Note: This page contains sample records for the topic ethical dilemmas presented from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. Last update: August 15, 2014.
Results of a survey of ethicaldilemmas faced by college counselors are presented. Findings and implications are discussed as they relate to types and frequencies of ethicaldilemmas encountered and how they are resolved. A typical ethicaldilemma is described. (Author)
Counselors work with elderly adults in various health care settings. Often an ethicaldilemma arises between client autonomy and counselor beneficence. A case history approach using a critical-evaluative model as a strategy for analysis and resolution of the ethicaldilemma is presented. (Author)
The purpose of this study was to survey the membership of the American Pain Society and the American Academy of Pain Medicine to determine their beliefs about ethicaldilemmas in pain management practice. Respondents rated ethicaldilemmas for their importance as well as their own competence in dealing with these ethical issues. The survey also included an open-ended question that
Betty R. Ferrell; Diane Novy; Mark D. Sullivan; John Banja; Michel Y. Dubois; Melvin C. Gitlin; Daniel Hamaty; Allen Lebovits; Arthur G. Lipman; Philipp M. Lippe; Jeffrey Livovich
Background Disasters may lead to ethical challenges that are different from usual medical practices. In addition, disaster situations are related with public health ethics more than medical ethics, and accordingly may require stronger effort to achieve a balance between individual and collective rights. This paper aims to review some ethicaldilemmas that arise in disasters and mainly focuses on health services. Disasters vary considerably with respect to their time, place and extent; therefore, ethical questions may not always have `one-size-fits-all` answers. On the other hand, embedding ethical values and principles in every aspect of health-care is of vital importance. Reviewing legal and organizational regulations, developing health-care related guidelines, and disaster recovery plans, establishing on-call ethics committees as well as adequate in-service training of health-care workers for ethical competence are among the most critical steps. It is only by making efforts before disasters, that ethical challenges can be minimized in disaster responses.
This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with an outline of "The Lifeboat," a classical ethicsdilemma. The resource includes student handouts and a group discussion activity. Also included are four other classical ethicaldilemmas for students to discuss before and after learning about the classic ethical perspectives.
A series of highly publicized cases of ethical violations in Congress has produced a concerted reexamination of Congress's ethics processes. This article reviews the key arguments promoted by advocates for reforming Congress and examines the substantive and procedural dilemmas confronting members of Congress as they at tempt to respond to calls for reform. These dilemmas are illustrated by examining a
This research concerns the perceptions and decisions of lodging sales and marketing executives in dealing with ethical marketing issues. Respondents were given ten vignettes, representing ethicaldilemmas in the five categories of ethical behavior (coercion and control, personal integrity, physical environment, paternalism, and conflict of interest) identified by previous researchers. They were first asked to determine whether each issue was
Jeffrey A. Beck; William Lazer; Raymond Schmidgall
Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethicaldilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethicaldilemmas involve (1)…
Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen
This case was written for use in courses dealing with school administration, philosophy of education, or ethics in educational leadership. It deals with the ethicaldilemma of an assistant principal at a low-performing, urban high school. Caught between a principal and a teacher who have different views on plagiarism, the assistant principal must…
The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethicaldilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war.
This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethicaldilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethicaldilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business…
Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.
Presents a process for solving ethicaldilemmas: define the problem; identify facts; determine values; "slice" the problem different ways--duties, virtues, rights, and common good; rank ethical considerations; consult colleagues; and take action. (SK)
In order to understand some of the ethicaldilemmas that face hospice programs in the United States, one must understand the Medicare Hospice Benefit, which is the model by which hospice programs provide palliative care to terminally ill patients in the United States. Unlike palliative care programs outside the United States, patients must have a prognosis of 6 months or
Ethicaldilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…
Personal and reflective writing assignments in psychology courses may prompt self-disclosure that presentsethicaldilemmas. The literature discusses responsibilities of the psychologist in instances such as disclosure of suicidal ideation or threats of harming others within the context of the therapist-client relationship, but significantly less…
This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethicaldilemmas. Medical ethicaldilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…
This article identifies and discusses ethicaldilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethicaldilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…
This article explores a cross?occupational approach for dealing with ethicaldilemmas by comparing teaching and nursing. Findings indicate more shared patterns of ethicaldilemmas (such as caring for needs for others versus following formal codes) than dilemmas specific to teaching (e.g., advancing universal values versus advancing knowledge) or nursing (e.g., patient modesty versus hospital policy). The large number of shared
...Comment Request: EthicalDilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation...Collection: Title: EthicalDilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation...insight into the perspective and culture of surgery as it relates to ethicaldilemmas in...
...Comment Request: ``EthicalDilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation...Collection: Title: EthicalDilemmas in Surgery and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation...insight into the perspective and culture of surgery as it relates to ethicaldilemmas in...
Two case studies are presented reflecting the ethicaldilemmas experienced by nurses who were striving to improve their practice in the provision of patient care. The cases are described in the context of finding alternatives to cohesive interventions such as chemical restraints and physical restraints. A summary of the literature on ethicaldilemmas that was relevant to the issues arising in these cases is included. Discussion of the use of the American Nursing Association's (ANA, 2001 ) Nursing Code of Ethics with Interpretive Statements is highlighted for its relevance and support of the nurses experiencing the ethicaldilemmas. PMID:20144033
Rabies continues to be an important public health problem in India and many other developing countries. In India, annually some 700,000 persons are given post-exposure vaccine prophylaxis using Semple (sheep brain) vaccine. It is manufactured by government institutions and given free to the public. It is presumed to be cheap, although the actual cost of production may not be low. However, it is not a safe vaccine as it causes demyelinating central or peripheral nervous system side-effects in 1/3000-7000 persons vaccinated; this adverse reaction is occasionally fatal. Cell culture rabies vaccines are also available in India; unlike the Semple vaccine they are safe and can be used for pre-exposure vaccination, but they are more expensive. The dilemma is whether it is ethically acceptable to continue to use the Semple vaccine in humans while safer products are available. What is urgently needed is a decision tree which would enable economical use of cell culture vaccines together with the backing of professional bodies in medical practice, who will declare that cost is not the only factor in choosing a rabies vaccine-safety is also of paramount importance. We must also strive to reduce the cost of cell culture vaccines. PMID:9218285
This study examines ethicaldilemmas in the workplace and how organizational members move to resolve these challenges. Existing research was reviewed to gain insight and determine current views of ethicaldilemmas experienced at work. A study was then con...
Learning to navigate ethicaldilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into…
Ethics-related dilemmas arise in forensic psychiatry as in all psychiatric practice. Although most can be resolved by following the AAPL Ethics Guidelines and the AAPL Ethics Questions and Answers, the more complex ones inevitably have no easy solutions. Ethics-based duties can conflict without clear guidance on prioritization. Weighing competing factors necessitates more than merely following a rule, since there are potentially conflicting rules, and ethical practitioners may prioritize them differently. Concerns pertaining to the death penalty and defendants who are victims of discrimination are especially difficult. Such considerations usually are in the realm of aspirational ethics, with conclusions open to debate. They need consideration by most practitioners concerned with determining the most ethical course of action. Much as it is insufficient for an ethical citizen merely to avoid breaking the law, it is not enough to avoid violating any one guideline while remaining blind to context. Most such dilemmas need resolution long before testimony and arise first in the way the forensic assessment is conducted and in decisions on the data to be included in a report and how they are presented. Although there can be legitimate differences of opinion about how to weigh and resolve conflicting considerations, ethics-related dilemmas should not be sidestepped. PMID:24051589
Researchers cannot always rely on traditional methods for solving research dilemmas. In a research project that explored the friendships and social relationships of four students with severe disabilities in four secondary schools in New Zealand, the author uses poetic re-presentation to solve several ethical and pragmatic research dilemmas. Within…
Advances in technology have created and led to many ethicaldilemmas within health care delivery. Due to these advances, ambulatory care nurses must be prepared to promote open communication with patients, families, and caregivers in facing life decisions. Familiarity with current literature on the issue of withholding\\/withdrawal artificial nutrition and hydration, staff development, and educational programs are methods ambulatory care
The aim of this study is to explore ethicaldilemmas in critical incidents and the emerged responses that these incidents elicit. Most teachers try to suppress these incidences because of the unpleasant feelings they evoke. Fifty teachers participated in the study. A three-stage coding process derived from grounded theory was utilized. A taxonomy…
This article examines the ethicaldilemmas that can occur due to university and industry cooperative arrangements. The values that Conant (1952) and Merton (1942) ascribed to university science are used as a measure of the evolving university-industry relations in the 1980s. Examples of the types of relations being forged are discussed and possible conflicts of interest are explored. The author
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethicaldilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the research were gathered by semi-structured in-depth interviews with the Heads, all of whom were experienced school leaders. All the schools had religious…
Although frequently challenging, faculty advising continues to be a crucial component of social work education. Yet the current diversity of students, educational programs, and field placements present many ethicaldilemmas to the faculty advisor. This paper explores the administrative, educational, and supportive roles of the faculty advisor, the inherent conflicts which develop and the effects of these conflicts on the
The current spotlight on assessment in education raises ethical issues as practices evolve. This study documents ethical conflicts faced by teachers in the United States regarding assessment of students. Critical incidents generated by practising teachers revealed a majority of reported conflicts related to score pollution, and conflicts…
Pope, Nakia; Green, Susan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Mitchell, Mark
Contends that the aging of the population and the widespread prevalence of significant mental and physical disabilities create ethicaldilemmas in providing care. Discusses two dilemmas, competency to refuse treatment, and recompense for prior mistreatment as illustrations. (Author/ABL)
Abstract Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the “dual-use dilemma”. There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research.
Burkholderia cepacia: current clinical issues, environmental controversies and ethicaldilemmas. A.M. Jones, M.E. Dodd, A.K. Webb. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Burkholderia cepacia is a plant phytogen and is known as a hardy and versatile organism. Over the past two decades it has emerged as a pathogen in the cystic fibrosis (CF) community, with devastating effects. Pulmonary colonisation can lead
For centuries, death has been defined, medically speaking, as the irreversible cessation of breathing and of nervous and cardiac activity. What radically changed this definition was the introduction of the concept "brain death" in 1968, by the "Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School". According to it, the irreversible coma was associated with brain death and considered to be a criterion for the diagnosis of the deceased individual. The evergrowing need for transplant organs (provided this respects the dead honor rule, stipulating that organs can't be harvested unless someone is deceased) lead to making arbitrary decisions regarding the establishment of the exact time of death during the process of "losing life". What actually triggers the controversy related to the concept of brain death is the dilemma of associating this concept with that of biologic death or death of the person, the difference between the two being made by whether the mental characteristics are accepted or not in defining and individualizing the death of the human being. Given these circumstances, a dilemma appears--that of defining the death of the individual: we define death, as it has been for centuries, as the moment when the cardio-respiratory function no longer exists, which leads to the loss of tens of thousands of lives that might have been saved through transplant. Yet, this may lead to manipulating the border between life and death, with the risk of trespassing each individual's right to life. PMID:23272519
Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.
A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built. PMID:19135004
This article reports the findings of a survey-based study conducted in 2006 to determine graduating dental hygiene students' attitudes toward ethicaldilemmas in eight areas of practice: substandard care, overtreatment of patients, scope of practice, fraud, confidentiality, impaired professionals, sexual harassment, abuse, and health status. The findings, based on responses from 1,165 students at 141 U.S. dental hygiene programs, indicate that many dental hygiene students do not understand what behaviors in the patient care environment are consistent with ethical practice and which are not. Responding students believed that hygienists have a strong duty to report, intercede, or educate in areas of abuse, sexual harassment, detection of cancer, and smoking cessation. However, they were less likely to report concerns about ethical transgressions such as fraud, inadequate infection control, exceeding practice scope, and failure to diagnose disease when such disclosures could potentially threaten their employment status. Based on the results, we recommend that dental hygiene programs explore curriculum enhancements to improve students' comprehension of what constitutes fraud and other ethical transgressions and the proper reporting mechanisms. PMID:19289724
Duley, Susan I; Fitzpatrick, Peter G; Zornosa, Ximena; Lambert, Cynthia A; Mitchell, Ashlie
Speech-language pathologists experience ethicaldilemmas as they fulfil their professional roles and responsibilities. Previous research findings indicated that speech-language pathologists working in publicly funded settings identified ethicaldilemmas when they managed complex clients, negotiated professional relationships, and addressed service delivery issues. However, little is known about ethicaldilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice settings. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of ethicaldilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 speech-language pathologists employed in diverse private practice settings. Participants explained the nature of ethicaldilemmas they experienced at work and identified their most challenging and frequently occurring ethical conflicts. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse transcribed data and generate themes. Four themes reflected the nature of speech-language pathologists' ethicaldilemmas; balancing benefit and harm, fidelity of business practices, distributing funds, and personal and professional integrity. Findings support the need for professional development activities that are specifically targeted towards facilitating ethical practice for speech-language pathologists in the private sector. PMID:24735456
Flatley, Danielle R; Kenny, Belinda J; Lincoln, Michelle A
Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic inflammatory disease common in India and Sri Lanka. Its manifestations are mostly nasal, though extranasal ones in head and neck region are not rare. Occasionally these presentations lead to diagnostic dilemma. Here we present some cases with its associated confusions if any. In this study thirty five patients were included. Extranasal manifestations were noted in nine cases. Two patients attended with laryngopharyngeal and one with lacrimal sac presentation-subsequent nasal endoscopic examination revealed presence of nasal masses, too. Other six cases presented with polypoidal mass hanging from nasopharynx into oropharynx. One of them was confused with nasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Two laryngopharyngeal masses were removed successfully with rigid laryngoscope followed by cauterisation of the base. The solitary lacrimal sac mass was excised by external approach combined with nasal endoscope guided excision of nasal mass. The other six cases with nasopharyngeal attachment were subjected to nasal endoscope guided removal. In all these cases, the base of the lesions was cauterised. The experience about the various manifestations and diagnostic problems is discussed here. PMID:22754802
During the last decade, the Swedish health care system has undergone fundamental changes. The changes have made health care more complex and ethics has increasingly become a required component of clinical practice. Considering this, it is not surprising that many health care professionals suffer from stress-related disorders. Stress due to ethicaldilemmas is usually referred to as “moral distress”. The
Sofia Kälvemark; Anna T. Höglund; Mats G. Hansson; Peter Westerholm; Bengt Arnetz
This paper considers ethicaldilemmas associated with research with male sex offenders. It examines two particular areas in detail: dealing with the disclosure of previously undisclosed offences and managing the distress of research participants during interview. Within these areas there is discussion of ethical approaches to research. Principle-based approaches offer abstract guidelines that help to resolve certain issues, but at
This article describes two ethicaldilemmas encountered by our research team during a project working with undocumented immigrants in Toronto, Canada. This article aims to be transparent about the problems the research team faced, the processes by which we sought to understand these problems, how solutions were found, and how the ethicaldilemmas were resolved. Undocumented immigrants are a vulnerable community of individuals residing in a country without legal citizenship, immigration, or refugee status. There are more than half a million undocumented immigrants in Canada. Through an academic-community partnership, a study was conducted to understand the experiences of undocumented immigrants seeking health care in Toronto. The lessons outlined in this article may assist others in overcoming challenges and ethicaldilemmas encountered while doing research with vulnerable communities. PMID:23632080
Australian teacher education, like the rest of the university sector in Australia, is under significant pressure and highly politicised. In this paper, we examine ethicaldilemmas facing teacher educators who, in a context of difficult and eroding work conditions, grapple with literacy needs of pre-service students. We focus particularly on…
Examined teachers' understanding of the moral development of middle level students via prediction of student responses to the behavior of fictitious students in ethicaldilemma situations. Found that teachers were able to predict characters which students admired least, but were unable to predict characters the students most admired. (Author)
Bedwell, Lance E.; Helms, Emory C.; Hunt, Gilbert H.
Explores effect of child abuse reporting on counselor-client relationship, mental health profession, and child protective services system. Uses ecological systems approach in exploration of interventions needed to help resolve child abuse reporting dilemma. Within ecosystems framework, discusses ethical guidelines and policymaking for reporting…
Describes second wave information technology in social work as characterized by modern databases, decision-support systems, expert systems, electronic networks, and therapeutic applications that have greater impact on direct practice. Assesses ethicaldilemmas posed by use of second-wave information technology in social work practice to encourage…
This article examines findings from three focus groups conducted about resolving ethicaldilemmas in the area of domestic violence. The study's findings point to the need to increase content on domestic violence throughout the social work curriculum and provide educational opportunities for field instructors and local professionals. Helping…
This book is about colleagues in colleges and universities who sometimes are unethical. It is about episodes that people in universities and colleges prefer not to talk about except in whispers, if at all--clashes over ethics and the dilemmas created by unethical colleagues in research and teaching. The book was written for those members of…
It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics. PMID:20098814
Samtani B, Suraj; Jadue Z, Mariana; Beca I, Juan Pablo
It is obvious that every inventor should be rewarded for the intellectual effort, and at the same time be encouraged to successively improve his or her discovery and to work on subsequent innovations. Patents also ensure that patent owners are officially protected against intellectual piracy, but protection of intellectual property may be difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless, it all comes down to this basic question: Does a contradiction exist between medical ethics and the "Medical and Surgical Procedure Patents" system? It may well turn out that medical-procedure patents can have a negative influence on the standard of medical care. Medical-method patents may also interfere with the physician-patient relationship. At present, physicians do not question the usefulness of patent protection for medicines, biotechnology, equipment and devices, but they strongly oppose it for surgical procedures. PMID:15727000
This volume provides college and university development officers and administrators practical help with recognizing difficult ethical situations and discerning the correct ethical response. It can also serve as a guide for donors who wonder what's reasonable for them to expect from fund raisers. Section 1 contains chapters on the social and moral…
This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.
We sought to answer two questions via this exploratory study. First, we investigated whether or not individual differences in moral principle selection/preference existed in response to six moral dilemmas. Second, we sought to find out whether they were r...
This paper reviews three personal situations of the author as a student: an NGO activist in the women's movement and a UN official working on women's health and tobacco. Each situation, the kinds of ethical issue posed and lessons for the future direction of ethics in anthropology are outlined. The paper argues that applied anthropology is embedded in the position of the field of anthropology within the politics of the State and that this defines the parameters of individual choice. Contradictions in ethical situations and decision-making are posed by changing from the distant observer to active involvement and these may not be resolved by logic alone. Furthermore, governance and defining global ethical standards such as for the behavior of the tobacco multinational corporations is a fascinating new realm for anthropological ethical resolve. PMID:11193019
Modern burn care often leads to the dilemma of what should or should not be done for patients with clinical deterioration and organ system failure who fail to respond to therapy. The questions are, "When is enough enough?" and "Who decides?" We have developed a structured conference to address these issues and to help us decide whether to recommend continued invasive diagnostic and therapeutic intervention or to allow the patient to "die with dignity." This conference can be requested by any member of the burn team who feels uncomfortable with what is being done for and/or to a patient. It is a meeting of the entire team, and its purpose is to discern the judgment of the group. When the consensus decision is to forego additional therapy, the decision is then presented to the patient (if he or she is able to understand and respond) and to the patient's family. The decision made by the group removes the responsibility of any individual from making a stressful decision if the patient's condition deteriorates abruptly. Patients who accept this decision exhibit a peaceful calm that invariably reaffirms the group dynamics. The family often experiences a great deal of relief, because they are not forced to make the decision even though they wanted it made. Inviting nurses to be active participants in the decision process builds their personal and professional self-esteem and binds the team members into a more tightly knit community. The attending staff may perceive this process as an abdication of responsibility; however, in our experience the consensus conference has led to a conviction that the wisdom of the team is always best. PMID:1452599
In the current economic environment and era of health care finance reform, mental health budgets have faced cutbacks across the nation, and they may face even deeper reductions in the future. Diminished funding for care of patients with severe psychiatric illness creates significant ethical and clinical dilemmas. Throughout medicine, physicians' professional virtues and obligations of beneficence may conflict with the need to balance respect for patient autonomy and deliver clinically appropriate, humane, and ethical care within a limited budget. This article uses a case presentation to highlight this struggle at the interface of psychiatry, ethics, and the emergency room in the care of people with severe mental illness. PMID:22617087
This is a lesson dealing with a new subdivision of bioethics called neuroethics. As our knowledge of the brain and nervous system expands, so do the ethical issues that result from this knowledge. This new area of study results from our increasing research in the field of neurobiology. In the first part of this activity, students will discuss the stigma associated with psychological illness. They will then be introduced to Dr. Kay Jamison who discusses some of the ethical implications of bipolar disorder. The class will take part in an activity called a Topical Barometer where they will have to choose a position regarding an ethical decision. In Part 2 of the activity, they will write a position paper after exploring the topic of drug enhancement, another controversial issue in the world of neuroscience. From the original handout text by Caren Gough
The Living Will is an ethically acceptable document that serves to convey a patient's attitude toward terminal illness and to facilitate a physician's decision not to prolong the dying process. But in a Christian context, the Christian Affirmation of Life is a superior document by which to express and aid such decision making. Because the Living Will advances the concept of negative euthanasia--an ethical, legal, and political misnomer--and abets the effort to legalize positive or direct euthanasia, it should not be given legal recognition. As a legal document, the Living Will could seriously affect both patients and physicians. PMID:1270060
OBJECTIVES: To identify ethicaldilemmas experienced by occupational and physical therapists working in the UK National Health Service (NHS). To compare ethical contexts, themes and principles across the two groups. DESIGN: A structured questionnaire was circulated to the managers of occupational and physical therapy services in England and Wales. SUBJECTS: The questionnaires were given to 238 occupational and 249 physical
This paper represents an effort to distinguish between two types of guanxi prevalent in mainland China: favor-seeking guanxi that is culturally rooted and rent-seeking guanxi that is institutionally defined. Different rules of maneuvering the two types of guanxi are identified in light of Chinese cultural and business ethics. Strategies for entering guanxi in mainland China are also suggested.
The Internet remains as a wonder for the 21st century and its growth is phenomenon. According to a recent survey, the online population is now about 500 million globally and if this trend continues, it should reach 700 million by the end of 2002. This exponential growth of the Internet has given rise to several security, privacy and ethical…
Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…
This paper focuses on the ethical position of the ethnographer when encountering unethical activities. Ethnography affords a rich insight into cultures, often behind previously secure doors but it is also a demanding science. Our gatekeepers control our access and our relationships with them can determine our destiny. This paper offers an exchange…
In recent years, ethical concerns have emerged among psychologists, psychiatrists, and physicians about interrogating inmates detained at U.S. military prison camps, such as Guantanamo Bay, or consulting on such interrogations. These concerns have escalated to levels necessitating the three major associations—the American Psychological Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the American Medical Association—to formulate position statements on these issues. Within
To determine the knowledge, attitude, and ethical concerns of medical students and graduates with regard to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) research. This questionnaire based descriptive study was conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), Pakistan from February to July 2008. A well structured questionnaire was administered to medical students and graduate doctors, which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Informed consent was taken and full confidentiality was assured to the participants. Data were entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.12) and analyzed. A total of 204 male and 216 female medical students and doctors were administered questionnaires out of which 105 males (51.4%) and 108 females (50%) were aware of the embryonic stem cell research and its ethical implications. Forty percent males and 47% of females were of the opinion that life begins at conception. Forty-six percent males and 39% females were in favor of stem cell research while only 31% males and 28% females supported the ESC research. Less than 1/3 of students supported using frozen embryos for research purposes while more than 2/3 indicated that they were unlikely to support abortion for stem cell research purposes. The majority of the students were in favor of stem cell research with some reservations regarding ESC research. A sizeable number of students withheld their views, reflecting their poor understanding of medical ethics. The result of the study indicates a need for incorporating bioethics into the medical curriculum. PMID:22038063
There is a continuing intense medico-ethico-legal debate around legalized euthanasia and physician assisted suicide such that ethically informed clinicians often agree with the arguments but feel hesitant about the conclusion, especially when it may bring about a change in law. We argue that this confusion results from the convergence of two continua that underpin the conduct of a clinician and are especially prominent in psychiatry. The two continua concern the duty of care and the importance of patient autonomy and they do not quite map into traditional divides in debates about sanctity of life, paternalism, and autonomy. As ethical dimensions, they come into sharp focus in the psychological complexities of end-of-life care and they form two key factors in most ethical and legal or disciplinary deliberations about a clinician's actions. Whereas both dimensions are important when a clinician reflects on what s/he has done or should do, they need careful balancing in a request for euthanasia or physician assisted suicide where the patient wants to take a decisive role in his or her own end-of-life care. However, end-of-life is also a situation where clinicians often encounter 'cries for help' so that both continua are importantly in play. Balancing these two continua without using blunt legal instruments is often required in psychiatric care in such a way as to problematize the idea that patient decisions should dominate the care options available. A simplistic approach to that issue arguably plays into what has been called an 'impoverished construction of life and death' and, some would say, devalues the basic commitments fundamental to medical care. PMID:23830641
The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors.
