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1

Ethical Dilemmas in College Counseling Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a survey of ethical dilemmas faced by college counselors are presented. Findings and implications are discussed as they relate to types and frequencies of ethical dilemmas encountered and how they are resolved. A typical ethical dilemma is described. (Author)

Hayman, Peter M.; Covert, Joy A.

1986-01-01

2

Metastatic unknown primary tumour presenting in pregnancy: a rarity posing an ethical dilemma  

PubMed Central

This brief report raises the ethical dilemma encountered by an obstetrician involved in the care of a pregnant woman with life?threatening disease. This is a particularly difficult issue if the maternal well?being is in conflict with the survival of the unborn child. PMID:17664298

Patni, Shalini; Wagstaff, John; Tofazzal, Nasima; Bonduelle, Myriam; Moselhi, Marsham; Kevelighan, Euan; Edwards, Steve

2007-01-01

3

Ethical Dilemmas in Multicultural Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a random survey of counselors working with socioracial minority clients (N=256), multicultural ethical dilemmas were rated according to frequency encountered and significance. Comparisons of counselors' ratings of multicultural ethical dilemmas determined specific dilemmas relevant to counselors in various professional settings. (Contains 33…

Sadeghi, Maria; Fischer, Jerome M.; House, Sean G.

2003-01-01

4

Ethical dilemmas in pain management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to survey the membership of the American Pain Society and the American Academy of Pain Medicine to determine their beliefs about ethical dilemmas in pain management practice. Respondents rated ethical dilemmas for their importance as well as their own competence in dealing with these ethical issues. The survey also included an open-ended question that

Betty R. Ferrell; Diane Novy; Mark D. Sullivan; John Banja; Michel Y. Dubois; Melvin C. Gitlin; Daniel Hamaty; Allen Lebovits; Arthur G. Lipman; Philipp M. Lippe; Jeffrey Livovich

2001-01-01

5

Ethical Dilemmas in Psychological Practice: Results of a National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we explore the choices made by practicing psychologists in the face of specific ethical dilemmas. From the Division of Psychotherapy, 294 randomly selected psychologists were presented 10 vignettes, each representing a potential problem of professional ethics. They were asked to indicate their preferred resolution to the dilemma and their primary reason for choosing this alternative. Respondents were

Leonard J. Haas; John L. Malouf; Neal H. Mayerson

1986-01-01

6

Ethical Dilemmas in Disaster Medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Disasters may lead to ethical challenges that are different from usual medical practices. In addition, disaster situations are related with public health ethics more than medical ethics, and accordingly may require stronger effort to achieve a balance between individual and collective rights. This paper aims to review some ethical dilemmas that arise in disasters and mainly focuses on health services. Disasters vary considerably with respect to their time, place and extent; therefore, ethical questions may not always have `one-size-fits-all` answers. On the other hand, embedding ethical values and principles in every aspect of health-care is of vital importance. Reviewing legal and organizational regulations, developing health-care related guidelines, and disaster recovery plans, establishing on-call ethics committees as well as adequate in-service training of health-care workers for ethical competence are among the most critical steps. It is only by making efforts before disasters, that ethical challenges can be minimized in disaster responses. PMID:23285411

Ozge Karadag, C; Kerim Hakan, A

2012-01-01

7

Ethical dilemmas in nursing.  

PubMed Central

Nurses are increasingly realising that they can offer relevant information and participate in decision-making involving ethical issues. However, inter-professional communications are frequently inadequate, and do not permit exchange of opinions. The consequences are often frustrating and upsetting for nurses whose care is affected by others' policies. This paper explores these issues using some clinical examples. PMID:3761331

Wilson-Barnett, J

1986-01-01

8

Ethical dilemmas in clerkship rotations.  

PubMed

A sound clinical education should include the opportunity for medical students to engage in a spirited and informed discussion with faculty about the ethical challenges they will undoubtedly face. Unfortunately, in many medical schools today this goal is thwarted by many factors, including denial that a problem exists, relentless system overload, unprofessional behavior, breakdown in communication, and inertia. What is worse is that this problem is not new, and the fallout is not insignificant. Another potential contributing factor is burnout, which is well documented in a high percentage of medical students, residents, and faculty, and two of its most serious consequences are patient dissatisfaction and medical error.The authors draw on hundreds of student reflections on ethical dilemmas submitted during classroom exercises to examine persistent themes. They posit that classroom and didactic teaching is not enough to enable students to face ethical dilemmas. The authors call for a major culture change in medical education: "buy in" from top administration, especially the dean (and associate/assistant deans), chairs of all departments, and clerkship and residency training directors; the appointing of an ombudsperson and/or ethicist to oversee and resolve issues as they arise; instructional workshops and materials to enhance and impart skills for all teachers; remediation or retiring of errant faculty; and ongoing research and dialogue between and among medical centers about novel solutions. PMID:24072128

Myers, Michael F; Herb, Alice

2013-11-01

9

Ethical Dilemmas: A Model to Understand Teacher Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over recent decades, the field of ethics has been the focus of increasing attention in teaching. This is not surprising given that teaching is a moral activity that is heavily values-laden. Because of this, teachers face ethical dilemmas in the course of their daily work. This paper presents an ethical decision-making model that helps to explain…

Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Millwater, Jan; Cranston, Neil

2011-01-01

10

A quick guide to ethical theory in healthcare: solving ethical dilemmas in nutrition support situations.  

PubMed

Ethical dilemmas can be challenging for the nutrition support clinician who is accustomed to evidence-based practice. The emotional and personal nature of ethical decision making can present difficulties, and conflict can arise when people have different ethical perspectives. An understanding of ethical terms and ethical theories can be helpful in clarifying the source of this conflict. These may include prominent ethical theories such as moral relativism, utilitarianism, Kantian absolutism, Aristotle's virtue ethics and ethics of care, as well as the key ethical principles in healthcare (autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice). Adopting a step-by-step approach can simplify the process of resolving ethical problems. PMID:16556920

Ferrie, Suzie

2006-04-01

11

Teachers' Ethical Dilemmas: What Would You Do?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators will face a variety of ethical and moral dilemmas throughout their teaching careers; however, they do not have a common board that governs its members' ethical behavior. Instead, there are numerous educational organizations that have written their own specific codes for ethical behavior. The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) has…

Bucholz, Jessica L.; Keller, Cassandra L.; Brady, Michael P.

2007-01-01

12

Ethical dilemmas faced by hospice social workers.  

PubMed

Ethical decision making is critically important in hospice social work. Through in-depth interviews, researchers explored ethical dilemmas faced by 14 hospice social workers and the processes they used to move toward resolution. The dilemmas were integrated into a framework focused on the sources of ethical conflict: the client system, the agency, and the profession. Processes involved in resolving ethical dilemmas included consulting with other professionals, weighing the pros and cons of options, and bringing about desired outcomes. Findings suggest that hospice teams should be provided with opportunities to meaningfully discuss ethical decision making. Further, the involvement of social workers in administrative leadership is recommended to increase the likelihood that discipline-specific perspectives are incorporated into formal policies and procedures that shape practice in ethically complex situations. PMID:25397348

Dennis, Mary Kate; Washington, Karla T; Koenig, Terry L

2014-10-01

13

Comparing Attitudes Toward Ethical Dilemmas in Small Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a comparative analysis of attitudes between Russian and U.S. undergraduate students on ethical issues in managing Russian small firms engaged in business transactions with U.S. firms. Based on the real life situations, Russian and American respondents were asked to select decision alternatives dealing with ethical dilemmas. Significant differences were found between the two groups. Russians do not

Shawn Thelen; Anatoly Zhuplev

2002-01-01

14

The Ethical Dilemma of Coached Malingering Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical dilemmas surrounding research in which the efficacy of various coaching strategies designed to outsmart validity scales are discussed in the context of competing demands between the requirement of the ethical principles of the American Psychological Association and the need to give detailed descriptions of research procedures in scientific…

Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

1994-01-01

15

An autopsy of an ethical dilemma.  

PubMed

An ethical dilemma was created for the intensive care unit staff following a physician's "No Code (Do Not Resuscitate)" telephone order. The author, the Director of Nursing involved, analyzes the short- and long-term outcomes of the situation. She applies a deontological framework, or duty-oriented ethical decision-making methodology, to help other administrators solve similar problems. PMID:2348247

Czerwinski, B S

1990-06-01

16

Ethics and GIS: The Practitioner's Dilemma a position paper on GIS ethics by  

E-print Network

Ethics and GIS: The Practitioner's Dilemma a position paper on GIS ethics by Michael Blakemore1://www.gsdiassociation.org and go to the Discussions List menu #12;Ethics and GIS: The Practitioner's Dilemma Table of Contents's Dilemma 1 Introduction to the GI/GIS Ethics Workshop. This is a background paper for a workshop on ethics

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

17

Do not resuscitate: reflections on an ethical dilemma.  

PubMed

This is a reflective account of an ethical dilemma encountered while on placement on a cardiology ward. Reflection is a process which allows practitioners to reveal and expose thoughts, behaviours and feelings that are present at a particular time. All reflective models are based on the principle that purposeful reflection results in a better understanding and awareness, thus enhancing clinical practice (Driscoll and Teh 2001). The Gibbs' Reflective Cycle has been selected for its simplicity and ease of use to aid personal development. The dilemma was identified and analysed from a professional, ethical and legal perspective. Pseudonyms are used to maintain confidentiality and protect the identities of all parties involved. PMID:17711245

Jones, Jeannie

18

Ethical Dilemma in Staff Terminations--Avoided!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Incidences of staff terminations under clouded circumstances are filled with legal and ethical dilemmas. The benefits of an informal process similar to "plea bargaining" are discussed. There is less emotional and financial toll for the accused employee, and school boards benefit as well in terms of the media, cumbersome disciplinary procedure, and…

Rader, Robert J.

1989-01-01

19

Ethical dilemmas in hospice and palliative care  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand some of the ethical dilemmas that face hospice programs in the United States, one must understand the Medicare Hospice Benefit, which is the model by which hospice programs provide palliative care to terminally ill patients in the United States. Unlike palliative care programs outside the United States, patients must have a prognosis of 6 months or

Barry M. Kinzbrunner

1995-01-01

20

Ethical Dilemmas in Retail Merchandising: Student Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical dilemmas observed by students in retailing internships were the basis for a survey in which students indicated their perceptions as to whether case situations involved unethical behavior. Expanded case situations were offered to students for further exploration. The specific questions posed in this study included the following: (1) In what…

Paulins, V. Ann; Lombardy, Lisa

2005-01-01

21

Service–learning for preservice teachers: ethical dilemmas for practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly in the United States, service–learning is being used to educate preservice teachers. Service varies greatly in its ethical foundation, however, and service–learning presents new teachers with a variety of dilemmas revealing the moral and political nature of teaching and service. This article presents one case of four preservice teachers writing curriculum as a service to a community agency hoping

David M. Donahue

1999-01-01

22

Ethical dilemmas in clinical genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of a survey of medical and paramedical opinion relating to various difficult ethical issues in clinical genetics. These include the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship, prenatal diagnosis and termination, and Huntington's chorea. It is suggested that this method provides a useful means of assessing what is ethically acceptable in contemporary society.

I D Young

1984-01-01

23

Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a survey asking public school counselors in Virginia to indicate their most common and most challenging ethical dilemmas are presented. Ninety-two school counselors reported that the most common and challenging ethical dilemmas included those involving student confidentiality, dual relationship with faculty, parental rights, and acting…

Bodenhorn, Nancy

2006-01-01

24

Moral Dilemmas and the Concept of Value in Engineering Ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to show that the consideration of value is necessary to understand moral dilemmas in engineering ethics. First, the author shows that moral dilemmas are not fully understood in engineering ethics and argues that it is due to the lack of understanding of value. Second, the author considers the concept of value from the viewpoint of ‘desirability’ . Finally, three suggestions for improving engineering ethics in the understanding of moral dilemmas are made.

Ohishi, Toshihiro

25

Ethical dilemmas in nonclinical health research from a UK perspective.  

PubMed

This article examines the ethical dilemmas faced by professional and academic researchers in the health field who undertake nonclinical or social research among patients or staff. The experiences of health researchers and health professionals in the UK are directly relevant to those undertaking similar health-related research in other parts of the world at a time when nonclinical research in health care is becoming widespread in all countries and cultures. This article addresses ethical dilemmas as they relate to researchers' ability to maintain confidentiality, their commitment to the welfare of respondents, and the tensions that arise from undertaking research for an employer. In addition, the danger of conducting covert research inadvertently may present unexpected ethical problems, which are discussed. Although it is impossible to provide a policy document to address all ethical dilemmas, this article does attempt to address the question of how best to approach health-related research in order to minimize the possibility of running into ethical problems at a later stage. PMID:16010887

Grinyer, A

2001-03-01

26

An Exploration of Ethical Dilemma Resolution by Student Affairs Professionals.  

E-print Network

??This two-phase, sequential mixed methods study explored how student affairs professionals resolved professional ethical dilemmas. A student affairs professional was defined as an individual whose… (more)

Humphrey, Elaine

2008-01-01

27

Ethical Dilemma of Governmental Wiretapping  

E-print Network

USA Government wiretapping activities is a very controversial issue. Undoubtedly this technology can assist law enforced authority to detect / identify unlawful or hostile activities; however, this task raises severe privacy concerns. In this paper, we have discussed this complex information technology issue of governmental wiretapping and how it effects both public and private liberties. Legislation has had a major impact on the uses and the stigma of wiretapping for the war on terrorism. This paper also analyzes the ethical and legal concerns inherent when discussing the benefits and concerns of wiretapping. The analysis has concluded with the effects of wiretapping laws as they relate to future government actions in their fight against terrorists.

Mullikin, Arwen; Rahman, M

2010-01-01

28

Exploring Ethical Dilemmas Using the "Drifting Goals" Archetype  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article demonstrates how the system archetype "drifting goals" can be used in the classroom to explore ethical dilemmas. System archetypes provide a framework that shifts the focus from seeing ethical dilemmas as stemming solely from the acts of individuals to exploring the systemic structures that are responsible for generic patterns of…

Bardoel, E. Anne; Haslett, Tim

2006-01-01

29

Ethical dilemmas for accountants: A United Kingdom perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides an introduction to some of the professional ethical dilemmas facing an accountant in the United Kingdom. The first part deals with those dilemmas which accountants would normally accept are covered by the term “ethics”. These include the problems associated with adequately fulfilling a duty to shareholders and conflicts of interest (including whistleblowing) by the accountant acting as

Andrew Likierman

1989-01-01

30

School District Superintendents' Response to Ethical Dilemmas: A Grounded Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical dilemmas, situations involving a conflict between values or principles, often arise when employees of school districts violate laws or professional codes of behavior. Ethical dilemmas also occur when there are inequities in educational programming, resulting in missed opportunities for students. This qualitative study, conducted with the…

Sprouse, Fay Simpson

2009-01-01

31

Solving Ethical Dilemmas with Children: Empowering Classroom Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…

Parr, Michelann

2010-01-01

32

An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

33

Ethical dilemmas in teaching and nursing: the Israeli case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores a cross?occupational approach for dealing with ethical dilemmas by comparing teaching and nursing. Findings indicate more shared patterns of ethical dilemmas (such as caring for needs for others versus following formal codes) than dilemmas specific to teaching (e.g., advancing universal values versus advancing knowledge) or nursing (e.g., patient modesty versus hospital policy). The large number of shared

2010-01-01

34

Experienced Speech-Language Pathologists' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas: An Integrated Approach to Ethical Reasoning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Method: Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethical dilemmas. Individual…

Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

2010-01-01

35

Ethical and Value Dilemmas in Urban Management Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module represents one portion of the National Training and Development Service Urban Management Curriculum Development Project. It focuses on the issue of ethics in urban management performance and is designed to demonstrate that ethical dilemmas are a personal, complex, everyday managerial problem, and to enlarge the range of ethical options…

Thomas, Theodore H.

36

Ethical dilemmas in organization development: A cross-cultural analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the nature and extent to which cultural differences bear on perceptions of ethical Organizational Development consulting behaviors. U.S. (n=118) and Taiwanese (n=267) business students evaluated eleven vignettes depicting potential ethical dilemmas. Respondents judged the ethicality of each vignette, the likelihood of the event's occurrence and the party responsible for the event's occurrence.

Louis P. White; Melanie J. Rhodeback

1992-01-01

37

Practical Approaches to Common Ethical Dilemmas in the Hospital  

E-print Network

Practical Approaches to Common Ethical Dilemmas in the Hospital S. Andrew Josephson MD Carmen Ethics Committee Vice Chairman, Department of Neurology Director, Neurohospitalist Program University of California, San Francisco The speaker has no disclosures #12;Ethics Consultations at UCSF · Available 24

Soloveichik, David

38

Reactions to ethical dilemmas: A study pertaining to certified public accountants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study discusses how perceptions of ethics are formed by certified public accountants (CPAs). Theologians are used as a point of comparison. When considering CPA ethical dilemmas, both subject groups in this research project viewed ‘confidentiality’ and ‘independence’ as more important than ‘recipient of responsibility’ and ‘seriousness of breach’. Neither group, however, was insensitive to any of the factors presented

G. A. Claypool; D. F. Fetyko; M. A. Pearson

1990-01-01

39

Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1) recognizing the dilemma; 2) identifying context; 3) determining choices; 4) strategies used; 5) results and choices the mother made; and 6) follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation. PMID:22824376

2012-01-01

40

"Living" Ethical Dilemmas for Researchers When Researching with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will explore some of the ethical dilemmas that confront researchers when they seek to invite children's participation in research. It firstly tracks the historical landscape of ethical research and will examine the influence of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) on participatory research with children.…

Mortari, Luigina; Harcourt, Deborah

2012-01-01

41

Imperfect twinning: a clinical and ethical dilemma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. DATA SYNTHESIS: The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family. PMID:24142323

Denardin, Daniela; Telles, Jorge Alberto B.; Betat, Rosilene da Silveira; Fell, Paulo Renato K.; da Cunha, Andre Campos; Targa, Luciano Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.

2013-01-01

42

Ethical Fairy Tales: Using Fairy Tales as Illustrative Ethical Dilemmas with Counseling Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to navigate ethical dilemmas is important in counseling students' training. According to the Council for the Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009 standards, counseling students must receive ethics education. A common goal for counselor educators is to assist students in translating ethical theory into…

Henderson, Kathryn L.; Malone, Stefanie L.

2012-01-01

43

A national survey of U.S. internists’ experiences with ethical dilemmas and ethics consultation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To identify the ethical dilemmas that internists encounter, the strategies they use to address them, and the usefulness of\\u000a ethics consultation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: National telephone survey.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Doctors’ offices.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: General internists, oncologists, and critical care\\/pulmonologists (N=344, 64% response rate).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS: Types of ethical dilemmas recently encountered and likelihood of requesting ethics consultation: satisfaction with resolution\\u000a of ethical dilemmas with

Gordon DuVal; Brian Clarridge; Gary Gensler; Marion Danis

2004-01-01

44

Ethical Dilemmas: The "Bread and Butter" of Educational Leaders' Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethical dilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the research were gathered by semi-structured in-depth interviews with the Heads, all of whom were experienced school leaders. All the schools had religious…

Cranston, Neil; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Kimber, Megan

2006-01-01

45

Ethical dilemmas and practical problems for the practitioner researcher  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the ethical dilemmas and problems encountered when undertaking an action research study in my own school. The study was designed to evaluate a contentious part of a new midwifery programme as it was being implemented. A range of potentially problematic issues are discussed from the practitioner researcher perspective. Some of these problems were anticipated but others had

Diane M. Fraser

1997-01-01

46

The ethical dilemmas of university-industry collaborations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the ethical dilemmas that can occur due to university and industry cooperative arrangements. The values that Conant (1952) and Merton (1942) ascribed to university science are used as a measure of the evolving university-industry relations in the 1980s. Examples of the types of relations being forged are discussed and possible conflicts of interest are explored. The author

Martin Kenney

1987-01-01

47

Review : Children's competency to consent: an ethical dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

? The application of the best interests principle in current legislation creates an ethical dilemma in relation to children's consent to treatment.? The guiding principle of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) symbolises a formal expression of children's participation rights.? Children's rights to consent to treatment are granted on socially determined ideals of competency.? Children's participation

Grace E Spencer

2000-01-01

48

Teaching, Learning and Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons from Albert Camus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past half century, Albert Camus's story "The Guest" has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. "The Guest" focuses on the ethical dilemmas faced by Daru, a school teacher in Algeria, and the two visitors he receives one day: Balducci, a gendarme, and an unnamed Arab prisoner. This paper addresses Camus's text from an educational…

Roberts, Peter

2008-01-01

49

Ethical dilemmas reported by fourth-year dental students.  

PubMed

Ethics education in dentistry is a requirement for accreditation. Despite universal adoption of ethics courses, there is ongoing discussion about the appropriate content of these courses and about methods to engage students. Faculty who teach ethics must select a limited set of topics from the broad fields of professional ethics, bioethics, and the humanities. The purpose of this article is to describe the ethical issues reported by fourth-year dental students during community-based extramural clinical experiences. Senior dental students (n=123) wrote essays describing an ethical issue they encountered during one of two extramural rotations. Ethical issues were categorized and coded by consensus between two faculty authors. Students most often reported perceived dilemmas related to patients' limited resources (25 percent), conflict between professionals (19 percent), clinic policy or procedures (15 percent), and decision making by patients' surrogates (13 percent). One student (<1 percent) reported encountering no ethical issues. Students' perceptions of ethical issues in clinical practice offer faculty a foundation for designing a dental ethics curriculum that is practical and immediately relevant to the experience of a dental student. Students' reports may also yield a method for systematic assessment of students' abilities to apply classroom ethics instruction to clinical practice. PMID:16204677

Sharp, Helen M; Kuthy, Raymond A; Heller, Keith E

2005-10-01

50

From the Woman's Viewpoint: Ethical Dilemmas Confronted by Women as Informal Caregivers of Frail Elders  

E-print Network

and into supportive housing. Another caregiver, Sarah, collaborated with her husband, the frail elder in dealing with an ethical dilemma involving his alcohol abuse. Her husband was having problems "with his stools and seemed not to have control." Sarah remarked...ETHICS AND CAREGIVING From the Woman's Viewpoint: Ethical Dilemmas Confronted by Women as Informal Caregivers of Frail Elders Terry L. Koenig ABSTRACT Women as informal caregivers face complex ethical dilemmas in caring for a frail elder...

Koenig, Terry L.

2004-01-01

51

oday, the benefits of genetic engineering, and the risks and ethical dilemmas that  

E-print Network

T oday, the benefits of genetic engineering, and the risks and ethical dilemmas that it presents policy. Cancer-carrying bacteria Some of the concerns about recombinant DNA experimentation stemmed from feared that bacteria carry- ing SV40 DNA might escape and cause cancer in people infected, so we chose

Cai, Long

52

Ethical Dilemmas Related to Disclosure Issues: Sex Addiction Therapists in the Trenches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therapists who treat sex addicts are often faced with ethical dilemmas. Almost every therapist has encountered some unexpected dilemma that has put us in a quandary and by its very nature calls for decisions that could challenge our code of conduct. In this article the authors describe several types of ethical dilemmas related to disclosure. The focus is on revelations

Jennifer P. Schneider; Barbara Levinson

2006-01-01

53

Ethical dilemmas in marketing: A rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of their visibility, marketers are often perceived by society as engaging in unethical or questionable behaviors. The marketing literature does not specifically provide an explanation for this dilemma. This paper suggests that there are three major reasons for this problem: fluctuating limits of consensus, ethnocentrism, and utilitarian economic analyses.

Paul J. Hensel; Alan J. Dubinsky

1986-01-01

54

Islamic ethics: an exposition for resolving ICT ethical dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to introduce the Islamic “legal system of Shari'ah laws and ethics” and its process of resolving ethical quandaries as applied in the field of information ethics (IE). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper first introduces some of the intricacy of the Islamic Shari'ah laws and ethics and then to reason its applicability in the field of IE,

Salam Abdallah

2010-01-01

55

Governance of dual-use research: an ethical dilemma  

PubMed Central

Abstract Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the “dual-use dilemma”. There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research. PMID:19784453

2009-01-01

56

Burkholderia cepacia: current clinical issues, environmental controversies and ethical dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burkholderia cepacia: current clinical issues, environmental controversies and ethical dilemmas. A.M. Jones, M.E. Dodd, A.K. Webb. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Burkholderia cepacia is a plant phytogen and is known as a hardy and versatile organism. Over the past two decades it has emerged as a pathogen in the cystic fibrosis (CF) community, with devastating effects. Pulmonary colonisation can lead

A. M. Jones; M. E. Dodd; A. K. Webb

2001-01-01

57

Ethical dilemmas in representation: engaging participative youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reflects upon the ways that multi-modal data and student productions enhance and challenge our methodologies and ethical commitments in our collaborative critical ethnographic research in youth media. We review recent research and theory related to multi-modal representations and we critically explore how our data are produced, including how claims are represented and substantiated in the findings. We consider,

Deborah Romero; Dana Walker

2010-01-01

58

Ethical and medical dilemmas of space tourism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.

Marsh, Melinda

59

Ethical dilemmas in human resource management: an application of a multidimensional framework, a unifying taxonomy, and applicable codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human resource management (HRM) is currently undergoing rapid professionalization. One area, which has not been fully examined from a scholarly nor practitioner perspective, is that of ethical dilemmas. Ethical dilemmas in HRM can be seen as multifaceted, involving personal, professional, and organizational considerations. A general model of five ethical dilemmas [Acad. Manage. Rev. 8 (1983) 690.] is applied to HRM

Kevin C. Wooten

2001-01-01

60

Is music downloading the new prohibition? What students reveal through an ethical dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although downloading music through unapproved channels is illegal, statistics indicate that it is widespread. The following\\u000a study examines the attitudes and perceptions of college students that are potentially engaged in music downloading. The methodology\\u000a includes a content analysis of the recommendations written to answer an ethical vignette. The vignette presented the case\\u000a of a subject who faces the dilemma of

Shoshana Altschuller; Raquel Benbunan-Fich

2009-01-01

61

Ethical dilemmas created by the criminalization of status behaviors: case examples from ethnographic field research with injection drug users.  

PubMed

The criminalization of behaviors such as the ingestion of certain mood-altering drugs creates ethical dilemmas for researchers studying those behaviors. The Syringe Access, Use, and Discard (SAUD) project is designed to uncover microcontextual factors that influence HIV and hepatitis risk behaviors of injection drug users. The article presents seven ethical dilemmas encountered using ethnographic methods: issues involving syringe replacement at injection locales, risks of participants' arrest, potential disruptions in participants' supply routes, risks of research staff arrest, threats to the protection of confidentiality, issues surrounding informed consent in working with addicts, and the confiscation of potentially incriminating information by police. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of traditional ethical frameworks, such as utilitarianism, for resolving these dilemmas and recommends instead improving public health professionals' capacity for practical reasoning (phronesis) through the greater use of case studies in public health curricula. PMID:11822551

Buchanan, David; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Stopka, Tom; Shaw, Susan; Santelices, Claudia; Singer, Merrill

2002-02-01

62

Ethical dilemmas in palliative care in traditional developing societies, with special reference to the Indian setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:There are intriguing and challenging ethical dilemmas in the practice of palliative care in a traditional developing society.Objective:To review the different ethical issues involved in cancer and palliative care in developing countries, with special reference to India.Methods:Published literature on pain relief and palliative care in the developing countries was reviewed to identify ethical issues and dilemmas related to these, and

S K Chaturvedi

2008-01-01

63

Ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice.  

PubMed

Speech-language pathologists experience ethical dilemmas as they fulfil their professional roles and responsibilities. Previous research findings indicated that speech-language pathologists working in publicly funded settings identified ethical dilemmas when they managed complex clients, negotiated professional relationships, and addressed service delivery issues. However, little is known about ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice settings. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 speech-language pathologists employed in diverse private practice settings. Participants explained the nature of ethical dilemmas they experienced at work and identified their most challenging and frequently occurring ethical conflicts. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse transcribed data and generate themes. Four themes reflected the nature of speech-language pathologists' ethical dilemmas; balancing benefit and harm, fidelity of business practices, distributing funds, and personal and professional integrity. Findings support the need for professional development activities that are specifically targeted towards facilitating ethical practice for speech-language pathologists in the private sector. PMID:24735456

Flatley, Danielle R; Kenny, Belinda J; Lincoln, Michelle A

2014-06-01

64

Subtle ethical dilemmas in geriatric management and clinical research  

PubMed Central

Routine management of geriatric problems often raises ethical problems, particularly regarding autonomy of the old person. The carers or children may be unaware of the sensitivity of role reversal in dealing with the financial affairs; the need for a residential carer may compromise the old person's privacy. Attending a day centre confers much benefit, but one must understand the old person's resistance to change in the proposal of a new daily regimen. Similarly his or her autonomy must be the priority in planning for admittance to an old age home, and not the assumption that the family knows best. A common dilemma is the assessment of an old person's competency in decision making, either about management of his affairs, or regarding consent to treatment, or participation in research. Because cognitive capacity is not always identical with competency, meaningful tools have recently been developed in which the emphasis is on the specific situation to be investigated. PMID:15923486

Rosin, A; van Dijk, Y

2005-01-01

65

Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.  

PubMed

Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application. PMID:24503745

Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdio?lu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümü?, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

2014-01-01

66

Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Psychological Counsellors Working at Different Institutions and Their Attitudes and Behaviours as a Response to These Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine the ethical dilemmas experiencing by the counsellors who work at different conditions and what they do to solve these dilemmas as well as the obstacles they have to deal with while resolving the dilemmas. This is a qualitative study in which multi-state pattern was used. For this research, 40 counsellors…

Kolay Akfert, Serpil

2012-01-01

67

Australian industry responses to current ethical dilemmas – fast cars and fast food  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews two ethical dilemmas currently facing advertisers in Australia, which have resulted from lobby group activities and public concern over health and safety issues, and discusses industry responses to these dilemmas. In Australia the main response mechanism for advertisers has been the introduction of self-regulatory codes of practice. A review of the general and trade press, and of

Sandra C. Jones

2005-01-01

68

Substance Abuse Counselors and Ethical Dilemmas: The Influence of Recovery and Education Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the impact of substance abuse counselor (SAC) recovery status and education level on SAC's sensitivity to ethical dilemmas and extent to which training might help resolve dilemmas. Results revealed a significant difference between SACs with a graduate degree and SACs with an associate's degree/high school diploma regarding sensitivity to…

Toriello, Paul J.; Benshoff, John J.

2003-01-01

69

Ethical Perspective on Quality of Care: The Nature of Ethical Dilemmas Identified by New Graduate and Experienced Speech Pathologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…

Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan

2009-01-01

70

Ethical Leadership and Decision Making in Education: Applying Theoretical Perspectives to Complex Dilemmas. Topics in Educational Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book discusses how students and practitioners should take into account four ethics paradigms to help solve authentic dilemmas. These paradigms are the ethic of justice, ethic of care, ethic of critique, and ethic of the profession. The book's purposes include demonstrating the application of these different paradigms through the discussion…

Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.

71

Hidden Ethical Dilemmas in Psychiatric Residency Training: The Psychiatry Resident as Dual Agent  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In addition to learning about confidentiality, civil commitment, informed consent, and other ethical issues, psychiatry residents must deal with less visible ethical dilemmas that arise from the training process itself. Residents grapple with three inherent conflicting duties between their dual roles as physician and learner, as physician and…

Hoop, Jinger G.

