Asia. However, in view of the complicated and sensitive issues involved, and as no supervision on ART clinics exists in most of the Asian countries, we advocate that some kind of quality control should be urgently instituted in all centres practising ART. In this way, it is hoped that the highest standards be attained for all parties concerned. PMID:8671351

  15. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Teutsch, Gotthart M

    2004-01-01

    The repeated attempts to tighten up the literary report are finally showing effects. This not only as a result of shorter reports but also because of the fact that less is being written and published regarding our topic. The discussion seems exhausted which, for years, dealt with the controversial moral status of animals and the--finally--constitutionally sanctioned status of animal protection in Germany. The problem of animals in ethics is becoming a rarity. Correspondingly, bio-ethics is oriented towards human problems and related borderline cases in a rather one-sided manner. This radically altered situation corresponds to an equally profound shift in the direction of our thinking. In the 1970's it was the shock in reaction to brutality towards T.V.-reports. But soon questions asking about the guilty were being posed. To direct the question from a guilt-related "who" to the "what" of the underlying reasons was a more difficult task. Just like social ethics developed out of social criticism, modern animal ethics developed out of the criticism of cruelty to animals. And, to the degree that this criticism became a common public concern, it lost its importance in comparison to the ethical questions now moving into the centre of the interest. In view of book-production this means that animal protection-related literature appears in three major groups: Husbandry, Use and Abuse, Animal Protection Law, Animal (Protection) Ethics. To collect these three groups simultaneously is becoming increasingly difficult. The concentration on, and supposedly a limitation to the sectors morals and ethics of the man-animal relationship cannot be avoided in the literary report. Morals is stressed here in particular in order to limit the excessive dominance of theoretical ethics and to preserve the priority of action-guiding morals. PMID:15586252

  16. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects

    PubMed

    Teutsch

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary remarks Preceding the detailed literary review, here a few events, topics and publications for the busy reader including * The decision of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) to declare unconstitutional and invalid chicken owner ordinances permitting caging * The decision of the German parliament to declare animal protection a national goal * Publication of a number of books which are likely to influence discussions for years to come since they bring to a close developments having emerged over an extended period of time. Without claiming to be exhaustive the following should be mentioned: Marc Bekoff and Carron A. Meany, ed.: "Encyclopedia of animal rights and animal welfare", an extensive work being reviewed by Peter Thornton in chapter 3.6 of this report. For the first time, animal protection of the Anglo-American tradition is being summarised, in theory as well as in practice, and, on high standards: "The list of contributors reads like a Who"s Who of experts in their chosen fields and includes philosophers such as Peter Singer, Tom Regan, Tom Beauchamp and Bernard Rollin and welfare scientists such as Don Broom, David Fraser, Temple Grandin. Others involved in examining the role of animals in society and our relationship with them, such as Andrew Linzey, Richard Ryder, James Serpell and David Morton (to name just a few), have also provided entries" (Peter Thornton). The comprehensive monograph by Johannes Caspar: "Tierschutz im Recht der modernen Industriegesellschaft. Eine rechtliche Neukonstruktion auf philosophischer und historischer Grundlage" (Animal Protection in the Law of modern industrial Society. A new legal Construct on a philosophical and historical Base) represents an extensive critical incorporation of animal protection in Germany under legal and ethical aspects including a detailed rendering of the actual treatment of animals. The term "critical incorporation" was used on purpose since never before was cruelty

  17. Pragmatic neuroethics: the social aspects of ethics in disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, evolution of ethics and bioethics is traced to show how an abstract and individualistic paradigm was at the core of mainstream ethics prior to the advent of bioethics and applied ethics. Bioethics has transformed this individualistic paradigm because of its inherent interdisciplinarity and real-world connection. This evolution has raised questions regarding how nonabstract (e.g., experiential) and nonindividualistic (e.g., social, relational) components of ethics could be married to normative theory and ethics reflection, the latter usually not amenable to empiric research. In the first part of this chapter, pragmatism is introduced as an approach offering perspectives on the integration of social, nonindividualistic aspects of ethics, supporting the use of social science methods within ethics and neuroethics. In the second part of this chapter, using the example of disorders of consciousness, a pragmatic perspective is explored to reframe questions and help foster nonreductionistic understandings of ethical questions and ethical dilemmas. This chapter aims to generate reflections on a set of specific clinical contexts that will also stimulate a discussion on the nature of ethical approaches. PMID:24182392

  18. Legal and ethical aspects of ghostwriting in medicine.

    PubMed

    Wnukiewicz-Kozłowska, Agata

    2011-02-01

    Ghostwriting in medicine represents a highly significant problem in both legal and ethical terms, and particularly in recent years owing to a sudden increase in the practice. The main goal in this paper is to present the legal and ethical rules connected with the ghostwriting phenomenon. The problem is presented in the context of international, European and Polish law. From a legal perspective the issues bound up with ghostwriting are those of the notion and authorship of a work, authors' rights (both moral rights and copyright), the content of these rights and their nature, as well as the question of the transfer of such rights. From the point of view of ethics there arises a need for reflection on honesty, accuracy and credibility as defined both generally and scientifically. PMID:21234812

  19. Advocacy for Sexual Harassment Victims: Legal Support and Ethical Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Carolyn B.

    2000-01-01

    Uses a case study to frame a response and define the school counselor's advocacy role by examining: legislation regarding student-on-student sexual harassment; the prevalence of sexual harassment in schools and the emotional costs; and the counselor's legal and ethical obligations. Asserts that school counselors can empower students with the…

  20. [The positive culture of error, historical, epistemological and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Poma, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The punitive culture of error erects a wall of silence between players in the care relationship. A positive culture of error, founded on a new ethical approach to the nurse-patient relationship, enables everyone to move beyond the illusion of medical infallibility and to cope better with the effects of an adverse event. PMID:27085923

  1. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Teutsch, Gotthard M

    2005-01-01

    It is for reasons of age I will have to terminate my work at the Literary Review in the form developed since 1995. The report is being reduced to a concentration of ethically relevant reviews as exemplified in the fourth-quarter issue of ALTEX. This is to ascertain that essential developments in this field will not be overlooked. Insofar, the Literary Review will be continued under the heading "New literature concerning topics of animal ethics". The more central topics of animal ethics are being "used up" the more new questions are being formulated. Thus it was that during the last few years the plant-world, long neglected, was rediscovered and received attention through the publication of important works. Another recent discovery concerns itself with "cognitive ethology" which developed out of the critique of behaviourism and which is dealt with in a separate chapter in this issue. But there is also a "classic" of ethics who has been reviewed and interpreted anew repeatedly. In her book "Albert Schweitzer, a prophet of medical ethics", Heike Baranzke describes Schweitzer's ethics as not sentimental or nostalgic but rather as a radically modern stance, committed to the enlightenment. Manuel Schneider, also, conveys a comprehensive view of Albert Schweitzer's ethics in "Life in the middle of life - the relevance of the ethics of Albert Schweitzer", a book edited by Altner, Frambach, Gottwald and himself in 2005. For this, in particular, he derives a possibility of a physiocentric ethics. By contrast, Beate Weinzierl approaches Schweitzer on a complete personal and human level in "Yearning for nature - access to inner and outer nature with Albert Schweitzer". Wolfgang Senz is undertaking a critical appreciation of Albert Schweitzer's concept of "life" and this, foremost, in the light of Schweitzer's rejection of the Cartesian "I am". In the end, Jean Claude Wolf cannot manage without citing Schweitzer either, referring to him in his not accepting the (western) world

  2. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Teutsch, G M

    2000-01-01

    The attempts to reduce the volume of this report by tightening the areas of ecological ethics and practical animal protection has not been successful. To the contrary, the expansion of philosophical ethics has led to a further increase. In the face of ever growing numbers of publications in book form, attention given to articles in periodicals will have to be reduced drastically in the future. The debate about the moral status of animals continues within the philosophical discussion. Here, the central question deals with the qualities an animal species has to demonstrate in order to be recognised as worthy of protection. This dispute gains particular relevancy in facing a possible killing of animals (chapter 13). Following the still predominant anthropocentric opinion, the killing of an animal is morally questionable only if the respective animal is able to recognise being killed as a loss, even if such killing is conducted without inducing fear or pain. Animals unable to such a recognition - so the logical conclusion - cannot be harmed by any injustice, misfortune or suffering to which they are subjected. At this point, at the latest, our moral sensibility begins to react: Contrary to a rock, an animal"s life can be taken, and the preservation of life is programmed into the nature of "lower animals" as well. The philosophical discussion, though, gives rise to the impression that creatures could be divided up into groups of those where killing is ethically inadmissible, then those where killing would have to be defended and justified and finally those whose killing is ethically irrelevant. Set into practice, any standard of this kind would have to fail due the impossibility of defining these categories. A new development within animal rights (chapter 3.5) could open up if rights would be understood predominantly as the result of the attempt towards justice. Justice (chapter 3.4) far animals can be demanded with most convincing arguments because there are at best

  3. Ethical aspects of workplace urine screening for drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, A R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the ethical and legal implications of the involvement of medical practitioners in workplace screening for drug misuse. CONCLUSIONS: Workplace screening for drugs of abuse raises many ethical issues. If screening is considered as being part of medical practice with the involvement of occupational health physicians, as suggested by the Faculty of Occupational Medicine, then the ethical requirements of a normal medical consultation are fully applicable. The employee's full and informed consent to the process must be obtained and the employee should have an unfettered right of access to all the relevant records and to the urine sample he/she has provided in the event that he/she wishes to challenge the opinion expressed by the physician. If the process is not part of medical practice then employees should have the same rights as they would have if required to provide intimate body samples in the course of a criminal investigation, given the potentially serious consequences of an erroneous positive finding for their livelihood. PMID:9055156

  4. End of Life Issues in Cancer Cases: Ethical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Afsoon; Hashemi-Bahremani, Mohammad; Hosseini, Leili; Bazmi, Shabnam

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates ethical challenges cancer patients face in the end stages of life including doctors' responsibilities, patients' rights, unexpected desires of patients and their relatives, futile treatments, and communication with patients in end stages of life. These patients are taken care of through palliative rather than curative measures. In many cases, patients in the last days of life ask their physician to terminate their illness via euthanasia which has many ethical considerations. Proponents of such mercy killing (euthanasia) believe that if the patient desires, the physician must end the life, while opponents of this issue, consider it as an act of murder incompatible with the spirit of medical sciences. The related arguments presented in this paper and other ethical issues these patients face and possible solutions for dealing with them have been proposed. It should be mentioned that this paper is more human rational and empirical and the views of the legislator are not included, though in many cases human intellectual and empirical comments are compatible with those of the legislator. PMID:27165232

  5. Ethical aspects of registry-based research in the Nordic countries

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Håberg, Siri E; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Lafolie, Pierre; Zoega, Helga; Sarkkola, Catharina; von Kraemer, Stephanie; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Nørgaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    National health care registries in the Nordic countries share many attributes, but different legal and ethical frameworks represent a challenge to promoting effective joint research. Internationally, there is a lack of knowledge about how ethical matters are considered in Nordic registry-based research, and a lack of knowledge about how Nordic ethics committees operate and what is needed to obtain an approval. In this paper, we review ethical aspects of registry-based research, the legal framework, the role of ethics review boards in the Nordic countries, and the structure of the ethics application. We discuss the role of informed consent in registry-based research and how to safeguard the integrity of study participants, including vulnerable subjects and children. Our review also provides information on the different government agencies that contribute registry-based data, and a list of the major health registries in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Both ethical values and conditions for registry-based research are similar in the Nordic countries. While Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden have chosen different legal frameworks, these differences can be resolved through mutual recognition of ethical applications and by harmonizing the different systems, likely leading to increased collaboration and enlarged studies. PMID:26648756

  6. [Man and his fellow-creatures under ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Teutsch, Gotthard M

    2003-01-01

    It may not be spectacular, but the compilation of a new comment on the German Animal Protection Law before the background of the new constitution is the most important medium and long-term event since the inclusion of animal protection into the constitution in Germany. The comment was also occasion to mark the ethically motivated change in the awareness of society, which has strengthened continuously since the eighties, not only entering the law as the "responsibility of mankind for animals as fellow creatures" but also posing a question to the ethicists, who have since been searching for answers. Eisenhart von Loeper who wrote the "Introduction to the law on the relationship between man and animal" and the comment on the first principle paragraph followed these endeavours of theology and philosophy. Under point 6.3 of this report on the literature some important results are summarised under the keywords "species-spanning humanity", "fellow creaturism", "anthropocentrism-criticism", "principle of equality" and "equity and rights of animals". Significant differences are evident in the comparison of the different concepts that have been developed in animal ethics, also regarding the expanse of the demands made for the benefit of the animals. The general opinion in philosophy that animal ethics and animal protection can only apply to the higher developed animals points towards a tendency to consider only a kind of "animal elite" morally relevant and worthy of protection and to exclude the mass of others as soulless automats by keeping the status quo and exposing them to indiscriminate use by humans. Species-spanning equality must be decidedly demanded. PMID:14671704

  7. [Drug evaluation in healthy volunteers. Legislative and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Warot, D

    1991-01-01

    Studies in healthy volunteers have been legalized since December 20th 1988 in France. The healthy volunteer is employed for a variety of studies in phases I and IV of drug development. This type of research can equally be called nontherapeutic in nature. Every experiment involving healthy volunteers should be approved by the Ethics Committee. Using volunteers within the department, company or other organisation, while offering advantages for the investigator should be prohibited as freedom of concept might not be safeguarded. As well, financial incentives may over-persuade individuals, including students, who have low incomes and promote the "professional volunteer". To avoid this problem, French law planned a national register. The potential benefits of such a disposition are still unknown. Having been given appropriate information concerning the drug trial, his obligations and rights, the healthy volunteer gives his written consent. Specific recommendations for nontherapeutic assessments of drug effects are given concerning prisoners, the mentally handicapped, women with a risk of frequency, children. Ethical considerations concerning research on a healthy population must go beyond the law recently promulgated in France. PMID:2050001

  8. Ethical Aspects of Evaluating a Patient’s Mental Capacity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    When a patient’s mental capacity to make decisions is open to question, the physician often calls in a psychiatrist to help make the determination. The psychiatrist’s conclusions may be taken to a court to determine the patient’s legal competency. In this article, the author presents several clinical criteria psychiatrists may use when determining patients’ mental capacities. The author discusses two critical ethical questions psychiatrists should consider when they use this criteria: (1) whether they should use a fixed or sliding standard and (2) if they adopt a sliding standard, what clinical factors should be given the greatest weight. The author also discusses whether psychiatrists should take initiative to obtain a second opinion from another psychiatrist or mental health professional. Finally, the author discusses research regarding patients who are likely to have more impaired capacity for performing executive functions, patients requesting surgical procedures that are ethically without precedent, and patients possibly having inner awareness under conditions that previously were not considered possible. PMID:19724765

  9. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Shroff, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the

  10. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Sunil

    2009-07-01

    The legislation called the Transplantation of Human Organ Act (THO) was passed in India in 1994 to streamline organ donation and transplantation activities. Broadly, the act accepted brain death as a form of death and made the sale of organs a punishable offence. With the acceptance of brain death, it became possible to not only undertake kidney transplantations but also start other solid organ transplants like liver, heart, lungs, and pancreas. Despite the THO legislation, organ commerce and kidney scandals are regularly reported in the Indian media. In most instances, the implementation of the law has been flawed and more often than once its provisions have been abused. Parallel to the living related and unrelated donation program, the deceased donation program has slowly evolved in a few states. In approximately one-third of all liver transplants, the organs have come from the deceased donor program as have all the hearts and pancreas transplants. In these states, a few hospitals along with committed NGOs have kept the momentum of the deceased donor program. The MOHAN Foundation (NGO based in Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) has facilitated 400 of the 1,300 deceased organ transplants performed in the country over the last 14 years. To overcome organ shortage, developed countries are re-looking at the ethics of unrelated programs and there seems to be a move towards making this an acceptable legal alternative. The supply of deceased donors in these countries has peaked and there has been no further increase over the last few years. India is currently having a deceased donation rate of 0.05 to 0.08 per million population. We need to find a solution on how we can utilize the potentially large pool of trauma-related brain deaths for organ donation. This year in the state of Tamil Nadu, the Government has passed seven special orders. These orders are expected to streamline the activity of deceased donors and help increase their numbers. Recently, on July 30, 2008, the

  11. Ethical aspects of banking placental blood for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Reisner, E G; Kurtzberg, J

