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A body of police psychologists was surveyed with regard to the ethicaldilemmas that they experienced in providing psychological services to law enforcement organizations. A majority (55%) of the respondents reported that they had encountered an ethical conflict. The most common ethicaldilemmas were related to issues of confidentiality, conflicts between the ethical standards of the psychologist and the needs
Six ethicaldilemmas related to nursing practice were developed and presented to registered and trainee nurses for their resolution. A non-nurse group of university students also gave decisions about what a nurse should do in each ethically-loaded situation. A dilemma was classified as recurrent if its core problem was spontaneously mentioned by…
Professional responsibilities, tradition, and personal conscience along with legal, philosophical, and religious convictions dictate nursing interventions. Inevitably, these factors embrace life-sustaining therapies; however, in view of complications, prognosis, pain and suffering, and their own views of quality of life, some patients express wishes inconsistent with life-sustaining measures. In other situations, the health care provider as well as the patient may view heroic efforts as more debilitating than resortative. Resolving the conflict while preserving the patient's best interests requires a confrontation with the status of "do-not resuscitate" policies within th e nurse's institution, informed consent, refusal, and competency as the necessary underpinnings for the development of an ethical and legal posture within the profession, with which to approach significant decisions regarding life-sustaining therapies. Literally every hour of every day nurses are immediately and directly involved with resolving ethicaldilemmas based upon judgements and interpretations of oral or written orders, patient and family wishes, professional training, and an infinite number of other factors. When clear policies or orders are lacking, the nurse is left with the burden of making a life or death decision. It is imperative that professional nurses assess the administrative, legal, and ethical ramifications of their actions in terms of ethical codes of practice, patients' rights, institutional and personal liability, civil and criminal laws, and private conscience. An understanding of these issues, passive and active euthansia, state and national trends, and uniform legislation can assist in resolutions of the no-code dilemma. Nursing as a profession must strive to develop sound and consistent guidelines and rationale for the scope of practice in ethicaldilemmas. PMID:6487215
The paper presents some well-known ethical questions regarding priority setting of safety work. Some traffic examples are applied to illustrate the dilemmas. Basic ethical principles are considered, i.e. approaches based on utility, fairness and discourse. We also discuss the various “dimensions” of utility and risk that could be taken into account. Ethical challenges related to the use of “willingness to
|Ethicaldilemmas faced by many academicians in the course of their work activities and role demands are described in eight articles and 24 case illustrations. Article titles and authors are as follows: "The Academician as Good Citizen" (Bruce H. Charnov); "Fundamental Means to Ethical Teaching" (Gordon A. Walter, Mary Ann Von Glinow); "Concern…
Ethicaldilemmas faced by many academicians in the course of their work activities and role demands are described in eight articles and 24 case illustrations. Article titles and authors are as follows: "The Academician as Good Citizen" (Bruce H. Charnov); "Fundamental Means to Ethical Teaching" (Gordon A. Walter, Mary Ann Von Glinow); "Concern for…
Cervical screening presents several ethicaldilemmas to family physicians. The author reviews the risks associated with screening, costs versus benefits of running a screening program, and the issues surrounding patient autonomy and patient coercion. Is saving one life worthwhile, and at what cost? Cervical screening programs are imperative in family practice, but only if harm to the patient is minimized and ethical objections are addressed.
Background Disasters may lead to ethical challenges that are different from usual medical practices. In addition, disaster situations are related with public health ethics more than medical ethics, and accordingly may require stronger effort to achieve a balance between individual and collective rights. This paper aims to review some ethicaldilemmas that arise in disasters and mainly focuses on health services. Disasters vary considerably with respect to their time, place and extent; therefore, ethical questions may not always have `one-size-fits-all` answers. On the other hand, embedding ethical values and principles in every aspect of health-care is of vital importance. Reviewing legal and organizational regulations, developing health-care related guidelines, and disaster recovery plans, establishing on-call ethics committees as well as adequate in-service training of health-care workers for ethical competence are among the most critical steps. It is only by making efforts before disasters, that ethical challenges can be minimized in disaster responses.
This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with an outline of "The Lifeboat," a classical ethicsdilemma. The resource includes student handouts and a group discussion activity. Also included are four other classical ethicaldilemmas for students to discuss before and after learning about the classic ethical perspectives.
|Over recent decades, the field of ethics has been the focus of increasing attention in teaching. This is not surprising given that teaching is a moral activity that is heavily values-laden. Because of this, teachers face ethicaldilemmas in the course of their daily work. This paper presents an ethical decision-making model that helps to explain…
Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Millwater, Jan; Cranston, Neil
A sound clinical education should include the opportunity for medical students to engage in a spirited and informed discussion with faculty about the ethical challenges they will undoubtedly face. Unfortunately, in many medical schools today this goal is thwarted by many factors, including denial that a problem exists, relentless system overload, unprofessional behavior, breakdown in communication, and inertia. What is worse is that this problem is not new, and the fallout is not insignificant. Another potential contributing factor is burnout, which is well documented in a high percentage of medical students, residents, and faculty, and two of its most serious consequences are patient dissatisfaction and medical error.The authors draw on hundreds of student reflections on ethicaldilemmas submitted during classroom exercises to examine persistent themes. They posit that classroom and didactic teaching is not enough to enable students to face ethicaldilemmas. The authors call for a major culture change in medical education: "buy in" from top administration, especially the dean (and associate/assistant deans), chairs of all departments, and clerkship and residency training directors; the appointing of an ombudsperson and/or ethicist to oversee and resolve issues as they arise; instructional workshops and materials to enhance and impart skills for all teachers; remediation or retiring of errant faculty; and ongoing research and dialogue between and among medical centers about novel solutions. PMID:24072128
Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethicaldilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethicaldilemmas involve (1) providing equitable participation opportunities for students, (2) instituting ethical hiring practices
Warren A. Whisenant; Paul M. Pedersen; Galen Clavio
Ethicaldilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethical perspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems. PMID:16556920
Educators will face a variety of ethical and moral dilemmas throughout their teaching careers; however, they do not have a common board that governs its members' ethical behavior. Instead, there are numerous educational organizations that have written their own specific codes for ethical behavior. The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) has…
Bucholz, Jessica L.; Keller, Cassandra L.; Brady, Michael P.
|Educators will face a variety of ethical and moral dilemmas throughout their teaching careers; however, they do not have a common board that governs its members' ethical behavior. Instead, there are numerous educational organizations that have written their own specific codes for ethical behavior. The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) has…
Bucholz, Jessica L.; Keller, Cassandra L.; Brady, Michael P.
Purpose – This paper aims to offer a framework of five questions for analyzing ethicaldilemmas faced by managers and professionals. The framework's main purpose is to help individuals understand the nature of ethical issues and to avoid making ethical mistakes – decisions or actions that are unintentionally unethical that they would later regret and wish they could undo. Design\\/methodology\\/approach
This research concerns the perceptions and decisions of lodging sales and marketing executives in dealing with ethical marketing issues. Respondents were given ten vignettes, representing ethicaldilemmas in the five categories of ethical behavior (coercion and control, personal integrity, physical environment, paternalism, and conflict of interest) identified by previous researchers. They were first asked to determine whether each issue was
Jeffrey A. Beck; William Lazer; Raymond Schmidgall
In spite of the growing interest in nursing ethics, few studies have focused on ethicaldilemmas experienced by nurses working\\u000a with clinical studies as ‘research nurses’. The aim of the present study was to describe and explore ethicaldilemmas that\\u000a Swedish research nurses experience in their day-to-day work. In a qualitative study a purposeful sample of six research nurses\\u000a from
Supervision is an activity filled with ethicaldilemmas related to the power held by the supervisor, a power that should be exercised with care. This article explores some of these dilemmas through the analysis of supervision vignettes viewed from the perspective of social constructionism, in particular, from the insights of French philosopher Michel Foucault. It concludes with suggestions to exercise
Phillipe Copeland; Ruth G. Dean; Stephanie P. Wladkowski
Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethicaldilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethicaldilemmas involve (1)…
Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen
|Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethicaldilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethicaldilemmas involve (1)…
Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen
The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethicaldilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585
Over recent decades, the field of ethics has been the focus of increasing attention in teaching. This is not surprising given that teaching is a moral activity that is heavily values?laden. Because of this, teachers face ethicaldilemmas in the course of their daily work. This paper presents an ethical decision?making model that helps to explain the decision?making processes that
Lisa Catherine Ehrich; Megan Kimber; Jan Millwater; Neil Cranston
This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethicaldilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethicaldilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business…
Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.
|Presents a process for solving ethicaldilemmas: define the problem; identify facts; determine values; "slice" the problem different ways--duties, virtues, rights, and common good; rank ethical considerations; consult colleagues; and take action. (SK)|
By looking at cases of ethical misconduct found in the popular business press, students develop a typology of how ethicaldilemmaspresent themselves in practice. By the end of the 3- session experience, they have a \\
|Incidences of staff terminations under clouded circumstances are filled with legal and ethicaldilemmas. The benefits of an informal process similar to "plea bargaining" are discussed. There is less emotional and financial toll for the accused employee, and school boards benefit as well in terms of the media, cumbersome disciplinary procedure,…
Incidences of staff terminations under clouded circumstances are filled with legal and ethicaldilemmas. The benefits of an informal process similar to "plea bargaining" are discussed. There is less emotional and financial toll for the accused employee, and school boards benefit as well in terms of the media, cumbersome disciplinary procedure, and…
In order to understand some of the ethicaldilemmas that face hospice programs in the United States, one must understand the Medicare Hospice Benefit, which is the model by which hospice programs provide palliative care to terminally ill patients in the United States. Unlike palliative care programs outside the United States, patients must have a prognosis of 6 months or
Information assurance focus is on one of the three major tenants: confidentiality, integrity, and avai lability. Undertakings in each have indeed improved the overall security of current information systems. This r esearch seeks to promote Information Assurance ethical awareness. A brief discussion on ethics and moral development along with related works of Plato, Aristotle, Kant and Mi ll will follow
Ethicaldilemmas are experienced by all individuals, but are especially prevalent among healthcare professionals. Universities and colleges preparing students to work and provide care in this arena are currently addressing this challenge through traditional ethics courses and lectures. However, student perspectives of the major ethicaldilemmas in…
Buelow, Janet R.; Mahan, Pamela L.; Garrity, April W.
Physicians often face tremendous pressures and incentives to publish, sometimes leading to a compromise of ethical standards, either consciously or unconsciously. From the vantage of ethical authorship, we discuss what constitutes authorship; avoidance of ghost authorship; plagiarism, as well as self-plagiarism and duplicate publication; falsification; and fabrication. Editors also face ethical challenges, including how best to manage peer-review bias, to address reviewer tardiness, and to locate reviewers with appropriate expertise and professionalism. Editors need to deal with authors who fragment their work into multiple publications to enhance their curriculum vitae ("salami factor"), as well as to manage the financial benefits of advertising and to avoid conflicts of interest for the journal. Both authors and editors should be straightforward and principled throughout the publication process. PMID:22330669
Babalola, Olubukola; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Parish, Lawrence Charles
This paper presents an integrated discussion of methods and ethics by drawing on participatory research with children in Ethiopia and Kenya. It examines the complex social, ethical, practical and methodological dilemmas of research with HIV-affected children, and explores how we confronted some of these dilemmas before, during and after fieldwork. The paper interrogates the role and limitations of ‘global’ ethical
The privacy of copies of consent forms provided to research participants cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, consent forms that disclose a subject's HIV status may result in breach of confidentiality and cause social harms. Under the ethical principle of beneficence defined in the Belmont Report, we recommend that disclosure of HIV status be through voluntary counseling and testing; however, whenever possible, copies of consent form should not specify HIV status. PMID:16394859
Gray, Ronald H; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Wawer, Maria J; Serwadda, David; Kiwanuka, Noah; Lutalo, Tom
This article demonstrates how the system archetype "drifting goals" can be used in the classroom to explore ethicaldilemmas. System archetypes provide a framework that shifts the focus from seeing ethicaldilemmas as stemming solely from the acts of individuals to exploring the systemic structures that are responsible for generic patterns of…
|This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethicaldilemmas. Medical ethicaldilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…
This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethicaldilemmas. Medical ethicaldilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…
|Purpose: To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethicaldilemmas. Method: Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethicaldilemmas. Individual…
Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan
Ethicaldilemmas over the issue of freedom of personal religious expression and fair treatment for all faith groups are creating conflicts within the military, both inside and outside the chaplaincies. A lawsuit filed by a group of Navy chaplains alleging...
Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethicaldilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethicaldilemmas: 1) recognizing the dilemma; 2) identifying context; 3) determining choices; 4) strategies used; 5) results and choices the mother made; and 6) follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethicaldilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethicaldilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation.
Two case studies are presented reflecting the ethicaldilemmas experienced by nurses who were striving to improve their practice in the provision of patient care. The cases are described in the context of finding alternatives to cohesive interventions such as chemical restraints and physical restraints. A summary of the literature on ethicaldilemmas that was relevant to the issues arising in these cases is included. Discussion of the use of the American Nursing Association's (ANA, 2001 ) Nursing Code of Ethics with Interpretive Statements is highlighted for its relevance and support of the nurses experiencing the ethicaldilemmas. PMID:20144033
Objective: Prenatal screening has become an increasingly common procedure all over the world. It offers couples useful information relating to the health of their fetus, although it faces us with serious ethicaldilemmas as well. This study was conducted to find out the attitudes of Iranian scholars towards prenatal screening and counseling with respect to ethical issues. Methods: Two hundred
Mansooreh Saniei; Elnaz Jafari Mehr; Saeed Shahraz; Ladan Naz Zahedi; Ala Melati Rad; Saye Sayar; Roya Sherafat Kazemzade; Ahmad Shekarchi; Mohammad Reza Zali
|This article will explore some of the ethicaldilemmas that confront researchers when they seek to invite children's participation in research. It firstly tracks the historical landscape of ethical research and will examine the influence of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) on participatory research with children.…
Culturally competent nursing care regarding the ethicaldilemma of terminal dehydration (withholding or withdrawing food and fluid) for the Jewish hospice patient involves applying the ethical principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence to nursing interventions by identifying outcomes that focus on the high value Jews place on life; avoiding stereotyping as to what it means to be Jewish; knowledge
|Learning to navigate ethicaldilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into…
Ethics-related dilemmas arise in forensic psychiatry as in all psychiatric practice. Although most can be resolved by following the AAPL Ethics Guidelines and the AAPL Ethics Questions and Answers, the more complex ones inevitably have no easy solutions. Ethics-based duties can conflict without clear guidance on prioritization. Weighing competing factors necessitates more than merely following a rule, since there are potentially conflicting rules, and ethical practitioners may prioritize them differently. Concerns pertaining to the death penalty and defendants who are victims of discrimination are especially difficult. Such considerations usually are in the realm of aspirational ethics, with conclusions open to debate. They need consideration by most practitioners concerned with determining the most ethical course of action. Much as it is insufficient for an ethical citizen merely to avoid breaking the law, it is not enough to avoid violating any one guideline while remaining blind to context. Most such dilemmas need resolution long before testimony and arise first in the way the forensic assessment is conducted and in decisions on the data to be included in a report and how they are presented. Although there can be legitimate differences of opinion about how to weigh and resolve conflicting considerations, ethics-related dilemmas should not be sidestepped. PMID:24051589
\\u000a As an emerging interdisciplinary field, oncofertility bridges oncology, reproductive endocrinology, and infertility with the\\u000a goal of expanding reproductive options for women with cancer. Oncofertility is currently gaining significant attention from\\u000a professionals in many related fields and is undergoing considerable scrutiny in part because of the many compelling ethical\\u000a dilemmas it raises. To illustrate some of the dilemmas providers face, and
Clarisa R. Gracia; Jorge J. E. Gracia; Shasha Chen
Therapists treating adolescent gang members face unique ethicaldilemmas. These dilemmas arise from clinical issues that inevitably emerge in the treatment of this population. Clinical issues related to the adolescent gang member having great difficulty trusting, having experienced and observed much violence, and usually having participated in criminal activities are central to the treatment process. In this article I discuss the ethical problems that subsequently emerge: maintaining confidentiality, discharging one's duty to warn or protect, and imposing one's personal values. Suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:11655354
Predictive testing protocols are intended to help patients affected with hereditary conditions understand their condition and make informed reproductive choices. However, predictive protocols may expose clinicians and patients to ethicaldilemmas that interfere with genetic counseling and the decision making process. This paper describes ethicaldilemmas in a series of five cases involving predictive testing for hereditary ataxias in Cuba. The examples herein present evidence of the deeply controversial situations faced by both individuals at risk and professionals in charge of these predictive studies, suggesting a need for expanded guidelines to address such complexities. PMID:21264501
Mariño, Tania Cruz; Armiñán, Rubén Reynaldo; Cedeño, Humberto Jorge; Mesa, José Miguel Laffita; Zaldivar, Yanetza González; Rodríguez, Raúl Aguilera; Santos, Miguel Velázquez; Mederos, Luis Enrique Almaguer; Herrera, Milena Paneque; Pérez, Luis Velázquez
Advances in perinatal care allow survival of more extremely premature infants, but the implementation and continuation of intensive care may itself constitute an ethicaldilemma, given the limited chances of intact survival among the patients most at risk. This paper discusses several key issues raised by the options that are under general consideration with reference to births of infants at
Umberto Simeoni; Mariella Vendemmia; Alina Rizzotti; Marc Gamerre
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethicaldilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data for the research were gathered by semi-structured in-depth interviews with the Heads, all of whom were experienced school leaders. All the schools had religious affiliations. Findings – The findings are broadly
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethicaldilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the research were gathered by semi-structured in-depth interviews with the Heads, all of whom were experienced school leaders. All the schools had religious…
|The aim of this study is to explore ethicaldilemmas in critical incidents and the emerged responses that these incidents elicit. Most teachers try to suppress these incidences because of the unpleasant feelings they evoke. Fifty teachers participated in the study. A three-stage coding process derived from grounded theory was utilized. A taxonomy…
? The application of the best interests principle in current legislation creates an ethicaldilemma in relation to children's consent to treatment.? The guiding principle of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) symbolises a formal expression of children's participation rights.? Children's rights to consent to treatment are granted on socially determined ideals of competency.? Children's participation
In what ways can we use games to make moral demands of players and encouraging them to reflect on ethical issues? In this article we propose an ethically notable game as one that provides opportunities for encouraging ethical reasoning and reflection. Our analysis of the videogames Ultima IV, Manhunt, and Fire Emblem: Radiant Dawn highlights the central role that moral
This paper briefly summarizes current thinking in engineering ethics education, argues that much of that ethical instruction runs the risk of being only superficially effective, and explores some of the underlying systemic barriers within academia that contribute to this result. This is not to criticize or discourage efforts to improve ethics instruction. Rather it is to point to some more fundamental problems that still must be addressed in order to realize the full potential of enhanced ethics instruction. Issues discussed will include: intellectual engagement versus emotional engagement; the gravitational pull of curricular structures; the nature of engineering faculty; and the "engineer-ization" of ethics. PMID:15152860
Objectives: To analyze the responses of medical students to ethicaldilemmas commonly encountered in the clinical setting. Subjects and Method: A questionnaire based cross sectional survey was conducted on final year medical stu- dents from three different medical colleges in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: One hundred and twenty two students participated. Fifty eight percent were willing to withdraw ventila- tory support
This paper briefly summarizes current thinking in engineering ethics education, argues that much of that ethical instruction\\u000a runs the risk of being only superficially effective, and explores some of the underlying systemic barriers within academia\\u000a that contribute to this result. This is not to criticize or discourage efforts to improve ethics instruction. Rather it is\\u000a to point to some more
There are some specific ethical issues related to surgery as an operative discipline. However, in surgical critical care or\\u000a intensive care the ethical issues are quite similar to other medical specialties. First, I will review some general ethical\\u000a principles in patient care, going back to Aristotle and Hippocrates, and proceed to the problems of the modern era, i.e. since\\u000a during
|The current spotlight on assessment in education raises ethical issues as practices evolve. This study documents ethical conflicts faced by teachers in the United States regarding assessment of students. Critical incidents generated by practising teachers revealed a majority of reported conflicts related to score pollution, and conflicts…
Pope, Nakia; Green, Susan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Mitchell, Mark
The current spotlight on assessment in education raises ethical issues as practices evolve. This study documents ethical conflicts faced by teachers in the United States regarding assessment of students. Critical incidents generated by practising teachers revealed a majority of reported conflicts related to score pollution, and conflicts frequently arose between teachers’ perceptions of institutional demands and the needs of students.
Nakia Pope; Susan K. Green; Robert L. Johnson; Mark Mitchell
ABSTRACT Controversies surrounding the behaviour of ministers and high profile leaders seem,to be commonplace,in public life. That there has been a resurgence of interest in the study of ethics is not surprising. The spotlight on ethics in the public domain,has been due in part to the crisis in confidence about government,and a lack of public trust in organisations. Furthermore, a
Abstract Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the “dual-use dilemma”. There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research.
A qualitative study aimed at describing the situations experienced and the ethicaldilemmas of nurses in the process of referring and receiving hospitalized patients by court order who require admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). A partially structured interview was conducted with 10 nurses who worked in the ICU and 10 who worked in the Emergency Room (ER) in public and private hospitals in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The data was analyzed following the Semantic Analysis. The results indicated that nurses experienced ethicaldilemmas associated with problems of overcrowding in emergency rooms and ICUs, poor specialized technology and orientation as to the benefits provided by law. We concluded that it is essential for nurses to participate in discussions that allow the planning of the different instances that have been promoting this often chaotic situation. PMID:23781732
Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Schneider, Dulcinéia Ghizoni; Schneider, Nadir; dos Santos, Alessandra Ceci; Leal, Sandra Maria Cezar
For centuries, death has been defined, medically speaking, as the irreversible cessation of breathing and of nervous and cardiac activity. What radically changed this definition was the introduction of the concept "brain death" in 1968, by the "Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School". According to it, the irreversible coma was associated with brain death and considered to be a criterion for the diagnosis of the deceased individual. The evergrowing need for transplant organs (provided this respects the dead honor rule, stipulating that organs can't be harvested unless someone is deceased) lead to making arbitrary decisions regarding the establishment of the exact time of death during the process of "losing life". What actually triggers the controversy related to the concept of brain death is the dilemma of associating this concept with that of biologic death or death of the person, the difference between the two being made by whether the mental characteristics are accepted or not in defining and individualizing the death of the human being. Given these circumstances, a dilemma appears--that of defining the death of the individual: we define death, as it has been for centuries, as the moment when the cardio-respiratory function no longer exists, which leads to the loss of tens of thousands of lives that might have been saved through transplant. Yet, this may lead to manipulating the border between life and death, with the risk of trespassing each individual's right to life. PMID:23272519
This paper discusses the application of the guiding ethical principles for the conduct of research involving human subjects in an action research project in a membership-based community psychiatric disability organization. Action research is a collaborative process of critical inquiry between the researcher and the people in the situation, in this case the management executive. The relationship between the researcher and
Some prevalent, important ethical issues concerning the manuscript reviewing process are discussed, with special reference to the referees' irresponsibility, bias, conflict of interest, conflict of opinion, clash between rapidity of publication and careful revision, and anonymity, suggesting possible amendments. PMID:19382625
This paper is a reflection on research and the ethicaldilemmas of nursing work, with the primary objective of providing subsidies to help thinking about care, according to professional practice in the field of education, research, and particularly of assistance. We rely on authors who deal about ethics, labor and human condition, finding a link between this knowledge and nursing's doing in its daily practice. We conclude that given the reality of health, amid so many adversities with which we are faced in day-to-day practice, whether in teaching, research or nursing care, to think and to act ethically is a structuring condition, which humanizes and ennobles the profession giving meaning to the actions of its professionals. PMID:24092313
The multi-faceted nature of modern anatomy comes as a surprise to many, especially when confronted by such seemingly different topics as cadavers and human embryo research. However, even these disparate facets of anatomy are linked by common underlying ethical considerations. This article traces historical views of anatomy and places them alongside the more contemporary dimensions of whole-body plastination, use of human material obtained under unethical circumstances, and human embryo research. These dimensions introduce issues of respect, human dignity, consent, scientific integrity, and societal expectations. PMID:17072864
Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.