2004-01-01

72

Comparing Two Training Strategies to Increase Competence in Solving Ethical Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined which of two training models delivered through the internet led to better cultural competence in resolving ethical dilemmas with a sample of rehabilitation professionals. One type of training involved teaching a transcultural integrative model of ethical decision-making while the other training involved using the same…

Garcia, Jorge; Froehlic, Robert; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rejiester, Nicole

2009-01-01

73

Resolving the clinical and ethical dilemma involved in fetal-maternal conflicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serious ethical dilemma occurs when a pregnant woman refuses a medically indicated intervention. Should respect for her autonomy preclude any approach other than to accept her decision? Should the caregivers have recourse to “gentle persuasion”? Is there ever a justification for invoking the power of court-ordered intervention? The societal views on this subject are first developed from an ethical

JoAnn V. Pinkerton; James J. Finnerty

1996-01-01

74

Personal privacy versus public accountability: A technological solution to an ethical dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tension between personal privacy and public accountability produces one of the major ethical dilemmas facing behavioral health program evaluators and service system researchers. This article discusses the source of this tension and introduces a research methodology that allows program evaluators to fully and equally respect both ethical principles. This methodology uses contemporary computer and statistical technology in conjunction with

John A. Pandiani; Steven M. Banks; Lucille M. Schacht

1998-01-01

75

[Perception of nurses about ethical dilemmas related to terminal patients in intensive care units].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to learn about nurses' perception about ethical dilemmas in nursing care for terminal patients in the context of a general hospital ICU in the city of São Paulo, and what they take into account when making decisions. The study was performed through interviews with ten nurses working at the ICU, using a qualitative approach based on content analysis. Ethical dilemmas were found to be linked to: diversity of values; presence of terminal patients at the ICU; uncertainties aboutterminality and the limits of intervention to prolong the patients' lives; disagreements in decision-making; non-acceptance of the process of dying by the patients' families and the lack of clarifications for the patient and the family. In addition, the nurses consider their values, the professional ethics, empathy and dialogue with co-workers to make decisions in view of such ethical dilemmas. PMID:19437851

Chaves, Adriano Aparecido Bezerra; Massarollo, Maria Cristina Komatsu Braga

2009-03-01

76

978-1-4799-4992-2/14/$31.00 2014 Crown The ethical dilemma of implicit vs explicit data  

E-print Network

978-1-4799-4992-2/14/$31.00 �2014 Crown The ethical dilemma of implicit vs explicit data collection-- This paper focuses on the examination, analysis and ethical evaluation of the explicit data collection method of the two options which leads to the main explicit vs implicit data collection dilemma with which

Aickelin, Uwe

77

Ethical dilemmas in treating clients with eating disorders: A review and application of an integrative ethical decision-making model.  

PubMed

Ethical dilemmas frequently arise in the treatment of clients with eating disorders, and clinicians regularly encounter an array of ethical challenges related to whether or not overt and covert coercive tactics should be implemented. In this paper, the authors provide an overview of perplexing ethical questions relevant to medical, nutritional and psychological treatment of clients with eating disorders including imposed treatment, enforced feeding, the duty to protect minors and adults, the determination of competence and capacity among medically comprised clients, and the effectiveness of coercive treatment for clients with eating disorders. The processes of ethical decision-making in terms of ethical principles, professional codes of conduct, the existing empirical literature and the use of a decision-making framework are explored. Taking a collaborative and client-sensitive approach, the authors outline and apply an integrative ethical decision-making model to facilitate clinicians' decision-making process. PMID:20672390

Matusek, Jill Anne; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty

2010-01-01

78

Freedom of access: ethical dilemmas for Internet librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Libraries depend on ethical principles more than any other institution because library services are essentially human-oriented. Most national ethical principles for librarians are represented as professional ethic codes. Each of them eventually consolidates the ideology, the paradigm of national library services. Comparative analysis of national library ethic codes indicates the intellectual freedom principle as the key point and the superior

Irina Trushina

2004-01-01

79

International Ethical Dilemmas Confronting Australian Managers: Implications for the Training and Development of Employees Working Overseas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethical dilemmas

Pedigo, Kerry; Marshall, Verena

2004-01-01

80

Ethical Dilemmas of Child Abuse Reporting: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores effect of child abuse reporting on counselor-client relationship, mental health profession, and child protective services system. Uses ecological systems approach in exploration of interventions needed to help resolve child abuse reporting dilemma. Within ecosystems framework, discusses ethical guidelines and policymaking for reporting…

MacNair, Rebecca R.

1992-01-01

81

Dealing with Ethical Dilemmas on Campus. Survival Skills for Scholars, Volume 14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is about colleagues in colleges and universities who sometimes are unethical. It is about episodes that people in universities and colleges prefer not to talk about except in whispers, if at all--clashes over ethics and the dilemmas created by unethical colleagues in research and teaching. The book was written for those members of…

Whicker, Marcia Lynn; Kronenfeld, Jennie Jacobs

82

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: An Ethical Dilemma for Career Guidance Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment in the workplace poses something of an ethical dilemma for career guidance practice. This is because it is now known that about half of all working women in the UK are likely to be victims at some stage of their employment and that the effects on individuals are invariably negative and can be positively harmful. What, therefore,…

Bimrose, Jenny

2004-01-01

83

Teaching Social Work Students to Resolve Ethical Dilemmas in Domestic Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines findings from three focus groups conducted about resolving ethical dilemmas in the area of domestic violence. The study's findings point to the need to increase content on domestic violence throughout the social work curriculum and provide educational opportunities for field instructors and local professionals. Helping…

Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

2007-01-01

84

Researching Transformation at a South African University--Ethical Dilemmas in the Politics of Representation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the complexity of researching institutional culture and the ethical dilemmas posed in representing staff according to race and gender, drawing on three qualitative studies undertaken at a previously white South African university between 2000 and 2007. During the research process, issues of representation became a concern…

Ismail, Salma

2011-01-01

85

Dilemmas of Leadership: Decision Making and Ethics in the Community College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing primarily on issues that can be directly influenced by actions of the governing board or president, the nine chapters of this book explore the ethical dilemmas of leadership in today's community colleges. In "Leaders on a Tightrope: The Risks and Tensions of Community College Leadership," George B. Vaughan provides an overview of some of…

Vaughan, George B.; And Others

86

Ethics and Reproductive Issues: The Dilemma of Choice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson introduces students to the ethical implications of using our growing knowledge about the human genome to improve our personal and public health. Students will be asked to consider numerous ethical issues related to genetic testing and will find that there are no easy answers. Most importantly, students will learn that there is no one "answer" to an ethical question; rather, there exist a multitude of perspectives that must be taken into account. Ultimately, students will learn that making an ethical choice requires scientific knowledge and rational inquiry.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

87

Ethics and Eugenics Past, Present and Future  

E-print Network

1 Ethics and Eugenics Past, Present and Future I. Ethics II. History of Eugenics A. Francis Galton B. Eugenics in the US C. Nazi Germany III. Scientific evidence ??? IV. Eugenics policies today V is the moral regulation of behavior a necessary part of science? #12;2 II. History of Eugenics A. Sir Francis

Dever, Jennifer A.

88

[How does Hinduism analyze an ethical clinical dilemma].  

PubMed

It is indispensable for physicians to understand and recognize the fusion of different cultures, to deliver the best possible service to patients with different cultural backgrounds, especially when ethical-medical problems are involved. The Hindu community in Chile differs in significant ways with the western culture. This is especially true for some issues such as the belief in reincarnation or gender inequality, among others. These discrepancies can be relevant for the analysis of several bioethical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the different beliefs, traditions and Hindu visions. We hereby present a review of Hinduism, its relation with medical practice and, as an example, a case of abortion in a Hindu family. Reviewing the traditions, beliefs and methods will help to understand and respect the beliefs of different cultures in contemporary and globalized bioethics. PMID:20098814

Samtani B, Suraj; Jadue Z, Mariana; Beca I, Juan Pablo

2009-11-01

89

Surgical patents and patients--the ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed

It is obvious that every inventor should be rewarded for the intellectual effort, and at the same time be encouraged to successively improve his or her discovery and to work on subsequent innovations. Patents also ensure that patent owners are officially protected against intellectual piracy, but protection of intellectual property may be difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless, it all comes down to this basic question: Does a contradiction exist between medical ethics and the "Medical and Surgical Procedure Patents" system? It may well turn out that medical-procedure patents can have a negative influence on the standard of medical care. Medical-method patents may also interfere with the physician-patient relationship. At present, physicians do not question the usefulness of patent protection for medicines, biotechnology, equipment and devices, but they strongly oppose it for surgical procedures. PMID:15727000

To??oczko, Tadeusz

2005-01-01

90

Corporate Ethical Dilemmas: Indian Models for Moral Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'wall' that differentiates two different kinds of attitudes of the same person at different points of time denotes, as the author envisages, Conscious Attitudinal Infringement Area (CAIA), where moral dilemmas take birth to bridge the two different kinds of attitudes to give way to attitudinal interrelatedness. In order to 'reinforce' CAIA to narrow the gap between personal behaviour and

Ananda Das Gupta

2001-01-01

91

If anthropology is global, then so are its ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed

This paper reviews three personal situations of the author as a student: an NGO activist in the women's movement and a UN official working on women's health and tobacco. Each situation, the kinds of ethical issue posed and lessons for the future direction of ethics in anthropology are outlined. The paper argues that applied anthropology is embedded in the position of the field of anthropology within the politics of the State and that this defines the parameters of individual choice. Contradictions in ethical situations and decision-making are posed by changing from the distant observer to active involvement and these may not be resolved by logic alone. Furthermore, governance and defining global ethical standards such as for the behavior of the tobacco multinational corporations is a fascinating new realm for anthropological ethical resolve. PMID:11193019

Yoon, S Y

2000-01-01

92

I. ASCRC General Education Form Group Group VIII Ethics and Human Values  

E-print Network

of thought, and allow the student to discuss and debate ethical dilemmas in health care and pharmacy practice or lay press, which you believe represents an ethical dilemma. A dilemma is a problem where). Be prepared to articulate the dilemma presented in your article. DUE 1/23. You will present your ethical

Vonessen, Nikolaus

93

Reflections on the ethical dilemmas involved in promoting self-management  

PubMed Central

Due to their understanding of self-management, healthcare team members responsible for depressed older persons can experience an ethical dilemma. Each team member contributes important knowledge and experience pertaining to the management of depression, which should be reflected in the management plan. The aim of this study was to explore healthcare team members’ reflections on the ethical dilemmas involved in promoting self-management among depressed older persons. A qualitative design was used and data were collected by means of focus group interviews. The results revealed one main theme: ‘Lack of trust in the community health care system’s commitment to bringing about effectiveness and change, based on three themes; ‘Struggling to ensure the reliable transfer of information about depressed older persons to professionals and family members’, ‘Balancing autonomy, care and dignity’ and ‘Differences in the understanding of responsibility’. Lack of engagement on the part of and trust between the various professional categories who work in the community are extremely counterproductive and have serious implications for patient dignity as well as safety. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas occur when staff members are unable to act in accordance with their professional ethical stance and deliver an appropriate standard of care. PMID:24106261

Severinsson, Elisabeth

2014-01-01

94

Ethical dilemmas for general practitioners under the UK new contract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possible distributive justice frameworks for providing health care by general practitioners are discussed. The ethical considerations before and after the recent changes to the British National Health Service are contrasted, with particular emphasis on a possible ethical divide that has been produced between fund-holding and non-fund-holding general practitioners. It is argued that general practitioners in non-fund-holding practices can continue as

L F Smith; J R Morrissy

1994-01-01

95

Nurse Activism in the newborn intensive care unit: actions in response to an ethical dilemma.  

PubMed

Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethical dilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance. PMID:23454980

Settle, Peggy Doyle

2014-03-01

96

Ethical dilemmas for general practitioners under the UK new contract.  

PubMed Central

Possible distributive justice frameworks for providing health care by general practitioners are discussed. The ethical considerations before and after the recent changes to the British National Health Service are contrasted, with particular emphasis on a possible ethical divide that has been produced between fund-holding and non-fund-holding general practitioners. It is argued that general practitioners in non-fund-holding practices can continue as ethical advocates for their patients and distribute health care within an egalitarian framework. However, those in fund-holding practices may now be seen as interest advocates and may have to practise utilitarian distributive justice. Patient groups may be needed to ensure that these general practitioners are seen to act justly in the distribution of the health care resources for which they are now responsible. PMID:7996564

Smith, L F; Morrissy, J R

1994-01-01

97

The case of juvenile polygraphy as a clinical ethics dilemma.  

PubMed

Polygraph interrogations are used by half of all surveyed juvenile sex offender (JSO) treatment programs in the United States. This is a distinctive and controversial practice that is rarely if ever used with other juvenile delinquent populations, and that is rarely used or is banned from JSO treatment programs in other countries. Clinical polygraphy is an ethically sensitive issue because it involves mental health therapists in involuntary coercive interrogations of minors. This article reviews core mental health professional ethics principles for juveniles. JSO polygraphy is used as an illustrative issue for applying human rights principles to a practice in light of its benefits, risks, and available alternatives. PMID:20944059

Chaffin, Mark

2011-09-01

98

Entering Guanxi: A Business Ethical Dilemma in Mainland China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents an effort to distinguish between two types of guanxi prevalent in mainland China: favor-seeking guanxi that is culturally rooted and rent-seeking guanxi that is institutionally defined. Different rules of maneuvering the two types of guanxi are identified in light of Chinese cultural and business ethics. Strategies for entering guanxi in mainland China are also suggested.

Chenting Su; James E. Littlefield

2001-01-01

99

Assessing engineering students' abilities to resolve ethical dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABET's accreditation criteria provides additional impetus for preparing engineering graduates to act in an ethically responsible manner. However, methods to assess the effectiveness of educational efforts to do this remain primitive at best. We describe the first phase of a joint study at the University of Pittsburgh and the Colorado School of Mines to develop a measurement tool for assessing

Mark Sindelar; Larry Shuman; Mary Besterfield-Sacre; Ronald Miller; Carl Mitchams; Barbara Olds; Rosa Pinkus; Harvey Wolfe

2003-01-01

100

Social Psychological Approaches to the Perception of Ethical Dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moral psychology and social psychology theories are examined to illustrate their usefulness for evolving research on topics of business and organizational ethics. The authors believe that social psychological concepts such as attribution, cognitive distortion, and impression management can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of processes of moral perception and judgment. The organizational stakeholder concept and stakeholder mapping methods found

Stephen L. Payne; Robert A. Giacalone

1990-01-01

101

Critical-Level Utilitarianism and the Population-Ethics Dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles for the social evaluation of states of affairs with different population sizes, such as Classical Utilitarianism, often lead to the repugnant conclusion. Those that avoid it may have other ethically unattractive features. Average Utilitarianism does not lead to the repugnant conclusion but, in some cases, considers the addition of individuals whose lives are below neutrality to a utility-unaffected population

Charles Blackorby; Walter Bossert; David Donaldson

1997-01-01

102

Assessing L2 Writing: Alternative Constructs and Ethical Dilemmas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that different ethical issues arise according to how the construct of writing is defined for assessment purposes. Explains that most formal assessments assume a pragmatic, functional definition of second-language writing in which an examinee's text production is judged normatively in respect to conventions. Discusses efforts to develop…

Cumming, Alister

2002-01-01

103

A Right to Die?: Ethical Dilemmas of Euthanasia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…

Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.

1992-01-01

104

‘I am in blood Stepp'd in so far…’: ethical dilemmas and the sports team doctor  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many ethical dilemmas that are unique to sports medicine because of the unusual clinical environment of caring for players within the context of a team whose primary objective is to win. Many of these ethical issues arise because the traditional relationship between doctor and patient is distorted or absent. The emergence of a doctor–patient–team triad has created a

Brian Meldan Devitt; Conor McCarthy

2010-01-01

105

Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)  

MedlinePLUS

... v. Chakrabarty the U.S. S. Ct. rules that a genetically modified bacterium can be patented because it is the ... Florida. 1990s-present Europeans oppose the introduction of genetically manipulated foods and crops. Consumers in the US are more ...

106

The ethical dilemma of embryonic stem cell research.  

PubMed

To determine the knowledge, attitude, and ethical concerns of medical students and graduates with regard to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) research. This questionnaire based descriptive study was conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), Pakistan from February to July 2008. A well structured questionnaire was administered to medical students and graduate doctors, which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Informed consent was taken and full confidentiality was assured to the participants. Data were entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.12) and analyzed. A total of 204 male and 216 female medical students and doctors were administered questionnaires out of which 105 males (51.4%) and 108 females (50%) were aware of the embryonic stem cell research and its ethical implications. Forty percent males and 47% of females were of the opinion that life begins at conception. Forty-six percent males and 39% females were in favor of stem cell research while only 31% males and 28% females supported the ESC research. Less than 1/3 of students supported using frozen embryos for research purposes while more than 2/3 indicated that they were unlikely to support abortion for stem cell research purposes. The majority of the students were in favor of stem cell research with some reservations regarding ESC research. A sizeable number of students withheld their views, reflecting their poor understanding of medical ethics. The result of the study indicates a need for incorporating bioethics into the medical curriculum. PMID:22038063

Manzar, Nabeel; Manzar, Bushra; Hussain, Nuzhat; Hussain, M Fawwad Ahmed; Raza, Sajjad

2013-03-01

107

The clinician's dilemma: two dimensions of ethical care.  

PubMed

There is a continuing intense medico-ethico-legal debate around legalized euthanasia and physician assisted suicide such that ethically informed clinicians often agree with the arguments but feel hesitant about the conclusion, especially when it may bring about a change in law. We argue that this confusion results from the convergence of two continua that underpin the conduct of a clinician and are especially prominent in psychiatry. The two continua concern the duty of care and the importance of patient autonomy and they do not quite map into traditional divides in debates about sanctity of life, paternalism, and autonomy. As ethical dimensions, they come into sharp focus in the psychological complexities of end-of-life care and they form two key factors in most ethical and legal or disciplinary deliberations about a clinician's actions. Whereas both dimensions are important when a clinician reflects on what s/he has done or should do, they need careful balancing in a request for euthanasia or physician assisted suicide where the patient wants to take a decisive role in his or her own end-of-life care. However, end-of-life is also a situation where clinicians often encounter 'cries for help' so that both continua are importantly in play. Balancing these two continua without using blunt legal instruments is often required in psychiatric care in such a way as to problematize the idea that patient decisions should dominate the care options available. A simplistic approach to that issue arguably plays into what has been called an 'impoverished construction of life and death' and, some would say, devalues the basic commitments fundamental to medical care. PMID:23830641

Gillett, Grant; Chamberlain, Joshua

2013-01-01

108

Bio-ethical dilemmas related to medical treatment in pre-modern Jewish society, as a portal for raising current ethical issues.  

PubMed

Real-life ethical issues that concern those engaged in medical practice existed and were discussed in earlier ages. It seems that many of the same dilemmas that we face today occupied our ancestors as well. An investigation of historical sources may be useful in showing earlier methods of coping with the dilemmas relating to health and illness. In this article we will present several such topics taken from the sources of Jewish society in pre-modern Europe. These sources served as the basis for a course given to medical students as part of the Medical Humanities track. The "raw materials" are historical, written Hebrew and Yiddish sources from Jewish society. Genres include Minute books, the huge corpus of Responsa, historical elegies written about epidemics, memoirs, and instruction books written by Jewish physicians. Profound bio-ethical issues can be found in historical sources. Main issues discussed are: physician's fees, obligations, and rights; personal characteristics expected of physicians; physician's obligations when his/her own life is endangered; medicalization of certain human conditions; and ideological questions regarding the relationship between traditional folk medicine and modern, academic medicine. The historical distance facilitates a freer discussion about distant people, while getting in touch with our own attitudes. PMID:24340482

Mack, Tamar Salmon; Shaham, Dorith; Marcus, Esther-Lee

2013-09-01

109

Using fertile couples as embryo donors: An ethical dilemma.  

PubMed

The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors. PMID:24799876

Alizadeh, Leila; Omani Samani, Reza

2014-03-01

110

Ethical dilemmas of health care in the developing nations.  

PubMed

Limited resources, widespread poverty, and the absence of health insurance pose daily ethical problems for Third World physicians, who must balance their roles as individual patient advocates against a desire to provide health care to the greatest number of children. Pakistan has a per capita income of Rs. 7,220 (US$ 380) per year, or Rs. 800 (US$ 32) per month. The annual population growth of the country is 3.1%, and approximately 360,000 infants are born each year in Karachi, the largest city in the country. The Aga Khan University Hospital, a private teaching institution, is the only hospital in Karachi with a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The financial and medical data of 200 infants admitted to the NICU in 1988 were reviewed retrospectively, and compared with those of two specific subgroups. (1) Among 15 infants who underwent surgical intervention, the average total cost of hospitalization was Rs. 36,040 (US$ 1,900) per patient, with an average daily cost of Rs. 923 (US$ 49). The longest hospital stay was 6 months, for a child who had total colonic aganglionosis associated with a short gut syndrome. There were two deaths in this group. (2) Of the 21 premature neonates admitted having Idiopathic Respiratory Distress Syndrome (IRDS) during this period, the total hospitalization cost per patient was Rs. 23,260 (US$ 788), with a daily cost of Rs. 1,050 (US$ 55). Eleven patients required ventilatory support. There were 16 survivors. Among both groups, 6% of all revenues generated in the NICU were used to help families pay for the bills under a welfare scheme. PMID:2329461

Moazam, F; Lakhani, M

1990-04-01

111

Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

2011-01-01

112

Professional researcher or a ‘good guest’? Ethical dilemmas involved in researching children and families in the home setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we explore our experiences of researching children and families in the home setting. We trace the impact of the home setting on some ethical and methodological issues which arose in the course of conducting our field work and consider issues of consent, confidentiality, power, leaving the field and specifically our dilemmas, both personal and professional, around researcher

Wan Ching Yee; Jane Andrews

2006-01-01

113

Ethical Dilemmas in Testing for Late Onset Conditions: Reactions to Testing and Perceived Impact on Other Family Members  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines some of the ethical dilemmas that arise when testing for the late onset, untreatable condition of Huntington disease (HD) specifically now that technology allows us to test younger generations of the family for the mutant gene. Drawing on interview data from families with Huntington disease, the reactions to testing and perceived impact on other family members are

Elizabeth Chapman

2002-01-01

114

Comprehensive STD/HIV prevention education targeting US adolescents: review of an ethical dilemma and proposed ethical framework.  

PubMed

Adolescents are increasingly at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The prolonged latency period, sometimes in excess of five years, and the incubation period of up to 10 years before the manifestation of symptoms, may foster adolescents' false sense of invincibility and denial as they often do not see the devastating effects of the disease in their peers until they are older. In turn, their practice of safer sex may be hindered and thereby contribute to the escalation of this public health crisis among sexually active adolescents. Prevention-focused recommendations were made in the USA as a result of this crisis. Recommendations were made to: (1) include STD/HIV education in the curricula of grades kindergarten to 12; (2) increase to at least 75% the proportion of primary care and mental health professionals who provide age-appropriate STD/HIV prevention counselling to adolescents; and (3) expand HIV prevention services to include age-appropriate HIV education curricula for students in grades 4-12 in 95% of schools. Yet, in the USA, the provision of school-based comprehensive STD/HIV education has been difficult to achieve owing to certain limitations and, in some instances, legal action. These limitations include: limited student access; restricted content; and the implementation of sporadic and/or brief educational programmes. Given these recommendations and the fact that adolescents are acquiring STDs and HIV infections at increasing rates, and despite the limitations and legal actions, do health care professionals not have an ethical obligation to provide adolescents with comprehensive STD/HIV prevention education? This ethical dilemma will be discussed using the ethical decision-making principles of 'autonomy' and 'beneficence', and a decision-making model proposed by Thompson and Thompson, and by Chally and Loric. PMID:11221410

Brown, E J; Simpson, E M

2000-07-01

115

Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine.  

PubMed

Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits. PMID:23595959

Ramp, Daniel

2013-06-01

116

Resolving Ethical Issues at School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although ethical dilemmas are a constant in teachers' lives, the profession has offered little in the way of training to help teachers address such issues. This paper presents a framework, based on developmental theory, for resolving professional ethical dilemmas. The Four-Component Model of Moral Maturity, when used in conjunction with a…

Benninga, Jacques S.

2013-01-01

117

Ethics in photojournalism : past, present, and future  

E-print Network

Like writers and editors, photojournalists are held to a standard of ethics. Each publication has a set of rules, sometimes written, sometimes unwritten, that governs what that publication considers to be a truthful and ...

Bersak, Daniel R., 1980-

2006-01-01

118

Maintaining Confidentiality with Minors: Dilemmas of School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethical dilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethical dilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most…

Lazovsky, Rivka

2008-01-01

119

Ethical Dilemmas Surrounding the Use of Ventricular Assist Devices in Supporting Patients with End-Stage Organ Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Successful practice of cardiovascular medicine requires familiarity with the complex ethical issues that accompany therapeutic innovation and diffusion. Even as technologies transition from experimental to standard care, challenges remain. Mechanical circulatory support devices, for instance, are increasingly conceptualized as conventional therapies. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, the ethical issues surrounding the use of these devices in patients with end-stage organ dysfunction are becoming increasingly apparent. In this paper, we provide an introduction to ethical considerations related to the use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) in end-stage organ failure, focusing on three stages or decision points: initiation, continued use, and deactivation. Our goal is not to exhaustively resolve these dilemmas but to illustrate how ethical considerations relate to decision making. PMID:23518898

Bruce, Courtenay R.; Brody, Baruch; Majumder, Mary A.

2013-01-01

120

Uncertain diagnosis after newborn screening for cystic fibrosis: An ethics-based approach to a clinical dilemma.  

PubMed

There is uncertainty about the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis after newborn screening (NBS) for some babies, either because of an intermediate sweat chloride test or inconclusive gene mutation analysis. There is considerable difficulty knowing how best to manage these babies, some of whom will develop cystic fibrosis, but many not. This article offers an ethics-based approach to this clinical dilemma that should be helpful to clinicians managing the baby with an uncertain diagnosis of cystic fibrosis after NBS. PMID:24166986

Massie, John; Gillam, Lynn

2014-01-01

121

Presentation order effects on accounting students' ethical judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the results of two experiments that test whether students' judgments about the acceptability of questionable actions are affected by the order in which ethical arguments are presented in the classroom. When ethical arguments are presented sequentially in a group setting, prior research suggests a primacy effect; where the first behavior pattern observed by group members sets the

Randall E. LaSalle

1997-01-01

122

Ethical decision-making in the dilemma of the intersex infant.  

PubMed

The Making Ethical Decisions about Surgical Intervention (MEDSI) tool is designed to guide health care professionals, patients, and families faced with ethically charged decisions regarding surgical interventions for pediatric patients. MEDSI is built on the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and patient autonomy and created to promote truth-telling, compassion, respect for patient cultural and religious preferences, and appropriate follow up in the clinical setting. Following an overview of the 8 steps that compose MEDSI, the tool is applied to the management of intersex infants. The birth of a child with a disorder of sexual development (DSD) and ambiguous genitalia presents an ethically challenging situation for the family and health care team. The use of the MEDSI model is demonstrated in a case study involving the decision of surgical intervention in the management of an intersex child. PMID:24251985

Lathrop, Breanna L; Cheney, Teresa B; Hayman, Annette B

2014-03-01

123

Facing Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study of HR Managers' Perceptions of the Influences on Their Behavior and the Implications for Building an Ethical Culture in Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the perceptions of human resource managers who had faced ethical dilemmas in the workplace, to gain an understanding of how they felt their life experiences shaped their values in making ethical decisions. The experiences of ten human resource managers who believed they chose a right course of action when faced with…

LaMontagne, Ramona Marie

2012-01-01

124

Case Report: Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma in  

E-print Network

1 Case Report: Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma, Shankar A, Bansal S, Bhattacharya A, Bal A. Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull://openmed.nic.in/view/subjects/ojhas.html Submitted: Oct 11, 2012; Accepted:Jan 4, 2013; Published: Jan 25, 2013 Abstract: Thyroid surgeons

Carr, Leslie

125

Certified public accountants: Ethical perception skills and attitudes on ethics education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the proficiency of CPAs in recognizing and evaluating ethical and unethical situations. In addition, CPAs provided attitudes on ethics education. Respondents were asked to evaluate the ethical acceptability of CPA behavior as presented in six vignettes involving a variety of ethical dilemmas from questions of conflict of interest to questions of personal honor. The results tend to

Suzanne Pinac Ward; Dan R. Ward; Alan B. Deck

1993-01-01

126

The organizational context of ethical dilemmas: a role-playing simulation for the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

The allocation of health care resources often requires decision makers to balance conflicting ethical principles. The resource-constrained intensive care unit (ICU) provides an ideal setting to study how decision makers go about their balancing act in a complex and dynamic environment. The author presents a role-playing simulation exercise which models ICU admission and discharge decision making. Designed for the class-room, the simulation engages a variety of ethical, managerial, and public policy issues including end-of-life decision making, triage, and rationing. The simulation is based on a sequence of scenarios or "decision rounds" delineating conditions in the ICU in terms of disposition of ICU patients, number of available ICU beds, prognoses of candidates for admission, and other physiological and organizational information. Students, playing the roles of attending physician, hospital administrator, nurse manager, triage officer, and ethics committee member, are challenged to reach consensus in the context of multiple power centers and conflicting goals. An organization theory perspective, incorporated into the simulation, provides insight on how decisions are actually made and stimulates discussion on how decision making might be improved. PMID:11586656

Strosberg, M A

2001-01-01

127

Evolving friendships and shifting ethical dilemmas: fieldworkers' experiences in a short term community based study in Kenya.  

PubMed

Fieldworkers (FWs) are community members employed by research teams to support access to participants, address language barriers, and advise on culturally appropriate research conduct. The critical role that FWs play in studies, and the range of practical and ethical dilemmas associated with their involvement, is increasingly recognised. In this paper, we draw on qualitative observation and interview data collected alongside a six month basic science study which involved a team of FWs regularly visiting 47 participating households in their homes. The qualitative study documented how relationships between field workers and research participants were initiated, developed and evolved over the course of the study, the shifting dilemmas FWs faced and how they handled them. Even in this one case study, we see how the complex and evolving relationships between fieldworkers and study participants had important implications for consent processes, access to benefits and mutual understanding and trust. While the precise issues that FWs face are likely to depend on the type of research and the context in which that research is being conducted, we argue that appropriate support for field workers is a key requirement to strengthen ethical research practice and for the long term sustainability of research programmes. PMID:23433316

Kamuya, Dorcas M; Theobald, Sally J; Munywoki, Patrick K; Koech, Dorothy; Geissler, Wenzel P; Molyneux, Sassy C

2013-04-01

128

Psychiatric research ethics: an overview of evolving guidelines and current ethical dilemmas in the study of mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of psychiatry has an opportunity to construct a more refined, perhaps more enduring understanding of the ethical basis of mental illness research. The aim of this paper is to help advance this understanding by 1) tracing the evolution of the emerging ethic for biomedical experimentation, including recent recommendations of the President’s National Bioethics Advisory Commission, and 2) reviewing

Laura Weiss Roberts; Brian Roberts

1999-01-01

129

Presented in November, 2005 at the AAAI Fall Symposium, Washington, D.C. In "Papers from the AAAI Fall Symposium", Technical Report FS-05-06, pp. 70-77  

E-print Network

cases and principles when presented with an ethical dilemma, are described and discussed. Lessons by the author. One of the programs, Truth- Teller, is designed to accept a pair of ethical dilemmas and describe. The other program, SIROCCO, is constructed to accept a single ethical dilemma and retrieve other cases

McLaren, Bruce Martin

130

Workplace Literacy: Ethical Issues through the Lens of Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Even though principles to guide practice are crucial, there are no hard-and-fast rules for resolving ethical issues--dilemmas that are not easily resolvable because they present opposing values and outcomes that may harm to certain groups of people if not properly considered. This article describes a number of ethical dilemmas faced as a workplace…

Folinsbee, Sue

2009-01-01

131

Beyond Avoidance and Secrecy: Using Students' Practice to Teach Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a process-oriented approach to teaching ethical dilemmas to graduate social work students. The authors examine related empirical data and use classroom vignettes to illustrate their teaching methods. Several ethical dilemmas in different phases of clinical practice will be presented, including gift giving and receiving,…

Ringel, Shoshana; Mishna, Faye

2007-01-01

132

Fetal conditions and fatal decisions: Ethical dilemmas in ultrasound screening in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of globalization, new technologies of pregnancy are spreading rapidly from affluent to low-income countries. Yet, to date, there is very little research on the application of prenatal diagnostic technology in developing country settings or the dilemmas that prenatal screening may give rise to in situations where health-care resources are scarce. In this article, we describe how obstetrical

Tine Gammeltoft

2007-01-01

133

Resolving ethical dilemmas through international human resource management: a transaction cost economics perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the interaction between cross-cultural variation in ethics and international human resource management. Literature is reviewed that suggests the ethical orientation of a culture can vary based upon whether the culture values collective outcomes or adherence to generally accepted rules, processes, and rights. Drawing on transaction cost economics and social contracts theory, it is suggested that differences in

Wayne Grossman; Lyle F. Schoenfeldt

2001-01-01

134

Faculty Ethics: New Dilemmas, New Choices. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents, June 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Faculty ethics are considered in relation to conflict of interest between academic work and nonacademic consulting jobs, confidentiality of research, the employment of faculty by intelligence agencies, and the need for self-regulation by the academic community. For faculty members who serve as consultants, ethical issues arise concerning the use…

Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt

135

'They say Islam has a solution for everything, so why are there no guidelines for this?' Ethical dilemmas associated with the births and deaths of infants with fatal abnormalities from a small sample of Pakistani Muslim couples in Britain.  