    1995-12-13

    Transplantation of blood cells harvested from the umbilical cord immediately after birth has been effective in repopulating the bone marrow. These placental blood transplantations may be safer than conventional bone marrow transplantations and may suspend the need to harvest bone marrow, a process fraught with difficulties. Further understanding and advancement of this emerging technology require developing large banks of placental blood. In this article, we examine some of the ethical issues associated with placental blood banking, including (1) questions about ownership of the tissue, (2) the necessity and nature of obtaining informed consent from parents for harvesting placental blood and the information-gathering process associated with it, (3) obligations to notify parents and children of the results of medical testing for infectious diseases and genetic information, (4) matters of privacy and confidentiality related to such information, and (5) the need for fair and equitable harvesting of and access to placental blood. PMID:7500510

  12. Ethical aspects of renal transplantation from living donors.

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, P; Berloco, P B

    2007-01-01

    Kidney transplantation from living donors is widely performed all over the world. Living nephrectomy for transplantation has no direct advantages for the donor other than increased self-esteem, but it at least remains an extremely safe procedure, with a worldwide overall mortality of 0.03%. This theoretical risk for the donor seems to be justified by the socioeconomic advantages and increased quality of life of the recipient, especially in selected cases, such as pediatric patients, when living donor kidney transplantation can be performed in a preuremic phase, avoiding the psychological and physical stress of dialysis, which in children is not well tolerated and cannot prevent retarded growth. According to the Ethical Council of the Transplantation Society, commercialism must be effectively prevented, not only for ethical but also medical reasons. The risks are too high, not only for the donors, but also for the recipients, as a consequence of poor donor screening and evaluation with consequent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or other infective agents, as well as of inappropriate medical and surgical management of donors and also recipients, who are often discharged too early. Most public or private insurance companies consider kidney donation a safe procedure without long-term impairment and therefore do not increase the premium, whereas recipient insurance of course should cover hospital fees for the donors. "Rewarded gifting" or other financial incentives to compensate for the inconvenience and loss of income related to the donation are not advisable, at least in our opinion. Our Center does not perform anonymous living organ donation or "cross-over" transplantation. PMID:17692612

  13. [Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    García-Guerrero, J

    2013-01-01

    Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal. PMID:23529363

  14. The Mole's Dilemma: Ethical Aspects of Public Internet Access in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…

  15. The Practical Aspects of Online Counseling: Ethics, Training, Technology, and Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallen, Michael J.; Vogel, David L.; Rochlen, Aaron B.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the practical aspects of online counseling, including ethics, training, supervision, technology, and competency issues. The authors discuss online counseling's strengths and limitations and present guidelines for what types of clients and counseling psychologists may be appropriate for online counseling. To illustrate the…

  16. Ethical, legal and social aspects of the approach in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Badria B; Malcolm, Colin A; Babiker, Ahmed; Malik, Elfatih M; El Tayeb, Mohammed AH; Saeed, Nageeb S; Nugud, Abdel Hameed D; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    The global malaria situation, especially in Africa, and the problems frequently encountered in chemical control of vectors such as insecticide resistance, emphasize the urgency of research, development and implementation of new vector control technologies that are applicable at regional and local levels. The successful application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the control of the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax and several species of fruit flies has given impetus to the use of this method for suppression or elimination of malaria vectors in some areas of Africa including Northern State of Sudan. The research and development phase of the Northern State feasibility study has been started. Sudanese stakeholders are working side-by-side with the International Atomic Energy Agency in the activities of this important phase. Several ethical, legal and social issues associated with this approach arose during this phase of the project. They need to be seriously considered and handled with care. In this paper, these issues are described, and the current and proposed activities to overcome potential hurdles to ensure success of the project are listed. PMID:19917073

  17. Polemics on Ethical Aspects in the Compost Business.

    PubMed

    Maroušek, Josef; Hašková, Simona; Zeman, Robert; Žák, Jaroslav; Vaníčková, Radka; Maroušková, Anna; Váchal, Jan; Myšková, Kateřina

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on compost use in overpasses and underpasses for wild animals over roads and other similar linear structures. In this context, good quality of compost may result in faster and more resistant vegetation cover during the year. Inter alia, this can be interpreted also as reduction of damage and saving lives. There are millions of tones of plant residue produced every day worldwide. These represent prospective business for manufacturers of compost additives called "accelerators". The opinions of the sale representatives' with regards to other alternatives of biowaste utilization and their own products were reviewed. The robust analyzes of several "accelerated" composts revealed that the quality was generally low. Only two accelerated composts were somewhat similar in quality to the blank sample that was produced according to the traditional procedure. Overlaps between the interests of decision makers on future soil fertility were weighed against the preferences on short-term profit. Possible causes that allowed the boom of these underperforming products and the possible consequences are also discussed. Conclusions regarding the ethical concerns on how to run businesses with products whose profitability depends on weaknesses in the legal system and customer unawareness are to follow. PMID:26026968

  18. Ethical and psychiatric aspects of torture: a Canadian study.

    PubMed

    Allodi, F; Cowgill, G

    1982-03-01

    In the last two decades widespread use of torture by totalitarian governments has been reported in over 60 countries. This situation concerns physicians who are sometimes called upon to see the victims. This paper reports the psychiatric findings in a group of 41 Latin American refugees who arrived in Canada from 1977 to 1979 and alleged to have been subjected to political persecution and torture under the military rulers of their own countries. Most of them, young educated men, were apprehended violently and imprisoned under conditions below the minimum international standards. Systematic physical and psychological torture was the rule, including blindfolding, beatings, electrical shocks, sexual abuse and threats of execution or sham executions. These experiences were followed by a cluster of psychiatric symptoms and physical evidence of trauma compatible with the history given. This pattern constitutes the torture syndrome included under category 308 and 309 of the DSM-III and ICD-9. The alleged professional conduct of 19 doctors who saw 21 of these patients is discussed. A list of codes of medical ethics, intended to guide and protect doctors confronted with this difficult problem, is included. PMID:7066853

  19. ETHICAL AND GENETIC ASPECTS REGARDING PRESYMPTOMATIC TESTING FOR NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES.

    PubMed

    Cozaru, Georgeta Camelial; Aşchie, Mariana; Mitroi, Anca Florentina; Poinăreanu, I; Gorduza, E V

    2016-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's dementia, Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease or spinocerebellar ataxia, manifests into adulthood with an insidious onset, slowly of progressive symptoms. All of these diseases are characterized by presimptomatic stages that preceded with many years of clinical debut. In Parkinson's disease, more than half of the dopaminergic neurons of the black substance are lost before the advent of motor characteristic manifestations. In Huntington's chorea, the progressive neurodegenerative disease could be diagnose prenatal and presymptomatic by analyse of the number of CAG repeats in exon 1 of the huntingtin gene. A similar mechanism represented by expansion of trinucleotide repeats during hereditary transmission from parents to children was identified in fragile X syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia, spinal muscular and bulbar atrophy, or myotonic dystrophy. Presymptomatic diagnosis in all these progressive diseases raise many ethical issues, due to the psychological impact that can cause the prediction of a disease for which there is currently no curative treatment. Therefore, a positive result can produce serious psychological trauma and major changes in the lifestyle of the individual, instead, a negative result can bring joy and tranquillity. But the problem arises if presymptomatic testing in these neurodegenerative diseases brings greater benefits compared to the possible psychological damage, which can add the risk of stigmatization or discrimination. PMID:27125067

  20. The Return of Lombroso? Ethical Aspects of (Visions of) Preventive Forensic Screening

    PubMed Central

    Munthe, Christian; Radovic, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The vision of legendary criminologist Cesare Lombroso to use scientific theories of individual causes of crime as a basis for screening and prevention programmes targeting individuals at risk for future criminal behaviour has resurfaced, following advances in genetics, neuroscience and psychiatric epidemiology. This article analyses this idea and maps its ethical implications from a public health ethical standpoint. Twenty-seven variants of the new Lombrosian vision of forensic screening and prevention are distinguished, and some scientific and technical limitations are noted. Some lures, biases and structural factors, making the application of the Lombrosian idea likely in spite of weak evidence are pointed out and noted as a specific type of ethical aspect. Many classic and complex ethical challenges for health screening programmes are shown to apply to the identified variants and the choice between them, albeit with peculiar and often provoking variations. These variations are shown to actualize an underlying theoretical conundrum in need of further study, pertaining to the relationship between public health ethics and the ethics and values of criminal law policy. PMID:26566397

  1. [The clinical history in surgical processes. Bioethical aspects and basic professional ethics].

    PubMed

    Collazo Chao, Eliseo

    2008-11-01

    Surgeons are increasingly facing multiple civil liability claims from their patients. Against this background and taking any eventual liability claims into account, surgeons must be increasingly aware of the importance of maintaining patient medical histories, which raises numerous questions on the length of time and form of keeping them. Ethical and legal obligations need to be taken into account in order to identify the controversial aspects related to patients and their environment, as well as shedding light on the most appropriate behaviour in each case. We must never forget the case history is a clinical document, subjected to the medical art and medical ethics which regulate it. PMID:19080907

  2. Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, T; Carlin, D

    2005-01-01

    On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use. PMID:16046698

  3. [Ethical aspects of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Schmetz, M-K; Heinemann, T

    2010-05-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently being tested as a possible treatment for treatment-refractory psychiatric disorders. Besides the hope set on this new therapeutic approach of DBS, there are at the same time doubts concerning the ethical acceptability in the treatment of individuals suffering from mental disorders. Taking the therapeutic benefit of DBS into account, the manuscript analyses ethical aspects of DBS application in psychiatry. In particular, possible effects on the patient's personality and self-determination are scrutinized. It is shown that personality changes may either occur as unintended and potentially ethically troublesome side effects or may even be intended as legitimate therapy goals. The patient's self-determination may be both, endangered and supported by DBS. The ethical assessment of DBS considers therapeutic benefits, the method's minimal invasiveness and reversibility on the one hand, as well as surgery-related risks of DBS treatment, an insufficient data-base due to currently missing long-term studies and the possibility of as yet inestimable, potentially long-term effects on the patient's personality and self-determination on the other hand. The ethical balancing arrives at the conclusion that DBS may be considered as ultima ratio in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and should preferably be combined with psychosocial measures. Furthermore, a prospective scientific evaluation of the procedure should include a systematic investigation of personality changes. PMID:20422491

  4. Assessment vs. appraisal of ethical aspects of health technology assessment: can the distinction be upheld?

    PubMed Central

    Sandman, Lars; Heintz, Emelie

    2014-01-01

    An essential component of health technology assessment (HTA) is the assessment of ethical aspects. In some healthcare contexts, tasks are strictly relegated to different expert groups: the HTA-agencies are limited to assessment of the technology and other actors within the health care sector are responsible for appraisal and recommendations. Ethical aspects of health technologies are considered with reference to values or norms in such a way that may be prescriptive, or offer guidance as to how to act or relate to the issue in question. Given this internal prescriptivity, the distinction between assessment and appraisal seems difficult to uphold, unless the scrutiny stops short of a full ethical analysis of the technology. In the present article we analyse the distinction between assessment and appraisal, using as an example ethical aspects of implementation of GPS-bracelets for people with dementia. It is concluded that for HTA-agencies with a strictly delineated assessment role, the question of how to deal with the internal prescriptivity of ethics may be confusing. A full ethical analysis might result in a definite conclusion as to whether the technology in question is ethically acceptable or not, thereby limiting choices for decision-makers, who are required to uphold certain ethical values and norms. At the same time, depending on the exact nature of such a conclusion, different action strategies can be supported. A positive appraisal within HTA could result in a decision on mandatory implementation, or funding of the technology, thereby making it available to patients, or decisions to allow and even encourage the use of the technology (even if someone else will have to fund it). A neutral appraisal, giving no definite answer as to whether implementation is recommended or not, could result in a laissez-faire attitude towards the technology. A negative appraisal could result in a decision to discourage or even prohibit implementation. This paper presents an

  5. Methodological and ethical aspects of the sexual maturation assessment in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Eliane Rodrigues; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G.; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da R.; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze methodological and ethical aspects in the sexual maturation assessment of adolescents. DATA SOURCES Books and theses, articles and legislations on the Medline, SciELO, Science Direct databases, besides institutional documents of the World Health Organization and the Pediatric Societies of Brazil and São Paulo, considering the period from 1962 to 2012. The following keywords were used in Portuguese and English: "sexual maturation", "self-assessment", "ethics", "OBJECTIVE assessment of sexual maturation", "puberty", "adolescent", and "adolescentdevelopment". DATA SYNTHESIS The sexual maturation assessment is used in populatinal studies and in clinical daily care. The direct evaluation is performed by a specialized physician, whereas the self-assessment is carried out by the adolescent. This evaluation should be carefully performed in the appropriate place, taking into account the ethical aspects. The patient should not be constrained and the physician must respect the privacy and the confidentiality. Before this evaluation and independently of the used method, the adolescent should receive information and explanation about the procedure and the tools that will be applied. Furthermore, the patient has the right to want or not an adult close to him. CONCLUSIONS Validation studies showed that self-assessment is inferior to clinical assessment and should, therefore, be performed only when the direct examination by physicians is not possible. PMID:24142325

  6. Kidney allocation for transplantation: some aspects of ethics and comparative law.

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2012-09-01

    The allocation of organs is a crucial ethical issue. The importance attached to different allocation criteria differs considerably among the various national and international organizations. The balance between justice-centered and utility-centered systems is shifting and there are signs of a possible swing away from systems centered mainly on waiting times to others centered mainly on criteria of utility. This evolution is very significant and seems to run counter to the main stream of modern bioethics. Examples from different national policies are given herein. Particular attention is given to Europe, where national bioethics committees have tended to ignore the aspect of organ allocation. By overemphasizing the issues related to informed consent, the ethical challenges arising from the problems of resource allocation are often relegated to second place. PMID:22974843

  7. Lack of international consensus on ethical aspects of acute stroke trials.

    PubMed

    Leira, Enrique C; Kaldjian, Lauris C; Ludwig, Bryan R; Torner, James C; Olalde, Heena M; Hacke, Werner; Adams, Harold P

    2012-04-01

    Acute stroke trials are becoming increasingly multinational. Working toward a shared ethical standard for acute stroke research necessitates evaluating the degree of consensus among international researchers. We surveyed all 275 coinvestigators and coordinators who participated in the AbESTT II study (evaluating abciximab vs placebo) about their experience with their local institutional review board (IRB) or equivalent, as well as, about their personal beliefs regarding the ethical aspects of acute stroke trials. A total of 90 coinvestigators from 15 different countries responded to our survey. Among the IRBs represented by the responding coinvestigators, only 18% allowed surrogate consent to be obtained over the phone. Although 52% allowed the participation of subjects with aphasia, only 5% allowed the participation of subjects with neglect/hemi-inattention. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was deemed adequate to establish decisional capacity based on language by 62% of the coinvestigators and 36% of the IRBs. A belief that IRB regulations cause unnecessary delays and fear in relatives/patients was reported by 67% of coinvestigators, and the belief that granting an exemption from informed consent under specific circumstances is appropriate was reported by 41%. There appears to be considerable international diversity in the ethical priorities and informed consent standards among different IRBs and investigators in stroke research. The stroke community should make an attempt to standardize the consent process used in research. Given the critical nature of the time to treatment in stroke care, these standards should be integrated into current frameworks of clinical care and research. The absence of an ethical consensus can become a barrier to advancing stroke treatment internationally. PMID:20719537

  8. Ethical aspects of directly observed treatment for tuberculosis: a cross-cultural comparison

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is a major global public health challenge, and a majority of countries have adopted a version of the global strategy to fight Tuberculosis, Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS). Drawing on results from research in Ethiopia and Norway, the aim of this paper is to highlight and discuss ethical aspects of the practice of Directly Observed Treatment (DOT) in a cross-cultural perspective. Discussion Research from Ethiopia and Norway demonstrates that the rigid enforcement of directly observed treatment conflicts with patient autonomy, dignity and integrity. The treatment practices, especially when imposed in its strictest forms, expose those who have Tuberculosis to extra burdens and costs. Socially disadvantaged groups, such as the homeless, those employed as day labourers and those lacking rights as employees, face the highest burdens. Summary From an ethical standpoint, we argue that a rigid practice of directly observed treatment is difficult to justify, and that responsiveness to social determinants of Tuberculosis should become an integral part of the management of Tuberculosis. PMID:23819555