Background The aim of this study was to describe the kinds of ethicaldilemmas surgeons face during practice. Methods Five male and five female surgeons at a University hospital in Norway were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of physicians and nurses about ethically difficult situations in surgical units. The transcribed interview texts were subjected to a phenomenological-hermeneutic interpretation. Results No gender differences were found in the kinds of ethicaldilemmas identified among male and female surgeons. The main finding was that surgeons experienced ethicaldilemmas in deciding the right treatment in different situations. The dilemmas included starting or withholding treatment, continuing or withdrawing treatment, overtreatment, respecting the patients and meeting patients' expectations. The main focus in the narratives was on ethicaldilemmas concerning the patients' well-being, treatment and care. The surgeons narrated about whether they should act according to their own convictions or according to the opinions of principal colleagues or colleagues from other departments. Handling incompetent colleagues was also seen as an ethicaldilemma. Prioritization of limited resources and following social laws and regulations represented ethicaldilemmas when they contradicted what the surgeons considered was in the patients' best interests. Conclusion The surgeons seemed confident in their professional role although the many ethicaldilemmas they experienced in trying to meet the expectations of patients, colleagues and society also made them professionally and personally vulnerable.
Human resource management (HRM) is currently undergoing rapid professionalization. One area, which has not been fully examined from a scholarly nor practitioner perspective, is that of ethicaldilemmas. Ethicaldilemmas in HRM can be seen as multifaceted, involving personal, professional, and organizational considerations. A general model of five ethicaldilemmas [Acad. Manage. Rev. 8 (1983) 690.] is applied to HRM
All health care providers may be confronted by a Muslim patient, but many health care professionals are lacking basic knowledge on the Muslim faith and medical ethics based on Islamic law (Shariah). One must endeavour to differentiate between ethnic customs and Islamic tradition. It is important for staff to have a general understanding of the principles of Islamic beliefs and actions to attain better cultural competency and improved patient care. Terminally ill cancer patients are vulnerable and require sensitive care of their physical, psycho-social, cultural and spiritual aspects and needs. Muslims believe that the purpose of life is a test from God with the objective of full obedience, the outcome being purification of the soul and the resultant judgment after life to be directed to heaven or hell. The Muslim goal is to live and die in accordance with God's will, as revealed in the Qur'an and practiced by the Prophet. PMID:20590360
The Surgeon General's regulations requiring treatment of defective newborns were criticized for being simplistic and for interfering in medical decision-making. This public policy regulation was at variance with many of the recommendations of the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine. Taking the President's Commission's report into consideration, this article proposes tentative guidelines for making difficult clinical decisions, which may form the basis of an institutional or a professional response to dilemmas surrounding the birth of a defective child. PMID:6230477
Objectives. This study assessed the potential impact of immigration reporting requirements on pediatricians' referrals to child protective services. Methods. A random sample of 200 Massachusetts pediatricians were surveyed. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Asked whether potential deportation of the family would cause them to question or alter a decision to refer, 50% of the respondents said yes. Conclusions. Pediatricians, as mandated reporters of child abuse, will face ethicaldilemmas if laws requiring reporting of immigration status are enacted. (Am J Public Health. 1998;88:967-968)
A case is described of a fifty year old single man who made disclosures about criminal sexual practices during a psychiatric assessment. In common practice with other professional men, a doctor is under a duty not to disclose, without the consent of his patient, information which he has gained in his professional capacity other than in exceptional circumstances. We discuss the ethical and legal considerations surrounding issues of medical confidentiality and the dilemma that sometimes face clinicians, when they feel obliged, in the public interest, to disclose information they have gained in confidence. Breach of confidences can have deleterious consequences; particularly for the doctor-patient relationship, but failure to disclose in some situations could have serious implications for the well-being of the wider society. Doctors should be aware of the basic principles of confidentiality and the ethical and legal framework around which they are built. PMID:19135004
Background:There are intriguing and challenging ethicaldilemmas in the practice of palliative care in a traditional developing society.Objective:To review the different ethical issues involved in cancer and palliative care in developing countries, with special reference to India.Methods:Published literature on pain relief and palliative care in the developing countries was reviewed to identify ethical issues and dilemmas related to these, and
The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil
This paper provides an analysis of the current and potential ethical implications of RFID technology for the library and information professions. These issues are analysed as a series of ethicaldilemmas, or hard-to-resolve competing ethical obligations, which the librarian has in relationship to information objects, library users and the wider social and political environment or state. A process model of
Clare Thornley; Stuart Ferguson; John Weckert; Forbes Gibb
Routine management of geriatric problems often raises ethical problems, particularly regarding autonomy of the old person. The carers or children may be unaware of the sensitivity of role reversal in dealing with the financial affairs; the need for a residential carer may compromise the old person's privacy. Attending a day centre confers much benefit, but one must understand the old person's resistance to change in the proposal of a new daily regimen. Similarly his or her autonomy must be the priority in planning for admittance to an old age home, and not the assumption that the family knows best. A common dilemma is the assessment of an old person's competency in decision making, either about management of his affairs, or regarding consent to treatment, or participation in research. Because cognitive capacity is not always identical with competency, meaningful tools have recently been developed in which the emphasis is on the specific situation to be investigated.
This paper reviews two ethicaldilemmas currently facing advertisers in Australia, which have resulted from lobby group activities and public concern over health and safety issues, and discusses industry responses to these dilemmas. In Australia the main response mechanism for advertisers has been the introduction of self-regulatory codes of practice. A review of the general and trade press, and of
Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethicaldilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…
Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan
The aim of this study was to assess nurses' and physicians' ethicaldilemmas in clinical practice. Nurses and physicians of the Clinical Hospital Centre Rijeka were surveyed (N=364). A questionnaire was used to identify recent ethicaldilemma, primary ethical issue in the situation, satisfaction with the resolution, perceived usefulness of help, and usage of clinical ethics consultations in practice. Recent ethicaldilemmas include professional conduct for nurses (8%), and near-the-end-of-life decisions for physicians (27%). The main ethical issue is limiting life-sustaining therapy (nurses 15%, physicians 24%) and euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (nurses 16%, physicians 9%). The types of help available are similar for nurses and physicians: obtaining complete information about the patient (37% vs. 50%) and clarifying ethical issues (31% vs. 39%). Nurses and physicians experience similar ethicaldilemmas in clinical practice. The usage of clinical ethics consultations is low. It is recommended that the individual and team consultations should be introduced in Croatian clinical ethics consultations services. PMID:21558110
Predictive testing protocols are intended to help patients affected with hereditary conditions understand their condition\\u000a and make informed reproductive choices. However, predictive protocols may expose clinicians and patients to ethicaldilemmas\\u000a that interfere with genetic counseling and the decision making process. This paper describes ethicaldilemmas in a series\\u000a of five cases involving predictive testing for hereditary ataxias in Cuba.
Tania Cruz Mariño; Rubén Reynaldo Armiñán; Humberto Jorge Cedeño; José Miguel Laffita Mesa; Yanetza González Zaldivar; Raúl Aguilera Rodríguez; Miguel Velázquez Santos; Luis Enrique Almaguer Mederos; Milena Paneque Herrera; Luis Velázquez Pérez
This paper addresses the nurse manager's role regarding chemically-dependent nurses in the workplace. The manager may intervene by: terminating the contract of the impaired colleague; notifying a disciplinary committee; consulting with a counselling committee; or referring the impaired nurse to an employee assistance programme. A dilemma may arise about which of these interventions is ethically the best. The ethical theories relevant to nursing involve ethical relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, Kohlberg's justice, and Gilligan's ethic of care. Nurse managers first need to understand these theories in order to clarify their own perceptions and attitudes towards chemical dependency, and then satisfactorily resolve this ethicaldilemma. Education and social learning are routes to a better understanding of chemical dependency and to broadening the ethical dimensions of nurse managers. PMID:8998031
This book discusses how students and practitioners should take into account four ethics paradigms to help solve authentic dilemmas. These paradigms are the ethic of justice, ethic of care, ethic of critique, and ethic of the profession. The book's purposes include demonstrating the application of these different paradigms through the discussion…
This paper is based on the experiences drawn from a long-term social science research programme on the impact of the AIDS pandemic on orphanhood in western Kenya. It discusses the ethicaldilemma of maintaining a delicate balance between research ethics, the expectations of the study population and negotiating the community's vested interests in a health related research project in a
|This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethicaldilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation…
This paper considers ethicaldilemmas associated with research with male sex offenders. It examines two particular areas in detail: dealing with the disclosure of previously undisclosed offences and managing the distress of research participants during interview. Within these areas there is discussion of ethical approaches to research. Principle-based approaches offer abstract guidelines that help to resolve certain issues, but at
During the last decade, the Swedish health care system has undergone fundamental changes. The changes have made health care more complex and ethics has increasingly become a required component of clinical practice. Considering this, it is not surprising that many health care professionals suffer from stress-related disorders. Stress due to ethicaldilemmas is usually referred to as “moral distress”. The
Sofia Kälvemark; Anna T. Höglund; Mats G. Hansson; Peter Westerholm; Bengt Arnetz
This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethicaldilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the kinds of ethicaldilemmas surgeons face during practice. METHODS: Five male and five female surgeons at a University hospital in Norway were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of physicians and nurses about ethically difficult situations in surgical units. The transcribed interview texts were subjected to
This study used a controlled experiment to investigate the effects of a story subject's race on black journalism students' ethical reasoning by changing only the race of the people in the photographs. Contrary to what in-group and identification theories would predict, these black students did not show preference to people of their own race in ethicaldilemmas; instead they treated
The study aimed to reflect, based on the theoretical framework of Max Scheler, about the ethicaldilemmas experienced by nurses in the ICU, and about the values that guide their actions and decisions,. This is qualitative research, and ten ICU nurses have been interviewed at a university hospital. It was identified the experience of ethicaldilemmas related to the terminality related to the limits of intervention and use of material resources, as well as the issue of blood transfusion in case of religious restrictions. The values identified were: respect, dignity of the patient, scientific knowledge, humility, passion for the profession and love of God. The theory of values is an important tool for nursing because it allows the approach of an ethics of humanizing praxis, especially in situations of ethicaldilemmas. PMID:22911410
Medeiros, Marlise Barros de; Pereira, Eliane Ramos; Silva, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade; Silva, Marcos Andrade
By definition, an ethicaldilemma involves the need to choose from among two or more morally acceptable options or between equally unacceptable courses of action, when one choice prevents selection of the other. Advances in medicine, increasing economic stress, rise of patient self-determination and differing values between healthcare workers and patients are among the many factors contributing to the frequency and complexity of ethical issues in healthcare. In the cancer patient near the end of life, common ethicaldilemmas include those dealing with artificial nutrition and hydration, truth-telling and disagreements over management plans. It would stand the clinician in good stead to be aware of these issues and have an approach toward dealing with such problems. In addition, organisations have a responsibility to ensure that systems are in place to minimise its occurrence and ensure that staff are supported through the process of resolving dilemmas and conflicts that may arise. PMID:22252176
This article describes two ethicaldilemmas encountered by our research team during a project working with undocumented immigrants in Toronto, Canada. This article aims to be transparent about the problems the research team faced, the processes by which we sought to understand these problems, how solutions were found, and how the ethicaldilemmas were resolved. Undocumented immigrants are a vulnerable community of individuals residing in a country without legal citizenship, immigration, or refugee status. There are more than half a million undocumented immigrants in Canada. Through an academic-community partnership, a study was conducted to understand the experiences of undocumented immigrants seeking health care in Toronto. The lessons outlined in this article may assist others in overcoming challenges and ethicaldilemmas encountered while doing research with vulnerable communities. PMID:23632080
Spurred by public dissatisfaction with the legal profession and expansion of the bar exam's ethics section, law schools are trying to invigorate the field of legal ethics, giving students more exposure to moral and ethical conflicts they are likely to face as professionals. Some legal experts say law schools should do more to integrate ethical…
Libraries depend on ethical principles more than any other institution because library services are essentially human-oriented. Most national ethical principles for librarians are represented as professional ethic codes. Each of them eventually consolidates the ideology, the paradigm of national library services. Comparative analysis of national library ethic codes indicates the intellectual freedom principle as the key point and the superior
This is an examination of three main strategies used by engineering educators to integrate ethics into the engineering curriculum.\\u000a They are: (1) the standalone course, (2) the ethics imperative mandating ethics content for all engineering courses, and (3)\\u000a outsourcing ethics instruction to an external expert. The expectations from each approach are discussed and their main limitations\\u000a described. These limitations include
The diverse, multicultural population that constitutes today's work force faces ethicaldilemmas on the job that bring pressures to protect their own or their company's interests, at the risk of losing their personal integrity. Employers and vocational and career development personnel are recognizing the need for decision-making and…
Australian teacher education, like the rest of the university sector in Australia, is under significant pressure and highly politicised. In this paper, we examine ethicaldilemmas facing teacher educators who, in a context of difficult and eroding work conditions, grapple with literacy needs of pre?service students. We focus particularly on building an analysis and a broad framework for improving university
|This article examines findings from three focus groups conducted about resolving ethicaldilemmas in the area of domestic violence. The study's findings point to the need to increase content on domestic violence throughout the social work curriculum and provide educational opportunities for field instructors and local professionals. Helping…
Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethicaldilemmas…
|Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethicaldilemmas…
|Explores effect of child abuse reporting on counselor-client relationship, mental health profession, and child protective services system. Uses ecological systems approach in exploration of interventions needed to help resolve child abuse reporting dilemma. Within ecosystems framework, discusses ethical guidelines and policymaking for reporting…
The scale of the ethical challenges faced by veterinary surgeons and their perceived stressful consequences were investigated via a short questionnaire, completed by 58 practising veterinary surgeons. Respondents were asked to report how frequently they faced ethicaldilemmas, and to rate on a simple numerical scale (zero to 10) how stressful they found three common scenarios. Fifty seven per cent of respondents reported that they faced one to two dilemmas per week, while 34 per cent stated they typically faced three to five dilemmas per week. The three scenarios provided were all rated as highly stressful with 'client wishing to continue treatment despite poor animal welfare' rated as the most stressful (median 9). The female veterinary surgeons gave two of the scenarios significantly higher stress ratings than the male veterinary surgeons. Stress ratings were not influenced by number of years in practice (which ranged from one to more than 25 years). The results show that veterinary surgeons regularly face ethicaldilemmas and that they find these stressful. This has implications for the wellbeing of veterinary surgeons and supports the case for increased provision of training and support, especially for those who entered the profession before undergraduate ethics teaching was widely available. PMID:22084032
Policing is a moral endeavor. This paper discusses policing as a complex mission linked to its moral dimension and how individual values may impact how daily work is accomplished. It highlights the ethical dimension of decision-making from different ethical perspectives and the importance of developing practical ethical awareness in routine tasks and everyday activities. A routine episode, as depicted by
The purpose of this article is to explore the ethicaldilemmas inherent in the treatment of women currently in abusive relationships. Utilizing ethical decision-making models, the conflicting principles of beneficence and autonomy are discussed with regards to whether a therapist should encourage a client to leave an abusive relationship. Given that most ethical decision-making models stress the importance of contextual
Katie M. Edwards; Jennifer C. Merrill; Angeli D. Desai; John R. McNamara
The present situation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is very grim in China. The probability of China becoming a country with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS cannot be excluded because there have been factors which promote the wide spread of HIV if we fail to take timely action to prevent it at the opportune moment. However, China's HIV prevention policy is inadequate. Health professionals and programmers believed that they could take a conventional public health approach to cope with the HIV epidemic. They simply ignored the fact that HIV infection is an epidemic so special that their approach is not effective to deter the epidemic. Many health professionals and programmers bypassed ethical issues that had emerged in the prevention of the HIV epidemic. Even some health educators, sexologists and officials believe that 'AIDS is the punishment for promiscuity', and this belief has led to discrimination and stigmatization of AIDS patients, HIV positive people, their family members and high risk groups. Although homosexuality is not illegal, the police can always find any reason to detain homosexuals. A difficult ethical issue is about the laws prohibiting prostitution and drug use in China which force prostitutes and intravenous drug users underground, giving them no chance to access information, education and the services needed to protect them. The dilemma facing China is whether to stay with a restrictive policy for the reason of ideology cleansing or to turn to a more supportive policy. It is necessary to have some change in the ethical framework to evaluate the action in HIV prevention. Tolerance should be the first ethical principle. PMID:11654786
This Science NetLinks lesson introduces students to the ethical implications of using our growing knowledge about the human genome to improve our personal and public health. Students will be asked to consider numerous ethical issues related to genetic testing and will find that there are no easy answers. Most importantly, students will learn that there is no one "answer" to an ethical question; rather, there exist a multitude of perspectives that must be taken into account. Ultimately, students will learn that making an ethical choice requires scientific knowledge and rational inquiry.
It is obvious that every inventor should be rewarded for the intellectual effort, and at the same time be encouraged to successively improve his or her discovery and to work on subsequent innovations. Patents also ensure that patent owners are officially protected against intellectual piracy, but protection of intellectual property may be difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless, it all comes down to this basic question: Does a contradiction exist between medical ethics and the "Medical and Surgical Procedure Patents" system? It may well turn out that medical-procedure patents can have a negative influence on the standard of medical care. Medical-method patents may also interfere with the physician-patient relationship. At present, physicians do not question the usefulness of patent protection for medicines, biotechnology, equipment and devices, but they strongly oppose it for surgical procedures. PMID:15727000
We sought to answer two questions via this exploratory study. First, we investigated whether or not individual differences in moral principle selection/preference existed in response to six moral dilemmas. Second, we sought to find out whether they were r...
The 'wall' that differentiates two different kinds of attitudes of the same person at different points of time denotes, as the author envisages, Conscious Attitudinal Infringement Area (CAIA), where moral dilemmas take birth to bridge the two different kinds of attitudes to give way to attitudinal interrelatedness. In order to 'reinforce' CAIA to narrow the gap between personal behaviour and
In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…
This volume provides college and university development officers and administrators practical help with recognizing difficult ethical situations and discerning the correct ethical response. It can also serve as a guide for donors who wonder what's reasonable for them to expect from fund raisers. Section 1 contains chapters on the social and moral…
The practice demands required of sport psychologists often complicate the direct and specific fulfillment of several ethical regulations. Many practitioners face specific issues of confidentiality and the appropriate use of informed consent, challenges to practicing within areas of competence, issues regarding termination, and challenges that arise from multiorganizational demands and the formation of multiple relationships. Although ethical guidelines established by
|In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…
This paper focuses on the ethical position of the ethnographer when encountering unethical activities. Ethnography affords a rich insight into cultures, often behind previously secure doors but it is also a demanding science. Our gatekeepers control our access and our relationships with them can determine our destiny. This paper offers an exchange with ethics and the conditions experienced during an
Within the 32 years of its existence our attitude towards artificial enteral nutrition via PEG-tubes has changed in a fundamental way: in our modern understanding nutrition via PEG is supportive, early, preventive, and in many cases temporary. PEG-feeding is not an alternative but a possible supplement to normal oral food intake and requires an individual medical indication as well as an ethical justification. This does not follow standardised algorithmic thinking but is decided on an individual base taking personal wishes, resources, and needs of the individual patient into account. Nutrition via PEG-tube is not a terminal basic or even symbolic treatment at the end of life. The presentdilemma of the PEG is that the public discussion primarily focus one-sided on the problems of PEG-placement in multimorbid, elderly, and/or demented patients or patients in end-stage tumour diseases where indeed PEG-placement is neither medically nor ethically justified - we still place PEG-tubes to often in the wrong patients! On the other hand we still consider supportive and in many cases temporary nutrition via PEG too rare and even too late in those patients which clearly could benefit from an early, supportive, and preventive PEG-treatment on the base of our present evidence-based scientific knowledge - we still consider PEG-treatment not adequately and in most cases too late in the right patients! Placing a PEG-tube is not the second last step before death and physicians have to accept the ethically given limits of medical treatment by realizing our modern understanding of the benefits and limits of supportive artificial nutrition via PEG. PMID:23681898
Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethicaldilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance. PMID:23454980
Electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate several innovations capable of reforming health care. Despite their promise, many currently unanswered legal, ethical, and financial questions threaten the widespread adoption and use of EHRs. Key legal dilemmas that must be addressed in the near-term pertain to the extent of clinicians' responsibilities for reviewing the entire computer-accessible clinical synopsis from multiple clinicians and institutions, the liabilities posed by overriding clinical decision support warnings and alerts, and mechanisms for clinicians to publically report potential EHR safety issues. Ethicaldilemmas that need additional discussion relate to opt-out provisions that exclude patients from electronic record storage, sale of deidentified patient data by EHR vendors, adolescent control of access to their data, and use of electronic data repositories to redesign the nation's health care delivery and payment mechanisms on the basis of statistical analyses. Finally, one overwhelming financial question is who should pay for EHR implementation because most users and current owners of these systems will not receive the majority of benefits. The authors recommend that key stakeholders begin discussing these issues in a national forum. These actions can help identify and prioritize solutions to the key legal, ethical, and financial dilemmas discussed, so that widespread, safe, effective, interoperable EHRs can help transform health care.