PubMed

This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. PMID:21649685

Shaw, Alison

2012-11-01

136

An ethical dilemma. Is it ever acceptable to lie to a patient?  

PubMed

Ethical decision-making, and the choice of whether or not to be truthful, is an important part of everybody's life. For nurses, decisions such as these are made every day and affect not just themselves, but also the lives of others. This article will examine the ethics of truth-telling from the point of view of a theatre nurse dealing with a seriously ill patient. PMID:15515260

Fowler, Esther

2004-10-01

137

Genomic medicine: health care issues and the unresolved ethical and social dilemmas.  

PubMed

Our perception of the mechanism by which single genes can cause disease is evolving. This has led to the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of common diseases. Genomic Medicine continues to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of disease. Medicine has strived to achieve the goal of tailoring interventions to individual variations in risk and treatment response and advances in medical genomics will facilitate this process. Relevant to present-day practice is the use of genomic information to classify individuals according to disease susceptibility or expected responsiveness to a pharmacologic treatment and to provide targeted interventions. By investigating the genetic profile of individuals, medical professionals are able to select patients and use the information obtained to plan out a course of treatment that is much more in step with the way their body works. However, society is concerned about the effect genetic knowledge will have on ethnic or racial groups. Currently, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act prohibits discrimination based on genetics. There is a need to increase the understanding of the social and ethical challenges that genomics information may pose to clinicians and scientists. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; rather, clinically relevant examples are used to illustrate how genomic medicine can facilitate the provision of molecular diagnostic methods that improve drug therapy. Finally, the rapid pace of change in genomics may likely make my conclusions today obsolete tomorrow. PMID:22713532

Idemyor, Vincent

2014-01-01

138

Hypodontia and delayed dentition as the primary manifestation of cleidocranial dysplasia presenting with a diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

Cleidocranial dysplasia is a rare autosomal disorder which manifests as partial or complete absence of clavicles, multiple supernumerary teeth, and delayed closure of fontanelle. Classical cases of cleidocranial dysplasia are easily diagnosed very early in the life. However, cases with partial manifestation of the syndrome and noncontributory family history are difficult to diagnose. Here, we report a case of 8.5-year-old girl child who presented with delayed tooth development (without any supernumerary teeth), anterior open fontanelle, and normal clavicles, thus resulting in a diagnostic dilemma. PMID:23320199

Chopra, Radhika; Marwaha, Mohita; Chaudhuri, Payal; Bansal, Kalpana; Chopra, Saurabh

2012-01-01

139

The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas  

PubMed Central

The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

2010-01-01

140

Casuistry: A Complement to Principle Ethics and a Foundation for Ethical Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical dilemmas within any system are created when moral/ethical principles, rules, or guidelines can be cited for opposing actions with neither side presenting the obvious, right course to follow. This condition exposes the intricate interrelationship between abstract moral/ethical principles and the description and evaluation of real-life…

Freeman, Stephen J.; Francis, Perry C.

2006-01-01

141

Confidentiality of employee health records: ethical and legal dilemmas for occupational health nurses.  

PubMed

Health professionals must be familiar with regulations and statutes addressing privacy and confidentiality issues. The occupational health nurse must also be aware of specific limitations and exceptions to confidentiality. Occupational health nurses must become proactive in governmental affairs to lobby for changes to include workplace health records in future legislation. To ensure employee trust, occupational health nurses must maintain their ethical and legal responsibility to act morally when making decisions related to confidentiality. The AAOHN Code of Ethics and Interpretive Statements and the AAOHN Position Statement on Confidentiality of Health Information can be used as frameworks to guide occupational health nursing practice. PMID:14510033

McHugh, Janice

2003-09-01

142

Ethical Dilemmas and Emergent Values Encountered by Working College Students: Implications for Marketing Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large body of pedagogical research exists on developing curricula and ethics training tools to prepare college graduates for entering the workforce. However, many college students are "already" in the workforce while they attend school. Many of these jobs are entry-level or frontline employee positions in retail or service industries,…

Bush, Victoria D.; Smith, Rachel Korthage; Bush, Alan J.

2013-01-01

143

Parental Choices and Ethical Dilemmas Involving Disabilities: Special Education and the Problem of Deliberately Chosen Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human…

Kauffman, James M.; Hallahan, Daniel P.

2009-01-01

144

The Mole's Dilemma: Ethical Aspects of Public Internet Access in Academic Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…

Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

1999-01-01

145

A Preliminary Analysis of Environmental Dilemmas and Environmental Ethical Reasoning Among Hispanic and  

E-print Network

or ethnic heritage. An ethical theme of ecological protection is the content of many persuasive interpretive could be used as a guide to design interpretive visitor communications. 1 An abbreviated version Kohlberg's theory in the design of communications about environmental protection (Swearingen 1989

Standiford, Richard B.

146

Exploring Ethical Dilemmas for Principals Arising from Role Conflict with School Counsellors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,…

Kimber, Megan; Campbell, Marilyn

2014-01-01

147

Pedagogical Ethical Dilemmas in a Responsive Evaluation of a Leadership Program for Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do responsive evaluators provide input to program planners when competing ethical principles point to different choices of effective feedback? A team of three evaluators used participant observation, individual and focus group interviews, and analysis of documents to provide input on the development and outcome of a summer program for high…

Freeman, Melissa; Preissle, Judith

2010-01-01

148

Subject, project or self? Thoughts on ethical dilemmas for social and medical researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address an important but sadly neglected area; namely some of the ethical issues which arise for social and medical researchers in the course of their work. Our concern is for a wide spectrum of researchers using the full range of social research methods from small-scale in-depth qualitative work through to large scale quantitative studies. The unifying

Jane A. Batchelor; Catherine M. Briggs

1994-01-01

149

Ethical dilemmas in research with children and young people about their social environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a very welcome recent growth in research directly with and by children and young people, with a wide range of reporting children's own views and experiences. Research ethics has also recently been receiving a great deal of attention, and there are debates about the extent to which research with children differs from research with other groups. This

Virginia Morrow

2008-01-01

150

Ethical Issues in Covering Teen Suicide Stories: Deadly Dilemmas and Fatal Flaws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined news coverage by "The Saint Petersburg Times" of a local double teen suicide in August 1993. Focusing on how the story was covered, the study explored the newspaper's decision-making process, analyzing the process in relation to standard philosophical methods in ethics and recognized journalistic principles. As background,…

Willey, Susan

151

Ethics and the gender equality dilemma for U.S. multinationals  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. multinational enterprises must now follow the policies of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in their overseas operations, at least with respect to U.S. expatriate employees. Doing so in a culture which discourages gender equality in the workplace raises difficult issues, both practically and ethically. Vigorously importing U.S. attitudes toward gender-equality into a social culture such

Don Mayer; Anita Cava

1993-01-01

152

Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards  

Microsoft Academic Search

National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater\\u000a adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue\\u000a to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective\\u000a new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process

Sarah Flicker; Robb Travers; Adrian Guta; Sean McDonald; Aileen Meagher

2007-01-01

153

Quality of life and ethical and legal dilemmas in children during and after hematopoietic SCT procedure.  

PubMed

There is not any doubt that the SCT procedure involves important ethical and legal aspects. The expectations of patients concerning the quality of life and the new way of treatment are certainly an important motivation for researchers and physicians. Societies in Europe seem to accept the idea of using their own or allogeneic stem cells for tissue engineering and transplantation. A physician should be aware of the standards established by tradition and act within the general principles that have governed professional conduct. The International Code of Ethics and the Declaration of Geneva (1948), developed and approved by the World Medical Association, have modernized the ancient codes. They have been endorsed by each member organization, including The Polish Medical Association, as a general guide with nationwide application. The Polish Chamber of Physicians accepts the responsibility of delineating the standard of ethical behavior expected of Polish physicians. An interpretation of the principles concerning SCT is developed in the following pages as a guide for individual SCT physicians. PMID:18978753

Chybicka, A

2008-10-01

154

Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community.  

PubMed

The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".(1) Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues--which are often not acknowledged by commentators--that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor). PMID:11479358

Wagstaff, A

2001-08-01

155

The Ethics of Abstinence-Only and Abstinence-Plus Sexuality Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights some of the ethical dilemmas present in the debate over abstinence-only and abstinence-plus sexuality education in the schools, discussing issues related to: morality, ethics, and values; limitations to codes of ethics; questions about abstinence-only sexuality education; ethics and abstinence- only sexuality education; and sexuality…

Wiley, David C.

2002-01-01

156

Ethics in Publication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the ethical dilemmas in publication and provides recommendations for guidelines involving publication ethics. Counselors may be confronted with a variety of ethical dilemmas such as authorship issues, student-professor research, plagiarism, and other publication problems. The American Counseling Association's "Code of Ethics and…

Jones, Karen Dayle

1999-01-01

157

Ethical dilemma of mandated contraception in pharmaceutical research at catholic medical institutions.  

PubMed

The Catholic Church proscribes methods of birth control other than sexual abstinence. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognizes abstinence as an acceptable method of birth control in research studies, some pharmaceutical companies mandate the use of artificial contraceptive techniques to avoid pregnancy as a condition for participation in their studies. These requirements are unacceptable at Catholic health care institutions, leading to conflicts among institutional review boards, clinical investigators, and sponsors. Subjects may feel coerced by such mandates to adopt contraceptive techniques inconsistent with their personal situation and beliefs; women committed to celibacy or who engage exclusively in non-heterosexual activities are negatively impacted. We propose principles to insure informed consent to safeguard the rights of research subjects at Catholic institutions while mitigating this ethical conflict. At the same time, our proposal respects the interests of pharmaceutical research agencies and Catholic moral precepts, and fully abides by regulatory guidance. PMID:22694032

Casey, Murray Joseph; O'Brien, Richard; Rendell, Marc; Salzman, Todd

2012-01-01

158

Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.  

PubMed

Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

2013-01-01

159

Dilemmas in the treatment of asylum seekers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution discusses the ethical dilemmas faced by clinicians coming into contact with and treating refugees and asylum seekers. Such people may have endured multiple traumatic events in fleeing their country of origin and face a number of difficulties in a host country, including poverty, homelessness, language difficulties and so on. They present with a range of mental health problems,

Christina Pourgourides

2007-01-01

160

Health Ethics Education for Health Administration Chaplains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…

Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd

2008-01-01

161

Parental role in medical decision-making: fact or fiction? A comparative study of ethical dilemmas in French and American neonatal intensive care units.  

PubMed

Neonatal intensive care has been studied from an epidemiological, ethical, medical and even sociological perspective, but little is known about the impact of parental involvement in decision-making, especially in critical cases. We rely here on a comparative, case-based approach to study the parental role in decision-making within two technologically identical but culturally and institutionally different contexts: France and the United States. These contexts rely on two opposed models of decision-making: parental autonomy in the United States and medical paternalism in France. This paternalism model excludes parents from the decision-making process. We investigate whether parental involvement leads to different outcomes from exclusively medically determined decisions or whether "technological imperatives" outplay all other factors to shape a unique, 'medically optimal' outcome. Using empirical data generated from extensive ethnographic fieldwork, in-depth interviews with 60 clinicians and 71 parents and chart review over a year in two neonatal intensive care units (one in France and one in the US), we analyze the factors that can explain the observed differences in decision-making in medically identical cases. Parental involvement and the legal context play a less role than physicians' differential use of certainty versus uncertainty in prognosis, a conclusion that corroborates the fact that medical control over ethical dilemmas remains even in the context of autonomy. French physicians do not ask parents permission to withdraw care (as expected in a paternalistic context); but symmetrically, American neonatologists (despite the prevailing autonomy model) tend not to ask permission to continue. The study provides an analysis of the making of "ethics", with an emphasis on how decisions are conceptualized as ethical dilemmas. The final conclusion is that the ongoing medical authority on ethics remains the key issue. PMID:15020016

Orfali, Kristina

2004-05-01

162

Brain Science of Ethics: Present Status and the Future  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent advances in technologies for neuroscientific research enable us to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the human ethical sense. This article introduces several findings in "the brain science of ethics" obtained through "brain-observation" and "brain-manipulation" approaches. Studies over the past decade have revealed that several…

Aoki, Ryuta; Funane, Tsukasa; Koizumi, Hideaki

2010-01-01

163

Protest of doctors: a basic human right or an ethical dilemma  

PubMed Central

Background Peaceful protests and strikes are a basic human right as stated in the United Nations’ universal declaration on human rights. But for doctors, their proximity to life and death and the social contract between a doctor and a patient are stated as the reasons why doctors are valued more than the ordinary beings. In Pakistan, strikes by doctors were carried out to protest against lack of service structure, security and low pay. This paper discusses the moral and ethical concerns pertaining to the strikes by medical doctors in the context of Pakistan. The author has carefully tried to balance the discussion about moral repercussions of strikes on patients versus the circumstances of doctors working in public sector hospitals of a developing country that may lead to strikes. Discussion Doctors are envisaged as highly respectable due to their direct link with human lives. Under Hippocrates oath, care of the patient is a contractual obligation for the doctors and is superior to all other responsibilities. From utilitarian perspective, doctors’ strikes are justifiable only if there is evidence of long term benefits to the doctors, patients and an improvement in service delivery. Despite that, it is hard to justify such benefits against the risks to the patients. Harms that may incur to the patients include: prolongation of sufferings, irreversible damage to health, delay in treatment, death, loss of work and waste of financial resources. In a system of socialized medicine, government owing to greater control over resources and important managerial decisions should assume greater responsibility and do justice to all stakeholders including doctors as well as patients. If a doctor is underpaid, has limited options for career growth and is forced to work excessively, then not only quality of medical care and ability to act in the best interests of patients is adversely affected, it may also lead to brain drain. Summary There is no single best answer against or in favor of doctors’ industrial action. The author calls for the debate and discussion to revitalize the understanding of the ethical predicaments of doctors’ strikes with patient care as the priority. PMID:24612947

2014-01-01

164

Body enhancement through female genital cosmetic surgery creates ethical and rights dilemmas.  

PubMed

Female genital cosmetic surgery is surgery performed on a woman within a normal range of variation of human anatomy. The issues are heightened by a lack of long-term and substantive evidence-based literature, conflict of interest from personal financial gain through performing these procedures, and confusion around macroethical and microethical domains. It is a source of conflict and controversy globally because the benefit and harm of offering these procedures raise concerns about harmful cultural views, education, and social vulnerability of women with regard to both ethics and human rights. The rights issues of who is defining normal female anatomy and function, as well as the economic vulnerability of women globally, bequeath the profession a greater responsibility to ensure that there is adequate health and general education-not just among patients but broadly in society-that there is neither limitation nor interference in the decision being made, and that there are no psychological disorders that could be influencing such choices. PMID:23735570

Cain, Joanna M; Iglesia, Cheryl B; Dickens, Bernard; Montgomery, Owen

2013-08-01

165

A Four Point Guidance to Analyse Ethical Issues in Serious Game Development Vivekananda-Schmidt, P1  

E-print Network

for computer science ethical dilemmas The four quadrant framework2 for ethical analysis in medicine outlinesA Four Point Guidance to Analyse Ethical Issues in Serious Game Development Vivekananda-Schmidt, P1.Romano@Sheffield.ac.uk. Abstract This paper presents a four point guidance to analyse the ethical issues in the development

Romano, Daniela

166

The effects of professional education on values and the resolution of ethical dilemmas: Business school vs. law school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research on the impact of ethics education within the business curriculum has yielded mixed results. Although the impact is often found to be positive, it appears to be both small and short-lived. Interpretation of these results, however, is subject to important methodological limitations. The present research employed a longitudinal methodology to evaluate the impact of an M.B.A. program versus

Donald L. McCabe; Janet M. Dukerich; Jane E. Dutton

1994-01-01

167

Ethics in egg donation: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Since the advent of clinical human egg donation just over 25 years ago, ethical considerations have been central to its successful application and popular acceptance. Early in its history, "essentialist" arguments questioning the moral validity of the practice altogether were commonplace. More recently, most academic discussion has been focused on "consequentialist" issues relating to practical approaches to egg donation that minimize ethically troublesome consequences. Three issues that have attracted a bulk of the attention in this regard are compensation, postmenopausal pregnancy, and egg sharing. Although much consensus has been reached on some very controversial issues, the enormous potential of increasingly successful oocyte cryopreservation, as well as emerging stem cell technologies, is very likely to provide abundant fuel for the continued debate of provocative and contentious ethical issues in human egg donation. PMID:20683796

Klein, Joshua U; Sauer, Mark V

2010-07-01

168

[Very premature births: Dilemmas and management. Second part: Ethical aspects and recommendations].  

PubMed

In the first part of this work, the outcome following very premature birth was assessed. This enabled a gray zone to be defined, with inherent major prognostic uncertainty. In France today, the gray zone corresponds to deliveries occurring at 24 and 25 weeks of postmenstrual age. The management of births occurring below and above the gray zone was described. Withholding intensive care at birth for babies born below or within the gray zone does not mean withholding care but rather providing palliative care to prevent pain and suffering during the time period preceding death. Given the high level of uncertainty, making good decisions within the gray zone is problematic. Decisions should be based on the infant's best interests. Decisions should be reached with the parents, who are entitled to receive clear and comprehensive information. Possible decisions to withhold intensive care should be made following the procedures described in the French law of April 2005. Guidelines, based on gestational age and the other prognostic elements, are proposed to the parents before birth. They are applied in an individualized fashion, in order to take into account the individual features of each case. At 25 weeks, resuscitation and/or full intensive care are usually proposed, unless unfavorable factors, such as severe growth restriction, are associated. A senior neonatologist will attend the delivery and will make decisions based on both the baby's condition at birth and the parents' wishes. At 24 weeks, in the absence of unfavorable associated factors, the parents' wishes should be followed in deciding between initiating full intensive care or palliative care. Below 24 weeks, palliative care is the only option to be offered in France at the present time. PMID:20223643

Moriette, G; Rameix, S; Azria, E; Fournié, A; Andrini, P; Caeymaex, L; Dageville, C; Gold, F; Kuhn, P; Storme, L; Siméoni, U

2010-05-01

169

Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

2008-01-01

170

While alluring to many, some diamonds continue to pose a serious ethical dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Watchdog Urges Tighter Rein on Conflict Gemshttp://allafrica.com/stories/200610100005.htmlKimberly Process [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.kimberleyprocess.com:8080/Making It Work: Why The Kimberly Process Must Do More to Stop Conflict Diamonds [pdf]http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/diamond/2005/stopconflict.pdfHistory of Diamonds [QuickTime, Windows Media Player]http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/earth/rock-minerals/130705Diamonds/history-of-diamonds.htmlCrater of Diamonds State Park, Arkansashttp://www.craterofdiamondsstatepark.com/Decades before the DeBeers company created the âÂÂA diamond is foreverâ marketing slogan, diamonds had become the premier precious stone of choice for many engagement rings. In the past few years, diamonds mined in a variety of countries in West Africa have acquired a rather dramatic sobriquet: âÂÂconflict diamondsâÂÂ. The word âÂÂconflictâ is specifically meant to refer those diamonds that have been smuggled and sold on the international market in order to fund various wars in countries including Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola. This week a number of news organizations reported that diamonds from the Ivory Coast are still being sold on the international market, which is an explicit breach of an international ban that went into effect a year ago. On a broader scale, the country is also subject to the innovative requirements of the Kimberly Process, which was started in 2002, and which was also meant to prevent the sale of such âÂÂconflict diamondsâÂÂ. Members of the United Nationsâ Security Council remain optimistic about monitoring the situation, but oversight in this area of international trade remains difficult. The first link will take users to a news article from this TuesdayâÂÂs BBC News Online that reports on the revelation that Ivorian diamonds are still available on the international market. Moving along, the second link leads to a news article by Emad Mekay that reports on a recent paper from the U.S. Government Accountability Office that suggests that the United States should adopt stronger oversight measures in order to determine the origins of various diamonds. The third link will lead users to the site that provides detailed information about the Kimberly Process. The fourth link leads to a fascinating 51-page report from the Global Witness organization that provides information about the current shortcomings of the Kimberly Process, and how its scope of operations might be improved over the short and long term. The fifth link will take users away to a very engrossing video introduction to the history of diamonds, proffered by the Natural History MuseumâÂÂs Andy Fleet. During this presentation, visitors will learn about the aesthetic and utility value placed on these gems. Interested diamond prospectors and rock-hounds will be delighted to learn about the final site, which is the virtual home of the Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas. For those not in the know already, this park is the only site in the world where any one can just come, search, and keep any diamonds they might uncover.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

171

"Walk the Talk": Developing Personal Ethical Agency through a Business Partnership Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a pedagogical approach dedicated to help students develop personal ethical agency--the ability to make decisions that involve ethical dilemmas consistent with an individual's ethical standards and professional standards of practice. The approach presented involves a tripartite gathering of students, business executives, and…

Matherne, Brett P.; Gove, Steve; Forlani, Victor; Janney, Jay J.

2006-01-01

172

Feeling trapped and being torn: Physicians' narratives about ethical dilemmas in hemodialysis care that evoke a troubled conscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This study is part of a major study about difficulties in communicating ethical problems within and among professional groups\\u000a working in hemodialysis care. Describing experiences of ethically difficult situations that induce a troubled conscience may\\u000a raise consciousness about ethical problems and thereby open the way to further reflection.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The aim of this study was to illuminate the meanings of being

Catarina EC Fischer Grönlund; Vera Dahlqvist

2011-01-01

173

Factors That May Influence Master's-level Counselor Trainee's Ability to Discern Elements of an Ethical Dilemma.  

E-print Network

??This study investigated the relationship among abstract reasoning ability, the personality factors of neuroticism, openness, conscientiousness, completion of an ethics class and a practicum class,… (more)

Beach, Barbara Dean

2006-01-01

174

Who pays for providing spiritual care in healthcare settings? The ethical dilemma of taxpayers funding holistic healthcare and the first amendment requirement for separation of church and state.  

PubMed

All US governmental, public, and private healthcare facilities and their staff fall under some form of regulatory requirement to provide opportunities for spiritual health assessment and care as a component of holistic healthcare. As often the case with regulations, these facilities face the predicament of funding un-reimbursable care. However, chaplains and nurses who provide most patient spiritual care are paid using funds the facility obtains from patients, private, and public sources. Furthermore, Veteran healthcare services, under the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), are provided with taxpayer funds from local, state, and federal governments. With the recent legal action by the Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc. (FFRF) against the Veterans Administration, the ethical dilemma surfaces between taxpayers funding holistic healthcare and the first amendment requirement for separation of church and state. PMID:19890722

Warnock, Carla Jean Pease

2009-12-01

175

Ethical Dilemmas in Individual and Collective Rights-Based Approaches to Tertiary Education Scholarships: The Cases of Canada and Cuba  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term…

Lehr, Sabine

2008-01-01

176

Ethical dilemmas in individual and collective rights?based approaches to tertiary education scholarships: the cases of Canada and Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long?term stay as permanent residents and ultimately

Sabine Lehr

2008-01-01

177

Bioethical principles and care-based ethics in medical futility.  

PubMed

The process for solving ethical, legal, and moral dilemmas in the field of medicine is complex and time consuming. Frequently, the constraint of time forces the healthcare professional to make decisions quickly. When working with the cancer population, one faces, additionally, the dilemma of medical futility. Guidelines from the bioethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmalificence, and justice help to address this dilemma. The use of care-based ethics allows healthcare professionals to establish trust, thus enabling patients and their families to be open to change and make realistic decisions. This article contrasts care-based ethical theory with justice-based ethical theory, using a case presentation to illustrate the importance of care-based ethics in making a moral decision to forgo medically futile treatment. PMID:8788770

Laffey, J

1996-01-01

178

Dilemmas in Medicine, 2nd Edition 1977. CEM Probe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published for secondary school youth in England, the PROBE series presents provocative information and discussion questions on topical themes. The focus of this issue is on aspects of medicine which raise moral dilemmas for doctors, patients, and society in general. This issue contains case studies which illustrate ethical questions raised by the…

Undy, Harry, Ed.

179

Onsrud, H.J., Ethical Issues in the Use and Development of GIS, Proceedings of GIS/LIS `97 ETHICAL ISSUES IN THE USE AND DEVELOPMENT OF GIS  

E-print Network

-5711 onsrud@spatial.maine.edu ABSTRACT Users of geographic information are faced with ethical dilemmas for us. We know which action to take. Ethical dilemmas are created when we must choose between actions these ethical dilemmas be resolved? THE SCIENCE OF ETHICS The science of ethics helps us sort out which moral

Onsrud, Harlan J.

180

Ethical issues in integrative oncology.  

PubMed

Integrative oncology relates to an emerging dialog between complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) scholars, oncologists, family practitioners, and other health care providers who envision an extended and holistic patient-centered approach to oncology care. The multiple commitments of integrative oncology to a medical humanistic approach and to a strong evidence-based foundation may impose considerable ethical concerns and dilemmas. The authors use narrative ethics to present a case study that exemplifies the ethical challenges confronting physicians and health care providers who wish to provide an integrative approach for their patients. An ethical analysis of the narrative is provided to help clarify the ethical issues and conflicts within it. Finally, a framework that may transform ethical constraints to a communication tool is proposed. PMID:18638699

Ben-Arye, Eran; Schiff, Elad; Golan, Ofra

2008-08-01

181

Ethics and Special Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of ethics in special education focuses on four challenges: (1) examination of special education's history within an ethical framework; (2) articulation of character morality as well as choice morality in special education ethical dilemmas; (3) examination of special education in a liberal democracy; and (4) development of an ethical

Paul, James; French, Peter; Cranston-Gingras, Ann

2001-01-01

182

The Impact of the Nurse-Physician Professional Relationship on Nurses' Experience of Ethical Dilemmas in Effective Pain Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 1,015 Australian registered nurses found that those who felt adequately consulted by physicians were significantly more likely to initiate consultation. Nurses dissatisfied with their relationship with physicians were more likely to experience ethical conflicts related to pain management. Level of satisfaction with this relationship…

Van Niekerk, Leesa Micole; Martin, Frances

2002-01-01

183

Presenting the Scientific Process: Introducing Philosophy, Theory, Methods, and Ethics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a course titled Scientific Process, we introduce undergraduates to the philosophy and practice of science and initiate them into a 2-year undergraduate research track. Engaging exercises and discussions help students understand the scientific process and ultimately produce a research proposal in grant application format. Students defend their written proposal during a 15-minute oral presentation.

Mason Meers (University of Tampa;); Nora Demers (Florida Gulf Coast University;); Michael Savarese (Florida Gulf Coast University;)

2003-12-31

184

Mucinous cystadenocarcinoma arising in an ectopic kidney simulating a retroperitoneal dermoid cyst: a rare tumour presenting as a diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

Primary mucinous cystic neoplasms are rare tumours of the kidney, with a very few case reports in the literature. They arise from metaplasia of renal pelvic urothelium. We describe here a 45-year-old male who presented with pain in the abdomen and a lump in the left iliac fossa for two months. Ultrasound and CT scan showed a large, complex, heterogenous mass in the central abdomen and left iliac fossa, suggesting the possibility of dermoid cyst. Excision of the mass showed an enlarged multicystic kidney filled with mucin, destruction of renal parenchyma and a small viable area of grey white tumour. Histopathology revealed a peripherally located mucinous cystadenocarcinoma arising in the background of chronic pyelonephritis and mucinous metaplasia. We report this case for the rarity of the lesion and the associated clinical and radiological diagnostic dilemma. PMID:23817401

Yadav, R; Kataria, K; Balasundaram, P; Karak, A K

2013-06-01

185

Integrating Ethical Issues with Managerial Decision Making in the Classroom: Product Support Program Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature on the teaching of ethics points to the need for realistic business problems in which students deal with ethical dilemmas. This paper presents the results of an experiment in which students take on the role of a Brand Manager who must decide on the level of support to allocate to four distinct business problems. The problems were presented as

John M. Zych

1999-01-01

186

Philanthropic dilemmas and the nurse administrator role.  

PubMed

Nurse administrators are in a position to encounter ethical dilemmas when evaluating philanthropic proposals. Nurses may have little formal training in ethics, or they may be most experienced with ethical frameworks that apply primarily to clinical patient encounters. Gifts of goods, services, education, or other benefits to nurses may create ethical dilemmas. Philanthropic ethics and potential dilemmas are discussed in nonnursing professions such as medicine and nonprofit administration but rarely explored in the nursing administration context. Nurse administrators in a position to evaluate generous offers of philanthropy should identify key components to fully assess the ethics of their receipt. A survey of several resources is done to provide nurse administrators with the foundation to develop policies related to philanthropy if they are absent, preferably in advance of the offer. Recommendations for assessment and evaluation of philanthropic proposals are provided to aid nurse administrators in their synthesis and application of ethical principles from multiple sources. PMID:25208151

Klein, Tracy

2014-01-01

187

Research ethics May 1, 2010  

E-print Network

resources) that might be of help to you in case you encounter an ethical dilemma (as a graduate studentResearch ethics workshop May 1, 2010 Dr. Morris R. Flynn (mrflynn@ualberta.ca) #12;Why are we here

Flynn, Morris R.

188

Planaria Laboratory Activity - Presentation - The Science and Ethics of Stem Cell Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint presentation is for the teacher to use during the laboratory activity. Please also see the PDF files for use by students and the teacher, also in the Planaria Laboratory Activity collection. This lab activity may be used in conjunction with the rest of the The Science and Ethics of Stem Cell Research curriculum.

2009-01-01

189

School Psychologists Ethical Decision Making: Implications from Selected Social Psychological Phenomena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School psychologists routinely engage in ethical decision making, and existing models have served as useful tools for systematically approaching ethical dilemmas. However, a few of these models have taken account of the rich and salient body of social psychology research. This article reviews social psychological phenomena that present clear…

Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry

2007-01-01

190

Education and Training in Ethical Decision Making: Comparing Context and Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a teaching methodology for improving the understanding of ethical decision making. This pedagogical approach is applicable in college courses and in corporate training programs. Design/methodology/approach: Participants are asked to analyze a set of eight ethical dilemmas with differing situational…

Perri, David F.; Callanan, Gerard A.; Rotenberry, Paul F.; Oehlers, Peter F.

2009-01-01

191

Ethical Child Welfare Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

192

Designing an Ethics Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

Prager, Richard

1993-01-01

193

Erythromelalgia presenting with premature exfoliation of primary teeth: a diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

Erythromelalgia is an extremely rare neurovascular disorder, characterized by symptoms of red, hot, and painful extremities. There is considerable confusion regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of this condition, and the diagnosis is essentially a clinical one. This condition may occur in isolation or in association with other myeloproliferative disorders. Unfortunately, no therapy is effective consistently in managing the symptoms, although early diagnosis can aid in psychological counseling and minimizing the frequency and severity of the attacks. The purpose of this report was to describe the case of a child presenting with premature loss of primary teeth and the difficulties in determining the final diagnosis of erythromelalgia, which responded positively to low-grade aspirin therapy. PMID:23211921

Prabhu, Neeta; Alexander, Sherene; Wong, Peter; Cameron, Angus

2012-01-01

194

Ewing's Sarcoma of the Sacroiliac Joint Presenting as Tubercular Sacroiliitis: A Diagnostic Dilemma.  