  9. Clinical, social and ethical aspects of HIV-1 infections in an Arab Gulf State.

    PubMed

    Milder, J E; Novelli, V M

    1992-04-01

    Clinical, social and ethical aspects of HIV-1 infection as occurring in the Arab Gulf State of Qatar are presented. Up until November 1989, 50 patients were reported with HIV infection. In more than 75% of cases, the disease was acquired via transfusion of imported blood; 52% have developed AIDS and 65% of these have died. In response to the problem, the Ministry of Health has established a National AIDS Committee whose major function has been to educate both the medical profession and lay public about the disease and on ways to prevent its spread. Furthermore, the Committee has also taken on the role of patient advocate and has been instrumental in resolving many HIV-related difficulties in the community at large. Specialized HIV clinics have also been set up, with both Qatari and expatriate patients being enrolled in treatment programmes. No expatriate patient has been deported due to infection with HIV. Although many social and ethical issues remain unresolved, it appears that a rational and humane public health policy has been adopted in Qatar with respect to the AIDS threat. PMID:1560481

  10. Legal and ethical aspects of organ donation after euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Bollen, Jan; Ten Hoopen, Rankie; Ysebaert, Dirk; van Mook, Walther; van Heurn, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    Organ donation after euthanasia has been performed more than 40 times in Belgium and the Netherlands together. Preliminary results of procedures that have been performed until now demonstrate that this leads to good medical results in the recipient of the organs. Several legal aspects could be changed to further facilitate the combination of organ donation and euthanasia. On the ethical side, several controversies remain, giving rise to an ongoing, but necessary and useful debate. Further experiences will clarify whether both procedures should be strictly separated and whether the dead donor rule should be strictly applied. Opinions still differ on whether the patient's physician should address the possibility of organ donation after euthanasia, which laws should be adapted and which preparatory acts should be performed. These and other procedural issues potentially conflict with the patient's request for organ donation or the circumstances in which euthanasia (without subsequent organ donation) traditionally occurs. PMID:27012736

  11. Female genital mutilations: genito-urinary complications and ethical-legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Vella, Marco; Argo, Antonina; Costanzo, Angela; Tarantino, Lucia; Milone, Livio; Pavone, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Many women in the world are still undergoing female genital mutilations (FGMs) even if in almost all the countries, the practice of FGM is illegal. The increase of immigration, particularly from African Countries, to Europe, and Italy too, led to consider this phenomenon with particular attention and skill. All the operators in health services need to know the different types of FGMs and the related complications and the psychological and sexual sequels. Urological complications, in particular, are not rare and the changing anatomy of the external genital apparatus can also make the catheter insertion sometimes difficult. This review analyzes the epidemiology of FGMs, the reasons why the practice is still made, the complications, the ethical, and the principal legal aspects of this practise that must be hopefully early banned. PMID:25744709

  12. Ethics.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, E D

    1989-05-19

    This article is from the 1989 CONTEMPO issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, the purpose of which is to keep physicians informed of recent developments in different areas of medicine through brief overviews by specialists in each field. In his article on ethics, Pellegrino focuses on the issues of euthanasia and fetal research. The practice of active, voluntary euthanasia raises questions about the difference between killing a terminally ill patient and withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment, the limits of patient autonomy, the compatibility of active euthanasia with professional ethics, and the social consequences of legalizing euthanasia. The debate over the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment centers on the issue of induced abortion. PMID:2709576

  13. [A framework for evaluating ethical issues of public health initiatives: practical aspects and theoretical implications].

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The "Framework for the Ethical Conduct of Public Health Initiatives", developed by Public Health Ontario, is a practical guide for assessing the ethical implications of evidence-generating public health initiatives, whether research or non-research activities, involving people, their biological materials or their personal information. The Framework is useful not only to those responsible for determining the ethical acceptability of an initiative, but also to investigators planning new public health initiatives. It is informed by a theoretical approach that draws on widely shared bioethical principles. Two considerations emerge from both the theoretical framework and its practical application: the line between practice and research is often blurred; public health ethics and biomedical research ethics are based on the same common heritage of values. PMID:26241514

  14. Those Moral Aspects Unique to the Profession: Principals' Perspectives on Their Work and the Implications for a Professional Ethic for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, William C.; Gutierrez, Kathrine J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined aspects of work-related behavior considered morally and ethically unique to the profession of educational leadership as expressed by practitioners. The purpose was to empirically test and develop a practical, profession-specific ethic as articulated by Shapiro and Stefkovich (2001, 2005) and Stefkovich (2006). The study used…

  15. Medical Ethics

    MedlinePlus

    ... have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should a patient receive nutrition? What about advance directives and resuscitation orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...

  16. The ethical and practical aspects of acceptance and universal patient acceptance.

    PubMed

    Corsino, Bruce V; Patthoff, Donald E

    2006-11-01

    "Acceptance" is an often presupposed, hidden core value and ethic focused on how dental and other health practitioners first accept people as possible patients. The three basic styles of patient acceptance are random, selective, and universal. Reduced public access to care results from the practice of random and selective acceptance. Only universal acceptance creates a potential pathway for improved access to care. The notion of Universal Patient Acceptance (UPA) is discussed here as one kind of applied ethical tool or clinical practice that allows for the ethic of acceptance to be more effectively pursued in daily practice. We suggest that health providers falsely surmise that they already understand and practice Universal Patient Acceptance. That myth and perspective are partly what keeps Acceptance hidden as an ethic and overlooked as a potential way to foster dialogue and indirectly promote better access to care. Without Universal Patient Acceptance, dental and health providers will continue to silently engage in practice patterns that adversely affect public access to care. The actual benefits of Universal Patient Acceptance are the subject of ongoing review and debate. Whatever those benefits might be will not likely be realized until Acceptance and Universal Patient Acceptance are included as part of dental and other health professional codes of ethics and training curricula. That is what we argue for here. PMID:17106034

  17. The ethical landscape: identifying the right way to think about the ethical and societal aspects of synthetic biology research and products

    PubMed Central

    Yearley, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic biology promises to be highly innovative in its contribution to scientific understanding. But it offers other sorts of innovation too: in the variety of applications that could result and in the wide range of practitioners who could become involved. But directly corresponding to each of these is a kind of regulatory concern. If the entry barriers are low for a form of scientific practice with dramatic implications then the need for regulatory control over access is great since no one wants unlicensed operators releasing experimental organisms. If there are likely to be extensive opportunities for application within the human body and in the open environment (for energy production or novel forms of bioremediation) then the release and safety-testing implications are potentially enormous. Proponents of synthetic biology have been quick to realise that these challenges call for reviews of the societal and ethical aspects of synthetic biology. This paper shows that the template commonly adopted for such reviews draws on bioethics. It goes on to show that this template is far from ideal, both because of limitations in the way that bioethics has been institutionalized and because of key differences between the regulatory demands on synthetic biology and on bioethics. The paper concludes that broader models of societal and ethical review of synthetic biology are urgently required. PMID:19447816

  18. [Ethical and legal aspects of animal experiments on non-human primates].

    PubMed

    Luy, J

    2007-03-01

    Animal experiments on non-human primates give cause for ethical concerns for three reasons (1) the inclusion of "ethical animal protection" in the German Constitution (Article 20a of the "Grundgesetz" GG, 2002) has led to real consequences for the application process with respect to the use of primates for fundamental research; (2) the legal requirements in Europe to ensure animal welfare are currently being tightened and (3) the global problem of the protection of species, especially with respect to the capturing and subsequent sale of primates is still unsolved. As a result of the way humans interpret the term justice (the principle of equality) it was to be expected that great apes, being the animals that most closely resemble humans, would play a key role in the establishment of animal protection laws. In 1997,Great Britain and Ireland made it illegal to conduct experiments on great apes. In 1999, New Zealand went even further and created a kind of basic rights for great apes. In 2003,The Netherlands forbade animal experiments using great apes as did Sweden, which also included gibbons in this ban (which is in line with current taxonomy, which considers gibbons to belong to the family Hominidae). In 2006 Austria forbade experiments carried out on chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orang-utans, and gibbons. Only recently, a state commission on ethics in Switzerland demanded that the Swiss government do the same. And the summer of 2006 saw a debate in Spain on the inclusion of the protection of great apes in the primary goals of the state. Due to the principle of equality, a further extension (both geographically and systemically) of the exclusion of great apes from animal experiments is to be expected. Since Article 20a GG on "ethical animal protection" came into effect on August 1,2002, the regulatory authorities in Germany have the right to independently check and control animal experiments as to their ethical tenability (Administrative Court Giessen, confirmed

  19. Ethical Aspects of Outcome Studies in Social, Behavioral, and Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    The domain of outcome research is enormous and the consequences weighty. Ethical, practical, and political goals of evaluation have insured a multitude of outcome studies concerning social, behavioral, and educational interventions as well as critiques thereof and descriptions of how to conduct related research. We have a rich literature guiding…

  20. Opinion on the ethical aspects of health care of patients at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Serrão, D

    1999-01-01

    Demographic evolution and scientific progress in the treatment of fatal diseases have brought about a large number of disabled old persons and of greatly dependent persons. Nowadays, the dying process of people in such conditions is slower, though irreversible, and it has created a new form of medical care known as palliative medicine. Seven situations of this kind are discussed, with the corresponding ethical appraisal of the possible medical decisions in each case. The opinion on this matter by the Portuguese National Council of Ethics for the Life Sciences, based on the initial report, is then reproduced. It is against euthanasia strictu sensu being legalised and no longer a criminal offence, recommending however the development of all forms of palliative medicine. PMID:10436735

  1. Ethical and Legal Aspects of Conducting Clinical Trials in Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    R, Harsha

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) is a condition where the patients will be mentally unstable initially and where later, with therapy, they gradually return to normalcy. As AWS comprises two stages; a mentally unstable state and a normal state of mind, the ethical and legal issues behind recruitment of these subjects become a little ambiguous in a clinical trial. This study was taken up to clarify the uncertainty regarding the biphasic states of minds (i.e. unstable mind and sound mind) of the subjects who were involved in a clinical trial done on AWS. Law and ethics regarding the clinical trials which involve psychiatric subjects need to be strengthened and amended from time to time, in order to protect the interests of both patients and physicians. PMID:24995195

  2. The cyber-aspects of virtual communities: free downloader ethics, cognition, and perceived service quality.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chin-Feng

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the downloader cognitive structures toward Web service quality and the downloader ethical attitudes across various levels of participation in a virtual community. Using four types of free downloads as the research subjects, the researcher found that the users in different participation degrees have different perception preferences. Owners of the free downloading Web sites can use the findings of this study to develop effective Web marketing strategies. PMID:18275315

  3. Analysis of the ethical aspects of professional confidentiality in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Isper; Saliba, Nemre Adas; de Lima, Daniela Coelho; de Macedo, Ana Paula Ayala

    2008-01-01

    From the point of view of deontological ethics, privacy is a moral right that patients are entitled to and it is bound to professional confidentiality. Otherwise, the information given by patients to health professionals would not be reliable and a trustable relationship could not be established. The aim of the present study was to assess, by means of questionnaires with open and closed questions, the awareness and attitudes of 100 dentists working in the city of Andradina, São Paulo State, Brazil, with respect to professional confidentiality in dental practice. Most dentists (91.43%) reported to have instructed their assistants on professional confidentiality. However, 44.29% of the interviewees showed to act contradictorily as reported talking about the clinical cases of their patients to their friends or spouses. The great majority of professionals (98.57%) believed that it is important to have classes on Ethics and Bioethics during graduation and, when asked about their knowledge of the penalties imposed for breach of professional confidentiality, only 48.57% of them declared to be aware of it. Only 28.57% of the interviewees affirmed to have exclusive access to the files; 67.14% reported that that files were also accessed by their secretary; 1.43% answered that their spouses also had access, and 2.86% did not answer. From the results of the present survey, it could be observed that, although dentists affirmed to be aware of professional confidentiality, their attitudes did not adhere to ethical and legal requirements. This stand of health professionals has contributed to violate professional ethics and the law itself, bringing problems both to the professional and to the patient. PMID:19089294

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE ETHICAL ASPECTS OF PROFESSIONAL CONFIDENTIALITY IN DENTAL PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Garbin, Artênio José Isper; Saliba, Nemre Adas; de Lima, Daniela Coelho; de Macedo, Ana Paula Ayala

    2008-01-01

    From the point of view of deontological ethics, privacy is a moral right that patients are entitled to and it is bound to professional confidentiality. Otherwise, the information given by patients to health professionals would not be reliable and a trustable relationship could not be established. The aim of the present study was to assess, by means of questionnaires with open and closed questions, the awareness and attitudes of 100 dentists working in the city of Andradina, São Paulo State, Brazil, with respect to professional confidentiality in dental practice. Most dentists (91.43%) reported to have instructed their assistants on professional confidentiality. However, 44.29% of the interviewees showed to act contradictorily as reported talking about the clinical cases of their patients to their friends or spouses. The great majority of professionals (98.57%) believed that it is important to have classes on Ethics and Bioethics during graduation and, when asked about their knowledge of the penalties imposed for breach of professional confidentiality, only 48.57% of them declared to be aware of it. Only 28.57% of the interviewees affirmed to have exclusive access to the files; 67.14% reported that that files were also accessed by their secretary; 1.43% answered that their spouses also had access, and 2.86% did not answer. From the results of the present survey, it could be observed that, although dentists affirmed to be aware of professional confidentiality, their attitudes did not adhere to ethical and legal requirements. This stand of health professionals has contributed to violate professional ethics and the law itself, bringing problems both to the professional and to the patient. PMID:19089294

  5. Ethical considerations in the de-adoption of ineffective or harmful aspects of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Niven, Daniel J; Leigh, Jeanna Parsons; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-09-01

    De-adoption refers to the discontinuance of a medical practice or health service found to be ineffective or harmful following a previous period of adoption. As growing healthcare budgets threaten to cripple the societies that fund them, facilitating de-adoption may be integral to sustainable healthcare systems that provide high-quality care. This article explores ethical issues pertinent to de-adoption including the underpinnings of beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, and autonomy. PMID:27498394

  6. [Ethical aspects of medical thought on the madness in the enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Martini, Mariano; Gorini, Ilaria; Licata, Marta; De Stefano, Francesco; Schiavone, Michele; Ciliberti, Rosagemma

    2016-08-01

    The seventeenth century is a period of transition from religious views that are not authentic but dogmatic about demonic influences to the application of scientific and methodological criteria in science. During Enlightenment there was an approach heavily influenced by ethical issues. In this context, there is a rational recognition of the value of man free from the teleological type references. Mental illnesses are treated using scientific criteria. During the seventeenth century clinical interest is also extended to psychosis and not only to neurosis. There are several significant changes in the care of psychiatric patient, and healthcare institutions are improved and increased. Many behaviors are inspired by the values of philanthropy. PMID:27598954

  7. Ethical and legal aspects of stem cell practices in Turkey: where are we?

    PubMed

    Ozturk Turkmen, H; Arda, B

    2008-12-01

    Advances in medical technology and information have facilitated clinical practices that favourably affect the success rates of treatment for diseases. Regenerative medicine has been the focus of the recent medical agenda, to the extent of fundamentally changing treatment paradigms. Stem cell practices, their efficacy, and associated ethical concerns have been debated intensively in many countries. Stem cell research is carried out along with the treatment of patients. Thus, various groups affected by the practices inevitably participate in the discussions. In addition to discussions based on avoiding any harm, providing benefits and respecting personal autonomy and justice, problems arise owing to the lack of legal regulations for stem cell research and practice. The dimensions of the problems vary in the developing countries, with widespread use of advanced medical technology but with lack of sources allocated for healthcare, dominance of paternalistic physician-patient relationships and failure to achieve a sufficient level of awareness of patients' rights. This article discusses the current situation of stem cell practices within the context of regenerative medicine in Turkey and ethical concerns about some of the legal regulations, such as the Regulation for Umblical Cord Blood Banking and Guidelines for Non-embryonic Stem Cell Study for Non-clinical Purposes directing the research on this issue. PMID:19043103

  8. Ethical aspects of the mitigation obstruction argument against climate engineering research.

    PubMed

    Morrow, David R

    2014-12-28

    Many commentators fear that climate engineering research might lead policy-makers to reduce mitigation efforts. Most of the literature on this so-called 'moral hazard' problem focuses on the prediction that climate engineering research would reduce mitigation efforts. This paper focuses on a related ethical question: Why would it be a bad thing if climate engineering research obstructed mitigation? If climate engineering promises to be effective enough, it might justify some reduction in mitigation. Climate policy portfolios involving sufficiently large or poorly planned reductions in mitigation, however, could lead to an outcome that would be worse than the portfolio that would be chosen in the absence of further climate engineering research. This paper applies three ethical perspectives to describe the kinds of portfolios that would be worse than that 'baseline portfolio'. The literature on climate engineering identifies various mechanisms that might cause policy-makers to choose these inferior portfolios, but it is difficult to know in advance whether the existence of these mechanisms means that climate engineering research really would lead to a worse outcome. In the light of that uncertainty, a precautionary approach suggests that researchers should take measures to reduce the risk of mitigation obstruction. Several such measures are suggested. PMID:25404676