Drawing on findings from an ethnographic study of Romani Gypsy groups in England (1996-2000), along with data from follow-up work involving original and additional participants (2005-ongoing), this paper explores several ethical issues that arose. It traces developing relationships across a 13-year period, identifying the problems of attempting to…
|Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…
Routine management of geriatric problems often raises ethical problems, particularly regarding autonomy of the old person. The carers or children may be unaware of the sensitivity of role reversal in dealing with the financial affairs; the need for a residential carer may compromise the old person’s privacy. Attending a day centre confers much benefit, but one must understand the old
This paper represents an effort to distinguish between two types of guanxi prevalent in mainland China: favor-seeking guanxi that is culturally rooted and rent-seeking guanxi that is institutionally defined. Different rules of maneuvering the two types of guanxi are identified in light of Chinese cultural and business ethics. Strategies for entering guanxi in mainland China are also suggested.
|The Internet remains as a wonder for the 21st century and its growth is phenomenon. According to a recent survey, the online population is now about 500 million globally and if this trend continues, it should reach 700 million by the end of 2002. This exponential growth of the Internet has given rise to several security, privacy and ethical…
|This paper focuses on the ethical position of the ethnographer when encountering unethical activities. Ethnography affords a rich insight into cultures, often behind previously secure doors but it is also a demanding science. Our gatekeepers control our access and our relationships with them can determine our destiny. This paper offers an…
This article aims to highlight some of the ethical issues that arise when social work educators plan to involve service users and carers from black and minority ethnic (BME) communities in the teaching of social work students. Between 2005 and 2007, the authors carried out a two-part project that involved working with service users and carers from BME communities in
Early detection based on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) presumably can reduce prostate cancer mortality. At the same time it is associated with a comparatively high rate of overdiagnosis involving tumors that would not have become apparent without screening since they would have remained asymptomatic during the patient's entire life. Current studies show that the probability of such an overdiagnosis is 12-48 times higher than one which would save a man's life. Thus, overdiagnosis poses an ethicaldilemma for physicians: their actions (screening examination) can turn a healthy individual into a chronically ill person. This profoundly contradicts the principle of medical ethics to"do no harm." An open debate on whether early detection can be reconciled with doctors' ethical duties is hampered by the implications of liability law, faulty economic incentives, and the pressures of competition as well as the empirical practice of many physicians to overestimate the benefits of cancer screening. PMID:22009258
The ethical behavior of marketing managers was examined by analyzing their responses to a series of different types of ethicaldilemmaspresented in vignette form. The ethicaldilemmas addressed dealt with the issues of (1) coercion and control, (2) conflict of interest, (3) the physical environment, (4) paternalism, and (5) personal integrity. Responses were analyzed to discover whether managers' behavior
To determine the knowledge, attitude, and ethical concerns of medical students and graduates with regard to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) research. This questionnaire based descriptive study was conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), Pakistan from February to July 2008. A well structured questionnaire was administered to medical students and graduate doctors, which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Informed consent was taken and full confidentiality was assured to the participants. Data were entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.12) and analyzed. A total of 204 male and 216 female medical students and doctors were administered questionnaires out of which 105 males (51.4%) and 108 females (50%) were aware of the embryonic stem cell research and its ethical implications. Forty percent males and 47% of females were of the opinion that life begins at conception. Forty-six percent males and 39% females were in favor of stem cell research while only 31% males and 28% females supported the ESC research. Less than 1/3 of students supported using frozen embryos for research purposes while more than 2/3 indicated that they were unlikely to support abortion for stem cell research purposes. The majority of the students were in favor of stem cell research with some reservations regarding ESC research. A sizeable number of students withheld their views, reflecting their poor understanding of medical ethics. The result of the study indicates a need for incorporating bioethics into the medical curriculum. PMID:22038063
Computer ethics could be taught at least in two ways: integrating ethics into computer science (CS) courses or arranging computer ethics course. In this report the experiences from the experiment of integrating ethics into CS courses are presented. I n this experiment the integration means adding groupworks and dilemma discussions to the exercises of CS courses. Dilemma discussion as a
The bioethical dilemmas receiving the most attention in China now relate to the two ends of life: birth and death. On one end are issues relating to reproductive technology, especially birth control and family planning; at the other end is euthanasia... More research and discussion among people from various fields is needed. Progress will be made one step at a time, and I recommend that we proceed now to win acceptance of brain death criteria; to make clear the distinctions between passive and active euthanasia,...to encourage the use of living wills; and to protect the interests of newborns who are not terminally ill, including those with mild defects. In the changing context of modernization, in which different and even incompatible value systems must coexist, it is best for us to approach the ethicaldilemmas facing us with mutual respect and understanding. PMID:11645699
Organ transplant has had a momentous effect in improving global health over the years. However, there exists a sizeable discrepancy between the supply and demand of organs, especially in developing countries, where lack of expertise, financial constraints, and inadequate transplant facilities have been obstacles. According to current practice, donors must be dead before unpaired vital organs can be recovered. Equal health warrants needs-based health care for everyone. Recovering viable organs from donors while they are alive, but with death inevitable, may be significant to persons on waiting lists. Future policies in organ transplantation must be made after thorough consideration of all aspects of donation and dealing with the inequalities of health care. These pose a challenge for medicolegal and ethical organizations. PMID:21819377
National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process by fostering the development of partnerships between communities and academics to address community-relevant research priorities. As such, it attempts to redress ethical concerns that have emerged out of more traditional paradigms. Nevertheless, new and emerging ethicaldilemmas are commonly associated with CBPR and are rarely addressed in traditional ethical reviews. We conducted a content analysis of forms and guidelines commonly used by institutional review boards (IRBs) in the USA and research ethics boards (REBs) in Canada. Our intent was to see if the forms used by boards reflected common CBPR experience. We drew our sample from affiliated members of the US-based Association of Schools of Public Health and from Canadian universities that offered graduate public health training. This convenience sample (n?=?30) was garnered from programs where application forms were available online for download between July and August, 2004. Results show that ethical review forms and guidelines overwhelmingly operate within a biomedical framework that rarely takes into account common CBPR experience. They are primarily focused on the principle of assessing risk to individuals and not to communities and continue to perpetuate the notion that the domain of “knowledge production” is the sole right of academic researchers. Consequently, IRBs and REBs may be unintentionally placing communities at risk by continuing to use procedures inappropriate or unsuitable for CBPR. IRB/REB procedures require a new framework more suitable for CBPR, and we propose alternative questions and procedures that may be utilized when assessing the ethical appropriateness of CBPR.
The world of health care and the world of business have fundamentally different ethical standards. In the past decades, business principles have progressively invaded medical territories, leading to often unanticipated consequences for both patients and providers. Multidisciplinary pain management has been shown to be more effective than all other forms of health care for chronic pain patients; yet, fewer and fewer multidisciplinary pain management facilities are available in the United States. The amazing increase in interventional procedures and opioid prescriptions has not led to a lessening of the burden of chronic pain patients. Ethicaldilemmas abound in the treatment of chronic pain patients: many are not even thought about by providers, administrators, insurance companies, or patients. We call for increased pain educational experiences for all types of health care providers and the separation of business concepts from pain-related health care. PMID:23462285
How articulate information, mutidisciplinary practice, choice and decision of the treatment in a good patient-doctor relationship, an ethical relationship ? Doctor is an expert who gets the information (patients have more and more others sources of information). Choice of the treatment depends of the facts (the evidence) and personal values (the preferences). The selection between the different options (most often they are several options) may be done by the physician or by physicians in a multidisciplinary clinics, in the presence of the patient or not. The final decision to do or not the treatment belongs to the patient (who is not always aware of that). Initial sharing of the information between patient and doctor may permit the patient to choose himself the best option. More complete is sharing of the information, more the patient is able to do a free choice (without the influence of the doctor). It is often possible (genetics, prevention, screening, adjuvant treatments) to share in full the available information (knowing its relativity and limits). In oncology, the full sharing of the information is not always realistic, neither asked by the patient. Nevertheless, it is possible to go progressively with the patient to a preferred choice through a deliberative process, a co-construction of the decision. But often, the doctor refer to a pre-established protocol, build by physicians, representing the choice of the majority (doctors and/or patients) in the "same" situation. Only one option is offered to the patient from whom consent is asked, the information been then delivered to explain the choice already done. This paternalistic attitude is very effective, comfortable and don't alter the satisfaction of the majority of the patients, however, it limits the patient's autonomy. The patient is not allowed to choose between all the possibilities but accept or refuse the doctor's choice. With the extreme variability of the situations, it would be illusive to defend a unique attitude. Doctor has yet to try to adapt himself to every single case. PMID:17535783
This paper builds on a number of ideas concerning the nature, management and representation in case studies, of moral issues and dilemmas as experienced by people in organisations. Drawing on some cases used in teaching business ethics, and utilising a checklist of questions derived from the more general theoretical analysis, suggestions are offered regarding the contributions which such cases can
In this article we explore our experiences of researching children and families in the home setting. We trace the impact of the home setting on some ethical and methodological issues which arose in the course of conducting our field work and consider issues of consent, confidentiality, power, leaving the field and specifically our dilemmas, both personal and professional, around researcher
This paper examines some of the ethicaldilemmas that arise when testing for the late onset, untreatable condition of Huntington disease (HD) specifically now that technology allows us to test younger generations of the family for the mutant gene. Drawing on interview data from families with Huntington disease, the reactions to testing and perceived impact on other family members are
This article explores the legal, ethical, and moral dilemmas faced by forensic psychologists who, during an evaluation for an attorney, discover information that would warrant making a child abuse report. It attempts to assist forensic psychologists with navigating the question of whether attorney-client privilege overrides their duty to report suspected child abuse. Through a review of the legal and psychological
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to focus on a case study, framed as an ethicaldilemma. It serves as an illustration for the teaching of moral literacy, with a special emphasis on social justice. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Initially, the paper provides a rationale for the inclusion of case studies, emphasizing moral problems in university teaching. It discusses briefly
The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…
In this article the authors have introduced specific characteristics of the increasingly large group of elderly cancer patients. They have argued that in order to provide good care we should extend our ethical awareness from issues of decision-making to a broader perspective focusing on the care relationship as developed by ethics of care principles. Cases like Mr. Michelson’s and Mrs Johnson’s show to what extent contemporary medicine is inclined to pursue its own goals of trying to do well, however taking the care receiver’s perspective into account too little. An ethics of care approach may help to be more attentive and responsive to the patient’s perspective. In the case of elderly cancer patients, being attentive and responsive to the patient’s perspective seems to be a major precondition for delivering good quality care attuned to the need, perspective, and vulnerable position of patients. PMID:22326037
|A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethicaldilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmaspresented as somewhat unethical.…
Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton
The theory-practice-ethics gap - a new paradigm to contemplate. Practices based on tradition, rituals and outdated information are placed into a nonscientific paradigm called the theory-practice gap. Within this paradigm there is often a gap between theoretical knowledge and its application in practice. This theory-practice gap has always existed [Allmark, P., 1995. A classical view of the theory-practice gap in nursing. J. Adv. Nurs. 22 (1), 18-23; Hewison, A. et al., 1996. The theory-practice gap in nursing: a new dimension. J. Adv. Nurs. 24 (4), 754-761]. Its creation is often sited as a culmination of theory being idealistic and impractical, even if practical and beneficial, are often ignored. Most of the evidence relating to the non integration of theory and practice makes the assumption that environmental factors are responsible and will affect learning and practice outcomes, hence the "gap". In fact, it is the author's belief, that to "bridge the gap" between theory and practice an additional component is required, called ethics. A moral duty and obligation ensuring theory and practice integrate. In order to effectively implement new practices, one must deem these practices are worthy and relevant to their role as healthcare providers. Otherwise, we fall victims to providing nothing more than a lip service. This introduces a new concept which the author refers to as the theory-practice-ethics gap. This theory-practice-ethics gap must be considered when reviewing some of the unacceptable outcomes in health care practice. The author believes that there is a crisis of ethics where theory and practice integrate, and as a consequence, malfeasance. We are failing to fulfill our duty as healthcare providers and as patient advocates. One practice of major concern, which the author will endeavor to unfold relates to adult and pediatric resuscitation. PMID:23960564
Three controversial ethical issues, among others, stir the debate in health care institutions, in medical associations, and in the whole society: the care of patients in persistent vegetative state, the regulation of artificial procreation, some individual requests for reshaping an healthy body. Dealing with these dilemmas, typical of advanced medical science and technological practice, implies not only balancing carefully the burdens and benefits for suffering persons, families, equipes, hospitals, cultural and religious communities, but also imaging and realizing new visions of a just society, of a beneficent (without paternalism) medicine and generally of a good life, where each moral agent could write in front of all and in worthy, convincing ways, the next chapter of the book of his/her own life. PMID:21560776
|This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethicaldilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethicaldilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most…
This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethicaldilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethicaldilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most…
Informed consent and confidentiality supposedly minimize harm for research participants in all qualitative research methodologies,\\u000a inclusive of one-on-one unstructured interviews and focus groups. This is not the case for the latter. Confidentiality and\\u000a informed consent uniquely manifest themselves as endemic ethicaldilemmas for focus group researchers. The principle of caveat\\u000a emptor (let the buyer beware) may be a more useful
All psychological and social research presentsethicaldilemmas, many of which centre around the difficulties which flow from the power imbalances between those conducting the research and the research respondents or participants. Issues of power are magnified in research undertaken in contexts of poverty, and there is a burgeoning literature on ethical issues in research in developing countries. In this article, we augment the existing literature by focusing on the experiences of an assessor working in a controlled trial of a mother-infant intervention in a poor South African community. We consider issues of community expectations, the presentation to our project of physical health problems, the issue of HIV/AIDS, cultural beliefs which impact on the research, child protection issues, and the tensions between research assessment and ubuntu--a cultural norm which requires helpful engagement with others. We suggest that our experiences may assist with the development of further research. PMID:16881161
|Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…
Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.
Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…
Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.
Summary The present paper follows up the theme of research ethics that has been discussed in the British Journal of Learning Disabilities in recent years. We join the debate in the capacity of people involved in doing research on, rather than with, people with learning disabilities. We focus on our own quasi-experimental study evaluating the Intensive Interaction approach for pupils
...the utility of institution ethics consultations services for...barriers to surgeons' use of ethics consultation services will...in their practices and how ethics consultation services could...Affected Public: Individuals; Businesses or other for-profit....
A survey sponsored by the Interamerican Association of Gastroenterology (AIGE) related to decision making in conflictive ethical situations in the setting of gastroenterological practice was designed (AJ-JCG). Seven problem-cases with 3 to 5 pre-established and not-excluding answers each, demographic and occupational data were included, by public invitation during 1996-97 AIGE educational activities in La Plata (Argentina), Montevideo (Uruguay) and Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). Data were inserted in a computerised data base, and chi square, Fischer and Maentel-Henzel tests were used for statistical studies. 118 out of 460 doctors registered to educational activities answered at the survey (25.6%). Mean age was 42 +/- 15 years and 57.6% were male; 48.5% were under 10 years of professional practice and 19.5% were over 20 years. Gastroenterology was the main specialty in 89.8%. Although only 15.2% of participants reported as not having Ethical Committee (EC) in their institutions, the option of consulting was not very frequently selected, except in cases of request about pregnancy interruption in the HCV infected mother (22.9%), inclusion of the young alcoholic cirrhotic man in the waiting list for liver trasplant (17.8%), and the Jehova's Witness conscious patient with bleeding esophageal varices (13.5%). Cases of direct communication to the patient of early colon cancer diagnosis (66.1%), and inclusion of the young end stage alcoholic cirrhotic patient in the waiting list for liver trasplantation (65.2%), had the higher consensus. On the other hand, lower consensus (39%) was seen in the case of variceal bleeding in the encephalopathic Witness of Jehova patient. Differential criterla were observed related to sex: 38% of women versus 14.7% of men (p < 0.01) refuse the interruption of pregnancy to the infected HCV patient because of personal convictions against abortion. In the case of suspected HIV co-infection in the IVD HBsAG + carrier, 46% of women vs. 27.9% of men (p < 0.05) indicate HIV screening test without any explanation to the patient because "he could transmit a fatal disease". In this same case, time from graduation was related to differences in option selection: 80.9% in the group > 20 years of professional exercise asked for patient consent and accepted his decision, versus 52.7 and 27.5% in 0-9 and 10-19 years group respectively (p < 0.05). Usual medical and social worries as communication (truth, informed consent), the autonomic decision of biological death versus the sacrament of life, justice in allocation resources, confidentiality and social concern, abortion, and many other controversies linked to tecno-scientific development, impact the practice of Gastroenterology in latinoamerican countries. However medical answers to ethicaldilemmas are not uniform. Although our results ought to be verified by other studies they clearly suggest the needs for systematic incorporation of applicated Ethics in pre and postgraduate Gastroenterology curricula, besides the regular activities of our regional institutions. PMID:10491718
Jmelnitzky, A C; Cohen, H; Fossman, E; Ovando, L; Costa Gil, J E
The introduction of electronic medical record systems (EMRs) into primary care settings alters work practices, introduces new challenges, and new roles. In the process of integrating an EMR into a primary care setting, clinic staff faced ethical challenges in their everyday work practices resulting from workarounds undertaken to compensate for a poor fit between system design and work practices, issues related to system access, and governance gaps. Examples of these issues are presented, and implications for system design are discussed. PMID:21893758
The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice.
The ethical tendencies of university business students from the USA, Denmark, and New Zealand were examined by analyzing their reactions to ethicaldilemmaspresented in a set of ethical problem situations. These dilemmas dealt with coercion and control, conflict of interest, physical environment, paternalism and personal integrity. Findings indicate that students' reactions tended to be similar regardless of their country.
Fieldworkers (FWs) are community members employed by research teams to support access to participants, address language barriers, and advise on culturally appropriate research conduct. The critical role that FWs play in studies, and the range of practical and ethicaldilemmas associated with their involvement, is increasingly recognised. In this paper, we draw on qualitative observation and interview data collected alongside a six month basic science study which involved a team of FWs regularly visiting 47 participating households in their homes. The qualitative study documented how relationships between field workers and research participants were initiated, developed and evolved over the course of the study, the shifting dilemmas FWs faced and how they handled them. Even in this one case study, we see how the complex and evolving relationships between fieldworkers and study participants had important implications for consent processes, access to benefits and mutual understanding and trust. While the precise issues that FWs face are likely to depend on the type of research and the context in which that research is being conducted, we argue that appropriate support for field workers is a key requirement to strengthen ethical research practice and for the long term sustainability of research programmes.
Kamuya, Dorcas M; Theobald, Sally J; Munywoki, Patrick K; Koech, Dorothy; Geissler, Wenzel P; Molyneux, Sassy C
Starting with basic philosophic positions and principles, nursing students can be helped to analyze ethicaldilemmas of increasing complexity. A hypothetical situation is presented and discussed as an example of a case study used to teach these principles. (CT)
...Surgery and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation...submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and...Surgery and Utilization of Hospital Ethics Consultation...if any, with their hospital consultation...
The “dual-use dilemma” arises in the context of research in the biological and other sciences as a consequence of the fact\\u000a that one and the same piece of scientific research sometimes has the potential to be used for evil as well as for good. Consider\\u000a as an example of this kind of dilemma recent research on the mousepox virus.3 On
The field of psychiatry has an opportunity to construct a more refined, perhaps more enduring understanding of the ethical basis of mental illness research. The aim of this paper is to help advance this understanding by 1) tracing the evolution of the emerging ethic for biomedical experimentation, including recent recommendations of the President’s National Bioethics Advisory Commission, and 2) reviewing
This dissertation offers a program for critically analyzing and resolving ethicaldilemmas that arise within the practice and delivery of medical care. Fundamental principles that ought to ground moral and rational decisions in the doctor-patient relationship will be explored. A recommended model for the doctor-patient interaction will be argued for, including the limits of justified paternalistic interference by the physician.
In ethical decision making, some research shows that nurses stress patient autonomy while physicians stress beneficence (Robertson, 1996). When these two ethical principles are in conflict, which takes precedence? In addition, other research states that nurses encounter more moral distress than physicians in their everyday ethical environment. The purpose of this study was to explore the similarities and differences of
This case study creates a dilemma that many school districts face. Public education is under-funded. Principals are expected to be the instructional leaders and are held accountable for student achievement. Is it appropriate then for public schools to have local businesses as benefactors when teaching personnel are involved? The conflict between teacher quality and a local benefactor sometimes presentethical
|This book discusses the most frequently encountered ethicaldilemmas that can arise in higher educational settings and offers tips on how to avoid such predicaments and how to handle them when they occur. Ethicaldilemmas are presented as short case scenarios. The 195 cases are grouped into 22 chapters in six parts. Part 1, "The Classroom…
Keith-Spiegel, Patricia; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.; Balogh, Deborah Ware; Perkins, David V.; Wittig, Arno F.
The AIDS epidemic has presented many new ethicaldilemmas regarding psychologists’ obligations to their clients and third parties. Both ethical and legal norms remain unsettled in regard to most of these dilemmas. In general, psychologists should strive to protect the privacy of their clients and to promote the welfare of individuals affected by AIDS. When compelling interests of third parties
This paper discusses ethical considerations involved in breach of confidentiality in counseling dangerous clients, i.e., those who have the potential to inflict bodily harm on others. The ethical basis for confidentiality is presented in a model for decision making in ethicaldilemmas which encompasses three evaluative levels or tiers: ethical…
Individuals who have maladaptive patterns of drinking alcohol fall into the category of vulnerable research participants for many reasons, not the least of which includes the stigma often placed on individuals who abuse alcohol. Vulnerable subgroups within the population of people who abuse alcohol include women; older adults; incarcerated, socioeconomically disadvantaged, and mentally ill individuals; as well as people from racial minorities. Thus, as research participants, individuals who abuse alcohol can be labeled a doubly vulnerable population. Belonging to more than one population simultaneously can lead to a compromised ability to protect one's own interests or greater susceptibility to harm related to participation in research studies. Arguments against including people who abuse alcohol as research participants will be presented, followed by the argument for including theses individuals, which is suggested as the more ethically sound of the two points of view. PMID:20128522
This paper examines the interaction between cross-cultural variation in ethics and international human resource management. Literature is reviewed that suggests the ethical orientation of a culture can vary based upon whether the culture values collective outcomes or adherence to generally accepted rules, processes, and rights. Drawing on transaction cost economics and social contracts theory, it is suggested that differences in
|The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to…
This paper presentsethicaldilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethicaldilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. PMID:21649685
?????????????????????????????, ????? ?????????, ??????????????; ??????????? ?????, ????“???”??????????????????????? ???, ??“??”???????, ???????????????????? ?????????????, ??????????, ???????????? ????, ??????????????????????, ???“??”??? ??????, ????????????, ???????????: ???? ??? ???? ???? ????The new women of the May Fourth Movement were molded by the enlightenment discourse of the new culture in universities. The ideological identity they acquired from the new culture was an individualist ethics of justice. Their gender
The treatment of life-threatening illnesses in childhood is replete with ethical issues and with clinical issues that have ethical implications. The central issues are those involved with a child's participation in the decision-making process and with communication of information about the illness and treatments to children. This article examines the questions of patient autonomy and of parental responsibility and prerogative in the context of pediatric oncology. Included in this examination of the ethical dimensions of pediatric life-threatening illness is a discussion of the many related aspects involved, including medical, cultural, psychosocial, legal, and developmental. A multidimensional approach that considers the ways in which these multiple aspects interact with one another, and which focuses on establishing a strong working alliance between the health care team and the pediatric patient's family, can help to avoid or resolve potential ethical and clinical conflicts. PMID:11654857
|A variety of ethical issues confronting the nursing profession are examined in these proceedings. The following papers are presented: (1) "Ethics: Care & Conflict," by Leah Curtin; (2) "The Interface of Politics and Ethics in Nursing," by Mila Aroskar; (3) "Pluralistic Ethical Decision-Making," by Rita Payton; (4) "Compassion, Technology & the…
Cleidocranial dysplasia is a rare autosomal disorder which manifests as partial or complete absence of clavicles, multiple supernumerary teeth, and delayed closure of fontanelle. Classical cases of cleidocranial dysplasia are easily diagnosed very early in the life. However, cases with partial manifestation of the syndrome and noncontributory family history are difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a case of 8.5-year-old girl child who presented with delayed tooth development (without any supernumerary teeth), anterior open fontanelle, and normal clavicles, thus resulting in a diagnostic dilemma.
Our perception of the mechanism by which single genes can cause disease is evolving. This has led to the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of common diseases. Genomic Medicine continues to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of disease. Medicine has strived to achieve the goal of tailoring interventions to individual variations in risk and treatment response and advances in medical genomics will facilitate this process. Relevant to present-day practice is the use of genomic information to classify individuals according to disease susceptibility or expected responsiveness to a pharmacologic treatment and to provide targeted interventions. By investigating the genetic profile of individuals, medical professionals are able to select patients and use the information obtained to plan out a course of treatment that is much more in step with the way their body works. However, society is concerned about the effect genetic knowledge will have on ethnic or racial groups. Currently, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act prohibits discrimination based on genetics. There is a need to increase the understanding of the social and ethical challenges that genomics information may pose to clinicians and scientists. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; rather, clinically relevant examples are used to illustrate how genomic medicine can facilitate the provision of molecular diagnostic methods that improve drug therapy. Finally, the rapid pace of change in genomics may likely make my conclusions today obsolete tomorrow. PMID:22713532
The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter.
The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethicaldilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way. PMID:18506970
The gastroenterology procedures environment has proven to be fertile ground for the realization of moral distress as it relates to the practice of nursing. Specifically, nurses are expected to fulfill their duty as advocates for their clients at all times and within all contexts; however, their ability to discharge this essential function has been complicated by such influential factors as sedating medications, competing ethical motivations, discordant conclusions of moral reasoning and action, as well as competing institutional factors. This article begins with a fictional case study to introduce readers to the contextual essence of the moral distress that a group of gastroenterology nurses was collectively experiencing. Subsequently, the aim of this article was to explicate how one department, with the aid of an ethics committee, negotiated a process similar to the case study to develop a pragmatic policy and identify an educational primer that encourages nurses to reexamine and value the tangible realities inherent and expected of an advocate in the dynamically complex environment that characterizes all gastroenterology procedure environments where gastroenterology nurses practice. PMID:23364363
Background Increasing numbers of people living with a long-term health condition are putting personal health information online, including on discussion boards. Many discussion boards contain material of potential use to researchers; however, it is unclear how this information can and should be used by researchers. To date there has been no evaluation of the views of those individuals sharing health information online regarding the use of their shared information for research purposes. Objective To explore the views of contributors to online diabetes discussion boards with regards to if (and how) they feel their contributions to boards should be used by health researchers. Methods A qualitative approach was employed using online semistructured asynchronous (email) interviews. Interpretative description methodology was used to assess the interview transcripts, and quotations were extracted and anonymized to support each theme. Results 26 interviews were carried out. Participants agreed that forum posts are in the public domain and that aggregated information could be freely used by researchers. This was agreed to be a good way of ensuring that the view of people living with diabetes is being heard in research. There was no consensus on the need for permission to use individual information, such as quotations, with some people happy for this to be freely used and others feeling that permission is necessary. Conclusions Participants acknowledged the dichotomy of having placed information into the public domain in an unrestricted way, with some interviewees also wanting to retain control of its use. The Internet is a new research location, and rather than trying to apply traditional ethical norms to this new genre, a new modus operandi is required. The authors propose introducing new norms for presenting research carried out with online discussion boards.