PubMed

We report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the sacroiliac joint in a 21-year-old male mimicking tubercular sacroiliitis, a rare entity not reported in literature. He presented with pain in the lower back radiating to the right lower limb along with constitutional symptoms of 3 months duration. On examination, the right sacroiliac joint was tender. The laboratory investigations showed anaemia, leukocytosis and raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate. On X-ray, features of right sacroiliitis were seen. This was further investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which showed features consistent with tubercular sacroiliitis. Patient was then started on antitubercular treatment, but the improvement was not consistent. So, a contrast MRI was done, which indicated features of primary sarcoma. It was then further confirmed by a computed tomography-guided biopsy, which showed features consistent with Ewing's sarcoma of the sacroiliac joint. PMID:24596610

Garg, Bhavuk; Jalan, Divesh; Kotwal, Prakash P

2014-02-01

195

Ewing's Sarcoma of the Sacroiliac Joint Presenting as Tubercular Sacroiliitis: A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

We report a case of Ewing's sarcoma of the sacroiliac joint in a 21-year-old male mimicking tubercular sacroiliitis, a rare entity not reported in literature. He presented with pain in the lower back radiating to the right lower limb along with constitutional symptoms of 3 months duration. On examination, the right sacroiliac joint was tender. The laboratory investigations showed anaemia, leukocytosis and raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate. On X-ray, features of right sacroiliitis were seen. This was further investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which showed features consistent with tubercular sacroiliitis. Patient was then started on antitubercular treatment, but the improvement was not consistent. So, a contrast MRI was done, which indicated features of primary sarcoma. It was then further confirmed by a computed tomography-guided biopsy, which showed features consistent with Ewing's sarcoma of the sacroiliac joint. PMID:24596610

Garg, Bhavuk; Kotwal, Prakash P

2014-01-01

196

Professional ethics. A case study of infusion nurse consultants.  

PubMed

As the healthcare system continues to reform, opportunities exist for infusion nurses to expand their practice into the business world. Traditionally, biomedical ethics have been used in nursing education as a framework for identifying and responding to ethical dilemmas. However, in the business world, professional ethics may be more subtle and insidious. A case study of ten infusion nurse consultants and their experiences with professional ethical issues is presented. Data were obtained using interviews, and content analysis revealed emergent themes of integrity and intuitive knowing with related categories. PMID:11847709

Adams, J

2000-01-01

197

The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Ethical Principles for (Re)Presenting Students and Student Writing in Teachers' Publications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses interrelated sets of ethical considerations: the ethical principles for representing students and student writing in the teacher's own publications of two types--in textbooks designed for student use, and in research publications and conference presentations designed for the author's peers. Lists 10 points to make clear to students whose…

Bloom, Lynn Z.

2003-01-01

198

Ethical Healthcare Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have combined a bottom-up casuistry approach with a top-down implementation of an ethical theory to develop a system that\\u000a uses machine-learning to abstract relationships between prima facie ethical duties from cases of particular types of ethical dilemmas where ethicists are in agreement as to the correct action.\\u000a This system has discovered a novel ethical principle that governs decisions in

Michael Anderson; Susan Leigh Anderson

199

Ethical dilemma: offering short-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for terminally ill children who are not candidates for long-term mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation.  

PubMed

The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in terminally ill pediatric patients who are not candidates for long-term mechanical circulatory support or heart transplantation requires careful deliberation. We present the case of a 16-year-old female with a relapse of acute lymphoid leukemia and acute-on-chronic cardiomyopathy who received short-term ECMO therapy. In addition, we highlight several ethical considerations that were crucial to this patient's family-centered care and demonstrate that this therapy can be accomplished in a manner that respects patient autonomy and family wishes. PMID:24668981

Shankar, Venkat; Costello, John P; Peer, Syed M; Klugman, Darren; Nath, Dilip S

2014-04-01

200

“Here’s My Dilemma”. Moral Case Deliberation as a Platform for Discussing Everyday Ethics in Elderly Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study presents an overview of the issues that were brought forward by participants of a moral case deliberation (MCD)\\u000a project in two elderly care organizations. The overview was inductively derived from all case descriptions (N = 202) provided\\u000a by participants of seven mixed MCD groups, consisting of care providers from various professional backgrounds, from nursing\\u000a assistant to physician. The MCD groups

S. van der Dam; T. A. Abma; M. J. M. Kardol; G. A. M. Widdershoven

201

[The ethical approach applied to the TV series ER].  

PubMed

The television series ER presents an opportunity to reflect on ethical dilemmas. This article discusses the example of an episode in which a patient suffering from an incurable disease, unable to express his views clearly, has a tracheotomy performed on him without the consent of the team or his health care proxy. PMID:23776983

Svandra, Philippe

2013-05-01

202

Ethics and Representation in Qualitative Studies of Literacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflecting on the practice of qualitative literacy research, this book presents 14 essays that address the most pressing questions faced by qualitative researchers today: how to represent others and themselves in research narratives; how to address ethical dilemmas in research-participant relations; and how to deal with various rhetorical,…

Mortensen, Peter, Ed.; Kirsch, Gesa E., Ed.

203

Difficult Decisions: Social and Ethical Implications of Changing Medical Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A primary objective of this paper is to present data on subjective perceptions of health and quality of life in individuals living with early- or late-onset genetic conditions (cystic fibrosis, CF, and Huntington’s disease, HD, respectively). The paper will also discuss the social and ethical dilemmas raised by advances in reproductive and testing technology, consider the different emphases in

Elizabeth Chapman

2002-01-01

204

Teaching Business Ethics in Accounting Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Accounting graduates must be able to recognize and resolve ethical dilemmas. Ethics should be taught frequently and in short doses, using such methods as videotapes, discussions of current events, and cases of real company practices. (SK)

D'Aquila, Jill M.

1999-01-01

205

Unraveling Ethics: Reflections from a Community-Based Participatory Research Project with Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is limited literature describing the ethical dilemmas that arise when conducting community-based participatory research. The following provides a case example of ethical dilemmas that developed during a multi-method community-based participatory action research project with youth in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Several ethical dilemmas emerged…

Walsh, Christine A.; Hewson, Jennifer; Shier, Michael; Morales, Edwin

2008-01-01

206

Ethical dilemmas in providing nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decisions involved in the institution of artificial feeding in patients with chronic and\\/or terminal illness are difficult.\\u000a They are more complex when one is deciding if nutrition and hydration are to be withdrawn. In both instances the decision\\u000a must be based on a combination of factors: the patient's right to self-determination; documented medical evidence demonstrating\\u000a the need for artificial

Michael E. Groher

1990-01-01

207

Another ethical dilemma in neonatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo ascertain parents attitude, knowledge and awareness of the type of Surfactant used in the Tertiary Neonatal unit to treat Respiratory Distress Syndrome and religious limitations.MethodThis is a pilot project. We sent e-mail surveys through the Survey Monkey website to all the staff in a District General Hospital with a surfactant survey questionnaire that we devised seeking their opinion as

S A Ahmed; A Arasu

2011-01-01

208

The "hot seat" experience: a multifaceted approach to the teaching of ethics in a dental curriculum.  

PubMed

The subject of ethics and the teaching of skills associated with ethical reasoning in a predoctoral dental curriculum are as important as clinical skills development, but there is no single approach to teaching ethics in dentistry. This article aims to describe the didactic approach used to teach dental ethics and ethical reasoning in the first year of the D.M.D. curriculum at the University of British Columbia. This descriptive article discusses three main pedagogies employed to teach ethics: the "hot seat" experience via a role-play with a trained actor (standardized patient, SP); small-group presentations of a case workup deconstructing an ethical dilemma; and student reflections from the SP encounters. The approach to dental ethics presented here does not profess to make an otherwise unethical person ethical, but it can give all students the tools to recognize when a dilemma exists, use a process to reason ethically, and ultimately make a good decision. The "hot seat" and the case workup approaches have had a positive impact upon students as illustrated through their reflections; however, further study is needed to better understand the implications of ethical issues in both academic and professional settings. PMID:21045227

Brondani, Mario A; Rossoff, Lawrence P

2010-11-01

209

Towards Professionalism: Ethical Perspectives of Israeli Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to gain a better understanding of teachers' perceptions about their ethical dilemmas and roles. Qualitative data were collected by interviewing 32 teachers in seven schools. Interviewees were asked to provide detailed descriptions of ethical dilemmas they had encountered. The coding process focused on critical incidents…

Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

2009-01-01

210

IS PAY INVERSION ETHICAL? A THREE-PART EXERCISE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ricci and Markulis (1990) combined study classroom lecture on business ethics with simulation posing an ethical dilemma to evaluate the effect of the lecture upon students' attitudes during the simulation. Similar to Jennings, Hunt, and Cretien (1992), this simulation also involved a large pharmaceutical company. The Ricci and Markulis simulation included an ethical dilemma involving the disclosure of an unfavorable

R. Bruce McAfee; Myron Glassman; Marian W. Boscia

2006-01-01

211

[Ethics and solitary confinement in psychiatry].  

PubMed

The decision to treat a patient in solitary confinement in psychiatry does not follow any protocol and is not made on a case-by-case basis. Team deliberation opens discussion and enables the group as a whole to take responsibility for clarifying what is to be supported by the team and implemented by the carer during treatment. When presented with complex situations, uncertainty can be a force when it calls upon an ethical dilemma. PMID:25335218

Andrieu, Jean-Pierre

2014-01-01

212

From cases to capacity? A critical reflection on the role of 'ethical dilemmas' in the development of dual-use governance.  

PubMed

The dual-use issue is often framed as a series of paralyzing 'dilemmas' facing the scientific community as well as institutions which support innovation. While this conceptualization of the dual-use issue can be useful in certain contexts (such as in awareness-raising and as part of educational activities directed at the scientific community) its usefulness is more limited when reflecting on the governance and politics of the dual-use issue. Within this paper, key shortcomings of the dilemma framing are outlined. It is argued that many of the issues raised in the most recent debates about 'dual-use' bird flu research remain unresolved. This includes questions about the trajectories of certain lines of research, as well as broader trends in the practice and governance of science. This leads to difficult questions about current approaches to the dual-use issue within the US, as well as internationally. PMID:23703451

Edwards, Brett; Revill, James; Bezuidenhout, Louise

2014-06-01

213

Embracing bioethics in neonatal intensive care, part I: evolving toward neonatal evidence-based ethics.  

PubMed

Ethical treatment dilemmas are not new to the NICU. With technologic advances over the past 20 years, NICU care has developed rapidly, and survival rates have improved for some of the tiniest and most critically ill infants. In guiding clinical practice, however, standards in evidenced-based medicine have often superseded standards in evidence-based ethics. Part I of this article presents a historical review of neonatal care and an overview of cases that have set precedents in neonatal ethical debate. It also includes recommendations for enhancing the skills of neonatal nurses as patient advocates in NICU ethical issues, an area that is, at times, controversial and baffling to clinicians. PMID:16514865

Purdy, Isabell B

2006-01-01

214

[Henri Atlan's levels of ethics and the challenge of the "fourth level"].  

PubMed

This article presents the ideas on ethics by the contemporary French biophysicist and Spinozist philosopher Henri Atlan, based on his singular epistemological position, in constant transit between naturalistic philosophy (in alliance with cognitive sciences) and his refusal to a natural foundations of ethics. It underlines Atlan's defense of casuistry towards bioethics dilemmas and associates it to his proposal of different levels of ethics. The text introduces a reflection concerning Atlan's ideas about the possible passage between the third and the fourth levels of ethics, stressing its positive impact in individuals and social groups' life quality. PMID:18813557

Aleksandrowicz, Ana Maria Coutinho

2008-01-01

215

When Ethics and Policy Collide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study explores an ethical dilemma faced by a new junior high school principal. It is appropriate for use in all preparation course work, including the internship. Studies show that novice principal decision making differs from that of experienced principals in moral dilemmas, including following policy versus best interests of the…

Hightower, Bynum Blake; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

2012-01-01

216

Van Baalen M (2002). Dilemmas in Virulence Management. In: Adaptive Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: In Pursuit of Virulence Management, eds. Dieckmann U, Metz JAJ, Sabelis MW & Sigmund K, pp. 6069.  

E-print Network

of a particular disease may involve ethical dilemmas. For instance, Anderson and May (1991) note that when the (few) heavily infected individuals or the lightly infected majority. The ethical dilemmas associated been given to the associated ethical dilemma: to what extent should an individua

van Baalen, Minus

217

Researching from within: External and Internal Ethical Engagement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting "insider" researchers, which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to…

Floyd, Alan; Arthur, Linet

2012-01-01

218

Making the Right Choices: Ethical Judgments among Educational Leaders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Scholars have adopted a multiple ethical paradigms approach in an attempt to better understand the bases upon which everyday ethical dilemmas are resolved by educational leaders. The aim of this study is to examine the ethical considerations in ethical judgments of aspiring principals. Design/methodology/approach: To examine the ethical

Eyal, Ori; Berkovich, Izhak; Schwartz, Talya

2011-01-01

219

Gender Dysphoria: The Therapist's Dilemma--The Client's Choice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Therapist's role and dilemmas faced in treating a gender dysphoric client are discussed. Examines ethical and moral issues relating to transsexualism and discusses the appropriateness of art therapy as a treatment for transsexual clients. (SNR)

Sherebrin, Hannah

1996-01-01

220

English summary "Ethics in Economic Decision-Making (Marijke C. Leliveld) 1 Summary of "Ethics in Economic Decision-making"  

E-print Network

observe unethical behavior. In negotiations, people often face an ethical dilemma (Aquino, 1998English summary "Ethics in Economic Decision-Making (Marijke C. Leliveld) 1 Summary of "Ethics on ethics in economic decision-making. Ethics refer to standards of what people believe is morally the right

van den Brink, Jeroen

221

Ethics, Collaboration, and Presentation Methods for Local and Traditional Knowledge for Understanding Arctic Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide ‘frontline’ observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. Managing these data presents unique ethical challenges in terms of appropriate use of rare human knowledge and ensuring that knowledge is not lost from the local communities and not exploited in ways antithetical to community culture and desires. Local Arctic residents must be engaged as true collaborative partners while respecting their perspectives, which may vary substantially from a western science perspective. At the same time, we seek to derive scientific meaning from the local knowledge that can be used in conjunction with quantitative science data. This creates new challenges in terms of data presentation, knowledge representations, and basic issues of metadata. This presentation reviews these challenges, some initial approaches to addressing them, and overall lessons learned and future directions.

Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.; McNeave, C.

2009-12-01

222

GIS and Ethics Undergraduate  

E-print Network

GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Sunday, April 18, 2010 #12;GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Presentation Overview · Encroachment of Ethics into Classroom · Relationship of GIS and Ethics · Student Perceptions of Ethics 2

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

223

The Ratings Sweeps: An Essay on the Ethics of Television Economics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ethical dilemma presented by the ratings sweeps is a fundamental operating principle of advertiser-financed television broadcasting: broadcasters generate operating revenue and profit by exchanging audiences for money with advertisers. In order to create or attract audiences to be sold, the broadcaster formulates or acquires and then…

Tankel, Jonathan David

224

The use of moral dilemmas for teaching agricultural engineers.  

PubMed

Agricultural engineers' jobs are especially related to sustainability and earth life issues. They usually work with plants or animals, and the aim of their work is often linked to producing food to allow people to improve their quality of life. Taking into account this dual function, the moral requirements of their day-to-day professional practice are arguably greater than those of other professions. Agricultural engineers can develop their ability to live up to this professional responsibility by receiving ethical training during their university studies, not only by taking courses specifically devoted to ethics, but also by having to deal with moral questions that are integrated into their technical courses through a program of Ethics Across the Curriculum (EAC). The authors feel that a suitable pedagogical technique for achieving this goal is the use of moral dilemmas, following Kohlberg's theory of levels of morality (1981), with the final objective of attaining a post-conventional level. This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of using moral dilemmas as a pedagogical technique for training agricultural engineers. The cases, discussions, and evaluation used in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Technical University of Valencia (Spain) are also presented. PMID:16609719

Lozano, J Félix; Palau-Salvador, Guillermo; Gozálvez, Vincent; Boni, Alejandra

2006-04-01

225

Ethics and the treatment of sexual offenders.  

PubMed

Clinicians in sex offender treatment programs always encounter the need to balance the best interests of sex offenders and the safety needs of the community. The protection of the community often takes primacy, resulting in violation of traditional mental health codes of ethics. These ethical dilemmas have generated debates in the academic community. To minimize ethical dilemmas, clinicians in sex offender treatment programs need to acknowledge the conflicts, adhere to safeguards, and thoughtfully address the challenges with profession-specific ethical values and codes. This article reviews ethical principles in relation to conceptualization of sex offenders and their assessment and treatment and research involving sex offenders. PMID:24877710

Mela, Mansfield; Ahmed, A G

2014-06-01

226

The challenges and ethical dilemmas of a military medical officer serving with a peacekeeping operation in regard to the medical care of the local population  

PubMed Central

Medical Officers serving with their national contingents in peacekeeping operations are faced with difficult ethical decisions in regard to their obligations to the local civilian population. Such populations may be under-resourced in regard to medical care, and vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Though the medical officer may support the local medical services, he/she should never undermine these resources. Adopting a human rights approach and observing the requirements of ethical medicine, aids the doctor in prioritising his/her duties. At times there may be conflict with one's own military superiors. It is wise to discuss potential difficulties prior to setting out on the mission. Human rights abuses cannot be ignored. The medical officer has a duty to do his/her best to report their observations so as to prevent abuse or to bring it to an end. PMID:16199596

Tobin, J

2005-01-01

227

Ethical Considerations: Sense and Sensibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counselors and other service providers face daily ethical dilemmas that involve confidentiality, dual relationships within the Deaf community, boundary issues and questions related to self-disclosure. Most human services professions have ethical guidelines or standards that focus on various areas of professionalism. This article will provide information on issues related to professional competence, moral and legal standards, the use of professional

Debra S. Guthmann

228

Ethics in an Online Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The blending of technology and education introduces ethical issues for colleges. In particular, those involved with online education may encounter unique dilemmas that have collegewide implications. In order for ethical decisions to be made in regard to online education, colleges must cultivate a culture of trust, define clearly the correct and…

Mitchell, Regina L. Garza

2009-01-01

229

Road Signs in Ethical Quicksand.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some of the major moral and ethical dilemmas illustrated by authors in this special journal issue are highlighted. From an ethical viewpoint, the complexity of evaluation activities is likened to "quicksand" terrain in which directional or warning signs should be erected to aid personal choices when such issues are encountered. (Author/DWH)

Jerrell, S. Lee; Jerrell, Jeanette M.

1985-01-01

230

Ethical Problems in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerns about ethics in college administration and governance stem from a variety of sources, including competition, decreasing resources, growing scale and impact of higher education, and consumer sophistication. Trustees must be conscious of ethical dilemmas and conflicts of interest and take responsibility for their conduct and decisions. (MSE)

Ylvisaker, Paul N.

1983-01-01

231

Practical Ethics H.Narayanan,  

E-print Network

Practical Ethics H.Narayanan, EE Department IIT Bombay, Mumbai (Text of a lecture delivered on 16th Oct 2012) A dilemma faced by young people, usually at the stage when they leave home for the first an approach to handling the problem of formulating a very personal but practical ethical code. The actual

Narayanan, H.

232

Parental role in medical decision-making: fact or fiction? A comparative study of ethical dilemmas in French and American neonatal intensive care units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal intensive care has been studied from an epidemiological, ethical, medical and even sociological perspective, but little is known about the impact of parental involvement in decision-making, especially in critical cases. We rely here on a comparative, case-based approach to study the parental role in decision-making within two technologically identical but culturally and institutionally different contexts: France and the United

Kristina Orfali

2004-01-01

233

Ethics in independent nurse consulting: strategies for avoiding ethical quicksand.  

PubMed

Changes in health care have created a variety of new roles and opportunities for nurses in advanced practice. One of these changes is the increasing number of advanced practice nurses carrying out independent consultation. Differences in goals between business and health care may create ethical dilemmas for nurse consultants. The purpose of this article is to describe possible ethical pitfalls that nurse consultants may encounter and strategies to prevent or solve these dilemmas. Three themes related to nursing codes of ethics will be discussed: the duty to uphold human rights, the duty to fulfill commitments, and the duty to practice the profession competently. PMID:21097975

Creel, Eileen L; Robinson, Jennifer C

2010-11-01

234

Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

2005-01-01

235

440 journaloflaw,medicine&ethics Partnership in  

E-print Network

solutions to this ethical dilemma remain elusive, despite some preliminary models both real and imagined440 journaloflaw,medicine&ethics Partnership in U.K. Biobank: A Third Way For Genomic Property capital have become and remain important events in the ethics and politics of the life sciences.1

Silver, Whendee

236

Ethics of Deinstitutionalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter analyses ethical drivers of the deinstitutionalization process in psychiatry over the past 50 years in different\\u000a European countries and highlights typical ethical dilemmas of current community psychiatry. Specific attention is paid to\\u000a issues of the revolving door patient, rehabilitation and recovery, assertive outreach models and coercive outpatient treatment.\\u000a The recent debate about a possible process of reinstitutionalization in

Dirk Claassen; Stefan Priebe

237

Tuskegee Bioethics Center 10th anniversary presentation: "Commemorating 10 years: ethical perspectives on origin and destiny".  

PubMed

More than 70 years have passed since the beginning of the Public Health Service syphilis study in Tuskegee, Alabama, and it has been over a decade since President Bill Clinton formally apologized for it and held a ceremony for the Tuskegee study participants. The official launching of the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care took place two years after President Clinton's apology. How might we fittingly discuss the Center's 10th Anniversary and the topic 'Commemorating 10 Years: Ethical Perspectives on Origin and Destiny'? Over a decade ago, a series of writers, many of them African Americans, wrote a text entitled 'African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics'; their text was partly responsible for a prolonged reflection by others to produce a subsequent work, 'African American Bioethics: Culture, Race and Identity'. What is the relationship between the discipline of bioethics and African American culture? This and related questions are explored in this commentary. PMID:20675942

Prograis, Lawrence J

2010-08-01

238

Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

Castleberry, Stephen B.

2011-01-01

239

Research ethics and computer science: an unconsummated marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical conduct of research is a cornerstone of modern scientiflc research. Computer science and the discipline's technological artifacts touch nearly every aspect of modern life, and computer scientists must conduct and report their research in an ethical manner. This paper examines a small selection of potential ethical dilemmas researchers in this discipline face, and discusses how ethical concerns may

David R. Wright

2006-01-01

240

Malignant transformation of optic disc melanocytoma? A clinical dilemma at presentation with a review of the literature.  

PubMed

Malignant transformation of optic disc melanocytoma is an uncommon feature, although in the past a few cases have been reported. Though our case, a healthy 30-year-old female, presented with all clinical features of melanocytoma, the triad of moderate visual loss, elevation of the lesion of 5.2 mm and an atypical ultrasonic picture could be an indication of malignant change at presentation. In the event of a moderate visual loss, long-term follow-up with serial fundus photographs and ultrasonic measurements is necessary for further management. PMID:12207136

Sharma, Parul M; Sangal, Kartikeya; Malik, Praveen; Mathur, M B

2002-01-01

241

Vascular anomaly at the craniocervical junction presenting with sub arachnoid hemorrhage: Dilemma in Imaging Diagnosis, Endovascular Management and Complications  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a ruptured vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm that mimicked a presumed vascular anomaly by CTA (Computerized Tomographic Angiography). A parenchymal arteriovenous malformation (AVM) or a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) at the craniocervical junction can present with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and cannot be differentiated from a vertebral artery dissection by non invasive imaging. Catheter based cerebral angiography revealed a dissecting pseudoaneurysm of a diminutive right vertebral artery terminating in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) that to our knowledge has not been previously reported. NBCA (N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate) embolization of the pseudoaneurysm lumen and sacrifice of the parent vessel resulted in cerebellar infarction, requiring an emergent decompressive craniectomy. The patient recovered to a functional neurologic status. PMID:22470727

Gordhan, Ajeet

2010-01-01

242

The Effect of Organizational Culture and Ethical Orientation on Accountants' Ethical Judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between organizational ethical culture in two large international CPA firms, auditors' personal values and the ethical orientation that those values dictate, and judgments in ethical dilemmas typical of those that accountants face. Using an experimental task consisting of multiple judgments designed to vary in \\

Patricia Casey Douglas; Ronald A. Davidson; Bill N. Schwartz

2001-01-01

243

Recurrent ascites with severe hypoproteinemia in 4-year-old child: A diagnostic dilemma - An atypical presentation of hypothyroidism  

PubMed Central

Hypothyroidism is frequently encountered condition to a pediatrician. Passive effusions into serous cavities, sometimes to considerable amount are frequently noted. However, the significant ascites caused by this is rare in a child and in no instance, it is too excessive. So diagnosis is frequently delayed and patient frequently receive unnecessary procedures such as liver, even gastrointestinal biopsies. Analysis of ascitic fluid shows exudative nature with high protein. The case we present here is a 4-year-old female child with recurrent ascites, developmental delay and hypoproteinemia. High index of suspicion can lead to diagnosis. Over all prognosis is excellent after stating replacement therapy with L-thyroxine. PMID:25143889

Mehta, Sudhir; Sanghvi, Jyoti; Kela, Gunjan

2014-01-01

244

Ethical Critical Thinking Rubric Student: Date  

E-print Network

Ethical Critical Thinking Rubric Student: Date: Course: Assessed by: Score: Component Identifies Dilemma 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 Makes a Decision 0 1 2 3 4 5 Below Expectations Meets Expectations Exceeds Expectations Has a vague idea of what the dilemma is. Is uncertain about what

O'Laughlin, Jay

245

Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.

Oishi, Koji; Cebrian, Manuel; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki

2014-02-01

246

Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game  

E-print Network

The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space.

Oishi, Koji; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki

2014-01-01

247

Exploiting loss?: ethical considerations, boundaries, and opportunities for the study of death and grief online.  

PubMed

More people are turning to the Internet to communicate about dying, death, and grief experiences. This theoretical article explores the ethical dilemmas, challenges, and opportunities presented to researchers interested in exploring how death and grief are communicated online. Weaving together the literatures of computer-mediated communication and thanatology (dying and death), we discuss the ways in which many common ethical dilemmas uniquely manifest related to death and grief. We also explore the emotional impact studying death and grief online has on researchers and the importance of thinking about researcher emotions on scholars who study these issues. We end with recommendations of how to move forward in the dialogue about ethics and studying death and grief online. PMID:24968619

Carmack, Heather J; DeGroot, Jocelyn M

248

Authorship versus "Credit" for Participation in Research: A Case Study of Potential Ethical Dilemmas Created by Technical Tools Used by Researchers and Claims for Authorship by Their Creators  

PubMed Central

The distinction between authorship and other forms of credit for contribution to a publication has been a persisting controversy that has resulted in numerous guidelines outlining the expected contributions of those claiming authorship. While there have been flagrant, well-publicized deviations from widely accepted standards, they are largely outnumbered by cases that are not publicity-worthy, and therefore remain known to only those directly involved with the inappropriate conduct. We discuss the definition and ethical requirements of authorship, offer a case example of the authorship debate created by a technical tool at our institution, and review parallels that support and dispute the authorship claims of our software developers. Ultimately, we conclude that development of a technical tool that enables data collection does not adequately substitute for contributions to study design and manuscript preparation for authorship purposes. Unless the designers of such a technical tool prospectively participate as a part of the project, they would not have an adequate understanding of the publication’s genesis to defend it publicly and cannot be listed as authors. Therefore, it is incumbent upon project members to invite tool developers to participate at the beginning of such projects, and for tool developers to contribute to study design and manuscript preparation when they desire authorship listings. PMID:17068347

Welker, James A.; McCue, Jack D.

2007-01-01

249

The four principles: Can they be measured and do they predict ethical decision making?  

PubMed Central

Background The four principles of Beauchamp and Childress - autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice - have been extremely influential in the field of medical ethics, and are fundamental for understanding the current approach to ethical assessment in health care. This study tests whether these principles can be quantitatively measured on an individual level, and then subsequently if they are used in the decision making process when individuals are faced with ethical dilemmas. Methods The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used as a tool for the measurement of the principles. Four scenarios, which involved conflicts between the medical ethical principles, were presented to participants who then made judgments about the ethicality of the action in the scenario, and their intentions to act in the same manner if they were in the situation. Results Individual preferences for these medical ethical principles can be measured using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This technique provides a useful tool in which to highlight individual medical ethical values. On average, individuals have a significant preference for non-maleficence over the other principles, however, and perhaps counter-intuitively, this preference does not seem to relate to applied ethical judgements in specific ethical dilemmas. Conclusions People state they value these medical ethical principles but they do not actually seem to use them directly in the decision making process. The reasons for this are explained through the lack of a behavioural model to account for the relevant situational factors not captured by the principles. The limitations of the principles in predicting ethical decision making are discussed. PMID:22606995

2012-01-01

250

Medical Ethics in the Next 25 Years  

PubMed Central

In the next 10-15 years most of the major ethical dilemmas facing family physicians will grow more acute. This is not to imply that things are getting worse. On the contrary, it is the simultaneous growth of miraculous methods and frightening risks that will make the dilemmas more acute. In the next 15-25 years, we will learn how to minimize the risks. Several major ethical dilemmas of medical practice are reviewed from this perspective. Finally, some issues are considered that do not fit this pattern and that have the potential to become a much greater challenge to humanity. PMID:11662581

Tiberius, Richard G.

1979-01-01

251

Ethical issues and accountability in pressure ulcer prevention.  

PubMed

Pressure ulcers represent a considerable cost, both in terms of healthcare spending and quality of life. They are increasingly viewed in terms of patient harm. For clinicians involved in pressure ulcer prevention, ethical issues surrounding accountability may arise from both policy and practice perspectives. It may be useful for clinicians to refer to ethical theories and principles to create frameworks when addressing ethical dilemmas. However, such theories and principles have been criticised for their simplicity and over-generalisation. Alternative theories, for example, virtue ethics and experiential learning, can provide more comprehensive guidance and promote a pluralistic approach to tackling ethical dilemmas. PMID:25335632

Welsh, Lynn

2014-10-22

252

Perceptions of Retail Supervisors' Ethical Behavior and Front-line Managers' Organizational Commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between front-line managers' perceptions of their supervisors' ethical behavior and front-line managers' organizational commitment, and the relationship between front-line managers' perceptions of their supervisors' view of ethical dilemmas, front-line managers' own view of ethical dilemmas and perceptions of their supervisors' ethical behavior. Respondents were 99 front-line managers working in a

Kelly J. Mize; Nancy Stanforth; Christine Johnson

2000-01-01

253

Context-Sensitive Ethics in School Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical codes and licensing rules provide foundational guidance for practicing school psychologists, but these sources fall short in their capacity to facilitate effective decision-making. When faced with ethical dilemmas, school psychologists can turn to decision-making models, but step-wise decision trees frequently lack the situation…

Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry; Robillard, Rachel

2013-01-01

254

An Ethics Challenge for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical issues arise more often for school counselors than for those who work in other settings (Remley, 2002). The challenge of working not only with minors but also with other stakeholders including parents, teachers, school administrators, and community members sets the stage for potential legal and ethical dilemmas. Awareness and adherence to…

Froeschle, Janet G.; Crews, Charles

2010-01-01

255

Salesperson Ethics: An Interactive Computer Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new interactive computer simulation designed to teach sales ethics is described. Simulation learner objectives include gaining a better understanding of legal issues in selling; realizing that ethical dilemmas do arise in selling; realizing the need to be honest when selling; seeing that there are conflicting demands from a salesperson's…

Castleberry, Stephen

2014-01-01

256

Environmental Dilemmas. Critical Decisions for Society. [Student's Guide.] Preparing for Tomorrow's World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dual purpose of this module is to introduce students (grades 10-11) to current/emerging environmental issues and to emphasize the moral/ethical decision-making related to these issues. The module is organized into 12 topic areas, each containing a dilemma story, introductory reading material, sample student responses, and questions. Dilemmas

Iozzi, Louis A.; And Others

257

Education confronts the energy dilemma  

SciTech Connect

The conference was convened to present a role that America's schools could play in solving or coping with the energy crisis. Eleven sessions were conducted to fulfill this concern: Our Energy Crisis and Education: A Critical Assessment; The Energy Agenda at the Office of Education; Energy Resources: Scenarios for the Future; The Moral Dilemma of Energy Education; Constraints Influencing Education's Role; Energy Education: What's Been Done to Date; Practitioners Discuss Their Future Roles, Responsibilities; Politics of Energy Education; Confronting the Energy Dilemma; The Meaning of Scarcity; and The Impact of the Carter Energy Program on American Schools. Summary reports and reactions to the conference conclude the proceedings. (MCW)

None

1977-01-01

258

The Hypothesized Relationship Between Accountability and Ethical Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unethical behavior is important to study because it may have an adverse influence on organizational performance. This paper is an attempt to better understand why individuals behave as they do when faced with ethical dilemmas. We first explore the definition, theories and models of ethical behaviors and accountability. This discussion of societal ethics and accountability as forms of social control

Danielle Beu; M. Ronald Buckley

2001-01-01

259

Intervening in evolution: Ethics and actions Paul R. Ehrlich*  

E-print Network

to be almost entirely a product of cultural evolution. Our dilemma of whether or how to change ethical systemsColloquium Intervening in evolution: Ethics and actions Paul R. Ehrlich* Department of Biological evolution in which society determines how much effort, if any, is ethically required to preserve options

Ehrlich, Paul R.