  9. Is Judgement of Biotechnological Ethical Aspects Related to High School Students' Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crne-Hladnik, Helena; Hladnik, Ales; Javornik, Branka; Kosmelj, Katarina; Peklaj, Cirila

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies of various aspects of the perception of biotechnology were conducted among 469 Slovenian high school students of average age 17 years. Our research aimed to explore relationships among students' pre-knowledge of molecular and human genetics, and their attitudes to four specific biotechnological applications.…

  10. Incorporating Knowledge of Legal and Ethical Aspects into Computing Curricula of South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayman, Ian; Kyobe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    As students in computing disciplines are introduced to modern information technologies, numerous unethical practices also escalate. With the increase in stringent legislations on use of IT, users of technology could easily be held liable for violation of this legislation. There is however lack of understanding of social aspects of computing, and…

  11. Consumers on the Internet: ethical and legal aspects of commercialization of personalized nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Jennie; Nordgren, Anders; Perrudin, Maud; Ronteltap, Amber; Savigny, Jean; van Trijp, Hans; Nordström, Karin; Görman, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Consumers often have a positive attitude to the option of receiving personalized nutrition advice based upon genetic testing, since the prospect of enhancing or maintaining one's health can be perceived as empowering. Current direct-to-consumer services over the Internet, however, suffer from a questionable level of truthfulness and consumer protection, in addition to an imbalance between far-reaching promises and contrasting disclaimers. Psychological and behavioral studies indicate that consumer acceptance of a new technology is primarily explained by the end user's rational and emotional interpretation as well as moral beliefs. Results from such studies indicate that personalized nutrition must create true value for the consumer. Also, the freedom to choose is crucial for consumer acceptance. From an ethical point of view, consumer protection is crucial, and caution must be exercised when putting nutrigenomic-based tests and advice services on the market. Current Internet offerings appear to reveal a need to further guaranty legal certainty by ensuring privacy, consumer protection and safety. Personalized nutrition services are on the borderline between nutrition and medicine. Current regulation of this area is incomplete and undergoing development. This situation entails the necessity for carefully assessing and developing existing rules that safeguard fundamental rights and data protection while taking into account the sensitivity of data, the risks posed by each step in their processing, and sufficient guarantees for consumers against potential misuse. PMID:23471853

  12. ETHICAL ASPECTS AND DILEMMAS OF PREPARING, WRITING AND PUBLISHING OF THE SCIENTIFIC PAPERS IN THE BIOMEDICAL JOURNALS

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper author discussed about preparing and submitting manuscripts - scientific, research, professional papers, reviews and case reports. Author described it from the Editor’s perspective, and specially talked about ethical aspects of authorship, conflict of interest, copyright, plagiarism and duplicate publication from the point of view of his experiences as Editor-in-Chief of several biomedical journals and Chief of Task Force of European Federation of Medical Informatics journals and member of Task Force of European Cardiology Society journals. The scientific process relies on trust and credibility. The scientific community demands high ethical standards to conduct biomedical research and to publish scientific contents. During the last decade, disclosure of conflicts of interest (COI ), (also called competing loyalties, competing interests or dual commitments), has been considered as a key element to guarantee the credibility of the scientific process. Biases in design, analysis and interpretation of studies may arise when authors or sponsors have vested interests. Therefore, COI should be made clear to the readers to facilitate their own judgment and interpretation of their relevance and potential implications. Results and Discussion: Authors are responsible to fully disclose potential COI . In October 2009 the ICMJE proposed an electronic “uniform” format for COI disclosure. Four main areas were addressed: authors´ associations with entities that supported the submitted manuscript (indefinite time frame), associations with commercial entities with potential interest in the general area of the manuscript (time frame 36 months), financial association of their spouse and children and, finally, non-financial associations potentially relevant to the submitted manuscript. Consumers of medical scholarship expect a reliable system of disclosure in which journals and authors make disclosures appropriately and consistently. There is a stigma

  13. Is Judgement of Biotechnological Ethical Aspects Related to High School Students' Knowledge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Črne-Hladnik, Helena; Hladnik, Aleš; Javornik, Branka; Košmelj, Katarina; Peklaj, Cirila

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative and qualitative studies of various aspects of the perception of biotechnology were conducted among 469 Slovenian high school students of average age 17 years. Our research aimed to explore relationships among students' pre-knowledge of molecular and human genetics, and their attitudes to four specific biotechnological applications. These applications-Bt corn, genetically modified (GM) salmon, somatic and germ line gene therapy (GT)-were investigated from the viewpoints of usefulness, moral acceptance and risk perception. In addition, patterns and quality of moral reasoning related to the biotechnological applications from the aspect of moral acceptability were examined. Clear gender differences were found regarding the relationship between our students' pre-knowledge of genetics and their attitudes to biotechnological applications. While females with a better genetics background expressed a higher risk perception in the case of GM salmon, their similarly well-educated male colleagues emphasized the risk associated with the use of germ line GT. With all four biotechnological applications, patterns of both rationalistic-deontological and teleological-and intuitive moral reasoning were identified. Students with poorer genetics pre-knowledge applied an intuitive pattern of moral reasoning more frequently than their peers with better pre-knowledge. A pattern of emotive reasoning was detected only in the case of GM salmon. A relatively low quality of students' moral reasoning, as demonstrated by their brief and small number of supporting justifications (explanations), show that there is a strong need for practising skills of argumentation about socio-scientific issues in Slovenian high schools on a much larger scale. The implications for future research and classroom applications are discussed.

  14. Model for integrated management of quality, labor risks prevention, environment and ethical aspects, applied to R&D&I and production processes in an organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M. R.; Torres, F.; Yoldi, V.; Arcega, F.; Plaza, I.

    2012-04-01

    It is proposed an integrated management model for an organization. This model is based on the continuous improvement Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle and it intends to integrate the environmental, risk prevention and ethical aspects as well as research, development and innovation projects management in the general quality management structure proposed by ISO 9001:2008. It aims to fulfill the standards ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OSHAS 18001, SGE 21 y 166002.

  15. Ethical aspects of soft tissue engineering for congenital birth defects in children--what do experts in the field say?

    PubMed

    Oerlemans, Anke J M; Rodrigues, Catarina H C M L; Verkerk, Marian A; van den Berg, Paul P; Dekkers, Wim J M

    2010-08-01

    This article is part of the EuroSTEC project, which aims at developing tissue engineering-based treatments for structural disorders present at birth. EuroSTEC is positioned at the intersection of three areas with their own ethical issues: (1) regenerative medicine, (2) research with pregnant women and fetuses, and (3) research with neonates. Because of the overlap of these three areas in this project, we can expect to be confronted with new ethical challenges. To be able to respond adequately and timely to current and possible future ethical issues, a prospective and anticipatory ethical analysis is essential. To obtain a first survey of ethical issues that might arise during the different phases of the project, the Delphi method was used. The professionals directly involved in the EuroSTEC project were questioned about their views on possible ethical issues. The first round yielded 27 ethical issues, which the respondents were asked to prioritize in the second round. For the fundamental research phase, issues deemed most important were privacy and informed consent of the tissue donor. For the animal experimentation phase, three issues were mentioned (in order of decreasing priority): the suffering of animals, the use of animals as means to an end, and the limited adequacy of the animal models. Issues that were deemed most important during the clinical (trial) phase pertained to the problem of weighing risks and benefits for the fetus/child and the pregnant woman. PMID:20163208

  16. Ethics in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence

    2014-01-01

    There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…

  17. Small ethics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, ethics in the professions has focused on big problems that could be found on other peoples' back porches. Small, habitual, frequent, and personal lapses get little attention. In this essay, the literature on opportunism is applied to dentistry with a view toward bringing matters of "near ethics" within reach. Examples of small lapses are discussed under the headings of shirking, free riding, shrinkage, pressing, adverse selection, moral hazard, and risk shifting. The conditions that support opportunism include relationships with small numbers of transactions and uneven access to information. Practical limits on understanding all the consequences of agreements and the costs of supervising others and enforcing corrections of breaches are inescapable aspects of opportunism. Opportunism may not be accepted by all as the subject matter of ethical, but curbing it is a worthy goal and understanding the causes and management of opportunism casts some light on the ethical enterprise. Four suggestions are offered for addressing issue of opportunism. PMID:17691498

  18. To Know or Not to Know? Integrating Ethical Aspects of Genomic Healthcare in the Education of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Kathrine Krageskov

    2015-01-01

    Novel possibilities for employing genetic testing as part of the diagnostic process for a wide variety of diseases and conditions are emerging almost every day. This development brings prospects of more efficient treatment and prevention of serious and often lethal conditions. However, it also raises ethical questions concerning the issue of…

  19. A professional response to demands for accountability: practical recommendations regarding ethical aspects of patient care. Working Group on Accountability.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, L L

    1996-01-15

    Forceful new demands for accountability in medicine are arising from many interested parties. To maintain professional standards, physicians need to establish which demands are desirable and which are not. We adopt a model of stratified accountability that includes three major components: the accountable parties, the subject matter, and the processes for accountability. To begin describing the model, we focus on physicians and health care institutions. We focus on the ethical dimensions of medical practice, both because the difficulty of measuring such behaviors makes this a test case for accountability and because of the importance of ethical standards in maintaining patient trust. We first identify eight widely endorsed content areas for accountability in ethical conduct: medical decision making, confidentiality, fiduciary obligations (including conflicts of interest), responsibilities arising from patient vulnerability, personal standards, equity among patients, cultural representation, and procedures for resolving dilemmas. We then identify the currently most valid and reliable methods for assessing conduct: surveys among all involved parties, testing methods used for accreditation, limited audits, publication of policy, and careful use of report cards. A prototypical survey and report card are illustrated. However, we also note the need for improved accountability assessment methods. We next identify mechanisms for taking responsibility: sharing information, exchanging perspectives, making adjustments, and enforcing standards when necessary. Finally, because this report only begins to describe a small part of the accountability model, we urge explicit identification and development of professional standards for accountability in the many other areas of medicine. PMID:8534000

  20. Project REENCONTRO: ethical aspects of genetic identification in families separated by the compulsory isolation of leprosy patients in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Claudia Lee Williams; Biondi, Flávia Costa; Maricato, Glaucia Cristina; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss the experience of a team of geneticists, working in partnership with a Brazilian social movement aimed at promoting the rights of victims of Hansen's disease. These university researchers propose to use DNA test results to ascertain kinship connections and thereby reunite families that were sundered apart by draconian state policies of the mid-twentieth century that decreed the forced segregation of leprosy patients and the institutionalization of their children. The team's aim is to help revert stigma and reinforce positive group identity as well as to facilitate judicial claims to moral and financial reparation from the Brazilian state. We will discuss how, notwithstanding the voluntary nature of tests, mediated at all times through the social movement, the geneticists take care to follow clear ethical guidelines in the collection and stocking of DNA samples as well as in the devolution of test results. The subsequent inclusion of anthropologists in the team brings to the fore new ethical dilemmas ranging from procedures in field research to the possible consequences of research results. PMID:25966990

  1. [Parte III. Ethical and juridical aspects in end-stage chronic organ failures. A position paper on a shared care planning].

    PubMed

    Barbisan, Camillo; Casonato, Carlo; Palermo Fabris, Elisabetta; Piccinni, Mariassunta; Zatti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The specific target of an experts panel was to assess in terms of law and ethics the compliance of a new specific decision making algorithm described in the position paper proposed by the Gruppo di Lavoro Insufficienze Croniche d'Organo, with the main goal of the position paper consisting in the shared care planning process. The following specific aspects were assessed by the experts: a) the impact on case law and statute law of a new clinical pathway shared by scientific societies in light of good clinical practice and scientific evidence; b) the relevance of all tools useful to identify the appropriateness of care pathways, recognizing responsibilities and decision-making skills related to the end of life choices made by all stakeholders involved (healthcare professionals, patients and their beloved ones); c) the consistency of the healthcare professionals duties proposed in the position paper with the Italian legal order; d) the opportunity to take into account the role of all healthcare providers involved in care relationship; e) the consistency of the definition of patient rights at the end of life as proposed in the position paper with the Italian legal order and the relevance in this context of simultaneous palliative care; f) the relevance of shared care planning and its consistency with the proposed operative tools; g) the relevance of the conscientious objection issue and the compliance of management tools proposed in the position paper with the results of ethical and legal considerations; h) considerations about available resources allocation. PMID:24553594

  2. Legislative and ethical aspects of introducing new technologies in medical care for senior citizens in developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Kacetl, Jaroslav; Maresova, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The majority of developed countries are currently experiencing demographic aging. The most frequently expressed concerns related to the changing age structure are the increased costs of social and medical care, a lack of labor force in the job market, and financial sustainability of the pension system. These concerns are often based on the pessimistic view of population aging. This view understands aging as a prolonged period of illness and suffering. On the other hand, optimists believe that a longer life span is a result of increased quality of life and better health care. The quality of life may be improved not only by medicaments, but also by rapidly developing area of medical devices, which allow better care for seniors in many areas. Aim This contribution aims to assess the legislative environment and ethical questions related to the use of medical devices, especially medical devices, in medical care for senior citizens. Methods The methods used in this study are literature reviews of legislative and ethical environment in the European Union (EU) and the US. Results Main findings of this study result from assessing the state of medical device regulations in Europe and the US. Namely, the US regulation seems to be better arranged, which is probably due to the fact that there is only one responsible body – the US Food and Drug Administration, which is responsible for all medical device regulations. On the other hand, in the EU, talks about new legislation are led by ministers from all the EU member states and it may take a long time before all the EU countries come to an agreement. PMID:27499618

  3. Ethics for Industrial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Balamuralikrishna, Radha

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes aim at one specific, as well as basic, need in teamwork and interdisciplinary projects--ethics and its implications for professional practice. A preliminary study suggests that students majoring in industrial technology degree programs may not have adequate opportunity to formally study and engage in ethical aspects of technology…

  4. Ethics Training: Facing the Tough Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chris

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of ethics in business: recent trends in business, definitions of ethics, ways of applying the Golden Rule, management's role, educating people to think about ethics differently, beyond ethics training, making standards clear and sticking to them, and the belief that people want to do the right thing. (CT)

  5. Fieldwork and Cooperative Learning in Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loui, Michael C.

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration in professional ethics, describes in detail the distinctive aspects of two University of Illinois ethics courses (Engineering Ethics and Professional Ethics), and discusses the pedagogical value of the collaborative fieldwork assignment in both courses. (EV)

  6. Blackballing: Professional and Ethical Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Publications Research Service, Washington, DC.

    Commentaries concerning the objective selection of scientists by their peers for membership in professional organizations and institutes are presented in this article published in the USSR. The case of negative balloting on L. S. Salyamon at the Learned Council of the Soviet Scientific Research Institute of Oncology is the main concern. An…

  7. [Pain and suffering. Ethics aspects].