A historical model of techno-economic change with socio- political adjustments is used to illuminate how neurotechnology will influence human society in the next three decades. The impact of neurotechnology in the financial sector is discussed with an overview of how the European Union and the United States are responding to the political and ethical issues that arise from advanced neurotechnology.
Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human…
How do responsive evaluators provide input to program planners when competing ethical principles point to different choices of effective feedback? A team of three evaluators used participant observation, individual and focus group interviews, and analysis of documents to provide input on the development and outcome of a summer program for high…
Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human reproduction will become more readily available and raise new issues about the nature of
|A study examined news coverage by "The Saint Petersburg Times" of a local double teen suicide in August 1993. Focusing on how the story was covered, the study explored the newspaper's decision-making process, analyzing the process in relation to standard philosophical methods in ethics and recognized journalistic principles. As background,…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to apply Chester Barnard's ideas about authority in organizations to the modern phenomenon of “whistle-blowing” and highlight insights that can advance contemporary theory in business ethics. The paper coins a new term “the whistle-blowing zone,” and uses it as a way to capitalize on Barnard's insights and to offer a conceptual framework
A study examined news coverage by "The Saint Petersburg Times" of a local double teen suicide in August 1993. Focusing on how the story was covered, the study explored the newspaper's decision-making process, analyzing the process in relation to standard philosophical methods in ethics and recognized journalistic principles. As background,…
This article describes a model that aims to create a greater ability to recognize the negative aspects of making unethical decisions. To this end, the authors developed an ethical decision-making model to aid students through the process of analyzing these situations--a model that is easy to remember and apply. Through this model, the COVER model,…
|Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…
|Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human…
|How do responsive evaluators provide input to program planners when competing ethical principles point to different choices of effective feedback? A team of three evaluators used participant observation, individual and focus group interviews, and analysis of documents to provide input on the development and outcome of a summer program for high…
The ethics of neuroleptic discontinuation in clinical and research settings are currently a topic of much discussion. The issues underlying this debate are complicated by the fact that these medications can be fairly effective in managing the symptoms and preventing relapse in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, yet these drugs have therapeutic limitations and their prolonged use is associated with
Dilip V Jeste; Barton W Palmer; M. Jackuelyn Harris
|Highlights some of the ethicaldilemmaspresent in the debate over abstinence-only and abstinence-plus sexuality education in the schools, discussing issues related to: morality, ethics, and values; limitations to codes of ethics; questions about abstinence-only sexuality education; ethics and abstinence- only sexuality education; and sexuality…
Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethicaldilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined. PMID:17786648
Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A
Introduction: In this paper author discussed about preparing and submitting manuscripts - scientific, research, professional papers, reviews and case reports. Author described it from the Editor’s perspective, and specially talked about ethical aspects of authorship, conflict of interest, copyright, plagiarism and duplicate publication from the point of view of his experiences as Editor-in-Chief of several biomedical journals and Chief of Task Force of European Federation of Medical Informatics journals and member of Task Force of European Cardiology Society journals. The scientific process relies on trust and credibility. The scientific community demands high ethical standards to conduct biomedical research and to publish scientific contents. During the last decade, disclosure of conflicts of interest (COI ), (also called competing loyalties, competing interests or dual commitments), has been considered as a key element to guarantee the credibility of the scientific process. Biases in design, analysis and interpretation of studies may arise when authors or sponsors have vested interests. Therefore, COI should be made clear to the readers to facilitate their own judgment and interpretation of their relevance and potential implications. Results and Discussion: Authors are responsible to fully disclose potential COI . In October 2009 the ICMJE proposed an electronic “uniform” format for COI disclosure. Four main areas were addressed: authors´ associations with entities that supported the submitted manuscript (indefinite time frame), associations with commercial entities with potential interest in the general area of the manuscript (time frame 36 months), financial association of their spouse and children and, finally, non-financial associations potentially relevant to the submitted manuscript. Consumers of medical scholarship expect a reliable system of disclosure in which journals and authors make disclosures appropriately and consistently. There is a stigma surrounding the reporting of COI that should be progressively overcome. Further actions are required to increase awareness of the importance of COI disclosure and to promote policies aimed to enhance transparency in biomedical research. In this article author discuss about important ethicaldilemmas in preparing, writing and publishing of scientific manuscripts in biomedical journals.
|It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethicaldilemmaspresented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…
It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethicaldilemmaspresented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…
The Catholic Church proscribes methods of birth control other than sexual abstinence. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes abstinence as an acceptable method of birth control in research studies, some pharmaceutical companies mandate the use of artificial contraceptive techniques to avoid pregnancy as a condition for participation in their studies. These requirements are unacceptable at Catholic health care institutions, leading to conflicts among institutional review boards, clinical investigators, and sponsors. Subjects may feel coerced by such mandates to adopt contraceptive techniques inconsistent with their personal situation and beliefs; women committed to celibacy or who engage exclusively in non-heterosexual activities are negatively impacted. We propose principles to insure informed consent to safeguard the rights of research subjects at Catholic institutions while mitigating this ethical conflict. At the same time, our proposal respects the interests of pharmaceutical research agencies and Catholic moral precepts, and fully abides by regulatory guidance. PMID:22694032
Rapid technological advances in biomedicine have created ethicaldilemmas for social workers and other health professionals. This article reviews three areas in which advances have been most dramatic; life support for terminally ill and elderly persons, reproductive technologies and services to severely impaird newborns. It presents principles and processes that can help structure decision making when choices are many and
In this article I provide a reflexive account of my research experiences with families of African descent. I examine the ways in which, as a researcher of African descent, I became part of the research process. Using data from an ethnographic study that explored the healthy lifestyle experiences and attitudes of families and adolescents of African descent in the northwest of England, I present a detailed discussion of the identity alteration, researcher-researched relationships, and insider-outsider tensions and dilemmas that arose while I collected data. I argue that researchers working with participants with whom they share similar ethnicity and historical experiences are likely to find that their professional self and personal life experiences overlap, and there can be difficulties in keeping them separate. PMID:20729502
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) presents several ethicaldilemmas, some akin to those found in prenatal diagnosis, and others more specific to the technique, which requires in-vitro fertilisation and creates embryos in vitro. Here, the status of the embryo is central to the dilemmas concerning its selection, possible destruction or use in research, and the fate of carrier embryos. Furthermore, the
Notes that rational client's decision to commit suicide may present complex ethical issues for therapist. Presents and discusses three-month account of therapy with client, from perspective of ethical values and principles upon which assessment and treatment decisions were made, and complex ethicaldilemmas encountered as therapist juxtaposed…
The case of Brase v Rees was presented before the US Supreme Court to consider the constitutionality of death by lethal injection as practiced in the state of Kentucky. The 3-drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride is a key aspect in question. Capital punishment conflicts with medical and nursing code of ethics preventing providers who are skilled at difficult intravenous (IV) access, assessment of appropriate sedation, and involvement without fear of disciplinary action. Therefore, untrained or undertrained personnel from the prison have been delegated these duties. Cases in which failure to establish or maintain IV access has led to executions lasting up to 90 minutes before the execution was complete. Participation by skilled medical personnel has been a debate between the medical and legal communities since the inception of lethal injection. Healthcare should reevaluate the ethical and moral principle of beneficence as the legal system attempts to evaluate the constitutionality of lethal injection. Can a nurse or doctor step out of the role of medical professional, use knowledge and skill to make death by lethal injection more humane, and not violate the ethical principle of "do no harm"? PMID:19090308
Purpose – The resolution of tax issues present significant ethicaldilemmas for tax practitioners. The nature and extent of ethical concerns has important implications both for the tax profession and tax administration. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether there are significant differences in the ethical perceptions of tax agents and Big 4 practitioners. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A mail
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the ethical decision making of internal auditors and the impact of corporate governance mechanisms thereon. It also aims to explore whether ethical decision making is influenced by years of experience in internal auditing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 66 internal auditors were presented with five ethicaldilemmas. For each scenario,
This paper describes how the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department at South Dakota School of Mines and Technology has chosen to integrate ethics into their curriculum. All university freshmen engineering students are introduced to ethics through the presentation of ethicaldilemmas. During this exercise, students are forced to argue both sides ('for' and 'against') of a hypothetical ethical engineering dilemma. It provides a setting for great discussion with the desired outcome that they learn to carefully analyze a situation before they draw conclusions. In the sophomore year, students are introduced to methods to use the fundamental principles, the fundamental canons, and the suggested guidelines for use with the fundamental canons of ethics when analyzing appropriate action to be taken when confronted with ethicaldilemmas. We currently use the 'sophomore' method for seniors because the sequencing is just beginning. Next year the seniors will do more in-depth analysis of ethical case studies. PMID:16279762
U.S. Watchdog Urges Tighter Rein on Conflict Gemshttp://allafrica.com/stories/200610100005.htmlKimberly Process [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.kimberleyprocess.com:8080/Making It Work: Why The Kimberly Process Must Do More to Stop Conflict Diamonds [pdf]http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/diamond/2005/stopconflict.pdfHistory of Diamonds [QuickTime, Windows Media Player]http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/earth/rock-minerals/130705Diamonds/history-of-diamonds.htmlCrater of Diamonds State Park, Arkansashttp://www.craterofdiamondsstatepark.com/Decades before the DeBeers company created the ÂA diamond is foreverÂ marketing slogan, diamonds had become the premier precious stone of choice for many engagement rings. In the past few years, diamonds mined in a variety of countries in West Africa have acquired a rather dramatic sobriquet: Âconflict diamondsÂ. The word ÂconflictÂ is specifically meant to refer those diamonds that have been smuggled and sold on the international market in order to fund various wars in countries including Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola. This week a number of news organizations reported that diamonds from the Ivory Coast are still being sold on the international market, which is an explicit breach of an international ban that went into effect a year ago. On a broader scale, the country is also subject to the innovative requirements of the Kimberly Process, which was started in 2002, and which was also meant to prevent the sale of such Âconflict diamondsÂ. Members of the United NationsÂ Security Council remain optimistic about monitoring the situation, but oversight in this area of international trade remains difficult. The first link will take users to a news article from this TuesdayÂs BBC News Online that reports on the revelation that Ivorian diamonds are still available on the international market. Moving along, the second link leads to a news article by Emad Mekay that reports on a recent paper from the U.S. Government Accountability Office that suggests that the United States should adopt stronger oversight measures in order to determine the origins of various diamonds. The third link will lead users to the site that provides detailed information about the Kimberly Process. The fourth link leads to a fascinating 51-page report from the Global Witness organization that provides information about the current shortcomings of the Kimberly Process, and how its scope of operations might be improved over the short and long term. The fifth link will take users away to a very engrossing video introduction to the history of diamonds, proffered by the Natural History MuseumÂs Andy Fleet. During this presentation, visitors will learn about the aesthetic and utility value placed on these gems. Interested diamond prospectors and rock-hounds will be delighted to learn about the final site, which is the virtual home of the Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas. For those not in the know already, this park is the only site in the world where any one can just come, search, and keep any diamonds they might uncover.
In this article the author emphasizes that in a polarized South African society and the given nature of the negotiationprocess, the country's constitution is bound to be flawed. The only real form of democracy and accountability in South Africa is the media, and in a powersharing deal the media will remain a critical vehicle of democracy. It is argued that
Ethicaldilemmas are becoming increasingly common in dentistry and periodontics. Clinicians, challenged with such dilemmas, may not know how to apply the appropriate moral reasoning needed to resolve these situations especially when any of the five fundamental principles of ethics that form the foundation of the American Dental Association Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct--patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity--come into conflict with each other. The author describes one clinical case that presented with an ethicaldilemma. An analytic framework, used in medicine, is introduced and used to solve the clinical case on whether to proceed with periodontal surgery on a patient who is not aware of his terminal prognosis from metastatic prostate cancer. Upon using the analytic framework, recommendations are made on the ethically appropriate path for the periodontist to follow in providing care for the patient's periodontal problem consistent with the principles of patient autonomy, respect for persons, and veracity. PMID:23189804
The increase in migrant populations in western Europe has led to specific problems and dilemmas in the area of sexual and reproductive health and service provision. In general, these problems and dilemmas can be divided into four categories: (1) epidemiology of diseases and risk factors; (2) psychosocial and cultural aspects; (3) communication; and (4) moral and ethicaldilemmas. Regarding epidemiology,
This paper provides both a workable definition of, and examines those factors which may contribute to, an ethicaldilemma in organizational leadership. To accomplish these purposes, it examines both individual ethical standards and the effects of legal de...
The aims of the current investigation were (1) to examine the ethical and professional conflicts experienced by Tasmanian registered nurses in attempting to provide optimal pain management, and (2) to examine nurse satisfaction with their professional relationship with physicians and with their level of involvement in pain management. A total of 1,015 registered nurses completed a 21-item survey examining ethical
|Published for secondary school youth in England, the PROBE series presents provocative information and discussion questions on topical themes. The focus of this issue is on aspects of medicine which raise moral dilemmas for doctors, patients, and society in general. This issue contains case studies which illustrate ethical questions raised by the…
Consensus guidelines on providing optimal end-of-life care in the intensive care unit (ICU) are important tools. However, despite 30 years of ethical discourse and consensus on many of the principles that guide end-of-life care in the ICU, care remains inadequate. Although consensus on the most challenging ethical aspects of some cases will remain elusive, this need not deter clinicians from
|Discussion of ethics in special education focuses on four challenges: (1) examination of special education's history within an ethical framework; (2) articulation of character morality as well as choice morality in special education ethicaldilemmas; (3) examination of special education in a liberal democracy; and (4) development of an ethical…
Every individual possesses a morality compass. A morality compass is an individual s inner voice that provides guidance whenever an ethicaldilemmapresents itself. I firmly believe that an individual s morality compass is calibrated through innate knowle...
This study investigated adult educators' ethicaldilemmas and attitudes regarding the need for a code of ethics to guide their practice. Through the use of survey methodology, three major groups of adult education practitioners in Indiana responded to various questions about ethicaldilemmas they encountered, their personal experiences with codes of ethics, and their perceptions about the need for a
Ethical choices were assessed for offenders instructed to produce favorable versus unfavorable impressions. Pronounced impression management effects were obtained for prosocial and antisocial responses, and high scores on a dimension of change defined by these variables were related to sociopathic features on the MMPI. Highly consistent trends did not emerge for avoidance responses, although a secondary dimension of change was
The computer security and information assurance (CSIA) curriculum framework introduced in this paper presents technical computer security issues in terms of their social, legal, and ethical context. This approach to CSIA education fosters ethical reasoning by connecting skills and knowledge of technical and contextual content to real world situations; applying ethical reasoning when assessing CSIA problems and potential CSIA solutions
Ethics in accounting and business education must be considered in the contemporary context of neoliberal economic globalisation. Official responses to corporate scandals have included new laws and regulations, and some have argued that these scandals illustrate the need for change at an individual level, but this paper argues that the problem is manifested at a system level and that greater
The value of the social sciences is increasingly recognised in health services and clinical research, contributing to an increasing number of multi-disciplinary, multi-method studies. Such studies offer numerous advantages, but also pose particular challenges, including different approaches to or foci in research ethics across disciplines. Drawing on two similar studies conducted in coastal Kenya and in rural South Africa, we
Catherine Molyneux; Jane Goudge; Steve Russell; Jane Chuma; Tebogo Gumede; Lucy Gilson
|A survey of 1,015 Australian registered nurses found that those who felt adequately consulted by physicians were significantly more likely to initiate consultation. Nurses dissatisfied with their relationship with physicians were more likely to experience ethical conflicts related to pain management. Level of satisfaction with this relationship…
A survey of 1,015 Australian registered nurses found that those who felt adequately consulted by physicians were significantly more likely to initiate consultation. Nurses dissatisfied with their relationship with physicians were more likely to experience ethical conflicts related to pain management. Level of satisfaction with this relationship…
Primary mucinous cystic neoplasms are rare tumours of the kidney, with a very few case reports in the literature. They arise from metaplasia of renal pelvic urothelium. We describe here a 45-year-old male who presented with pain in the abdomen and a lump in the left iliac fossa for two months. Ultrasound and CT scan showed a large, complex, heterogenous mass in the central abdomen and left iliac fossa, suggesting the possibility of dermoid cyst. Excision of the mass showed an enlarged multicystic kidney filled with mucin, destruction of renal parenchyma and a small viable area of grey white tumour. Histopathology revealed a peripherally located mucinous cystadenocarcinoma arising in the background of chronic pyelonephritis and mucinous metaplasia. We report this case for the rarity of the lesion and the associated clinical and radiological diagnostic dilemma. PMID:23817401
Angola's abundance of high quality oil and diamonds has drawn the world's most powerful foreign corporations to its shores. Yet, this war ravaged country ranks among the most destitute in the world. The presence and role of multi- national corporations in Angola therefore presents analysts and responsible busi- ness with an ethicaldilemma. Multinationals active in the country must, almost
Eduard Seidler sets his discussion of the teaching of medical ethics in the Federal Republic of Germany against an historical background. Immediately after the Second World War the freshness of the memory of the 'Nuremberg Medical Trials' influenced the way in which moral dilemmas were treated in Germany. At the present time no systematic instruction in medical ethics is provided
|Results of a two-year research project (1982-84) on Legislative and Representative Ethics are presented in this report, which analyzes the basic principles of legislative ethics, discusses the special dilemmas and obligations of legislators, and offers conclusions about future steps that could be taken to enhance public discussion and to…
Cerebral arteriovenous malformations infrequently complicate pregnancy. We sought to determine the neurologic, obstetric, and ethical significance of such malformations. We present the clinical course of 2 pregnant women with arteriovenous malformations who experienced cerebral hemorrhage and a loss of capacity for decision making. We also review the neurologic and obstetric significance of arteriovenous malformations in pregnancy. Various treatment options with
James J. Finnerty; Christian A. Chisholm; Helen Chapple; JoAnn V. Pinkerton
This PowerPoint presentation is for the teacher to use during the laboratory activity. Please also see the PDF files for use by students and the teacher, also in the Planaria Laboratory Activity collection. This lab activity may be used in conjunction with the rest of the The Science and Ethics of Stem Cell Research curriculum.
This paper addresses the important issue of moral dilemmas which can arise in nursing research. It argues that with the increase in nursing research, emphasis must be placed upon a greater understanding of ethical principles and codes of research for the protection of human subjects from possible exploitation. Two such dangers are identified as breach of confidentiality and not securing informed consent. These areas are used to illustrate possible dilemmas, together with discussion of relevant measures to avoid such exploitation. PMID:1845383
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) has mandated that all research sites outside the United States that participate in research funded by the U.S. Government must file documentation certifying that each research site observes the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and has an independent ethics committee. Sites participating in trials sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) must also undergo regular on-site audits.
When life hands you lemons, make a battery! In this article, the authors describe an activity they refer to as Juan's Dilemma , an extension of the familiar lemon-battery activity (Goodisman 2001). Juan's Dilemma integrates oxidation and reduction
Intrapersonal dilemmas arise when people face choices between something that is good right now but bad for them in the long run (vice), and something that is not so good now but better in the long run (virtue). This article develops the idea that these dilemmas have many similarities to social dilemmas, in which options that are best for society
A new perspective of the ethics of scholarly writing is described that may overcome some of the problems associated with more familiar approaches to solving the ethicaldilemmas that writers face. Instead of relying on an external standard, such as a code of ethics, authors are encouraged to internalize the ethics of scholarly writing as a part of developing their
:A new perspective of the ethics of scholarly writing is described that may overcome some of the problems associated with more familiar approaches to solving the ethicaldilemmas that writers face. Instead of relying on an external standard, such as a code of ethics, authors are encouraged to internalize the ethics of scholarly writing as a part of developing their
This study attempted to gain a better understanding of teachers’ perceptions about their ethicaldilemmas and roles. Qualitative data were collected by interviewing 32 teachers in seven schools. Interviewees were asked to provide detailed descriptions of ethicaldilemmas they had encountered. The coding process focused on critical incidents involving ethical considerations identified as conflictive. Results indicate a large number of
The purpose of this article is to provide guidance and perspective on the treatment of values and ethics in the classroom in a nondirective, nonauthoritarian way. Discussed are biological advances that have societal consequences, values systems and moral dilemmas, ethical principles, major moral dilemmas, and ethical analysis. (CW)
Paragangliomas (PGLs) are uncommon tumors. Although PGLs are known to occur in the head and neck region, especially the carotid body, middle ear, and larynx, involvement of the parotid glands has not been reported. In this article, we report the fine needle aspiration features of tumor in an unusual location, presenting as a parotid gland mass, submitted to pathology for initial diagnosis. The clinical presentation, cytomorphology, and the immunohistochemical features for the diagnosis are described. To our knowledge, this is the first case of paraganglioma of the parotid gland reported in the literature.
Vora, Anagh A.; Lai, Chi K.; Rao, Jian Yu; Apple, Sophia K.; Moatamed, Neda A.
A brain death case is presented and reinterpreted using the narrative approach. In the case, two Japanese parents face a dilemma about whether to respect their daughter's desire to donate organs even though, for them, it would mean literally killing their daughter. We argue that the ethicaldilemma occurred because the parents were confronted with two conflicting narratives to which they felt a "narrative responsibility," namely, the responsibility that drives us to tell, retell, and coauthor the (often unfinished) narratives of loved ones. We suggest that moral dilemmas arise not only from conflicts between moral justifications but also from conflicts between narratives and human relationships. PMID:21053084
Erythromelalgia is an extremely rare neurovascular disorder, characterized by symptoms of red, hot, and painful extremities. There is considerable confusion regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of this condition, and the diagnosis is essentially a clinical one. This condition may occur in isolation or in association with other myeloproliferative disorders. Unfortunately, no therapy is effective consistently in managing the symptoms, although early diagnosis can aid in psychological counseling and minimizing the frequency and severity of the attacks. The purpose of this report was to describe the case of a child presenting with premature loss of primary teeth and the difficulties in determining the final diagnosis of erythromelalgia, which responded positively to low-grade aspirin therapy. PMID:23211921
Head and neck sarcomas are relatively rare tumors, with angiosarcomas representing a small subset. Angiosarcoma is a malignant endothelial neoplasm characterized by atypical, multilayered, or solid endothelial proliferation with vasoformative architecture. The global incidence of irradiation-associated sarcoma is estimated as between 0.03% and 0.08%. Here we reported the case of an elderly woman previously treated with radiation more than 20 years ago for an unknown primary of head and neck. This interesting case presented as a diagnostic challenge, and multiple biopsies were required to eventually establish the diagnosis of laryngeal angiosarcoma. We additionally have confirmation from our prior radiation records that the patient did, in fact, receive a substantial dose of radiation to the site previously. To our knowledge, this case represents the first report of a documented radiation-induced multifocal laryngeal angiosarcoma.