Mankind has been using animals already for a long time for food, for transport and as companion. The use of animals in experimental research parallels the development of medicine, which had its roots in ancient Greece (Aristotle, Hippocrate). With the Cartesian philosophy in the 17th century, experiments on animals could be performed without great moral problems. The discovery of anaesthetics and Darwin's publication on the Origin of Species, defending the biological similarities between man and animal, contributed to the increase of animal experimentation. The increasing demand for high standard animal models together with a critical view on the use of animals led to the development of Laboratory Animal Science in the 1950s with Russell and Burch's three R's of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement as guiding principles, a field that can be defined as a multidisciplinary branch of science, contributing to the quality of animal experiments and to the welfare of laboratory animals. The increased interest in and concern about animal welfare issues led to legislative regulations in many countries and the establishment of animal ethics committees. PMID:15454959
A sample survey of U.S. scientists who belong to the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) was made to ascertain their observations of unethical behavior in the workplace and their opinions of the likely success of programs to prevent misconduct. SRA, an international organization with almost 1,700 U.S. members, includes toxicologists, epidemiologists, industrial hygienists, engineers, and social scientists, as well as experts in exposure assessment, statistics, and risk communications. Respondents reported relatively low rates of clearly unethical acts such as data destruction and fabrication (7%); however, 21% reported at least one observation of plagiarism. Reporting of other problematic behaviors ranged from less than 4% for human subjects violations to 51% observing deliberate overstatement of positive and deliberate understatement of negative results. SRA members did not think that government intervention would be effective in reducing misconduct. They were more supportive of formal education, seminars, videotapes, and a hotline that could be called for advice. We offer suggestions to ISEA and its members for developing a proactive approach to ethical misconduct. PMID:1483027
In this paper we address an important but sadly neglected area; namely some of the ethical issues which arise for social and medical researchers in the course of their work. Our concern is for a wide spectrum of researchers using the full range of social research methods from small-scale in-depth qualitative work through to large scale quantitative studies. The unifying factor is that they all have an element of contact and hence the potential for interaction between the researcher and the subject. In our experience (with the exception of some ethnographers) few if any social researchers will have had adequate training about the interactional aspects of their work. As a result they are unprepared for the ethicaldilemmas and conflict of loyalties which they might experience. To understand these issues it is important to look at the context within which such research is undertaken. PMID:7992127
This paper reports on the results of a study conducted in 1994. The aim of the study was to gain insight into nurses' perceptions of ethicaldilemmas concerning informational privacy of patients with hiv/aids. The chosen research method was descriptive, from a qualitative research perspective (Grounded Theory). The purposive sample consisted of seven nurses working in a university hospital. Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews and the critical incidents method. The description of the dilemmas led to a central theme: the nurses' choice whether or not to give information revealing the diagnosis seropositivity or aids to patient's relatives or partner. The core categories were derived from analysis of the descriptions given by the nurses. They are split up into experiences of the nurses and the way nurses cope with these dilemmas. Recommendations are given for promotion of expertise and education. PMID:9376930
In this study, older African American, Latina, and Caucasian women from varying socioeconomic backgrounds participated in eight focus groups that examined their perceptions of elder maltreatment and three ethicaldilemmas within adult protective service work: mandatory reporting, involuntary protective services, and criminalization of elder maltreatment. Participants espoused a broad and inclusive view of elder maltreatment. In responding to illustrative case
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on a case study, framed as an ethicaldilemma. It serves as an illustration for the teaching of moral literacy, with a special emphasis on social justice. Design/methodology/approach: Initially, the paper provides a rationale for the inclusion of case studies, emphasizing moral problems in university…
The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…
Three controversial ethical issues, among others, stir the debate in health care institutions, in medical associations, and in the whole society: the care of patients in persistent vegetative state, the regulation of artificial procreation, some individual requests for reshaping an healthy body. Dealing with these dilemmas, typical of advanced medical science and technological practice, implies not only balancing carefully the burdens and benefits for suffering persons, families, equipes, hospitals, cultural and religious communities, but also imaging and realizing new visions of a just society, of a beneficent (without paternalism) medicine and generally of a good life, where each moral agent could write in front of all and in worthy, convincing ways, the next chapter of the book of his/her own life. PMID:21560776
Decisions regarding the extent of treatment of severely ill patients can be an ethicaldilemma when life-prolonging intensive care contradicts the goal of avoiding unnecessary suffering on the part of the patient. Here we present the results of a written survey of physicians on neurological intensive care units in Germany regarding the treatment of patients with basilar artery thrombosis and locked-in syndrome. 52% of the 93 physicians who replied advocated not treating severe infections with antibiotics, 38% were in favor of stopping intensive care. In contrast, 55% recommended intubating the patient in the presence of swallowing disturbances and imminent aspiration. 58% were in favor of discussing these problems in detail with the patient, and 87% advocated discussing them with relatives. Nearly all physicians (97%) recommended using adequate amounts of opiates and benzodiazepines. In very rare cases, 99% would agree to the use of passive euthanasia and 19% to active euthanasia. These findings illustrate the current disagreement on some of the important treatment decisions among physicians on neurological intensive care units. An open exchange of views on these questions could facilitate the appropriate consideration of ethical matters in the treatment of these patients. PMID:9380211
Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits. PMID:23595959
This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethicaldilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethicaldilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most…
There are many ethicaldilemmas that are unique to sports medicine because of the unusual clinical environment of caring for players within the context of a team whose primary objective is to win. Many of these ethical issues arise because the traditional relationship between doctor and patient is distorted or absent. The emergence of a doctor-patient-team triad has created a scenario in which the team's priority can conflict with or even replace the doctor's primary obligation to player well-being. As a result, the customary ethical norms that provide guidelines for most forms of clinical practice, such as patient autonomy and confidentiality, are not easily translated in the field of sports medicine. Sports doctors are frequently under intense pressure, whether implicit or explicit, from management, coaches, trainers and agents, to improve performance of the athlete in the short term rather than considering the long-term sequelae of such decisions. A myriad of ethicaldilemmas are encountered, and for many of these dilemmas there are no right answers. In this article, a number of ethical principles and how they relate to sports medicine are discussed. To conclude, a list of guidelines has been drawn up to offer some support to doctors facing an ethical quandary, the most important of which is 'do not abdicate your responsibility to the individual player.''I am in blood Stepp'd in so far that, should I wade no more, Returning would be as tedious as to go o'er' -Macbeth: Act III, Scene IV, William Shakespeare. PMID:19948531
Successful practice of cardiovascular medicine requires familiarity with the complex ethical issues that accompany therapeutic innovation and diffusion. Even as technologies transition from experimental to standard care, challenges remain. Mechanical circulatory support devices, for instance, are increasingly conceptualized as conventional therapies. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, the ethical issues surrounding the use of these devices in patients with end-stage organ dysfunction are becoming increasingly apparent. In this paper, we provide an introduction to ethical considerations related to the use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) in end-stage organ failure, focusing on three stages or decision points: initiation, continued use, and deactivation. Our goal is not to exhaustively resolve these dilemmas but to illustrate how ethical considerations relate to decision making.
Bruce, Courtenay R.; Brody, Baruch; Majumder, Mary A.
All psychological and social research presentsethicaldilemmas, many of which centre around the difficulties which flow from the power imbalances between those conducting the research and the research respondents or participants. Issues of power are magnified in research undertaken in contexts of poverty, and there is a burgeoning literature on ethical issues in research in developing countries. In this article, we augment the existing literature by focusing on the experiences of an assessor working in a controlled trial of a mother-infant intervention in a poor South African community. We consider issues of community expectations, the presentation to our project of physical health problems, the issue of HIV/AIDS, cultural beliefs which impact on the research, child protection issues, and the tensions between research assessment and ubuntu--a cultural norm which requires helpful engagement with others. We suggest that our experiences may assist with the development of further research. PMID:16881161
This paper attempts to analyze the way in which the issue of ethics in social research is dealt by institutional commissions based in biomedicine criteria. This discussion is particularly important for Social Sciences in Health, as our projects must necessarily be presented to Committees for assessment. In actual fact, Resolution N masculine 196/1996 issued by the National Health Council establishes this mandatory requirement for all social areas. However, there is a question among researchers working with social issues, arguing that the health sector is moving outside its field when attempting to regulate actions in other fields of investigation. Grounded on philosophical anthropology, this paper is divided into three parts: (1) elements of anthropological foundations of ethics; (2) contributions of Anthropology to thinking about ethics and human rights in health; (3) internal and external questioning about anthropological practice. I conclude that if the ethical issue that involves human beings cannot be reduced to the procedures established by Ethics Committees, discussions in greater depth are required among social scientists on the construction of a practice based on and guided by respect for the intersubjectivity of all the players engaged in a research project. PMID:18813549
here is some controversy about how computer ethics and ethics in general should be taught. The two most idely used approaches are lecturing about ethical concepts and situations, and getting the students involved in the discussion and solution of ethicaldilemmas. These two approaches can complement each other very well. The oneway presentation of ethical concepts can lay the theoretical
The Making Ethical Decisions about Surgical Intervention (MEDSI) tool is designed to guide health care professionals, patients, and families faced with ethically charged decisions regarding surgical interventions for pediatric patients. MEDSI is built on the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and patient autonomy and created to promote truth-telling, compassion, respect for patient cultural and religious preferences, and appropriate follow up in the clinical setting. Following an overview of the 8 steps that compose MEDSI, the tool is applied to the management of intersex infants. The birth of a child with a disorder of sexual development (DSD) and ambiguous genitalia presents an ethically challenging situation for the family and health care team. The use of the MEDSI model is demonstrated in a case study involving the decision of surgical intervention in the management of an intersex child. PMID:24251985
Lathrop, Breanna L; Cheney, Teresa B; Hayman, Annette B
Infectious diseases—including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis—continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Faden and Shebaya.3 Infectious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus and HIV/AIDS (together with tuberculosis) will be used to illustrate particular points in the discussion.
This paper considers the ethical tensions present when engaging in in-depth interviews with convicted sex offenders. Many of the issues described below are similar to those found in other sensitive areas of research. However, confidentiality and public protection are matters that require detailed consideration when the desire to know more about men who have committed serious and harmful offences is
This paper indicates the need for women's studies ethics courses and the examination of student concepts of morality. It proposes the ethical study of social problems not usually considered in undergraduate classes and illustrates the importance of the study of historical perspectives and situational ethics in the teaching of complex contemporary…
In the educational environment, there is increasing interest in the teaching of ethics. At one time teaching was teaching ethics. Ethics was taught through literature, history, and other courses where applicable. Today, there is diminishing influence of churches and families in instilling ethical values to the youth, causing widespread decline in…
In Sweden, individuals affected by severe stroke are treated in specialized stroke units. In these units, patients are attended by a multiprofessional team with a focus on care in the acute phase of stroke, rehabilitation phase, and palliative phase. Caring for patients with such a large variety in condition and symptoms might be an extra challenge for the team. Today, there is a lack of knowledge in team experiences of the dilemmas that appear and the consequences that emerge. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to study ethicaldilemmas, different approaches, and what consequences they had among healthcare professionals working with the dying patients with stroke in acute stroke units. Forty-one healthcare professionals working in a stroke team were interviewed either in focus groups or individually. The data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. The ethicaldilemmas that appeared were depending on "nondecisions" about palliative care or discontinuation of treatments. The lack of decision made the team members act based on their own individual skills, because of the absence of common communication tools. When a decision was made, the healthcare professionals had "problems holding to the decision." The devised and applied plans could be revalued, which was described as a setback to nondecisions again. The underlying problem and theme was "communication barriers," a consequence related to the absence of common skills and consensus among the value system. This study highlights the importance of palliative care knowledge and skills, even for patients experiencing severe stroke. To make a decision and to hold on to that is a presupposition in creating a credible care plan. However, implementing a common set of values based on palliative care with symptom control and quality of life might minimize the risk of the communication barrier that may arise and increases the ability to create a healthcare that is meaningful and dignified. PMID:24796473
Eriksson, Helene; Andersson, Gisela; Olsson, Louise; Milberg, Anna; Friedrichsen, Maria
The field of psychiatry has an opportunity to construct a more refined, perhaps more enduring understanding of the ethical basis of mental illness research. The aim of this paper is to help advance this understanding by 1) tracing the evolution of the emerging ethic for biomedical experimentation, including recent recommendations of the President’s National Bioethics Advisory Commission, and 2) reviewing
This book discusses the most frequently encountered ethicaldilemmas that can arise in higher educational settings and offers tips on how to avoid such predicaments and how to handle them when they occur. Ethicaldilemmas are presented as short case scenarios. The 195 cases are grouped into 22 chapters in six parts. Part 1, "The Classroom…
Keith-Spiegel, Patricia; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.; Balogh, Deborah Ware; Perkins, David V.; Wittig, Arno F.
The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to…
Discusses the privacy dilemma encountered by early childhood practitioners when they find out that a child in their program or one of the child's family members has HIV/AIDS. Provides general and specific guidelines regarding HIV/AIDS, describes universal precautions in child care settings, and delineates myths and facts about HIV/AIDS. (KB)
This paper presentsethicaldilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethicaldilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children.
Highlights some of the ethicaldilemmaspresent in the debate over abstinence-only and abstinence-plus sexuality education in the schools, discussing issues related to: morality, ethics, and values; limitations to codes of ethics; questions about abstinence-only sexuality education; ethics and abstinence- only sexuality education; and sexuality…
Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human reproduction will become more readily available and raise new issues about the nature of
A study examined news coverage by "The Saint Petersburg Times" of a local double teen suicide in August 1993. Focusing on how the story was covered, the study explored the newspaper's decision-making process, analyzing the process in relation to standard philosophical methods in ethics and recognized journalistic principles. As background,…
How do responsive evaluators provide input to program planners when competing ethical principles point to different choices of effective feedback? A team of three evaluators used participant observation, individual and focus group interviews, and analysis of documents to provide input on the development and outcome of a summer program for high…
In the UK, three patients die every day waiting for an organ transplant. Despite there being 18.7 million donors currently registered in the UK, donation rates remain low. This review discusses the legal, ethical and social aspects of organ donation in the UK, and looks at some controversial solutions adopted in other countries. PMID:24022552
A large body of pedagogical research exists on developing curricula and ethics training tools to prepare college graduates for entering the workforce. However, many college students are "already" in the workforce while they attend school. Many of these jobs are entry-level or frontline employee positions in retail or service industries,…
Bush, Victoria D.; Smith, Rachel Korthage; Bush, Alan J.
This paper provides the theoretical framework for a case study that I share with students in my courses. The dialectical theory is used to analyze ethical conundrums pertaining to Genzyme, a successful bio-tech corporation based in Boston, Massachusetts that manufactures treatments for serious diseases such as kidney problems, immune diseases, and cancer. We discuss questions such as: is Genzyme acting
Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human…
Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,…
The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of
Leslie London; David Coggon; Angelo Moretto; Peter Westerholm; Martin F Wilks; Claudio Colosio
The American Anthropological Association has recently added number 23 to its series of special online publications. Edited by Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, this collection of six essays is presented to "stimulate discussion and reflection on ethical issues" among anthropologists. Offerings include a background essay and annotated bibliography, two essays containing fictional ethicaldilemmas and proposed solutions, an essay on introducing issues of ethical responsibility into the classroom, and guidelines on holding a workshop on ethical problems in fieldwork.
Describes the ethicaldilemmas in publication and provides recommendations for guidelines involving publication ethics. Counselors may be confronted with a variety of ethicaldilemmas such as authorship issues, student-professor research, plagiarism, and other publication problems. The American Counseling Association's "Code of Ethics and…
The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to decide to die by suicide; U.S. helplines oblige emergency intervention during an attempt even against the caller's will. We analyze the effect of emergency rescue when there is high suicide risk but an attempt has not been initiated. We examine links between values and actions, needs for empirical evidence to guide practice, and propose vigorous dialogue about values in the gray zone of moral practice. PMID:20465351
National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater\\u000a adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue\\u000a to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective\\u000a new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process
Sarah Flicker; Robb Travers; Adrian Guta; Sean McDonald; Aileen Meagher
Introduction: In this paper author discussed about preparing and submitting manuscripts - scientific, research, professional papers, reviews and case reports. Author described it from the Editor’s perspective, and specially talked about ethical aspects of authorship, conflict of interest, copyright, plagiarism and duplicate publication from the point of view of his experiences as Editor-in-Chief of several biomedical journals and Chief of Task Force of European Federation of Medical Informatics journals and member of Task Force of European Cardiology Society journals. The scientific process relies on trust and credibility. The scientific community demands high ethical standards to conduct biomedical research and to publish scientific contents. During the last decade, disclosure of conflicts of interest (COI ), (also called competing loyalties, competing interests or dual commitments), has been considered as a key element to guarantee the credibility of the scientific process. Biases in design, analysis and interpretation of studies may arise when authors or sponsors have vested interests. Therefore, COI should be made clear to the readers to facilitate their own judgment and interpretation of their relevance and potential implications. Results and Discussion: Authors are responsible to fully disclose potential COI . In October 2009 the ICMJE proposed an electronic “uniform” format for COI disclosure. Four main areas were addressed: authors´ associations with entities that supported the submitted manuscript (indefinite time frame), associations with commercial entities with potential interest in the general area of the manuscript (time frame 36 months), financial association of their spouse and children and, finally, non-financial associations potentially relevant to the submitted manuscript. Consumers of medical scholarship expect a reliable system of disclosure in which journals and authors make disclosures appropriately and consistently. There is a stigma surrounding the reporting of COI that should be progressively overcome. Further actions are required to increase awareness of the importance of COI disclosure and to promote policies aimed to enhance transparency in biomedical research. In this article author discuss about important ethicaldilemmas in preparing, writing and publishing of scientific manuscripts in biomedical journals.
It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethicaldilemmaspresented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…
Results from the Tasmanian Successful School Principal Project (SSPP) survey concur with the four major leadership tensions and dilemmas identified in a background literature review. These tensions and dilemmas relate to internal/external control, ethic of care/responsibility, and an emphasis on professional/personal as well as…
"Persistent vegetative state" (PVS) describes brain-damaged patients who survive their injuries in a sleeplike, insensible state, with periodic awakenings. Due to technological advances, such individuals can sustain biological existence for prolonged periods of time. Their existence results in a dichotomy between the legal and medical interpretations of persistent vegetative states, giving rise to ethical conflicts. The author reviews the limitations in our understanding of what PVS signifies for the afflicted individual, and explores the conflicts arising from such limitations that may impact an individual's right to live or die. The author concludes that the medical community has yet to adopt consistent clinical criteria to diagnose PVS and that a universal standard for PVS is needed to avoid the abuse of vegetative individuals' rights. PMID:15068274
The Catholic Church proscribes methods of birth control other than sexual abstinence. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes abstinence as an acceptable method of birth control in research studies, some pharmaceutical companies mandate the use of artificial contraceptive techniques to avoid pregnancy as a condition for participation in their studies. These requirements are unacceptable at Catholic health care institutions, leading to conflicts among institutional review boards, clinical investigators, and sponsors. Subjects may feel coerced by such mandates to adopt contraceptive techniques inconsistent with their personal situation and beliefs; women committed to celibacy or who engage exclusively in non-heterosexual activities are negatively impacted. We propose principles to insure informed consent to safeguard the rights of research subjects at Catholic institutions while mitigating this ethical conflict. At the same time, our proposal respects the interests of pharmaceutical research agencies and Catholic moral precepts, and fully abides by regulatory guidance. PMID:22694032
This document is a compilation of materials from a presentation on ethical decision making. These components are included: (1) four sample moral dilemmas; (2) graphs of Kohlberg's six stages of moral growth; (3) graphs of Gilligan's Theory of Moral Judgments; (4) graphs of Kitchner's Theory of Ethical Principles; (5) a discussion of the four…
Although a patient-based clinical licensure examination (CLE) has been used in the United States for many decades to evaluate an individual's competency to practice dentistry, there continue to be validity, reliability, and ethical issues of concern to the profession. As a result of a 2009 decision by the Minnesota Board of Dentistry, dental students from the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, beginning with the Class of 2010, are eligible for initial licensure in Minnesota by passing the nonpatient-based National Dental Examining Board of Canada Examination. Surveys were distributed to 101 senior dental students to assess what factors students used to decide whether or not to register for a patient-based CLE. The response rate to the survey was 84.2% (85/101). The opportunity to apply for a license in multiple states after passing a patient-based CLE was the primary factor in influencing the students to register for a patient-based CLE. Regarding the use of live patients in a CLE, students were most concerned with having to operatively restore teeth that could be treated more conservatively and for other reasons outside of their control, such as the patient failing to show up, patient not being accepted by the examiners, and procedural issues during the examination. PMID:21739868
To provide a basis for international discussion of ethical problems, we studied responses of medical geneticists in 18 countries to questionnaires about 14 clinical cases and five screening situations. Of 1,053 asked to participate, 677 (64%) responded. There was greater than or equal to 75% consensus on five cases involving (1) disclosure of (1) conflicting diagnostic findings, (2) disclosure of ambiguous results, (3) disclosure of controversial interpretations, (4) protection of mother's confidentiality in cases of false paternity, and (5) nondirective counseling about 45,X and XYY syndrome. A majority (51%-60%) would disclose the diagnosis to relatives at risk for Huntington disease or hemophilia A, against the patient's wishes; would disclose which parent carries a translocation causing Down syndrome; and would disclose XY genotype in a female. As reproductive options for patients with disorders not diagnosable prenatally, 84% would discuss artificial insemination by a donor, 66% would discuss in vitro fertilization with donor egg, and 46% would discuss surrogate motherhood. In all, 85% would perform prenatal diagnosis for (or would refer) parents who refuse abortion, 75% for maternal anxiety, and 42% for selection of fetal sex. Screening questions showed that 72% believed that workplace screening should be voluntary and that results should be confidential.
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) presents several ethicaldilemmas, some akin to those found in prenatal diagnosis, and others more specific to the technique, which requires in-vitro fertilisation and creates embryos in vitro. Here, the status of the embryo is central to the dilemmas concerning its selection, possible destruction or use in research, and the fate of carrier embryos. Furthermore, the
Abstract Combined therapy presentsethical quandaries that occur in individual psychotherapy and group psychotherapy, and dilemmas specifically associated with their integration. This paper examines two types of ethical frameworks (a classical principle-based framework and a set of context-based frameworks) for addressing the ethical hot spots of combined therapy: self-referral, transfer of information, and termination. The principle-based approach enables the practitioner to see what core values may be served or violated by different courses of action in combined therapy dilemmas. Yet, the therapist is more likely to do justice to the complexity and richness of the combined therapy situation by supplementing a principle analysis with three additional ethical frameworks. These approaches are: virtue ethics, feminist ethics, and casuistry. An analysis of three vignettes illustrates how these contrasting ethical models not only expand the range of features to which the therapist attends but also the array of solutions the therapist generates. PMID:19113976
Psychiatric home care offers nurses new ethical challenges. Client autonomy, caregiver beneficence, and client safety often combine to create ethicaldilemmas that require much deliberation and inventive decision making. Utilitarian and deontological theories and principles of ethics provide guidelines that can help caregivers work through complex ethical problems. Conflict resolution theory also offers ways of resolving dilemmas that occur when
Military operations have always held the potential for the encountering of moral dilemmas by military personnel. The current research involved secondary data analyses of an intensive interview study of Canadian Forces senior officers, each of whom had con...
This article proposes a pedagogical approach dedicated to help students develop personal ethical agency--the ability to make decisions that involve ethicaldilemmas consistent with an individual's ethical standards and professional standards of practice. The approach presented involves a tripartite gathering of students, business executives, and…
Matherne, Brett P.; Gove, Steve; Forlani, Victor; Janney, Jay J.
Offers ways of applying science and technology studies to the teaching of engineering ethics. Suggests modifications of both detailed case studies on engineering disasters and hypothetical, ethicaldilemmas employed in engineering ethics classes. (Author/CCM)
This document contains nine papers from the social and ethical issues section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Attitudes of University Faculty Members toward Students with Disabilities" (Marie F. Kraska); "Attitude of Gaming…
U.S. Watchdog Urges Tighter Rein on Conflict Gemshttp://allafrica.com/stories/200610100005.htmlKimberly Process [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.kimberleyprocess.com:8080/Making It Work: Why The Kimberly Process Must Do More to Stop Conflict Diamonds [pdf]http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/diamond/2005/stopconflict.pdfHistory of Diamonds [QuickTime, Windows Media Player]http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/earth/rock-minerals/130705Diamonds/history-of-diamonds.htmlCrater of Diamonds State Park, Arkansashttp://www.craterofdiamondsstatepark.com/Decades before the DeBeers company created the Ã¢ÂÂA diamond is foreverÃ¢ÂÂ marketing slogan, diamonds had become the premier precious stone of choice for many engagement rings. In the past few years, diamonds mined in a variety of countries in West Africa have acquired a rather dramatic sobriquet: Ã¢ÂÂconflict diamondsÃ¢ÂÂ. The word Ã¢ÂÂconflictÃ¢ÂÂ is specifically meant to refer those diamonds that have been smuggled and sold on the international market in order to fund various wars in countries including Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola. This week a number of news organizations reported that diamonds from the Ivory Coast are still being sold on the international market, which is an explicit breach of an international ban that went into effect a year ago. On a broader scale, the country is also subject to the innovative requirements of the Kimberly Process, which was started in 2002, and which was also meant to prevent the sale of such Ã¢ÂÂconflict diamondsÃ¢ÂÂ. Members of the United NationsÃ¢ÂÂ Security Council remain optimistic about monitoring the situation, but oversight in this area of international trade remains difficult. The first link will take users to a news article from this TuesdayÃ¢ÂÂs BBC News Online that reports on the revelation that Ivorian diamonds are still available on the international market. Moving along, the second link leads to a news article by Emad Mekay that reports on a recent paper from the U.S. Government Accountability Office that suggests that the United States should adopt stronger oversight measures in order to determine the origins of various diamonds. The third link will lead users to the site that provides detailed information about the Kimberly Process. The fourth link leads to a fascinating 51-page report from the Global Witness organization that provides information about the current shortcomings of the Kimberly Process, and how its scope of operations might be improved over the short and long term. The fifth link will take users away to a very engrossing video introduction to the history of diamonds, proffered by the Natural History MuseumÃ¢ÂÂs Andy Fleet. During this presentation, visitors will learn about the aesthetic and utility value placed on these gems. Interested diamond prospectors and rock-hounds will be delighted to learn about the final site, which is the virtual home of the Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas. For those not in the know already, this park is the only site in the world where any one can just come, search, and keep any diamonds they might uncover.