    PubMed

    Gasull, María

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of pain and suffering have evolved throughout the different stages of history. In modern times, pain, thanks to scientific and technological advances has been dealt with more efficiently although there is still a long way to go towards the relief of suffering due to its complexity. Good nursing care requires nurses to have good training as well as having the ability to relate to patients. They also need professional maturity in order to deal with emotional problems arising from pain and suffering. New nursing theories place responsibility with the nurse when treating the challenges brought about by pain and suffering. PMID:20825144

  8. Ethical and technical considerations for the creation of cell lines in the head & neck and tissue harvesting for research and drug development (Part II): Ethical aspects of obtaining tissue specimens

    PubMed Central

    Upile, Tahwinder; Jerjes, Waseem; Kafas, Panagiotis; Singh, Sandeep U; Mahil, Jaspal; Sandison, Ann; Hopper, Colin; Sudhoff, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Background Although much has been published for the development of cell lines, these were lab based and developed for scientific technical staff. Objective of review We discuss the ethical implications of tissue retention and present a generic consent form (Part II). We also present a simple and successful protocol for the development of cell lines and tissue harvesting for the clinical scientist (Part I). Conclusion Consent is also more proximate and assurance can be given of appropriate usage. Ethical questions concerning tissue ownership are in many institutions raised during the current consenting procedure. We provide a robust ethical framework, based on the current legislation, which allows clinicians to be directly involved in cell and tissue harvesting. PMID:19344502

  9. A review of Indian psychiatry research and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Ethics does not seem to be a favorite topic of Indian authors. Electronic search of the IJP web site could only identify six articles which were directly related to ethics. One article discussed the relationship of ethics religion and psychiatry. Another editorial discussed the concept of responsibility in psychiatrists. Other editorial discussed the truth about ‘truth serum’ in legal investigations. One article discussed the ethical aspects of published research. There were two articles that specifically discussed ethical aspects. This write-up provides some details about the ethical aspects of psychiatric practice, specific to India, and emphasizes the need to rediscover ethics in India. PMID:21836698

  10. Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Ann E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses professional ethics in librarianship as system of values and rules that govern way in which librarians view and practice their profession. Background, definition of terms (ethics, professional), development of codes of ethics, history of American Library Association Code of Ethics and 1981 statement, and role of education are covered.…

  11. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile. PMID:25853684

  12. Ethical stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions. PMID:17470069

  13. Situating Ethics in Games Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Joy

    2013-01-01

    This paper posits that Inventing Games (IG), an aspect of the games curriculum based on principles of Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), opens up important spaces for teaching social and ethical understanding. Games have long been regarded as a site for moral development. For most teachers, however, ethical principles have been seen as…

  14. A systems approach to ethical problems.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Patrick; Hern, Riley

    1991-01-01

    Codes of professional ethics and cases designed to teach ethical decision making are written for individual professionals and ignore the systems level of analysis. They typically employ a lineal view of causality and overvalue placement of blame as a component of ethical problem solving. This article takes a systems approach to ethical problems and identifies aspects of systems that promote or impede ethical decision making. Psychological abuse of children is used as an example of a problem requiring a coordinated, systemic response to ethical issues such as autonomy, privacy, and confidentiality. PMID:11653074

  15. Some ethical aspects of xenotransplantation in light of the proposed European directive on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes.

    PubMed

    Jorqui-Azofra, M; Romeo-Casabona, C M

    2010-01-01

    Unlike what has happened in other times, society in general and especially the scientific community has become aware that animals share our sensitivity to pain and the capacity to suffer. In this regard, it is generally accepted that animals must be protected from all types of abuse. In fact, it is unavoidable today that animals used in scientific experiments enjoy the maximum degree of protection and well-being. This view is based on an ecocentric notion of living matter as opposed to the traditional anthropocentric approach because it has become evident that ethics should not be limited to those belonging to the same species. Likewise, there is a broad consensus-with the exception of members of certain animal protection groups-regarding the need to experiment with animals, when no alternative methods (AM) are available, given that the current state of scientific knowledge still does not allow for this type of experimentation to be entirely abolished. Nevertheless, we must keep in mind that not every scientific procedure in which animals are used is legitimate. On one side of the scale that symbolizes the legislation in this field, we find the weight of science and safety, and on the other side, the weight of ethics. In this article we have reviewed some of the main ethical criteria that serve as a basis to balance the scale, in other words, to guide and legalize animal experimentation in the field of xenotransplantation (XT). To that end, we take into account the current revisions made to the European Directive regarding the welfare of animals used in scientific procedures (86/609/EEC), in order to reflect, in turn, on the following issue: where is European institutional ethics headed on this issue? PMID:20692423

  16. Ethical aspects of informed consent for the collection, preservation and use of cells and tissues in biological banks for research purposes.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the current and proposed requirements for informed consent for research with biological samples. The establishment of biobanks and the capabilities of collecting, storing, and using cells and tissues for research purposes have noticeably grown. With new abilities come new challenges to ethical questions of consent, specifically concerning genetic information, and unanticipated usage. This paper summarizes these issues in the context of levels of informed consent, subject risk, individual vs. societal benefits, anonymity, legal consensus. PMID:23115828

  17. Ethics and education.

    PubMed

    Birkelund, R

    2000-11-01

    In the debate concerning the education of nurses that is currently taking place in Denmark, two widely differing views are apparent regarding the best way of training nurses such that the ethical aspect of their work is adequately considered. The first of these is based on the premise that practical care is fundamental to and justified by theories on nursing, care and ethics, which is why the theoretical part of nurse education deserves a higher priority. The second view is based on the premise that social care cannot be taught by means of theories, but can be learnt only through practice. The master-apprentice principle of ancient Greece is stressed in connection with this as being a viable alternative to the theoretical model of education. These two very different views can be traced back to Plato's and Aristotle's ideas on ethics and teaching respectively; indeed, those engaged in the debate make specific reference to these philosophers. In Denmark, a third fundamental viewpoint exists, known as 'ontological ethics'. Phenomenologist KE Løgstrup is one of the best-known representatives of this view. Basing the line of argument on Løgstrup's ethics and the view of education associated with this, this article questions the relevance of ancient Greek thought to today's world by illustrating a number of problems that are connected with the theoretical model of nurse education and with the master-apprentice principle. Løgstrup associates ethics with the aesthetic principle that 'the useless is the most useful' in human life and with the view we also see in Kierkegaard's and NFS Grundtvig's writings that ethics can be imparted only by indirect means. Løgstrup bases his understanding of ethics on the Judaeo-Christian concept of Genesis and the view that human beings were created with an ethical potential that is best nourished by aesthetic impressions. PMID:11221389

  18. Ethical Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  19. Professional Ethics for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    2005-05-01

    There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

  20. [Newborn at the limit of viability. Part 2: Recommendations regarding treatment of mother and newborn at the limit of viability considering ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    The first Polish recommendations regarding the treatment of mothers and infants born at the limit of viability are the result of 1,5 years of work by the Team for Ethical Recommendations in Perinatology, consisting not only of gynecologists-obstetricians and neonatologists, but also geneticists, psychologists, ethics specialists, philosophers and lawyers. Their development was based on similar standards already existing in other European countries, as well as in Australia, Canada and the USA. The recommendations were accepted by the National Consultant for Neonatology, Polish Gynecological Society, Polish Perinatal Medicine Society and Polish Pediatric Society. The Recommendations indicate ethical problems and presented transfer of information among the members of the treatment team as well as between the team and the parents of extremely immature newborns. The necessity of informing parents about their infant's chances for survival has been emphasized, as well as the need to hear their opinions and expectations. A Prenatal Consultation Card and Newborn Treatment Card have been attached to the recommendations, as a tool for presenting decisions and parents' opinions. Problems concerning accurate determination of gestational age and biological maturity of the foetus have also been discussed. Furthermore, on the basis of international research, morbidity and mortality data on infants born at the limit of viability have been presented. The paper also presents recommendations concerning: in utero transport, cesarean section and undertaking resuscitation as opposed to palliative care in newborns depending on their gestational age. It has been emphasized that gestational age cannot be the only criteria in the course of making decisions. Individual pre- and post-natal factors influencing the prognosis should also be taken into account. Recommendations allow both for the situation when the gestational age is precisely determined and when it is uncertain. Attention has been

  1. Teaching Business Ethics after the Financial Meltdown: Is It Time for Ethics with a Sermon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Frank J.; Mulvaney, Toni P.; Swerdlow, Marleen R.

    2010-01-01

    Our country is faced with a financial crisis of mammoth proportions: a crisis rooted in ethics, or rather, the lack of ethics. Critics are increasingly complaining that business schools focus too much teaching effort on maximizing shareholder value, with only a limited understanding of ethical and social aspects of business leadership. Business…

  2. Consenting futures: professional views on social, clinical and ethical aspects of information feedback to embryo donors in human embryonic stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Ehrich, Kathryn; Williams, Clare; Farsides, Bobbie

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports from an ongoing multidisciplinary, ethnographic study that is exploring the views, values and practices (the ethical frameworks) drawn on by professional staff in assisted conception units and stem cell laboratories in relation to embryo donation for research purposes, particularly human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, in the UK. We focus here on the connection between possible incidental findings and the circumstances in which embryos are donated for hESC research, and report some of the uncertainties and dilemmas of our staff participants. We explore the views of our study participants in relation to two themes: (1) rights to information and anticipating how donors might be informed about future research findings and (2) occupational work goals and trust. PMID:21666741

  3. Iconoclastic ethics.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1984-12-01

    Arguments are advanced, on a pragmatic basis, for preferring a 'situational' approach to medical ethical problems, rather than an approach based on any one of the dogmatic formulations on offer. The consequences of such a preference are exemplified in relation to confidentiality; and in relation to the ethical dilemmas which surround the beginning and the end of terrestrial human life. PMID:6520850

  4. Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2004-01-01

    All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

  5. An African ethic for nursing?

    PubMed

    Haegert, S

    2000-11-01

    This article derives from a doctoral thesis in which a particular discourse was used as a 'paradigm case'. From this discourse an ethic set within a South African culture arose. Using many cultural 'voices' to aid the understanding of this narrative, the ethic shows that one can build on both a 'justice' and a 'care' ethic. With further development based on African culture one can take the ethic of care deeper and reveal 'layers of understanding'. Care, together with compassion, forms the foundation of morality. Nursing ethics has followed particular western moral philosophers. Often nursing ethics has been taught along the lines of Kohlberg's theory of morality, with its emphasis on rules, rights, duties and general obligations. These principles were universalistic, masculine and noncontextual. However, there is a new ethical movement among Thomist philosophers along the lines to be expounded in this article. Nurses such as Benner, Bevis, Dunlop, Fry and Gadow--to name but a few--have welcomed the concept of an 'ethic of care'. Gilligan's work gave a feminist view and situated ethics in the everyday aspects of responsiveness, responsibility, context and concern. Shutte's search for a 'philosophy for Africa' has resulted in finding similarities in Setiloane and in Senghor with those of Thomist philosophers. Using this African philosophy and a research participant's narrative, an African ethic evolves out of the African proverb: 'A person is a person through other persons', or its alternative rendering: 'I am because we are: we are because I am.' This hermeneutic narrative reveals 'the way affect imbues activity with ethical meaning' within the context of a black nursing sister in a rural South African hospital. It expands upon the above proverb and incorporates the South African constitutional idea of 'Ubuntu' (compassion and justice or humanness). PMID:11221391

  6. Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, António

    2012-01-01

    The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity

  7. Ethics in medical curriculum; Ethics by the teachers for students and society

    PubMed Central

    Rameshkumar, Karuna

    2009-01-01

    There are many ethical issues involved in the practice of modern medicine. It can be a simple one-on-one issue with complex ramifications. The training of medical ethics should be a continuous process. The ideal time to introduce ethics is a subject of many debates. Though it has to be introduced during the undergraduate curriculum, it requires reinforcing during specialty training also. The teaching of medical ethics can utilize various methodologies. There should be a proper evaluation of the ethical aspects learned. PMID:19881128

  8. Ethical Orientations for Understanding Business Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Phillip V.; Speck, Henry E., III

    1990-01-01

    Argues that history provides the necessary framework in which both to discuss and to seek answers to the three necessary and sequential questions about business ethics: (1) What is ethics and what does it mean to be ethical? (2) Why be ethical?; and (3) How can one be ethical? (SG)

  9. Ethical Issues for an Editorial Board: "Kairaranga"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John

    2008-01-01

    With academic journals, we think of the ethical aspects of the research contained in the articles rather than with the journal itself. However, journal editing has its own set of ethical concerns, which this article addresses. One is ensuring that the anonymity of institutions and participants, in research and the reporting of practice, is…

  10. Contemporary medical ethics: an overview from Iran.

    PubMed

    Larijani, Bagher; Zahedi, Farzaneh

    2008-12-01

    The growing potential of biomedical technologies has increasingly been associated with discussions surrounding the ethical aspects of the new technologies in different societies. Advances in genetics, stem cell research and organ transplantation are some of the medical issues that have raised important ethical and social issues. Special attention has been paid towards moral ethics in Islam and medical and religious professions in Iran have voiced the requirement for an emphasis on ethics. In the last decade, great strides have been made in biomedical ethics, especially in the field of education, research and legislation. In this article, contemporary medical ethics in Iran, and the related moral philosophy, have been reviewed in brief and we have discussed some of the activities in the field of medical ethics that have been carried out in our country within recent years. These activities have included the establishment of the National and Regional Committees for Medical Research Ethics and the production of national codes of ethics in biomedical research in the 1990 s and the introduction of a comprehensive strategic plan for medical ethics at the national level in 2002. This paper will discuss these issues, along with the production, in 2005, of the Specific National Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research. PMID:19046256

  11. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life‐threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  12. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics and Identity.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Maternal Spindle Transfer (MST). It examines how questions of identity impact on the ethical evaluation of each technique and argues that there is an important difference between the two. PNT, it is argued, is a form of therapy based on embryo modification while MST is, instead, an instance of selective reproduction. The article's main ethical conclusion is that, in some circumstances, there is a stronger obligation to use PNT than MST. PMID:26481204

  13. Ethics in Distance Education: Developing Ethical Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearhart, Deb

    2001-01-01

    Examines the changing world of education through distance education and discusses the need for ethics in distance education. Explains how to ethically develop policy for distance education, including Internet ethics, good practices guidelines, and involving faculty. (LRW)

  14. In a Dimension of Height: Ethics in the Education of Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Aparna Mishra

    2006-01-01

    Ethics penetrates every aspect of Western education. Many of its dominant narratives-- education as salvation, as progress, as panacea, and as liberation, for example--are infused with the ethical. Educators are compelled by ethical callings; in fact, education as the call of the ethical informs the singular and collective identities of educators.…

  15. Private Ethics and Civic Virtue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Lee C.

    The paper delineates areas to investigate when seeking information about political ethics in western society. The main purpose of the paper is to call attention to the relationship of civic virtue to communal politics. Specifically, five questions are posed and answered which deal with various aspects of civic virtue and its relationship to…

  16. Teaching Ethical Issues in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph

    This paper presents a study that investigates the teaching and learning aspects of controversial issues in science education. Teaching ethical issues is mandatory for science teachers in England; however, teachers may experience difficulties in exploring contemporary issues in science due to rapid and unpredictable changes. The study carries an…

  17. Methods and Tools for Ethical Usability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis; Kostrzewa, Agata; Laaksoharju, Mikael

    The objectives of the tutorial are to provide knowledge of basic ethical, psychological and organizational theories that are relevant to consider ethical aspects during design and use of IT systems; knowledge and skills about handling and solving ethical problems in connection with design and use of IT-systems; and skills in using questionnaires, surveys, interviews and the like in connection with software development and IT-use. It contains lectures, workshop and exercises; use of special tools to identify and consider IT ethical issues during planning, construction, installation and use of IT systems; and group exercises where the participants train their ethical skills on IT ethical conflicts and problems. Intended participants are system developers, purchasers, usability experts, academics, HCI teachers.

  18. New developments in international nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Davis, A J

    1989-06-01

    This article has described numerous activities in nursing ethics at international levels. It acknowledges the larger context within which nurses practice by focusing on selected issues involved in resource allocation and death and dying, cross-culturally. The questions raised about universally shared moral principles reflects the larger questions of cultural and ethical relativism. The discussions of new developments in international nursing ethics focuses on international conferences, the teaching of nursing ethics, national nursing associations, and other professional groups that are actively involved in health care or nursing ethics. Finally, the development of international nursing ethics research studies is providing new knowledge about the scope of ethics within nursing and the nature of nursing care worldwide. Nurses are involved in some aspects of these new developments in nursing ethics in all countries. As they examine and reflect on ethical principles, virtues, and on an ethics of caring, they bring a new dimension to their work as nurses. This new dimension stands as one of the oldest and most central foundations in professional nursing. PMID:2726578

  19. Ethics fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession. PMID:22263371

  20. Court of Ethics: Teaching Ethics and Ageing by Means of Role-Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Israel

    2007-01-01

    Technological and scientific developments, progress in the discipline of gerontology, and an ageing population mean that we now have to contend with previously unknown ethical problems. Therefore, the teaching of ethics is an essential element of a comprehensive education in gerontology. This article discusses the unique aspects of gerontology…

  1. Ethical Ideology and Cultural Orientation: Understanding the Individualized Ethical Inclinations of Marketing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Brent

    2009-01-01

    As today's marketing graduates formally enter the business profession, they are expected to demonstrate the fruits of their ethics-intensive education. Hence, their professors and future bosses may call upon these graduates to discern and deal with ethical situations that affect various aspects of company and consumer relations. However, students…

  2. On Change of Concepts: From Teacher's Occupational Ethics to Professional Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Chuan-bao

    2006-01-01

    The transition from experience-based teachers to expertise-based ones has marked a significant phase in the history of human education. The conceptive transition from the general "occupational ethics" of teachers to "professional ethics" is actually an important aspect of the transition from experience-based to expertise-based teachers. The…

  3. Written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia: an empirical-based organizational-ethical framework.

    PubMed

    Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris

    2014-05-01

    As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethical dilemmas in their practice. PMID:24420744

  4. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe…

  5. [The biologization of ethics].