Dowdall, Jayme R.; Opfermann, Krisha J.; Kim, Harold; Lin, Ho-Sheng
Nursing faculty teach ethics and ethical behavior in undergraduate and graduate curriculum. In this article, a case study is presented that illustrates a breach of ethical behavior and conduct in the academic setting by both faculty and students. The decision-making process used to resolve this dilemma by the chair, the associate dean, and a faculty member relied on a dialectic approach that looked at philosophical underpinnings, historical background of nursing ethics, and university- and schoolwide policies and procedures. The conversations facilitated the ethical resolution to the dilemma raised in the case study as well as the recognition of additional issues for consideration. The authors uncovered compelling questions that included, "What is meant by ethical conduct in the classroom?," "How do we teach it?," and "How do we practice it?" The purpose of this article is to begin the dialogue in search of answers to these questions. PMID:15806506
Addresses interrelated sets of ethical considerations: the ethical principles for representing students and student writing in the teacher's own publications of two types--in textbooks designed for student use, and in research publications and conference presentations designed for the author's peers. Lists 10 points to make clear to students whose…
|Describes experiences teaching ethical issues in the conduct of research over several semesters using a simulation of research into obedience by S. Milgram in the early 1960s. Describes students' reactions to the simulation at emotional and intellectual levels and discusses the ethicaldilemma these reactions have created for teachers…
The Global War on Terrorism brings significant ethical challenges for military physicians. From Abu Ghraib to Guantanamo Bay, the actions of health care providers have come under considerable scrutiny. Military providers have dual roles as military officers and medical professionals, which have the potential to come into conflict. Often they are inadequately prepared to manage this conflict. We review pertinent historical precedents, applicable laws, ethical guidelines, and military regulations. We also present examples of ethical challenges deployed clinicians have faced and their ethical solution. Finally, we propose a practical strategy to educate physicians on how to manage complex ethicaldilemmas in war time settings. PMID:20731272
Sessums, Laura L; Collen, Jacob F; O'Malley, Patrick G; Jackson, Jeffery L; Roy, Michael J
|The authors review the literature and explore common ethicaldilemmas related to publishing research. Varying standards are presented to assist professionals and students in their publication endeavors. Joint research collaboration in many graduate programs is encouraged and appears inevitable. Joint research activities may involve…
Objectives: A primary objective of this paper is to present data on subjective perceptions of health and quality of life in individuals living with early- or late-onset genetic conditions (cystic fibrosis, CF, and Huntington’s disease, HD, respectively). The paper will also discuss the social and ethicaldilemmas raised by advances in reproductive and testing technology, consider the different emphases in
The number of legal and nonlegal ethical regulations in the biomedical field has increased tremendously, leaving present-day practitioners and researchers in a virtual crossfire of legislations and guidelines. Judging by the production and by the way these regulations are motivated and presented, they are held to be of great importance to ethical practice. This view is shared by many commentators. For instance, Commons and Baldwin write that, within the nursing profession, patient care can be performed unethically or ethically depending on the professional standards the nurses have set for themselves. They also hold that such standards are set when nurses become aware of the ethical codes available. As nurses are often not familiar with the codes, they do not all conform to them. Commons and Baldwin argue that nurses' ability to deal with ethicaldilemmas is effectively secured with education on guidelines, creating a "barrier" between personal and professional values (p. 5). PMID:18462542
Eriksson, Stefan; Höglund, Anna T; Helgesson, Gert
This research concerns the perceptions and decisions of lodging sales and marketing executives in dealing with ethical marketing issues. Respondents were given 10 vignettes, representing ethicaldilemmas in the 5 categories of ethical behavior (coercion and control, personal integrity, physical environment, paternalism, and conflict of interest) identified by previous researchers. The findings appear to indicate that sales and marketing executives
Jeffrey A. Beck; William Lazer; Raymond Schmidgall
Medical knowledge and technology have advanced at a spectacular rate. This voyage of discovery has led to a wealth of ethical issues unimaginable to the original followers of the Hippocratic oath. Steeped in the history of philosophy and religion, the development of medical ethics has been an attempt to unravel and resolve the moral complexities and dilemmas that have faced
The increasing dependence of critical infrastructures on computer hardware and software has given rise to unanticipated ethical, social, and legal complications . Transportation systems, the power grid, and emergency services, and financial networks all rely on a vast amount of information from diverse sources. Protection of the integrity, confidentiality, and privacy of this information often results in ethicaldilemmas, in
|In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethicaldilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)|
We all have ideas about our local, national, and global professional code of ethics. But, we do not really know for sure how they interact. With the growth of global business practices, information technology (IT) professionals are wandering in a circle when it comes to ethicaldilemmas. Which ethical standards should they follow? Should they adhere to their local IT
Conceived as a solution to clinical dilemmas, and now required by organizations for hospital accreditation, ethics committees have been subject only to small-scale studies. The wide use of ethics committees and the diverse roles they play compel study. In 1999 the University of Pennsylvania Ethics Committee Research Group (ECRG) completed the ªrst national survey of the presence, composition, and activities
Joshua P. Spanogle; Arthur L. Caplan; David A. Asch; Philadelphia Veterans Affairs
\\u000a Recent decades have witnessed a significant rise in the numbers of couples seeking infertility care worldwide (Balen 2008).\\u000a This phenomenon has been driven, in part, by the availability of assisted reproductive therapies (ART) and the social circumstances\\u000a that motivate couples to defer having children until they are older. If both these phenomena persist into the future, we can\\u000a anticipate that
AimTo ascertain parents attitude, knowledge and awareness of the type of Surfactant used in the Tertiary Neonatal unit to treat Respiratory Distress Syndrome and religious limitations.MethodThis is a pilot project. We sent e-mail surveys through the Survey Monkey website to all the staff in a District General Hospital with a surfactant survey questionnaire that we devised seeking their opinion as
Issues concerning the beginning of life and medical intervention in the onset of human existence are very delicate in their nature; they involve multi-dimensional knowledge, they are difficult to comprehend and sensitive to handle. When pure scientific elements are combined with profound emotions, when the genius of technological discoveries touches upon human dignity and sanctity, when passion for the technological achievement intervenes in basic human rights, then the sense of inadequacy and ignorance becomes intense and critical. Silence seems more sought-after than words, and willingness to learn more prudent than the desire to speak. Fear of the inconceivable consequences and even more so the inability to assess them, experiments with the unknown, the likelihood that basic historical, ethical and social values may change forever, but mainly the replacement of God in His wondrous work of creation--the onset of human life--places the ethics of reproductive technologies on the frontline of contemporary bioethics. This opinion paper does not deal with dangers, insults, fears, threats, "speed limits" or ethical controversies, but rather with the very mystery of life. Although there are no generally accepted replies to the various questions being posed, some thoughts and reservations, which can shed some light upon complicated dilemmas are presented. Firstly, the content of reproductive technologies, the problem of infertility today, the methods of fertility treatment, and of prenatal and pre-implantation testing are described, and then the social impact of IVF, complicated cases, deontological dilemmas and some ethical concerns are discussed. PMID:20412986
Randomised clinical trials provide the most valid means of establishing the efficacy of clinical therapeutics. Ethical standards dictate that patients and clinicians should not consent to randomisation unless there is uncertainty about whether any of the treatment options is superior to the others ("equipoise"). However, true equipoise is rarely present; most randomised trials, therefore, present challenging ethicaldilemmas. Minimising the tension between science and ethics is an obligation of investigators and clinicians. This article briefly reviews several techniques for addressing this issue and suggests that unbalanced randomisation, a technique rarely employed in current clinical trial practice, may be useful for enhancing the ethical design of human experimentation.
Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethicaldilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...
Purpose - The paper addresses the contemporary and very important area of electronic information (EI) management - the ethical dimension and implications. Specifically, this paper aims to analyze EI activities and management practices, the ethicaldilemmas and implications; to relate effectiveness in EI ethics activities in the context of organizational ethics policy and practice, and to suggest a framework for
This study investigates current linkages between ethical theory and management behavior. The vignettes used in this investigation represent ethicaldilemmas in the areas of coercion and control, conflict of interest, physical environment, and personal integrity. The results indicate that even with the heightened state of ethical awareness that has evolved in recent years the link between ethical philosophy and management
This article reports results of a study designed to validate an ethical motivations scale (EMS). Subjects were exposed to an ethicaldilemma, were asked how they would resolve the dilemma, and were measured using the EMS. Quantitative methods–factor analysis and analysis of variance–were used. The EMS exhibited characteristics of predictive and convergent validity. Also, subjects using intrinsic motivations for ethical
... Overview and Goals: Meeting of the Pediatric Ethics Subcommittee of ... International Programs; News & Events; Training and Continuing Education; ... More results from www.fda.gov/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials/pediatricadvisorycommittee
Genetic engineering is often looked upon with disfavour on the grounds that it involves ‘tampering with nature’. Most philosophers do not take this notion seriously. However, some do. Those who do tend to understand nature in an Aristotelian sense, as the essence or form which is the final end or telos for the sake of which individual organisms live, and which also explains why they are as they are. But is this really a tenable idea? In order to secure its usage in present day ethics, I will first analyze the contexts in which it is applied today, then discuss the notion of telos as it was employed by Aristotle himself, and finally debate its merits and defend it, as far as possible, against common objections.
|Presents the case study involving a fictitious company's English-only policy and threats of legal action based on that policy. Includes the following responses: "Legal Issues Posed in the Language Dilemma" (Gregory S. Walden); "English Only: A Workplace Dilemma" (Alan Pakiela); "Problems with English-Only Policies" (Barbara Lynn Speicher); and…
Presents the case study involving a fictitious company's English-only policy and threats of legal action based on that policy. Includes the following responses: "Legal Issues Posed in the Language Dilemma" (Gregory S. Walden); "English Only: A Workplace Dilemma" (Alan Pakiela); "Problems with English-Only Policies" (Barbara Lynn Speicher); and…
Purpose - Scholars have adopted a multiple ethical paradigm s approach in an attempt to better understand the bases upon which everyday ethicaldilemmas are resolved by educational leaders. The aim of this study is to ex amine the ethical considerations in ethical judgments of aspiring principals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - To examine the ethical considerations involved in school leadership decision making,
Purpose: Scholars have adopted a multiple ethical paradigms approach in an attempt to better understand the bases upon which everyday ethicaldilemmas are resolved by educational leaders. The aim of this study is to examine the ethical considerations in ethical judgments of aspiring principals. Design/methodology/approach: To examine the ethical…
This research was conducted to study the ethical issues involved in managing change-related issues and assess whether people in organizations perceive them to be ethical. Besides assessing people's perceptions of ethicality, it also explored the reasons people give for judging a situation as ethical or unethical. Research was conducted using scenarios involving ethicaldilemmas related to lay offs, skills obsolescence,
A. Uday Bhaskar; Kanika T. Bhal; C. S. Venkata Ratnam
The dual-use issue is often framed as a series of paralyzing 'dilemmas' facing the scientific community as well as institutions which support innovation. While this conceptualization of the dual-use issue can be useful in certain contexts (such as in awareness-raising and as part of educational activities directed at the scientific community) its usefulness is more limited when reflecting on the governance and politics of the dual-use issue. Within this paper, key shortcomings of the dilemma framing are outlined. It is argued that many of the issues raised in the most recent debates about 'dual-use' bird flu research remain unresolved. This includes questions about the trajectories of certain lines of research, as well as broader trends in the practice and governance of science. This leads to difficult questions about current approaches to the dual-use issue within the US, as well as internationally. PMID:23703451
Edwards, Brett; Revill, James; Bezuidenhout, Louise
Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethicaldilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this sixth of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the
Background: A practicing psychiatrist faces dilemmas on a number of occasions, in deciding the best course of action he/she needs to undertake while treating a patient. At times, this choice may not be in accordance with the ethical and moral principles and may in fact appear to violate patient's autonomy and rights. Aim: To study the nature of psychiatric practice by the practicing psychiatrist in the areas of admission, discharge, consent, physical restraint, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), certification, treatment, suicide and psychotherapy. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight psychiatrists gave consent to participate in the study. A special proforma was prepared, which addresses the common dilemmas in the clinical psychiatric practice. All the psychiatrists were given specially designed profoma and were requested to fill the proforma with appropriate answers. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: There were 42 male and 6 female psychiatrists. The age of the psychiatrists ranged from 28 to 65 years with a mean of 43.08 years. The mean duration of practice of these psychiatrists was 14.81±11.07 years. Question and answers related to admission, discharge, consent, physical restraint, ECT, certification, treatment, suicide and psychotherapy are discussed. Conclusions: The present standard and practice especially in private psychiatric set-up does not confirm to the rules, recommendations, and regulations suggested by Mental Health Act 1987, Mental Health Authorities and various guidelines of practice. Indian Psychiatric Society and other professional bodies need to take steps to prepare guidelines for a good psychiatric practice.
Patil, Nanasaheb M.; Nayak, Raghavendra B.; Bhogale, Govind S.; Chate, Sameeran S.
|The ethicaldilemmapresented by the ratings sweeps is a fundamental operating principle of advertiser-financed television broadcasting: broadcasters generate operating revenue and profit by exchanging audiences for money with advertisers. In order to create or attract audiences to be sold, the broadcaster formulates or acquires and then…
This paper develops a typology of moral problems in business. The cross-classification of two fundamental dimensions of ethical conduct: judgment and motivation, is employed to distinguish four types of moral problems: genuine dilemmas, compliance problems, moral laxity, and no-problem problems. Actual cases are brought to illustrate each type of problem, and corresponding coping strategies are presented. The paper highlights the
Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide ‘frontline’ observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. Managing these data presents unique ethical challenges in terms of appropriate use of rare human knowledge and ensuring that knowledge is not lost from the local communities and not exploited in ways antithetical to community culture and desires. Local Arctic residents must be engaged as true collaborative partners while respecting their perspectives, which may vary substantially from a western science perspective. At the same time, we seek to derive scientific meaning from the local knowledge that can be used in conjunction with quantitative science data. This creates new challenges in terms of data presentation, knowledge representations, and basic issues of metadata. This presentation reviews these challenges, some initial approaches to addressing them, and overall lessons learned and future directions.
Characteristics of ethical evaluations as they apply to the dilemmas faced by the pharmacist in the workplace are described, and the general principles and theories of Western normative ethics are discussed. Because ethicaldilemmas are commonplace in pharmacy practice, pharmacists must develop a working knowledge of formal and systematic ethical analysis, as well as learn to distinguish ethical issues from social, psychological, political, and legal issues. Ethical evaluations are distinguished by three characteristics: They are ultimate, they possess universality, and they treat the good of everyone alike. Ethical analyses can be thought of as having four different and successive stages. The first stage is ensuring that all parties understand the facts of the specific case. If controversy remains after the facts are clear, parties to the dispute can proceed through three successive stages of general moral reflection: (1) the level of moral rules, (2) the level of ethical principles, and (3) the level of ethical theories. Specific moral rules cover groups of cases, and they generally are regarded as being derived from a shorter list of abstract moral principles. An ethical theory is a systematic position about which principles are morally significant, how the principles relate to each other, and how they should be tested. Pursuit of ethicaldilemmas through the full hierarchy of levels of analysis exposes simplistic or irrational moral decisions and clarifies the nature of disputes. PMID:2712021
Technology is something present in our everyday lives. From the computer we type our e-mails on to the plasma television where we watch our favorite shows, technology is an integral part of how we live. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, presents the interaction of technology with society and the ethical issues associated with that interplay. Focusing mostly on the role of engineers in the creation of technology, the website provides examples of responsible practices employed by the profession. The website introduces the reader to different case studies that are examples of these ethicaldilemmas. In the end, this is a good overview as it introduces students to issues not typically associated with the field of engineering.
Complex webs of social and ethical responsibilities often make following one's business nose challenging, if not impossible. This case examines the actions of Coca-Cola and PepsiCo, as each sought to dominate the burgeoning soft drink market in South Africa in the years before—and immediately after—the end of that country's apartheid era.
Ethical issues and values play an integral role in decisions made by both rehabilitation staff and patients. While patient refusal of treatment draws significant attention, staff decisions on admission and termination of rehabilitation treatment are equally fraught with ethical issues. An evolving set of ethical models are presented to illuminate key issues and provide guidance in approaching these decisions. A
|Some of the major moral and ethicaldilemmas illustrated by authors in this special journal issue are highlighted. From an ethical viewpoint, the complexity of evaluation activities is likened to "quicksand" terrain in which directional or warning signs should be erected to aid personal choices when such issues are encountered. (Author/DWH)|
In recent years medical ethics has become an undisputed part of medical studies. Many people believe that modern advances in medical technology - such as the development of dialysis machines, respirators, magnetic resonance imaging and genetic testing and types of cancer screenings - have created bioethical dilemmas that confront physicians in the 21st century. Debates over research and screening ethics
One of the fundamental pedagogical questions in teaching about human rights, war, and global citizenship is how to educate students to care about strangers whom they may never know and whom they may assume they have nothing in common with. At its core, this is an ethical question that highlights a problem in articulating relations between self and other. This
|One of the fundamental pedagogical questions in teaching about human rights, war, and global citizenship is how to educate students to care about strangers whom they may never know and whom they may assume they have nothing in common with. At its core, this is an ethical question that highlights a problem in articulating relations between self…
Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethicaldilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…
|Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethicaldilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…
Medical Officers serving with their national contingents in peacekeeping operations are faced with difficult ethical decisions in regard to their obligations to the local civilian population. Such populations may be under-resourced in regard to medical care, and vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Though the medical officer may support the local medical services, he/she should never undermine these resources. Adopting a human rights approach and observing the requirements of ethical medicine, aids the doctor in prioritising his/her duties. At times there may be conflict with one's own military superiors. It is wise to discuss potential difficulties prior to setting out on the mission. Human rights abuses cannot be ignored. The medical officer has a duty to do his/her best to report their observations so as to prevent abuse or to bring it to an end.
Neonatal intensive care has been studied from an epidemiological, ethical, medical and even sociological perspective, but little is known about the impact of parental involvement in decision-making, especially in critical cases. We rely here on a comparative, case-based approach to study the parental role in decision-making within two technologically identical but culturally and institutionally different contexts: France and the United
|As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethicaldilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of…
This study investigates the judgments made by accounting majors when confronted with selected ethicaldilemmas that pertain to accounting practice. Drawing upon literature in philosophy and moral psychology, it then examines these judgments for potential gender differences. Five case studies, each involving a specific ethicaldilemma that a practicing accountant might face, were administered to 151 acounting majors (males =
|This study attempts to describe Jewish teachers' perceptions about their ethicaldilemmas based on stories derived from the Bible. Sixty teachers were asked to submit descriptions of their ethicaldilemmas to the study website; submissions were then discussed in focus groups. The findings were grouped by the ATLAS.ti into five categories: Telling…
This study attempts to describe Jewish teachers’ perceptions about their ethicaldilemmas based on stories derived from the Bible. Sixty teachers were asked to submit descriptions of their ethicaldilemmas to the study website; submissions were then discussed in focus groups. The findings were grouped by the ATLAS.ti into five categories: Telling the truth versus protecting from potential harm; egalitarian
Practitioner-members of the National Association of School Psychologists (N = 208) completed questionnaires regarding their ethics training, preparedness, the types of ethical transgressions and dilemmas encountered in the previous year, and the strategies used to solve problems. Respondents who received multilevel training in ethics (ethics…
Purpose – To provide an introduction to concepts and resources that will be useful to library professionals learning about information ethics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper argues for the importance of information ethics to twenty-first century library professionals. It describes what various authors have said about how information ethics can be applied to the ethicaldilemmas faced by library professionals. Findings
The ethical conduct of research is a cornerstone of modern scientiflc research. Computer science and the discipline's technological artifacts touch nearly every aspect of modern life, and computer scientists must conduct and report their research in an ethical manner. This paper examines a small selection of potential ethicaldilemmas researchers in this discipline face, and discusses how ethical concerns may
Outlines a theoretical framework of ethics, power, and communication in the workplace, which provides a backdrop for viewing ethical decisions. Explains that business managers are often caught in a dilemma between job pressures and personal ethical codes. Proposes communication as a means of fostering more ethical organizational behavior. (SG)
Explores ethical issues heightened by use of technology, and examines a means for managing these ethical concerns. Argues that ethical problems are not inherent in technological advances, but rather it is how human beings choose to use these new tools that may lead to ethicaldilemmas in business contexts. (SR)
Whether conducted in a university or the healthcare field, research with human subjects gives rise to a multitude of ethical questions for healthcare professionals. While engaging in ongoing professional development on how to conduct research ethically, both clinicians and scientists need to expand their knowledge to provide answers to the following questions: Which ethical theories serve as a foundation for ethical principles in research ethics? What ethical principles should a researcher respect when conducting research with human subjects? What does it mean to conduct research ethically? What ethicaldilemmas are encountered by a researcher in conducting research? This paper provides a review of ethical theories, and the ethical basis of guidelines developed and used to guide human subject research. Ethical behaviors and the personal responsibility of the researcher conducting research with human subjects are discussed along with the ethical considerations in research designs and methods. PMID:15877688
Differences in ethical ideology are thought to influence individuals' reasoning about moral issues (Forsyth and Nye, 1990; Forsyth, 1992). To date, relatively little research has addressed this proposition in terms of business-related ethical issues. In the present study, four groups, representing four distinct ethical ideologies, were created based on the two dimensions of the Ethical Position Questionnaire (idealism and relativism),
This paper presents an approach to moral behavior based on some theoretical notions drawn largely from the sociological tradition in social psychology that is quite similar to the research and theory of recent interest in a number of areas of psychology. ...
We present a case of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm that mimicked a presumed vascular anomaly by CTA (Computerized Tomographic Angiography). A parenchymal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) at the craniocervical junction can present with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and cannot be differentiated from a vertebral artery dissection by non invasive imaging. Catheter based cerebral angiography revealed a dissecting pseudoaneurysm of a diminutive right vertebral artery terminating in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) that to our knowledge has not been previously reported. NBCA (N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate) embolization of the pseudoaneurysm lumen and sacrifice of the parent vessel resulted in cerebellar infarction, requiring an emergent decompressive craniectomy. The patient recovered to a functional neurologic status.
Many issues in ethics arise in relation to the contexts in which psychologists work. However, most ethical decision-making models reproduce the way in which psychologists tend to approach ethics by focusing on ethicaldilemmas and proposing a step-by-step response to deal with them. Although these models might be useful, their emphasis on reactive approaches and their lack of contextualization constitute
The present research examined pet ownership, current pet diet, and guilt associated with pet diet among a fairly large sample of non-meat-eaters (n=515). It specifically focused on the conflict that pits feeding one's pet an animal-based diet that may be perceived as best promoting their well-being with concerns over animal welfare and environmental degradation threatened by such diets, here labeled the vegetarian's dilemma. Questionnaire responses indicated that ethically motivated meat abstainers were more likely to own pets and owned more of them than those motivated by health concerns or a combination of ethical and health concerns. Vegans and those resisting meat on ethical grounds were more likely to feed their pet a vegetarian diet and expressed the greatest concerns over feeding their pet an animal-based diet. For vegans and ethical meat abstainers, it is suggested that questions concerning what to feed their pet approaches a tragic tradeoff contrasting two sacred values: protecting the well-being of their pets and protecting the well-being of other animals and the environment. For meat abstainers motivated by health concerns, this constitutes a relatively easy moral problem because the primary concern for such individuals is the health of their pet with less or no regard for other ramifications of the decision, i.e., harming other animals or the environment. PMID:23619313
Background The four principles of Beauchamp and Childress - autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice - have been extremely influential in the field of medical ethics, and are fundamental for understanding the current approach to ethical assessment in health care. This study tests whether these principles can be quantitatively measured on an individual level, and then subsequently if they are used in the decision making process when individuals are faced with ethicaldilemmas. Methods The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used as a tool for the measurement of the principles. Four scenarios, which involved conflicts between the medical ethical principles, were presented to participants who then made judgments about the ethicality of the action in the scenario, and their intentions to act in the same manner if they were in the situation. Results Individual preferences for these medical ethical principles can be measured using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This technique provides a useful tool in which to highlight individual medical ethical values. On average, individuals have a significant preference for non-maleficence over the other principles, however, and perhaps counter-intuitively, this preference does not seem to relate to applied ethical judgements in specific ethicaldilemmas. Conclusions People state they value these medical ethical principles but they do not actually seem to use them directly in the decision making process. The reasons for this are explained through the lack of a behavioural model to account for the relevant situational factors not captured by the principles. The limitations of the principles in predicting ethical decision making are discussed.