This paper provides both a workable definition of, and examines those factors which may contribute to, an ethicaldilemma in organizational leadership. To accomplish these purposes, it examines both individual ethical standards and the effects of legal de...
The aims of the current investigation were (1) to examine the ethical and professional conflicts experienced by Tasmanian registered nurses in attempting to provide optimal pain management, and (2) to examine nurse satisfaction with their professional relationship with physicians and with their level of involvement in pain management. A total of 1,015 registered nurses completed a 21-item survey examining ethical
One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term…
Published for secondary school youth in England, the PROBE series presents provocative information and discussion questions on topical themes. The focus of this issue is on aspects of medicine which raise moral dilemmas for doctors, patients, and society in general. This issue contains case studies which illustrate ethical questions raised by the…
Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethicaldilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense of ethical…
This concluding article of a two-part special section on the ethical group psychotherapist are highlighted: (1) the importance of the cultivation of the skill and knowledge base of the group psychotherapist in terms of pertinent legal statutes and ethical guidelines; (2) the criticalness of certain personality features related to the concept of virtue; (3) a therapist's self-awareness contributes to the capacities to think and respond ethically; (4) ethical decision making is most likely to occur when the group psychotherapist attends comprehensively to all dimensions that define the setting in which a dilemma emerges; and (5) that in the service of positive ethics, attention to the ethical dimensions of group psychotherapy practice should be continuously present. In agreement with other contributions to this section, I conclude that the commitment to the ethical practice of group psychotherapy must be made not only by the individual practitioner but also by educational and training programs and professional organizations. PMID:17266427
Making ethical decision rarely involves a simple yes or no answer. Matters of confidentiality are no different. This article examines how school counselors must draw the line between protecting a student's privacy and providing information to parents and administrators. (GCP)
A survey of 1,015 Australian registered nurses found that those who felt adequately consulted by physicians were significantly more likely to initiate consultation. Nurses dissatisfied with their relationship with physicians were more likely to experience ethical conflicts related to pain management. Level of satisfaction with this relationship…
Courses in theoretical ethics are unrelated to the moral delemmas that nurses encounter in practice, according to the authors. They present a method for moral education in nursing curricula utilizing seminars for dilemma discussion that can help students to progress in moral judgment. (MF)
Group psychotherapists in their everyday practice confront a series of ethical problems, some of which rise to the level of ethicaldilemmas. This two-part special series will address how the group psychotherapist can address these problems and dilemmas in a way that leads to an ethical course of conduct. This article introduces the series by examining ethical principles and decision-making processes that are relevant to the wide range of issues that confront the group psychotherapist. The article also considers the person of the group psychotherapist him or herself and notes that certain personal qualities might create a foundation for ethical thinking and behavior. PMID:17040180
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) has mandated that all research sites outside the United States that participate in research funded by the U.S. Government must file documentation certifying that each research site observes the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and has an independent ethics committee. Sites participating in trials sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) must also undergo regular on-site audits.
This document presents a code of ethics for early childhood educators that offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a common basis for resolving ethicaldilemmas encountered in early education. It represents the English and Spanish versions of the revised code. Its contents were approved by the NAEYC Governing Board in April 2005…
National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), 2005
Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…
The emergence of managed care raises new concerns about the ethics of health care financing and its impact on service delivery. The current outcry, however, fails to recognize that American health care financing has presented serious ethicaldilemmas for at least 50 years. What follows is a historic overview of American health care financing, contrasted with current challenges. The intersection between ethics, economics, professionalism, and public authority is explicated, with a critical leader/advocate role for nurses presented. PMID:9595175
Discusses ethicaldilemmas inherent in the school setting that result from conflicts in counselor responsibilities to pupils, parents, and school. An ethicaldilemma involving a pregnant student who is considering an abortion is described, and some possible counselor responses are discussed. (Author)
Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethicaldilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…
When life hands you lemons, make a battery! In this article, the authors describe an activity they refer to as Juan's Dilemma , an extension of the familiar lemon-battery activity (Goodisman 2001). Juan's Dilemma integrates oxidation and reduction
Work summarises current data ideas of problems of ethical thinking and decision making in neonatology. Primary objective ethical questions of administration resuscitative and intensive care are outlined, as well as administration of care for babies, delivered on limit of viability, in the same way for children with high probability of serious damage in case of survival. Role of parents in decision making about to other administration care is discussed, some recommendation and instructions for communication with parents are handed up. Findings of extensive european study named EURONIC are shortly mentioned, study concerns problems of ethicaldilemmas in neonatology in 8 European countries. Finally the categorization of newborns in ethical thinking is mentioned and present circumstances in Czech republic are remarked. PMID:20925221
Accounting graduates must be able to recognize and resolve ethicaldilemmas. Ethics should be taught frequently and in short doses, using such methods as videotapes, discussions of current events, and cases of real company practices. (SK)
Discusses ethicaldilemma in early childhood education as identified by kindergarten and elementary school teachers. Investigates these dilemmas within the theoretical framework of moral relevance and moral conflict. Reveals that ethicaldilemmas in early childhood education are relational and deal with competing interpretations of the best…
Psychotic features can be present in both narcolepsy and psychosis, which can result in challenges in diagnosis and management. The prevalence of both conditions is low and the reports in young people are scarce. Our report illustrates the relevance of a thorough differential diagnosis as well as the need to explore treatment avenues based on the evidence available for both narcolepsy and psychosis symptoms to try and maximise the therapeutic impact.
The authors review the literature and explore common ethicaldilemmas related to publishing research. Varying standards are presented to assist professionals and students in their publication endeavors. Joint research collaboration in many graduate programs is encouraged and appears inevitable. Joint research activities may involve student-faculty…
Reflecting on the practice of qualitative literacy research, this book presents 14 essays that address the most pressing questions faced by qualitative researchers today: how to represent others and themselves in research narratives; how to address ethicaldilemmas in research-participant relations; and how to deal with various rhetorical,…
Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis that originates from dendritic cells. Dendritic cells can accumulate in the skin of the head, neck, trunk, arms and legs. They may also involve other tissues such as the bones, lung, liver, heart, bone marrow, central nervous system, spleen and large intestine in rare cases. We report a rare case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 16-year-old girl who presented with a neck mass and left-sided ptosis 2.5 months previously. Excisional biopsy of the neck lesion revealed proliferated histiocytes admixed with numerous eosinophils and multinucleated giant cells that simulate eosinophilic granuloma; however, the histiocytes were negative for CD1a, CD123 and S-100 protein and positive for CD68 and CD14. The course of the disease led to treatment of the patient with chemotherapy, followed by low-dose radiotherapy. PMID:24810447
Taghipour Zahir, Shokouh; Sharahjin, Naser Sefidrokh; Vahedian, Hasanali; Akhavan, Ali
Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare and locally invasive benign neoplasm found exclusively in the maxillofacial region. The radiographic and clinical features are variable, and the diagnosis is therefore not easy. A case of OM of the maxilla is described in a 19-year-old female, previously diagnosed as inflammatory gingival enlargement. Clinical, histological, radiographic, and computed tomographic (CT) scan assessments were done, which were confirmatory for OM. Surgical excision of the lesion was done. The patient was put on periodic recall, as the recurrence rate of the lesion was high. The biological spectrum of OM was highly variable and diagnosis at an early stage was very difficult. Gingival enlargement presentation might not always be an inflammatory reaction. All possible differential diagnosis should be explored and various diagnostic tools utilized, to screen the enlargement. PMID:23162348
A 28-year-old man presented with a history of intermittent haematuria over the past 10?years usually following fever episodes and requiring blood transfusions during the episodes. History of any thrombotic complications, chest pain or erectile dysfunction was not forthcoming. Examination revealed severe pallor with mild icterus and mild splenomegaly. His blood picture showed pancytopenia with elevated reticulocytes and indirect hyperbilirubinaemia. Indirect Coombs test was positive but direct was negative, serum lactate dehydrogenase was elevated and agglutinins were found to be of IgG type. Bone marrow showed a hypercellular marrow with myeloid and megakaryocytes suppressed. Donath-Landsteiner antibodies were found to be negative ruling out paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria. Flow cytometry was performed with a suspicion of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) and was shown to be partially negative for CD59 but positive for CD55, a pattern consistent with type II PNH. PMID:24899011
Erythromelalgia is an extremely rare neurovascular disorder, characterized by symptoms of red, hot, and painful extremities. There is considerable confusion regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of this condition, and the diagnosis is essentially a clinical one. This condition may occur in isolation or in association with other myeloproliferative disorders. Unfortunately, no therapy is effective consistently in managing the symptoms, although early diagnosis can aid in psychological counseling and minimizing the frequency and severity of the attacks. The purpose of this report was to describe the case of a child presenting with premature loss of primary teeth and the difficulties in determining the final diagnosis of erythromelalgia, which responded positively to low-grade aspirin therapy. PMID:23211921
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in terminally ill pediatric patients who are not candidates for long-term mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation requires careful deliberation. We present the case of a 16-year-old female with a relapse of acute lymphoid leukemia and acute-on-chronic cardiomyopathy who received short-term ECMO therapy. In addition, we highlight several ethical considerations that were crucial to this patient's family-centered care and demonstrate that this therapy can be accomplished in a manner that respects patient autonomy and family wishes. PMID:24668981
Shankar, Venkat; Costello, John P; Peer, Syed M; Klugman, Darren; Nath, Dilip S
Medical knowledge and technology have advanced at a spectacular rate. This voyage of discovery has led to a wealth of ethical issues unimaginable to the original followers of the Hippocratic oath. Steeped in the history of philosophy and religion, the development of medical ethics has been an attempt to unravel and resolve the moral complexities and dilemmas that have faced
In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethicaldilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)
Our study presents an overview of the issues that were brought forward by participants of a moral case deliberation (MCD)\\u000a project in two elderly care organizations. The overview was inductively derived from all case descriptions (N = 202) provided\\u000a by participants of seven mixed MCD groups, consisting of care providers from various professional backgrounds, from nursing\\u000a assistant to physician. The MCD groups
S. van der Dam; T. A. Abma; M. J. M. Kardol; G. A. M. Widdershoven
As euthanasia has become a widely debated issue in many Western countries, hospitals and nursing homes especially are increasingly being confronted with this ethically sensitive societal issue. The focus of this paper is how healthcare institutions can deal with euthanasia requests on an organizational level by means of a written institutional ethics policy. The general aim is to make a critical analysis whether these policies can be considered as organizational-ethical instruments that support healthcare institutions to take their institutional responsibility for dealing with euthanasia requests. By means of an interpretative analysis, we conducted a process of reinterpretation of results of former Belgian empirical studies on written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia in dialogue with the existing international literature. The study findings revealed that legal regulations, ethical and care-oriented aspects strongly affected the development, the content, and the impact of written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia. Hence, these three cornerstones-law, care and ethics-constituted the basis for the empirical-based organizational-ethical framework for written institutional ethics policies on euthanasia that is presented in this paper. However, having a euthanasia policy does not automatically lead to more legal transparency, or to a more professional and ethical care practice. The study findings suggest that the development and implementation of an ethics policy on euthanasia as an organizational-ethical instrument should be considered as a dynamic process. Administrators and ethics committees must take responsibility to actively create an ethical climate supporting care providers who have to deal with ethicaldilemmas in their practice. PMID:24420744
Lemiengre, Joke; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Schotsmans, Paul; Gastmans, Chris
Competency in ethical decision making is an identified expectation of the baccalaureate degree graduate. Values, both personal and professional, do not provide a systematic foundation for ethical decision making. The nurse is a unique health care provider and as such is faced with ethical decision of practice that are derived from and are relevant to that role. An understanding of ethical principles and theories as well as application of them to the role of the professional nurse is essential to ethical decision making in nursing practice. Seventy four per cent of recent graduates stated that the ethical content in their nursing programs most influenced their ethical decision-making skills, yet, only 23% used an ethical model or framework in analyzing and resolving the ethicaldilemma of practice. The usual format for presentation of this content is a course in ethics. The content of such courses should include ethical theories and principles and their application to the practice of nursing. Teaching methodologies include guided case analysis and written responses to cases and current issues. Placement of separate required ethics courses remains a problem because of the overwhelming amount of content in baccalaureate degree curricula. Research has tentatively validated the need for a separate required course in nursing ethics. Further studies are necessary. If ethics content is integrated throughout the curriculum, it should be presented early with continual reinforcement and with the use of a specific ethics textbook. Research indicates that students who have completed a nursing ethics course not only know the correct ethical action but are more likely to implement it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2726574
Randomised clinical trials provide the most valid means of establishing the efficacy of clinical therapeutics. Ethical standards dictate that patients and clinicians should not consent to randomisation unless there is uncertainty about whether any of the treatment options is superior to the others ("equipoise"). However, true equipoise is rarely present; most randomised trials, therefore, present challenging ethicaldilemmas. Minimising the tension between science and ethics is an obligation of investigators and clinicians. This article briefly reviews several techniques for addressing this issue and suggests that unbalanced randomisation, a technique rarely employed in current clinical trial practice, may be useful for enhancing the ethical design of human experimentation.
AimTo ascertain parents attitude, knowledge and awareness of the type of Surfactant used in the Tertiary Neonatal unit to treat Respiratory Distress Syndrome and religious limitations.MethodThis is a pilot project. We sent e-mail surveys through the Survey Monkey website to all the staff in a District General Hospital with a surfactant survey questionnaire that we devised seeking their opinion as
Golda Meir was one of the extraordinary strategic leaders of the twentieth century. A woman of immense stamina, drive, and charisma, she played a major role in every phase of the political and military struggle that led to the creation of the State of Isr...
The problem of academic ethics is not in flagrant faculty misbehavior. More difficult moral dilemmas are posed by the university's complexity, the increase in the range of ethicaldilemmas facing faculty, and the changing public expectations of the university. A code of ethics would be insufficient to deal with these problems. (Author/MSE)
This contribution is a synthesis of the results of historical research on psychiatry during the Nazi period and some implications for present day debates in medical ethics. The focus is on three issues: the relationship between physicians and the state, the impact of eugenically and economically motivated health and social policies for psychiatry (e.g. forced sterilization, patient killing/euthanasia) and psychiatric research. Three myths are deconstructed: 1) that medical atrocities were imposed from above by Nazi politicians on apolitical physicians, 2) that mass sterilization and patient killing had nothing to do with contemporary state of the art of medical reasoning and practice and 3) that ethically unacceptable research on psychiatric patients had nothing to do with the contemporary state of the art of biomedical sciences. It is argued that the findings on these issues of Nazi medicine are not specific to Germany and the period between 1933 and 1945 but they were the extreme manifestations of some potential problems implicit in modern medicine in general. PMID:20953757
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the need for hospital clinical ethics committees by studying the frequency with which ethicaldilemmas arose, the perceived adequacy of the process of their resolution, and the teaching and training of staff in medical ethics. DESIGN: Interviews with individuals and three multidisciplinary teams; questionnaire to randomly selected individuals. SETTING: Two major London children's hospitals. RESULTS: Ethicaldilemmas
This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting "insider" researchers, which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to…
Proposes a four-phase model to promote ethical literacy among preservice and practicing early childhood teachers: awareness, differentiation, analysis of ethicaldilemmas, and application of the NAEYC Code in daily practice. Includes a sample case for ethics discussion. Each phase includes a rationale, common myths about professional ethics, and…
Brophy-Herb Holly E.; Kostelnik, Marjorie J.; Stein, Laura C.
Ten new graduate speech pathologists recounted their experiences in managing workplace ethicaldilemmas in semi?structured interviews. Their stories were analysed for elements that described the nature and management of the ethicaldilemmas. Ethical reasoning themes were generated to reflect the participants' approaches to managing these dilemmas. Finally, a conceptual model, the Dynamic Model of Ethical Reasoning, was developed. This model incorporates the elements of awareness, independent problem solving, supported problem solving, and decision and outcome evaluation. Features of the model demonstrate the complexity of ethical reasoning and the challenges that new graduates encounter when managing ethicaldilemmas. The results have implications for preparing new graduates to manage ethicaldilemmas in the workplace.
Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan
Genetic engineering is often looked upon with disfavour on the grounds that it involves ‘tampering with nature’. Most philosophers do not take this notion seriously. However, some do. Those who do tend to understand nature in an Aristotelian sense, as the essence or form which is the final end or telos for the sake of which individual organisms live, and which also explains why they are as they are. But is this really a tenable idea? In order to secure its usage in present day ethics, I will first analyze the contexts in which it is applied today, then discuss the notion of telos as it was employed by Aristotle himself, and finally debate its merits and defend it, as far as possible, against common objections.
The dual-use issue is often framed as a series of paralyzing 'dilemmas' facing the scientific community as well as institutions which support innovation. While this conceptualization of the dual-use issue can be useful in certain contexts (such as in awareness-raising and as part of educational activities directed at the scientific community) its usefulness is more limited when reflecting on the governance and politics of the dual-use issue. Within this paper, key shortcomings of the dilemma framing are outlined. It is argued that many of the issues raised in the most recent debates about 'dual-use' bird flu research remain unresolved. This includes questions about the trajectories of certain lines of research, as well as broader trends in the practice and governance of science. This leads to difficult questions about current approaches to the dual-use issue within the US, as well as internationally. PMID:23703451
Edwards, Brett; Revill, James; Bezuidenhout, Louise
Technology is something present in our everyday lives. From the computer we type our e-mails on to the plasma television where we watch our favorite shows, technology is an integral part of how we live. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, presents the interaction of technology with society and the ethical issues associated with that interplay. Focusing mostly on the role of engineers in the creation of technology, the website provides examples of responsible practices employed by the profession. The website introduces the reader to different case studies that are examples of these ethicaldilemmas. In the end, this is a good overview as it introduces students to issues not typically associated with the field of engineering.
Patricia Bizzell argues that inquiry into ethics and English studies is paralyzed by the view that "the imposition of ideological agendas...[is]...morally questionable," yet "our moral sensibility motivates us to promote particular ethic positions." The field is caught in this dilemma because its postmodern skepticism forces it to acknowledge that…
A study of 262 randomly selected American Association of School Administrators members shows insufficient awareness of the association's code of ethics. As in Dexheimer's 1968 study, the majority of responses to a borderline ethicaldilemma were unethical. Ethics scores were higher for superintendents with larger districts, larger salaries, and…
Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethicaldilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…
Observational research has a history of controversy, particularly when the research is conducted in a clinical setting. Existing ethical approval processes focus on protecting participants and the researcher's responsibilities, in particular where vulnerable populations are concerned. In this study, the authors explored the less overt and often understated ethical challenges that can arise when conducting observational research in a clinical setting. Reflecting on two recent studies conducted in different clinical settings, the authors described the challenges of blurring role boundaries, the risk of collecting redundant data, and the impact of reverse power relationships between researchers, clinicians, and managers. From their experiences, the authors suggested that the preparatory work undertaken with clinicians and managers onsite, which typically focuses on how the researchers will maintain the ethical robustness of the research and protect the rights of participants and the vulnerable, should also highlight the sometimes overlooked ethical issues associated with participatory research. This can help ensure that participants and managers understand the scope and limitations of the research, and consider the ways in which the observed can influence the researcher and the findings. PMID:23656564
Agricultural engineers' jobs are especially related to sustainability and earth life issues. They usually work with plants or animals, and the aim of their work is often linked to producing food to allow people to improve their quality of life. Taking into account this dual function, the moral requirements of their day-to-day professional practice are arguably greater than those of other professions. Agricultural engineers can develop their ability to live up to this professional responsibility by receiving ethical training during their university studies, not only by taking courses specifically devoted to ethics, but also by having to deal with moral questions that are integrated into their technical courses through a program of Ethics Across the Curriculum (EAC). The authors feel that a suitable pedagogical technique for achieving this goal is the use of moral dilemmas, following Kohlberg's theory of levels of morality (1981), with the final objective of attaining a post-conventional level. This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of using moral dilemmas as a pedagogical technique for training agricultural engineers. The cases, discussions, and evaluation used in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Technical University of Valencia (Spain) are also presented. PMID:16609719
\\u000a This chapter analyses ethical drivers of the deinstitutionalization process in psychiatry over the past 50 years in different\\u000a European countries and highlights typical ethicaldilemmas of current community psychiatry. Specific attention is paid to\\u000a issues of the revolving door patient, rehabilitation and recovery, assertive outreach models and coercive outpatient treatment.\\u000a The recent debate about a possible process of reinstitutionalization in
Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide ‘frontline’ observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. Managing these data presents unique ethical challenges in terms of appropriate use of rare human knowledge and ensuring that knowledge is not lost from the local communities and not exploited in ways antithetical to community culture and desires. Local Arctic residents must be engaged as true collaborative partners while respecting their perspectives, which may vary substantially from a western science perspective. At the same time, we seek to derive scientific meaning from the local knowledge that can be used in conjunction with quantitative science data. This creates new challenges in terms of data presentation, knowledge representations, and basic issues of metadata. This presentation reviews these challenges, some initial approaches to addressing them, and overall lessons learned and future directions.