    PubMed

    Moreno Lax, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Three ethics exist as a condition of possibility of any possible ethics, following a material and biological foundation. This content argument (not logical-formal) supposes a refutation of the naturalistic fallacy that the analytical philosophy attributes to Hume, in three areas of the ethical human experience: body, society and nature. These are: the ethics of the species [J. Habermas], the ethics of liberation [E. Dussel] and the ethics of the responsibility [H. Jonas]. This material argument is a philosophical foundation to considering for three types of applied ethics: medical bioethics, development ethics and environmental ethics. PMID:20405971

  6. Some Basics about Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of ethics focuses on the role of human performance technology professionals in helping corporate ethicists. Highlights include definitions of ethics, morals, values, and business ethics; ethics in academia and in business; and application of the knowledge of ethics to decision-making. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)

  7. The Ethic of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  8. Eer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Orwant, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

  9. Writing a Scientific Paper III. Ethical Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, C.

    2011-07-01

    The main theme of this paper is truthful communication of scientific results. Therefore, concepts of truth, error, quality and value are elaborated. The following bibliometric parameters are explained: the journal impact factor, the journal cited half-life, and the journal immediacy index, as well as paper counts, citation rates, citation index and the Hirsch index. These bibliometric indices and indicators are illustrated with examples derived from bibliometric analyses of the astronomical literature. Scientific misconduct in the broadest sense is discussed by category: researcher misconduct, author misconduct, referee and grant-reviewer misconduct. But also publisher misconduct, editorial misconduct and mismanagement, and research supervisor misbehavior are dealt with. The overall signatures of scientific misconduct are focused on, as well as the causes and the cures. This is followed by a Section devoted to whistleblowing. The biases of bibliometric indices, and the use and abuse of bibliometrics are illustrated. Moreover, suggestions for remediating the present defective system of bibliometric measurement and evaluation are worked out. Finally, the hopes and concerns of our students - either expressed during or after the lectures, or through subsequent private contacts - are passed on.

  10. Irrationality: psychological, ethical and legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, A

    1999-01-01

    A definition and a concise classification of irrational mentality and behaviour is proposed in the paper. The basic goal is to reveal the psychological mechanisms of inducing irrational individual and group behaviour by certain social agents. An attempt is made to apply the methodology of self-organization theory to the analysis of psychic equilibrium. The inducing of irrational behaviour is qualified as a crime against the freedom of the individual. In view of its grave social consequences a plea for its serious legal treatment is made. PMID:10436738

  11. [Assisted suicide - medical, legal, and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Bosshard, G

    2012-02-01

    Unlike in most European countries, assisted suicide is not illegal in Switzerland. The number of assisted suicides procured by right-to-die organisations such as Exit or Dignitas has sharply increased in the last twenty years. Central part of the doctor's involvement is the prescription of a lethal dose of sodium pentobarbital. In doing so, the doctor has to apply to the rules of medical due care. A proper examination of the patient is required, who must be informed about his diagnosis, about the expected prognosis, and about different treatment options. Verification of the patient's decisional capacity is crucial. In general, a staff member of the organisation but not the doctor is present during suicide. Following death, the assisted suicide has to be reported to the police as an extraordinary death case. PMID:22294304

  12. [Legal and ethical aspects of drug therapy].

    PubMed

    Gloor, B

    1985-06-01

    Legally speaking, the administration of drugs for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is, in fact, bodily injury which enjoys exemption from punishment only when it is justified and the patient has given his consent. In daily practice the application of relatively low-risk diagnostic drops ought to represent a part of the commission which the patient gives the ophthalmologist in seeking out his practice. The risk involved in diagnostically and therapeutically administered drugs must be reasonably related to the possible advantage to be gained. Therefore, a brief explanation to the patient and the securing of his consent are surely appropriate before the use of a mydriatic in cases with a dangerously narrow chamber angle. Rational therapy with drugs depends on knowledge of their effects. In our specialty this is by no means the case with all drugs. However, there are problems in verifying their efficacy. Personal, practical experience often leads to false conclusions and to perpetuation of the same mistakes. From retrospective studies we can only arrive at reliable conclusions in the case of obvious, gross effects; not even exploratory data analysis provides sure knowledge; at best it established hypotheses. Therefore, the most important means of testing drugs is the prospective controlled study with random distribution of patients into a control group and groups given the test substance. With the help of statistical methods, this leads from ignorance to secure knowledge. Members of the legal profession have expressed their misgivings about randomized studies, partially because they are not familiar with the state of our ignorance and the difficulties involved in testing pharmaceuticals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4046447

  13. Environmental and Ethical Aspects of International Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernethy, Virginia

    1996-01-01

    Well-intentioned U.S. immigration policy has two ill effects in that it encourages the belief that emigration can relieve overpopulation in third-world countries, maintaining high fertility rates, and it results in U.S. domestic population growth that threatens employment opportunities and the environment. (SLD)

  14. Ethics in American Health 1: Ethical Approaches to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

  15. Ethics in American health 1: ethical approaches to health policy.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2008-10-01

    I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

  16. Sports medicine: some ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Sim, J

    1993-06-01

    The ethical aspects of sports medicine have hitherto received little scrutiny, in contrast to its legal implications, which have recently been subject to much greater discussion. However, the differences that are apparent between sports medicine and 'mainstream' areas of clinical practice can shed new light on a number of the central issues within health-care ethics. By means of hypothetical case studies, this paper seeks to examine some of these issues within a sports medicine context. Specific attention will be paid to the concepts of autonomy and paternalism, issues to do with truthfulness, and the question of conflicting professional loyalties. It is suggested that the ethics of sports medicine warrant further and more detailed examination. PMID:8358592

  17. Ethics of clinical trials in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Okonta, Patrick I.

    2014-01-01

    The conduct of clinical trials for the development and licensing of drugs is a very important aspect of healthcare. Drug research, development and promotion have grown to a multi-billion dollar global business. Like all areas of human endeavour involving generation and control of huge financial resources, it could be subject to deviant behaviour, sharp business practices and unethical practices. The main objective of this review is to highlight potential ethical challenges in the conduct of clinical trials in Nigeria and outline ways in which these can be avoided. Current international and national regulatory and ethical guidelines are reviewed to illustrate the requirements for ethical conduct of clinical trials. Past experiences of unethical conduct of clinical trials especially in developing countries along with the increasing globalisation of research makes it imperative that all players should be aware of the ethical challenges in clinical trials and the benchmarks for ethical conduct of clinical research in Nigeria. PMID:25013247

  18. Who regulates ethics in the virtual world?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Seemu; Lomash, Hitashi; Bawa, Seema

    2015-02-01

    This paper attempts to give an insight into emerging ethical issues due to the increased usage of the Internet in our lives. We discuss three main theoretical approaches relating to the ethics involved in the information technology (IT) era: first, the use of IT as a tool; second, the use of social constructivist methods; and third, the approach of phenomenologists. Certain aspects of ethics and IT have been discussed based on a phenomenological approach and moral development. Further, ethical issues related to social networking sites are discussed. A plausible way to make the virtual world ethically responsive is collective responsibility which proposes that society has the power to influence but not control behavior in the virtual world. PMID:24469471

  19. Ethics in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Jae Young

    2015-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is the most common place to die. Also, ethical conflicts among stakeholders occur frequently in the ICU. Thus, ICU clinicians should be competent in all aspects for ethical decision-making. Major sources of conflicts are behavioral issues, such as verbal abuse or poor communication between physicians and nurses, and end-of-life care issues including a lack of respect for the patient's autonomy. The ethical conflicts are significantly associated with the job strain and burn-out syndrome of healthcare workers, and consequently, may threaten the quality of care. To improve the quality of care, handling ethical conflicts properly is emerging as a vital and more comprehensive area. The ICU physicians themselves need to be more sensitive to behavioral conflicts and enable shared decision making in end-of-life care. At the same time, the institutions and administrators should develop their processes to find and resolve common ethical problems in their ICUs. PMID:26175769

  20. Surgical innovation: the ethical agenda

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Marike L.; Carrière, Michelle E.; Bredenoord, Annelien L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present article was to systematically review the ethics of surgical innovation and introduce the components of the learning health care system to guide future research and debate on surgical innovation. Although the call for evidence-based practice in surgery is increasingly high on the agenda, most surgeons feel that the format of the randomized controlled trial is not suitable for surgery. Innovation in surgery has aspects of, but should be distinguished from both research and clinical care and raises its own ethical challenges. To answer the question “What are the main ethical aspects of surgical innovation?”, we systematically searched PubMed and Embase. Papers expressing an opinion, point of view, or position were included, that is, normative ethical papers. We included 59 studies discussing ethical aspects of surgical innovation. These studies discussed 4 major themes: oversight, informed consent, learning curve, and vulnerable patient groups. Although all papers addressed the ethical challenges raised by surgical innovation, surgeons hold no uniform view of surgical innovation, and there is no agreement on the distinction between innovation and research. Even though most agree to some sort of oversight, they offer different alternatives ranging from the formation of new surgical innovation committees to establishing national registries. Most agree that informed consent is necessary for innovative procedures and that surgeons should be adequately trained to assure their competence to tackle the learning curve problem. All papers agree that in case of vulnerable patients, alternatives must be found for the informed consent procedure. We suggest that the concept of the learning health care system might provide guidance for thinking about surgical innovation. The underlying rationale of the learning health care system is to improve the quality of health care by embedding research within clinical care. Two aspects of a learning health

  1. Teaching ethics using popular songs: feeling and thinking.

    PubMed

    O'Mathúna, Dónal P

    2008-01-01

    A connection has long been made between music and moral education. Recent discussions have focused on concerns that certain lyrics can lead to acceptance of violence, suicide, inappropriate views of women, and other unethical behaviour. Debate over whether such connections exist at least illustrates that popular songs engage listeners with ethical issues; this arises from the unique blend of emotional and cognitive reactions to music. And while the emotional side of ethics has received less attention than other aspects of ethics, it is important and music can be a powerful and unique tool to introduce the emotional aspects of ethics. Music appeals to almost everyone. Throughout history songs have rallied people to action and drawn people into deeper reflection. Music engages our emotions, our imagination and our intellect. Students already spend many hours listening to songs, some of which address ethical issues; it is thus an ideal pedagogic aid in teaching subjects like ethics. This article will discuss how carefully selected songs can encourage thoughtful reflection and critical thinking about ethical issues: a number of specific examples will be described, along with a discussion of the general practicalities of using popular songs in teaching ethics and a demonstration of how students learn to listen critically and actively reflect on the ethical messages they receive. The enjoyment of music helps to engage students with ethics and its relevance for their lives and careers. This article aims to share some of the excitement and enthusiasm that popular songs have brought to my teaching of ethics. PMID:19205315

  2. The Ethics of Sports Medicine Research.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Robert J; Reider, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    This article explores the background and foundations of ethics in research. Some important documents and codes are mentioned, such as The Belmont Report and the International Conference of Harmonisation. Some influential historical events involving research ethics are recounted. The article provides a detailed discussion of the Declaration of Helsinki, which is considered the international standard for guidelines in medical research ethics. The most salient features of the Declaration are described and related to orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. Some of the most controversial aspects of the Declaration are discussed, which helps examine contentious areas of research in sports medicine. PMID:26832979

  3. Ethics, Ricoeur And Philosophy: Ethical Teacher Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Baumann, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This work is about the ethics of education, and about philosophy as a discipline that can help us to help children look at ethics afresh. The study and practice of ethics is about morals and uncertainties and, as such, poses problems for the research community. The philosopher Ricoeur challenges research as only one way to find meaning in the…

  4. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  5. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  6. Ethical breakdowns.

    PubMed

    Bazerman, Max H; Tenbrunsel, Ann E

    2011-04-01

    Companies are spending a great deal of time and money to install codes of ethics, ethics training, compliance programs, and in-house watchdogs. If these efforts worked, the money would be well spent. But unethical behavior appears to be on the rise. The authors observe that even the best-intentioned executives may be unaware of their own or their employees' unethical behavior. Drawing from extensive research on cognitive biases, they offer five reasons for this blindness and suggest what to do about them. Ill-conceived goals may actually encourage negative behavior. Brainstorm unintended consequences when devising your targets. Motivated blindness makes us overlook unethical behavior when remaining ignorant would benefit us. Root out conflicts of interest. Indirect blindness softens our assessment of unethical behavior when it's carried out by third parties. Take ownership of the implications when you outsource work. The slippery slope mutes our awareness when unethical behavior develops gradually. Be alert for even trivial infractions and investigate them immediately. Overvaluing outcomes may lead us to give a pass to unethical behavior. Examine good outcomes to ensure they're not driven by unethical tactics. PMID:21510519

  7. Ethics in Clinical Research: The Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sanmukhani, J.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the ‘Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects’ in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

  8. Ethics in clinical research: the Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanmukhani, J; Tripathi, C B

    2011-03-01

    Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the 'Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects' in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

  9. Genetically Modified (GM) Foods and Ethical Eating.

    PubMed

    Dizon, Francis; Costa, Sarah; Rock, Cheryl; Harris, Amanda; Husk, Cierra; Mei, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The ability to manipulate and customize the genetic code of living organisms has brought forth the production of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and consumption of genetically modified (GM) foods. The potential for GM foods to improve the efficiency of food production, increase customer satisfaction, and provide potential health benefits has contributed to the rapid incorporation of GM foods into the American diet. However, GM foods and GMOs are also a topic of ethical debate. The use of GM foods and GM technology is surrounded by ethical concerns and situational judgment, and should ideally adhere to the ethical standards placed upon food and nutrition professionals, such as: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy. The future of GM foods involves many aspects and trends, including enhanced nutritional value in foods, strict labeling laws, and potential beneficial economic conditions in developing nations. This paper briefly reviews the origin and background of GM foods, while delving thoroughly into 3 areas: (1) GMO labeling, (2) ethical concerns, and (3) health and industry applications. This paper also examines the relationship between the various applications of GM foods and their corresponding ethical issues. Ethical concerns were evaluated in the context of the code of ethics developed by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) that govern the work of food and nutrition professionals. Overall, there is a need to stay vigilant about the many ethical implications of producing and consuming GM foods and GMOs. PMID:26709962

  10. [Ethics in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters." PMID:24290007

  11. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  12. Character-Based Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jasper

    1996-01-01

    In the ethical arena, our society offers the choice of an ethics of emotion versus an ethics of rules, inadequate choices when compared to ethics based in strong moral character. Moral education and character development are basic elements of adventure and experiential education, and practitioners achieve excellence in practice only when they…

  13. Setting Ethical Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Judith; Perry, David

    1992-01-01

    School systems are advised to take a lesson from corporations who have created a code of ethical conduct for their employees and have implemented ethics training programs. Outlines steps to create a code of ethical conduct and cites five examples of corporations' ethical codes on the topic of nepotism. (MLF)

  14. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    PubMed

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008. PMID:19235389

  15. Ethics by opinion poll? The functions of attitudes research for normative deliberations in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Salloch, Sabine; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Empirical studies on people's moral attitudes regarding ethically challenging topics contribute greatly to research in medical ethics. However, it is not always clear in which ways this research adds to medical ethics as a normative discipline. In this article, we aim to provide a systematic account of the different ways in which attitudinal research can be used for normative reflection. In the first part, we discuss whether ethical judgements can be based on empirical work alone and we develop a sceptical position regarding this point, taking into account theoretical, methodological and pragmatic considerations. As empirical data should not be taken as a direct source for normative justification, we then delineate different ways in which attitudes research can be combined with theoretical accounts of normative justification in the second part of the article. Firstly, the combination of attitudes research with normative-ethical theories is analysed with respect to three different aspects: (a) The extent of empirical data which is needed, (b) the question of which kind of data is required and (c) the ways in which the empirical data are processed within the framework of an ethical theory. Secondly, two further functions of attitudes research are displayed which lie outside the traditional focus of ethical theories: the exploratory function of detecting and characterising new ethical problems, and the field of 'moral pragmatics'. The article concludes with a methodological outlook and suggestions for the concrete practice of attitudinal research in medical ethics. PMID:23632008

  16. Institutional ethics review of clinical study agreements.

    PubMed

    DuVal, G

    2004-02-01

    Clinical Study Agreements (CSAs) can have profound effects both on the protection of human subjects and on the independence of investigators to conduct research with scientific integrity. Sponsors, institutions, and even investigators may fail to give adequate attention to these issues in the negotiation of CSAs. Despite the key role of CSAs in structuring ethically important aspects of research, they remain largely unregulated and unreviewed for adherence to ethical norms. Academic institutions routinely enter into research contracts that fail to meet adequate ethical standards. This is a failing that can have serious consequences. Accordingly, it is necessary that some independent body have the authority both to review research contracts for compliance with norms of subject protection and ethical integrity, and to reject studies that fail to meet ethical standards. Such review should take place prior to the start of research, not later. Because of its expertise and authority, the institutional ethics review board (IRB or REB) is the appropriate body to undertake such review. Much recent commentary has focused on contractual restrictions on the investigator's freedom to publish research findings. The Olivieri experience, and that of other investigators, has brought freedom of publication issues into sharp focus. Clinical study agreements also raise a number of other ethical issues relating to human subjects and research integrity, however, including disclosures relating to patient safety, data analysis and reporting, budget, confidentiality, and premature termination of the study. This paper describes the ethical issues at stake in structuring such agreements and suggests ethical standards to guide institutional ethics review. PMID:14872068

  17. Ethical and Professional Issues with Computer-Related Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Virginia Smith; Carlson, Janet F.