Applied Ethics is frequently described as a discipline of philosophy that concerns itself with the application of moral theories such as deontology and utilitarianism to real world dilemmas. However, these applications often remain restricted to the academic world. The focus of new versions ethics consulting has since the mid-1980s shifted from what the ethicist knows to what the ethicist does or enables. This shift remodelled the ethicist's role to that of a facilitator in an inherently social process of moral inquiry. Applying these developments in the Namibian context has already proved to be of great value to the local health care industry. PMID:20227344
International scientific journals dealing with the broad subject of emergency medicine are listed. The following standards were applied: only journals from Europe or North America published in English or German were selected; whenever possible, the actual number of copies printed is mentioned; listing in the "Index Medicus" is stated; and, finally, the time course of the so-called "impact factor" from 1984 to 1992 is shown. The impact factor is a measure of how often the "average article" in a journal has been cited in a particular year. Basically it describes a ratio between actual citations and citable items published. It permits some qualification of quantitative data since it discounts the advantage of large journals over small journals and that of frequently published journals over less frequently issued ones. Journals from 12 different medical specialties have been selected for analysis: Emergency Medicine; Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine; Biomedical Engineering; Neurosciences; General Internal Medicine; Internal Medicine: Cardiology, Pulmonary Medicine, Infectious Diseases, and Public Health; Surgery; Pediatrics; Pharmacology; Physiology; Experimental Medicine. In addition, a few remarks are made dealing with ethics of publication and the increasing number of medical authors per article published. The terms "irresponsible authorship", "author inflation", "wasteful publication", and "abstract creep" are introduced and explained. Furthermore, strategies adopted from the literature to restrain those developments are introduced. PMID:7631506
In this article, I introduce the concept of “mindful ethics” to describe my experiences as a feminist qualitative researcher\\u000a who has confronted ethicaldilemmas in my sexuality research. Mindful ethics is informed theoretically by mindful inquiry,\\u000a grounded theory, ethics in practice, and ethically important moments. Mindful ethics has been useful in dealing with ethical\\u000a considerations throughout all stages of my
In this article we discuss what are the implications for improving the design of corporate ethics programs, if we focus on\\u000a the moral motivation accounts offered by main ethical theories. Virtue ethics, deontological ethics and utilitarianism offer different criteria\\u000a of judgment to face moral dilemmas: Aristotle’s virtues of character, Kant’s categorical\\u000a imperative, and Mill’s greatest happiness principle are, respectively, their
Three scenarios are presented, based on real patients, illustrating various clinical dilemmas involving critical illness and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The scenarios are outlined in the form of questions and answers. In most cases there is no single correct answer to the dilemmaspresented. The pros and cons of particular interventions are discussed along with the actual treatment provided. In all cases, the ECMO circuit consisted of a polymethylpentene oxygenator (Quadrox PLS; MAQUET Cardiovascular, Hirlingen, Germany) and a centrifugal pump (Rotaflow; MAQUET Cardiovascular). Case 2 has been previously published as a letter to the editor (1). PMID:23441569
Ethical difficulties arise in healthcare practices. However, despite extensive research findings that demonstrate that most nurses are involved in recurrent ethical problems, institutions are not always able to effectively support nursing care professionals. The limited availability of ethics consultation services and traditional nursing training fails to meet the frequent and strong requests by health workers to support their ethicaldilemmas. A questionnaire was administered to 374 nurses attending a specialist training and a lifetime learning programme in Italy. The respondents reported a high frequency of ethically sensitive situations, and they described the poor development of ethics support and a scarcity of ethics training programmes. The results suggest the importance of promoting ethics services that include consultation and ethics training. A need for systematic ethics educational activities was identified for improving the capacity of nurses to manage ethical issues in patient care. PMID:23186939
The dual purpose of this module is to introduce students (grades 10-11) to current/emerging environmental issues and to emphasize the moral/ethical decision-making related to these issues. The module is organized into 12 topic areas, each containing a dilemma story, introductory reading material, sample student responses, and questions. Dilemmas…
|The dual purpose of this module is to introduce students (grades 10-11) to current/emerging environmental issues and to emphasize the moral/ethical decision-making related to these issues. The module is organized into 12 topic areas, each containing a dilemma story, introductory reading material, sample student responses, and questions. Dilemmas…
In this paper, we explore the alleged symmetry between commons and anticommons dilemmas. Our experimental results reveal an interesting asymmetry. Anticommons situations generate greater opportunistic behavior than an equivalent commons dilemma (Study 1), and anticommons dilemmas yield a greater risk for ineffective use compared to commons dilemmas (Study 2).The results of the present study bring to light important deviations from
Sven Vanneste; Alain Van Hiel; Francesco Parisi; Ben Depoorter
This study explores the reactions of 412 business students to a range of ethical marketing dilemmas. Reviewing some of the comparable Australian and U.S. research in the field, the study examines the ethical judgements for potential demographic differences. The findings suggest that a majority of students are prepared to act unethically in order to gain some competitive or personal advantage.
Neuroimaging in pediatrics is accompanied by all the ethicaldilemmas associated with neuroimaging in adults, magnified significantly. The defining characteristics of childhood make working ethically with the population particularly problematic. Children have not developed the rational capabilities necessary to make informed decisions and the variability and change associated with development contribute to heightened risks and\\/or benefits of any procedure and
Continuing professional education practitioners often face ethicaldilemmas regarding their obligations to multiple stakeholders and issues arising in new arenas such as the workplace, distance education, and collaboration with business. Codes of ethics can guide practice, but practitioners should also identify their personal core values system…
The BVA's Ethics and Welfare Group recently considered the issue of euthanasia to review what advice could be given both to recent graduates and older veterinary surgeons on the euthanasia of owned animals (BVA 2009). Expanding on those deliberations, and using the approach to ethicaldilemmas suggested in a previous article by Siobhan Mullan and David Main (In Practice, July
|The current and potential impact of computerization on pharmacy practice is discussed, focusing on ethicaldilemmas in the pharmacist-patient relationship, confidentiality of records, and the role of artificial intelligence in decision making about drug therapy. Case studies for use by teachers of pharmaceutical ethics are provided. (Author/MSE)|
Advancements in computer technology over the past twenty years have created ethicaldilemmas and raised questions, some similar to other professions and some unique to the computer field. Therefore we think there is a need to reevaluate the application of ethical principles and establish new guidelines on ethical practices for the computer science profession. Because of the questions that have
Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics of challenging normative notions and master narratives around
Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…
The Internet offers a “virtual world” in which to carry out innovative sex research, but this new world may entail new ethicaldilemmas. Ethical issues in recruitment, informed consent, data collection, and record keeping are examined. Applying common sense and current ethical codes for conducting sex research are sufficient in most cases. Special care and procedures may be required to
|Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics…
In this note on nursing ethics, Mr Martin Bunzl, a philosopher who is involved in seminars on medical ethics at his university, describes the ethicaldilemmas of the nurse in the USA. He sets out the arguments to support the view that a nurse ought always to follow the orders of the physician and critically evaluates them both from an
Social workers find it hard to operationalize the profession's Code of Ethics, and few professionals even rely on the Code, as a point of reference in making judgments when faced with ethicaldilemmas. Children and adolescents hold a special position in clinical practice. Issues requiring ethical judgments are more complex, because any intervention involves people other than the child. How
Individuals are faced with the many opportunities to pirate. The decision to pirate or not may be related to an individual's attitudes toward other ethical issues. A person's ethical and moral predispositions and the judgments that they use to make decisions may be consistent across various ethicaldilemmas and may indicate their likelihood to pirate software. This paper investigates the
The traditional model of medical ethics minimizes the particular, ever-changing, concrete realities of patients’ lives in favor of general, invariable, abstract principles. Narrative ethics offers a powerful complement to that model. Focused on each patient’s life story, as told by the patient and family members, it helps residents to understand how social location structures ethicaldilemmas. As well, it demonstrates
Thelma Jean Goodrich; Craig A. Irvine; Daria Boccher-Lattimore
This paper describes a preliminary study investigating the nature of publication and research ethics problems encountered by psychologists. Descriptions of 25 ethicaldilemmas were written by 22 psychologists. Those dilemmas involved conflicts about authorship credit (13), plagiarism (9), unethical research (1), and other related problems (2). Stage of career did not determine the likelihood of their being confronted with an ethicaldilemma. The most often cited causes of problems and sources of distress were unethical demands by more dominant individuals who were perceived to hold power over the respondents. PMID:15719502
Contemporary medical ethics is generally concerned with the application of ethical theory to medico-moral dilemmas and with the critical analysis of the concepts of medicine. This paper presents an alternative programme: the development of a medical philosophy which, by taking as its starting point the two questions: what is man? and, what constitutes goodness in life? offers an account of health as one of the primary concepts of value. This view of the subject resembles that implied by ancient theories of goodness, and in later sections of the paper it is shown how Aristotle points us towards a coherent theory of human nature as psycho-physical, which overcomes the inadequacies of dualism and physicalist reductionism. What is on offer therefore, is the prospect of an integrated account of human nature and of what constitutes its flourishing: to be healthy is to be an active unity-of-parts in equilibrium.
|Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results…
Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher
Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…
Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher
|A taxonomy of potential values conflicts in evaluations is presented. Basis is the distinction of types of conflict (aims vs. means conflicts; qualitative vs. quantitative conflicts). Six areas of values are discussed: the ethical, methodical, social and interactive, legal, economic, and personal values. The taxonomy of conflicts between these…
As part of an ethics course, health professions students were asked to identify ethical issues and to propose resolutions before and after a class discussion of a case involving confidentiality and substance abuse. Students listed an average of 2.4 issues before and 3.6 issues after the discussion. After discussion 50 per cent of students made explicit changes in their proposed
Botched leadership transitions occur with alarming frequency--a fact that's laid bare regularly in the business pages of the nation's newspapers. The headlines trumpet the premature departures of designated successors--leaders such as Merrill Lynch's Herb M. Allison and AT&T's John Walter, who left their respective companies before they could claim the CEO's seat. Dan Ciampa and Michael Watkins, who have counseled senior executives and successors through more than 100 leadership transitions in the past 25 years, point to the successor's dilemma as the dominant cause of failed leadership transitions. The dilemma is an emotionally charged power struggle played out between the CEO and his would-be heir. Ciampa and Watkins describe the way the problem builds on both sides of the desk--the CEO's fear of giving up control versus the designated successor's need to enact the changes expected of him and prove himself to the board. They cite anecdotal evidence and their own research to suggest that this complex psychological dynamic leads CEO-successor relations astray and can block the successor's path to the top spot. But the authors also offer four ways for the would-be heir to overcome the successor's dilemma. These include gauging the CEO's readiness to leave before accepting the number two spot, maintaining regular communication with the CEO despite ever-present obstacles such as travel and business schedules, and developing and using a balanced personal advice network to help navigate the shift in power. The authors stress that defusing the problem is the responsibility of the successor, not the CEO. The reason is simple: the successor has the most to lose. PMID:10662004
An informal clinical ethics committee was set up to advise on ethical problems in prenatal diagnosis in Leeds. It was used twice in six months but was not called on again in the subsequent year, and we describe this experience. In North America similar committees are often used to advise on clinical moral dilemmas, and we review the published evidence from there and discuss some of the advantages and problems. Our committee's advice may have altered clinicians' actions considerably, but perhaps doctors in Britain are not yet ready to surrender this aspect of clinical autonomy.
There has been a renewed interest in the inclusion of ethics as part of educators' training and interest in understanding the moral and ethical dimensions of educational practice. This research was designed to study the types of dilemmas school level leaders face, the characteristics of typical dilemmas, and the implications for leader…
Perhaps one of the main ethicaldilemmas physicians face in cancer medicine is the question of truthfulness with terminally ill cancer patients. Reluctance to share the truth with the patient about his or her diagnosis and\\/or prognosis is frequently associated with cultural pressures. Based on two cases, the authors illustrate how ethical analysis can help in solving dilemmas related to
|Ethicaldilemmas concerning faculty compensation are considered by a university president who served as a nonadministrative professor of law for 10 years. It is suggested that trustees, administrators, and board members have as much to be concerned about as do faculty members when compensation and ethicaldilemmas are addressed. The fact that…
This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with several short ethics case studies: Two Tales of Rice (genetically modified food), Talk About Short (growth hormone for short stature -- fictionalized), and One Family's Dilemma (a family considers what to do about excess IVF embryos).
The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…
In this paper, we explore whether the ethical positions of students are firmly entrenched when they enter college, or do they change due to maturity, experience to ethical discussions in coursework, work experience, or a combination of factors. This study compared the ethical attitudes of freshmen and junior accounting majors, and graduate MBA students when confronted with two ethicaldilemmas.
This teaching guide is for instructors who wish to include a discussion of ethicaldilemmas in their regular business seminars and workshops. It discusses why it is essential to teach ethics and how to do so. It reviews the format of specially annotated ethics cases that are designed to help teach business ethics and shows how to use them. These…
\\u000a Starting with an account of the dual-role dilemma in forensic psychiatry several ethical issues regarding expert witness duties\\u000a including risk assessment as well as forensic psychiatric treatment situations are dealt with. Ethical challenges within prison\\u000a psychiatry especially refer to the principle of equivalence, consent to treatment, compulsory treatment, confidentiality and\\u000a research. Ethical in-depth analyses of some of the situations in
Using ethnographic material collected between 2003 and 2007 in five HIV clinics in the US, South Africa, Uganda, and Thailand, this article examines "official ethics" and "ethics on the ground." It compares the ethical conundrums clinic staff and researchers confront in their daily work as HIV researchers with the dilemmas officially identified as ethical issues by bioethicists and people responsible for ethics reviews and compliance with ethics regulations. The tangled relation between ethical problems and solutions invites a comparison to Rittel and Webber's "wicked problems." Official ethics' attempts to produce universal solutions often make ethics problems even more wickedly intractable. Ethics on the ground is in part a reaction to this intractability. PMID:23312301
This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas raised by my own experience of researching an immigrant Korean child at an ethnic Sunday School where I taught. I review the ethical and methodological challenges raised in my interactions with the child as an insider researcher from the ways I approached consent forms through to interview…
Contends that sociologists confront criticism of the nature and ends of sociological research and ethicaldilemmas in the study of social problems and people. Provides suggestions for ending neocolonial attitudes among social science researchers. (CFR)
Since the controversial 2004 Super Bowl halftime show with Janet Jackson, local TV general managers have been under pressure to identify and control indecent network programming—programming they do not originate yet can be fined for by the FCC. The purpose of this study was to see what local station general managers were thinking about this issue, and to see how
The homeless challenge police to reconsider their social role, the constituency they serve, the alliances they should form, and the activities they should engage in. This paper considers three conceptions of the police role — law enforcement, order maintenance, and social peacekeeping — and indicates how they impinge on treatment of the homeless. The moral challenge posed by the homeless
Although all teachers are expected to be "role models," discursive trajectories reaching back to the West's gay liberation pressure queer teachers to be role models in specific ways--by "coming out" and helping queer students out of their "time of difficulty." Paradoxically, discourses that construct children as innocent and queers-as-a-threat…
The Israeli experience discloses the relationship between the traditional altruistic basis of organ donation and the new alternatives\\u000a based on a utilitarian conception of unrelated compensated donation. Although organ trafficking in Israel was dramatically\\u000a intensified, cadaveric and living-related donations decreased. Reforms in living donations, such as evaluation committees\\u000a for unrelated directed donors, were insignificant in terms of meeting the demand
The Israeli experience discloses the relationship between the traditional altruistic basis of organ donation and the new alternatives based on a utilitarian conception of unrelated compensated donation. Although organ trafficking in Israel was dramatically intensified, cadaveric and living-related donations decreased. Reforms in living donations, such as evaluation committees for unrelated directed donors, were insignificant in terms of meeting the demand of patients and reducing the volume of trafficking. It is our contention that battling organ trafficking should provide patients with a realistic alternative for kidney donations. Our model of regulated nondirect paid donations is planned to legalize significant compensation for the unrelated donors drawing individuals from falling into the trap of organ traders. This program, together with uncompromised penalties, would hopefully eradicate organ trafficking. PMID:16033682
The treatment of brain tumors in very young children poses both a therapeutic challenge and a bioethical quandary. The administration of craniospinal radiation after surgery offers the greatest chance for cure but causes severe neurocognitive damage. As a result, current practice does not offer parents the option of full-dose post-operative craniospinal radiation. Some may regard this approach as inappropriate medical paternalism, while others may consider it an example of responsible therapeutics. Evaluation of this dilemma reveals principles which can guide clinicians in determining which treatment options to present to their patients or surrogates, in the context of shared medical decision-making.
|This paper examines the methodological dilemmas associated with analytical framing as an aspect of the research process. Doing qualitative research potentially changes a researcher--changes their sense of self, who they think they are, who they want to become. The paper examines the ethicaldilemma of what that change might mean--for the project,…
|Argues that linking ethics to rituals in drama lessons can promote reflection on individual responses to moral dilemmas. Describes how a group of drama teachers and theater students worked with 24 children (9 and 10 years old) from a public primary school in a process-drama in which the children worked in-role to solve a dilemma. (SR)|
The field of bioethics arose in the late 1960s in response to the emerging ethicaldilemmas of that era. The field for many years focused in general on the dilemmas generated by high-technology medicine rather than on issues of population health and the ethical problems of public health programs and regulations. The time has come to more fully integrate the ethical problems of public health into the field of public health and, at the same time, into the field of bioethics. Public health raises a number of moral problems that extend beyond the earlier boundaries of bioethics and require their own form of ethical analysis.
\\u000a The aim of this paper is to grasp the ethicaldilemmas that arise into organizational knowledge and the importance of trust\\u000a for diminishing these dilemmas. Therefore, it focuses three key issues: knowledge management (concept; and, schools of thought);\\u000a knowledge flowing models versus ethics (mental models; the Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization (SECI)\\u000a model; and, Fiske’s relational model); and finally, the importance
Gonçalo Jorge Morais Costa; Mary Prior; Simon Rogerson
The current linkages between ethical theory and management behavior are investigated. The vignettes used in this investigation\\u000a represent ethicaldilemmas in the areas of coercion and control, conflict of interest, physical environment, and personal\\u000a integrity. Overall, even with heightened ethical awareness the link between ethical philosophy and management behavior remains\\u000a similar to that of the early 1990s. Generally, practitioners still
The difference between American and European interests is at the heart of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) dilemma over the deployment of battlefield nuclear weapons in Europe. There is no solution to the dilemma, but it can be managed with a better definition of the role of NATO's theater nuclear forces (TNF) and with more attention to how decisions
Big-city medical research centers are not the only institutions facing ethicaldilemmas. Bioethical conflicts occur regardless of community location or size. The Presentation Health Care System, Sioux Falls, SD, established a systemwide ethics committee. It owns, leases, or manages 15 rural institutions in four North Central states: South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana, and Minnesota. Of these facilities, 10 are hospitals and 5 are nursing homes. Most are located in small communities stretched along 1,100 interstate miles. The Presentation system began organizing its ethics committee in spring 1985. The ethics committee was to provide educational opportunities for its members, as well as for local facilities. These opportunities were to include subscriptions to appropriate publications, meetings with guest speakers, videos, and group "brainstorming" sessions. An annual ethics conference would provide community education and address the ethical issues confronting affiliates. Organizers scheduled a planning session at a systemwide leadership conference and invited anyone interested to attend. Eventually, 23 representatives of system affiliates were selected as members of the committee. The group meets twice a year. Since 1985, the committee has been holding ethics conferences on a regular basis. PMID:10103859
This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.
Part C of this three part series is the presentation from the Oxford style debate held at the Tenth Annual International Conference Promoting Business Ethics between Laura Hartman, J.D., and Dr. Moses Pava on topics related to the EverQuest® v. EverCrack case (Part B). In a traditional Oxford style debate, two debaters take opposing viewpoints and the third debater argues
Personal values have long been associated with individual decision behavior. The role played by personal values in decision making within an organization is less clear. This study examines the relationship between personal values and the ethical dimension of indicated decisions utilizing discriminant analysis. Past research has found that managers tend to respond to ethicaldilemmas situationally. The study examines personal
In small-scale studies of coteaching, there are few genuine ethicaldilemmas for researchers providing participants are engaged in ongoing dialogue about the purposes and emerging results of the research. When studies are up-scaled for teacher education programs, the territory is uncharted. This adds uncertainty about the ethical codes of practice for a teacher education program director who initiates such research.
There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethicaldilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to
To operate effectively in today's volatile software industry, graduates from Software Engineering programmes need to be equipped with knowledge of both real world situations and best Software Engineering practice. This knowledge should include relevant aspects of ethical, professional, and legal issues and there should be recognition that facing ethicaldilemmas is highly likely to be an integral part of the
Issues of practice, licensure, and education for associate and bachelor's degree nursing indicate a lack of consensus. The perspective of an ethic of care highlights moral dilemmas that must be resolved because the current state of nursing education and practice is ethically dubious. (SK)
Biomedical ethicaldilemmas occur in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), particularly in the absence of residents' advance directives. Ethics committees are required in hospitals and long-term care facilities accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), but many LTCFs do not have JCAHO accreditation. A survey of LTCFs in one county in a Southwestern state found that only
Mildred O. Hogstel; Linda C. Curry; Charles A. Walker; Paulette G. Burns
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the influences that computer-mediated communication (CMC) has and could have on the maintenance of interpersonal relationships. In doing this, ethicaldilemmas and implications that arise from the technical affordances offered to CMC participants are discussed. Relational maintenance is integral to people's everyday lives. Yet, the ethical issues involve
In this distrustful, unstable, and ethically polarized era, there is a need to prepare school administrators to resolve a myriad of moral dilemmas. As professors of school administration, how can we make sure that our future leaders have the capacity to make thoughtful, ethical decisions? How do we prepare these leaders to develop, foster and lead tolerant and democratic schools?
Biomedical engineers face many ethical, moral and legal dilemmas durtng the course of their practice. These include. 1 ) Conflicts of commitment and conflicts of interest, 2) human and animal experimentation, 3) allocatton of scarce resources, 4) clinical trials of medical devices and implants, 5) FDA regulations, and 6) misconduct in research. The impact of these ethical and legal issues
Moral conflicts occur in theories that involve more than one principle. I examine basic ways of dealing with moral dilemmas in medical ethics and in ethics generally, and propose a different approach based on a principle I call the "mutuality principle". It is offered as an addition to Tom Beauchamp and James Childress' principlism. The principle calls for the mutual enhancement of basic moral values. After explaining the principle and its strengths, I test it by way of an examination of three responses—in the recent Festschrift for Dr Raanon Gillon—to a case involving parental refusal of a blood transfusion. The strongest response is the one that comes closest to the requirements of the mutuality principle but yet falls short. I argue that the mutuality principle provides an explicit future orientation in principlism and gives it greater moral coherence.
Current ethical regulations were necessarily developed in response to unethical treatment of human subjects by clinical and social researchers in settings ranging from Nazi concentration camps in the 1940s to U.S. government offices in the 1960s. Due to a focus on relationships, social network studies pose complex ethicaldilemmas regarding consent and confidentiality that often challenge these ethical regulations. These
|It is incumbent upon each school psychologist to engage in ethical behavior based on current ethical codes guiding school psychology. The school psychologist is often the team member most knowledgeable regarding federal and state laws mandating educational services. Sometimes ethicaldilemmas that school psychologists face are the result of a…
Fragile states and developing countries increasingly contract out health services to non-state providers (NSPs) (such as non-governmental organisations, voluntary sector and private sector). The paper identifies ethical issues when contracts involve devolution of health services to NSPs and proposes procedures to prevent or resolve these ethicaldilemmas. Ethical issues were identified by examining processes of contracting out. Health needs could
An outstanding feature of the study of nursing ethics is that it raises questions concerning moral virtue, conscience, consistency and character. A considerable section of the literature is devoted to ideas of how best to teach ethics to health professionals. It has been shown that when faced with ethicaldilemmas nurses tended to rely on intuition and instinct to resolve
A questionnaire on business ethics was administered to business professionals and to upper-class business ethics students. On eight of the seventeen situations involving ethicaldilemmas in business, students were significantly more willing to engage in questionable behavior than were their professional counterparts. Apparently, many students were willing to do whatever was necessary to further their own interests, with little or
John A. Wood; Justin G. Longenecker; Joseph A. McKinney; Carlos W. Moore
|The research study stimulates critical approach to research and practice, with an increasing emphasis on ethics and ethical decision making of the teacher researchers within action research process by using technology in its process. The study investigates the impact of technology within the action research, ethical considerations and dilemmas…
Objective: To examine child and pediatric psychologists' ethical beliefs and attitudes toward managed mental health care. Methods: In a survey mailed in spring 1997, 252 child and pediatric psychologists responded to three vignettes depicting ethicaldilemmas related to working with managed mental health care (confidentiality, re- striction of services, misdiagnosis). Data were collected about psychologists' ethical choices and reasons given
Dr. Ron Epstein of San Francisco State University has compiled this comprehensive online source of information on environmental ethics. The site is simply presented, consisting of a straightforward menu of topics that link mostly to related external Web pages. Topics covered include environmental effects of war, genetic engineering, cloning, indigenous peoples, and much more. While some of the provided links appear to be duds, anyone interested in exploring the field of environmental ethics should find this convenient and well-organized collection of links useful.