What kind of a leader are you? According to Ms. Godderidge, it's important for managers to assess their own leadership style, as well as its effect on others. She analyzes the "Dilemmas of Leadership" in this article based on her presentation at the 9th World Congress of the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technicians. PMID:10296606
Lawyers' values might be considered to play some role in the decisions that are made in everyday legal practice. This study aimed to explore the effects of personal value hierarchies on ethical decision making within the context of several ethicaldilemmas. A questionnaire was administered utilizing hypothetical situations presented in 11 ethical scenarios and including the Rokeach Value Survey. Logistic regression results suggested that different personal values were significant predictors of reported behavioral choices on respective ethical scenarios. However, the most important values associated with behavior consistent with ethical conduct in scenarios were 'honesty' and 'equality'. The implications of results are discussed in the contexts of ethics education in a tertiary educational environment and in relation to regulation for the professions. PMID:16952219
Practitioner-members of the National Association of School Psychologists (N = 208) completed questionnaires regarding their ethics training, preparedness, the types of ethical transgressions and dilemmas encountered in the previous year, and the strategies used to solve problems. Respondents who received multilevel training in ethics (ethics…
It is important to understand the ethical values of college students because they will be the leaders of the future. As part of an undergraduate honors project, a survey was developed that consisted of eight cases depicting ethicaldilemmas in the classroom. Each case included a choice of four actions ranging from most ethical to least ethical.…
Outlines a theoretical framework of ethics, power, and communication in the workplace, which provides a backdrop for viewing ethical decisions. Explains that business managers are often caught in a dilemma between job pressures and personal ethical codes. Proposes communication as a means of fostering more ethical organizational behavior. (SG)
This study attempts to describe Jewish teachers' perceptions about their ethicaldilemmas based on stories derived from the Bible. Sixty teachers were asked to submit descriptions of their ethicaldilemmas to the study website; submissions were then discussed in focus groups. The findings were grouped by the ATLAS.ti into five categories: Telling…
This paper describes the change of emphasis that occurred in the teaching of ethics to small groups of clinical students. Although the original focus of the course was on the analysis of ethicaldilemmas associated with individual patients known to the students, it soon became evident that there were, for the students themselves, more fundamental ethicaldilemmas in their new
Consumer enthusiasm for complementary and alternative medicine presents complex challenges for conventional Western biomedically dominated health care systems and for those who practice within them. In particular, this trend forces new ethicaldilemmas related to how we create consensus about the nature of ethical clinical practice and what constitutes evidence sufficient for public health policy. In this paper, we examine the historical context into which complementary and alternative medicine has been introduced, and consider the ethical and scientific challenges with which it confronts mainstream health systems. PMID:12614541
Nurses face moral problems, moral dilemmas and moral distress in their professional daily. The moral distress manifests itself when nurses demonstrate difficulties to face situations morally appropriate following their conscious. The study aims to focus about the nurses' moral distress and their relationship with moral problems and moral dilemmaspresenting concepts, moral distress experiences and possible strategies to be adopted to face it. To focus on the moral distress provoked by facing the moral problems and dilemmas in nursery work seems to be primordial not just to reveal a phenomenon still a little known even experienced almost every day but, also to headline the need of problematization and valorization of the ethical dimension of work in health. PMID:19768339
Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Bulhosa, Michelle Salum; Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo; da Silveira, Rosemary Silva; Bao, Ana Cristina Pretto; Dalmolin, Graziele de Lima
Gender violence is a health problem that occasionally gives rise to ethicaldilemmas for the family doctor. One of the most important conflict is probably when a patient admits to being abused by her partner, but appeals to keep the information confidential, and refuses to present an injury report. There also other problematic situations. This essayattempts to reflect on these issues and help professionals in making decisions. PMID:24815861
Differences in ethical ideology are thought to influence individuals' reasoning about moral issues (Forsyth and Nye, 1990; Forsyth, 1992). To date, relatively little research has addressed this proposition in terms of business-related ethical issues. In the present study, four groups, representing four distinct ethical ideologies, were created based on the two dimensions of the Ethical Position Questionnaire (idealism and relativism),
More than 70 years have passed since the beginning of the Public Health Service syphilis study in Tuskegee, Alabama, and it has been over a decade since President Bill Clinton formally apologized for it and held a ceremony for the Tuskegee study participants. The official launching of the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care took place two years after President Clinton's apology. How might we fittingly discuss the Center's 10th Anniversary and the topic 'Commemorating 10 Years: Ethical Perspectives on Origin and Destiny'? Over a decade ago, a series of writers, many of them African Americans, wrote a text entitled 'African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics'; their text was partly responsible for a prolonged reflection by others to produce a subsequent work, 'African American Bioethics: Culture, Race and Identity'. What is the relationship between the discipline of bioethics and African American culture? This and related questions are explored in this commentary. PMID:20675942
This paper examines some ethical issues arising from whole-genome association studies for multigenic diseases, focusing on the case of autism. Events occurring following the announcement of a genetic test for autism in France (2005-2009) are described to exemplify the ethical controversies that can arise when genetic testing for autism is applied prematurely and inappropriately promoted by biotech companies. The authors argue that genetic tests assessing one or a few genes involved in highly multigenic disorders can only be useful if: (1) the genetic linkage found in the scientific study must be statistically convincing, reproducible and also applicable to the population to which the individual considered belongs (scientific validity); (2) the relative risk conferred by the 'high-risk' allele should be high enough to be significant to the patient (significant impact); (3) use of the test should lead to some improvement of outcome for the patient, resulting from adapted treatment if available, or at least from adjustment of lifestyle (or life goals) prompted by the new knowledge generated (clinical utility). Decisions concerning genetic testing for autism involve scientific judgement, value judgement and good knowledge of a constantly evolving therapeutic environment. The implementation of genetic tests for highly multigenic diseases thus requires strong mechanisms to ensure that they are used in a fashion that can benefit patients, and these mechanisms must be able to cope with rapid progress in scientific knowledge and therapeutic intervention. PMID:20558435
Writing in 1999, legal ethics scholar Brad Wendel noted that "[v]ery little empirical work has been done on the moral decision making of lawyers." Indeed, since the mid-1990s, few empirical studies have attempted to explore how attorneys deliberate about ethicaldilemmas they encounter in their practice. Moreover, while past research has explored some of the ethical issues confronting lawyers practicing in certain specific areas of practice, no published data exists probing the moral mind of health care lawyers. As signaled by the creation of a regular column "devoted to ethical issues arising in the practice of health law" in the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, the time to address the empirical gap in the professional ethics literature is now. Accordingly, this article presents data collected from 120 health care lawyers. Presenting this population with a number of hypothetical scenarios relating to how they would respond when confronting an ethicaldilemma without an obvious solution or when facing a situation in which their personal values were in tension with their professional obligations, this article represents a first step toward better understanding how lawyers who practice in health care settings understand and resolve the moral discomfort they encounter in their professional lives. PMID:19723257
Perry, Joshua E; Moore, Ilene N; Barry, Bruce; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Carrico, Amanda R
The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethicaldilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethicaldilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper. PMID:24300652
The study's objective was to survey what and how psychiatry residents want to learn about ethics during residency. A 4-page questionnaire developed for this study was sent to 305 residents at 10 adult psychiatry programs in the United States. One-hundred and eighty-one (59%) of those surveyed responded. Seventy-six percent reported facing an ethicaldilemma in residency for which they felt unprepared. Forty-six percent reported having received no ethics training during residency. More than 50% of the respondents requested that "more" curricular attention be paid to 19 specific ethics topics and more than 40% for 25 topics. Preferences with respect to learning methods are presented. This survey may provide guidance in structuring the content and process of ethics education for psychiatry residents. These findings should stimulate the efforts of faculty to commit time and attention to this important curricular area. PMID:24442690
Roberts, L W; McCarty, T; Lyketsos, C; Hardee, J T; Jacobson, J; Walker, R; Hough, P; Gramelspacher, G; Stidley, C A; Arambula, M; Heebink, D M; Zornberg, G L; Siegler, M
The present research examined pet ownership, current pet diet, and guilt associated with pet diet among a fairly large sample of non-meat-eaters (n=515). It specifically focused on the conflict that pits feeding one's pet an animal-based diet that may be perceived as best promoting their well-being with concerns over animal welfare and environmental degradation threatened by such diets, here labeled the vegetarian's dilemma. Questionnaire responses indicated that ethically motivated meat abstainers were more likely to own pets and owned more of them than those motivated by health concerns or a combination of ethical and health concerns. Vegans and those resisting meat on ethical grounds were more likely to feed their pet a vegetarian diet and expressed the greatest concerns over feeding their pet an animal-based diet. For vegans and ethical meat abstainers, it is suggested that questions concerning what to feed their pet approaches a tragic tradeoff contrasting two sacred values: protecting the well-being of their pets and protecting the well-being of other animals and the environment. For meat abstainers motivated by health concerns, this constitutes a relatively easy moral problem because the primary concern for such individuals is the health of their pet with less or no regard for other ramifications of the decision, i.e., harming other animals or the environment. PMID:23619313
The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.
Prisoners' Dilemma is a "non-zero-sum" game studied by people in a variety of disciplines, including biology, sociology, and public policy. In this game, "how to maximize one's own payoff depends on the strategy adopted by one's partner." This website offers an interactive cyberspace version of the game -- essentially letting you choose to cooperate or compete with cyber partner known as Serendip and then posting the scores. Some references and articles give background information on "what's so important about this game." From this website, visitors can check out Serendip's other interactive exhibits, articles, links to other resources, and a forum area for comments on topics including Brain and Behavior, Complex Systems, Genes and Behavior, Science and Culture, and Science Education.
Purpose: This study attempts to describe mentors' perceptions of their ethicaldilemmas, the derived mentor roles, and the ethical guidelines suggested by mentors, with reference to previous studies exploring the mentors' multifaceted roles. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 mentors participated in a two-phase study: the mentors were…
Published once each semester by Manhattan College (New York), the report serves as a resource for faculty and students as they deal with professional ethicaldilemmas and conflicts in their course work and work lives; it also helps to further the Center for Professional Ethics basic purpose of promoting greater sensitivity to the ethical…
Individuals are faced with the many opportunities to pirate. The decision to pirate or not may be related to an individual's attitudes toward other ethical issues. A person's ethical and moral predispositions and the judgments that they use to make decisions may be consistent across various ethicaldilemmas and may indicate their likelihood to pirate software. This paper investigates the
When clients believe that they have not got the personal resources to cope with the demands of either living with their problems or taking steps towards the resolution of these, stating their therapeutic dilemma may precipitate a therapeutic crisis. A therapeutic dilemma is a concise statement of the disadvantages and difficulties associated with leaving the presenting problem unresolved and the
Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…
Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher
The scientific and technological advances have been surprising, more in the two last decades, but they don't go united with to the ethical values of the medical professional practice, it has been totally escaped, specially when the biological subsistence, the maintenance of the life through apparatuses and the mechanisms that prolong the existence are who undergoes an alteration that until recently time was mortal shortly lapse. It is common listening that exist a crisis in the medical profession, but what really is it of human values, which as soon and taken into nowadays, actually professional account, which gives rise to a dehumanization towards the life, the health, the disease, the suffering and the death. The ideal of the doctor to give to service to the man in its life and health, as well to be conscious that the last biological process that must fulfill is the death, and when it appears, does not have considered as a actually professional failure. It has protect to the patient as the extreme cruelty therapeutic, that it has right a worthy death. It's taking to the birth of the hospital ethics committees, they have like function to analyze, to advise and to think about the ethicaldilemmas that appear actually clinical or in the biomedical investigation. In 1982 in the UEA only 1% of its hospitals had a ethics committees; by 1988, it was 67% and the 100% in 2000. In Mexico the process of the formation by these committees begins, only in the Military Central Hospital, to count the ethics committee on 1983, also the Hospital no. 14 of the IMSS in Guadalajara, it works with regularity from 1995, with internal teaching of bioethic. The Secretariat of Health has asked the formation of the bioethical committees in each hospital, and order the it was be coordinated by the National Committee of Bioética. The integration of these committees is indispensable that their members have the knowledge necessary of bioética. The Mexican Society of Ortopedia, conscious of the responsibility that will have these Committees, presents/displays the following article, with the bioética commite and the support to this in other hospitable units. PMID:17937182
Gómez Velásquez, Luis; Gómez Espinosa, Luis Néstor
The dual purpose of this module is to introduce students (grades 10-11) to current/emerging environmental issues and to emphasize the moral/ethical decision-making related to these issues. The module is organized into 12 topic areas, each containing a dilemma story, introductory reading material, sample student responses, and questions. Dilemmas…
This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with several short ethics case studies: Two Tales of Rice (genetically modified food), Talk About Short (growth hormone for short stature -- fictionalized), and One Family's Dilemma (a family considers what to do about excess IVF embryos).
This teaching guide is for instructors who wish to include a discussion of ethicaldilemmas in their regular business seminars and workshops. It discusses why it is essential to teach ethics and how to do so. It reviews the format of specially annotated ethics cases that are designed to help teach business ethics and shows how to use them. These…
According to the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the principles on which ethics are founded consist of honesty, justice, and courtesy, forming a moral philosophy associated with mutual interest among men. We will cover in particular the ethical problems of publication of photogrammetric material in the various media. There are many such problems, and we often face a dilemma in selecting a course which is the right thing to do.
Successful organ transplantation leads to an improved duration and quality of life. Most organs are currently supplied from cadaveric donors. However, demand for such organs far exceeds supply and thus other sources are needed, such as from non-heart-beating donors and increasingly from live donors. The whole subject of organ transplantation leads to many ethical and legal dilemmas, the most controversial
The ethical practice underpinning self-study research has been addressed extensively in the literature of self-study of teacher education practices. Less attention has been paid to how researchers deal with ethical tensions and dilemmas when they arise unexpectedly during self-study research. In this article, we examine how the extrapolation and…
Practitioners in community mental health center (CMHC) settings face an environment of vast and ever-increasing ethical complexities, in which there are both emergent dilemmas and ongoing ethical tensions created through competing treatment paradigms. CMHCs clients are a highly vulnerable population due to lower socio-economic status, possibly compromised mental functioning, and societal stigmatization. While many healthcare institutions serving vulnerable individuals offer
Illness is not just something that persons have or get--it is something that they experience. They live this experience fully with their entire being--emotionally, psychologically, spiritually, and physiologically. Any method of ethical analysis must take care to not simplify the process of dealing with morally troubling cases. The multidimensional nature of human life is so complex that the decisions made in these situations are seldom if ever strictly medical decisions--they are also social, emotional, religious, and moral ones. Ethicaldilemmaspresent in today's health care settings compel members of HECs to engage in and contribute toward meaningful dialogue in ethics that is collaborative, multidisciplinary, and mutually respectful. The inevitability of change in the way in which the health needs of people are going to be handled in the future demands this proactive approach. Individuals who accept this responsibility must equip themselves for ethical analysis that deals effectively with the inevitably complex questions that will arise. PMID:10153740
In nursing ethics the role of narratives and dialogue has become more prominent in recent years. The purpose of this article is to illuminate a relational-narrative approach to ethics in the context of palliative nursing. The case study presented concerns a difficult relationship between oncology nurses and a husband whose wife was hospitalized with cancer. The husband's narrative is an expression of depression, social isolation and the loss of hope. He found no meaning in the process of dying and death. The oncology nurses were not able to recognize his emotional and existential problems. A narrative perspective inspired by relational ethics indicates that participants may develop a relational narrative that seeks good for all involved in a situation. In palliative nursing this entails open communication about the fragility of life and approaching death. In relational narratives, answers to these ethicaldilemmas are co-authored, contingent and contextual. PMID:16045242
The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…
Presents results from the Hudson Institute's Charter Schools in Action, a two-year research project that evaluated the creation, operation, and impact of charter schools. The paper discusses the charter notion and examines accomplishments achieved and dilemmas confronted by various charter schools. The study concludes that charter schools are a…
Manno, Bruno V.; Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Vanourek, Gregg; Bierlein, Louann A.
Although all teachers are expected to be "role models," discursive trajectories reaching back to the West's gay liberation pressure queer teachers to be role models in specific ways--by "coming out" and helping queer students out of their "time of difficulty." Paradoxically, discourses that construct children as innocent and queers-as-a-threat…
This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas raised by my own experience of researching an immigrant Korean child at an ethnic Sunday School where I taught. I review the ethical and methodological challenges raised in my interactions with the child as an insider researcher from the ways I approached consent forms through to interview…
Nurses who work with families and communities have an obligation to serve as advocates for ethical practices in health care that rapidly encompasses genetic technologies. Commercialization of gene-based diagnostics and therapies by profit-seeking industrial biotech firms is likely to present new dilemmas for professionals and populations seeking control over inherited risks for illness for themselves and their children. This agenda presents the profession with challenges that infuse nursing practice, education, and research, as well as citizenship, on an earth with fading geopolitical boundaries and evolving cultural transitions. PMID:10969493
Refusal of treatment can have fatal consequences for heart failure patients who could otherwise benefit from ventricular assist device therapy. Ethicaldilemmas arise when treatment refusals seem based on unsound reasoning by patients. Using a clinical case from our medical center, we explored the complex ethical issues associated with patient refusal of ventricular assist device therapy due to the patient’s
The treatment of brain tumors in very young children poses both a therapeutic challenge and a bioethical quandary. The administration of craniospinal radiation after surgery offers the greatest chance for cure but causes severe neurocognitive damage. As a result, current practice does not offer parents the option of full-dose post-operative craniospinal radiation. Some may regard this approach as inappropriate medical paternalism, while others may consider it an example of responsible therapeutics. Evaluation of this dilemma reveals principles which can guide clinicians in determining which treatment options to present to their patients or surrogates, in the context of shared medical decision-making.
This article explores ethical concerns and emerging dilemmas associated with the proliferation of information resulting from the extraordinary advances in molecular genetics. It provides an overview of the ethical and legal challenges associated with predictive testing for inherited disease currently being addressed in the literature. Finally, it offers a framework of ethical principles that can be used to guide nurses and other practitioners in the appropriate application of research findings to the clinical practice setting. The ethical guidelines of self-determination, benefit-burden ratio, and justice promulgated in The Belmont Report are interpreted in the new context of predictive genetic testing. The author concludes by discussing how to balance the technical imperative to advance genetic knowledge for the sake of human health with the ethical imperative to preserve the fundamental rights and liberties of both individuals and communities who are its recipients. PMID:11885910
Research that includes non-human animal experimentation is fundamentally a dilemmatic enterprise. Humans use other animals in research to improve life for their own species. Ethical principles are established to deal with this dilemma. But despite this ethical apparatus, people who in one way or another work with animal experimentation have to interpret and understand the principles from their individual points of view. In interviews with members of Swedish animal ethics committees, different views on what the term ethics really means were articulated. For one member, the difficult ethicaldilemma of animal experimentation is the lack of enriched cages for mice. For another, the ethical problem lies in regulations restraining research. A third member talks about animals' right not to be used for human interests. These different views on "ethics" intersect once a month in the animal ethics committee meetings. There is no consensus on what constitutes the ethical problem that the members should be discussing. Therefore, personal views on what ethics means, and hierarchies among committee members, characterise the meetings. But committee traditions and priorities of interpretation as well are important to the decisions. The author discusses how "ethics" becomes situated and what implications this may have for committees' decisions. PMID:19332584
This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.
Whether to treat or not to treat a high neural tube lesion presents a significant ethicaldilemma. In the past two decades, the medical practice regarding the approach to a neonate with a neural tube defect has gone through a series of philosophical and therapeutic changes. Medical, ethical, religious, and legal systems have grappled inconclusively with the various aspects of these issues in recent years. In this article, the pros and cons of relevant medical and ethical considerations are analyzed, and a decision-making process is outlined. It is suggested that in order to enhance the ability of the responsible care provider and the parents to reach reasonable and morally defensible decisions, a properly organized decision-making process ought to be adhered to. Each individual patient should be analyzed according to the following major categories: medical data, basic ethical and religious principles, legal and/or institutional regulations, and physician-parents relationship. Based on current medical knowledge and on pertinent ethical reasoning, it is argued and recommended that almost always, if possible, aggressive management should be favored. PMID:2037891
We focus on the ethical issues faced by psychologists working as members of an interdisciplinary team in a psychiatric hospital in light of the current trend and policy to deinstitutionalize. The major ethicaldilemma results from psychologists' awareness of the effects of long-term institutionalization and moves on the elderly, as well as some of the documented adverse consequences of deinstitutionalization.
There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethicaldilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to
Issues of practice, licensure, and education for associate and bachelor's degree nursing indicate a lack of consensus. The perspective of an ethic of care highlights moral dilemmas that must be resolved because the current state of nursing education and practice is ethically dubious. (SK)
Designed for secondary-level classroom discussion, these materials contain nine, short case studies of ethicaldilemmas. The cast studies focus mainly on incidents and issues relevant to high school students. Discussion questions for each case study require students to examine the case, discuss the issue, and make an ethical decision about how…
Dr. Ron Epstein of San Francisco State University has compiled this comprehensive online source of information on environmental ethics. The site is simply presented, consisting of a straightforward menu of topics that link mostly to related external Web pages. Topics covered include environmental effects of war, genetic engineering, cloning, indigenous peoples, and much more. While some of the provided links appear to be duds, anyone interested in exploring the field of environmental ethics should find this convenient and well-organized collection of links useful.
In this paper we argue that scientific literacy ought to be rethought in that it involves ethics as its core element. Considering the fact that science education has addressed ethicaldilemmas of Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE) issues, it is worthwhile to question what the ethics of scientific knowledge mean in terms of their…
A questionnaire on business ethics was administered to business professionals and to upper-class business ethics students. On eight of the seventeen situations involving ethicaldilemmas in business, students were significantly more willing to engage in questionable behavior than were their professional counterparts. Apparently, many students were willing to do whatever was necessary to further their own interests, with little or
John A. Wood; Justin G. Longenecker; Joseph A. McKinney; Carlos W. Moore
Current ethical regulations were necessarily developed in response to unethical treatment of human subjects by clinical and social researchers in settings ranging from Nazi concentration camps in the 1940s to U.S. government offices in the 1960s. Due to a focus on relationships, social network studies pose complex ethicaldilemmas regarding consent and confidentiality that often challenge these ethical regulations. These
An outstanding feature of the study of nursing ethics is that it raises questions concerning moral virtue, conscience, consistency and character. A considerable section of the literature is devoted to ideas of how best to teach ethics to health professionals. It has been shown that when faced with ethicaldilemmas nurses tended to rely on intuition and instinct to resolve
It is incumbent upon each school psychologist to engage in ethical behavior based on current ethical codes guiding school psychology. The school psychologist is often the team member most knowledgeable regarding federal and state laws mandating educational services. Sometimes ethicaldilemmas that school psychologists face are the result of a…
The research study stimulates critical approach to research and practice, with an increasing emphasis on ethics and ethical decision making of the teacher researchers within action research process by using technology in its process. The study investigates the impact of technology within the action research, ethical considerations and dilemmas…
Discusses the history and evolution of information ethics at the University of Pittsburgh and describes a course that was developed in the School of Information Sciences that includes the need for moral instruction and ethical reflection, resolving moral dilemmas, and ethical issues in librarianship, information technology, and management.…
Telehealth nurses frequently encounter ethical issues in practice. The ability to identify moral dimensions of practice concerns is an important first step in resolving such issues. In this article, some common ethical terms are explained, and typical ethical problems for Telehealth nurses described. A conceptual model applicable to Telehealth nursing is presented and discussed as a framework for ethical reflection.
Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)
OBJECTIVE—To analyse dilemmas and challenges in health promotion research, and to generate ideas for future development.?METHOD—The analysis is based on authors' experiences in working in the field of research and action in health promotion and on experiences of others as found in literature.?RESULTS—The assumptions underlying scientific research as based in the biomedical design are difficult to meet in community-based health promotion research. Dilemmas are identified in relation to the possibility of defining the independent and dependent variables beforehand and the intermingling of these variables (the intervention and outcome dilemma), the difficulty in quantifying the desired outcomes (the number dilemma), and the problem of diffusion of the programme to the control group (the control group dilemma).?CONCLUSION—Research in health promotion has specific reasons to reconsider the approach towards research, the selection of outcome variables, and research techniques. Strategies and methods to make activities and their outcomes clear are discussed and criteria to judge confidence and applicability of research findings are presented.???Keywords: health promotion research; research dilemmas; research challenges
The following paper is based on a Concerted Action which focused on the "Ethical aspects of deistinstutionalisation in mental health care" in 2001. It investigates the development and the ethicaldilemmas posed by deinstitutionalization in Greece. This movement has recently undergone a very active phase but the transition from the traditional model of psychiatric care to the community based system unavoidably creates many ethical problems related to the professionals' attitude towards individual liberties, dignity and other fundamental rights of mentally ill persons. These problems exist not only in the level of the therapist-patient relationship but in the level of policy making as well as its implementation. Moreover, the paper deals with specific ethical problems such as stigmatisation and isolation in the community context, as well as the role of the family. PMID:22218080
In western societies where the principle of autonomy is jealously guarded, perhaps active euthanasia is more often the focus of public concern and debates rather than any other forms of euthanasia. However due to the advance in technology and its corresponding ability in prolonging life, in Malaysia passive euthanasia presents more of a dilemma. For those concerned and involved with end of life decision-making, it is generally agreed that this is an area fraught with not only medical but legal and ethical issues. In Malaysia where the society is not homogenous but is multi-cultural and multi-religious, in addition to medical, legal and ethical issues, religious principles and cultural norms further impact and play significant roles in end of life decision-making. This paper seeks to identify the issues surrounding the practice of passive euthanasia in Malaysia. It will be shown that despite applicable legal provisions, current practice of the medical profession combined with religious and cultural values together affect decision-making which involves the withholding and/or withdrawing of life-saving treatment. PMID:16229394
This article describes how ethical guidelines have been applied while interviewing psychiatric patients who were recovering from mental illness, especially from psychosis, to allow nurses to understand these patients' experiences. Because psychiatric patients are vulnerable, their participation in research involves ethicaldilemmas, such as voluntary consent, legal capacity to consent, freedom of choice, and sufficient knowledge and comprehension. The first part of this article describes the most important ethical guidelines concerning human research. These have been published by different organizations, departments, committees and commissions for the purpose of protecting human rights and dignity whenever research participants are vulnerable persons or their capacity to consent is limited. At present, however, no special regulations govern research involving adults who have been diagnosed with a condition characterized by mental impairment. Furthermore, a relatively small body of research has documented the effects of various disorders (e.g. psychiatric conditions) on decision-making capacity per se. One basic moral and policy question is whether these individuals should ever be involved in research. The second part of this article concentrates on how the investigator made sure that participating patients had understood their role in this particular piece of nursing research. During the interviews the investigator noticed that some ethicaldilemmas required further study and debate because of the lack of consensus on the proposed regulatory provisions on research involving institutionalized persons and their ability to make an informed and voluntary decision. PMID:16004087
Most bioethical advice has focused on the individual physician-patient relationship. But the ethicaldilemmas confronting occupational medicine are more complex, because of the influence of institutional and organizational structure. For example, consider conflicts of interest in managed care: Concerns about costs to employers are not just economic, to be outweighed by commitments to employee health, but also legitimate ethical concerns about fair allocation of resources among all employees. Furthermore, in occupational health research, rather than thinking of employees as a "vulnerable population" it may be more useful to regard them as a distinct community and apply the 23 specified protections of communities. PMID:12225926
Neither law nor religion, bioethics absorbs and applies elements of both. Its theories, principles, and methods stem from various philosophical schools. Practitioners use case-based reasoning to apply bioethics to clinical situations, usually giving most weight to patients' autonomy and values, but also incorporating other relevant bioethical principles, including those encompassed in professional oaths and codes. Emergency clinicians must be able to recognize bioethical dilemmas, have action plans based on their readings and discussions, and have a method through which to apply ethical principles in clinical settings. This article provides an overview of ethical considerations and guidelines for emergency clinicians. PMID:16877128
BackgroundConducting ethically sound research is a fundamental principle of scientific inquiry. Recent research has indicated that ethical concerns are insufficiently dealt with in dissertations.PurposeTo examine which research ethical topics were addressed and how these were presented in terms of complexity of reasoning in Swedish nurses' dissertations.MethodsAnalyses of ethical content and complexity of ethical reasoning were performed on 64 Swedish nurses'
Since the term “environmental ethics” began to be used a generation ago, it has covered many different kinds of environmental notions, problems, ethical systems, and forms of behavior. A variety of cases are presented and examined under two terms, environmental ethics and ecological morality, in an effort to illustrate different kinds of ethical objectives. In order to understand the connections between various strands of environmental ethics, personal and social values and subcultural norms of environmental ethics are examined under Christopher Stone's concept of moral pluralism. G. J. Warnock's notion of the “general object” of morality is proposed to integrate the variegated purposes of environmental ethics.
An empirical investigation was conducted to determine whether management information systems (MIS) majors, on average, exhibit ethical decision-making processes that differ from students in other functional business areas. The research also examined whether the existence of a computer-based information system in an ethicaldilemma influences ethical desision-making processes. Although student subjects were used, the research instrument has been highly correlated
The purpose of this paper is to clarify a feature of “ethics” for engineers, and consider the aim and the meaning of teaching ethics to undergraduates. Firstly, we analyze the present state of engineering ethics education in Japan. Secondly, we examine the trendy idea that ethics cases are analogous to design problem and point out the strengths and the limitations of it. Finally, some suggestions for future engineering ethics education in Japan are made.