    2003-01-01

    School psychologists have an ethical imperative to determine the ways computers can facilitate practice because of the potential to improve effectiveness and efficiency. At the same time, psychologists have a parallel imperative to consider carefully ethical and professional practice implications. The aspects of computers that render them most…

  18. Ethical Issues in Mentoring Adults in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansman, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines practical problems encountered in mentoring adult learners in higher education through stories of ethical dilemmas. Each incident illustrates the power that mentors possess and the ethical challenges of using this power to help or hurt proteges. Each example addresses an aspect of such power; the power to remove oneself as a…

  19. The Academic Ethic and the Transition to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William L.; Zhang, Pidi

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates one aspect of the transition of students from high school to college. It assesses whether students who had an academic ethic in high school performed better in their first semester of college than students who did not possess an academic ethic in high school. Survey data were collected from students at a medium-sized state…

  20. Faculty's Perceptions of Teaching Ethics and Leadership in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSagheer, Abdullah; Al-Sagheer, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper addressed the faculty's perception of engineering ethics and leadership training. The study looks into the present state of and methodologies for teaching engineering ethics and leadership and aims to determine the faculty's perception of an identified gap in this aspect of engineering education. Engineering education has strong ethics…

  1. Keeping it Ethically Real.

    PubMed

    Ho, Dien

    2016-08-01

    Many clinical ethicists have argued that ethics expertise is impossible. Their skeptical argument usually rests on the assumptions that to be an ethics expert is to know the correct moral conclusions, which can only be arrived at by having the correct ethical theories. In this paper, I argue that this skeptical argument is unsound. To wit, ordinary ethical deliberations do not require the appeal to ethical or meta-ethical theories. Instead, by agreeing to resolve moral differences by appealing to reasons, the participants agree to the Default Principle-a substantive rule that tells us how to adjudicate an ethical disagreement. The Default Principle also entails a commitment to arguments by parity, and together these two methodological approaches allow us to make genuine moral progress without assuming any deep ethical principles. Ethical expertise, in one sense, is thus the ability and knowledge to deploy the Default Principle and arguments by parity. PMID:27256847

  2. Educating about biomedical research ethics.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, Bratislav; Stankovic, Mirjana

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the global and worsening problem of research misconduct as it relates to bio-medico-legal education. While research misconduct has serious legal implications, few adequate legal remedies exist to deal with it. With respect to teaching, research ethics education should be mandatory for biomedical students and physicians. Although teaching alone will not prevent misconduct, it promotes integrity, accountability, and responsibility in research. Policies and law enforcement should send a clear message that researchers should adhere to the highest standards of ethics in research. It is vital that researchers and physicians understand basic aspects of law and the legal system in order to develop understanding of the medico-legal issues not just in the legal context, but with a sound grounding in ethics, social and theoretical contexts so that they can practice good medicine. Routine and holistic research ethics education across the curriculum for medical students and resident physicians, and continuing medical education for practicing doctors, are probably the best ways to accomplish this goal. PMID:24752379

  3. Music Piracy--Differences in the Ethical Perceptions of Business Majors and Music Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Susan Lee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated the ethical perceptions of business majors and music business majors from a private university and observed whether the taking of a business ethics course affected students' perceptions regarding the ethical aspects of downloading, sharing, copying, and selling copyrighted music from Internet and non-Internet…

  4. Students' Ethical Decision-Making in an Information Technology Context: A Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemenschneider, Cynthia K.; Leonard, Lori N. K.; Manly, Tracy S.

    2011-01-01

    Business educators have increased the focus on ethics in the classroom. In order for students to become ethical professionals, they must first be held to an ethical standard as students. As information technology continues to permeate every aspect of students' lives, it becomes increasingly important to understand student decision-making in this…

  5. If Ethics Committees were Designed for Ethnography.

    PubMed

    Tolich, Martin; Fitzgerald, Maureen H

    2006-06-01

    WHERE DID THE ETHICS REVIEW PROCESS go wrong for qualitative research, and how can we make it right, or at least better? This paper begins with an excerpt from an ethnography of attempting to attend an ethics review-related workshop, which exemplifies that the ethics-review process is based on epistemological assumptions aligned with positivistic research, and does not fit the qualitative research process. We suggest that a new format for ethics review, based on assumptions associated with qualitative research and ethnography, might be a better fit. In this model the researcher becomes the expert and the committee the learner or ethnographer. In this process the ethics review process is guided by four core open-ended questions that facilitate a fuller and richer exchange of information. The second part of this paper presents strategies that may lessen the risks associated with the unknown or emergent aspects of qualitative research. These strategies include a dual consent process and the co-opting of journal editors or thesis review boards to review ethical considerations prior to publication or sign off, and a renewed focus of ethics training. PMID:19385879

  6. Ethics and policy: dealing with public attitudes.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, M

    2008-01-01

    The current trend towards ethical scrutiny and oversight is very much a social trend. Many of the results of this trend are perfectly reasonable but some go harmfully too far. In this paper, caution is advocated about public attitudes and social trends. Although there is often a degree of truth in them, there is an inevitable simplification of the issues involved. The more specific danger for the professions is to think that public attitudes and social trends simply deliver 'the ethical'. In this context a more adequate account of ethics is considered--one that is relevant for professions like radiology confronting the demands of ethical scrutiny and oversight. The paper concludes with some suggestions about how to incorporate the important aspects of public attitudes and social trends without being subservient to them. PMID:18593686

  7. Ethical issues in artificial nutrition and hydration.

    PubMed

    Fine, Robert L

    2006-04-01

    From the time of Hippocrates, approximately 2500 years ago, medical ethics has been seen as an essential complement to medical science in pursuit of the healing art of medicine. This is no less true today, not only for physicians but also for other essential professionals involved in patient care, including clinical nutrition support practitioners. One aspect of medical ethics that the clinical nutritionist must face involves decisions to provide, withhold, or withdraw artificial nutrition and hydration. Such a decision is not only technical but often has a strong moral component as well. Although it is the physician who writes any such order, the clinical nutritionist as fellow professional should be a part not only of the scientific aspects of the order but of the moral discourse leading to such an order and may certainly be involved in counseling physicians, other healthcare providers, patients, and families alike. This paper is intended to give the clinical nutritionist a familiarity with the discipline of medical ethics and its proper relationship to medical science, politics, and law. This review will then offer a more specific analysis of the ethical aspects of decisions to initiate, withhold, or withdraw artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) and offer particular commentary on the ethically significant pronouncements of Pope John Paul II in March of 2004 related to vegetative patients and artificial or "assisted" nutrition and hydration. PMID:16556921

  8. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  9. Ethics for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  10. Persuasion as Ethical Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1985-01-01

    States that teachers should help students understand in practical terms how to recognize good ethical persuasion and to understand when even distinguished, honest, and moral writers might need to resort to "unfair ethical persuasion." (EL)

  11. Technical Note: Ethical Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, J.

    Ethical economics is inspirational, expanding our vision beyond the narrow self-interest of the theoretical economic man. Ethical economics sees more value in space settlement than conventional economic calculations that can inappropriately discount the value of the future.

  12. Institutionalizing Ethics in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumback, Gary B.

    1992-01-01

    Ways to institutionalize ethics in government agencies include demonstrating moral leadership, making it a job qualification, training, establishing and enforcing a code, and including ethics in personnel management and performance appraisal. (SK)

  13. [Toward a practical ethic].

    PubMed

    Vanbelle, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way. PMID:18506970

  14. Ethics in the classroom: a reflection on integrating ethical discussions in an introductory course in computer programming.

    PubMed

    Smolarski, D C; Whitehead, T

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent approaches to introducing students in a beginning computer science class to the study of ethical issues related to computer science and technology. This consists of three components: lectures on ethics and technology, in-class discussion of ethical scenarios, and a reflective paper on a topic related to ethics or the impact of technology on society. We give both student reactions to these aspects, and instructor perspective on the difficulties and benefits in exposing students to these ideas. PMID:11273452

  15. Giftedness and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    What is, or should be, the role of ethics in giftedness? In this article, I consider why ethical behavior is much harder to come by than one would expect. Ethical behavior requires completion of a series of eight steps to action, the failure of any one of which may result in a person, even one who is ethically well trained, to act in a manner that…

  16. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  17. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics. PMID:27261069

  18. Ethical Issues in Teaching about Research Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Keith B.; Lidstone, John G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes experiences teaching ethical issues in the conduct of research over several semesters using a simulation of research into obedience by S. Milgram in the early 1960s. Describes students' reactions to the simulation at emotional and intellectual levels and discusses the ethical dilemma these reactions have created for teachers…

  19. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  20. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  1. Making Ethics Come Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueeney, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

  2. Ethics across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matchett, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    All colleges teach ethics across their undergraduate curricula, yet relatively few institutions do so deliberately. That is, few colleges make explicit attempts to coordinate or integrate the various ethical lessons their students might be learning. This does not mean that most colleges are bad for students' ethical development; research shows…

  3. Ethics and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, James; French, Peter; Cranston-Gingras, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of ethics in special education focuses on four challenges: (1) examination of special education's history within an ethical framework; (2) articulation of character morality as well as choice morality in special education ethical dilemmas; (3) examination of special education in a liberal democracy; and (4) development of an ethical…

  4. Ethics in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, H. O.

    The definition and role of ethics in higher education in agriculture are discussed. The ethical dimensions of recent events in agricultural education and agricultural science are discussed, including the ethics implicit in federal regulations and court decisions, changes in the backgrounds, experiences and values of students choosing agriculture,…

  5. Ethics and Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Elena S.

    1997-01-01

    While revised ethical codes provide helpful guidelines, reference archivists face many ethical questions raised by rapidly evolving technology, changing expectations, and inconsistent privacy laws that have no clear answers. Discusses issues related to reference searching, codification of ethics, cultural property and the responsibility of…

  6. Ethics in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, E. Lander

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

  7. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  8. Professional Ethics in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin

    Major problems and issues of ethics in elementary, secondary, and higher education are examined. The function and present status of professional ethics are considered, along with specific codes of ethics, including those of the National Education Association, American Association of University Professors, and the American Association of School…

  9. The Evolution of Ethics.

    PubMed

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Ethical issues and dilemmas span from conception to the grave. The interconnectedness of advocacy, ethics, and end of life/death with dignity are woven into this issue of the Professional Case Management journal. Case management is a critical member of the team when these discussions arise. And knowledge of the issues, along with legal, ethical, and professional codes, is highlighted. PMID:27231955

  10. Ethics-R-Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Stanley L.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines this issue of "Social Work," which addresses ethical issues relevant to the profession, including how to prepare students for the complex task of ethical decision-making; attitudes about sexual contact with clients; legal concerns regarding sexual harassment and confidentiality; the nature of ethics violations; approaches to new and…

  11. Ethical Issues in Gerocounseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallaro, Marion L.; Ramsey, Marylou

    1988-01-01

    Combines areas of counseling older adults and maintaining sound ethical practices in professional counseling by enumerating some ethical dilemmas encountered in gerocounseling, examining the American Association for Counseling and Development Ethical Standards (1981), and suggesting options for handling conflicts that may arise. (Author/NB)

  12. Designing an Ethics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  13. Ethics in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugnet, Chris, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Representatives of five library integrated system vendors express their views on ethics and the marketplace, emphasizing the need for ethical behavior by librarians, consultants, and vendors. Four sidebars are included: one on the need for customer data rights standards; others containing the codes of ethics of three professional consultants'…

  14. Nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: a longitudinal study of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gaudine, Alice; Thorne, Linda

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals with organizational commitment, stress, turnover intention, absence and turnover. Participants were 410 nurses working at four different Canadian hospitals. A longitudinal design was used where nurses completed a questionnaire to capture ethical conflict, stress and organizational commitment, and one year later, measures of turnover intention, absence and actual turnover were obtained for the same sample. We found three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: patient care values, value of nurses, and staffing policy values. Our findings showed that all three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict are associated with stress and patient care values is associated with actual turnover. We also found that staffing policy values is predictive of turnover intention, and that patient care values is predictive of absenteeism. Thus, our findings show the multidimensionality of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals. Further implications of our findings for practice and theory are discussed. PMID:22619238

  15. Ethnicity, Ethics, and the Deaf-World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Harlan

    2005-01-01

    This article is concerned with ethical aspects of the relations between language minorities using signed languages (called the Deaf-World) and the larger societies that engulf them. The article aims to show that such minorities have the properties of ethnic groups, and that an unsuitable construction of the Deaf-World as a disability group has…

  16. Ethics, Evaluation, and Training in Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzman, Marc; Mitnick, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    This article deals with major ethical issues in training for work in the alcoholism field at this time in the United States. It illustrates how value judgments permeate every aspect of training and treatment and must be confronted directly and continually, and shows how to confront them in organization, evaluation, methodology and content. (LPG)

  17. Libraries and the Ethics of Censorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of literature pertaining to the subject of censorship in modern libraries. It interrogates the literature in terms of the ethical debates informing much of the contemporary academic writing on this subject. A multi-pronged approach to the subject is adopted. The review includes evaluations of the relevant aspects of…

  18. Exploring the Ethical Implications of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) represent a potentially exciting opportunity to use technology to realise many of the long-promised benefits of universal higher education. While there are many positive aspects to the MOOCs on offer and in development, there are also significant ethical concerns arising from various initiatives. These include…

  19. Ethical Issues in Bereavement Research: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Alicia Skinner

    1995-01-01

    Guidelines for the conduct of ethical research are reviewed and applied to the field of thanatology. Unique aspects of bereavement studies are identified and are discussed in the context of socially sensitive research. Topics include: freedom for subjects to withdraw from research, consideration of risks and benefits, and the qualifications of…

  20. Ethical and Privacy Principles for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Abelardo; Siemens, George

    2014-01-01

    The massive adoption of technology in learning processes comes with an equally large capacity to track learners. Learning analytics aims at using the collected information to understand and improve the quality of a learning experience. The privacy and ethical issues that emerge in this context are tightly interconnected with other aspects such as…

  1. Ethics and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Macnaughton, M

    1990-04-01

    In Western culture, the ethical principles of respect for persons can be further divided into 2 categories - a) autonomy and b) protection of the vulnerable; beneficence; and justice. The principles of ethics can be directed towards 2 levels: microethics - concerned with the individual and macroethics - concerned with the greater community. In the case of obstetrical procedures such as in vitro fertilization, prenatal diagnosis, and fetal sex selection, the principles of microethics and macroethics conflict. The exact number and/or kind of babies may benefit the parents by they may not benefit a society that is expected to accommodate these new members. This aspect can also be addressed when dealing with abortion. Support for and against has led to a questioning and reexamining of present abortion laws; the aim is to either restrict abortion or reduce the abortion time limit from 28 to 24 weeks. Policies of the United States have an effect on other policies, worldwide. Abortions are needed as a form of birth control in developing countries; 500,000 women/year die from birthing complications and 100,000 die from complications of illegal abortions. There has also been some questioning of in vitro fertilization. Why fertilize a certain number of eggs which may never be allowed to grow and mature? There has also been some questioning of whether or not an embryo in vitro fertilization is a person or not. Deciding the status of the embryo has opened up research possibilities in the United State and the United Kingdom. Discussion on in vitro fertilization has opened up discussion on surrogacy. There seems to be more support for surrogacy in the United States than in the United Kingdom - where there is a restrictive ban on commercial surrogacy. PMID:2327460