The notion of loyalty is well established in the criminological literature pertaining to ethics, ethical decision making, and ethical and ideological orientations. The present research addresses the topic of ethics and loyalty in an attempt to address three research questions germane to these areas within criminal justice and criminology. Using two samples equivalent in characteristics other than academic major, this
Outlines a three-part lesson designed to explore ethical issues, emphasizing ethical considerations inherent in the practice of law. Presents, first, a way to discuss the Pete Rose case; second, situations that bring ethical issues closer to the student; and, third, an examination of legal ethical issues such as the attorney-client privilege. (DB)
One of the causes of the increasing request for radiological examinations occurring in all economically developed countries\\u000a is the active role played by the patient-consumer. Consumerism places the radiologist in an ethicaldilemma, between the principle\\u000a of autonomy on the one hand and the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice on the other. The choice\\u000a made by radiologists in
The total longitudinal form view of human beings is a metaphysical view which aims to locate our moral judgements about human embryos in a broader set of attitudes and characterisations. On this basis it has explanatory power and a real function in that it grounds our ethical discussion of embryos in other discourses. Contra Leavitt, this grounding suggests a broader criterion of relevance for metaphysical discussion than asking 'what comes out of' such a discussion for a particular ethicaldilemma. PMID:8035442
Health care professionals usually receive professional education in ethics, but the half million hospice volunteers in the United States may receive only brief training that is limited to confidentiality and the volunteer role. The purpose of this study was to explore ethical issues hospice volunteers confront in their work. Interviews with 39 hospice volunteers were conducted, audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative methods. Prominent themes were dilemmas about gifts, patient care and family concerns, issues related to volunteer roles and boundaries, and issues surrounding suicide and hastening death. Suggestions for training include discussions of ethics after initial training once volunteers had confronted ethical issues, with special emphasis on strategies for negotiating their uneasy role positioned between health care professional and friend. PMID:19106279
The paper describes a two week course that has been offered as a special study module to intermediate level (second and third year) undergraduate medical students at Dundee University Medical School for the past five years. The course requires students to research the various aspects of ethicaldilemmas that they have identified themselves, and to "teach" these issues to their colleagues in a short PowerPoint presentation as well as to prepare an extended 3000 word essay discussion. The course specifically asks students not to disclose their own ethical positions, as these are probably still in formation and the objective is to promote critical thinking capacity in ethical and moral issues as a prelude to the development of practical skills in dealing with clinical problems. The course is easy to resource for the school and has received universally high evaluations from the students since its inception. PMID:15467084
BackgroundConducting ethically sound research is a fundamental principle of scientific inquiry. Recent research has indicated that ethical concerns are insufficiently dealt with in dissertations.PurposeTo examine which research ethical topics were addressed and how these were presented in terms of complexity of reasoning in Swedish nurses' dissertations.MethodsAnalyses of ethical content and complexity of ethical reasoning were performed on 64 Swedish nurses'
An empirical investigation was conducted to determine whether management information systems (MIS) majors, on average, exhibit ethical decision-making processes that differ from students in other functional business areas. The research also examined whether the existence of a computer-based information system in an ethicaldilemma influences ethical desision-making processes. Although student subjects were used, the research instrument has been highly correlated
Since the term “environmental ethics” began to be used a generation ago, it has covered many different kinds of environmental notions, problems, ethical systems, and forms of behavior. A variety of cases are presented and examined under two terms, environmental ethics and ecological morality, in an effort to illustrate different kinds of ethical objectives. In order to understand the connections between various strands of environmental ethics, personal and social values and subcultural norms of environmental ethics are examined under Christopher Stone's concept of moral pluralism. G. J. Warnock's notion of the “general object” of morality is proposed to integrate the variegated purposes of environmental ethics.
Background A 52-year old lady presented for admission with severe depression characterised by suicidal ideation and delusional belief. Case presentation Her treatment regime was reviewed and modified. The dilemma was whether she suffered from a psychotic depression with delusion or an obsessional disorder. She responded well to change of antipsychotic medication. Conclusions Her depression went in remission and her delusional belief decreased in intensity. She also gained reasonable insight into her problem. She is currently being followed up in the psychiatric outpatient clinic.
|The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethicaldilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors…
|This paper addresses several major ethical issues faced by early intervention home visitors in their helping relationships with clients: maintaining a client focus, client independence, honesty, confidentiality, limits of intervention, and termination. Examples of home visiting dilemmas from two early intervention programs illustrate the issues.…
|This study investigated ethical conflicts in early childhood education as experienced by early education teachers. The study's focus was the themes and main interactive relationships involved in such conflicts. Twenty-six Finnish kindergarten and elementary teachers were asked to write about a real-life moral dilemma they had experienced in their…
The rapid computerization of pharmacy has raised a number of potential new ethicaldilemmas. Will the relationships between patient and pharmacist and between physician and pharmacist be altered by computerization? Will the use of computers to fill prescriptions affect confidentiality? Will the existence of these databases encourage unauthorized access of patient records? Will the monitoring of drug therapy by pharmacies
By identifying and weighing the effects of an act on each constituency, a matrix based on John Stuart Mill's theories of utilitarianism illuminates and helps resolve complex ethicaldilemmas. Application of the approach is illustrated with a simulated case study concerning the issue of reputation in a small private college. (Author/MSE)
Nurses are encountering an increasing number of ethicaldilemmas in clinical practice. Ethics courses for baccalaureate nursing students provide the opportunity for the development of critical thinking skills in order to deal with these effectively. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to describe ethical reasoning in 70 baccalaureate nursing students enrolled in a nursing ethics course. Reflective clinical journals were analyzed as appropriate for qualitative inquiry. The overriding theme emerging from the data was 'in the process of becoming', which includes: practicing as a professional, lacking the confidence as a student nurse to take an ethical stand, advocating for patients, being just in the provision of care, identifying the spiritual dimensions of nursing practice, confronting the 'real world' of health care, making a commitment to practice with integrity, and caring enough to care. The development of critical thinking and ethical reasoning within the framework of knowing and connecting is essential in nursing education. PMID:19528105
While deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease has typically raised ethical questions about autonomy, accountability and personal identity, recent research indicates that we need to begin taking into account issues surrounding the patients' feelings of authenticity and alienation as well. In order to bring out the relevance of this dimension to ethical considerations of DBS, I analyse a recent case study of a Dutch patient who, as a result of DBS, faced a dilemma between autonomy and authenticity. This case study is meant to point out the normatively meaningful tension patients under DBS experience between authenticity and autonomy. PMID:23355227
The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.
Is aesthetic surgery a business guided by market structures aimed primarily at material gain and profit or a surgical intervention intended to benefit patients and an integral part of the health-care system? Is it a frivolous subspecialty or does it provide a real and much needed service to a wide range of patients? At present, cosmetic surgery is passing through an identity crisis as well as an acute ethicaldilemma. A closer look from an ethical viewpoint makes clear that the doctor who offers aesthetic interventions faces many serious ethical problems which have to do with the identity of the surgeon as a healer. Aesthetic surgery that works only according to market categories runs the risk of losing the view for the real need of patients and will be nothing else than a part of a beauty industry which has the only aim to sell something, not to help people. Such an aesthetic surgery is losing sight of real values and makes profit from the ideology of a society that serves only vanity, youthfulness, and personal success. Unfortunately, some colleagues brag that they chose the plastic surgery specialty just to become rich aesthetic surgeons, using marketing tactics to promote their practice. This is, at present, the image we project. As rightly proposed, going back a little to Hippocrates, to the basics of being a physician, is urgently warranted! Being a physician is all that a "cosmetic" surgeon should be. In the long run, how one skillfully and ethically practices the art of plastic surgery will always speak louder than any words. PMID:18820963
Atiyeh, Bishara S; Rubeiz, Michel T; Hayek, Shady N
Presents a management model of ethical decision making in librarianship. Highlights include a definition of ethics; ethical concerns in information professions; the concept of social responsibility; ethical dimensions of decision making, including access to information and hiring decisions; ethical considerations for managers; and strategies for…
The trend toward evidence-based information in childbirth education has been ongoing for some time. Lamaze educators are encouraged to present evidence for the Six Care Practices That Support Normal Birth to pregnant women in their childbirth classes. In a previous article published in The Journal of Perinatal Education, my colleague and I provided an overview of the dilemmas facing American childbirth educators. Childbirth education is a domain in which many types of authoritative knowledge are used: evidence, beliefs, and experience. In our study, educators told us their goal is to provide class participants with unbiased information that allows women to choose what is best for them. In this article, I further analyze educators' dilemmas and challenges in presenting unbiased information, and I discuss some ethical considerations in educators' practices. PMID:19436597
Through discourse with international groups of physicians, we conducted a cross-cultural analysis of the types of ethicaldilemmas physicians face. Qualitative analysis was used to categorise the dilemmas into seven themes, which we compared among the physicians by country of practice. These themes were a-theoretically-driven and grounded heavily within the text. We then subjected the dilemmas to an analysis of
D C Malloy; J Williams; T Hadjistavropoulos; B Krishnan; M Jeyaraj; E F McCarthy; M Murakami; S Paholpak; J Mafukidze; B Hillis
Emerging trends in nursing have broadened the traditional scope of nursing practice with growing demands for ethical considerations in clinical judgments. Nurses are experiencing more ethicaldilemmas in areas such as end of life issues, organ donation and transplantation, and truth telling among others. It is expected that these challenges will continue to increase and even become more complex. Despite this, the academic and professional preparation of nurses in Africa to cope with these issues is doubtful. The myriad of peculiar socioeconomic and political problems in many African societies present potential threat to the adoption of ethical standards in health care practice. Many health care workers including nurses attach little importance to consumer rights in making informed decisions in issues related to clinical care and research participation. The alleged participation of nurses in the inhuman treatment of the children recruited during the Pfizer's clinical trial of Trovan for cerebrospinal meningitis in northern Nigeria exemplifies this. Such conducts could reduce patients' worth as persons, and at the same time an indictment of nurses' moral sanctity. This paper reviews the current ethical challenges facing professional nurses in Nigeria. The concept and critical relevance of clinical ethics in giving adequate information to patients, relatives and other health workers upon which ethically sound informed decision making is done in clinical situations were highlighted. PMID:20499623
Despite many efforts to increase ethics education in US medical schools, barriers continue to arise that impede the production of morally driven physicians who practice medicine with ideal empathy. Research has shown that, particularly during the clinical years, medical students lose the ability both to recognize ethicaldilemmas and to approach such situations with compassionate reasoning. This article summarizes the current status of ethics education in US medical schools, described through the eyes of and alongside the story of a graduating medical student. PMID:23793349
|A questionnaire completed by school psychologists indicated ethical and legal dilemmas involved in evaluation, decision making, and placement of students under P.L. 94-142. These conflicts arose from budgetary restraints and professional disagreements. The dilemmas are discussed and possible preventive measures are suggested. (DWH)|
In this paper I argue that the standoff between justice and care approaches to animal ethicspresents us with a false dilemma. We should take justice's focus on reasoning from principles, and care's use of sympathetic awareness, as two integrated deliberative capacities necessary for the consideration of arguments for extending moral concern to animals. Such an integrated approach rests on a plausible account of the psychology of moral deliberation. I develop my argument as follows. Section I summarizes the nature of the debate between justice and care approaches to animal ethics, focusing on Brian Luke's arguments against justice approaches. Section II provides pro-justice rebuttals to Luke's objections. These rebuttals, while largely successful against Luke's objections, do not account for the intuition that sympathy does play a central epistemological role in animal ethics. Section III explains how sympathy cognitively simulates the perspective of the other, and thus can play an epistemological role in animal ethics. I argue that the abilities to simulate the perspective of the other and to reason from moral principles can complement each other. In section IV, I argue that though it may not be desirable to use both sympathy and reasoning from principles in all moral deliberation, it is a desirable aim when offering, and considering, moral arguments for what I will term the "extensionist project" of extending over moral concern to animals. I make this idea plausible by elucidating the claim that arguments for this project are best thought of as second-order deliberations about our first-order deliberative life. PMID:15462029
\\u000aThere has been a renewed interest in the inclusion of ethics as part of educators' training and interest in understanding the moral and ethical dimensions of educational practice. This research was designed to study the types of dilemmas school level leaders face, the characteristics of typical dilemmas, and the implications for leader preparation, professional development, and practice.\\u000aIn documenting the
hina's national leadership is facing a dilemma that has bedeviled many other powers in modern history. The challenge—an especially difficult one in an era of rapid technological change—is discerning when and how to spend finite military budgets on new technology, organization, doctrine, and force structure. The history of navies trying to anticipate and prepare for the next war is replete
There is a burgeoning amount of research into happiness and greatly increased popular attention, so it seems logical to add a course on happiness to the university curriculum. We encountered, in developing and running such a course, a number of dilemmas that the topic of happiness makes especially acute. Should the teacher remain separate from the class, as an authority,
There is a burgeoning amount of research into happiness and greatly increased popular attention, so it seems logical to add a course on happiness to the university curriculum. We encountered, in developing and running such a course, a number of dilemmas that the topic of happiness makes especially acute. Should the teacher remain separate from the…
This case study creates a dilemma that many school districts face. Public education is under-funded. Principals are expected to be the instructional leaders and are held accountable for student achievement. Is it appropriate then for public schools to have local businesses as benefactors when teaching personnel are involved? The conflict between…
In this article I discuss the ethics of synthetic biology from a broadly deontological perspective, evaluating its morality in terms of the integrity of nature, the dignity of life and the relationship between God and his creation. Most ethical analyses to date have been largely consequentialist in nature; they reveal a dual use dilemma, showing that synbio has potential for great good and great evil, possibly more so than any step humanity has taken before. A deontological analysis may help to resolve this dilemma, by evaluating whether synbio is right or wrong in itself. I also assess whether deontology alone is a sufficient methodological paradigm for the proper evaluation of synbio ethics. PMID:24010856
In this paper, we argue that lack of access to the fruits of modern medicine and the science that informs it is an important and neglected topic within bioethics and medical ethics. This is especially clear to those working in what are now termed 'resource-poor settings'- to those working, in plain language, among populations living in dire poverty. We draw on our experience with infectious diseases in some of the poorest communities in the world to interrogate the central imperatives of bioethics and medical ethics. AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria are the three leading infectious killers of adults in the world today. Because each disease is treatable with already available therapies, the lack of access to medical care is widely perceived in heavily disease-burdened areas as constituting an ethical and moral dilemma. In settings in which research on these diseases are conducted but there is little in the way of therapy, there is much talk of first world diagnostics and third world therapeutics. Here we call for the 'resocialising' of ethics. To resocialise medical ethics will involve using the socialising disciplines to contextualise fully ethicaldilemmas in settings of poverty and, a related gambit, the systematic participation of the destitute sick. Clinical research across steep gradients also needs to be linked with the interventions that are demanded by the poor and otherwise marginalised. We conclude that medical ethics must grapple more persistently with the growing problem posed by the yawning 'outcome gap' between rich and poor. PMID:15086372
Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.
|Because of the dilemma faced by librarians in the selection of suitable microform reading equipment for the 35 mm format, this paper is designed to analyze the problem of reader and micro-image incompatability, to provide a key for readily determining incongruities, to evaluate presently available readers, to provide modification and development…
In September 1999, the University of Notre Dame hosted a conference entitled “Measuring and Managing Ethical Risk: How Investing in Ethics Adds Value”. The motivations for hosting the conference and the papers presented there are summarized. Several themes that are present in the papers are discussed. These include the gains from combining the anthropological approach to business ethics with the
Ralph Chami; Thomas F. Cosimano; Connel Fullenkamp
Objectives: To summarise the types of case brought to the Clinical Ethics Committee of the National Hospital of Norway from 1996 to 2002 and to describe and discuss to what extent issues of information/communication have been involved in the ethical problems. Design: Systematic review of case reports. Findings: Of the 31 case discussions, (20 prospective, 11 retrospective), 19 cases concerned treatment of children. Twenty cases concerned ethical problems related to withholding/withdrawing of treatment. In 25 cases aspects of information/communication were involved in the ethical problem, either explicitly (n = 3) or implicitly (n = 22). Conclusion: Problems related to information/communication may underlie a classic ethical problem. Identification of these "hidden" problems may be important for the analysis, and hence, the solution to the ethicaldilemma.
Many ethical assessments of contemporary moral dilemmas have failed to appreciate the uncertainty and ambiguity that practitioners confront, especially when new and emerging technologies are involved. In an attempt to provide a more realistic and compelling approach to these problems, the seventh CAP Foundation Conference adopted an interprofessional perspective. Interprofessional ethics borrows from the American pragmatist tradition of John Dewey and Jeffrey Stout and the neothomistic perspective of Edmund Pellegrino and David Thomasma. Professions are public institutions that have made promises to preserve and enhance social goods, eg, health, justice, and tolerance. Yet, in a pluralistic democracy, each institution inevitably finds its moral presuppositions legitimately challenged by the presuppositions of others. The uncertainty and ambiguity that good physicians, lawyers, journalists, and regulators regularly confront arise from the partiality of each of their ethical perspectives. Hence, the more seriously we take our obligations to maintain public trust, the more clearly we should recognize our dependence on other professions. PMID:7979891
The growing number of medical errors and resulting preventable deaths in hospitals presents an ethicaldilemma that must be addressed by health care leaders and managers. These medical errors and deaths raise questions about safety and quality issues resulting in rising public mistrust and patient dissatisfaction. Many of these medical errors and deaths could have been avoided by including the patient and family in the care. The ethical challenge for leadership is creating a culture of patient- and family-centered care as a means to improve quality, safety, patient satisfaction, and public trust. This article addresses ways to improve safety, quality, patient satisfaction, and cost and thereby reduce medical errors and deaths by implementing a patient- and family-centered care culture. The first critical step for improvement is for hospital leaders and managers to answer the ethical call to create a culture centered on patient- and family-centered care in the hospital setting. PMID:21537133
Ethical issues and dilemmas are common in patients with brain tumors and other neuro-oncologic diseases. Basic knowledge of ethical principles and theory is essential for the day-to-day care of these patients, which often involves life and death decisions. The most important ethical principles include respect for autonomy, justice, beneficience, and nonmaleficence. The application of these principles is important for resolving ethical questions related to neuro-oncology patients such as discussing diagnosis and prognosis, whether or not to initiate therapy (including clinical trials), quality of life during and after treatment, when it is appropriate to stop treatment, if hospice care should be implemented, and pain control. Frequent consideration of these basic ethical principles will assist physicians during the decision-making process and improve their ability to make sound choices. PMID:9311063
Providing or withholding nutrition in severely disabled elderly persons is a challenging dilemma for families, health professionals, and institutions. Despite limited evidence that nutrition support improves functional status in vulnerable older persons, especially those suffering from dementia, the issue of nutrition support in this population is strongly debated. Nutrition might be considered a basic need that not only sustains life but provides comfort as well by patients and their families. Consequently, the decision to provide or withhold nutrition support during medical care is often complex and involves clinical, legal, and ethical considerations. This article proposes a guide for health professionals to appraise ethical issues related to nutrition support in severely disabled older persons. This guide is based on an 8-step process to identify the components of a situation, analyze conflicting values that result in the ethicaldilemma, and eventually reach a consensus for the most relevant plan of care to implement in a specific clinical situation. A vignette is presented to illustrate the use of this guide when analyzing a clinical situation. PMID:21527592
The Code of Ethics for Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators outlines the ethical principles and standards that are derived from childbirth education's core values to assure quality and ethical practice. This article presents a summary of the history of ethics and medical ethics that informs a value-oriented decision-making process in childbirth education. The role of evidence in ethics is explored from the childbirth educator's viewpoint, and scenarios are used to reflect on situations that are examples of ethical distress. The conclusion is that the practice of ethics and ethical decision making includes regular reflection.
The Code of Ethics for Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators outlines the ethical principles and standards that are derived from childbirth education's core values to assure quality and ethical practice. This article presents a summary of the history of ethics and medical ethics that informs a value-oriented decision-making process in childbirth education. The role of evidence in ethics is explored from the childbirth educator's viewpoint, and scenarios are used to reflect on situations that are examples of ethical distress. The conclusion is that the practice of ethics and ethical decision making includes regular reflection. PMID:19436591
Ecological research and conservation practice frequently raise difficult and varied ethical questions for scientific investigators and managers, including duties to public welfare, nonhuman individuals (i.e., animals and plants), populations, and ecosystems. The field of environmental ethics has contributed much to the understanding of general duties and values to nature, but it has not developed the resources to address the diverse and often unique practical concerns of ecological researchers and managers in the field, lab, and conservation facility. The emerging field of "ecological ethics" is a practical or scientific ethics that offers a superior approach to the ethicaldilemmas of the ecologist and conservation manager. Even though ecological ethics necessarily draws from the principles and commitments of mainstream environmental ethics, it is normatively pluralistic, including as well the frameworks of animal, research, and professional ethics. It is also methodologically pragmatic, focused on the practical problems of researchers and managers and informed by these problems in turn. The ecological ethics model offers environmental scientists and practitioners a useful analytical tool for identifying, clarifying, and harmonizing values and positions in challenging ecological research and management situations. Just as bioethics provides a critical intellectual and problem-solving service to the biomedical community, ecological ethics can help inform and improve ethical decision making in the ecology and conservation communities. PMID:18985441
Stimulant and antipsychotic medications are commonly used together without concern, despite their potentially opposing mechanisms. An examination of dopamine pathways and receptors suggests that concerns regarding interactions between these two classes are justified and relevant. Efficacy of concurrent use is reviewed for several indications, with a focus on comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and aggression. The risk of adverse reactions is examined. Complex dopamine mechanisms are considered to explain the dilemma, and general treatment guidelines for stimulant-antipsychotic concurrent use are discussed.
The present article presents a brief theoretical overview about the role of trust in promoting cooperation in public goods\\u000a dilemmas. Until now, no research has been conducted to explore the different psychological variables which are related to\\u000a trust and which may help clarify the role of trust in public goods dilemmas. This article proposes some theoretical assumptions\\u000a which explain that
Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy.
In this note on nursing ethics, Mr Martin Bunzl, a philosopher who is involved in seminars on medical ethics at his university, describes the ethicaldilemmas of the nurse in the USA. He sets out the arguments to support the view that a nurse ought always to follow the orders of the physician and critically evaluates them both from an ethical and a legal standpoint. The practical implications of the view that a nurse's responsibility is to do what is in the best interests of patients are also discussed.
Students often come to class discussions with preformed opinions on many ethical issues. The challenging task for teachers is to help students learn to identify the facts of a case, recognize the underlying ethicaldilemmas, and to understand the different perspectives involved. These objectives can be met successfully by following the three key components to effective discussions related to ethics and science that are discussed in this article: Content and lesson strategies, a decision-making model, and a familiarity with ethical perspectives (see Figure 1).