260

The Ethics of Life Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive — our expectation of further life — and the other negative — the loss

Robin Small

2002-01-01

261

Is match ethics an oxymoron?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Graduate medical education has undergone economic and structural changes—changes that have placed increasing pressure on medical students and programs to match effectively. This study documents the experiences, perceptions, and ethical dilemmas of medical students with the 1998 match process.Methods: Surveyed were 437 senior students from three medical schools. Students were questioned about: interviewing practices, communication with programs, commitments made,

Kimberly D Anderson; Donald M Jacobs; Amy V Blue

1999-01-01

262

Ethical map reading in neonatal care.  

PubMed Central

This paper suggests that medical ethics is often based on assumptions, commonly shared in modern medicine, which can cause problems and which need to be questioned. Two contrasting yet complementary ways of thinking about ethical dilemmas in neonatal care are described as the 'separation' and the 'attachment' approaches. The contribution of medical ethics to the substance and quality of discussions between doctors and parents is considered. PMID:2952801

Alderson, P

1987-01-01

263

Teaching Business Ethics: A Practical Guide and Case Studies. SBDC Professional Enrichment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide is for instructors who wish to include a discussion of ethical dilemmas in their regular business seminars and workshops. It discusses why it is essential to teach ethics and how to do so. It reviews the format of specially annotated ethics cases that are designed to help teach business ethics and shows how to use them. These…

Collins, Denis; Page, Laura V.

264

Ethical Dilemmas in Competency for Execution Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the United States Supreme Court Ruling in 1986 that ruled that it was unconstitutional to execute “the insane,” psychologists have struggled with the problem of what, if any, role they should have in evaluating and\\/or treating inmates on death row. Those defending such evaluations maintain that psychologists are merely doing a psychological evaluation, not determining the outcome. Those opposed

David L. Shapiro

2005-01-01

265

Intelligent agents: some ethical issues and dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not so long ago, intelligent software agents belonged in the realms of speculation and esoteric research. Today, like it or not, they are an important part of our everyday lives online. Characteristics commonly acknowledged as desirable include a degree of anthropomorphism or personification, the ability to learn from experience and consequently to respond flexibly to new situations, the capacity to

Carolyn Dowling

2000-01-01

266

Accounting scandals, ethical dilemmas and educational challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Publicity over the role of accountants often accompanies major corporate collapses. It is argued that recent corporate scandals have set a new low for the accounting profession. It is, after all, the accountants who have assisted in financial management, prepared financial statements and audited these statements. As a corollary to this, it can be argued that accountants play a significant

Mary Low; Howard Davey; Keith Hooper

2008-01-01

267

Queer Teachers' Ethical Dilemmas regarding Queer Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although all teachers are expected to be "role models," discursive trajectories reaching back to the West's gay liberation pressure queer teachers to be role models in specific ways--by "coming out" and helping queer students out of their "time of difficulty." Paradoxically, discourses that construct children as innocent and queers-as-a-threat…

Russell, Vanessa Tamara

2010-01-01

268

In Search of a Theory Gustav Schmoller on Economic Justice: A Guide to Present Problems in Business Ethics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a During the last ten to fifteen years, business ethics as a discipline and as a practical competence has shown a solid growth,\\u000a in the United States, and even more strikingly in Europe. Signs of scientific maturation are the number of university chairs\\u000a in business ethics and corporate responsibility in Europe — the first one being founded in 1984, fifteen chairs

Henk J. L. Luuk

269

Ethical consequences for professionals from the globalization of food, nutrition and health.  

PubMed

Globalization is the process of increasing interconnections and linkages, within societies and across geography, due to improved communication and expanded world trade. It limits the differentiation wrought by human cultural evolution, and homogenizes health practices, diet and lifestyle. There are both beneficial and adverse consequences of the globalization process. Globalization also presents a challenge to the development of ethics for practice and advocacy by food and nutrition professionals. Among the related terms, 'morals', 'values' and 'ethics', the latter connotes the basic rules of conduct for interactions within society and with the inanimate environment; rules based on recognized principles (ethical principles). The application of these principles is to resolve ethical dilemmas that arise when more than one interest is at play. Recognized ethical principles include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, utility and stewardship. These can be framed in the context of issues that arise during advocacy for material and behavioural changes to improve the nutritional health of populations. Clearly, at the global level, codes of good conduct and the construction of good food governance can be useful in institutionalizing ethical principles in matters of human diets and eating practices. Ethical dilemmas arise in the context of innate diversity among populations (some individuals benefit, whereas others suffer from the same exposures), and due to the polarity of human physiology and metabolism (practices that prevent some diseases will provoke other maladies). Moreover, the autonomy of one individual to exercise independent will in addressing personal health or treatment of the environment may compromise the health of the individual's neighbours. The challenges for the professional in pursuit of ethical advocacy in a globalized era are to learn the fundamentals of ethical principles; to bear in mind a respect for difference and differentiation that continues to exist, and which should exist, among individuals and societies; and to avoid a total homogenization of agriculture and food supplies. PMID:12492659

Solomons, Noel W

2002-01-01

270

Rattling the Cage: Moving beyond Ethical Standards to Ethical Praxis in Self-Study Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ethical practice underpinning self-study research has been addressed extensively in the literature of self-study of teacher education practices. Less attention has been paid to how researchers deal with ethical tensions and dilemmas when they arise unexpectedly during self-study research. In this article, we examine how the extrapolation and…

Brandenburg, Robyn; Gervasoni, Ann

2012-01-01

271

Some ethical issues in technology transfer and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Health care systems all around the world are struggling to provide care in an era of limited resources. In an article entitled, 'Straight Talk About Rationing,' Arthur Kaplan reviews the work of the Swedish Commission designed to prioritize health care for that country. The commission identified three core principles that they felt should underlie decisions about priorities for health care. Those principles were (1) all human beings are equally valuable; (2) society must pay special attention to the needs of the weakest and most vulnerable; and (3) all other things being equal, cost efficiency in gaining the greatest return for the amount of money spent must prevail. These are three extremely useful principles which can be helpful to us as we consider many of the issues confronted in this country about the allocation of resources for health. I would like to consider three major issues. The first issue is the current evolving nature of health care and the ethical dilemmas that exist in the present system. In balancing increased access to care with decreasing cost, particularly in managed care, all of us are concerned about ethical issues. I would like to emphasize that the current system -- the system that we have lived with and is changing -- has inherent in it a series of ethical dilemmas. Secondly, I would like to consider issues related to productivity and its measurement in relation to technology. This relates to the third item in the Swedish Commission, which is the principle that we ought to spend money in the most cost-efficient way. Finally, I would like to discuss the dilemma of decision making about health and how that impacts upon the ethics of health care in the application of technology.

Shine, Kenneth I.

1995-10-01

272

[Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].  

PubMed

The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status. PMID:23539924

Mateji?, Bojana; Kesi?, Vesna

2013-01-01

273

Struggling with the fragility of life: a relational-narrative approach to ethics in palliative nursing.  

PubMed

In nursing ethics the role of narratives and dialogue has become more prominent in recent years. The purpose of this article is to illuminate a relational-narrative approach to ethics in the context of palliative nursing. The case study presented concerns a difficult relationship between oncology nurses and a husband whose wife was hospitalized with cancer. The husband's narrative is an expression of depression, social isolation and the loss of hope. He found no meaning in the process of dying and death. The oncology nurses were not able to recognize his emotional and existential problems. A narrative perspective inspired by relational ethics indicates that participants may develop a relational narrative that seeks good for all involved in a situation. In palliative nursing this entails open communication about the fragility of life and approaching death. In relational narratives, answers to these ethical dilemmas are co-authored, contingent and contextual. PMID:16045242

Abma, Tineke A

2005-07-01

274

Ethical Dimensions of the Open-Door Admissions Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical dilemmas at the community college often pose a choice between options equally grounded in the core values of the institution. These dilemmas often emerge from disputes that are complex, dynamic, and politically volatile. We review the development of one such dispute to show how our understanding of institutional core values is often only…

Ingram, William G.; Morrissey, Sharon E.

2009-01-01

275

Ethics and Public Health: Forging a Strong Relationship  

PubMed Central

The field of bioethics arose in the late 1960s in response to the emerging ethical dilemmas of that era. The field for many years focused in general on the dilemmas generated by high-technology medicine rather than on issues of population health and the ethical problems of public health programs and regulations. The time has come to more fully integrate the ethical problems of public health into the field of public health and, at the same time, into the field of bioethics. Public health raises a number of moral problems that extend beyond the earlier boundaries of bioethics and require their own form of ethical analysis. PMID:11818284

Callahan, Daniel; Jennings, Bruce

2002-01-01

276

Self-interest, self-restraint and corporate responsibility for nanotechnologies: Emerging dilemmas for modern managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent developments in nanotechnology have simultaneously conjured up visions of utopia and dismal images of technological and biological catastrophes. Interestingly, the world of nanoscales has given rise to larger than life ethical dilemmas, challenging the basic assumptions that we hold about ethics, man–machine interface, adoption of new technologies and, fundamentally, the directions of human development. Given the divergence and

Robert Lee; P. D. Jose

2008-01-01

277

Health promotion research: dilemmas and challenges  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To analyse dilemmas and challenges in health promotion research, and to generate ideas for future development.?METHOD—The analysis is based on authors' experiences in working in the field of research and action in health promotion and on experiences of others as found in literature.?RESULTS—The assumptions underlying scientific research as based in the biomedical design are difficult to meet in community-based health promotion research. Dilemmas are identified in relation to the possibility of defining the independent and dependent variables beforehand and the intermingling of these variables (the intervention and outcome dilemma), the difficulty in quantifying the desired outcomes (the number dilemma), and the problem of diffusion of the programme to the control group (the control group dilemma).?CONCLUSION—Research in health promotion has specific reasons to reconsider the approach towards research, the selection of outcome variables, and research techniques. Strategies and methods to make activities and their outcomes clear are discussed and criteria to judge confidence and applicability of research findings are presented.???Keywords: health promotion research; research dilemmas; research challenges PMID:11238581

Koelen, M; Vaandrager, L; Colomer, C

2001-01-01

278

The Climate Policy Dilemma  

E-print Network

Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists concerning ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

279

The Climate Policy Dilemma  

E-print Network

Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent GHG abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists over the likelihood of ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

280

Justice within social dilemmas.  

PubMed

The defining feature of social dilemma situations is the inherent conflict faced by those involved: should one act in his or her own individual best interest or sacrifice a measure of one's personal payoff to help maximize the joint payoff of the group as a whole? In such dilemmas, those making individualistic and defecting choices are always at a competitive advantage relative to those who choose to cooperate. One seemingly inevitable consequence of the resulting resource allocation asymmetry is that it must challenge and threaten the cooperator's sense of fairness and justice, and it is the reaction of those caught in social dilemmas to this injustice and unfairness that is the focus of this article. We examine how justice processes-distributive justice, procedural justice, restorative justice, and retributive justice-operate in social dilemmas. Within this examination, we consider ideas from classic and contemporary conceptual analyses of justice to provide a broader context within which to understand social dilemmas and the roles that justice plays as people strive to ensure fair outcomes for themselves and for others. We conclude with the proposal of a 4-stage, sequential model of justice in social dilemmas that posits groups move between the types of justice concerns when unfair and unsatisfactory outcomes (e.g., inequitable resource allocations, violations of agreed-on allocation rules, intentional and egregious exploitation of the group) cause members to "recognize the necessity" for change to ensure fair and just outcomes for all. PMID:14633473

Schroeder, David A; Steel, Julie E; Woodell, Andria J; Bembenek, Alicia F

2003-01-01

281

Transfer effects between moral dilemmas: a causal model theory.  

PubMed

Evaluations of analogous situations are an important source for our moral intuitions. A puzzling recent set of findings in experiments exploring transfer effects between intuitions about moral dilemmas has demonstrated a striking asymmetry. Transfer often occurred with a specific ordering of moral dilemmas, but not when the sequence was reversed. In this article we present a new theory of transfer between moral intuitions that focuses on two components of moral dilemmas, namely their causal structure and their default evaluations. According to this theory, transfer effects are expected when the causal models underlying the considered dilemmas allow for a mapping of the highlighted aspect of the first scenario onto the causal structure of the second dilemma, and when the default evaluations of the two dilemmas substantially differ. The theory's key predictions for the occurrence and the direction of transfer effects between two moral dilemmas are tested in five experiments with various variants of moral dilemmas from different domains. A sixth experiment tests the predictions of the theory for how the target action in the moral dilemmas is represented. PMID:24440432

Wiegmann, Alex; Waldmann, Michael R

2014-04-01

282

Integration and Exchange: How Executive MBA Students Envision Ethics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics education provided by universities in general, and MBA programs aimed at future business leaders in particular, has come under intense public scrutiny because of corporate scandals and ethical dilemmas. To date, academic research has been mainly devoted to the characteristics of instruction formats and their effectiveness, characteristics…

Gruber, Verena; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.

2013-01-01

283

Best Interests of the Student: An Ethical Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shapiro and Stefkovich in their 2001 book on ethics propose a framework for examining ethical dilemmas. At the heart of this conceptualization is "the best interests of the student." Yet a review of the literature reveals this term is interpreted broadly and few systematic attempts have been made to define it. In response to this lack of clarity,…

Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.; O'Brien, G. Michaele

2004-01-01

284

Ethical Issues in Counseling Gender, Race, and Culturally Distinct Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the complex ethical and cultural issues that arise when counseling women, Blacks, ethnic minorities, poor people, lesbians, and gays. Common dilemmas arising from the social context of the counselor-client relationship, the need to respect client autonomy, and the imperative for ethical and quality health care are outlined and discussed,…

Cayleff, Susan E.

1986-01-01

285

Ethical Issues in Mentoring Adults in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines practical problems encountered in mentoring adult learners in higher education through stories of ethical dilemmas. Each incident illustrates the power that mentors possess and the ethical challenges of using this power to help or hurt proteges. Each example addresses an aspect of such power; the power to remove oneself as a…

Hansman, Catherine A.

2009-01-01

286

A Lesson in Legal Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a three-part lesson designed to explore ethical issues, emphasizing ethical considerations inherent in the practice of law. Presents, first, a way to discuss the Pete Rose case; second, situations that bring ethical issues closer to the student; and, third, an examination of legal ethical issues such as the attorney-client privilege. (DB)

Reilley, Margaret; Neisuler, Susan

1990-01-01

287

Ethics in Physical Activity Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

Kroll, Walter; And Others

1993-01-01

288

On the Practical Irrelevance of Pedagogical Ethics--Reflections on the Limits, Deficits, and Paradoxies of Pedagogical Ethics and Morals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Critiques arguments supporting the existence of pedagogical ethics in pedagogical practice. Contends that existing pedagogical ethics are irrelevant to pedagogical practice. Examines the results of moral argumentation, the dilemmas of moral acting, and the consequences of these for the pedagogical system. Proposes an alternative theoretical…

Wigger, Lothar

1990-01-01

289

Consent and Confidentiality: Exploring Ethical Issues in Public Health Social Network Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current ethical regulations were necessarily developed in response to unethical treatment of human subjects by clinical and social researchers in settings ranging from Nazi concentration camps in the 1940s to U.S. government offices in the 1960s. Due to a focus on relationships, social network studies pose complex ethical dilemmas regarding consent and confidentiality that often challenge these ethical regulations. These

Jenine K. Harris

290

Teacher Researchers: Technology and Ethical Considerations while Conducting an Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research study stimulates critical approach to research and practice, with an increasing emphasis on ethics and ethical decision making of the teacher researchers within action research process by using technology in its process. The study investigates the impact of technology within the action research, ethical considerations and dilemmas

Isman, Aytekin; Altinay Aksal, Fahriye; Altinay Gazi, Zehra

2009-01-01

291

Communicating Effectively to Resolve Ethical Concerns: The Role of School Psychology Supervisors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is incumbent upon each school psychologist to engage in ethical behavior based on current ethical codes guiding school psychology. The school psychologist is often the team member most knowledgeable regarding federal and state laws mandating educational services. Sometimes ethical dilemmas that school psychologists face are the result of a…

Olley, Rivka I.

2010-01-01

292

A Need to Know: An Ethical Decision-Making Model for Research Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When faced with a morally charged situation, individuals engage in an ethical decision-making process to resolve the ethical dilemma. This paper outlines a model that describes the steps in the ethical decision-making process and identifies situational factors, collectively termed moral intensity, which may influence this process. The use of a…

Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Holmes, Elizabeth K.

2008-01-01

293

Ethics and Information Technology 5: 131137, 2003. 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.  

E-print Network

of accomplishing. Where the cyborgs represent a powerful ethical dilemma is in the case when an individualEthics and Information Technology 5: 131­137, 2003. © 2003 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. Cyborg morals, cyborg values, cyborg ethics Kevin Warwick Department of Cybernetics, University

Parasuraman, Raja

294

Names Group Work 9, Math 210, Fall 2004 Prisoner's Dilemma  

E-print Network

Names Group Work 9, Math 210, Fall 2004 Prisoner's Dilemma Prisoner's dilemma is a two-player game who is player 1 and player two. Play 100 rounds and record the points for each player in each round in which each player has a choice to cooperate or defect. The award presented to each player at the end

Lakey, Joseph D.

295

Teaching ethics: telling stories.  

PubMed

In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed both to traditional rules and justice-based ethics, and to a feminist care perspective. Justice and truth are not objective and abstract, but are embedded in context and are relative in nature. Nurses may be given the tools with which to analyse and understand ethical dilemmas from a justice-based view and an opportunity to tell their stories in order to understand the roles, motives, relational considerations and contextual influences on decision outcomes. If we are serious about our desire to raise critical consciousness of students and nurses in practice, we must attend to and join feminists in their attempts to validate women's ways of knowing, to assist women to question their contexts, and to put aside preconceived positions and notions about moral reasoning among women. PMID:7708027

Bowman, A

1995-02-01

296

Ethical Issues in School Art Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School art therapists face numerous ethical dilemmas, from referrals to therapy, through privacy, safety and predictability in the art therapy room, to the need to balance cooperation with the educational staff and its expectations of shared information with loyalty to the patient. Breach of confidentiality also has legal implications. The…

Moriya, Dafna

2006-01-01

297

Biology 5310 Ethics in Science Fall 2008  

E-print Network

, Part One, Chapter VI, Section 3, Subsection 3.2. Subdivision 3.22). Grade Replacement Policy: If you) scenarios of ethical and moral dilemmas. Prerequisites: Bachelors or Masters Degree Withdrawal Policy: You may drop without penalty with a grade of W prior to 31 October. No one will be permitted to drop after

Chrzanowski, Thomas H.

298

Ethics education in the microchip millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today's fast-paced, technology-dependent society, individuals are often confronted with a wide variety of ethical dilemmas and moral issues when living, learning and working in an Information Technology (IT) environment. In many instances, IT users find themselves at a loss, because it is often not clear which, if any, moral rule applies. In addition, if two or more moral rules

Kim Todd; Tabatha Verbick; Merlin Miller

2001-01-01

299

An Ethics Framework for Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 100 years ago, public health began as an organized discipline, its purpose being to im- prove the health of populations rather than of individuals. Given its population-based focus, however, public health perennially faces dilemmas concerning the appropriate extent of its reach and whether its activities infringe on individual liberties in ethically troublesome ways. In this article a framework

Nancy E. Kass

2001-01-01

300

Perspectives on ethics in child and youth care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The request for an undergraduate course in ethics was the context for a research study in both the teaching and researching\\u000a of ethics in the field of child and youth care. An action research approach allowed class participants to reflect on and give\\u000a meaning to ethical dilemmas in child and youth care practice. Students concluded that child and youth care

Frances Ricks

1997-01-01

301

Ethical Expert Systems  

PubMed Central

The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

Victoroff, Michael S.

1985-01-01

302

The Teaching of Ethics and the Ethics of Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This presentation covers the topic of psychological ethics from two perspectives. One part of the presentation considers how ethics is presented in the classroom through both textbook consideration and specifically designed courses. The other part of the presentation considers ethical issues as they are related to the activity of teaching. Each of…

Matthews, Janet R.

303

Authenticity or autonomy? When deep brain stimulation causes a dilemma.  

PubMed

While deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease has typically raised ethical questions about autonomy, accountability and personal identity, recent research indicates that we need to begin taking into account issues surrounding the patients' feelings of authenticity and alienation as well. In order to bring out the relevance of this dimension to ethical considerations of DBS, I analyse a recent case study of a Dutch patient who, as a result of DBS, faced a dilemma between autonomy and authenticity. This case study is meant to point out the normatively meaningful tension patients under DBS experience between authenticity and autonomy. PMID:23355227

Kraemer, Felicitas

2013-12-01

304

Aesthetic/Cosmetic surgery and ethical challenges.  

PubMed

Is aesthetic surgery a business guided by market structures aimed primarily at material gain and profit or a surgical intervention intended to benefit patients and an integral part of the health-care system? Is it a frivolous subspecialty or does it provide a real and much needed service to a wide range of patients? At present, cosmetic surgery is passing through an identity crisis as well as an acute ethical dilemma. A closer look from an ethical viewpoint makes clear that the doctor who offers aesthetic interventions faces many serious ethical problems which have to do with the identity of the surgeon as a healer. Aesthetic surgery that works only according to market categories runs the risk of losing the view for the real need of patients and will be nothing else than a part of a beauty industry which has the only aim to sell something, not to help people. Such an aesthetic surgery is losing sight of real values and makes profit from the ideology of a society that serves only vanity, youthfulness, and personal success. Unfortunately, some colleagues brag that they chose the plastic surgery specialty just to become rich aesthetic surgeons, using marketing tactics to promote their practice. This is, at present, the image we project. As rightly proposed, going back a little to Hippocrates, to the basics of being a physician, is urgently warranted! Being a physician is all that a "cosmetic" surgeon should be. In the long run, how one skillfully and ethically practices the art of plastic surgery will always speak louder than any words. PMID:18820963

Atiyeh, Bishara S; Rubeiz, Michel T; Hayek, Shady N

2008-11-01

305

A Fine Line: Ethical Issues Facing Childbirth Educators Negotiating Evidence, Beliefs, and Experience  

PubMed Central

The trend toward evidence-based information in childbirth education has been ongoing for some time. Lamaze educators are encouraged to present evidence for the Six Care Practices That Support Normal Birth to pregnant women in their childbirth classes. In a previous article published in The Journal of Perinatal Education, my colleague and I provided an overview of the dilemmas facing American childbirth educators. Childbirth education is a domain in which many types of authoritative knowledge are used: evidence, beliefs, and experience. In our study, educators told us their goal is to provide class participants with unbiased information that allows women to choose what is best for them. In this article, I further analyze educators’ dilemmas and challenges in presenting unbiased information, and I discuss some ethical considerations in educators’ practices. PMID:19436597

Morton, Christine H

2009-01-01

306

Ethical decision-making about older adults and moral intensity: an international study of physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through discourse with international groups of physicians, we conducted a cross-cultural analysis of the types of ethical dilemmas physicians face. Qualitative analysis was used to categorise the dilemmas into seven themes, which we compared among the physicians by country of practice. These themes were a-theoretically-driven and grounded heavily within the text. We then subjected the dilemmas to an analysis of

D C Malloy; J Williams; T Hadjistavropoulos; B Krishnan; M Jeyaraj; E F McCarthy; M Murakami; S Paholpak; J Mafukidze; B Hillis

2008-01-01

307

Dilemmas in Teaching Happiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a burgeoning amount of research into happiness and greatly increased popular attention, so it seems logical to add a course on happiness to the university curriculum. We encountered, in developing and running such a course, a number of dilemmas that the topic of happiness makes especially acute. Should the teacher remain separate from the…

Barker, Chris; Martin, Brian

2009-01-01

308

The Monty Hall Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines people's behavior in the Monty Hall Dilemma (MHD), in which a person must make two decisions to win a prize. In a series of five studies, found that people misapprehend probabilities in the MHD. Discusses the MHD's relation to illusion of control, belief perseverance, and the status quo bias. (RJM)

Granberg, Donald; Brown, Thad A.

1995-01-01

309

The catatonic dilemma expanded  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catatonia is a common syndrome that was first described in the literature by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874. The literature is still developing and remains unclear on many issues, especially classification, diagnosis, and pathophysiology. Clinicians caring for psychiatric patients with catatonic syndromes continue to face many dilemmas in diagnosis and treatment. We discuss many of the common problems encountered in the

Heath R Penland; Natalie Weder; Rajesh R Tampi

2006-01-01

310

Jeb Stewart's Dilemma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study creates a dilemma that many school districts face. Public education is under-funded. Principals are expected to be the instructional leaders and are held accountable for student achievement. Is it appropriate then for public schools to have local businesses as benefactors when teaching personnel are involved? The conflict between…

Cedo, Kelli M.; Dickerson, William E.

2010-01-01

311

A diagnostic dilemma following risk-reducing surgery for BRCA1 mutation - a case report of primary papillary serous carcinoma presenting as sigmoid cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Women that carry germ-line mutations for BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are at an increased risk of developing breast, ovarian and peritoneal cancer. Primary peritoneal carcinoma is a rare tumour histologically identical to papillary serous ovarian carcinoma. Risk-reducing surgery in the form of mastectomy and oophorectomy in premenopausal women has been recommended to prevent breast and ovarian cancer occurrence and decrease the risk of developing primary peritoneal cancer. Case presentation We present a case report of a woman with a strong family history of breast cancer who underwent risk-reducing surgery in the form of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy following a mastectomy for a right-sided breast tumour. Following the finding of a BRCA1 mutation, a prophylactic left-sided mastectomy was performed. After remaining well for twenty-seven years, she presented with rectal bleeding and altered bowel habit, and was found to have a secondary cancer of the sigmoid colon. She was finally diagnosed with primary papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum (PSCP). Conclusion PSCP can present many years after risk-reducing surgery and be difficult to detect. Surveillance remains the best course of management for patients with known BRCA mutations. PMID:17850658

Chand, Manish; Moore, Patrick J; Clarke, Andrew D; Nash, Guy F; Hickisk, Tamas

2007-01-01

312

Synthetic biology ethics: a deontological assessment.  

PubMed

In this article I discuss the ethics of synthetic biology from a broadly deontological perspective, evaluating its morality in terms of the integrity of nature, the dignity of life and the relationship between God and his creation. Most ethical analyses to date have been largely consequentialist in nature; they reveal a dual use dilemma, showing that synbio has potential for great good and great evil, possibly more so than any step humanity has taken before. A deontological analysis may help to resolve this dilemma, by evaluating whether synbio is right or wrong in itself. I also assess whether deontology alone is a sufficient methodological paradigm for the proper evaluation of synbio ethics. PMID:24010856

Heavey, Patrick

2013-10-01

313

Ethical challenges in emergency medical services. A special contribution of the Ethics Committee, National Association of Emergency Medical Services Physicians.  

PubMed

Patient autonomy, beneficence, and justice are the fundamental ethical principles of an emergency medical service. Ethical conflicts are present in the daily practice of prehospital care. These conflicts surround issues of resuscitation, futile therapy, consent, and refusal of care, duty, and confidentiality. Emergency medical services must remain fair and equitable, equally available to those it is designed to serve, regardless of the patient's social or economic status. Establishing priorities for patient care is dictated by medical and operational concerns. Education and information regarding ethical issues are important for the providers of prehospital medical care as well as the medical director. Policies and protocols must continue to be developed to address requests to limit resuscitation, such as refusal of care and patient confidentiality. Policies should be developed in conjunction with experienced legal advice. Current training does not equip even the most advanced prehospital care provider to deal easily with every potential situation. Many learn by experience, some are guided by clear policy. Ideally, medical control personnel will be educated, interested, and available to address dilemmas which arise. Where possible, policies and procedures should be developed to address ethical issues which are likely to be faced by EMS personnel. PMID:10155466

1993-01-01

314

Social Dilemmas: The Anatomy of Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of social dilemmas is the study of the tension between individual and collective rationality. In a social dilemma, individually reasonable be- havior leads to a situation in which everyone is worse off. The first part of this review is a discussion of categories of social dilemmas and how they are modeled. The key two-person social dilemmas (Prisonerís Dilemma,

Peter Kollock

1998-01-01

315

Rethinking medical ethics: a view from below.  

PubMed

In this paper, we argue that lack of access to the fruits of modern medicine and the science that informs it is an important and neglected topic within bioethics and medical ethics. This is especially clear to those working in what are now termed 'resource-poor settings'- to those working, in plain language, among populations living in dire poverty. We draw on our experience with infectious diseases in some of the poorest communities in the world to interrogate the central imperatives of bioethics and medical ethics. AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria are the three leading infectious killers of adults in the world today. Because each disease is treatable with already available therapies, the lack of access to medical care is widely perceived in heavily disease-burdened areas as constituting an ethical and moral dilemma. In settings in which research on these diseases are conducted but there is little in the way of therapy, there is much talk of first world diagnostics and third world therapeutics. Here we call for the 'resocialising' of ethics. To resocialise medical ethics will involve using the socialising disciplines to contextualise fully ethical dilemmas in settings of poverty and, a related gambit, the systematic participation of the destitute sick. Clinical research across steep gradients also needs to be linked with the interventions that are demanded by the poor and otherwise marginalised. We conclude that medical ethics must grapple more persistently with the growing problem posed by the yawning 'outcome gap' between rich and poor. PMID:15086372

Farmer, Paul; Campos, Nicole Gastineau

2004-05-01

316

The Normative Impact of CPA Firms, Professional Organizations, and State Boards on Accounting Ethics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accounting educators are in the midst of creating new opportunities for students to enhance their abilities to recognize ethical\\u000a dilemmas, establish criteria by which to make ethical decisions, and establish support mechanisms and strategies to facilitate\\u000a their ethical decision-making. CPA firms, professional organizations and state boards of accountancy are co-operating to increase\\u000a requirements for ethics education for candidates taking the

Kevin M. Misiewicz

2007-01-01

317

Ethical challenges embedded in qualitative research interviews with close relatives.  