  2. Clarifying the Ethical Tendency in Education for Sustainable Development Practice: A Wittgenstein-Inspired Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohman, Johan; Ostman, Leif

    2008-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the debate about the moral and ethical aspects of education for sustainable development by suggesting a clarification of ethics and morals through an investigation of how these aspects appear in educational practice. The ambition is both to point to the normative dangers of education for sustainable development…

  3. Ethical Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Victoroff, Michael S.

    1985-01-01

    The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

  4. Clinical ethics and happiness.

    PubMed

    Devettere, R J

    1993-02-01

    Most contemporary accounts of clinical ethics do not explain why clinicians should be ethical. Those few that do attempt an explanation usually claim that clinicians should be ethical because ethical behavior provides an important good for the patient--better care. Both these approaches ignore the customary traditional reason for being ethical, namely, the good of the moral agent. This good was commonly called 'happiness'. The following article shows how the personal happiness of the moral agent provided a major reason for being ethical in the ancient philosophical and biblical traditions and how it continues to play a role in the more modern rights-based, Kantian and utilitarian theories. This history suggests that the personal happiness of the clinician, rightly understood, is a legitimate and important goal of clinical ethics. PMID:8433049

  5. Ethical evaluation of research proposals by ethics panels advising the European Commission.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2004-06-01

    Ethical principles with regard to animal experimentation are referred to in European Union (EU) legislation and other official documents. Therefore, applications for funding of research under the EU's research programme may undergo an ethical review that is carried out by so-called ethics panels, consisting of experts chosen by the European Commission. The work of these panels differs substantially from that of other ethical committees, as they exist on the institutional, local, regional or national level. Their main purpose is not to decide whether a proposed research can be regarded legal, and therefore should be endorsed or licensed; instead, it is to help the Commission in prioritising its funding. The panels may examine other ethical aspects than those of animal experimentation or animal welfare alone, such as the use of human volunteers. This is reflected by the composition of the panels. Their decisions are normally based on consensus. Even though these decisions may refer to EU legislation, the criteria applied are not restricted to those provided by this legislation. Nevertheless, the various aspects of the Commission's ethical evaluation system (e.g. formal and practical basic conditions, information content of applications, type of decisions taken, lacking of any quality control) offers opportunities for improvement. PMID:23581113

  6. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is." PMID:27164779

  7. Empirical ethics and its alleged meta-ethical fallacies.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob; Gordijn, Bert

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyses the concept of empirical ethics as well as three meta-ethical fallacies that empirical ethics is said to face: the is-ought problem, the naturalistic fallacy and violation of the fact-value distinction. Moreover, it answers the question of whether empirical ethics (necessarily) commits these three basic meta-ethical fallacies. PMID:19338520

  8. Nursing Ethics: A Lifelong Commitment.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Jeschke, E Ann

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the health-care context as well as the roles and responsibilities of nurses have drastically changed. Leaders in nursing around the world recognize that the health-care system is stressed and the well-being of the nursing workforce plagued by the pressures and challenges it faces in everyday practice. We do not intend to make a strong normative argument for why nursing ethics education should be done in a certain way, but instead show from where we have come and to where we can go, so that educators are positioned to address some of the current shortcomings in ethics education. Our goal is to provide an illustration of ethics education as an interwoven, ongoing, and essential aspect of nursing education and professional development. By developing professional identity as character, we hope that professional nurses are given the skills to stand in the face of adversity and to act in a way that upholds the core competencies of nursing. Ultimately, health-care organizations will thrive because of the support they provide nurses and other health-care professionals. PMID:26673373

  9. Possibilities of Engineering Ethics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Junya

    This paper discusses the possibilities of teaching engineering ethics in universities. This is based on the teaching experience of a newly developed course that has been introduced to the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Fukui, since April 2004. Entitled “ethics for engineers”, the course targeted senior-level students and makes use of a newly written textbook that emphasizes social aspects of science and technology. To encourage students to think and form their own opinions with regards to their role as engineers in a modern technological society, the book is complemented by other materials such as videos, newspaper articles and some other relevant books. Students are also encouraged to write reports that reflect their own opinion on subjects such as what kind of engineers they intend to be, or what do ethics mean to them? The paper will conclude by giving a course evaluation including students' response, highlighting valuable experiences and stating the importance of further developing this topic in engineering education.

  10. [The law, medical ethics, and transplants].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tamayo, Ruy

    2005-01-01

    A discussion of four aspects of the legislation and of the medical ethics of the transplants is presented: the concept of death, the donation of organs, the selection of receivers and the future of the therapeutic transplants. The prominent paragraphs of the General Law of Health of the country about cerebral death, the two legal forms and organs donors' ethics, the criteria and more frequent problems for the selection of receivers, and the character of medical technology of transition of the therapeutic transplants are included. PMID:16524056

  11. Law, ethics and research ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Beyleveld, Deryck

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the view of the operational management of the UK Research Ethics Committee (REC) system that RECs may not reject applications on purely legal grounds. Two arguments are offered for this view: the first rests on the contention that being lawful and being ethical are not the same thing; the second is that RECs lack expertise and authority to base their decisions on legal considerations. However, whatever the philosophical standing of the first argument, it is contrary to published guidance, the basis of RECs' official authority, unethical, and politically imprudent to permit RECs not to consider conformity with the law to be at least a necessary condition for REC approval. In any event, RECs can obtain competent and authoritative advice on the law (though the Department of Health has been remiss in this regard), and they do not exceed their authority by applying the law, because this is within their ethical remit. When current guidance to RECs about advising researchers on whether or not breaches of confidence are permissible in the public interest is linked to the view of the REC management that the role of RECs is to facilitate research (albeit ethical research), this raises serious doubts about the integrity of the system of ethical review currently in place, which is illustrated by a recent "agreement" of the Chairmen of the MRECs not to consider the Data Protection Act 1998 in their ethical review. PMID:12017445

  12. [Ethical problems in health surveillance].

    PubMed

    Toffoletto, F; Briatico Vangosa, G; Panizza, C

    2000-01-01

    Surveillance of workers' health in the field of occupational medicine poses substantial ethical problems in view of occupational medicine's complex responsibilities towards workers and employers, preventive and protection services, workers' representatives, public healthcare and preventive medicine facilities, controlling agencies and judicial authorities. Potentially conflicting rights and duties often come into play in this sector. In the last few years various international and national bodies have drawn up codes of ethics or guidelines for the conduct of physicians in occupational medicine, three of which are of particular importance: 1) The International Ethical Code of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH, 1992); 2) The Code of Conduct of the National Association of Company Doctors (ANMA, 1997); 3) The Technical and Ethical Guidelines for workers' health (ILO, 1998). The chief purpose of all these documents is to safeguard the health of workers and to guarantee the safety of the workplace by defining programmes of health supervision to match specific risks. The methods should be non-invasive and should allow for a check or efficiency. The physician is expected to have a high degree of professionalism and up-to-date skills; to be independent and impartial; to be reserved and capable of inter-disciplinary co-operation. On the basis of the above documents, a number of problematic aspects may be appraised concerning the relationship between the occupational health physician responsible for the surveillance activities of the local health authority and the relative company physician. The documents stress the importance of keeping up to date and of quality, fields in which the dominant role played by Scientific Societies is underlined. Finally it is recommended that health supervision be arranged in such a manner as to foster the professionalism and responsibility of the physician in charge rather than the formal implementation of health

  13. Ethics manual: fifth edition.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Lois; Leffler, Cathy

    2005-04-01

    Medicine, law, and social values are not static. Reexamining the ethical tenets of medical practice and their application in new circumstances is a necessary exercise. The fifth edition of the College's Ethics Manual covers emerging issues in medical ethics and revisits old ones. It reflects on many of the ethical tensions faced by internists and their patients and attempts to shed light on how existing principles extend to emerging concerns. In addition, by reiterating ethical principles that have provided guidance in resolving past ethical problems, the Manual may help physicians avert future problems. The Manual is not a substitute for the experience and integrity of individual physicians, but it may serve as a reminder of the shared obligations and duties of the medical profession. PMID:15809467

  14. Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Marc

    2012-09-01

    For centuries, religion and philosophy have been the primary basis for efforts to guide humans to be more ethical. However, training in ethics and religion and imparting positive values and morality tests such as those emanating from the categorical imperative and the Golden Rule have not been enough to protect humankind from its bad behaviors. To improve ethics education educators must better understand aspects of human nature such as those that lead to "self-deception" and "personal bias." Through rationalizations, faulty reasoning and hidden bias, individuals trick themselves into believing there is little wrong with their own unethical behavior. The application of science to human nature offers the possibility of improving ethics education through better self-knowledge. The author recommends a new paradigm for ethics education in contemporary modern society. This includes the creation of a new field called "applied evolutionary neuro-ethics" which integrates science and social sciences to improve ethics education. The paradigm can merge traditional thinking about ethics from religious and philosophical perspectives with new ideas from applied evolutionary neuro-ethics. PMID:22711449

  15. [Population, ethics and equity].

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293335

  16. Ethics of community psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Adshead, G

    1999-09-01

    Psychiatric care in the community gives rise to ethical dilemmas which resemble those associated with predominantly institutional care. However, there are also dilemmas specifically associated with community care, many of which are conceptual as well as practical. Papers addressing both conceptual and practical ethical dilemmas are reviewed including some papers which deal with the ethical issues associated with violence in the community by the mentally ill. PMID:15719521

  17. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  18. Professional Ethics: Caught and Taught.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Belliston, Lisa M.

    2001-01-01

    Compares codes of professional ethics of several professional associations in light of rapidly changing technology. Explores the relation between academic honesty and ethical practice and provides a summary of approaches to teaching ethics. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)

  19. Navigating the Legal and Ethical World of Overseas Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Karla Jo

    1998-01-01

    Referring to Iowa contract law, reviews ethical and legal aspects of overseas employment contracts signed by educators at recruitment fairs. Iowa Department of Education guidelines state the following aspects of a good contract: it is in writing; it states the salary, pay periods, benefits, and dates of employment; it lists special conditions and…

  20. Excellence: The Importance of Vision and Work Ethic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Roger B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the topic of excellence and shares key aspects of excellence that he has found to be true in his life's journey. He discusses two elements of excellence, namely (1) "vision"; and (2) "work ethic", and describes some characteristics of each element. Three aspects: (1) interpersonal skills; (2) initiative; and (3)…

  1. Ethics in age estimation of unaccompanied minors.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Kvaal, S I; Willems, G

    2012-11-01

    Children absconding from countries of conflict and war are often not able to document their age. When an age is given, it is frequently untraceable or poorly documented and therefore questioned by immigration authorities. Consequently many countries perform age estimations on these children. Provision of ethical practice during the age estimation investigation of unaccompanied minors is considered from different angles: (1) The UN convention on children's rights, formulating specific rights, protection, support, healthcare and education for unaccompanied minors. (2) Since most age estimation investigations are based on medical examination, the four basic principles of biomedical ethics, namely autonomy, beneficence, non-malevolence, justice. (3) The use of medicine for non treatment purposes. (4) How age estimates with highest accuracy in age prediction can be obtained. Ethical practice in age estimation of unaccompanied minors is achieved when different but related aspects are searched, evaluated, weighted in importance and subsequently combined. However this is not always feasible and unanswered questions remain. PMID:23221269

  2. Assisted reproduction: Ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Londra, Laura; Wallach, Edward; Zhao, Yulian

    2014-10-01

    Since inception, the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has been accompanied by ethical, legal, and societal controversies. Guidelines have been developed to address many of these concerns; however, the rapid evolution of ART requires their frequent re-evaluation. We review the literature on ethical and legal aspects of ART, highlighting some of the most visible and challenging topics. Of specific interest are: reporting of ART procedures and outcomes; accessibility to ART procedures; issues related to fertility preservation, preimplantation genetic testing, gamete and embryo donation, and reproductive outcomes after embryo transfer. Improvements in ART reporting are needed nationally and worldwide. Reporting should include outcomes that enable patients to make informed decisions. Improving access to ART and optimizing long-term reproductive outcomes, while taking into account the legal and ethical consequences, are challenges that need to be addressed by the entire community of individuals involved in ART with the assistance of bioethicists, legal counselors, and members of society in general. PMID:25131898

  3. [Care between ethics, work and political].

    PubMed

    Svandra, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Down to the roots, the ethics of care have stood up a "different voice". Building on Carol Gilligan's works, the concept was developed widely in opposition with the rational and universalist aspect of Kant's moral philosophy. However, it also appears that this vision of care runs counter sets the three other main dominant moral theories, ie, utilitarism, John Rawls' procedural ethics and the Aristotelian virtue ethics. We may assert that the care theory presents itself as a contextualized moral theory aiming at taking into account others' vulnerability, in a practical way. Hence, the general term of "care" may encompass the notions of "help", "support" and "healing process", which, in France, for have often been opposed for varied reasons--historical, economical, psychological, professional etc... Switching from a moral position to a professional and practical activity, the concept of care has now undeniably taken on now a social and political dimension. PMID:26685550

  4. Teaching Ethics to Engineers: A Socratic Experience.

    PubMed

    Génova, Gonzalo; González, M Rosario

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present the authors' experience of teaching a course in Ethics for Engineers, which has been delivered four times in three different universities in Spain and Chile. We begin by presenting the material context of the course (its place within the university program, the number of students attending, its duration, etc.), and especially the intellectual background of the participating students, in terms of their previous understanding of philosophy in general, and of ethics in particular. Next we set out the objectives of the course and the main topics addressed, as well as the methodology and teaching resources employed to have students achieve a genuine philosophical reflection on the ethical aspects of the profession, starting from their own mindset as engineers. Finally we offer some results based on opinion surveys of the students, as well as a more personal assessment by the authors, recapitulating the most significant achievements of the course and indicating its underlying Socratic structure. PMID:26026967

  5. Ethical reasoning in pandemic preparedness plans: Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Derpmann, Simon

    2011-10-01

    The emergence of H1N1 in 2009 shows that it is a mistake to regard the scenario of having to implement pandemic plans as merely hypothetical. This recent experience provides an opportunity to inquire into the current state of pandemic preparedness plans with regard to their ethical adequacy. One aspect that deserves consideration in this context is the disclosure of ethical reasoning. Accordingly, the following is an analysis of examples of pandemic plans and drafts of plans from Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. It is an analysis of the occurrence of explicit ethical reflection in these documents as well an inquiry into the related question of how ethical reflection can be understood as a constitutive element of ethical pandemic preparedness. In the analysis, different fields of ethical consideration concerning equity, personal rights and accountability are distinguished. There are both pragmatic and genuinely ethical reasons to explicitly address issues of these types in pandemic plans. The extent to which ethical language appears in the national plans in South East Asia and the Western Pacific suggests that there is limited awareness of ethical considerations, or at least insufficient ethical substantiation of pandemic action. The aim of the analysis is to show that further inclusion of ethical considerations into pandemic plans is ethically demanded. It is of particular significance that these considerations are formulated and remain discernible as instances of ethical deliberation. PMID:21929703

  6. Systems ethics and the history of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Clements, C D

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the current conclusions in medical ethics which have followed the 1969-1970 Medical Ethics Discontinuity, a break that challenged the Hippocratic way of thinking about ethics. The resulting dislocations in quality of care and the medical value system are discussed, and an alternative medical ethics is offered: Systems Ethics. A methodology for a Systems Ethics analysis of cases is presented and illustrated by the case of a physician-assisted suicide. The advantages, both theoretical and clinical, of a Systems Ethics approach to medicine, which is an expansion of the Hippocratic tradition in medical ethics, are developed. Using Systems Ethics, it is possible to avoid the dangers of legalism, bureaucratic ethics, utilitarian cost cutting, and "political correctness" in medical ethics. PMID:1475330

  7. Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

  8. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of College Unions-International, Bloomington, IN.

    The code of ethics for the college union and student activities professional is presented by the Association of College Unions-International. The preamble identifies the objectives of the college union as providing campus community centers and social programs that enhance the quality of life for members of the academic community. Ethics for…

  9. Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ann

    1995-01-01

    In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

  10. Ethical Proactive Threat Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aycock, John; Sullins, John

    Through a provocative examination of the positive effects of computer security research on regular users, we argue that traditional security research is insufficient. Instead, we turn to a largely untapped alternative, proactive threat research, a fruitful research area but an ethical minefield. We discuss practices for ethical research and dissemination of proactive research.