It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…
In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making.
|This book brings together the closely related topics of the practice of ethics in the university, "academic ethics," and the teaching of practical, or applied, ethics in the university. The volume considers practical ethics, research ethics, the teaching of ethics, and sexual ethics as related to the university. The chapters are: (1) "The Ethics…
Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated systemic condition triggered by dietary gluten occurring in genetically susceptible individuals. Our understanding of its numerous and varied clinical presentations has evolved over time, which has contributed to the incidence of CD increasing. In most cases, the diagnosis is readily established and patients promptly improve after commencing a gluten-free diet (GFD). However, in some, the diagnosis is not straightforward and presents a challenge to clinicians. Potential dilemmas include those with positive serology but normal histology, negative serology but abnormal duodenal mucosal histology, failure to respond to a GFD or response to a GFD without evidence of CD. In recent years, development of new assays and modifications to existing diagnostic algorithms for CD has also challenged the traditional role of small-bowel histology as critical in CD diagnosis. PMID:24070155
|In this study, the ethical decision-making of preschool teachers (N = 26) in Samsun, on the northern coast of Turkey, was examined. For this analysis, six real-life dilemmas were prepared, chosen from the problems that most often arise in kindergartens in Turkey. These dilemmas addressed the commitment of the teacher to the child, to self, to the…
In this study, the ethical decision?making of preschool teachers (N = 26) in Samsun, on the northern coast of Turkey, was examined. For this analysis, six real?life dilemmas were prepared, chosen from the problems that most often arise in kindergartens in Turkey. These dilemmas addressed the commitment of the teacher to the child, to self, to the family, to the
Presentations Name Position Presentation (ppt) Sudhir Srivastava, PhD, MPH Chief, Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Metabolomics: An Untapped Frontier (ppt, 161kb) John Milner, PhD Chief, Nutritional Sciences research Group Can Metabolomics
In 1979, Delta College, in Michigan, established a bioethics requirement for all nursing students. This paper describes a project to teach one of the required ethics course to local hospitals to observe students while they work and discuss ethicaldilemmas as they arose. Introductory sections discuss project rationale and procedures, indicating…
|Like art, ethics can be a complex and scary mirror that forces us to consider, practice, and profess specific choices that speak to who we are and what we value. The author of this article observes that confronting specific ethicaldilemmas within her work with young people has brought various tensions to the forefront of her practice as a…
This article discusses ethicaldilemmas which confront ethnographic research in classrooms, using my own classroom ethnography in illustration. The very capacity of ethnography for capturing an in?depth view of day to day classroom life creates its ethical difficulties. I demonstrate how students’ interests, as reflected in the research, may come into conflict with those of their teachers and how the
The intense clinical and research interest in early psychosis in recent years has highlighted a range of ethical issues which need to be considered carefully. Our perspective is based on 16 years of clinical and research experience with young people at this phase of illness as well as the research contributions of many others. We discuss the ethicaldilemmas in
This paper is delimited to an exploration of three representations from the field of pedagogical ethics. I focus on the ethics of background beliefs, guiding rules and principles, and dilemma managing together with their contested practices and premises. The aim is to interpret and translate teachers' understandings from the language they use, and to give concrete expressions to these interpretations
Discover the link between ethical leadership and successful educational communities! In an age of accountability and transparency, principals are held responsible for everything from test scores to school finances. Because of this increased accountability, school leaders must regularly confront difficult ethicaldilemmas. This book teaches…
As educators, we grapple with a myriad of dilemmas and often have difficulty resolving issues that relate to curriculum and instruction, funding, facilities and supervision, to name a few. Depending on the leader(s), a variety of ethics come in to play when making decisions. The ethic of connectedness refers to community building and welfare as…
INTRODUCTION: Despite the substantial global burden of preterm and stillbirth, little attention has been given to the ethical considerations related to research and interventions in the global context. Ethicaldilemmas surrounding reproductive decisions and the care of preterm newborns impact the delivery of interventions, and are not well understood in low-resource settings. Issues such as how to address the moral
In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…
Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.
Ethicaldilemmas in counseling gay and lesbian adolescents are analyzed according to underlying ethical principles. Developmental issues and their relevance to therapy are emphasized. Conflicts among client autonomy, claims of paternalism, and limits of confidentiality are examined. Competence to enter therapy for issues of sexual identity is assessed. The author concludes that adolescents are generally competent to explore issues of
|In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…
Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.
|Given the challenges and ethicaldilemmas involved in serving individuals with disabilities, some feminist researchers and practitioners question the efficacy of male administrative leadership models. Through an analysis of feminist perspectives and women's leadership styles, this article defines and postulates an ethic of care and leadership for…
|The field of special education is wrought with ethicaldilemmas. The Council for Exceptional Children has outlined its code of ethics and standards for professional practice for individuals working in the field of special education. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which special education administrators and teachers…
|A study investigated the ethical reasoning of five Canadian teachers of children with severe and profound intellectual disabilities in segregated classrooms. Findings indicated that teachers gave almost exclusive consideration to individual student interests in their discussion of four ethicaldilemmas. The governing principle in their argument…
This paper explores some of the ethicaldilemmas, in particular confidentiality, compulsory treatment and preventive detention, that emerge in the context of treating individuals whose sexual behaviour becomes a problem for society. The primary conflict is between one's professional and civic obligations. Two cases are described which illustrate these difficulties, and show how ethical arguments can become subsumed within pragmatic
|New, and yet familiar, hypothetical cases are debated and agonized over by eminent leaders from government, business, science and academia. "Ethics in America II" follows its predecessor by exploring gripping ethicaldilemmas using the time-honored Socratic Dialogue format. The programs can be used with a discussion guide to help teachers engage…
|As educators, we grapple with a myriad of dilemmas and often have difficulty resolving issues that relate to curriculum and instruction, funding, facilities and supervision, to name a few. Depending on the leader(s), a variety of ethics come in to play when making decisions. The ethic of connectedness refers to community building and welfare as…
Ethnographic researchers entering sensitive fields of research become entangled in ethicaldilemmas when they encounter \\\\'sticky\\\\' questions, situations and issues. In undertaking research within two distinct sex worlds: female sex work and male sexual negotiation\\/risk and HIV, we struggled to manage the contingent links between our relationships with the people who inhabit these worlds, the ethical requirements of our institutional
New, and yet familiar, hypothetical cases are debated and agonized over by eminent leaders from government, business, science and academia. "Ethics in America II" follows its predecessor by exploring gripping ethicaldilemmas using the time-honored Socratic Dialogue format. The programs can be used with a discussion guide to help teachers engage…
Clinicians in sex offender treatment programs are required to resolve the ethicaldilemmas, which invariably arise in this sort of work, by breaching traditional mental health ethical principles such as maintaining confidentiality and promoting patient autonomy. Indeed the mark of a \\
Traditional disciplinary guidelines are inadequate to address some of the ethical di- lemmas that emerge when conducting research on violence against women and girls. This article is organized according to the ethical principles of respect for persons, pri- vacy and confidentiality, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence. In the article, I describe dilemmas involved in cross-cultural research, research on children, in- formed
|Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethicaldilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…
Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti
Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare aggressive developmental cyst of the jaw. It most commonly occurs in middle-aged people with mandible anterior region being the most affected site. This lesion can present as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency and has high recurrence rate. The histopathologic features of the GOC are complex and often coincide with the features of dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst, and low-grade central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC). At times, the microscopic features are so similar to central low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma that it becomes highly impossible to distinguish the two entities even with various advanced investigations. The reported case represents one such diagnostic dilemma occurring in the maxilla which is a rare site, and the lesion/s appeared as two distinct entities, that is, GOC and CMEC on either aspects of the same side of maxilla clinically, yet showing continuity on advanced imaging and demonstrating histopathological perplexity. PMID:23970979
Prabhat, M P V; Deshpande, Prasannasrinivas; Gummadapu, Sarat; Babburi, Suresh; Chintamaneni, Raja Lakshmi; Sujanamulk, Bhavana
Glandular odontogenic cyst (GOC) is a rare aggressive developmental cyst of the jaw. It most commonly occurs in middle-aged people with mandible anterior region being the most affected site. This lesion can present as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency and has high recurrence rate. The histopathologic features of the GOC are complex and often coincide with the features of dentigerous cyst, radicular cyst, and low-grade central mucoepidermoid carcinoma (CMEC). At times, the microscopic features are so similar to central low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma that it becomes highly impossible to distinguish the two entities even with various advanced investigations. The reported case represents one such diagnostic dilemma occurring in the maxilla which is a rare site, and the lesion/s appeared as two distinct entities, that is, GOC and CMEC on either aspects of the same side of maxilla clinically, yet showing continuity on advanced imaging and demonstrating histopathological perplexity.
Prabhat, M. P. V.; Gummadapu, Sarat; Babburi, Suresh; Chintamaneni, Raja Lakshmi; Sujanamulk, Bhavana
Saucier examines marketing ethics, focusing on the nature of new ethical breaches made possible by the increasing capabilities of technology. Chapter topics include the use of fear appeals, intrusive advertising in daily lives, the American materialistic culture, body image advertising, and puffery and deceptive advertising practice. Appendices include the American Marketing Association Code of Ethics, the Parents' Bill of Rights,
Nursing ethics in the 21st century will continue to be concerned with describing and communicating the characteristics of the “good” nurse, and describing nurses’ ethical practices. However, there is a growing concern that what constitutes nurses’ ethical practices is changing as patients are experiencing, by virtue of reduced reimbursements for health care services, limited time to be in a nurse-patient
Journalism ethics, the norms of responsible journalism, can be traced back to the beginning of modern journalism in Europe during the seventeenth century. This chapter provides an overview of contemporary journalism ethics by following its evolution, by reviewing and critiquing major approaches, and by suggesting future work. The chapter begins with a view of ethics as practi- cal normative activity
The elderly are most often the focus of ethicaldilemmas, not only because of the increased frequency of illness, but also because of the reality that death is an impending inevitability. Of all the health care professionals, it is the primary care physician who is best situated to assist the elderly patient in exercising his or her own autonomy in matters concerning health care decisions. Both intrinsic factors, such as the presence of dementia and delerium associated with acute illness, and extrinsic factors, including the family's wishes, the settings of care, and financial consideration, may influence decision making. Limited diagnostic and therapeutic interventions should be addressed as separate entities in the development of the patient care plan. PMID:2501805
Catatonia is a common syndrome that was first described in the literature by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874. The literature is still developing and remains unclear on many issues, especially classification, diagnosis, and pathophysiology. Clinicians caring for psychiatric patients with catatonic syndromes continue to face many dilemmas in diagnosis and treatment. We discuss many of the common problems encountered in the care of a catatonic patient, and discuss each problem with a review of the literature. Focus is on practical aspects of classification, epidemiology, differential diagnosis, treatment, medical comorbidity, cognition, emotion, prognosis, and areas for future research in catatonic syndromes.
|The present study examined student learning in business ethics, particularly ethical judgment, using R. E. Reidenbach and D. P. Robin's (1990) Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES). The authors asked 262 undergraduate students to provide ethical judgment rating, first at the beginning of the semester and again at the end of the semester. Students…
Nguyen, Nhung T.; Basuray, M. Tom; Smith, William P.; Kopka, Donald; McCulloh, Donald N.
The present study examined student learning in business ethics, particularly ethical judgment, using R. E. Reidenbach and D. P. Robin's (1990) Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES). The authors asked 262 undergraduate students to provide ethical judgment rating, first at the beginning of the semester and again at the end of the semester. Students…
Nguyen, Nhung T.; Basuray, M. Tom; Smith, William P.; Kopka, Donald; McCulloh, Donald N.
Pain is a ubiquitous problem, affecting more than 100 million individuals in the United States chronically and many more in the acute setting. Up to three-quarters of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) report pain as a key component of their reasons for requiring acute care. While pain management is a fundamental component of emergency medicine (EM), there are numerous attitudinal and structural barriers that have been identified to effectively providing pain control in the ED. Coupled with public demands and administrative mandates, concerns surrounding ED pain management have reached a crisis level that should be considered an ethical issue in the profession of EM. In this article, the authors propose an ethical framework based on a combination of virtue, narrative, and relationship theories that can be used to address the clinical dilemmas that arise in managing pain in ED patients. PMID:23859586
Venkat, Arvind; Fromm, Christian; Isaacs, Eric; Ibarra, Jordan
To better understand ethical issues involved in the field of human genetics and promote debate within the scientific community, the author surveyed scientists who engage in human genetics research about the pros, cons, and ethical implications of genetic testing. This study contributes systematic data on attitudes of scientific experts. The survey finds respondents are highly supportive of voluntary testing and the right to know one's genetic heritage. The majority consider in utero testing and consequent pregnancy termination acceptable for cases involving likelihood of serious disease but disapprove for genetic reasons they consider arbitrary, leaving a gray area of distinguishing between treatment of disorders and enhancement still to be resolved. While safeguarding patient confidentiality versus protecting at-risk third parties (kin, reproductive partners) presents a dilemma, preserving privacy from misuse by institutional third parties (employers, insurers) garners strong consensus for legislation against discrimination. Finally, a call is made for greater genetic literacy. PMID:16208885
In recent years medical ethics has become an undisputed part of medical studies. Many people believe that modern advances in medical technology - such as the development of dialysis machines, respirators, magnetic resonance imaging and genetic testing and types of cancer screenings - have created bioethical dilemmas that confront physicians in the 21st century. Debates over research and screening ethics have until recently revolved around two related questions: the voluntary, informed consent of subjects, and the appropriate relationship between risk and benefit to subjects. Every patient has a right to full and accurate information about his or her medical condition. This legal principle arose primarily through court decisions concerning informed consent, but over time physicians recognized that most patients prefer to learn the truth about their condition and use the information well. To screen is to search for disease in the absence of symptoms or, in other words, to attempt to find disease in someone not thought to have a disease. Examples of screening include routine mammography to detect breast cancer, routine pap smears to detect cervical cancer, and routine Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing to detect prostate cancer. Ethical principles to be followed in cancer screening programmes are intended mainly to minimize unnecessary harm for the participating individuals. Numerous ethical questions can be raised about the practice of screening for disease. Here, we examine four leading cancer killers worldwide and we review the screening of protocols of these cancer types and their possible ethics. PMID:14728598
Ethicaldilemmas are often not discussed in the dissemination of educational research. While the ethical guidelines for research\\u000a seem clear at first glance, a closer look at the intimate nature of qualitative research reveals that there are many ambiguities\\u000a or ‘grey’ areas where researchers must rely on their personal value systems. This article discusses the challenges faced by\\u000a an experienced
Introduction: In the era of the new millennium, a lot of preclinical and clinical research is published. However, ethico-legal, cost-effectiveness and patient care issues are not addressed equally. Aim: To investigate whether abstracts presented at major international gastroenterology congresses refer to issues relevant to doctor-patient relationship, cost-effectiveness and care. Methods: We reviewed the abstracts on disk CD-ROMs of the United
E. Archavlis; K. Triantafyllou; A. Adamopoulos; T. Emmanuel; C. Tzathas; S. D. Ladas
This paper explores the relevance of the debate about ethical expertise for the practice of clinical ethics. We present definitions, explain three theories of ethical expertise, and identify arguments that have been brought up to either support the concept of ethical expertise or call it into question. Finally, we discuss four theses: the debate is relevant for the practice of clinical ethics in that it (1) improves and specifies clinical ethicists' perception of their expertise; (2) contributes to improving the perception of moral competence of non-ethicists; (3) gives insight into complementary styles of argumentation of ethicists and non-ethicists; and (4) contributes to the awareness of the problem of profession-building of (clinical) ethicists. PMID:18610784
Steinkamp, Norbert L; Gordijn, Bert; ten Have, Henk A M J
One of the causes of the increasing request for radiological examinations occurring in all economically developed countries is the active role played by the patient-consumer. Consumerism places the radiologist in an ethicaldilemma, between the principle of autonomy on the one hand and the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice on the other. The choice made by radiologists in moral dilemmas is inspired by an adherence to moral principles, which in Italy and elsewhere refer to the Judaeo-Christian tradition or to neo-Darwinian relativism. Whatever the choice, the radiologist is bound to adhere to that choice and to provide the patient with all the relevant information regarding his or her state of health. PMID:19662338
Who can read about ethics in technical communication at 2 a.m. when you have to face an ethical problem the next day at work? In the middle of ethical turmoil, examining the balance of power can be helpful in finding the best course of action, particularly if the situation is sales- or marketing-related. The author points out that it never hurts to examine honestly all sides of a situation, including checking the balance of power, to see what you would do. In fact, it`s the only way to start preparing yourself for your next dilemma. And because all communication can be seen as at least persuasive, if not downright marketing-oriented, each of us may have the opportunity to face our own ethical issues.
Who can read about ethics in technical communication at 2 a.m. when you have to face an ethical problem the next day at work In the middle of ethical turmoil, examining the balance of power can be helpful in finding the best course of action, particularly if the situation is sales- or marketing-related. The author points out that it never hurts to examine honestly all sides of a situation, including checking the balance of power, to see what you would do. In fact, it's the only way to start preparing yourself for your next dilemma. And because all communication can be seen as at least persuasive, if not downright marketing-oriented, each of us may have the opportunity to face our own ethical issues.
Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the features of whistleblowing by considering the arguments about whistleblowing in engineering ethics. First, I analyze the concept of ‘whistleblowing’ by defining the word as clearly as possible. Second, I examine the standard justification theory of whistleblowing by showing the problems of the theory. Finally, I analyze the dilemma about whistleblowing by revealing a prospective whistleblower?s struggle to choose moral value or non-moral value.
All ethics has a religious dimension. This paper considers how specific Christian insights concerning death, suffering, human nature and human creatureliness can help to expose more fully the moral issues at stake in some of the dilemmas faced by doctors. It ends by acknowledging the crushing burden of decision-making which rests on many in the medical profession, and indicates the importance of religious resources in dealing with this.
The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center. PMID:2228587
Practitioners' ethical orientation and responses vary between practice settings. Yet, currently, the ethics for midwifery practice that is explicit in the literature and which provides the ideals of socialization into practice, is that of bio(medical)ethics. Traditional bioethics, developed because of World War II atrocities and increased scientific research, is based on moral philosophy, normative theory, abstract universal principles and objective problem solving, all of which focus on right and wrong 'action' for resolving dilemmas. They exclude context and relationship. Personal narratives of mothers and midwives contest the appropriateness of these accepted values and systems for childbirth because they induce conflict between workplace/service provider ethics and personal/professional midwifery ethics. In contrast to the disembedded and disembodied approach of biomedical ethics, an ethically adequate response in midwifery practice resonates more with the ethics of intimates, such as feminist virtue ethics. PMID:14650478
To identify ethical issues that interns encounter in their clinical education and thus build a more empirical basis for the required contents of the clinical ethics curriculum.\\u000aThe authors analyzed a total of 522 required case reports on ethicaldilemmas experienced by interns from September 1995 to May 1999 at the medical school of Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. They identified
Marli Huijer; Leeuwen van Evert; Annette Boenink; Gerrit Kimsma
The current linkages between ethical theory and management behavior are investigated in the wake of the much-publicized convictions\\u000a of Enron executives. The vignettes used in this investigation represent ethicaldilemmas in the areas of coercion and control,\\u000a conflict of interest, physical environment, and personal integrity. Since 2003, and after the successful prosecution of Enron\\u000a executives, the link between ethical philosophy
The paper presents the main debates that have taken place on clinical ethics committees within the European project entitled Ethical Function in Hospital Ethics Committees. It depicts the great variety of formula existing in Europe in terms of legal status, functions, accessibility, composition and training requirements and a the onset of clinical ethics concept itself. Moreover, in the interstices of the various institutionalised ethics systems we can find extremely innovative initiatives under development, spawned more by premises of a political nature than drawn from the specialised corps of medical ethics. Could clinical ethical committees play some role in the overall democratisation process in medicine? PMID:16607716
Through the case presentation of a diagnostically and therapeutically interesting gender dysphoric individual, the authors wish to address diagnostic problems associated with this controversial category, illustrate dilemmas and emphasize the importance of diagnostic procedures in differentiating between primary transsexualism and other transgender states. Many questions have been triggered by this case, mainly about whether this patient should be classified as a paraphilia (transvestite, transvestite with transsexual trend), primary transsexualism or autogynephilia and about the most adequate treatment (e.g., sex-reassignment surgery, hormone therapy as a way of partial feminisation or exclusively psychotherapy). The issue of reconstructive surgery, i.e. its justification in the case of this particular condition is specifically discussed. Before any decision is made, both medical but also ethical consequences of the treatment choice need to be considered (e.g., the client is the father of two underage children). PMID:19556956
Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethicaldilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethicaldilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethicaldilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethicaldilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven. PMID:23773811
The purpose of this study was to explore the ethical conflicts and moral dilemmas experienced by novice teachers and how they dealt with them. The experience of novice teachers are unique because they are at the beginning of their careers and are highly immersed in learning how to manage the variety of tasks associated with teaching. Although novice teachers indicated
|Yvonna Lincoln and Egon Guba's challenge to the traditional positivist approach to social science research, naturalistic inquiry, is seen as posing ethicaldilemmas of its own. Greater awareness of problems of over-idealizing "special relationships" in research practices and in focusing too much on individual rather than systemic settings is…
Nursing is a universal health care necessity. Nursing profession, similar to the other medical professions, is responsible to maintain public health promotion, prevent diseases, and also care and rehabilitate client, family and the society. The inher- ent nature of nursing is respect for moral values and human rights. However, clinical ethicaldilemmas occur for nurses at all levels, not always
This paper surveys some of the innovations introduced by USA Today during its first three and one?half years of publication. It finds that USA Today's innovations in design, market research, and news have not been widely accepted because these approaches have raised significant ethicaldilemmas to many journalists. Professional reservations about USA Today are discussed as well as some of
This article explores the authors', two teacher educators' and a pre-service teacher's, understanding of the ethicaldilemmas, obligations, and plotlines that emerged in the experiences of a pre-service teacher as she began to develop her identity as a teacher. The inquiry, based in narrative inquiry, used the analysis of narratives from a…
Murphy, M. Shaun; Pinnegar, Eliza; Pinnegar, Stefinee
|This paper deals with growing ethicaldilemmas in sport as technology advances. Three aspects of sport are discussed: (l) the perpetual conflict between process (training) and product (the actual contest); (2) technophobia, the fear of the new world of technology; and (3) "technosport" or technological training. It is necessary to understand that…
Psychiatric practice is often faced with complex situations that seem to pose serious moral dilemmas for practitioners. Methods for solving these dilemmas have included the development of more objective rules to guide the practitioner such as utilitarianism and deontology. A more modern variant on this objective model has been 'Principlism' where 4 mid level rules are used to help solve these complex problems. In opposition to this, there has recently been a focus on more subjective criteria for resolving complex moral dilemmas. In particular, virtue ethics has been posited as a more sensitive method for helping doctors to reason their way through difficult ethical issues. Here the focus is on the character traits of the practitioner. Bloch and Green advocated another way whereby more objective methods such as Principlism and virtue ethics are combined to produce what they considered sound moral reasoning in psychiatrists. This paper points out some difficulties with this approach and instead suggests that a better model of ethical judgment could be developed through the use of narratives or stories. This idea puts equal prima facie value on the patient's and the psychiatrist's version of the dilemma they are faced with. It has the potential to lead to a more genuine empathy and reflective decision-making. PMID:19555473
This paper describes the ethical and professional challenges encountered by two experienced forensic clinical psychologists in the course of their daily work. Five examples are chosen from a typical working week which illustrate and explain a particular professional dilemma and the forensic or organisational context The paper concludes that professional guidance from the British and Australian Psychological Societies and the
Ethical issues in pediatric rehabilitation have been increasingly evident in recent years. The role of children in decision making, the morality of asking families to care for children who require a high level of care, and the impact of various systems on rehabilitation decision-making pose significant dilemmas to psychologists practicing in pediatric rehabilitation settings. This manuscript describes many of the
This article seeks to engage with the contention that, given the dilemmas of the self purportedly raised by these aspects of modernity, teachers of religious education need, ethically as well as professionally, to urgently revise their often traditionalist view of society, of children and of appropriate pedagogy for their subject. The aim of such…
This research aimed at describing the conflicts and ethicaldilemmas experienced by twelve nurses working in Surgical Centers of macro-regional hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The analysis of the interview data was carried out through the Content Analysis technique. The data were discussed through technical-deontologica base and communicative action theory. It has been found out that the nurses working at Surgical Centers face conflicts and dilemmas daily. They are related to the lack of infrastructure to meet the deman resulting in disrespect and violation of some principles of the deontology code. PMID:17025038
Duarte, Liliane Espinosa de Mello Norberto; Liana, Lautert
Telling the truth is one of the most respected virtues in medical history and one of the most emphasized in the code of medical ethics. Health care providers are frequently confronted with the dilemma as to whether or not to tell the truth. This dilemma deepens when both choices are critically vicious: The choice is no longer between "right and right" or "right and wrong," it is between "wrong and wrong." In the case presented and discussed in this paper, a research team in Saudi Arabia unintentionally uncovered information regarding misattributed paternity. In such a situation and in the context of a tribal cultural system, what should the team do with this information? This case analysis demonstrates the joint application of ethical resources originating from within and outside the Saudi Arabian context. The article analyses the case based on the moral problems involved, relevant medical application, and the impact of such information in the Saudi tribal and Islamic domains. The most pertinent relevant values and secular debates on similar matters are discussed. Finally, the article aims to provide an Islamic dimension of family, fatherhood, and adultery. PMID:23180120
The marihuana dilemma poses a major challenge to commanders in the US Army today. The problem was analyzed as to the characteristics of the drug; extent of usage; effects on personnel; reasons for use; identification of users; the legalization controversy...