Maintains that many traditional economics classroom experiments unfairly label, deride, or denigrate altruistic behavior and moral motivation. Describes several in-class experiments, the prisoners' dilemma, dictator games, and double auction experiments and discusses their inherent bias against moral considerations. Examines the ethical problems…
This practical guide will sensitize the professional school counselor to legal and ethical issues involved in working with minors in school settings. Using a case study approach and more than 100 cases representing school counselors daily dilemmas, chapters help the reader connect the reality of school counseling to critical federal and state…
The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethicaldilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors…
Discusses the ethicaldilemmas related to computer-mediated evaluation. These include issues of anonymity, privacy, confidentiality, informed consent, the disposition of data, and "distance" evaluation. Among the challenges is the development of new notions of professional identity and responsibility. (SLD)
This research conference, to be held December 8-9, 2001, will examine and develop a framework for articulating the epistemology of and ethicaldilemmas produced by quality improvement (QI) efforts so as to suggest if current processes and procedures for p...
Questions of ethics and social responsibility are considered by many to be important issues in science education. Teachers are being exposed to the difficult task of dealing with global problems and values. This book contains papers which deal with this apparent dilemma, raising questions about the responsibilities of science educators in the…
This presentation covers the topic of psychological ethics from two perspectives. One part of the presentation considers how ethics is presented in the classroom through both textbook consideration and specifically designed courses. The other part of the presentation considers ethical issues as they are related to the activity of teaching. Each of…
Presents the statement of Ethical Principles and Standards revised and approved by the American College Personnel Association in 1992. Includes preamble to the standards and sections delineating the purpose and use of the statement, ethical principles, and ethical standards. (NB)
Fieldwork as a part of social science research brings the researcher closest to the subject of research. It is a dynamic process where there is an exchange between the researcher, participants, stakeholders, gatekeepers, the community and the larger sociopolitical context in which the research problem is located. Ethicaldilemmas that surface during fieldwork often pose a unique challenge to the researcher. This paper is based on field experiences during an action research study conducted with a human rights perspective. It discusses the role conflict that researchers face during fieldwork in a situation of humanitarian crisis. It raises issues pertaining to the need to extend the ethical decision-making paradigm to address ethicaldilemmas arising during the course of fieldwork. PMID:18630249
In this article I discuss the ethics of synthetic biology from a broadly deontological perspective, evaluating its morality in terms of the integrity of nature, the dignity of life and the relationship between God and his creation. Most ethical analyses to date have been largely consequentialist in nature; they reveal a dual use dilemma, showing that synbio has potential for great good and great evil, possibly more so than any step humanity has taken before. A deontological analysis may help to resolve this dilemma, by evaluating whether synbio is right or wrong in itself. I also assess whether deontology alone is a sufficient methodological paradigm for the proper evaluation of synbio ethics. PMID:24010856
This study describes moral dilemmas that young adults (ages 18-24) formulate spontaneously and examines the relationship between these dilemmas and the subjects' environment and scores on a standardized test. Fifty-two subjects were tested both in 1976 and 1978, creating 104 subject-oriented dilemmas. Thirty-two were in college, 17 were not, and…
Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.
hina's national leadership is facing a dilemma that has bedeviled many other powers in modern history. The challenge—an especially difficult one in an era of rapid technological change—is discerning when and how to spend finite military budgets on new technology, organization, doctrine, and force structure. The history of navies trying to anticipate and prepare for the next war is replete
Examines people's behavior in the Monty Hall Dilemma (MHD), in which a person must make two decisions to win a prize. In a series of five studies, found that people misapprehend probabilities in the MHD. Discusses the MHD's relation to illusion of control, belief perseverance, and the status quo bias. (RJM)
Distinguishing between problems that have solutions and dilemmas that need to be managed, the authors identify three overarching questions from the School ABC case that center around data and perceptions. Because the ability to talk openly and honestly about difficult issues is critical to the health of a school, the authors consider the obstacles…
China's national leadership is facing a dilemma that has bedeviled many other powers in modern history. The challenge--an especially difficult one in an era of rapid technological change--is discerning when and how to spend finite military budgets on new ...
The study of social dilemmas is the study of the tension between individual and collective rationality. In a social dilemma, individually reasonable be- havior leads to a situation in which everyone is worse off. The first part of this review is a discussion of categories of social dilemmas and how they are modeled. The key two-person social dilemmas (Prisonerís Dilemma,
Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy.
Students often come to class discussions with preformed opinions on many ethical issues. The challenging task for teachers is to help students learn to identify the facts of a case, recognize the underlying ethicaldilemmas, and to understand the different perspectives involved. These objectives can be met successfully by following the three key components to effective discussions related to ethics and science that are discussed in this article: Content and lesson strategies, a decision-making model, and a familiarity with ethical perspectives (see Figure 1).
It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…
Analyzes some of the ethical issues relating to the illegal use of computer software and presents empirical evidence suggesting the nature and scope of the problem. Types of software are explained, including freeware and shareware; the current ethical and legal situation is described; a moral analysis is discussed; problems of rationalization are…
The practice of neurology presents a series of ethical challenges for the clinician. These rarely have simple or straightforward solutions, but require careful consideration by the neurologist. This section of , written by colleagues with particular interest in the area of bioethics, provides a case vignette that raises one or more ethical questions related to the subject area of this
Dealing with a variety of issues related to media ethics and press responsibility, this report presents 12 essays on editorial policy and reporters' responsibility. The essays discuss the following: (1) a reporter who posed as a jail officer to gain entry into a prison to interview an inmate, (2) a journalism professor's opinion as to the ethics…
In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making.
While a growing body of research is uncovering the aetiology and effective treatments for allergy, research that assess the broader ethical implications of this disease is lacking significantly. This article will demonstrate both the paucity of academic research concerning ethical implications in allergy and explain why ethical analysis is integral to formulating effective health strategies for allergic disease. An exhaustive literature search of publications in French and English identified less than 35 academic articles focussed on the topic of ethics and allergy; this is a miniscule number when compared to the amount of articles published on ethical issues related to other chronic illnesses, such as obesity. It is important to demonstrate to allergy specialists the need for, and utility of, further incorporating ethical analyses in allergology; the current success of Ethical, Legal, Social Implications (ELSI) research programmes in human genetics and nanotechnology will serve as notable examples. Indeed, future research and innovation in allergy will undoubtedly encounter ethicaldilemmas and the allergology community should play a significant role in helping to address these issues. However, incorporating ethical analyses in allergology does not imply that the allergology community must acquire extensive knowledge in bioethics; instead, interdisciplinary research that incorporates expertise from allergology and bioethics would enable allergy specialists to advance critical knowledge development in this largely overlooked domain of study.
In recent years a new generation of relief workers and relief agencies has become embroiled in the heat of civil wars and political emergencies, and the humanitarian community has had to revisit its fundamental principles and address the ethics of what it does. This paper sets out to continue this important debate by emphasising that ethical analysis should always be an essential part of humanitarian practice. The paper seeks to recognise the difficult moral choices relief agencies are facing today and gives some practical guidelines to relief agency staff when confronting the ethics of a given situation. In particular, it hopes to introduce some ethical principles into the debate about humanitarianism and contribute to the moral vocabulary which is being developed to improve relief agencies' ethical analysis. The paper starts by looking at the essential characteristics of a moral dilemma, and the way in which other types of tough choice can masquerade as moral dilemmas. It then introduces some basic moral principles surrounding the key ethical notions of action consequences and moral responsibility in an effort to show how relief agencies might begin to develop a process of ethical analysis in their work. Finally, it explores how relief agencies might develop a more intuitive form of ethical analysis based on an organisational conscience and moral role models. PMID:9301139
Nursing ethics in the 21st century will continue to be concerned with describing and communicating the characteristics of the “good” nurse, and describing nurses’ ethical practices. However, there is a growing concern that what constitutes nurses’ ethical practices is changing as patients are experiencing, by virtue of reduced reimbursements for health care services, limited time to be in a nurse-patient
In this study, the ethical decision-making of preschool teachers (N = 26) in Samsun, on the northern coast of Turkey, was examined. For this analysis, six real-life dilemmas were prepared, chosen from the problems that most often arise in kindergartens in Turkey. These dilemmas addressed the commitment of the teacher to the child, to self, to the…
This paper describes the ethicaldilemmas encountered by family counselors using the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM). Numerous authors have emphasized that the DSM system does not contribute in an effective or efficient manner in the conduct of family therapy. The ethical issues of misrepresentation; trust; malfeasance;…
The field of special education is wrought with ethicaldilemmas. The Council for Exceptional Children has outlined its code of ethics and standards for professional practice for individuals working in the field of special education. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which special education administrators and teachers possess…
Now more than ever, graduate students and experienced researchers alike need to understand the professional and legal rules regarding the conduct of ethical research. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are differences in how graduate students and faculty assess ethicaldilemmas in the field of educational research. Graduate…
New, and yet familiar, hypothetical cases are debated and agonized over by eminent leaders from government, business, science and academia. "Ethics in America II" follows its predecessor by exploring gripping ethicaldilemmas using the time-honored Socratic Dialogue format. The programs can be used with a discussion guide to help teachers engage…
Discover the link between ethical leadership and successful educational communities! In an age of accountability and transparency, principals are held responsible for everything from test scores to school finances. Because of this increased accountability, school leaders must regularly confront difficult ethicaldilemmas. This book teaches…
Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…
Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethicaldilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…
Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti
Five articles and two columns reprinted from 1984 and 1985 issues of "The Computing Teacher" address various ethical and legal issues involved in computer use. In "A Question of Ethics," Larry S. Hannah and Charles B. Matus suggest guidelines for dilemma discussion in the classroom to address social and moral issues and to help students to develop…
International Council for Computers in Education, Eugene, OR.
As educators, we grapple with a myriad of dilemmas and often have difficulty resolving issues that relate to curriculum and instruction, funding, facilities and supervision, to name a few. Depending on the leader(s), a variety of ethics come in to play when making decisions. The ethic of connectedness refers to community building and welfare as…
As ethicaldilemmas arise in community colleges, administrators make decisions that require sensitivity to the organizational, political, and environmental factors surrounding their particular institutional climates and locales. The moral reasoning and ethical decision-making of community college administrators were examined in this study. In…
An eleven-year-old boy presented with a mass in the right iliac fossa for the last 21 days associated with pain, fever, anorexia, and nausea. The patient was thoroughly investigated and contrast-enhanced CT abdomen revealed a well-defined mass in the region of right iliac fossa. Exploratory laparotomy was done and a mass measuring 10?cm in diameter arising from mesentery of proximal ileum and adherent with the wall of ileum was seen. Resection and anastomosis were done. Histopathological examination showed mesenteric fibromatosis. Postoperatively, patient was well and 3-month followup showed normal recovery.
This study examines the effects of ethics training on the attitudes, knowledge-based scores, and analysis of ethicaldilemmas among office professionals. A treatment- and control-group design was used with variables of interest measured before, immediately after, and ninety days following completion of a six-hour ethics training workshop. A…
How does natural selection lead to cooperation between competing individuals? The Prisoner's Dilemma captures the essence of this problem. Two players can either cooperate or defect. The payoff for mutual cooperation, R, is greater than the payoff for mutual defection, P. But a defector versus a cooperator receives the highest payoff, T, while the cooperator obtains the lowest payoff, S. Hence, the Prisoner's Dilemma is defined by the payoff ranking T > R > P > S. In a well-mixed population, defectors always have a higher expected payoff than cooperators, and therefore natural selection favors defectors. The evolution of cooperation requires specific mechanisms. Here we discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, kin selection, group selection and network reciprocity (or graph selection). Each mechanism leads to a transformation of the Prisoner's Dilemma payoff matrix. From the transformed matrices, we derive the fundamental conditions for the evolution of cooperation. The transformed matrices can be used in standard frameworks of evolutionary dynamics such as the replicator equation or stochastic processes of game dynamics in finite populations.
This presentation focuses on ethical issues that need to be addressed within the gerontological nursing curriculum for preparing nurses to become change agents and catalysts in the health care of the older population. Ethics and ethical principles are defined, and three ethical principles are discussed: justice; beneficence; and autonomy.…
A course in pharmacy ethics offered at the University of Georgia School of Pharmacy is comprised of lectures on the concept of ethics and readings and discussions on business and professional ethics and pharmacy ethics. Course objectives, behavioral objectives, and reading lists are presented. (SW)
The present study examined student learning in business ethics, particularly ethical judgment, using R. E. Reidenbach and D. P. Robin's (1990) Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES). The authors asked 262 undergraduate students to provide ethical judgment rating, first at the beginning of the semester and again at the end of the semester. Students…
Nguyen, Nhung T.; Basuray, M. Tom; Smith, William P.; Kopka, Donald; McCulloh, Donald N.
Three papers are presented on the meaning of being ethical in the study of physical activity: (1) "Philosophy of Ethics" (R. S. Kretchmar); (2) "Codes of Ethics: Functions, Form, Structure, Problems, and Possibilities" (W.P. Fraleigh); and (3) "Ethics, Codes, and Behavior" (J.N. Drowatzky). (SM)
Current approaches to cyber-security are not working. Rather than producing more security, we seem to be facing less and less. The reason for this is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted security dilemma that extends beyond the state and its interaction with other states. It will be shown how the focus on the state and "its" security crowds out consideration for the security of the individual citizen, with detrimental effects on the security of the whole system. The threat arising from cyberspace to (national) security is presented as possible disruption to a specific way of life, one building on information technologies and critical functions of infrastructures, with relatively little consideration for humans directly. This non-focus on people makes it easier for state actors to militarize cyber-security and (re-)assert their power in cyberspace, thereby overriding the different security needs of human beings in that space. Paradoxically, the use of cyberspace as a tool for national security, both in the dimension of war fighting and the dimension of mass-surveillance, has detrimental effects on the level of cyber-security globally. A solution out of this dilemma is a cyber-security policy that is decidedly anti-vulnerability and at the same time based on strong considerations for privacy and data protection. Such a security would have to be informed by an ethics of the infosphere that is based on the dignity of information related to human beings. PMID:24781874
Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.
There is no agreement on the typology and definition of biobanks.The present regulations across countries, including India, focus ongenomic and genetic databases and DNA and cell line biobanking.It is unclear how the range of the holdings of biological samples in diagnostic and research laboratories fall under these regulatory frameworks. Biobank-related research has become very attractive because of advances in sample storage and data processing, a better understanding of the human genome, and high throughput laboratory assays. There is extensive literature and much debate on the subject, especially on the ethical and regulatory dilemmas, in the developed countries, but this is hardly the casein developing countries. This paper is based on a review of the published documents and data, and aims at evaluating the ethical frameworks for biobanking in the Indian context. The issues of"'broad consent; commercialisation of samples, and extended sample use are discussed. The governance of biobanks emerges as an integral part of the ethical responsibilities of institutions. It also makes the implementation of national guidelines possible, and helps to enhance the trust and confidence of local contributors in biobank research. PMID:24727618
The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions. PMID:17470069
The Rating Ethical Content System (RECS) provides a systematic method for rating the positive content of stories, based on the Four Process model of ethical behavior (Rest, 1983): ethical sensitivity, ethical judgment, ethical focus and ethical action. We present data from an experiment in which college students and children rated the ethical…
To better understand ethical issues involved in the field of human genetics and promote debate within the scientific community, the author surveyed scientists who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. This study contributes systematic data on attitudes of scientific experts. The survey finds respondents are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. The majority consider in utero testing and consequent pregnancy termination acceptable for cases involving likelihood of serious disease but disapprove for genetic reasons they consider arbitrary, leaving a gray area of distinguishing between treatment of disorders and enhancement still to be resolved. While safeguarding patient confidentiality versus protecting at-risk third parties (kin, reproductive partners) presents a dilemma, preserving privacy from misuse by institutional third parties (employers, insurers) garners strong consensus for legislation against discrimination. Finally, a call is made for greater genetic literacy. PMID:16208885
Contemporary medical practice brings a diverse range of professions and disciplines together in greater and closer contact. This situation of increasing complexity and changing professional roles gives rise to multifaceted ethicaldilemmas and theoretical and practical concerns. In this essay we argue that for multidisciplinary relationships to be facilitated and to progress towards interdisciplinary teamwork, moral agents have to go beyond orthodox ethical systems and appeal to normative theory. We will argue that conceptualising ethics as a shared social practice may provide a useful starting point. This dialogic approach places greater emphasis on open deliberation and the articulation, negotiation, exploration and generation of new ethical perspectives in the here and now of clinical practice. PMID:15623971
Who can read about ethics in technical communication at 2 a.m. when you have to face an ethical problem the next day at work? In the middle of ethical turmoil, examining the balance of power can be helpful in finding the best course of action, particularly if the situation is sales- or marketing-related. The author points out that it never hurts to examine honestly all sides of a situation, including checking the balance of power, to see what you would do. In fact, it`s the only way to start preparing yourself for your next dilemma. And because all communication can be seen as at least persuasive, if not downright marketing-oriented, each of us may have the opportunity to face our own ethical issues.
Who can read about ethics in technical communication at 2 a.m. when you have to face an ethical problem the next day at work In the middle of ethical turmoil, examining the balance of power can be helpful in finding the best course of action, particularly if the situation is sales- or marketing-related. The author points out that it never hurts to examine honestly all sides of a situation, including checking the balance of power, to see what you would do. In fact, it's the only way to start preparing yourself for your next dilemma. And because all communication can be seen as at least persuasive, if not downright marketing-oriented, each of us may have the opportunity to face our own ethical issues.
Created in 2007, this website is a superb tool for learning about the ethicaldilemmas engineers face in areas such as emerging technologies, environment, safety and sustainability, and responsible research. Visitors can learn about various ethicaldilemmas via the site's collection of "Cases", "Essays & Articles", "Instructional Resources", and "Other Resources". The "Cases" link contains a fascinating collection of historical cases, hypothetical cases, fictionalized cases, numerical problems, and scenarios. Visitors will find cases that address a killer robot, reverse engineering, Internet privacy, and the real case of a "computerized radiation therapy machine and its software flaws, which caused massive overdoses to patients." The "Instructional Resources" link provides various university syllabi for courses on computers and the Internet, as well as a syllabus for a course for both young people and senior citizens which addresses the future of technology. Visitors will also find an informational article on the misuse of emerging technologies, entitled "Antibiotic Resistance and Dual Use".
Challenging issues confront emergency physicians routinely when performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ethical issues surrounding resuscitation may include issues of futility, withholding or withdrawing interventions, advance directives, family presence, practising procedures on the newly dead, palliative care, and communication. Principles of bioethics can be valuable in assessing and debating ethicaldilemmas. In many cases where curative care is not possible or is not desired, the goal of medical care at the end of life is to provide comfort to the patient and family, rather than initiating technological interventions that are unlikely to benefit the patient. PMID:16143694
Our retrospective study presents and evaluates clinical ethics consultations (CECs) in pediatrics as a structure for implementing hospital-wide ethics. We performed a descriptive and statistical analysis of clinical ethics decision making and its implementation in pediatric CECs at Zurich University Children's Hospital. Ninety-five CECs were held over 5 years for 80 patients. The care team reached a consensus treatment recommendation after one session in 75 consultations (89 %) and on 82 of 84 ethical issues (98 %) after two or more sessions (11 repeats). Fifty-seven CECs recommended limited treatment and 23 maximal treatment. Team recommendations were agreed outright by parents and/or patient in 59 of 73 consultations (81 %). Initial dissensus yielded to explanatory discussion or repeat CEC in seven consultations (10 %). In a further seven families (10 %), no solution was found within the CEC framework: five (7 %) required involvement of the child protection service, and in two families, the parents took their child elsewhere. Eventual team-parent/patient consensus was reached in 66 of 73 families (90 %) with documented parental/patient decisions (missing data, n?=?11). Patient preference was assessable in ten CECs. Patient autonomy was part of the ethicaldilemma in only three CECs. The Zurich clinical ethics structure produced a 98 % intra-team consensus rate in 95 CECs and reduced initial team-parent dissensus from 21 to 10 %. Success depends closely on a standardized CEC protocol and an underlying institutional clinical ethics framework embodying a comprehensive set of transparently articulated values and opinions, with regular evaluation of decisions and their consequences for care teams and families. PMID:24323344
There is imminent pressure on instructors of nursing students to evaluate teaching methods, examine curricula, and gauge students' abilities to grasp the educational process. The evaluative procedure or research, which often involves the instructor's students, can generate ethicaldilemmas as the teacher attempts to be both educator and investigator. Some of these issues can be ameliorated through vigilance of proper
This article offers perspectives from academics with recent journal editing experience on a range of ethical issues and dilemmas that regularly pose challenges for those in editorial roles. Each contributing author has provided commentary and reflection on a select topic that was identified in the research literature concerning academic publishing…
Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)
Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.
Nursing is a universal health care necessity. Nursing profession, similar to the other medical professions, is responsible to maintain public health promotion, prevent diseases, and also care and rehabilitate client, family and the society. The inher- ent nature of nursing is respect for moral values and human rights. However, clinical ethicaldilemmas occur for nurses at all levels, not always
Based on the core conditions of client-centered counseling and supported by aspects of psychodynamic, cognitive developmental, and behavioral theories, a perspective is introduced that provides a resolution to the dilemma experienced by counselors and counseling students whose personal values and beliefs conflict with the ethical guidelines of the…
Although popular culture is an important metaphorical framework for the discussion of surveillance, it has rarely been the subject of study among surveillance scholars. Especially ethical concerns and dilemmas have been neglected. The purpose of this article is to shred light on how the practice of surveillance can be justified and what kind of responsibility that follows it. By studying
This paper describes the ethical and professional challenges encountered by two experienced forensic clinical psychologists in the course of their daily work. Five examples are chosen from a typical working week which illustrate and explain a particular professional dilemma and the forensic or organisational context The paper concludes that professional guidance from the British and Australian Psychological Societies and the
This article explores the authors', two teacher educators' and a pre-service teacher's, understanding of the ethicaldilemmas, obligations, and plotlines that emerged in the experiences of a pre-service teacher as she began to develop her identity as a teacher. The inquiry, based in narrative inquiry, used the analysis of narratives from a…
Murphy, M. Shaun; Pinnegar, Eliza; Pinnegar, Stefinee
In a recent article in this journal I presented a sceptical argument about the current prominence of virtue ethics in nursing ethics. Daniel Putman has responded with a defence of the relevance of virtue in nursing. The present article continues this discussion by clarifying, defending, and expanding the sceptical argument. I start by emphasizing some features of the sceptical case, including assumptions about the nature of sceptical arguments, and about the character of both virtue ethics and nursing ethics. Then I respond to objections of Putman's such as that, according to virtue ethics, virtue is relevant to the whole of a human life, including one's behaviour in a professional context; and that eudaimonia should be central in explaining and motivating a nurse's decision to enter the profession. Having argued that these objections are not compelling, I go on to discuss an interesting recent attempt to reassert the role of virtue ethics in the ethics of professions, including nursing. This centres on whether role-specific obligations - e.g. the obligations that arise for a moral agent qua lawyer or mother - can be accommodated in a virtue ethics approach. Sean Cordell has argued that the difficulty of accommodating role-specific obligations results in an 'institution-shaped gap' in virtue ethics. He suggests a way of meeting this difficulty that appeals to the ergon of institutions. I endorse the negative point that role-specific obligations elude virtue ethics, but argue that the appeal to the ergon of institutions is unsuccessful. The upshot is further support for scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics. I end by gesturing to some of the advantages of a sceptical view of virtue ethics in nursing ethics. PMID:22950730
Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare aggressive developmental cyst of the jaw. It most commonly occurs in middle-aged people with mandible anterior region being the most affected site. This lesion can present as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency and has high recurrence rate. The histopathologic features of the GOC are complex and often coincide with the features of dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst, and low-grade central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC). At times, the microscopic features are so similar to central low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma that it becomes highly impossible to distinguish the two entities even with various advanced investigations. The reported case represents one such diagnostic dilemma occurring in the maxilla which is a rare site, and the lesion/s appeared as two distinct entities, that is, GOC and CMEC on either aspects of the same side of maxilla clinically, yet showing continuity on advanced imaging and demonstrating histopathological perplexity.
Prabhat, M. P. V.; Gummadapu, Sarat; Babburi, Suresh; Chintamaneni, Raja Lakshmi; Sujanamulk, Bhavana
Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethicaldilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethicaldilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethicaldilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethicaldilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven.
Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethicaldilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethicaldilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethicaldilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethicaldilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven. PMID:23773811
Although a model statute for its inclusiveness, Florida's 1984 Life-Prolonging Procedure Act excludes "sustenance" from its definition of life-prolonging procedures that may be forgone. The majority legal opinion has held that the law prohibits withdrawing or withholding nutrition and hydration by whatever means they must be provided. Also, a Florida circuit court decision has disavowed the applicability of the argument that extraordinary life-prolonging procedures violate a patient's constitutional rights. An amendment to repeal the sustenance clause failed, making the question of whether to withdraw--or even initiate--artificial feeding an entirely legal decision, rather than a clinical and bioethical one. The act will have enormous effects at long-term care facilities, where elderly and debilitated patients, as well as the terminally ill and comatose patients the statute addresses, may be force-fed against their wishes. Society must decide whether providing nutrition and hydration is "medical treatment" or whether, because it is basic to human life, it cannot be considered as such. To make such a determination, one must understand that feeding technology includes invasive procedures which might be considered extraordinary. The Florida law, however, does not distinguish between degrees of invasiveness. The law demonstrates that resolving clinical and ethicaldilemmas through legislation may result in society surrendering the freedom and responsibility that are essential to ethical decision making. PMID:10311349
Explores the history and current status of college admission and develops an approach to resolve ethical problems. Applies this approach to the need-blind versus aid-blind controversy, an admission situation rooted in the counseling versus recruitment dilemma. (MKA)
Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego provides ethics students with a unique kind of meta-page where the user can choose from a wide array of information formats within each of the 23 topics under the main sub-headings of ethical theory and applied ethics. Topics covered include ethical relativism, utilitarianism, race and ethnicity, and euthanasia, among others. Information formats include links to web sites, bibliographies, court decisions, legislation, relevant documents, and articles in popular and professional literature. Much of the site content is adapted from Hinman's books.