PubMed

Nurse researchers engaged in qualitative interviews with patients and spouses in healthcare may often experience being in unforeseen ethical dilemmas. Researchers are guided by the bioethical principles of justice, beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for human rights and respect for autonomy through the entire research process. However, these principles are not sufficient to prepare researchers for unanticipated ethical dilemmas related to qualitative research interviews. We describe and discuss ethically challenging and difficult moments embedded in two cases from our own phenomenological interview studies. We argue that qualitative interviews involve navigation between being guided by bioethics as a researcher, being a therapist/nurse and being a fellow human being or even a friend. The researchers' premises to react to unexpected situations and act in a sound ethical manner must be enhanced, and there is a need for an increased focus on the researchers' ethical preparation and to continually address and discuss cases from their own interviews. PMID:23774032

Haahr, Anita; Norlyk, Annelise; Hall, Elisabeth Oc

2014-02-01

318

SCIENCE, POLICY & ETHICS MINOR Faculty: Phil Ammirato (Biology), Randall Balmer (Religion), Diane Dittrick (EnvSci), Tim  

E-print Network

SCIENCE, POLICY & ETHICS MINOR Faculty: Phil Ammirato (Biology), Randall Balmer (Religion), Diane) In years in which they are offered, an ethics course in the Religion Department of the human genome, privacy issues and ethical dilemmas arising from genetic testing, misguided eugenics

Halpin-Healy, Tim

319

The ethics and safety of medical student global health electives  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore and characterize the ethical and safety challenges of global health experiences as they affect medical students in order to better prepare trainees to face them. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 Canadian medical trainees who had participated in global health experiences during medical school. Convenience and snowball sampling were utilized. Using Moustakas’s transcendental phenomenological approach, participant descriptions of ethical dilemmas and patient/trainee safety problems were analyzed. This generated an aggregate that illustrates the essential meanings of global health experience ethical and safety issues faced. Results We interviewed 23 participants who had completed 38 electives (71%, n=27, during pre-clinical years) spend-ing a mean 6.9 weeks abroad, and having visited 23 countries. Sixty percent (n=23) had pre-departure training while 36% (n=14) had post-experience debriefing. Three macro-level themes were identified: resource disparities and provision of care; navigating clinical ethical dilemmas; and threats to trainee safety. Conclusions Medical schools have a responsibility to ensure ethical and safe global health experiences. However, our findings suggest that medical students are often poorly prepared for the ethical and safety dilemmas they encounter during these electives. Medical students require intensive pre-departure training that will prepare them emotionally to deal with these dilemmas. Such training should include discussions of how to comply with clinical limitations. PMID:25341214

Dell, Evelyn M.; Varpio, Lara; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Gajaria, Amy

2014-01-01

320

Placing ethics in the centre: Negotiating new spaces for ethical research in conflict situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Issues of power and consent, confidentiality, trust, and benefit, risks to researchers, and potential harm to participants, are all contested when working with different cultures and within environments marked by violence and insecurity. Difficulty resolving these dilemmas may paralyse ethics committees, may fail to give the guidance sought by researchers, and will not help populations who are among the world's

A. B. Zwi; N. J. Grove; C. MacKenzie; E. Pittaway; D. Zion; D. Silove; D. Tarantola

2006-01-01

321

Beyond Human Motivation and Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points of view regarding motivation and ethics are presented. These issues are specifically applied to the adolescent, with the conclusion that one must understand oneself before s/he can search for a system of ethics. (Author/GK)

Kodman, Frank

1982-01-01

322

Ethics in sports medicine.  

PubMed

All physicians are faced at some time with fundamental challenges while striving to respect the principle canons which define a physician's ethical code. These canons are: 1. Primacy of patient interests, 2. Patient confidentiality, 3, Informed consent, and 4. Maintenance of a high standard of care. Athletes, because of their focus on performance, often present unique situations which lead to ethical challenges not seen in the general patient population. Adherence to the four principle ethical canons guides physicians to make ethical decisions when dealing with these unique patients. PMID:22894696

Murthy, Anjali M; Dwyer, James; Bosco, Joseph A

2012-01-01

323

Dilemmas of managing participation.  

PubMed

There are two reasons that current corporate efforts to achieve employee "participation" often seem fragile and temporary: unrealistic expectations about the appropriate use of participation and a failure to manage participation efforts for maximum success. Participation is most appropriate when, for example, expertise is diffused, issues are controversial, problems cut across existing roles, or the development of people is desired; autonomy and individual responsibility may be more appropriate under the opposite conditions. Kanter discusses six sets of dilemmas that must be resolved to ensure that participating teams work effectively for the organization: dilemmas around initiation, structure, issue choice, teamwork, links between teams and their environment, and evaluation/continuation. Kanter concludes that participation works best when it is well managed. Participation is best viewed not as a permanent "program" or a "formula" but as temporary episodes of high involvement alternating with a more routine everyday structure. PMID:10256769

Kanter, R M

1982-01-01

324

Monitoring-of-Understanding Research: Inquiry Directions, Methodological Dilemmas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested poor readers' facilities at detecting informational inconsistency in a text given at three levels of explicitness in prereading direction. Experimental materials presented a generalizability dilemma, which is discussed in detail. (Author/GK)

Garner, Ruth; Anderson, Judith

1981-01-01

325

The Present Kindergarten Dilemma: A Discussion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a great deal of concern on the part of not only educators, but also politicians, counselors, psychologists, researchers, members of boards of education, and parents, regarding current issues concerning kindergarten education. Central to these issues is the push for academics. With this push has come standardized testing, workbooks, and a…

Partridge, Susan

326

Nurses and whistleblowing: the ethical issues.  

PubMed

Whistleblowing - the public exposure of organizational wrongdoing - presents practical and ethical dilemma for nurses, and needs to be seen as part of a spectrum of increasingly confrontative actions against miscreant organizations by their employees. The ethics of whistleblowing can only be understood in relation to its moral purpose, whether that is to achieve a good outcome (a consequentialist view) or fulfil a duty (a deontological view). The consequentialist perspective is unable on its own to resolve problems arising from the balance of good and harm resulting from the act of whistleblowing (where considerable harm might be caused) or of responsibility for that harm. A deontological approach provides an analysis of these problems but raises its own problem of conflicting duties for nurses. However, a strong argument can be made for the precedence of the nurse's duty to the patient over her duty to the employer. Although both duties are based on an implicit or an explicit promise, the promise to a person (the patient) must take precedence over the promise to an organization. It can even be argued that duty to the employer may in fact justify whistleblowing by nurses in some circumstances. However, the consequences of whistleblowing are forced upon nurses in a different way by the fact that the danger of reprisals acts as a deterrent to whistleblowers, however justified their actions may be. A more robust approach to the protection of whistleblowers is needed on the part of the government and the National Health Service (NHS) to remedy this situation. PMID:11114987

Wilmot, S

2000-11-01

327

Doing research, writing politics: the dilemmas of political intervention in research on racism  

Microsoft Academic Search

What are the ethical and political dilemmas faced in carrying out research on racism? This paper explores this question by drawing on our fieldwork experience in the course of doing research on the local politics of race in Birmingham. The initial premise is that it is impossible to see research in this field as simply an information-gathering process. Rather we

Les Back; John Solomos

1993-01-01

328

ETHICAL PERSPECTIVES IN NEUROLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of neurology presents a series of ethical challenges for the clinician. These rarely have simple or straightforward solutions, but require careful consideration by the neurologist. This section of , written by colleagues with particular interest in the area of bioethics, provides a case vignette that raises one or more ethical questions related to the subject area of this

Nancy T. Rodgers-Neame; James P. Orlowski

2009-01-01

329

Modular Approach for Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

Wyne, Mudasser F.

2010-01-01

330

Ethical issues in treating pregnant women with severe mental illness.  

PubMed

Severe mental illness tends to occur and recur among women in the reproductive period. Both the disorders and the treatments may have effects on the mother and the foetus. The clinician hence is often in a dilemma when treating pregnant women with severe mental illness and is challenged with ethical issues related to decision making in this regard. Both treatment and non treatment are not without risks and this is particularly challenging if the mother has active symptoms and cannot make decisions because of impaired capacity. This paper highlights some of these ethical and clinical dilemmas through case vignettes based on data from a specialised perinatal psychiatry service. PMID:19517649

Desai, Geetha; Chandra, Prabha S

2009-01-01

331

Ethics and the University. Professional Ethics Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book brings together the closely related topics of the practice of ethics in the university, "academic ethics," and the teaching of practical, or applied, ethics in the university. The volume considers practical ethics, research ethics, the teaching of ethics, and sexual ethics as related to the university. The chapters are: (1) "The Ethics

Davis, Michael

332

When Ethics Survive Where People Do Not  

PubMed Central

The provision of health care service in resource-poor settings is associated with a broad set of ethical issues. Devakumar's case discusses the ethical issues related to the inability to treat in a cholera clinic patients who do not have cholera. This paper gives a closer look on the context in which Devakumar's case took place. It also analyses the potential local and organizational factors that gives rise to ethical dilemmas and aggravate them. It also proposes a framework to help in the proactive handling of the factors that leads to ethical dilemmas and resolving the ethical issues as they appear. It adopts the four principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice as universal and prima facie principles, but with the inclusion of a local understanding of what of each of these principles means. It is based on a collaborative approach that involves the beneficiaries and other partners in the field to help share information and resources, as well as adopting the provision of a wider service to the whole community. This is done by asking three basic questions: (a) who are the relevant stakeholders? (b) what ought to be the ethical principles in place? and (c) how should we take, implement and follow the decision about service provision? PMID:20336229

Hussein, Ghaiath M. A.

2010-01-01

333

Presentations  

Cancer.gov

Presentations Name Position Presentation (ppt) Sudhir Srivastava, PhD, MPH Chief, Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Metabolomics: An Untapped Frontier (ppt, 161kb) John Milner, PhD Chief, Nutritional Sciences research Group Can Metabolomics

334

Placement Decision Dilemmas and Solutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The director of an agency for the blind and visually impaired examines the service-delivery dilemma of funding versus placement decisions. Three program areas demonstrate this dilemma: (1) Social Security Disability Insurance disincentives to competitive placement; (2) the private agency's role when the educational system falls short; and (3)…

Hopf, A. G.

1991-01-01

335

Journalism Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Journalism ethics, the norms of responsible journalism, can be traced back to the beginning of modern journalism in Europe during the seventeenth century. This chapter provides an overview of contemporary journalism ethics by following its evolution, by reviewing and critiquing major approaches, and by suggesting future work. The chapter begins with a view of ethics as practi- cal normative activity

Stephen J. A. Ward

2008-01-01

336

Marketing Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saucier examines marketing ethics, focusing on the nature of new ethical breaches made possible by the increasing capabilities of technology. Chapter topics include the use of fear appeals, intrusive advertising in daily lives, the American materialistic culture, body image advertising, and puffery and deceptive advertising practice. Appendices include the American Marketing Association Code of Ethics, the Parents' Bill of Rights,

Rick D. Saucier

2008-01-01

337

Ethical and legal issues on HIV testing, policy and the practice of dentistry.  

PubMed

This paper is structured around the following: autonomy and consent, confidentiality, disclosure, knowledge of patient and provider HIV status, the right to choose whom to treat, testing for HIV and the importance of HIV policies in the workplace to guard against discrimination. The emergence of the HIV/AIDS pandemic has challenged traditional ethical values of the health care profession. These include the infectious nature of HIV, the social stigma of the disease and its ethical and legal dilemmas. This paper addresses some of the pertinent questions related to HIV infection and AIDS. The three broad principles of ethics, namely, autonomy, beneficence and justice, provide the basic framework on which this paper is based. Advances in the biotechnology of rapid oral fluid testing particularly in the detection of HIV antibodies from patients in the dental setting have raised additional ethical and legal considerations in the subsequent management of HIV infected patients to include disclosure of test results to the patient and proper referral to physicians or nurse practitioners. The oral health care worker must thus have a solid foundation in the application of bioethical principles. A clinical case scenario related to HIV testing in the dental setting is presented to illustrate how a lack of understanding and the wrongful application of ethical principles may lead to patient harm and legal liability. Given the increasing infection rate of HIV worldwide, polices must be upheld and revised as needed to protect healthcare providers, patients, and society generally against discrimination. PMID:23474504

Naidoo, Sudeshni; Vernillo, Anthony

2012-12-01

338

An Investigation of the Ethical Decision-Making of Preschool Teachers: A Cultural Study of a Sample in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the ethical decision-making of preschool teachers (N = 26) in Samsun, on the northern coast of Turkey, was examined. For this analysis, six real-life dilemmas were prepared, chosen from the problems that most often arise in kindergartens in Turkey. These dilemmas addressed the commitment of the teacher to the child, to self, to the…

Ozturk, Safak

2011-01-01

339

Work in Progress - Dystopian Science Fiction as Ethical Case Studies for Undergraduate Engineering Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of dystopian science fiction as a means of introducing first-year engineering students to thinking critically about ethics and professional responsibility. Focused academic analysis of films such as Minority Report can enrich students' understanding of the decisions they will face as professional engineers and provide them with tools for evaluating ethical dilemmas. These films allow students

Christina Matta; Laura Grossenbacher

340

Ethics in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis of Graduate Student and Faculty Beliefs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now more than ever, graduate students and experienced researchers alike need to understand the professional and legal rules regarding the conduct of ethical research. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are differences in how graduate students and faculty assess ethical dilemmas in the field of educational research. Graduate…

Artino, Anthony R., Jr.; Brown, Scott W.

2009-01-01

341

Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda

2010-01-01

342

An Ethic of Connectedness: Enacting Moral School Leadership through People and Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educators, we grapple with a myriad of dilemmas and often have difficulty resolving issues that relate to curriculum and instruction, funding, facilities and supervision, to name a few. Depending on the leader(s), a variety of ethics come in to play when making decisions. The ethic of connectedness refers to community building and welfare as…

Frick, J. Edward; Frick, William C.

2010-01-01

343

Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (6 of 7): ethical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Despite the substantial global burden of preterm and stillbirth, little attention has been given to the ethical considerations related to research and interventions in the global context. Ethical dilemmas surrounding reproductive decisions and the care of preterm newborns impact the delivery of interventions, and are not well understood in low-resource settings. Issues such as how to address the moral

Maureen Kelley; Craig E Rubens

2010-01-01

344

Archaeology, Ethics, and Character: Using Our Cultural Heritage to Teach Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…

Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti

2002-01-01

345

Ethical Leadership in Schools: Creating Community in an Environment of Accountability. Leadership for Learning Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discover the link between ethical leadership and successful educational communities! In an age of accountability and transparency, principals are held responsible for everything from test scores to school finances. Because of this increased accountability, school leaders must regularly confront difficult ethical dilemmas. This book teaches…

Strike, Kenneth A.

2006-01-01

346

Ethics in the Work Environment: Applied Bioethics in the Hospital for Delta's Nursing Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1979, Delta College, in Michigan, established a bioethics requirement for all nursing students. This paper describes a project to teach one of the required ethics course to local hospitals to observe students while they work and discuss ethical dilemmas as they arose. Introductory sections discuss project rationale and procedures, indicating…

Plackowski, Linda C.

347

Messy Ethics: Conducting Moral Participatory Action Research in the Crucible of University-School Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…

Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.

2011-01-01

348

A Comparison of Special Education Administrators' and Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Ethics and Professional Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of special education is wrought with ethical dilemmas. The Council for Exceptional Children has outlined its code of ethics and standards for professional practice for individuals working in the field of special education. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which special education administrators and teachers possess…

Fiedler, Craig R.; Van Haren, Barbara

2009-01-01

349

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access "Card sorting": a tool for research in ethics on  

E-print Network

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access "Card sorting": a tool for research in ethics on treatment decision be decided: to treat or not to treat? Which arguments are used for decision-making? These are mainly ethical with the dilemma of which is the least bad decision in relation to the person's interests. Should an assessment

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Examining Moral Reasoning and Ethical Decision Making among Mississippi's Community College Administrators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As ethical dilemmas arise in community colleges, administrators make decisions that require sensitivity to the organizational, political, and environmental factors surrounding their particular institutional climates and locales. The moral reasoning and ethical decision-making of community college administrators were examined in this study. In…

Wilson, Vernesia Bracey

2010-01-01

351

Gift Giving and Receiving in Child-Centered Play Therapy: An Ethical Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child-centered play therapists are often confronted with the challenge of receiving gifts from clients. This article highlights recommended strategies when faced with gift receiving, exemplified by actual ethical dilemmas encountered by child-centered play therapists. Ethical and therapeutic considerations of therapist gift giving to child clients…

Blanco, Pedro J.; Sheely-Moore, Angela I.

2012-01-01

352

Ethical stockmanship.  

PubMed

The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions. PMID:17470069

Hemsworth, P H

2007-05-01

353

Ethical problems in radiology: radiological consumerism.  

PubMed

One of the causes of the increasing request for radiological examinations occurring in all economically developed countries is the active role played by the patient-consumer. Consumerism places the radiologist in an ethical dilemma, between the principle of autonomy on the one hand and the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice on the other. The choice made by radiologists in moral dilemmas is inspired by an adherence to moral principles, which in Italy and elsewhere refer to the Judaeo-Christian tradition or to neo-Darwinian relativism. Whatever the choice, the radiologist is bound to adhere to that choice and to provide the patient with all the relevant information regarding his or her state of health. PMID:19662338

Magnavita, N; Bergamaschi, A

2009-10-01

354

Ethical issues in health workforce development.  

PubMed Central

Increasing the numbers of health workers and improving their skills requires that countries confront a number of ethical dilemmas. The ethical considerations in answering five important questions on enabling health workers to deal appropriately with the circumstances in which they must work are described. These include the problems of the standards of training and practice required in countries with differing levels of socioeconomic development and different priority diseases; how a society can be assured that health practitioners are properly trained; how a health system can support its workers; diversion of health workers and training institutions; and the teaching of ethical principles to student health workers. The ethics of setting standards for the skills and care provided by traditional health-care practitioners are also discussed. PMID:15868019

Cash, Richard

2005-01-01

355

Handicapped infants: medical ethics and the law.  

PubMed Central

The main purpose of this paper (1) is to draw attention to a gap between the principles of Common Law and the principles accepted by many leading medical practitioners on the ethics of allowing severely handicapped infants to die. The Common Law principles are shown in Court of Appeal judgements on two cases. The contrasting principles of many paediatricians were illustrated at the trial of Dr Leonard Arthur. The paper suggests that the gap could be closed by statutory guidance on general principles. It also argues that utilitarian concepts misrepresent the ethical issues of medical dilemmas like this one. PMID:2965246

Raphael, D D

1988-01-01

356

The Problem of Whistleblowing in Engineering Ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the features of whistleblowing by considering the arguments about whistleblowing in engineering ethics. First, I analyze the concept of ‘whistleblowing’ by defining the word as clearly as possible. Second, I examine the standard justification theory of whistleblowing by showing the problems of the theory. Finally, I analyze the dilemma about whistleblowing by revealing a prospective whistleblower?s struggle to choose moral value or non-moral value.

Ohishi, Toshihiro

357

Ethical issues in editing scholarly journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various ethical issues that often involve dilemmas to face editors of scholarly journals. These issues are treated via discussions\\u000a of treatment of colleagues’ submissions; paradigm-based decisions, and decisions based on personal sociological predilections\\u000a and commitments; “reasonable” referee-assignment policies; policies with respect to how referees’ judgments are used; and\\u000a “privileged” treatment of categories of authors relative to other categories.

Sheldon Stryker

1990-01-01

358

Medical ethics--a Christian view.  

PubMed Central

All ethics has a religious dimension. This paper considers how specific Christian insights concerning death, suffering, human nature and human creatureliness can help to expose more fully the moral issues at stake in some of the dilemmas faced by doctors. It ends by acknowledging the crushing burden of decision-making which rests on many in the medical profession, and indicates the importance of religious resources in dealing with this. PMID:3981562

Habgood, J S

1985-01-01

359

Why Should Nanoscience Students be Taught to be Ethically Competent?  

PubMed

During the education of scientists at the university level the students become more and more specialized. The specialization of the students is a consequence of the scientific research becoming specialized as well. In the interdisciplinary field of nanoscience the importance of specialization is also emphasized throughout the education. Being an interdisciplinary field of study the specialization in this area is not focused on scientific disciplines, but on the different branches of the research. Historically ethics has not been a priority in science education, however, in recent years the importance of such teachings has been highly recognize especially in medicine, biotechnology and engineering. The rapid development, the many new and unknown areas and the highly specialized focus of nanotechnology suggest the importance of having ethically competent researchers. In this article the importance of ethical competence in nanoscience research is argued for by an example of a dilemma that could occur in a research project. The dilemma is analyzed using two different ethical views, generating two different choices for action. It is seen that the dilemma can have more than one solution and that ethical competence can help in justifying the choice of solution in a specific situation. Furthermore it is suggested that a way to reach this competence is through education in ethics incorporated into the nanoscience education curriculum. PMID:24297092

Rasmussen, Anna Julie; Ebbesen, Mette

2014-12-01

360

Information technology and ethics: An exploratory factor analysis  

SciTech Connect

Ethical dilemmas are situations in which a decision results in unpleasant consequences. The unpleasant consequences are treated as a zero-sum game in which someone always loses. Introducing information technology (IT) to a situation makes the recognition of a potential loser more abstract and difficult to identify, thus an ethical dilemma may go unrecognized. The computer mediates the human relationship which causes a lost sense of contact with a person at the other end of the computer connection. In 1986, Richard O. Mason published an essay identifying privacy, accuracy, property, and Access (PAPA) as the four main ethical issues of the information age. Anecdotes for each issue describe the injured party`s perspective to identify consequences resulting from unethical use of information and information technology. This research sought to validate Mason`s social issues empirically, but with distinct differences. Mason defined issues to raise awareness and initiate debate on the need for a social agenda; our focus is on individual computer users and the attitudes they hold about ethical behavior in computer use. This study examined the attitudes of the computer user who experiences the ethical dilemma to determine the extent to which ethical components are recognized, and whether Mason`s issues form recognizable constructs.

Conger, S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Loch, K.D. [Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Helft, B.L. [Baruch College, New York, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

361

Five-year experience of clinical ethics consultations in a pediatric teaching hospital.  

PubMed

Our retrospective study presents and evaluates clinical ethics consultations (CECs) in pediatrics as a structure for implementing hospital-wide ethics. We performed a descriptive and statistical analysis of clinical ethics decision making and its implementation in pediatric CECs at Zurich University Children's Hospital. Ninety-five CECs were held over 5 years for 80 patients. The care team reached a consensus treatment recommendation after one session in 75 consultations (89 %) and on 82 of 84 ethical issues (98 %) after two or more sessions (11 repeats). Fifty-seven CECs recommended limited treatment and 23 maximal treatment. Team recommendations were agreed outright by parents and/or patient in 59 of 73 consultations (81 %). Initial dissensus yielded to explanatory discussion or repeat CEC in seven consultations (10 %). In a further seven families (10 %), no solution was found within the CEC framework: five (7 %) required involvement of the child protection service, and in two families, the parents took their child elsewhere. Eventual team-parent/patient consensus was reached in 66 of 73 families (90 %) with documented parental/patient decisions (missing data, n?=?11). Patient preference was assessable in ten CECs. Patient autonomy was part of the ethical dilemma in only three CECs. The Zurich clinical ethics structure produced a 98 % intra-team consensus rate in 95 CECs and reduced initial team-parent dissensus from 21 to 10 %. Success depends closely on a standardized CEC protocol and an underlying institutional clinical ethics framework embodying a comprehensive set of transparently articulated values and opinions, with regular evaluation of decisions and their consequences for care teams and families. PMID:24323344

Streuli, Jürg C; Staubli, Georg; Pfändler-Poletti, Marlis; Baumann-Hölzle, Ruth; Ersch, Jörg

2014-05-01

362

Coping with Uncertainty in Teacher Mentoring: Cases of Ethical Tensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes some of the complexity embedded in mentoring relationships among teachers and analyzes them through the lens of ethical tensions. The author draws on three instances from a larger collection of cases of mentoring dilemmas situated within the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards portfolio-based assessment…

Sato, Mistilina

2008-01-01

363

When Values and Ethics Conflict: The Counselor's Role and Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the core conditions of client-centered counseling and supported by aspects of psychodynamic, cognitive developmental, and behavioral theories, a perspective is introduced that provides a resolution to the dilemma experienced by counselors and counseling students whose personal values and beliefs conflict with the ethical guidelines of the…

Elliott, Glenda R.

2011-01-01

364

The Human Brain Project: social and ethical challenges.  

PubMed

Focusing on the Human Brain Project, I discuss some social and ethical challenges raised by such programs of research: the possibility of a unified knowledge of "the brain," balancing privacy and the public good, dilemmas of "dual use," brain-computer interfaces, and "responsible research and innovation" in governance of emerging technologies. PMID:24945767

Rose, Nikolas

2014-06-18

365

Ethical Issues in Professionals' Response to Child Maltreatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many ethical dilemmas confront professionals in the field of child maltreatment. These include (a) moving from a minimal standard of what is adequate to a higher standard of good care; (b) weighing the needs and interests of children and parents; (c) determining what should be disclosed to families, for research and clinical purposes; (d) handling information that may be considered

Howard Dubowitz

1997-01-01

366

Modernity, Ethics and Religious Education in Contemporary Britain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article seeks to engage with the contention that, given the dilemmas of the self purportedly raised by these aspects of modernity, teachers of religious education need, ethically as well as professionally, to urgently revise their often traditionalist view of society, of children and of appropriate pedagogy for their subject. The aim of such…

Earl, Mary M.

2010-01-01

367

Ethical Questions for Teachers: A Case Study Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the appropriateness of the case study approach, commonly used in medical and law schools, for prospective and inservice teachers in schools of education. Developing courses in which case studies would be used to illustrate moral dilemmas would aid teachers in examining their ethical principles, weighing moral issues, and…

Kasprisin, Lorraine

368

Alternative sources of pluripotency: science, ethics, and stem cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite many advances in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) technology the ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is one factor that has limited the development of hESC based clinical therapies. Two recent reports describing the production of pluripotent stem cells following the in vitro reprogramming of human somatic cells with certain defined factors illustrate one potential method

Zachary J. Kastenberg; Jon S. Odorico

2008-01-01

369

The ethics of socio-cultural risk research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In socio-cultural risk research, an epistemological tension often follows if real hazards in the world are juxtaposed against the essentially socially constructed nature of all risk. In this editorial, we consider how this paradox is manifest at a practical level in a number of ethical dilemmas for the risk researcher. (1) In terms of strategies for seeking informed consent, and

Nick Pidgeon; Peter Simmons; Sophie Sarre; Karen Henwood; Noel Smith

2008-01-01

370

Journal Editing and Ethical Research Practice: Perspectives of Journal Editors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers perspectives from academics with recent journal editing experience on a range of ethical issues and dilemmas that regularly pose challenges for those in editorial roles. Each contributing author has provided commentary and reflection on a select topic that was identified in the research literature concerning academic publishing…

Randell-Moon, Holly; Anderson, Nicole; Bretag, Tracey; Burke, Anthony; Grieshaber, Sue; Lambert, Anthony; Saltmarsh, David; Yelland, Nicola

2011-01-01

371

Medical Students? Cases as an Empirical Basis for Teaching Clinical Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify ethical issues that interns encounter in their clinical education and thus build a more empirical basis for the required contents of the clinical ethics curriculum.\\u000aThe authors analyzed a total of 522 required case reports on ethical dilemmas experienced by interns from September 1995 to May 1999 at the medical school of Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. They identified

Marli Huijer; Leeuwen van Evert; Annette Boenink; Gerrit Kimsma

2000-01-01

372

The role of developing countries in protecting the ozone layer: An ethical analysis  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to reduce the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, the nations of the world joined together in a landmark effort to address this most important problem. Unlike many environmental issues which are localized, ozone depletion is an environmental problem which must be addressed on a global scale. In order to successfully halt the depletion of the ozone layer, it is imperative that all countries amend their current practices and reduce their consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This necessity presents an ethical dilemma when assigning responsibility for ozone layer protection among nations. This paper will address the difficulties in dealing with ozone depletion on a global scale and will discuss the ethically correct role which should be assumed by developing countries. After presenting a brief history of the problem of ozone depletion and the measures which have been taken to halt it, this paper will describe an ethical framework in which ozone layer protection policies in developing countries should be evaluated. This framework is based on the concept of balancing morally-correct policies with economically-sound policies. It illustrates, in detail, how the environmental impacts of policies must be considered in conjunction with the impacts of such policies on the lives and well-being of the country`s citizens. The paper presents an ethical analysis of three primary policy options. These options address the phaseout of ozone-depleting substances (such as CFCs) and include: the no-phaseout option, the developed country accelerated phaseout schedule, and the delayed phaseout schedule. Each option is examined within the ethical framework presented earlier in the paper. Finally, the paper concludes by addressing the ethical responsibilities of developed countries. It discusses the various ways in which developed countries should provide aid.

Zatz, M.N. [ICF Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1994-12-31

373

The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: A comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine?  

PubMed Central

Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethical dilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethical dilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven. PMID:23773811

Campbell, Madeleine L.H.

2013-01-01

374

Admission, Ethics, and Financial Aid: Formulating and Applying an Ethical Framework to the Need-Blind Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the history and current status of college admission and develops an approach to resolve ethical problems. Applies this approach to the need-blind versus aid-blind controversy, an admission situation rooted in the counseling versus recruitment dilemma. (MKA)

Roth, Andrew

1998-01-01

375

The dilemma of revealing sensitive information on paternity status in Arabian social and cultural contexts: telling the truth about paternity in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Telling the truth is one of the most respected virtues in medical history and one of the most emphasized in the code of medical ethics. Health care providers are frequently confronted with the dilemma as to whether or not to tell the truth. This dilemma deepens when both choices are critically vicious: The choice is no longer between "right and right" or "right and wrong," it is between "wrong and wrong." In the case presented and discussed in this paper, a research team in Saudi Arabia unintentionally uncovered information regarding misattributed paternity. In such a situation and in the context of a tribal cultural system, what should the team do with this information? This case analysis demonstrates the joint application of ethical resources originating from within and outside the Saudi Arabian context. The article analyses the case based on the moral problems involved, relevant medical application, and the impact of such information in the Saudi tribal and Islamic domains. The most pertinent relevant values and secular debates on similar matters are discussed. Finally, the article aims to provide an Islamic dimension of family, fatherhood, and adultery. PMID:23180120

Adlan, Abdallah A; ten Have, Henk A M J

2012-12-01

376

"Ethics Shock."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four books focusing on ethical issues in collegiate sports are reviewed: "Paterno by the Book,""Personal Fouls,""Never Too Young to Die: The Death of Len Bias," and "Rules of the Game: Ethics in College Sport." The themes of academic standards, student responsibility, the coach's role and responsibilities, the need for reform in college athletics…

Knefelkamp, L. Lee

1990-01-01

377

Egocentric Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical judgments are often egocentrically biased, such that moral reasoners tend to conclude that self-interested outcomes are not only desirable but morally justifiable. Although such egocentric ethics can arise from deliberate self-interested reasoning, we suggest that they may also arise through unconscious and automatic psychological mechanisms. People automatically interpret their perceptions egocentrically, automatically evaluate stimuli on a semantic differential as

Nicholas Epley; Eugene M. Caruso

2004-01-01

378

Ethics Creep: Governing Social Science Research in the Name of Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an analysis of the Canadian ethics review process by a member of a Research Ethics Board. The author suggests that the new formal system for regulating the ethical conduct of scholarly research is experiencing a form of “ethics creep.” This is characterized by a dual process whereby the regulatory system is expanding outward to incorporate a host

Kevin D. Haggerty

2004-01-01

379

The Evolution of Ethics: Personal Perspectives of ACA Ethics Committee Chairs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a survey of the American Counseling Association Ethics Committee chairs regarding their experiences, learning, and insights in the area of professional counselor ethics resulting from their service on the committee. In addition, ethics chairs reflect on current and future trends in counselor ethics. (Contains 13 references.)…

Walden, Susan L.; Herlihy, Barbara; Ashton, Lauri

2003-01-01

380

Science and ethics: Some issues for education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.

Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

2001-11-01

381

Ethics in oncology: consulting for the investment industry.  

PubMed

As Ethics Committee Chair, I am pleased to introduce the first in an ongoing series of ethics vignettes. These columns, which are based on true-to-life situations that arise in oncology research and practice, are intended to identify and explore important ethical issues and provide commentary that is specific to oncology. Please look for them periodically in both the Journal of Clinical Oncology and the Journal of Oncology Practice. The idea for publishing vignettes evolved through the joint efforts of the Ethics Committee and the Board of Directors. Rather than adopt a single set of ethical principles that applies vaguely to any situation and well to none, the Committee and the Board preferred to tackle ethical dilemmas individually, specifically, and directly. Because the Ethics Committee thought the ethical and legal implications of physician interactions with the investment industry were so important and timely, it chose to address this topic in both a position article, which was previously published in the January 20, 2007, issue of the Journal of Clinical Oncology (J Clin Oncol 25:338-340, 2007) and in its first vignette column. The Ethics Committee hopes this column will be the first of several that ASCO members will find helpful as they grapple with the many ethical issues that arise in daily practice in the field of oncology. Because these columns are intended to address the concerns of ASCO members, the Committee welcomes suggestions for future topics at vignettes@asco.org. Martin D. Abeloff, MD, Chair, Ethics Committee. PMID:17264341

Berlin, Jordan; Bruinooge, Suanna S; Tannock, Ian F

2007-02-01

382

The Ethics of Human Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter intends to lay out some essential ethics questions that might frame the next step of space exploration. In this, I undertake two sorts of tasks. The first is to respond to the core ethic question: Is it ethical to travel in space? The second, assuming for the moment that I can convince you that the first premise can be justified, is to comment on what ethical challenges will face us there. It is appropriate to have a philosopher comment on this at the fortieth anniversary celebration, since it was also in 1962 that the National Academy of Science first convened a panel of philosophers to comment on space travel. They asked at that time whether it was indeed a worthwhile pursuit to travel in space and what might be expected of such an effort. What is at stake in any such boundary crossing is how the changing of essential human perimeters changes our own moral status. Will such boundary crossing worsen our human condition, or will it enhance it? In this way, the geopolitical quest is then linked to the quest for ontology, Pisarro hunting for the fountain of youth, for gold, and for territory. What follows are a series of ethical claims that link the problem of discovery in the larger world and the attendant ethical dilemmas of our explorations, as well as how this exploration alters our concepts of life on Earth. In this, the role of the ethicist is to function as both a skeptic and a stranger, aware of the optimism of science and the pessimism of philosophy.

Zoloth, Laurie

2005-01-01

383

Dialysis in the frail elderly--a current ethical problem, an impending ethical crisis.  

PubMed

The current practice of hemodialysis for the frail elderly frequently ignores core bioethical principles. Lack of transparency and shared decision making coupled with financial incentives to treat have resulted in problems of overtreatment near the end of life. Imminent changes in reimbursement for hemodialysis will reverse the financial incentives to favor not treating high-risk patients. In this article, we describe what is empirically known about the approach to hemodialysis today, and how it violates four core ethical principles. We then discuss how the new financial system turns physician and organizational incentives upside down in ways that may exacerbate the ethical dilemmas, but in the opposite direction. PMID:23686511

Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg; Swetz, Keith M; Tilburt, Jon C

2013-11-01

384

Dilemmas of Leading National Curriculum Reform in a Global Era: A Chinese Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the mid-1980s, a global resurgence of large-scale reform in the field of education has been witnessed. Implementing these reforms has created many dilemmas for change leaders. Following a three-year qualitative research project, the present study explores the dilemmas leaders faced during the implementation of the national curriculum reform…

Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Wang, Wenlan

2014-01-01

385

Ethnographic research with adolescent students: situated fieldwork ethics and ethical principles governing human research.  

PubMed

This paper explores ethical dilemmas in situated fieldwork ethics concerning ethnographic studies of adolescent students. While consequentialist and deontological ethics form the basis of the ethical stances shared by ethnographers and research ethics committees, the interpretation of those principles may diverge in school-based ethnography with adolescent students because of the particular role of the adult ethnographer vis-à-vis developmentally immature adolescents not held legally responsible for many of their actions. School ethnographers attempt to build trust with adolescent participants in order to learn about their hidden cultural worlds, which may involve activities that are very harmful to the youths involved. They face many difficult and sometimes unexpected choices, including whether to intervene and how to represent events and adolescents in published findings. Scenarios with examples drawn from research conducted in public high schools are used to illustrate and explicate dilemmas in formal research and latent insider/outsider roles and relations involving harmful adolescent behaviors, advocacy, and psychological trauma. Also examined are analytical procedures used to construct interpretations leading to representations of research participants in the resulting publication. PMID:19919317

Hemmings, Annette

2009-12-01

386

Moral–Ethical Character and Science Education: EcoJustice Ethics Through Socioscientific Issues (SSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Socioscientific issues (SSI) provide situations where science teachers and students analyze complex issues associated with\\u000a ethical, political, and social dilemmas, such as whether animals should be kept in zoos or whether plants should be genetically\\u000a modified. While engaging in socioscientific issues, students become informed about scientific conditions and develop epistemological\\u000a styles for dealing with scientific research and the consequences thereof.

Michael P. Mueller; Dana L. Zeidler

387

Managing wildlife ethics issues ethically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlifers seldom write about ethics, yet ethical issues are among the most intractable of wildlife management issues. Society's value orientations about wildlife have been changing slowly over the last several decades. An increasingly urbanized and educated population no longer unequivocally supports wildlife management programs that tend to regard wildlife as utilitarian objects. State wildlife agencies and their employees have been

R. Bruce Gill

2000-01-01

388

From River Cottage to Chicken Run: Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall and the class politics of ethical consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifestyle television provides a key site through which to explore the dilemmas of ethical consumption, as the genre shifts to consider the ethics of different consumption practices and taste cultures. UK television cook Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall's TV programmes offer fertile ground not only for thinking about television personalities as lifestyle experts and moral entrepreneurs, but also for thinking about how the

David Bell; Joanne Hollows

2011-01-01

389

Journalism Ethics in Multinational Family: “When in the EU, Should One Do as the EU Journalists Do?”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay reviews a number of issues regarding self-regulation and professional ethics which journalists across Europe might face in the scaling down of national borders. The dilemma of whether a pan-European ideal standards code of ethics can help journalists when working across borders and encountering other traditions is explored by referring to Slovenia, one of the new European Union (EU)

Melita Poler Kova?i?

2008-01-01

390

A professional code of ethics provides guidance for genetic nursing practice.  

PubMed

While ethical quandaries and dilemmas are commonplace for nurses, recent advances in human genetics have and will continue to create new challenges and controversies. Throughout time, nursing has been an ethical endeavour, with nurses viewing the ethical mandates of their responsibilities on a par with other core dimensions of their professional life. The (American) profession's code of ethics, Code for nurses with interpretive statements, provides direction for practice and for the fulfillment of ethical obligations. The explication of these ethical norms and values that shape professional practice is necessary as nurses confront the integration of genetic services into health care. The goal of preserving professional integrity and ethical soundness in the context of genetic health care mandates that nurses rely on and act upon the profession's national and international codes of ethics. PMID:10986949

Scanlon, C

2000-05-01

391

Was the Cold War a Security Dilemma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the security dilemma, tensions and conºicts can arise between states even when they do not intend them. Some analysts have argued that the Cold War was a classic example of a security dilemma. This article disputes that notion. Although the Cold War contained elements of a deep security dilemma, it was not purely a case in which tensions and

Robert Jervis

2001-01-01

392

Ethical leadership.  

PubMed

In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness. PMID:22864295

Keselman, David

2012-01-01

393

Biomedical ethics and the biomedical engineer: a review.  

PubMed

Biomedical engineering is responsible for many of the dramatic advances in modern medicine. This has resulted in improved medical care and better quality of life for patients. However, biomedical technology has also contributed to new ethical dilemmas and has challenged some of our moral values. Bioengineers often lack adequate training in facing these moral and ethical problems. These include conflicts of interest, allocation of scarce resources, research misconduct, animal experimentation, and clinical trials for new medical devices. This paper is a compilation of our previous published papers on these topics, and it summarizes many complex ethical issues that a bioengineer may face during his or her research career or professional practice. The need for ethics training in the education of a bioengineering student is emphasized. We also advocate the adoption of a code of ethics for bioengineers. PMID:9315431

Saha, S; Saha, P S

1997-01-01

394

Ethical Dilemmas of In-Service Music Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like professionals in other disciplines, music educators are expected to observe certain behavioral standards. In addition to teaching musical skills, concepts, and context, music educators are also expected to protect the welfare of children, serve as trustworthy stewards of public property, and generally behave responsibly and professionally…

Lien, Joelle L.

2012-01-01

395

Use of animals in experimental research: an ethical dilemma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mankind has been using animals already for a long time for food, for transport and as companion. The use of animals in experimental research parallels the development of medicine, which had its roots in ancient Greece (Aristotle, Hippocrate). With the Cartesian philosophy in the 17th century, experiments on animals could be performed without great moral problems. The discovery of anaesthetics

V Baumans

2004-01-01

396

Podcasting and Vodcasting: Legal Issues and Ethical Dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Portable media devices like iPods, iRivers, and others are becoming quite common in today's society. Concurrent with the advent of portable hardware is the development of downloadable media. Two of these forms of downloadable programming are podcasting and vodcasting. While these media are rapidly becoming a part of everyday life, written laws that govern technology and its uses are not

Heidi L. Schnackenberg; Edwin S. Vega; Dustin H. Relation; Clinton County

397

Ethical dilemmas in communicating medical information to the public  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines arguments for and against objective communication between health-care experts (HCEs) and the public concerning matters of health and disease. It argues that HCEs should have neither a purely objective approach nor a paternalistic approach to communications with the public. The informed consent model is the best way to promote public health, prevent disease, respect individual autonomy, and

David B. Resnik

2001-01-01

398

The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the ‘fight against emission constraints,’ ‘wait and see,’ and ‘proactive’ strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business

Sybille van den Hove; Marc Le Menestrel; Henri-Claude de Bettignies

2002-01-01

399

DIDMOAD Syndrome: A Diagnostic as well as Therapeutic Dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report 2 interesting cases of diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, and deafness (DIDMOAD) syndrome, which presented diagnostic as well as therapeutic dilemmas. The first case report is of a 12-year-old girl who presented with bruises, bleeding from the gums, epistaxis, and pallor. She was born full term by normal vaginal delivery. Her parents were first cousins. She developed

Muhammad Ayyub; Masood Anwar; Waqar Ali; B. M. Qazi

2004-01-01

400

Reflecting on the ethical administration of computerized medical records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation examines the ethical issues raised by computerized image management and communication systems (IMAC), the ethical principals that should guide development of policies, procedures and practices for IMACS systems, and who should be involved in developing a hospital's approach to these issues. The ready access of computerized records creates special hazards of which hospitals must beware. Hospitals must maintain confidentiality of patient's records while making records available to authorized users as efficiently as possible. The general conditions of contemporary health care undermine protecting the confidentiality of patient record. Patients may not provide health care institutions with information about themselves under conditions of informed consent. The field of information science must design sophisticated systems of computer security that stratify access, create audit trails on data changes and system use, safeguard patient data from corruption, and protect the databases from outside invasion. Radiology professionals must both work with information science experts in their own hospitals to create institutional safeguards and include the adequacy of security measures as a criterion for evaluating PACS systems. New policies and procedures on maintaining computerized patient records must be developed that obligate all members of the health care staff, not just care givers. Patients must be informed about the existence of computerized medical records, the rules and practices that govern their dissemination and given the opportunity to give or withhold consent for their use. Departmental and hospital policies on confidentiality should be reviewed to determine if revisions are necessary to manage computer-based records. Well developed discussions of the ethical principles and administrative policies on confidentiality and informed consent and of the risks posed by computer-based patient records systems should be included in initial and continuing staff system training. Administration should develop ways to monitor staff compliance with confidentiality policies and should assess diligence in maintaining patient record confidentiality as part of staff annual performance evaluations. Ethical management of IMAC systems is the business of all members of the health care team. Computerized patient records management (including IMAC) should be scrutinized as any other clinical medial ethical issue. If hospitals include these processes in their planning for RIS, IMACS, and HIS systems, they should have time to develop institutional expertise on these questions before and as systems are installed rather than only as ethical dilemmas develop during their use.

Collmann, Jeff R.

1995-05-01

401

What's the matter with business ethics?  

PubMed

The more business ethics secures its status in campuses across the country, the more bewildering it appears to actual managers. It's not that managers dislike the idea of doing the right thing. As University of Toronto Assistant Professor Andrew Stark argues, far too many business ethicists just haven't offered them the practical advice they need. Before business ethics became a formal discipline, advocates of corporate social responsibility claimed that the market would ultimately reward ethical behavior. But ethics and interests did not always intersect so fruitfully in the real world. And when they did not, managers were left in the dark to grope for the right ethical course. In the 1970s, the brand-new field of business ethics came onto the scene to address this issue. Critical of the "ethics pays" approach, academics held that ethics and interests can and do conflict. Still, scholars took an equally unrealistic line. To them, a manager's motivation could be either altruistic or self-interested, but never both. In short, ethicists still weren't addressing the difficult moral dilemmas that managers face on a day-to-day basis, and only recently have they begun to do so. After some initial stumbles, ethicists are getting their hands dirty and seriously considering the costs of doing the right thing. Finally, a new business ethics is emerging that acknowledges and accepts the messy world of mixed motives. As a result, novel concepts are springing up: moderation, pragmatism, minimalism, among others.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10126154

Stark, A

1993-01-01

402

Asymptomatic infantile cystic nephroma: a diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

Cystic nephroma, also called multilocular cystic nephroma, is a relatively rare, nongenetic, benign, unilateral, renal multicystic lesion. The non-specific clinical findings and the poor contribution of imaging examinations make the preoperative diagnostic dilemma from other cystic renal neoplasia; thus nephrectomy seems to be the most preferable treatment. We report a case of cystic nephroma in 11 months old male child presented with asymptomatic lump in abdomen. After a series of examinations including abdominal ultrasound, intravenous pylography and computed tomography, he underwent radical nephrectomy and diagnosis is confirmed on histopathology. PMID:24293912

Wani, Bhushan; Kolte, Gaurav; Rathod, Vishal; Banode, Pankaj; Bhole, Anil

2012-12-01

403

Analytics For Distracted Driver Behavior Modeling in Dilemma Zone  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present the results obtained and insights gained through the analysis of TRB contest data. We used exploratory analysis, regression, and clustering models for gaining insights into the driver behavior in a dilemma zone while driving under distraction. While simple exploratory analysis showed the distinguishing driver behavior patterns among different popu- lation groups in the dilemma zone, regression analysis showed statically signification relationships between groups of variables. In addition to analyzing the contest data, we have also looked into the possible impact of distracted driving on the fuel economy.

Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL] [ORNL; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL; Thakur, Gautam [ORNL] [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

404

Ethics for the new millennium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a discussion with Rushworth M. Kidder, President of the Institute for Global Ethics. Kidder considers the central ethical issue of our time to be the continuity of the human race, because of the way that technology today enables us to leverage individual decisions. His concern is that we are raising an entire generation of people without their own built-in

Bruce Lloyd; Rushworth M. Kidder

1997-01-01

405

Understanding the National Energy Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This graphic representation of our energy dilemma provides government officials, industry, and general public with an understanding of the broad problems and complexity of our energy crisis. An energy display system projects effects of energy policies on our domestic energy situation. This display contains sheets indicating total energy flow…

Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

406

Prisoner's Dilemma: Reflections and Recollections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the roots of social trap situations and describes a parasitism-symbiosis model, showing that when each organism attempts to maximize its survival potential without regard for the other's, neither does as well as when they behave collectively. Discusses a model social trap situation, "Prisoner's Dilemma" ("PD") and a program for playing…

Rapoport, Anatol

1995-01-01

407

Ethics and Culture in Mental Health Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the complex relationship between culture, values, and ethics in mental health care. Cultural competence is a practical, concrete demonstration of the ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence (doing good), nonmaleficence (not doing harm), and justice (treating people fairly)—the cornerstones of modern ethical codes for the health professions. Five clinical cases are presented to illustrate the range

Jinger G. Hoop; Tony DiPasquale; Juan M. Hernandez; Laura Weiss Roberts

2008-01-01

408

Toward an Ethic of Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents an alternative ethic of higher education and considers policy choices of higher education resulting from this ethic. This alternative ethic asserts that higher education constitutes a primary social means for the forming of selves capable of participating widely and effectively in the affairs of a modern complex world. This…

Kadish, Mortimer R.

409

Resolving Ethical Issues When Conducting Sexuality Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical issues about conducting sexuality education often arise. This paper describes one system of ethics and how the sexuality educator can use that system to determine whether an action is moral or immoral and, therefore, the appropriate action to take for that sexuality educator to be consistent with his or her values. Ethical principles are presented along with examples of

Clint E. Bruess; Jerrold S. Greenberg

2008-01-01

410

Ethical and legal issues in suicide research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moralist, libertarian and relativist ethical positions concerning suicide and its prevention are presented in order to clarify premises upon which ethical issues in suicide research may be resolved. Ethical concerns are differentiated from legal considerations and the implications of the vulnerability of suicidology research participants are discussed. Specific issues that arise in design, choice of participants, interpretation, diffusion of results

Brian L. Mishara; David N. Weisstub

2005-01-01

411

Beneficence toward whom? Ethical decision-making in a maternal-fetal conflict.  

PubMed

Ethical dilemmas and conflicts occur frequently in critical care units. When these dilemmas involve a pregnant patient, the conflicts are further complicated, because they also involve the interests of the fetus. Using an ethical decision-making process facilitates the analysis of ethical dilemmas and their resolutions. This process is used to analyze the dilemma of selecting appropriate treatment for a woman at 30 weeks' gestation, diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia. The case is examined from the perspective of the mother and the fetus, using the decision-making process. The medical indications include the patient's physical state, disease process, and treatment options. Patient preferences are the ethical and legal center of the patient-physician, and patient-nurse relationship. Contextual features include religious beliefs, cultural values, family dynamics, and financial and legal aspects of the care options. Finally, the ethical principles, relevant and in conflict, are assessed. Exploring these areas clarifies the best treatment option in consideration of the issues and facts of the case. PMID:9392715

Wallace, R; Wiegand, F; Warren, C

1997-11-01

412

[Bioethics in medical institutions--new custom or help? The example of clinical ethics consultation at a University Medical Center].  

PubMed

Although ethics committees are well established in the medical sciences for human clinical trials, animal research and scientific integrity, the development of clinical ethics in German hospitals started much later during the first decade of the twenty-first century. Clinical ethics consultation should be pragmatic and problem-centered and can be defined as an ethically qualified and informed conflict management within a given legal framework to deal with and resolve value-driven, normative problems in the care of patients. Clinical ethics consultations enable shared clinical decision-making of all parties (e.g. clinicians, patients, family and surrogates) involved in a particular patient's care. The clinical ethicist does not act as an ethics expert by making independent recommendations or decisions; therefore, the focus is different from other medical consultants. Ethics consultation was first established by healthcare ethics committees (HEC) or clinical ethics consultation (CEC) groups which were called in to respond to an ethically problematic situation. To avoid ethical dilemmas or crises and to act preventively with regard to ethical issues in individual patients, an ethics liaison service is an additional option to ethics case consultations which take place on a regular basis by scheduled ethics rounds during the normal ward rounds. The presence of the ethicist offers some unique advantages: it allows early recognition of even minor ethical problems and accommodates the dynamics of ethical and clinical goal-setting in the course of patient care. Most importantly, regular and non-authoritative participation of the ethicist in normal ward rounds allows continuous ethical education of the staff within the everyday clinical routine. By facilitating clinical ethical decision-making, the ethicist seeks to empower physicians and medical staff to deal appropriately with ethical problems by themselves. Because of this proactive approach, the ethics liaison service can make a significant contribution to preventative ethics in reducing the number of emerging ethical problems to the satisfaction of all parties involved. PMID:24902533

Richter, G

2014-08-01

413

Differentiating illness and disease. A dilemma for GPs.  

PubMed

Some patients come to the doctor with multiple symptoms but no discernible illness. Others have florid 'blue chip' diseases, but are either asymptomatic, or present with symptoms that are nothing to do with the disease. This creates a confusing situation that can adversely affect patient care. Resolving this dilemma is (yet another) big challenge for GPs. PMID:8952100

Bateman, B

1996-11-01

414

In-class Simulations of the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed a simple computer program for the in-class simulation of the repeated prisoner's dilemma game with student-designed strategies. Describes the basic features of the software. Presents two examples using the program to teach the problems of cooperation among profit-maximizing agents. (JEH)

Bodo, Peter

2002-01-01

415

Gifted Asian American Adolescent Males: Portraits of Cultural Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many gifted Asian American adolescent males face cultural issues that may impact their success. This article presents important cultural dilemmas faced by 2 gifted Asian American young men. Through a qualitative approach, the acculturation experiences of John and Matt, gifted Taiwanese, second generation immigrants, are described.…

Kao, Chen-yao; Hebert, Thomas P.

2006-01-01

416

Motivational Correlations of Strategy Choices in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the motivational dimensions assessed by the Motivation Analysis Test and prisoner's dilemma game behavior as measured both by the number of competitive strategy choices and the two-stage stochastic variables labelled trustworthiness, forgiveness, repentance, and trust by Rapoport.

Williams, Carl D.; Steele, Matthew W.; Tedeschi, James T.

1969-01-01

417

Dignity, death, and dilemmas: a study of Washington hospices and physician-assisted death.  

PubMed

The legalization of physician-assisted death in states such as Washington and Oregon has presented defining ethical issues for hospice programs because up to 90% of terminally ill patients who use the state-regulated procedure to end their lives are enrolled in hospice care. The authors recently partnered with the Washington State Hospice and Palliative Care Organization to examine the policies developed by individual hospice programs on program and staff participation in the Washington Death with Dignity Act. This article sets a national and local context for the discussion of hospice involvement in physician-assisted death, summarizes the content of hospice policies in Washington State, and presents an analysis of these findings. The study reveals meaningful differences among hospice programs about the integrity and identity of hospice and hospice care, leading to different policies, values, understandings of the medical procedure, and caregiving practices. In particular, the authors found differences 1) in the language used by hospices to refer to the Washington statute that reflect differences among national organizations, 2) the values that hospice programs draw on to support their policies, 3) dilemmas created by requests by patients for hospice staff to be present at a patient's death, and 4) five primary levels of noninvolvement and participation by hospice programs in requests from patients for physician-assisted death. This analysis concludes with a framework of questions for developing a comprehensive hospice policy on involvement in physician-assisted death and to assist national, state, local, and personal reflection. PMID:23830529

Campbell, Courtney S; Black, Margaret A

2014-01-01

418

Medical Ethics  

MedlinePLUS

... donate an organ to a sick relative? Your personal health information: who has access to your records? Patient rights: Do you have the right to refuse treatment? When you talk with your doctor, is it ethical for her to withhold information from you or your family?

419

Ethical Mindfulness and Reflexivity: Managing a Research Relationship with Children and Young People in a 14-Year Qualitative Longitudinal Research (QLR) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on the articulation of a value for reflexivity that has accumulated within qualitative methods debates in the past decade. It demonstrates how reflexivity is interwoven with the concept of ethical mindfulness. The argument has developed from a consideration of the ethical dilemmas that were a salient aspect of an ongoing…

Warin, Jo

2011-01-01

420

Bilateral Facial Nerve Palsy: A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Bilateral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a rare condition, representing less than 2% of all cases of FNP. Majority of these patients have underlying medical conditions, ranging from neurologic, infectious, neoplastic, traumatic, or metabolic disorders. Objective. The differential diagnosis of its causes is extensive and hence can present as a diagnostic challenge. Emergency physicians should be aware of these various diagnostic possibilities, some of which are potentially fatal. Case Report. We report a case of a 43-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with sequential bilateral facial nerve paralysis which could not be attributed to any particular etiology and, hence, presented a diagnostic dilemma. Conclusion. We reinforce the importance of considering the range of differential diagnosis in all cases presenting with bilateral FNP. These patients warrant admission and prompt laboratory and radiological investigation for evaluation of the underlying cause and specific further management as relevant. PMID:23326715

Pothiawala, Sohil; Lateef, Fatimah

2012-01-01

421

Suicide and Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five articles by philosophers and a psychiatrist on the ethics of suicide, as well as comments and a literature review. Discusses the rationality and morality of suicide from several philosophical viewpoints including self-ownership, Kant's theories, and a libertarian perspective. (JAC)

Battin, Margaret P., Ed.; Maris, Ronald W., Ed.

1983-01-01

422

Fundamental Dilemmas in Theoretical Physics  

E-print Network

In this paper, we argue that there are foundational dilemmas in theoretical physics related to the concept of reality and the nature of mathematics in physics. Physical theory is treated as a conceptual organism which develops under the weight of its internal contradictions. The paper discusses in depth the problem of objective reality in physics and its relation to scientific practice. Then, it explores the problematic relation between physical meaning and mathematics in modern physical theory, followed by a discussion of the trend of contemporary physics to replace physical principles with pure mathematical principles. Finally, it discusses the problem of logical coherence in modern physical theory. The paper emphasizes the importance of resolving these dilemmas to the proper practice of theoretical physics.

Ghassib, Hisham

2014-01-01

423

Ethical Decision-Making: Issues and Applications to American Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ethical decision making within American sports, explaining its evolution from nobility and virtue to win at all costs. Presents various views and perspectives on ethics. Also describes how established codes of ethics can assist interscholastic athletic programs, how professionals can establish an ethical workplace, and how decisions can…

Conn, James H.; Gerdes, Daniel A.

1998-01-01

424

Optimal Strategies of the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma Problem for Multiple Conflicting Objectives  

E-print Network

In this paper, we present a new paradigm of searching optimal strategies in the game of iterated prisoner's dilemma (IPD) using multiple-objective evolutionary algorithms. This method is more useful than the existing ...

Deb, Kalyanmoy

425

Reconsidering Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility: Public Relations and Ethical Engagement of Employees in a Global Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter explores the range of ethical dilemmas common to public relations practitioners in an era that increasingly focuses\\u000a on corporate social responsibility. I argue that, ironically, rather than reducing ethical challenges for public relations,\\u000a recent iterations of CSR — such as strategic CSR — further complicate the roles and responsibilities of practitioners toward\\u000a a greater range of stakeholders. In

Steve May

426

The Dilemma of Performance Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper deals with the dilemma of managing performance using performance appraisal. The authors will evaluate the historical\\u000a development of appraisals and argue that the critical area of line management development that was been identified as a critical\\u000a success factor in appraisals has been ignored in the later literature evaluating the effectiveness of performance through\\u000a appraisals. This paper will evaluate

Peter Prowse; Julie Prowse

427

Introduction to International Ethical Standards Related to Genetics and Genomics  

PubMed Central

The rapid advances in genetic knowledge and technology raise various, sometimes unprecedented, ethical dilemmas in the scientific community as well as the public realm. To deal with these dilemmas, the international community has prepared and issued ethical standards in various formats. In this review, seven international standards regarding genetics and genomics will be briefly introduced in chronological order. Critical reflections on them will not be provided in this review, and naturally, they have their own problems and shortcomings. However, a common set of the principles expressed in them will be highlighted here, because they are still relevant, and many of them will be more relevant in the future. Some of the interesting contents will be selected and described. After that, the morality of one recent event related to whole-genome sequencing and person-identifiable genetic data will be explored based on those international standards. PMID:24465233

Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun

2013-01-01

428

Selecting the Perfect Baby The Ethics of "Embryo Design"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This dilemma case is based on the true story of Jack and Lisa Nash, whose daughter Molly was born with a rare genetic disorder, Fanconi anemia. By having another child with specific genetic markers, the Nashes hoped to cure Molly using stem cells from the new baby’s umbilical cord blood. Students learn about developmental disorders and consider the ethical issues of genetic manipulation and fertility treatments. Although the case was written for beginning developmental psychology students, the issues raised involving genetic manipulation, advances in medical technology, and scientific ethics would be relevant in many other science courses.

Omarzu, Julia

2002-01-01

429

Educational Method of Engineering Ethics Aiming for Comprehensive Understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed the omnibus style to teach an engineering ethics program. This paper showed the essentials to practice the class. The engineering ethics program is constituted with the factors; grade, subject, objective even if it is operated by some themes and teachers in the style of omnibus. Also, teachers have to select the cases which have dilemma of the engineer and the good effect. And they should teach how to analyze the case. Evaluation of student activity must be made up by versatile style according to objective. And student is recommended to understand the relation of activity and object.

Yasui, Mitsukuni; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Manabu; Sugata, Noriyuki; Hayasaka, Narihito

430

Teaching ethical aptitude to graduate student researchers.  

PubMed

Limited time dedicated to each training areas, irrelevant case-studies, and ethics "checklists" have resulted in bare-bones Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) training for present biomedical graduate student researchers. Here, we argue that science graduate students be taught classical ethical theory, such as virtue ethics, consequentialist theory, and deontological theory, to provide a basic framework to guide researchers through ethically complex situations and examine the applicability, implications, and societal ramifications of their research. Using a relevant biomedical research example to illustrate this point, we argue that proper ethics training for graduate student researchers not only will enhance current RCR training, but train more creative, responsible scientists. PMID:23281581

Weyrich, Laura S; Harvill, Eric T

2013-01-01

431

Selected anatomists: at the boundary of contemporary ethics.  

PubMed

Fascination with the interworkings of the human body has permeated scientific discovery for eons. Materials for dissection proved problematic for anatomists. Andreas Vesalius solved his dilemma by visiting local gallows where criminals had been executed. Eduard Pernkopf has been alleged to have taken some of his materials from victims of the Holocaust. Even today, executed criminals have served as subjects for anatomical educational purposes. These circumstances are explored and the contemporary ethics of each are compared. PMID:23324845

Arango, Dillon; Greiffenstein, Patrick; O'Leary, James Patrick

2013-01-01

432

Professional Ambivalence: Accounts of Ethical Practice in Childhood Genetic Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood genetic testing raises complex ethical and moral dilemmas for both families and professionals. In the family sphere,\\u000a the role of communication is a key aspect in the transmission of ‘genetic responsibility’ between adults and children. In\\u000a the professional sphere, genetic responsibility is an interactional accomplishment emerging from the sometimes competing views\\u000a over what constitutes the ‘best interests’ of the

Michael Arribas-Ayllon; Srikant Sarangi; Angus Clarke

2009-01-01

433

The Ethic of Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

Furman, Gail C.

2004-01-01

434

Our Ethical Responsibilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responding to diminished public esteem means intensifying efforts to create an ethical college climate. Educators face these ethical challenges: managing institutions ethically; teaching ethics to students, both in class and in dealing with student behavior in an educational setting; and serving as ethical leaders for the wider community. (MSE)

Perlman, Daniel H.

1992-01-01

435

Virtual decisions: video game ethics, Just Consequentialism, and ethics on the fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video games are ethically controversial. Some video games are effective training tools for learning various skills and approaches to problem-solving, but some video games are notorious for promoting discriminatory and barbaric behavior. We consider such ethical pros and cons of video games, but we also present a more fundamental ethical issue about video games. Most video games have a bias

Don Gotterbarn; James Moor

2009-01-01

436

Hypereosinophilia: A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

A case of hypereosinophilia is presented. The case illustrates the complexity of the diagnostic processes in certain conditions like hypereosinophilia. Keywords Hypereosinophilia; Myocarditis; Stroke PMID:21629546

Rehman, Habib Ur

2010-01-01

437

Causal Relation Analysis Tool of the Case Study in the Engineer Ethics Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In engineering ethics education, the virtual experiencing of dilemmas is essential. Learning through the case study method is a particularly effective means. Many case studies are, however, difficult to deal with because they often include many complex causal relationships and social factors. It would thus be convenient if there were a tool that could analyze the factors of a case example and organize them into a hierarchical structure to get a better understanding of the whole picture. The tool that was developed applies a cause-and-effect matrix and simple graph theory. It analyzes the causal relationship between facts in a hierarchical structure and organizes complex phenomena. The effectiveness of this tool is shown by presenting an actual example.

Suzuki, Yoshio; Morita, Keisuke; Yasui, Mitsukuni; Tanada, Ichirou; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Aoyagi, Manabu

438

Developing an Ethical Orientation toward Supervisory Practice through Collaborative Case Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work is a collaborative study of a case-based practical inquiry. Teacher education faculty, led by a group facilitator, engaged in writing cases about supervisory dilemmas they experienced for the purposes of reflection, clinical analysis, and ethical thinking. Researchers reflected on their experiences in developing the cases and examined…

Tate, Patricia; Pyke, Curtis; Kortecamp, Karen; Muskin, Carol

2005-01-01

439

The Application of Kohlberg's Moral Development Model to College Students' Technology Ethics Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined undergraduate university students' (n=121) responses to six ethical dilemmas within the realm of information technology (IT). Using a framework based on Kohlberg's stages of moral development, the study evaluated the level of moral development as demonstrated in these responses. An apriori coding system was used to analyze the…

Kiser, Angelina I. T.; Morrison, Eileen E.; Craven, Annette

2009-01-01

440

The Nazi Origins of Eduard Pernkopf's "Topographische Anatomie des Menschen:" The Biomedical Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discovery of the Nazi origins of the classic Pernkopf anatomy atlas is one example of scientific information obtained by doctors who violated the Hippocratic Oath. The ethical dilemmas that doctors and medical centers face as a result of this and other potentially tainted data is reviewed. (Author/AEF)

Israel, Howard A.

1998-01-01

441

Ethics in College and University Admissions: A Trilogy of Concerns and Arguments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore ethical challenges and dilemmas that exist within admissions systems at colleges and universities in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Although the issues considered herein are examined primarily from the perspective of admissions officers, this paper also considers the viewpoint of prospective…

McCuddy, Michael K.; Nondorf, James G.

2009-01-01

442

THE BODY SHOP WIND FARM—AN ANALYSIS OF ACCOUNTABILITY AND ETHICS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental accounting is a developing discipline faced with a number of teething problems. Adding to these are a range of ethical dilemmas, illustrated in this paper by The Body Shop's decision to invest in a wind farm. As competition increases in the electricity generating industry environmental accountants have to address conventional commercial considerations, problems relating to the ecosphere, as well

ROGER L. BURRITT; GLEN LEHMAN

1995-01-01

443

The Missing Link for the Administration of Special Education: The Ethic of Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special education is experiencing the effects of educational reform. Examples include rethinking of service delivery, collaborative versus authoritarian leadership, teambuilding and inclusionary practices replace exclusionary practices, and diversity issues. These changes are creating ethical and moral dilemmas for school administrators. In…

Pazey, Barbara

444

Ethical, methodological and political issues of aids research in Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIDS represents research challenges for anthropology as well as for biomedicine. In many ways the dilemmas of anthropologists appear to be of lesser magnitude than those confronting biomedical researchers charged with the responsibility for treating patients and searching for cures and vaccines. Yet anthropological research is both politically sensitive and policy-relevant. Ethical practice in anthropology is linked to questions of

Brooke Grundfest Schoepf

1991-01-01

445

A Snapshot of Child Psychologists' Social Media Activity: Professional and Ethical Practice Implications and Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the face of the ever-growing popularity of social media, psychologists continually encounter new dilemmas regarding our ethical and professional principles. Negotiating the balance between the intrinsically public nature of social media participation and the highly private nature of the therapeutic relationship can be a challenge. Psychologists working with children and adolescents are of particular interest, given both the popularity

Rachel A. Tunick; Lauren Mednick; Caitlin Conroy

2011-01-01

446

IRB decision-making with imperfect knowledge: a framework for evidence-based research ethics review.  

PubMed

Here we describe the five steps of evidence-based practice as applied to research ethics review and apply these steps to three exemplar dilemmas: incentive payments in substance abuse research; informed consent for biobanking; and placebo-controlled trials involving pregnant women in order to demonstrate the potential of empirical data to inform and improve IRB decision-making. PMID:23289698

Anderson, Emily E; DuBois, James M

2012-01-01

447

The ethics of euthanasia—Attitudes and practice among Norwegian physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical guidelines of the Norwegian Medical Association strongly condemn physician participation in euthanasia and assisted suicide. A previous study on attitudes towards euthanasia in the Norwegian population, however, indicates that a substantial part of the population is quite liberal. This study explores Norwegian physicians' attitudes towards and experience with end of life dilemmas. Sixty-six percent of a representative sample

Reidun Førde; Olaf Gjerløw Aasland; Erik Falkum

1997-01-01

448

Psychotherapy, Professional Relationships, and Ethical Considerations in the MySpace Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pervasive use of Internet technologies has created new ethical dilemmas for psychology trainees and professionals. In particular, Web sites that allow users to post personal information have sparked controversy regarding the amount of freedom psychologists should have in placing personal information online and how discovering such information may impact professional relationships, including the therapeutic relationship. Results from a graduate

Keren Lehavot; Jeffrey E. Barnett; David Powers

2010-01-01

449

Ethical issues in surgical innovation.  

PubMed

Innovation is responsible for most advances in the field of surgery. Innovative approaches to solving clinical problems have significantly decreased morbidity and mortality for many surgical procedures, and have led to improved patient outcomes. While innovation is motivated by the surgeon's expectation that the new approach will be beneficial to patients, not all innovations are successful or result in improved patient care. The ethical dilemma of surgical innovation lies in the uncertainty of whether a particular innovation will prove to be a "good thing." This uncertainty creates challenges for surgeons, patients, and the healthcare system. By its very nature, innovation introduces a potential risk to patient safety, a risk that may not be fully known, and it simultaneously fosters an optimism bias. These factors increase the complexity of informed consent and shared decision making for the surgeon and the patient. Innovative procedures and their associated technology raise issues of cost and resource distribution in the contemporary, financially conscious, healthcare environment. Surgeons and institutions must identify and address conflicts of interest created by the development and application of an innovation, always preserving the best interest of the patient above the academic or financial rewards of success. Potential strategies to address the challenges inherent in surgical innovation include collecting and reporting objective outcomes data, enhancing the informed consent process, and adhering to the principles of disclosure and professionalism. As surgeons, we must encourage creativity and innovation while maintaining our ethical awareness and responsibility to patients. PMID:24728580

Miller, Megan E; Siegler, Mark; Angelos, Peter

2014-07-01

450

Teaching ethics in psychiatry: a one-day workshop for clinical students.  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe the objectives of teaching medical ethics to undergraduates and the teaching methods used. We describe a workshop used in the University of Liverpool Department of Psychiatry, designed to enhance ethical sensitivity in psychiatry. The workshop reviews significant historical and current errors in the ethical practice of psychiatry and doctors' defence mechanisms against accepting responsibility for deficiencies in ethical practice. The workshop explores the student doctors' own group ethos in response to ethical dilemmas, and demonstrates how the individual contributes to and is responsible for the group ethos through participation and also through nonparticipation. The student feedback about the workshop is reviewed. The Toronto Ethical Sensitivity Instrument was used to assess whether or not the workshop altered sensitivity. Compared to a control group the attenders' sensitivity was significantly increased (on Student's t-test p equals or is less than 0.002). PMID:7473644

Green, B; Miller, P D; Routh, C P

1995-01-01

451

Throwaway ethic in America  

SciTech Connect

The throwaway ethic is the belief that it is desirable to use and discard products rapidly, rather than maintain and reuse them for a long period of time. The purpose of this dissertation is to show how and why the throwaway ethic evolved in America, and to describe its place in the structure of American society. The approach used is that of material culture: the study of a society's attitudes through its artifacts. The three artifact groups chosen are watches, paper products, and bottles, representing durable products, nondurable products, and packaging, the three broad categories of consumer products. Changing patterns in the use and disposal of these artifacts, from the eighteenth century to the present, are described in depth. We find that throwaway products and habits appear in the late nineteenth century. The throwaway ethic as a recognized and articulated principle of conduct emerges after World War II. The final conclusion is that the throwaway ethic is a result both of mass production, which alters the monetary value of products, and affluence, which alters the social values of leisure and thrift, and as such is intimately related to the economic foundations of industrial society.

Busch, J.C.

1983-01-01

452

A sports doctor's dilemma in concussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concussion is common in contact sports. There are two major management dilemmas. The first is to decide when an athlete is fit to resume competition. Factors useful for evaluating recovery such as psychometric testing ? a quantitative measure of recovery ? are discussed. Risks of premature return to competition are outlined. The second management dilemma arises when there is risk

Garth Dicker

1991-01-01

453

Ethical issues facing providers in collaborative primary care settings: do current guidelines suffice to guide the future of team based primary care?  

PubMed

This special issue discusses the ethical issues providers face in collaborative primary care settings. It is organized in three sections: (a) Common Themes, (b) Context-Specific Quandaries, and (c) Research and Training. It provides case examples to illustrate ethical dilemmas, describe professional ethical standards pertinent to the case, identifies gaps in available guidance and how guidelines might be elucidated in state statues (without going into detail about specific states), offers feasible recommendations to BHCs for deciding an ethical course when extant guidance was lacking, and then demonstrates and applies the recommendations to achieve an ethical resolution to the case example. PMID:23566122

Runyan, Christine; Robinson, Patricia; Gould, Debra A

2013-03-01

454

The Outsourcing Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a transcript of a conference call between Bart Kane (Hawaii State Librarian and advocate of the Hawaii/Baker & Taylor outsourcing plan) and Patricia Wallace (chair of the American Library Association's Hawaii Working Group formed to examine details of the plan) who debate the merits of Hawaii's model of outsourcing collection development.…

American Libraries, 1997

1997-01-01

455

A Legal Officer's Dilemma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are accounts of how two local jurisdictions in the United States have dealt with the question of regulating recombinant DNA research. Arguments used to devise guidelines for consideration by the New York State Legislature and the recommendations made by a citizens group in Cambridge, Massachusetts are detailed. (CS)

Lefkowitz, Louis J.

1977-01-01

456

The Electricity Industry's Dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples are presented that suggest that the United States is about to run out of electricity. This is not going to happen in the next few years, but beyond that nobody knows. Forecasting electricity demand has become a highly uncertain business. Twenty years ago making a decision to add generating or transmission capacity would have been fairly straightforward. Today the

Mark Crawford

1985-01-01

457

Is my mum going to hear this? Methodological and ethical challenges in qualitative health research with young people.  

PubMed

Ethical issues arise in all research settings. However, qualitative research with young people raises specific dilemmas that warrant special attention. In this paper we describe an ethical dilemma that arose during a qualitative project we carried out exploring self-management of chronic illness in adolescents. A participant disclosed details of poor adherence with medication, which had significant health implications. Prior to this disclosure he had been assured of confidentiality and thus we found ourselves unsure of how to proceed. Here, we analyse the case in detail, highlighting the ethically important moments, the options for action and the implications of these. We do this with the aim of facilitating ethical mindfulness and thus, ultimately, ethical research practice. As a backdrop to this case we consider the broader ethical context. We find that qualitative research is susceptible to ethical dilemmas because: (1) it is not always possible to predict all possible questions and responses; (2) the nature of the relationship between researchers and participants is amenable to sensitive disclosures; (3) the process of qualitative research can make it difficult for participants to voice concerns or withdraw; and (4) participants' identities are generally known to researchers, complicating boundary issues. Research with young people is susceptible to ethical dilemmas because: (1) young people have limited life experience; (2) consent is often required from both young people and parents; (3) issues of competence can complicate assumptions about informed consent; and (4) the power differential between researchers and participants is significant. When combining qualitative research methods and young participants, the scope for ethical risk is thus substantial. PMID:19782456

Duncan, Rony E; Drew, Sarah E; Hodgson, Jan; Sawyer, Susan M

2009-12-01

458

A Partial Telling: Dilemmas of Narrating Self and Others.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the author's experiences while writing his dissertation in English education. Considers dilemmas of participatory research. Discusses three cases in his research involving dilemmas of recognition, dilemmas of remembering, and dilemmas of negotiation experienced as the author conducted extended interviews with three veteran English…

Dickson, Randi

2003-01-01

459

The dynamo dilemma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent determination that the angular velocity ? of the Sun declines downward through the convective zone raises serious questions about the nature of the solar dynamo. The principal qualitative features of the Sun are the azimuthal fields that migrate toward the equator in association with an oscillating poloidal field which reverses at about the time of maximum appearance of bipolar magnetic regions. If ? decreases downward, or is negligible, the horizontal gradient in ? produces a dynamo with some of these essential characteristics. There is reason to think that the dynamo is confined to the lower half of the convective zone where ? has the opposite sign from the usual (? > 0 in the northern hemisphere) producing equatorward migration but reversing the sign of the associated poloidal field. Meridional circulation may play an essential role in shaping the dynamo. At the present time it is essential to measure ? accurately and determine the nature of the meridional circulation.

Parker, E. N.

1987-03-01

460

The Shell Island Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry simulation is to investigate the issues concerning the fate of the Shell Island Resort, which is in danger of being destroyed by a migrating inlet, and then debate the future of this and other oceanfront structures threatened by coastal erosion. As students engage in their investigation, they are asked to identify the social, political, and scientific issues with which different stakeholders must deal. They will place themselves into the role of one of the stakeholders. The site lists the stakeholders and provides several sources of information for each. After reviewing the resources, students will prepare a statement to decide what should be the next course of action regarding the Shell Island Resort. Students then will present statements in a debate to decide the future of the resort.

461

Tom Donahue Environmental Ethics ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS  

E-print Network

of environmental justice, which were mentioned above. We then turn to considering whether the environmental crisisTom Donahue Environmental Ethics 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS EPE399/PHIL331/PLSC335 Summer Session: https://sites.google.com/site/tjdonahu/home/environmental-ethics ClassesV2 website with downloadable

462

Env~rormentalEthics EnvironmentalEthics  

E-print Network

of and concern about such things as the noticeable increase in air and water pollution in large cities, rapid.g., water and air pollution). This era of environmental thinking also spawned much of the "doomsday), pp.445-49. #12;Environmental Ethics Aldo Leopold Defines the "Land Ethic" The land ethic simply

Nelson, Michael P.

463

Ethical issues in psychopharmacology  

PubMed Central

The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment. PMID:16816041

McHenry, L

2006-01-01

464

Lymphatic malformations: A dilemma in diagnosis and management  

PubMed Central

Lymphatic malformations of the head and neck, also known as lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas, are a diverse group of lesions. Lymphangiomas represent benign hamartomatous tumors of lymphatic vessels with a marked predilection for the head, neck and oral cavity. These lesions, like most of the swellings occurring in the neck, frequently pose a dilemma in diagnosis and treatment. This is a case report of a lymphatic malformation which presented as a painless mass in the lower border of mandible. PMID:24808711

Ramashankar; Prabhakar, Chandan; Shah, Nishit Kumar; Giraddi, Girish

2014-01-01

465

A foundation for public health ethics at Tuskegee University in the 21st century.  

PubMed

This commentary is a reflection on Tuskegee University's National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care on the health and ethical challenges of the 21st century. The Center has dedicated the last 10 years to addressing the unresolved biomedicine and public health issues and/or the ethical dilemmas that plague the nation's health. The authors believe that health disparities continue to worsen because the approach under-appreciates the ethical dilemma that plagues health policy and health disparities. The authors discuss synergies and the paradigmatic differences between science and medicine, religion, spirituality, and faith. They also discuss the importance of considering these relationships if improvements in the health of people of African descent are expected. The concept of Optimal Health is explored. PMID:20675945

Warren, Rueben C; Tarver, Will L

2010-08-01

466

Incorporating global components into ethics education.  

PubMed

Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena. PMID:21769592

Wang, George; Thompson, Russell G

2013-03-01

467

Ethics Primer: Ethics and Bioethics Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ethics Primer provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues. Although the Primer is designed for secondary school science classrooms, it has been used by teachers in a variety of classes and grade levels. The Primer is free for download but the author requests information before accessing the file.

2007-01-01

468

Putting Law into Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of ethics in law is followed from the harshness of caveat emptor to the humanistic ethics of the 1970s, including a renewal of formal ethics in the post-Watergate era. The impact on universities and individual disciplines of legalizing ethical conduct is examined cautiously. (JMF)

Lieberman, Jethro K.

1979-01-01

469

Ethics in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical

Medlin, E. Lander

2010-01-01

470

THE ETHICAL EDUCATION OF OPHTHALMOLOGY RESIDENTS: AN EXPERIMENT  

PubMed Central

Purpose To demonstrate the effect of ethics education on a resident’s ability to answer questions that relate to moral dilemmas and on the clinical evaluations of residents by faculty. Methods The curriculum for the ethics education that was used for this study was designed by the author and consisted of 10 lectures of 1.5 hours each. Five residencies were included in the project. One residency received one lecture, two residencies received three lectures, and two residencies received 10 lectures. To evaluate the moral skills of the residents at the beginning of the course and at the end, the residents were given the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) developed by James Rest, which involves answering standardized questions about four moral dilemmas. Faculty evaluations were completed before and after the ethics lectures were given. At the beginning of the ethics course, each resident was given a social survey that was designed to assess participation in community, religious, political, and societal activities as well as attitudes about these activities. All residents were also asked demographic information, including their age, gender, and year of residency. Results The results of the DIT-2 taken before and after the ethics lectures were compared. No correlations were found in faculty evaluations of clinical performance of the residents before and after the course (P = .052). Associations between DIT-2 scores and questions on community and religion in the social survey were noted. Conclusion The finding that the effect of an ethics course on residents’ ability to answer moral dilemmas did not achieve statistical significance should be accepted with the understanding that this was a first attempt at standardization of many variables, especially the format of the curriculum and materials used. The use of faculty evaluations to assess clinical performance needs to be standardized, and the faculty members need additional training to ensure validity of the results. The social survey was also the first attempt to assess an association between a resident’s response to moral dilemmas, attending evaluations, and residents’ opinions that relate to community, society, politics, and religion. PMID:17057806

Packer, Samuel

2005-01-01

471

Ethical challenges related to elder care. High level decision-makers' experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to stimulate discussions between high level decision-makers and health care professionals concerning ways of dealing with ethical issues and the necessity of structures that facilitate dealing with them. Even if the high level decision-makers have learned to live with the ethical challenges that confronted them, it was obvious that they were not free from feelings of uncertainty, frustration and loneliness. Vulnerability was revealed regarding themselves and others. Their feelings of failure indicated that they felt something was at stake for the older adults in elder care and for themselves as well, in that there was the risk that important needs would go unmet. PMID:17419880

Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Kihlgren, Mona; Sorlie, Venke

2007-01-01

472

Incidental emotions in moral dilemmas: The influence of emotion regulation.  

PubMed

Recent theories have argued that emotions play a central role in moral decision-making and suggested that emotion regulation may be crucial in reducing emotion-linked biases. The present studies focused on the influence of emotional experience and individual differences in emotion regulation on moral choice in dilemmas that pit harming another person against social welfare. During these "harm to save" moral dilemmas, participants experienced mostly fear and sadness but also other emotions such as compassion, guilt, anger, disgust, regret and contempt (Study 1). Fear and disgust were more frequently reported when participants made deontological choices, whereas regret was more frequently reported when participants made utilitarian choices. In addition, habitual reappraisal negatively predicted deontological choices, and this effect was significantly carried through emotional arousal (Study 2). Individual differences in the habitual use of other emotion regulation strategies (i.e., acceptance, rumination and catastrophising) did not influence moral choice. The results of the present studies indicate that negative emotions are commonly experienced during "harm to save" moral dilemmas, and they are associated with a deontological bias. By efficiently reducing emotional arousal, reappraisal can attenuate the emotion-linked deontological bias in moral choice. PMID:24611625

Szekely, Raluca D; Miu, Andrei C

2015-01-01

473

Generalized precedent logics for resolving insecurity dilemmas  

E-print Network

This paper proposes the development and application of a series of gradually more powerful "reflective" logical procedures to increasingly complex and realistic sets of data on collective insecurity dilemmas. Such procedures ...

Alker, Hayward R.

1980-01-01

474

The business of pain medicine: the present mirrors antiquity.  

PubMed

The practice of pain medicine is often considered a fledgling field, as are the economic, business, and related ethical issues associated with providing these services. This article first traces the history of pain care and its relationships to industry and business, as well as the impact of government regulations over the ages. The authors challenge the view that the commonly discussed health care issues facing pain medicine are new by tracing the business and regulatory-related antecedents of pain care practice from the first through 21st century. The controversies associated with the practice of delivering pain-related health care services in an ethical manner are discussed with specific reference to the early work of clinicians, health care activists, and policy makers. The early activities of noteworthy individuals such as Pliny the Great, Hua T'o, John Locke, Benjamin Franklin, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., William Morton, Henry and William James, Heinrick Dresser, and other recent health care activists are reviewed. Issues of practitioner liability and regulatory restrictions on practice are also discussed in a historical context. The authors conclude that familiar ethical dilemmas commonly arose in past centuries, and history may be repeating itself with respect to the concerns now being discussed within our field. These arguments are reflected against the pain medicine Ethics Charters of the American Academy of Pain Medicine throughout the document. Finally, we outline the challenges for the present and future. With an understanding of these eight historical events as a backdrop, we may be at an opportune time to better address these issues in a manner that could provide the most effective pain care in our society. PMID:21699650

Kulich, Ronald; Loeser, John D

2011-07-01

475

Ethics on Trial: Teacher's Guide for Secondary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' understanding of lawyers and the legal system may be increased through the five law-related ethical issues presented in this document. Legal ethics is defined as: (1) the minimum standard of professional conduct in daily legal situations; and (2) a lawyer's broader responsibility to society. The ethical issues are presented in three…

Greater Washington Educational Telecommunications Association, Inc., Arlington, VA.

476

Compassion, ethics, and neuroscience: neuroethics through Buddhist eyes.  

PubMed

As scientists advance knowledge of the brain and develop technologies to measure, evaluate, and manipulate brain function, numerous questions arise for religious adherents. If neuroscientists can conclusively establish that there is a functional network between neural impulses and an individual's capacity for moral evaluation of situations, this will naturally lead to questions about the relationship between such a network and constructions of moral value and ethical human behavior. For example, if cognitive neuroscience can show that there is a neurophysiological basis for the moral appraisal of situations, it may be argued that the world's religions, which have traditionally been the keepers and purveyors of ethical values, are rendered either spurious or irrelevant. The questions point up broader dilemmas in the interface between science and religion, and raise concerns about the ethics of neurological research and experimentation. Since human beings will still arbitrate what is "moral" or "ethical," how can religious perspectives enrich the dialogue on neuroethical issues and how can neuroscience enrich dialogue on religion? Buddhist views on the nature of consciousness and methods of practice, especially meditation practice, may contribute to discussions on neuroscience and theories about the interrelationship between consciousness and ethical awareness by exploring the role that karma, intentionality, and compassion play in Buddhist understandings of the interrelationship between consciousness and ethics. PMID:22618161

Tsomo, Karma Lekshe

2012-09-01

477

The Balance Between Providing Support, Prolonging Suffering, and Promoting Death: Ethical Issues Surrounding Psychological Treatment of a Terminally Ill Client  

Microsoft Academic Search

A psychologist with a client who is terminally ill and wishes to discuss end-of-life options, specifically the option of hastening death, is faced with an ethical dilemma as to how to proceed with treatment. Specifically, he or she is bound by the American Psychological Association's (2002) potentially conflicting Principles A and E, which advise a psychologist to “do no harm”

Rachel Winograd

2012-01-01

478

Ethical questions in the treatment of subjects with dementia. Part I. Respecting autonomy: awareness, competence and behavioural disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The document deals with some ethical issues raised by the treatment of demented people. In particular the conceptual and empirical\\u000a aspects of the assessment of awareness and competence of these patients are analysed, as well as the dilemmas related to the\\u000a treatment of behavioral disorders.

C. A. Defanti; A. Tiezzi; M. Gasparini; M. Gasperini; M. Congedo; P. Tiraboschi; D. Tarquini; E. Pucci; C. Porteri; V. Bonito; L. Sacco; S. Stefanini; L. Borghi; L. Colombi; N. Marcello; O. Zanetti; R. Causarano; A. Primavera

2007-01-01

479

The Roles and Ethics of Journalism: How Chinese Students and American Students Perceive Them Similarly and Differently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares how American and Chinese journalism students view the importance of various journalistic roles and the difficulties of ethical dilemmas faced by journalists. Chinese students perceive greater difficulty in resolving conflict of interests and making a fair representation of the news while American students find greater…

Yang, Jin; Arant, David

2014-01-01

480

Code of Ethics: Principles for Ethical Leadership  

PubMed Central

The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes. PMID:23346028

Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.

2013-01-01

481

Can hospital promotional activities be more ethical?  

PubMed

At present, there exist a lot of violations of medical ethics in advertising and promotional activities, which have been infringing the rights of patients. Therefore, the ethical criteria should be established as soon as possible to regulate the hospital promotional activities, to regain the trust of people. PMID:24948998

Chen, Yiyi; Yin, Zhou; Xie, Qiong; Shao, Zhexin

2014-05-01

482

Ethics Scenarios: A Critical Theory Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium chaired by John C. Belland addressed the ethical position of educational communications and technology in society. Presenters created ethics scenarios and applied critical theory to provide insight. Intended to stimulate questions, the approach was philosophical, literary, and sociopolitical, and reflected Derrida, Foucault, and…

Anderson, Jane; And Others

483

The ethics of human reproductive cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the question of whether human reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable in at least some cases involving infertile couples who would choose cloning as a way to have a genetically related child. At present, the risk of congenital anomalies constitutes a compelling argument against human reproductive cloning. The article explores whether reproductive cloning could be ethically justifiable

Carson Strong

2005-01-01

484

Confessions of an ethics committee chair  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay examines the possibilities of being\\/becoming an ethical researcher in the academy. It tackles this task through the lens of an ethics application by Mary [pseudonym], a PhD student in sociology whose research thesis was investigating the reasons why married men with children use prostitutes. Two analyses are offered of Mary's story. The first analysis presents the sort of

Christine Halse

2011-01-01

485

Ethical Considerations in Research on Coached Malingering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducting and publishing research on coached malingering that might undermine the security of psychological tests and procedures presents a real problem of ethical issues. Until a consensus is reached by responsible parties, producers and consumers of research must keep their ethical responsibilities well in mind. (SLD)

Berry, David T. R.; And Others

1994-01-01

486

Pediatric facial transplantation: Ethical considerations.  

PubMed

Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614

Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald

2014-01-01

487

Business Ethics Resources on WWW  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of British Columbia's Centre for Applied Ethics, this extensive catalog of business ethics resources is divided into eight sections including Public Sector Ethics, Publications, Codes of Ethics, and Ethics Institutions and Organizations. Each section consists of briefly indexed links, organized in alphabetical order. Business Ethics Resources on the WWW also links to a page of applied ethics resources and the Centre for Applied Ethics.

488

George Williams in Thailand: An Ethical Decision-Making Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a classroom ethical decision-making exercise designed to help students make reasoned ethical decisions while gaining insight into their own and others' ethical decision-making strategies. During the exercise, students individually analyze an original mini-case, then meet in small groups to reach consensus on the advice and…

James, Constance R.; Smith, J. Goosby

2007-01-01

489

Experiential Learning and Research Ethics: Enhancing Knowledge through Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can instructors use experiential learning strategies to enhance student understanding of research ethics and responsible research conduct? In this article, the authors review literature on using experiential learning to teach research ethics and responsible research conduct. They present a three-step exercise for teaching research ethics and…

Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M.; Cameron, Abigail E.; Schulman, Michael D.

2011-01-01

490

The Ethics of Cloud Computing: A Conceptual Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing can raise ethical issues. In many cases these will depend on particular applications and circumstances. The present paper sets out to identify ethical issues of cloud computing that arise from the fundamental nature of the technology rather than any specific circumstances. The paper describes how these general features were identified, how ethical issues arising from them were collected

Job Timmermans; Bernd Carsten Stahl; Veikko Ikonen; Engin Bozdag

2010-01-01

491

Cultural Diversity and the Case Against Ethical Relativism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The movement to respect culturaldiversity, known as multiculturalism, poses a dauntingchallenge to healthcare ethics. Can we construct adefensible passage from the fact of culturaldifferences to any claims regarding morality? Or doesmulticulturalism lead to ethical relativism? Macklinargues that, in view of a leading distinction betweenuniversalism in ethics and moral absolutism, the onlyreasonable passage avoids both absolutism andrelativism. She presents a strong

Michael Brannigan

2000-01-01

492

A moral principles framework for human resource management ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the analysis of ethical issues in human resource management is legitimate and important. It argues that the theory of ethical relativism should be rejected and that it is meaningful to search for universal moral principles. It then presents a comprehensive framework for making judgments about human resource management ethics that consists of five complementary moral principles

Paul L. Schumann

2001-01-01

493

Ethics and Nanotechnology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page from the Understanding Nano website introduces concepts of nanotechnology-related ethics. In addition to the reading materials, the page provides a list of websites and organizations that focus on ethics and nanotechnology.

2013-07-01

494

Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.  

PubMed

Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. PMID:24870041

Lamba, Shakti

2014-07-22

495

Evolving Strategies for the Prisoner's Dilemma JENNIFER GOLBECK  

E-print Network

Evolving Strategies for the Prisoner's Dilemma JENNIFER GOLBECK Computer Science Department more advanced computing techniques, this research extends the existing body of research. My hypothesis, game theory, evolutionary computation 1 Introduction The Prisoner's Dilemma is a traditional

Golbeck, Jennifer

496

The Ethics of Research and the CCCC Ethical Guidelines: An Electronic Interview with Ellen Cushman and Peter Mortensen.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an e-interview in which two leading scholars on research ethics discuss the current state of ethical research in relation to the 2001 Conference on College Composition and Communication "Guidelines for the Ethical Treatment of Students and Student Writing in Composition Studies." (SG)

Brooke, Robert; Goodburn, Amy

2003-01-01

497

Tom Donahue Environmental Ethics ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS.  

E-print Network

-Frechette, Environmental Justice: Creating Equality, Reclaiming Democracy (Oxford University Press, 2002) [3] Robert ETom Donahue Environmental Ethics 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS. EPE S399/PHIL S331/PLSC S335 Summer 2012 and argumentative skills required in legal and environmental advocacy. Course Requirements. To earn full credit, you

498

The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

2014-01-01

499

Bioethical dilemmas of assisted reproduction in the opinions of Polish women in infertility treatment: a research report.  

PubMed

Infertility Accepted treatment is replete with bioethical dilemmas regarding the limits of available medical therapies. Poland has no legal acts regulating the ethical problems associated with infertility treatment and work on such legislation has been in progress for a long time, arousing very intense emotions in Polish society. The purpose of the present study was to find out what Polish women undergoing infertility treatment think about the most disputable and controversial bioethical problems of assisted reproduction. An Attitudes towards Bioethical Problems of Infertility Scale was constructed specifically for this study. Items were taken from the Bioethics Bills currently under discussion in Polish Parliament (Seym). 312 women were enrolled in the study. Women experiencing infertility favoured more liberal legislation. Participants disagreed, for example, with the following regulations: prohibition of embryo freezing, prohibition of preimplantation genetic diagnosis of embryos, age limits for women using in vitro fertilisation and prohibition of in vitro fertilisation for single women. The opinions of patients undergoing infertility treatment are an important voice in the Polish debate on the Bioethics Bills. PMID:22977062

Dembinska, Aleksandra

2012-12-01

500

The Ethics of Biowarfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article alarms that nations need to take preventative measures to curb the development and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons, such as: adopting a scientific code of ethics, incorporating ethics into graduate science courses, formulating accountability mechanisms for research, and raising academic, industry, and public awareness of ethical issues.

Daniel Reyes (Santa Clara University, California;)

2003-02-01