Business school faculty have begun to increase ethics instruction, but very little has been done to assess the effectiveness of this instruction. Curricula-wide studies present conflicting results of the effect of ethics integration into the business curricula. Several studies suggest that courses like business ethics and business and society might have an effect on the ethical awareness or ethical reasoning
Covert actions, an important component of our nation's foreign policy, are approved and conducted in secret. Since they are not normally subject to public scrutiny, the ethical values and legal constraints by which they are managed and conducted are of vi...
This article presents a survey of the American Counseling Association Ethics Committee chairs regarding their experiences, learning, and insights in the area of professional counselor ethics resulting from their service on the committee. In addition, ethics chairs reflect on current and future trends in counselor ethics. (Contains 13 references.)…
Making ethical decisions is of the utmost importance, because peoples' lives depend on those decisions. As illustrated in the case studies, it is the individual engineering manager who ultimately decides if he or she is going to ethically make the complex decisions created by a competitive environment.
Telling the truth is one of the most respected virtues in medical history and one of the most emphasized in the code of medical ethics. Health care providers are frequently confronted with the dilemma as to whether or not to tell the truth. This dilemma deepens when both choices are critically vicious: The choice is no longer between "right and right" or "right and wrong," it is between "wrong and wrong." In the case presented and discussed in this paper, a research team in Saudi Arabia unintentionally uncovered information regarding misattributed paternity. In such a situation and in the context of a tribal cultural system, what should the team do with this information? This case analysis demonstrates the joint application of ethical resources originating from within and outside the Saudi Arabian context. The article analyses the case based on the moral problems involved, relevant medical application, and the impact of such information in the Saudi tribal and Islamic domains. The most pertinent relevant values and secular debates on similar matters are discussed. Finally, the article aims to provide an Islamic dimension of family, fatherhood, and adultery. PMID:23180120
The relation is considered between ethical choices, morals and deontology in plastic surgery of the male external genitals. Ethics dictates the behavioural model applied by an individual or group in their actions. Professional ethics--deontology--is the collection of duties governing the exercise of a certain profession. Morals are the set of rules governing an individual's life in society. Ethics, deontology and morals do not always convey the same message, since environmental, racial and religious situations, custom, and even fashion can influence a patient's demands, reflecting his desire to improve his quality of life, even only from the purely hedonistic viewpoint, and the specialist's attitude. Surgeons are increasingly tending to bend to these demands or--much worse--even encourage and foster them, with a view to financial considerations. The attitude and ethical choices available are examined in relation to surgery to lengthen or enlarge the penis. PMID:9882901
The Ethics CORE Digital Library, funded by the National Science Foundation, "brings together information on best practices in research, ethics instruction and responding to ethical problems that arise in research and professional life." It's a remarkable site where visitors can make their way through ethics resources for dozens of different professions and activities. The Resources by Discipline area is a great place to start. Here you will find materials related to the biological sciences, business, computer & information science, along with 14 additional disciplines. The Current News area is a great place to learn about the latest updates from the field. Of note, these pieces can easily be used in the classroom or shared with colleagues. The dynamism of the site can be found at the Interact with Ethics CORE area. Active learning exercises can be found here, along with instructional materials and visitors' own lessons learned.
The current practice of hemodialysis for the frail elderly frequently ignores core bioethical principles. Lack of transparency and shared decision making coupled with financial incentives to treat have resulted in problems of overtreatment near the end of life. Imminent changes in reimbursement for hemodialysis will reverse the financial incentives to favor not treating high-risk patients. In this article, we describe what is empirically known about the approach to hemodialysis today, and how it violates four core ethical principles. We then discuss how the new financial system turns physician and organizational incentives upside down in ways that may exacerbate the ethicaldilemmas, but in the opposite direction. PMID:23686511
Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg; Swetz, Keith M; Tilburt, Jon C
Special education teachers who also serve as case managers for students with disabilities are in unique leadership positions in which they face complex ethicaldilemmas and are called on to make decisions that involve multiple competing interests and pressures. The purpose of this study was to explore how special education leaders identify ethical…
In the face of the business community’s widening concern about corporate ethical behavior, business schools are reexamining\\u000a how they ensure that students appreciate the ethical implications of managerial decision making and have the analytical tools\\u000a necessary to confront ethicaldilemmas. The current approaches adopted by colleges vary from mere ‘lip service’ to embedding\\u000a ethics at the core of the curriculum.
The marihuana dilemma poses a major challenge to commanders in the US Army today. The problem was analyzed as to the characteristics of the drug; extent of usage; effects on personnel; reasons for use; identification of users; the legalization controversy...
In 1976, the U.S. Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to further address the problem of increasing industrial and municipal waste. The main objectives of RCRA were to responsibly manage hazardous and solid waste and to procure materials made from recovered wastes. To fulfill these objectives, four main programs of waste management were developed. These programs were defined under Subtitle C, the Hazardous Waste Program; Subtitle D, the Solid Waste Program; Subtitle I, the Underground Storage Tank Program; and Subtitle J, the Medical Waste Program. Subtitle D illustrates the solid waste dilemma occurring in the United States. Under this program, states are encouraged to develop and implement their own waste management plans. These plans include the promotion of recycling solid wastes and the closing and upgrading of all environmentally unsound dumps. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.
This informative and entertaining video course is a valuable companion to the ethics consultation primer. The video presents humorous enactment of the CASES approach in a fictional VA facility. Modeled on the TV 'makeover' approach, a team of ethics coach...
This informative and entertaining video course is a valuable companion to the ethics consultation primer. The video presents humorous enactment of the CASES approach in a fictional VA facility. Modeled on the TV 'makeover' approach, a team of ethics coach...
The placement of retarded children who have been institutionalized and are asymptomatic hepatitis-B surface antigen carriers into public school classes for the retarded has caused controversy and presented the New York City Health Department with an unusual medical-ethicaldilemma. In this situation, the cost of interfering with deinstitutionalization, an important social advance, must be balanced against the benefit of controlling the unquantified but real risk of transmitting a potentially serious disease. The Health Department guidelines for managing this problem recommended serological surveillance, promotion of classroom hygiene where possible, and teaching of carriers in classes separate from their susceptible peers. A federal court disallowed the cohorting provisions of these guidelines. Changing policies and practices towards the mentally retarded, such as deinstitutionalization, raise important public health issues which will have to be faced by the involved communities.
Bakal, C W; Novick, L F; Marr, J S; Millner, E S; Goldman, W D; Pitkin, O
Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethicaldilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of gender bias, the potential for gender discrimination and oppression, a move toward eugenics, restricted access based on social or economic status, and the discarding of human embryos), the importance of human relationships (for example, threats to the well-being of sex-selected children, parent-child relationships, and couple relationships), and self-determination and the dignity and worth of the individual (for example, the right of individuals or couples to choice and personal desires). Implications are discussed for social work practice, policy articulation and advocacy, research, and education. PMID:15974373
Nurses' daily care for patients is imbued with moral questions. Ethics distinguish various movements that intend to solve the problem of how to deal with such questions. This article discusses two variants, namely ethics of rules and ethics of care. Ethics of rules present a rational model of thinking in which universal principles are applied to practical moral problems. According to ethics of care, an attitude of responsibility and involvement and, accordingly, the attention to the complex situation of a patient is considered moral. Both kinds of ethics are attached to a case from the practice of nursing care for oncology patients. The thinking of the nurses concerned is in line with ethics of care. It also involves principles of ethics of rules. These principles, however, only make sense in the complex situation of the patient. By virtue of this quality they are taken into consideration by nurses as one of the details from the context. This makes ethics of care function as a kind of 'breeding ground' for ethics of rules. PMID:9397926
CSC 385. Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science (1) Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing in computer science. Student presentations and discussions of case studies relating to computer ethics.
Lists some works dealing with the teaching of business ethics. Consists of articles, surveys, studies, and books. Includes documents concerning suggested teaching methods, moral development, student attitudes, philosophy, and the state of business ethics education at present. (DK)
Programs to prevent overweight and obesity are needed in order to improve individual and public health, to support informed choice and to diminish the societal costs associated with overweight. However, lifestyle interventions frequently evoke ethical debate. The potential ethical pitfalls that arise with respect to the prevention of overweight regard consequences for physical health, psychosocial well-being, equality, informed choice, social and cultural values, privacy, the attributions of responsibilities and liberty. For doctors in gastroenterology, it is important to be aware of these ethical pitfalls, either because they apply directly to questions in the consulting-room, or because they help to create awareness of the societal context a patient lives in. An ethical framework is being presented to show which ethical issues play a role in obesity prevention and how they can be prevented, followed by reflection on the ethical issues in interventions and in policy and media debate. PMID:24810191
Examples of ethicaldilemmas, emerging in the context of a resident case-centered seminar, are used to illustrate a proposed approach to instruction in ethics for child and adolescent psychiatry residents. In addition to a rudimentary formal didactic curriculum, a teaching methodology is outlined that intentionally focuses on ethical problems, approaches to analyses, proposed courses of action, and attempts at resolution. Four representative issues are utilized: confidentiality, treatment refusal, treatment termination, and the interface of individual and family therapies. Educational objectives include the increased recognition by child and adolescent psychiatry trainees of potential ethical conflicts, of the utility of ethical analyses to inform choices of clinical interventions, and of the desirability of forestalling premature action before attempts at thoughtful resolution. PMID:1592772
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance of a focus on ethics in sustainability education and present results from a pilot graduate-level course titled the Ethics of Sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: This is a case study presenting a qualitative evaluation from a pilot 14-week Ethics of Sustainability course.…
In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness. PMID:22864295
Students examine some examples of ethical issues that have resulted from our expanded knowledge of neuroscience. They are asked to write a position paper describing their own point of view on one of these controversial topics.
This issue focuses on teaching ethics in business education programs. Exploring the teaching of ethics in both high school and college, the newsletter first presents an overview of ethics and the study of ethics and makes a case for teaching ethics in business education courses. Following a short commentary on the difficulty of teaching ethics is…
Since the mid-1980s, a global resurgence of large-scale reform in the field of education has been witnessed. Implementing these reforms has created many dilemmas for change leaders. Following a three-year qualitative research project, the present study explores the dilemmas leaders faced during the implementation of the national curriculum reform…
Objective To investigate what triggers clinicians' requests for ethics consultations. Design Cross-sectional telephone survey. Setting and participants Randomly selected physicians throughout the United States who practice in internal medicine, oncology, and critical care. Main measurements Sociodemographic characteristics, training in medicine and ethics, and practice characteristics; types of ethical problems that prompt requests for consultation, and factors triggering consultation requests. Results Of 344 responding physicians, 190 (55.2%) reported requesting ethics consultations. Most commonly these were for ethicaldilemmas related to end-of-life decision making, patient autonomy issues, and conflict. The most common triggers that led to consultation requests were wanting help resolving a conflict; wanting assistance with interactions with a difficult family, patient, or surrogate; wanting help with making a decision or planning care; and emotional triggers. Physicians who were ethnically in the minority, practiced in communities under 500,000 population, or who were trained in the United States were more likely to request consultations to resolve conflict. Conclusions Conflicts and other emotionally charged concerns more commonly trigger consultation requests than other cognitively based concerns. When consulting, ethicists need to be prepared to mediate conflicts and handle sometimes difficult emotional situations. The data suggest that ethics consultants might serve clinicians well by consulting on a more proactive basis to avoid conflicts and by educating clinicians to develop mediation skills.
DuVal, Gordon; Sartorius, Leah; Clarridge, Brian; Gensler, Gary; Danis, Marion
This presentation examines the ethical issues raised by computerized image management and communication systems (IMAC), the ethical principals that should guide development of policies, procedures and practices for IMACS systems, and who should be involved in developing a hospital's approach to these issues. The ready access of computerized records creates special hazards of which hospitals must beware. Hospitals must maintain confidentiality of patient's records while making records available to authorized users as efficiently as possible. The general conditions of contemporary health care undermine protecting the confidentiality of patient record. Patients may not provide health care institutions with information about themselves under conditions of informed consent. The field of information science must design sophisticated systems of computer security that stratify access, create audit trails on data changes and system use, safeguard patient data from corruption, and protect the databases from outside invasion. Radiology professionals must both work with information science experts in their own hospitals to create institutional safeguards and include the adequacy of security measures as a criterion for evaluating PACS systems. New policies and procedures on maintaining computerized patient records must be developed that obligate all members of the health care staff, not just care givers. Patients must be informed about the existence of computerized medical records, the rules and practices that govern their dissemination and given the opportunity to give or withhold consent for their use. Departmental and hospital policies on confidentiality should be reviewed to determine if revisions are necessary to manage computer-based records. Well developed discussions of the ethical principles and administrative policies on confidentiality and informed consent and of the risks posed by computer-based patient records systems should be included in initial and continuing staff system training. Administration should develop ways to monitor staff compliance with confidentiality policies and should assess diligence in maintaining patient record confidentiality as part of staff annual performance evaluations. Ethical management of IMAC systems is the business of all members of the health care team. Computerized patient records management (including IMAC) should be scrutinized as any other clinical medial ethical issue. If hospitals include these processes in their planning for RIS, IMACS, and HIS systems, they should have time to develop institutional expertise on these questions before and as systems are installed rather than only as ethicaldilemmas develop during their use.
... Dairy Dilemma Dairy Dilemma Are You Getting Enough Calcium? You may be avoiding dairy products because of ... But dairy products are a major source of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that are important ...
Following contemporary trends, the author discusses questions and dilemmas of today's medical practice in relation to the patient, society, and generally in relation to positive and well known ethical principles. He is advocating a positive influence of the society on medicine as a science and on its practice. The impact of modern technology upon the physician-patient relationship and the new ethicaldilemmas posed by advances in such technology is also discussed. The author cautiously accepts randomized clinical trials, with a necessary presence of uninvolved physicians with an interest in medical ethics, but he refuses to accept euthanasia as an ethically correct act, not only for physicians but for other professionals as well. Euthanasia should be replaced with a fight against pain, both physical and mental. The advantages of physicians in medical practice should not be underestimated especially in the assessment of scientific work and ethical codes of behavior as they relate to the practice of medicine. They should know better than other health care professionals what is good for the health of their patients. PMID:2636302
Presents a discussion with Rushworth M. Kidder, President of the Institute for Global Ethics. Kidder considers the central ethical issue of our time to be the continuity of the human race, because of the way that technology today enables us to leverage individual decisions. His concern is that we are raising an entire generation of people without their own built-in
Two closely related energy partitioning schemes, in which the total energy is presented as a sum of atomic and diatomic contributions by using the "atomic decomposition of identity", are compared on the example of N,N-dimethylformamide, a simple but chemically rich molecule. Both schemes account for different intramolecular interactions, for instance they identify the weak C-H...O intramolecular interactions, but give completely different numbers. (The energy decomposition scheme based on the virial theorem is also considered.) The comparison of the two schemes resulted in a dilemma which is especially striking when these schemes are applied for molecules distorted from their equilibrium structures: one either gets numbers which are "on the chemical scale" and have quite appealing values at the equilibrium molecular geometries, but exhibiting a counter-intuitive distance dependence (the two-center energy components increase in absolute value with the increase of the interatomic distances)--or numbers with too large absolute values but "correct" distance behaviour. The problem is connected with the quick decay of the diatomic kinetic energy components. PMID:17328441
Asymmetrical swelling of the mandible in adolescence may pose a significant diagnostic dilemma. The differential diagnosis ranges from traumatic, infectious, and metabolic processes to benign and malignant tumors. Also may present with similar clinical and radiological features, making an accurate diagnosis quite difficult. This is an illustrative case involving a 30-year-old female who initially presented with complaint of pain and swelling in the lower left side of the face for 2 months. Multiple investigations and several biopsies were required to arrive at a diagnosis. This paper deals with a case report of a fibrosarcoma involving the mandible highlighting the importance of early diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:24309361
Basavaraj, K F; Madihalli, A U; Mujeeb, Abdul; Mansuri, Samir; Hussain, Mohammed Abid
Various external pressures from accrediting and regulatory bodies emphasize the importance of teaching ethics in business and accounting curricula. Traditional approaches to teaching ethics in accounting include philosophy-based approaches with case studies, critiques of unethical behavior, and study of the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct (1992). In the present study, a method that makes ethical behavior salient to the students
The factor make-up of the Protestant Work Ethic, first presented by M. Weber, was explored, and the relationship between endorsement of the Protestant Work Ethic and academic achievement was studied in a sample of 257 high school seniors. The independent variable was level of endorsement of the Protestant Work Ethic. The dependent variable was…
In Engineering Ethics Class at Shizuoka University, the Code of Ethics and Cases for Electrical Engineers by IEEJ Ethics committee is used to promote for high education effect to correspond large number of students (140students). In this paper, a case study in the class, and survey results for ethics value of students are presented. In addition, some comments for role playing act on the case of virtual experiences by students are described.
The changing context of medical practice-bureaucratic, political, or economic-demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethicaldilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine. PMID:24802645
Ethical issues are present at each stage in the vaccine product life cycle, the period extending from the earliest stages of research through the eventual design and implementation of global vaccination programs. Recent developments highlight fundamental principles of vaccine ethics and raise unique issues for ongoing vaccination activities worldwide. These include the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination campaign, renewed attention to the potential global eradication of polio, and the ongoing evaluation of vaccine risk controversies, most notably the alleged link between childhood vaccines and autism. These cases presentethical challenges for public health policy-makers, scientists, physicians, and other stakeholders in their efforts to improve the health of individuals, communities, and nations through vaccination. PMID:22440783
Like professionals in other disciplines, music educators are expected to observe certain behavioral standards. In addition to teaching musical skills, concepts, and context, music educators are also expected to protect the welfare of children, serve as trustworthy stewards of public property, and generally behave responsibly and professionally…
The particular case of organ transplantation in prisoners and the mentally disabled gives rise to discussions within the context of several aspects of bioethics. After medical and legal aspects are considered, the most important problem relates to the allocation of scarce resources to subsets of patients that are viewed differently from other citizens. The legal and basic rights of these
The close relationship between expenditure on health care and the countless individual judgements made by doctors for their patients means that any discussion about rationing must involve the process of clinical decision-making. Increasingly, doctors are being drawn into rationing by two powerful forces. Firstly, through the corporate responsibilities of those working within a managed health care system in which organisational objectives and budgetary constraints are agreed and specified in a much more explicit way than ever before. Secondly, by the professionally-led movement towards more clinically effective practice. These, in combination, are leading towards a fundamental review of the nature and ethical basis of clinical practice in which the duty of doctors to individual patients must be balanced against the wider considerations. PMID:8556293
An ongoing dilemma in genomic medicine is balancing the need for scientific innovation with appropriate evidence thresholds for moving technology into practice. The current low threshold allows unsubstantiated technologies to enter into practice, with the potential to overwhelm the health system. Alternatively, establishing an excessively high threshold for evidence could slow the integration of genomics into practice and present disincentives for investing in research and development. Also, variable coverage and reimbursement policies can lead to differential access to technology, exacerbating health disparities. There is an urgent need for a collaborative process for appropriate transition of genomic discoveries from research to practice. PMID:18997217
Khoury, Muin J; Berg, Al; Coates, Ralph; Evans, James; Teutsch, Steven M; Bradley, Linda A
In this paper, we present the results obtained and insights gained through the analysis of TRB contest data. We used exploratory analysis, regression, and clustering models for gaining insights into the driver behavior in a dilemma zone while driving under distraction. While simple exploratory analysis showed the distinguishing driver behavior patterns among different popu- lation groups in the dilemma zone, regression analysis showed statically signification relationships between groups of variables. In addition to analyzing the contest data, we have also looked into the possible impact of distracted driving on the fuel economy.
Illustrates the difficulties of managing conflicts among formal standards in codes of ethics and among professional and personal standards through two examples from evaluation practice. The mediation of human judgment reveals an inevitable subjectivity that threatens the credibility of the field. (Author/SLD)
Recent work shows an important asymmetry in lay intuitions about moral dilemmas. Most people think it is permissible to divert a train so that it will kill one innocent person instead of five, but most people think that it is not permissible to push a stranger in front of a train to save five innocents. We argue that recent emotion-based…
This graphic representation of our energy dilemma provides government officials, industry, and general public with an understanding of the broad problems and complexity of our energy crisis. An energy display system projects effects of energy policies on our domestic energy situation. This display contains sheets indicating total energy flow…
Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC. Center for Strategic and International Studies.
Narrative research methodology embraces multiple ways of representing lived experience discursively, regardless of a participant's levels of literacy, education or formal occupation. This article explores some of the dilemmas of "doing" narrative research in comparative and international education, with particular emphasis on the postcolonial…
Presents five articles by philosophers and a psychiatrist on the ethics of suicide, as well as comments and a literature review. Discusses the rationality and morality of suicide from several philosophical viewpoints including self-ownership, Kant's theories, and a libertarian perspective. (JAC)
The rapid advances in genetic knowledge and technology raise various, sometimes unprecedented, ethicaldilemmas in the scientific community as well as the public realm. To deal with these dilemmas, the international community has prepared and issued ethical standards in various formats. In this review, seven international standards regarding genetics and genomics will be briefly introduced in chronological order. Critical reflections on them will not be provided in this review, and naturally, they have their own problems and shortcomings. However, a common set of the principles expressed in them will be highlighted here, because they are still relevant, and many of them will be more relevant in the future. Some of the interesting contents will be selected and described. After that, the morality of one recent event related to whole-genome sequencing and person-identifiable genetic data will be explored based on those international standards.
We have proposed the omnibus style to teach an engineering ethics program. This paper showed the essentials to practice the class. The engineering ethics program is constituted with the factors; grade, subject, objective even if it is operated by some themes and teachers in the style of omnibus. Also, teachers have to select the cases which have dilemma of the engineer and the good effect. And they should teach how to analyze the case. Evaluation of student activity must be made up by versatile style according to objective. And student is recommended to understand the relation of activity and object.
The article presents an attempt to analyse Monty's dilemma by means of conversational formula-free dialogues and to simulate the problem by composing isomorphic stories. The crucial roles of specifying the underlying scenarios and explicating epistemic and probabilistic assumptions are highlighted.
Conflict between individual and collective welfares captures the main characteristic of social interaction and group work. In real life, group members usually possess unequal endowments. The present experiment examined the effects of distributive justice and endowment size on contributions in a public good dilemma. Results showed that participants in the equality condition contributed less to group account than those in
One elementary and two secondary teachers from the Roeper School (Michigan) for gifted students present instructional dilemmas that exemplify the complex nature of teaching. Each case is followed by expert commentaries from within and outside the field of gifted education. Cases address learning from a master teacher, the student with a poor…
Fascination with the interworkings of the human body has permeated scientific discovery for eons. Materials for dissection proved problematic for anatomists. Andreas Vesalius solved his dilemma by visiting local gallows where criminals had been executed. Eduard Pernkopf has been alleged to have taken some of his materials from victims of the Holocaust. Even today, executed criminals have served as subjects for anatomical educational purposes. These circumstances are explored and the contemporary ethics of each are compared. PMID:23324845
Arango, Dillon; Greiffenstein, Patrick; O'Leary, James Patrick
Discussion of ethics focuses on the role of human performance technology professionals in helping corporate ethicists. Highlights include definitions of ethics, morals, values, and business ethics; ethics in academia and in business; and application of the knowledge of ethics to decision-making. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)
This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…
A decade ago, we reviewed the field of clinical ethics; assessed its progress in research, education, and ethics committees and consultation; and made predictions about the future of the field. In this article, we revisit clinical ethics to examine our earlier observations, highlight key developments, and discuss remaining challenges for clinical ethics, including the need to develop a global perspective on clinical ethics problems.
Singer, Peter A; Pellegrino, Edmund D; Siegler, Mark
Responding to diminished public esteem means intensifying efforts to create an ethical college climate. Educators face these ethical challenges: managing institutions ethically; teaching ethics to students, both in class and in dealing with student behavior in an educational setting; and serving as ethical leaders for the wider community. (MSE)
We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research…
In recent years, the business ethics literature has exploded in both volume and importance. Because of the sheer volume and diversity of this literature, a review article was deemed necessary to provide focus and clarity to the area. The present paper reviews the literature on business ethics with a special focus in marketing ethics. The literature is divided into normative
This article presents the psychometric qualifications of a new video-based measure of school professionals' ethical sensitivity toward issues of racial intolerance in schools. The new scale, titled the Quick-Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Test (Quick-REST) is based on the ethical principles commonly shared by school-based professional…
Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Collins, Brian A.
We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research study as an example for working through the suggested code of ethics.
Classroom cases and decision making models used in the teaching of business ethics may be inconsistent with the actual needs of practicing manager students. Three summary cases written by practicing manager students are included in this paper as well as evidence that concerns a focus more on interpersonal dilemmas rather than top management decisions. As well, the relevancy of philosophical
Since "Project Adventure" teaches others to use the Full Value Contract (FVC), its corporate behavior should reflect FVC values of honesty and integrity. Nine dilemmas outline questions of business ethics related to "product" quality, financial survival, treatment of customers and their expectations, relationship with competitors, participative…
Ethicaldilemmas that break the confidentiality of the client eventually test the psychologist's boundaries such that not taking action may place the patient in a position where they suffer, hurt themselves, or others. The effectiveness in obtaining a valid informed consent might depend upon the therapists training, experience, and sound judgment…
45 ‘ordinary’ investors, in 7 focus groups, and 49 ‘ethical\\/green’ investors in a further 7 focus groups discussed their various motivations for investing; any moral dilemmas they faced and what they were hoping to achieve. (The use of focus groups is an innovation in this area of research).Interpretations of the results were produced with the aid of NUDIST software and
The discovery of the Nazi origins of the classic Pernkopf anatomy atlas is one example of scientific information obtained by doctors who violated the Hippocratic Oath. The ethicaldilemmas that doctors and medical centers face as a result of this and other potentially tainted data is reviewed. (Author/AEF)
AIDS represents research challenges for anthropology as well as for biomedicine. In many ways the dilemmas of anthropologists appear to be of lesser magnitude than those confronting biomedical researchers charged with the responsibility for treating patients and searching for cures and vaccines. Yet anthropological research is both politically sensitive and policy-relevant. Ethical practice in anthropology is linked to questions of
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore ethical challenges and dilemmas that exist within admissions systems at colleges and universities in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Although the issues considered herein are examined primarily from the perspective of admissions officers, this paper also considers the viewpoint of prospective…
Ethical issues in pediatric mental health care have undergone little theoretical consideration and empirical study. In this exploratory ethnographic study, 20 Pediatric Mental Health Registered Nurses (PMHRNs) describe the ethical issues they believe arise from the care they deliver to children in school-age and adolescent age groups. Three major themes emerge from the interviews. These themes, the PMHRNs' relational roles, their role as advocate facilitator, and their view of the milieu as an extension of the family, are analyzed for ethical content using several ethical theories. These ethical theories are evaluated for adequacy, and an argument for the use of relational ethical theories in examining pediatric mental health ethical issues, as well as general pediatric nursing practice, is presented. PMID:10714037
In engineering ethics education, the virtual experiencing of dilemmas is essential. Learning through the case study method is a particularly effective means. Many case studies are, however, difficult to deal with because they often include many complex causal relationships and social factors. It would thus be convenient if there were a tool that could analyze the factors of a case example and organize them into a hierarchical structure to get a better understanding of the whole picture. The tool that was developed applies a cause-and-effect matrix and simple graph theory. It analyzes the causal relationship between facts in a hierarchical structure and organizes complex phenomena. The effectiveness of this tool is shown by presenting an actual example.
Notes that business today is concerned with the translation and application of ethical principles into everyday business life. Offers a list of Web sites on ethics and business ethics at various colleges and universities. (SR)
Created and maintained by the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University, the Ethics Connection demonstrates the power of the Web as an interactive information and communication medium. This site combines excellent content, form, and function to provide teachers, researchers, community leaders, and the public "with strategies to heighten ethical awareness and improve ethical decision making." The rich information resources at the Ethics Connection include an interactive forum for the discussion of ethical issues; an extensive collection of the latest news and publications on ethics, featuring the Markkula Center's own quarterly, Issues in Ethics; a collection of several case studies on ethics, which include message boards for visitors' comments; a Practicing Ethics section, offering numerous resources for day-to-day ethical decision making; and a compilation of 900 ethical links, all of which are categorized, rated, and reviewed.
Hungarian medical ethics committees were established at the end of the 1950s. They came into being on the Communist Party's initiative. They could hardly be called "interdisciplinary" since their membership was made up of high-ranking physicians and a few head nurses. Their main task was to counter the practice of "tipping." Medical ethics and "tipping" were practically synonymous. These committees did not confront or try to resolve ethical problems concerning such issues as patient rights, informed consent, refusal of treatment, human experimentation, abortion, etc. These committees - whether it is believable or not - belonged to the Physicians Health Workers Trade Union. They were under the guidance and supervision of this social organization. The public was excluded from their meetings, and the committees' duty was to follow the health laws which were supposed to have given excellent ethical guidance. Even in a textbook on medical ethics used at one of the medical universities, written by a psychiatrist, the health laws were presented and explained back and forth. Of the 88 pages only 23 dealt with morals in general and the Hippocratic tradition. The Hungarian National Health Service as well as its medical ethics committees are similar in many respects to the Soviet and Eastern European countries' health care system and ethics committees. Since radical changes have taken place in these so-called "former" communist countries, it can only be hoped that these committees will eventually develop into groups who will deal directly with the moral questions or medicine and health care. PMID:10115138
OBJECTIVES Improving nurses' competence in resolving clinical ethical issues must start with ethics education in training and clinical practice. However, many students complain that they cannot apply classroom learning to actual clinical scenarios. This study explored ethical issues and dilemmas, and their impact experienced by student nurses in clinical practice. METHODS Focus groups were conducted with 44 first-year student nurses from a 2-year college course in northern Taiwan. Interviews were tape-recorded and verbatim transcripts were analysed using content analysis. RESULTS Students expressed and discussed their views in eight focus groups. Analysis of interviews revealed five themes: frustration at inability to help some patients; oppression caused by lower status; lack of honesty and ethical courage; powerlessness, and self-encouragement in adversity. CONCLUSIONS Taiwanese nurse ethics training was only recently introduced and the curriculum has not addressed the clinical reality in Taiwan. This reality includes limitations arising from the medical hierarchy and the socio-cultural role of families in medical decision making, which may inhibit ethical judgements and decision making. In clinical dilemmas, the most common problems faced by Taiwanese nursing students involved not knowing how to handle some situations, inability to abide by principles, and a lack of appropriate role models. Hence, we suggest that nursing ethics education should: (i) integrate scenarios involving ethicaldilemmas into daily routines; (ii) give students opportunities to discuss their feelings about their experiences; (iii) allow teachers and students to talk about scenarios with ethical implications, and (iv) provide students with opportunities to reflect on clinical scenarios in order to clarify their values and learn how to respect the value of life. PMID:20345695
In research on congenital metabolic disorders, a biochemist can choose between the theoretical and the practical approach. The diagnosis of metabolic diseases relies on 1) the determination of the presence of metabolites under normal conditions that are direct substrates of the defective enzyme (e.g., the Gm2 ganglioside in the brain tissue of a patient with Tay-Sachs disease); 2) the determination of the lack or insufficiency of the direct product of the defective enzyme (e.g., aryl sulfatase A in the cells of patients with metachromatic leukodystrophy), hormone (hypothyroidism), or receptor (congenital hypercholesterolemia); 3) determination of substance whose reduction was established by experimentation, but the cause of the decrease is not known (ceruloplasmin in Wilson's disease); and 4) DNA analysis. Metabolic impairment of genetic origin is not treatable. The disease can be prevented by 1) removing the inappropriate metabolite (e.g., copper accumulation can be avoided by giving penicillamine or zinc salts); 2) limiting those substances in the critical phase of childhood that are components of the defective enzyme (e.g. gluten reduction in colic and protein in phenylketonuria); 3) supplementing the insufficient metabolite (e.g., phosphate in hypophosphatemia by sound for 12 hours a day); 4) protecting the patients (e.g. from light in porphyria); and 5) treatment by substances (giving coagulation factor VIII in hemophilia and thyroid hormones in hypothyroidism). There is a dilemma in subjecting patients to a diagnosis of progression to Huntington's chorea 20 years in advance or informing them about the high risk of hereditary disease for the next child (25% for the recessive and 50% for the dominant mode). Ethical committees have usually opted for a recommendation of selective abortion in clear-cut cases. Increasingly refined diagnostic methods have magnified the responsibility of the biochemist. PMID:2095555
Stem cell research offers great promise for understanding basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the hope for new treatments for diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, and myocardial infarction. However, human stem cell (hSC) research also raises sharp ethical and political controversies. The derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos is fraught with disputes about the onset of human personhood. The reprogramming of somatic cells to produce induced pluripotent stem cells avoids the ethical problems specific to embryonic stem cell research. In any hSC research, however, difficult dilemmas arise regarding sensitive downstream research, consent to donate materials for hSC research, early clinical trials of hSC therapies, and oversight of hSC research. These ethical and policy issues need to be discussed along with scientific challenges to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically appropriate manner. This article provides a critical analysis of these issues and how they are addressed in current policies.
There are many decisions that family members of sufferers of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia are forced to take to guarantee the well-being and quality of life of their loved ones and, of course, themselves. A little more than 12 years ago in Medina del Campo, Valladolid, there arose the need to inform and, what's more, to support a large number of people whose family members had been diagnosed with a devastating type of dementia that was practically unknown. The illness presented these families with a growing number of difficult-to-resolve ethicaldilemmas. This was the genesis of the Asociación de Familiares de enfermos de Alzheimer (Association of Family Members of Sufferers of Alzheimer's), where baffled family members searching for responsible answers came looking for help to their practical problems that they felt unable to solve using only common sense. What follows are the details of several real situations, the most delicate of which, as the Association psychologist, I shared with the affected families. The cases below involved a dilemma when applying the basic principles of bioethics: non-maleficence, beneficence and respect for the autonomy of the diseased. PMID:22548668
Alternatives to the Hippocratic tradition for the resolution of problems in medical ethics include the major Western religious systems, Western secular philosophy, and non-Western systems of religion and theory. Five essays in this issue of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy are introduced and summarized to emphasize the real differences in medical ethical theories and the challenge presented by a comparative study of their competing claims. PMID:3199046
Animal ethics is not a set of rules telling humans how to behave when interacting with animals, but an area for research into the moral responsibility of humans towards animals as individuals. The present article studies the subject by examining a number of dichotomies: French humanism and Anglo-Saxon animal ethics, justice vs. compassion, welfarism and abolitionism, and the divide between proponents of animal rights and those who prefer to speak of "interests". PMID:23516752
Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)
Dr S. is a famous transplant surgeon in the Middle East. He operates "underground" on wealthy patients in different countries, from Israel to Turkey to Russia. The media refer to him as the "Organ Mafia doctor," and patients diagnosed with renal failure speak of him sardonically as "Robin Hood," acknowledging that he takes organs from the poor to give to the rich. But ethical issues of organ trafficking are not limited to marginal private clinics and "Mafia" doctors. All-living related organ transplants in Turkey involve similar ethicaldilemmas: many related or nonrelated organ recipients pay their donors, and demand continues to rise. This paper explores practices in state and university hospitals and the ethicaldilemmas doctors encounter to understand where and how judicial, cultural, and social categories of "human rights" and "crime" are constructed in our high-tech world. PMID:15600114
This commentary is a reflection on Tuskegee University's National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care on the health and ethical challenges of the 21st century. The Center has dedicated the last 10 years to addressing the unresolved biomedicine and public health issues and/or the ethicaldilemmas that plague the nation's health. The authors believe that health disparities continue to worsen because the approach under-appreciates the ethicaldilemma that plagues health policy and health disparities. The authors discuss synergies and the paradigmatic differences between science and medicine, religion, spirituality, and faith. They also discuss the importance of considering these relationships if improvements in the health of people of African descent are expected. The concept of Optimal Health is explored. PMID:20675945
Companies are spending a great deal of time and money to install codes of ethics, ethics training, compliance programs, and in-house watchdogs. If these efforts worked, the money would be well spent. But unethical behavior appears to be on the rise. The authors observe that even the best-intentioned executives may be unaware of their own or their employees' unethical behavior. Drawing from extensive research on cognitive biases, they offer five reasons for this blindness and suggest what to do about them. Ill-conceived goals may actually encourage negative behavior. Brainstorm unintended consequences when devising your targets. Motivated blindness makes us overlook unethical behavior when remaining ignorant would benefit us. Root out conflicts of interest. Indirect blindness softens our assessment of unethical behavior when it's carried out by third parties. Take ownership of the implications when you outsource work. The slippery slope mutes our awareness when unethical behavior develops gradually. Be alert for even trivial infractions and investigate them immediately. Overvaluing outcomes may lead us to give a pass to unethical behavior. Examine good outcomes to ensure they're not driven by unethical tactics. PMID:21510519
Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena. PMID:21769592
Developmental psychopathology stands poised at the close of the 20th century on the horns of a major scientific dilemma. The essence of this dilemma lies in the contrast between its heuristically rich open system concepts on the one hand, and the closed system paradigm it adopted from mainstream psychology for investigating those models on the other. Many of the research
Ethics: A Selected Bibliography, now in its seventh revised edition, was compiled to support the study of ethics, one of the U.S. Army War College's enduring themes. This list, like our earlier ethics bibliographies, focuses on military ethics, as well as...
Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…
This resource is a PDF that provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides a basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues.
The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…
A decade ago, we reviewed the field of clinical ethics; assessed its progress in research, education, and ethics committees and consultation; and made predictions about the future of the field. In this article, we revisit clinical ethics to examine our earlier observations, highlight key developments, and discuss remaining challenges for clinical ethics, including the need to develop a global perspective
The Ethics Primer provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues. Although the Primer is designed for secondary school science classrooms, it has been used by teachers in a variety of classes and grade levels. The Primer is free for download but the author requests information before accessing the file.
Purpose To demonstrate the effect of ethics education on a resident’s ability to answer questions that relate to moral dilemmas and on the clinical evaluations of residents by faculty. Methods The curriculum for the ethics education that was used for this study was designed by the author and consisted of 10 lectures of 1.5 hours each. Five residencies were included in the project. One residency received one lecture, two residencies received three lectures, and two residencies received 10 lectures. To evaluate the moral skills of the residents at the beginning of the course and at the end, the residents were given the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) developed by James Rest, which involves answering standardized questions about four moral dilemmas. Faculty evaluations were completed before and after the ethics lectures were given. At the beginning of the ethics course, each resident was given a social survey that was designed to assess participation in community, religious, political, and societal activities as well as attitudes about these activities. All residents were also asked demographic information, including their age, gender, and year of residency. Results The results of the DIT-2 taken before and after the ethics lectures were compared. No correlations were found in faculty evaluations of clinical performance of the residents before and after the course (P = .052). Associations between DIT-2 scores and questions on community and religion in the social survey were noted. Conclusion The finding that the effect of an ethics course on residents’ ability to answer moral dilemmas did not achieve statistical significance should be accepted with the understanding that this was a first attempt at standardization of many variables, especially the format of the curriculum and materials used. The use of faculty evaluations to assess clinical performance needs to be standardized, and the faculty members need additional training to ensure validity of the results. The social survey was also the first attempt to assess an association between a resident’s response to moral dilemmas, attending evaluations, and residents’ opinions that relate to community, society, politics, and religion.
Drawing from management models of several researchers in behavioral sciences, conclusions about how to motivate employees are presented. Some insight into the factors affecting motivation and managerial action to improve staff motivation are discussed. (Author/MLW)
This article provides an overview of the ethical issues raised by the use of non-human primates (NHPs) in research involving scientific procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. It is not an exhaustive review of the literature and views on this subject, and it does not present any conclusions about the moral acceptability or otherwise of NHP research. Rather the aim has been to identify the ethical issues involved and to provide guidance on how these might be addressed, in particular by carefully examining the scientific rationale for NHP use, implementing fully the 3Rs principle of Russell and Burch (1959) and applying a robust "harm-benefit assessment" to research proposals involving NHPs.
Advertising in dentistry has steadily increased since the 1970s to become a leading choice of many dentists to promote their practices. The manner in which advertising progresses within the profession affects all dentists and how patients perceive dentistry as a profession. This paper presentsethical concepts that should be followed when dentists are pursuing practice promotion through advertising. It also raises questions that, hopefully, will increase attention and discussion on dental advertising. The paper concludes that ethical advertising is easily achieved by promoting patient education while not placing the dentist's self-interests ahead of the patient's. With this approach, dentistry may continue to be one of the most trusted professions. PMID:19537484
This unit explores the scientific and ethical issues involved in clinical HIV vaccine trials using human research participants. The unit begins by examining students current knowledge of HIV, and by reviewing HIV structure and transmission. Next, it familiarizes students with types of vaccines and with challenges related tocreating an HIV vaccine. Students are encouraged to explore issues related to human research participants using basic ethical principles and historical case studies. Lastly, global issues regarding the pandemic are explored to give the students an understanding of cultural issues involved in the spread of HIV. This cultural context introduces students to ethicaldilemmas inherent in the selection of human participants in global vaccine trials. The lessons culminate in having students design their own hypothetical HIV vaccineclinical trial, based upon knowledge of HIV structure, vaccine characteristics, human research participants considerations, and global contexts.
Joan Griswold (Northwest Association for Biomedical Research;); JeanneTing Chowning (Northwest Association for Biomedical Research;)
Uncle Henry's Dilemma is a problem solving lesson to determine the global location for the reading of Uncle Henry's will. The students will interpret data sets which include temperature, rainfall, air pollution, travel cost, flight times and health issues to rank five global locations for Uncle Henry's relatives to travel to for the reading of his will. This is an engaging, fun-filled MEA lesson with twists and turns throughout. Students will learn how this procedure of selecting locations can be applied to everyday decisions by the government, a business, a family, or individuals.
Although research in moral psychology in the last decade has relied heavily on hypothetical moral dilemmas and has been effective in understanding moral judgment, how these judgments translate into behaviors remains a largely unexplored issue due to the harmful nature of the acts involved. To study this link, we follow a new approach based on a desktop virtual reality environment. In our within-subjects experiment, participants exhibited an order-dependent judgment-behavior discrepancy across temporally separated sessions, with many of them behaving in utilitarian manner in virtual reality dilemmas despite their nonutilitarian judgments for the same dilemmas in textual descriptions. This change in decisions reflected in the autonomic arousal of participants, with dilemmas in virtual reality being perceived more emotionally arousing than the ones in text, after controlling for general differences between the two presentation modalities (virtual reality vs. text). This suggests that moral decision-making in hypothetical moral dilemmas is susceptible to contextual saliency of the presentation of these dilemmas. PMID:24359489
This paper presents the responses of 118 executives to a mail survey which examined their views of business ethics and various business practices. In addition to identifying various sources of ethical conflict, current business practices are also examined with respect to how ethical or unethical each is believed to be. Results are also presented which outline executive responses to four
Myiasis is a tropical infection most often caused by Dermatotobia hominis, also known as the botfly. It is rarely seen in the United States. The infection has a slow evolution and often presents with painful lesions that mimic furunculosis, boils, and infected cysts. The mechanism of infection is based on the deposition of botfly eggs onto an arthropod, which acts as a vector of transmission. The arthropod infects various hosts and botfly eggs are concomitantly deposited on the host. The Dermatobia eggs transform into their larval form and penetrate the skin through adjacent adnexal structures or through the arthropod-based site of inoculation itself. Growth of the organisms within the tissues causes painful cystlike lesions. This article describes cutaneous furuncular myiasis and discusses patterns of recognition and treatment modalities, with a case presentation of an individual diagnosed with the condition attained from a visit to Belize. PMID:24765225
Myiasis is a tropical infection most often caused by Dermatotobia hominis, also known as the botfly. It is rarely seen in the United States. The infection has a slow evolution and often presents with painful lesions that mimic furunculosis, boils, and infected cysts. The mechanism of infection is based on the deposition of botfly eggs onto an arthropod, which acts as a vector of transmission. The arthropod infects various hosts and botfly eggs are concomitantly deposited on the host. The Dermatobia eggs transform into their larval form and penetrate the skin through adjacent adnexal structures or through the arthropod-based site of inoculation itself. Growth of the organisms within the tissues causes painful cystlike lesions. This article describes cutaneous furuncular myiasis and discusses patterns of recognition and treatment modalities, with a case presentation of an individual diagnosed with the condition attained from a visit to Belize.
Is it better to have a new parking lot on campus or use that space to develop a community garden? This is the issue presented in this "clicker case," which pulls students into the decision-making process. Students learn about concepts related to sustainability and the challenges of developing more sustainable life styles. They also calculate their ecological footprint. The case combines the use of personal response systems (clickers) with case teaching methods and formats. It is presented in class using a series of PowerPoint slides (~800KB) punctuated by questions that students respond to before moving on to the next slide. Written for a non-majors introductory biology class, the case also is suitable for use in courses in ecology, environmental science, conservation biology, environmental studies, and general biology.
In this article we consider the nature of ethical leadership in nursing. An appreciation of the basis of such leadership requires an understanding of responsibility and of key intellectual and ethical qualities or virtues. We examine some of the educational and practice strategies to promote ethical leadership. We argue that there are different levels of ethical leadership. All members of the nursing workforce are ethical leaders in so far as they demonstrate a commitment to ethical practice in their everyday work and act as ethical role models for others. Nurse managers are responsible for influencing their team and for acting as arbiters between organisational and professional values. Nurse educators are role models and ethical leaders as they ensure that the explicit and hidden curriculum demonstrate a commitment to professional values. Nurses who assume political roles have an obligation to lead on ethical agenda compatible with the values of nursing. PMID:20015579
This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics. PMID:20333477
Publication of medical research is both a monitor of the researcher's ethics and an audit of the local or regional ethics committee that approved it. Selectivity of publication or of the intention to publish lessens this audit. Opinions differ about what is ethically allowable in clinical and benchtop medical research. Ethical permission and ethical monitoring of medical research are subject to a hierarchy of pyramidal controls, starting in hospital and ending with the local, institutional, or regional ethics committee. Currently, such committees function with widely varying degrees of efficiency and quality of output, and with differing viewpoints on many ethical issues. Without an a priori insistence by institutional ethics committees that there be an intention to publish all medical research involving human subjects, ethics committees cannot routinely be subject to the scrutiny or audit which they themselves demand of researchers.
A lump on the midface of a child can pose as a diagnostic dilemma. There is a wide variety of possible differential diagnoses, ranging from simple benign conditions such as a sebaceous cyst, dermoid cyst, lipoma, neuroma and neurofibroma, to potentially devastating conditions such as odontogenic myxoma. A case of a child in which the formulation of a definite diagnosis was clinically and histologically challenging is presented.
Patel, Kuntal; Oudit, Deemesh; Ross, G; Nicolson, Caroline; Howcroft, AJ
Lymphatic malformations of the head and neck, also known as lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas, are a diverse group of lesions. Lymphangiomas represent benign hamartomatous tumors of lymphatic vessels with a marked predilection for the head, neck and oral cavity. These lesions, like most of the swellings occurring in the neck, frequently pose a dilemma in diagnosis and treatment. This is a case report of a lymphatic malformation which presented as a painless mass in the lower border of mandible.
In this activity students learn about the Stockertown sinkholes and decide who should be responsible for compensating property damage caused by a sinkhole. Students read a description of a stakeholder's role and access the resources that they will use to develop a position statement about who should be responsible for the investigation and remediation of the Stockertown, Pennsylvania sinkholes. They create a position statement based on their assigned role of the stakeholder and cover who should be responsible for the investigation and remediation of the Stockertown sinkholes, what should be done to solve the sinkhole problem, what might be causing the sinkholes, and what new policies should be created to protect the interest of homeowners affected by sinkholes. They will be responsible for presenting a long-term action plan to prevent and/or remediate sinkhole destruction in class during a simulated town hall meeting.
The objective of this inquiry simulation is to investigate the issues concerning the fate of the Shell Island Resort, which is in danger of being destroyed by a migrating inlet, and then debate the future of this and other oceanfront structures threatened by coastal erosion. As students engage in their investigation, they are asked to identify the social, political, and scientific issues with which different stakeholders must deal. They will place themselves into the role of one of the stakeholders. The site lists the stakeholders and provides several sources of information for each. After reviewing the resources, students will prepare a statement to decide what should be the next course of action regarding the Shell Island Resort. Students then will present statements in a debate to decide the future of the resort.
This study compares how American and Chinese journalism students view the importance of various journalistic roles and the difficulties of ethicaldilemmas faced by journalists. Chinese students perceive greater difficulty in resolving conflict of interests and making a fair representation of the news while American students find greater…
Lying, stealing, cheating--American business stands accused of these and other vices on a daily basis, simply in the context of normal operations. What happens, then, when businesses are purchased, divested, merged, or divided, as have become the popular trends? Unfortunately, these situations often bring a new array of ethicaldilemmas. Christian businesspeople should be familiar with these strategic initiatives and
This paper explores the ethical implications of economic medicalization: where non-medical problems are transformed into medical problems in order to achieve the objective of shareholder wealth maximization. After considering differences between business ethics and medical ethics, economic medicalization arising from corporate marketing strategies is detailed. Both direct-to-consumer and more traditional physician centred marketing methods are considered. In addition, the economic
As interconnections between health, ideology and politics become increasingly acknowledged, gaps in the literature also become visible in terms of analytic frameworks to engage these issues and empirical studies to understand the complexities. 'Critical public-health ethics' provides such an analytic lens. This article presents the results of a critical public-health ethics analysis of the government of Canada's international response to HIV. This qualitative study involved in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 23 experts on Canada's international response over time. Descriptive, thematic and theoretical analyses revealed an underlying dilemma between Canada's philanthropic desire to 'do the right thing' for the broader public good and Canada's commitment to its own economic growth and other forms of self-interest. Related to this tension were four conspicuous areas of silence in the data: (1) The relative absence of moral vocabulary for discussing Canada's duty to respond to the global HIV pandemic. (2) Scant reference to solutions based on poverty reduction. (3) Little awareness about the dominance of neoliberal economic rationality and its impact on HIV. (4) Limited understanding of Canada's function within the international economic order in terms of its role in poverty creation. Our study has implications for Canada and other rich nations through its empirical contribution to the chorus of calls challenging the legitimised, institutionalised and normative practice of considering the economic growth of wealthy countries as the primary objective of global economic policy. PMID:21390963
The lecture will attempt to prove that the nub of the question is nothing else but a major need of human condition and that a clinical practice out of an ethical dimension is just inconceivable. To begin, terms such as man, medicine and ethics will be defined, and the theory of need will be introduced. What has been alluded to
Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…
The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes.
From the University of British Columbia's Centre for Applied Ethics, this extensive catalog of business ethics resources is divided into eight sections including Public Sector Ethics, Publications, Codes of Ethics, and Ethics Institutions and Organizations. Each section consists of briefly indexed links, organized in alphabetical order. Business Ethics Resources on the WWW also links to a page of applied ethics resources and the Centre for Applied Ethics.
This article presents the author's response to Gary Miller's essay entitled "Ethical Realism and Continuing Education." In his essay, Dr. Miller has provided a valuable opportunity to reflect on the practice of continuing education (CE) leadership. Dr. Miller reviews six principles that are encapsulated in the concept of ethical realism, but are…
The need for professionals to volunteer their time in crisis situations and to reach across time and culture in the service of humanitarian interventions will likely not abate in the near future. This article provides readers with multiple venues for considering the ethical dimensions present in crisis and humanitarian interventions. Core ethical concerns common to helping situations are magnified in
This paper presents the findings of a study which examined the business ethics of college students. The study utilized a series of ten vignettes which posed five dif ferent types of ethical problems. The responses were analyzed to determine student values.
This paper considers future directions of empirical research in business ethics and presents a series of recommendations. Greater emphasis should be placed on the normative basis of empirical studies, behavior (rather than attitudes) should be established as the key dependent variable, theoretical models of ethical decision making should be tested, and empirical studies need to focus on theory-building. Extensions of
In our desire to establish social justice, we have neglected individual morality. Moral education was once a major part of the school experience, but has been lost in the present era of pluralistic ethics. While social-situational ethics have brought some good results, such as greater justice for minorities and governmental reform, they have also…
At present, there exist a lot of violations of medical ethics in advertising and promotional activities, which have been infringing the rights of patients. Therefore, the ethical criteria should be established as soon as possible to regulate the hospital promotional activities, to regain the trust of people.
The main object of criticism of present-day medical ethics is the standard view of the relationship between theory and practice. Medical ethics is more than the application of moral theories and principles, and health care is more than the domain of application of moral theories. Moral theories and principles are necessarily abstract, and therefore fail to take account of the
Suggests that the ethical space of writing program administrator (WPA) work, the rhetorical, probable, and material space, includes an inescapable constraint, the unenforceability of rules. Presents and illustrates four themes in which to look at ethics and agency in WPA space: freedom and responsibility; enforceability and agency; "the horns of a…
When teachers are assessed for tenure decisions, reappointment, promotion, or awards, the principal must demonstrate sound and consistent ethical behavior. Any hint of unethical behavior can have long-term consequences affecting teacher performance and instructional quality. Five key commandments for professional ethics are presented. Includes one…
This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable
Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business…
The presentations included in this collection were made in 1988 at the second Hagerstown Junior College seminar on ethics. The seminar was conducted to raise the level of awareness of breaches of ethics in the professions and to encourage improvements in ethical practice. Seminar participants included college personnel, business personnel, and…
This paper addressed the faculty's perception of engineering ethics and leadership training. The study looks into the present state of and methodologies for teaching engineering ethics and leadership and aims to determine the faculty's perception of an identified gap in this aspect of engineering education. Engineering education has strong ethics…
This paper raises the questions: 'What do we expect from nursing ethics?' and 'Is the literature of nursing ethics any different from that of medical ethics?' It is suggested that rather than develop nursing ethics as a separate field writers in nursing ethics should take a lead in making the patient the central focus of health care ethics. The case
This article explores the relationship of ethics to validity in hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry. First, the authors present a brief overview of the various discourses on validity in qualitative research that have been variously applied to hermeneutic phenomenological inquiry. Next, they examine how relational ethics is a presence to bear within this form of inquiry. Finally, they offer a set of ethical reflections to help the researcher engage in a process of ethical questioning during each step of the research process. PMID:18277790
OBJECTIVES: To compare the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding ethical issues in Saudi Arabian hospitals and the attributes that might lead to the existence of these ethical issues. DESIGN: Self-completion questionnaire administered from February to July 1997. SETTING: Different health regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of 457 physicians (317 clinicians and 140 physician executives) from several hospitals in various regions across the kingdom. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians regarding the existence of various ethical issues in their hospitals. The vast majority of physician executives did not perceive that seven of the eight issues addressed by the study were ethical concerns in their hospitals. However, the majority of the clinicians perceived that six of the same eight issues were ethical considerations in their hospitals. Statistically significant differences in the perceptions of physician executives and clinicians were observed in only three out of eight attributes that might possibly lead to the existence of ethical issues. The most significant attribute that was perceived to result in ethical issues was that of hospitals having a multinational staff. CONCLUSION: The study calls for the formulation of a code of ethics that will address specifically the physicians who work in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. As a more immediate initiative, it is recommended that seminars and workshops be conducted to provide physicians with an opportunity to discuss the ethicaldilemmas they face in their medical practice.
Understanding the professional military ethic (PME) first requires understanding the conceptual foundations upon which it stands. This foundation includes objective morality, the sociology of professions, professional ethics in general, and the profession...
Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)
This page from the Understanding Nano website introduces concepts of nanotechnology-related ethics. In addition to the reading materials, the page provides a list of websites and organizations that focus on ethics and nanotechnology.
BACKGROUND: This study presents an empirical investigation of the ethical reasoning and ethical issues at stake in the daily work of physicians and molecular biologists in Denmark. The aim of this study was to test empirically whether there is a difference in ethical considerations and principles between Danish physicians and Danish molecular biologists, and whether the bioethical principles of the
What is, or should be, the role of ethics in giftedness? In this article, I consider why ethical behavior is much harder to come by than one would expect. Ethical behavior requires completion of a series of eight steps to action, the failure of any one of which may result in a person, even one who is ethically well trained, to act in a manner that…
The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…
All colleges teach ethics across their undergraduate curricula, yet relatively few institutions do so deliberately. That is, few colleges make explicit attempts to coordinate or integrate the various ethical lessons their students might be learning. This does not mean that most colleges are bad for students' ethical development; research shows…
This paper situates discussion of the ethics of ethnographic research against the background of a theoretical and methodological debate about the relationship between ethics and method, and about the relationships between research methods and their objects. In particular, the paper investigates the implications of folding together the ethical and the empirical in research and argues that this requires the development
Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…
This final project report describes a 3-year project designed to integrate ethics into all disciplines at Utah Valley State College to introduce students to ethical complications they may face in their careers and vocations. Fifty faculty members participated in the project, the major components of which involved a 2-week summer seminar in ethics;…
Executive branch departments and agencies are required by Federal statute and regulation to have an ethics program. One goal of an ethics program is to serve as a formalized and systematic means by which an agency can prevent and detect ethics violations ...
The issue-focused, reviewed, student article alarms that nations need to take preventative measures to curb the development and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons, such as: adopting a scientific code of ethics, incorporating ethics into graduate science courses, formulating accountability mechanisms for research, and raising academic, industry, and public awareness of ethical issues.
Daniel Reyes (Santa Clara University, California;)
Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…
The authors draw on wide professional experience to address the recent failures in corporate conduct in the United States, the emerging corrective measures and the increasing public outcry for ethical accountability in organisations and governments. They conclude that it is essential that ethics are integral to the culture of an organization; a superficial grafting on of an ethical code will
This paper considers the role of scientific expertise and moral reasoning in the decision making process involved in climate-change issues. It points to an unresolved moral dilemma that lies at the heart of this decision making, namely how to balance duties towards future generations against duties towards our contemporaries. At present, the prevailing moral and political discourses shy away from addressing this dilemma and evade responsibility by falsely drawing normative conclusions from the predictions of climate models alone. We argue that such moral dilemmas are best addressed in the framework of Expected Utility Theory. A crucial issue is to adequately incorporate into this framework the uncertainties associated with the predicted consequences of climate change on the well-being of future generations. The uncertainties that need to be considered include those usually associated with climate modeling and prediction, but also moral and general epistemic ones. This paper suggests a way to correctly incorporate all the relevant uncertainties into the decision making process.
Malaria mosquito research in Africa as elsewhere is just over a century old. Early trials for development of mosquito control tools were driven by colonial enterprises and war efforts; they were, therefore, tested in military or colonial settings. The failure of those tools and environmental concerns, coupled with the desperate need for integrated malaria control strategies, has necessitated the development of new malaria mosquito control tools, which are to be tested on humans, their environment and mosquito habitats. Ethical concerns start with phase 2 trials, which pose limited ethicaldilemmas. Phase 3 trials, which are undertaken on vulnerable civilian populations, pose ethicaldilemmas ranging from individual to community concerns. It is argued that such trials must abide by established ethical principles especially safety, which is mainly enshrined in the principle of non-maleficence. As there is total lack of experience with many of the promising candidate tools (eg genetically modified mosquitoes, entomopathogenic fungi, and biocontrol agents), great caution must be exercised before they are introduced in the field. Since malaria vector trials, especially phase 3 are intrusive and in large populations, individual and community respect is mandatory, and must give great priority to community engagement. It is concluded that new tools must be safe, beneficial, efficacious, effective, and acceptable to large populations in the short and long-term, and that research benefits should be equitably distributed to all who bear the brunt of the research burdens. It is further concluded that individual and institutional capacity strengthening should be provided, in order to undertake essential research, carry out scientific and ethical review, and establish competent regulatory frameworks. PMID:21144083
Malaria mosquito research in Africa as elsewhere is just over a century old. Early trials for development of mosquito control tools were driven by colonial enterprises and war efforts; they were, therefore, tested in military or colonial settings. The failure of those tools and environmental concerns, coupled with the desperate need for integrated malaria control strategies, has necessitated the development of new malaria mosquito control tools, which are to be tested on humans, their environment and mosquito habitats. Ethical concerns start with phase 2 trials, which pose limited ethicaldilemmas. Phase 3 trials, which are undertaken on vulnerable civilian populations, pose ethicaldilemmas ranging from individual to community concerns. It is argued that such trials must abide by established ethical principles especially safety, which is mainly enshrined in the principle of non-maleficence. As there is total lack of experience with many of the promising candidate tools (eg genetically modified mosquitoes, entomopathogenic fungi, and biocontrol agents), great caution must be exercised before they are introduced in the field. Since malaria vector trials, especially phase 3 are intrusive and in large populations, individual and community respect is mandatory, and must give great priority to community engagement. It is concluded that new tools must be safe, beneficial, efficacious, effective, and acceptable to large populations in the short and long-term, and that research benefits should be equitably distributed to all who bear the brunt of the research burdens. It is further concluded that individual and institutional capacity strengthening should be provided, in order to undertake essential research, carry out scientific and ethical review, and establish competent regulatory frameworks.
In this paper we examine "ethics creep", a concept developed by Haggerty (2004) to account for the increasing bureaucratization of research ethics boards and institutional review boards (REB/IRBs) and the expanding reach of ethics review. We start with an overview of the recent surge of academic interest in ethics creep and similar arguments about the prohibitive effect of ethics review. We then introduce elements of Michel Foucault's theoretical framework which are used to inform our analysis of empirical data drawn from a multi-phase study exploring the accessibility of community-engaged research within existing ethics review structures in Canada. First, we present how ethics creep emerged both explicitly and implicitly in our data. We then present data that demonstrate how REB/IRBs are experiencing their own form of regulation. Finally, we present data that situate ethics review alongside other trends affecting the academy. Our results show that ethics review is growing in some ways while simultaneously being constrained in others. Drawing on Foucauldian theory we reframe ethics creep as a repressive hypothesis which belies the complexity of the phenomenon it purports to explain. Our discussion complicates ethics creep by proposing an understanding of REB/IRBs that locates them at the intersection of various neoliberal discourses about the role of science, ethics, and knowledge production. PMID:23063216
Guta, Adrian; Nixon, Stephanie A; Wilson, Michael G
This study is an empirical examination of possible differences between female and male accounting majors' managerial motivational traits, perceptions of ethical issues, ethical judgments, and ethical behavioral intentions regarding ethically equivocal business situations. Subjects were presented with two scales to measure their motivational…
In the last decades there has arisen a greater awareness of the ever present need for critical academic reflection on the nature of ethics leadership and committees in research, healthcare, and organizational systems. Yet what is meant by ethics itself? How is ethics understood as a historical phenomenon? What challenges must ethics leaders face…
This study represents an improvement in the ethics scales inventory published in a 1988 Journal of Business Ethics article. The article presents the distillation and validation process whereby the original 33 item inventory was reduced to eight items. These eight items comprise the following ethical dimensions: a moral equity dimension, a relativism dimension, and a contractualism dimension. The multidimensional ethics
Infertility Accepted treatment is replete with bioethical dilemmas regarding the limits of available medical therapies. Poland has no legal acts regulating the ethical problems associated with infertility treatment and work on such legislation has been in progress for a long time, arousing very intense emotions in Polish society. The purpose of the present study was to find out what Polish women undergoing infertility treatment think about the most disputable and controversial bioethical problems of assisted reproduction. An Attitudes towards Bioethical Problems of Infertility Scale was constructed specifically for this study. Items were taken from the Bioethics Bills currently under discussion in Polish Parliament (Seym). 312 women were enrolled in the study. Women experiencing infertility favoured more liberal legislation. Participants disagreed, for example, with the following regulations: prohibition of embryo freezing, prohibition of preimplantation genetic diagnosis of embryos, age limits for women using in vitro fertilisation and prohibition of in vitro fertilisation for single women. The opinions of patients undergoing infertility treatment are an important voice in the Polish debate on the Bioethics Bills. PMID:22977062
Focus group discussions (FGD) are gaining in popularity in research on HIV and tuberculosis (TB) internationally as researchers seek to understand the experiences, needs and perspectives of people living with TB and/or HIV as well as their carers within the community and health sector. Conducting FGDs in resource-poor settings with vulnerable participants who are living with diseases that are frequently stigmatised poses multiple challenges. Our approach in this discussion paper is to follow the research cycle to present the practical experience of research teams using FGDs in TB and HIV in resource-poor contexts in Africa and Asia in order to contribute to effective practice. The approach highlights dilemmas and shares effective practice for negotiating initial discussions with different communities, constructing sampling frames and samples, choosing a facilitator, encouraging discussion, ethics, translation, pitfalls and dissemination. We demonstrate the techniques and adaptations needed to ensure that FGDs provide rich, high-quality and policy-relevant data on the voices and perspectives of people living with HIV and TB, community groups and health workers within the challenges of resource-poor settings. In applying theory to develop good practice in FGDs across the research cycle, a critical and reflexive approach is needed. PMID:24038045
Background: In the recent years, advances in medical technologies for end stage cancer patients’ care have affected the end-of-life decision-making in clinical practice and exposed oncologists to serious ethicaldilemmas. But little is known about oncologists’ viewpoints in our country regarding their ethical problems in this mention. We aimed to clarify the ethicaldilemmas which Iranian oncologists may face in our health care setting and to determine factors influencing decision-making process. Methods: In this qualitative study, a phenomenological approach was used. We interviewed 8 cancer specialists in teaching hospitals in Iran and used content analysis to identify codes and categorize themes in the data. Results: During the process of analysis, three main themes emerged about ethicaldilemmas in end of life care for advanced cancer patients: illness factors, socio-cultural context and patient-physician relationship. Cancer specialists identified ethical problems on several main issues, the most important of which were telling the truth in Iranian cultural context, uncertainty in end stage definition, multidisciplinary team working and cost consideration in Iranian health care system. Conclusion: Health care and insurance system in Iran face to end of life care challenges; therefore, health care providers and policy makers need to allocate appropriate resources and programs to improve quality of care in terminal stages. Appropriate physicians’ communication skills training, multidisciplinary team working and supplementary insurance services that provide essential health care can improve the quality of care of patients with end stages of cancer. The findings of this study can help us to provide ethical policies for decision-making in end-of-life care.
Various successes in regenerative medicine by therapeutic cloning have given rise to expectations that treatments will soon be developed for incurable diseases. But using embryonic stem cells for this purpose raises many ethicaldilemmas including those about the beginning of human life. Arguments concerning stem cell research and therapeutic cloning in different countries are influenced by both the religious and bioethical traditions which dominate in these cultures. This article examines how these traditions have influenced stem cell research in Iran through an account of scientific advances and the development of regulations on embryonic stem cell research in Iran. PMID:18988380
We review Side Effects, a 2013 film involving bioethics, pharmaceuticals, and financial conspiracies. After the main character Emily unsuccessfully attempts suicide, she begins receiving care from a psychiatrist, Dr. Banks. Following numerous events, she is placed on a fictional antidepressant, Ablixa, which leads her to suffer from sleepwalking. During an episode of sleepwalking she commits a serious crime. The film poses an interesting dilemma: How responsible would the physician be in this instance? We analyze this question by applying numerous ethical principles. PMID:23996742
A policy statement on ethical practices for college presidents developed by the Committee on Governance of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) is presented. Presidents of AASCU member institutions recognize the special responsibilities that pertain to them by virtue of the public trust they hold. To fulfill that…
American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.
This paper presents a study that investigates the teaching and learning aspects of controversial issues in science education. Teaching ethical issues is mandatory for science teachers in England; however, teachers may experience difficulties in exploring contemporary issues in science due to rapid and unpredictable changes. The study carries an…
Controversies in the conduct of international research continue to pose challenges for the system of ethical review, particularly for developing countries. Although the concept of vulnerability is key to addressing these challenges, ethical review has typically ignored the agency of vulnerable participants and groups in determining what kind of review process is needed. Concurrent with developments shaping the new public health that seek to operationalize empowerment of communities by placing them as initiators and organizers of their own health, ethical review of public health research must find ways to recognize the agency of vulnerable individuals, groups, and communities in the review process if it is to address effectively the ethicaldilemmas currently evident in collaborative international research. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:1079–1084)
Much of the discourse on ‘beyond the laboratory door’ biosecurity to date has focused on the need to raise awareness among the scientific community of the risks posed by the rapid advancement of biotechnology in recent decades. While education is undoubtedly important, a growing body of evidence suggests that ethics education does not necessarily translate into ethical behaviour. This trend has already been reported in clinical settings, where research has highlighted doctors’ own reports of ethically dubious practices and challenges when confronted with moral dilemmas in their everyday work. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the practical value of ethics education and show why it is an essential, although insufficient, measure for promoting a culture of responsible conduct of research. We conclude by highlighting the importance of continuing professional development as a way of maintaining life scientists’ engagement with biosecurity issues and supporting them in active roles in the effective implementation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC).
As case management is under development in France for elderly people, this study sets out to identify and analyse key situations responsible for ethicaldilemmas for French case managers. We based our study on the analyses of individual interviews made with case managers and focus-group discussions, bringing together all case managers working in local organisations running for at least a year. We identified three situations giving rise to ethicaldilemmas: in the order of importance, the refusals of care, the practicalities of collecting and sharing personal data and the allocation of resources. These three situations can lead to conflict between the principle of beneficence and those of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence and justice. We describe here how French case managers practically deal with these situations. PMID:22918055
Mental disorders and their care present unusual problems within biomedical ethics. The disorders themselves invite an ethical critique, as does society's attitude to them; researching the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders also presents special ethical issues. The current high profile of mental disorder ethics, emphasised by recent political and legal developments, makes this a field of research that is not only important but also highly topical. For these reasons, the Wellcome Trust's biomedical ethics programme convened a meeting, “Investigating Ethics and Mental Disorders”, in order to review some current research, and to stimulate topics and methods of future research in the field. The meeting was attended by policy makers, regulators, research funders, and researchers, including social scientists, psychiatrists, psychologists, lawyers, philosophers, criminologists, and others. As well as aiming to inspire a stronger research endeavour, the meeting also sought to stimulate an improved understanding of the methods and interactions that can contribute to “empirical ethics” generally. This paper reports on the meeting by describing contributions from individual speakers and discussion sections of the meeting. At the end we describe and discuss the conclusions of the meeting. As a result, the text is referenced less than would normally be expected in a review. Also, in summarising contributions from named presenters at the meeting it is possible that we have created inaccuracies; however, the definitive version of each paper, as provided directly by the presenter, is available at http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/doc.WTX025116.html.
The structure of ethics work in a hospital is complex. Professional ethics, research ethics and clinical ethics committees (CECs) are important parts of this structure, in addition to laws and national and institutional codes of ethics. In Norway all hospital trusts have a CEC, most of these discuss cases by means of a method which seeks to include relevant guidelines and laws into the discussion. In recent years many committees have received more cases which have concerned questions of principle. According to Ellen Fox and co-authors the traditional CEC model suffers from a number of weaknesses. Therefore, in their organization a separate body deals with organizational matters. In this paper, we discuss what is gained and what is lost by creating two separate bodies doing ethics consultation. We do this through an analysis of detailed minutes of CEC discussions in one CEC during a 6-year period. 30 % of all referrals concerned matters of principle. Some of these discussions originated in a dilemma related to a particular patient. Most of the discussions had some consequences within the hospital organization, for clinical practice, for adjustment of guidelines, or may have influenced national policy. We conclude that a multiprofessional CEC with law and ethics competency and patient representation may be well suited also for discussion of general ethical principles. A CEC is a forum which can help bridge the gap between clinicians and management by increasing understanding for each others' perspectives. PMID:24647554
This article describes selected ethical issues faced by members of a family with genetic predisposition to the cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2a. The bioethical principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice are the moral guides for nurses and other health professionals, who may apply them to help patients, family members and peers resolve ethical issues and moral dilemmas. Sometimes, however, issues that are morally problematic cannot be settled by simply referring to standards of practice and bioethical norms. In these cases all stakeholders must struggle together to resolve the conflict. PMID:11575045
Since the emergence of reports such as the and the , there continues to be a growing recognition of the multiple adverse effects of serious illness and chronic conditions, as well as the potential benefits of receiving palliative or end-of-life care. As modern technology expands its ability to support life, ethicaldilemmas may be encountered in the provision of palliative or end-of-life care. Through integration of the precepts of palliative care and consideration of the relevant ethical principles, orthopaedic nurses may best meet their patients' comprehensive needs at an exceedingly difficult time. PMID:24845834
Petersen, Cheryl L; Breakwell, Susan; Callahan, Margaret
Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. PMID:24870041
Campaigners on public health issues face a number of dilemmas when tactical choices in public debating involve uncomfortable mixtures of benefits and costs. Key dilemmas for campaigners are whether to acknowledge weaknesses in their own position, whether to advocate research to address claims by opponents, whether to acknowledge vested interests on their own side, whether to debate with opponents, whether to launch attacks on opposition individuals and groups and whether to criticize extreme behaviour by those on their own side. Drawing on the literature on scientific controversies, these dilemmas are outlined, with illustrations from the Australian vaccination debate. Dilemmas in health campaigning warrant attention because choices made can affect both the success of policy initiatives and the image of professions, sometimes with trade-offs between these. However, dilemmas have been neglected because most studies of health controversies give little attention to campaigning tactics. Campaigners can choose options that seem to maximize the likelihood of winning in the short term. However, options for short-term advantage may establish a precedent for approaches to campaigning that undermine commitment to free and open debate to possible long-term disadvantage. PMID:22983693
As a consequence of the steadily growing older population, and increased demands on family for community based care of elderly,\\u000a elder abuse is an issue to be considered in all domains of social work practice. Intervention in cases of elder abuse is often\\u000a fraught with ambiguity and ethicaldilemmas as the application of professional principles is less than straightforward, bringing
This study used semi-structured interviews and content analysis to examine moral principles that street drug users apply to three hypothetical addiction research ethicaldilemmas. Participants (n = 90) were ethnically diverse, economically disadvantaged drug users recruited in New York City in 2009. Participants applied a wide range of contextually sensitive moral precepts, including respect, beneficence, justice, relationality, professional obligations, rules, and pragmatic self-interest. Limitations and implications for future research and the responsible conduct of addiction research are discussed.
Ethics is a complicated field and much has been written about its application to educational research. In this paper we introduce a way of planning for and dealing with situations that arise in the course of research that promotes detailed ethical analysis. We present a framework based on the work of Seedhouse and Flinders and describe a…
This study investigates the differences in ethical beliefs between blacks and whites in the United States. Two hundred and thirty four white students and two hundred and fifty five black students were presented with two scenarios and given the Reidenbach-Robin instrument measuring their ethical reactions to the scenarios.
Did you mean: "ef that feminists dislike men few studies have actually examined the empirical accuracy of this stereotype. The present study examined self-identified feminists? and nonfeminists? attitudes toward men. An ethically diverse sample (N = 488) of college students responded to statements for" ?
The conclusion reached at the end of this article is that there is a crisis in the ethics of nursing and that the focus of the ethics of nursing should be on virtues. The reconstruction of a virtue-based ethics in nursing is proposed as a solution for the current crisis in the ethics of nursing. With an analysis conducted on the ethics of nursing the story is told of an individual nurse within nursing in the South African society. Certain concepts to ethics as well as the dimensions of ethics in nursing are explained within the narrative of nursing. The institutionalisation of ethics of nursing is described based on the three ethical traditions that moved from virtues, to responsibility to human rights. An analysis of the moral practice in nursing indicates that a crisis in the ethics of nursing exist within the last tradition of human rights because of the conflict between the rights of the nurse and the patient. Through the analysis it becomes clear that no rules, codes or law can ensure moral behaviour. The control over moral behaviour should rather be internal than external. If a person does not have the virtues he or she does not understands the rules and human rights and responsibilities have a different meaning for them. PMID:9538702
A disorienting dilemma is a catalyst for change in perspective that may culminate in transformative learning. The authors analyze three activities in higher education that created disorienting dilemmas--a field trip, a service-learning experience, and study abroad. Results indicate that a disorienting dilemma can prompt students and faculty to…