Sample records for ethical dilemmas presented

  1. Ethical dilemmas in pain management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betty R. Ferrell; Diane Novy; Mark D. Sullivan; John Banja; Michel Y. Dubois; Melvin C. Gitlin; Daniel Hamaty; Allen Lebovits; Arthur G. Lipman; Philipp M. Lippe; Jeffrey Livovich

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the membership of the American Pain Society and the American Academy of Pain Medicine to determine their beliefs about ethical dilemmas in pain management practice. Respondents rated ethical dilemmas for their importance as well as their own competence in dealing with these ethical issues. The survey also included an open-ended question that

  2. Metastatic unknown primary tumour presenting in pregnancy: a rarity posing an ethical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Patni, Shalini; Wagstaff, John; Tofazzal, Nasima; Bonduelle, Myriam; Moselhi, Marsham; Kevelighan, Euan; Edwards, Steve

    2007-01-01

    This brief report raises the ethical dilemma encountered by an obstetrician involved in the care of a pregnant woman with life?threatening disease. This is a particularly difficult issue if the maternal well?being is in conflict with the survival of the unborn child. PMID:17664298

  3. Ethical dilemmas and professional roles in occupational medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sue Gena Lurie

    1994-01-01

    Occupational medicine presents ethical dilemmas between worker health and corporate goals, for both physicians and managers. Physicians in occupational practice recognize conflict between 'moralist' and 'utilitarian' ethical positions. This paper analyzes the relation of professional roles to ethical interpretations by occupational physicians, based on their own and medical ethicists' formulations of dilemmas. Physicians' conflicting responsibilities to workers as patients and

  4. Ethical Dilemmas in Disaster Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ozge Karadag, C; Kerim Hakan, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Disasters may lead to ethical challenges that are different from usual medical practices. In addition, disaster situations are related with public health ethics more than medical ethics, and accordingly may require stronger effort to achieve a balance between individual and collective rights. This paper aims to review some ethical dilemmas that arise in disasters and mainly focuses on health services. Disasters vary considerably with respect to their time, place and extent; therefore, ethical questions may not always have `one-size-fits-all` answers. On the other hand, embedding ethical values and principles in every aspect of health-care is of vital importance. Reviewing legal and organizational regulations, developing health-care related guidelines, and disaster recovery plans, establishing on-call ethics committees as well as adequate in-service training of health-care workers for ethical competence are among the most critical steps. It is only by making efforts before disasters, that ethical challenges can be minimized in disaster responses. PMID:23285411

  5. Ethical dilemmas in nursing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Wilson-Barnett

    1986-01-01

    Nurses are increasingly realising that they can offer relevant information and participate in decision-making involving ethical issues. However, inter-professional communications are frequently inadequate, and do not permit exchange of opinions. The consequences are often frustrating and upsetting for nurses whose care is affected by others' policies. This paper explores these issues using some clinical examples.

  6. An Ethics Primer: Sample Ethical Dilemmas and "The Lifeboat"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with an outline of "The Lifeboat," a classical ethics dilemma. The resource includes student handouts and a group discussion activity. Also included are four other classical ethical dilemmas for students to discuss before and after learning about the classic ethical perspectives.

  7. Ethical Dilemmas: A Model to Understand Teacher Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, Lisa Catherine; Kimber, Megan; Millwater, Jan; Cranston, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Over recent decades, the field of ethics has been the focus of increasing attention in teaching. This is not surprising given that teaching is a moral activity that is heavily values-laden. Because of this, teachers face ethical dilemmas in the course of their daily work. This paper presents an ethical decision-making model that helps to explain…

  8. Analyzing Ethics in the Administration of Interscholastic Sports: Three Key Gender-Related Ethical Dilemmas Faced by Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisenant, Warren A.; Pedersen, Paul M.; Clavio, Galen

    2010-01-01

    Athletic administrators and decision makers within interscholastic athletics are expected to embrace a code of ethics that serves as a set of rules to guide their professional behavior. Included within this code are areas of controversy that present gender-related ethical dilemmas for administrators. Three specific ethical dilemmas involve (1)…

  9. Grades and Graduation: An Ethical Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmonowicz, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This case was written for use in courses dealing with school administration, philosophy of education, or ethics in educational leadership. It deals with the ethical dilemma of an assistant principal at a low-performing, urban high school. Caught between a principal and a teacher who have different views on plagiarism, the assistant principal must…

  10. Ethical dilemmas in workplace health promotion.

    PubMed

    Allegrante, J P; Sloan, R P

    1986-05-01

    In less than a decade, workplace health promotion programs designed to promote employee health and help reduce the high cost of health insurance premiums paid by business and industry have proliferated. Notwithstanding the latent benefits and cost savings that corporate management expects to gain from the investment in such programs, it is argued that workplace health promotion is not without potential misuse and that its goals and methods ought not to be above ethical scrutiny. Drawing on earlier work, we discuss how workplace health promotion may pose ethical problems related to social justice, protection of privacy, and social control. The attendant moral dilemmas for the professional whose responsibility it is to develop and implement such programs are also presented. PMID:3749011

  11. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-01-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

  12. Designing and Introducing Ethical Dilemmas into Computer-Based Business Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethical dilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethical dilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business…

  13. Ethical dilemmas in hospice and palliative care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry M. Kinzbrunner

    1995-01-01

    In order to understand some of the ethical dilemmas that face hospice programs in the United States, one must understand the Medicare Hospice Benefit, which is the model by which hospice programs provide palliative care to terminally ill patients in the United States. Unlike palliative care programs outside the United States, patients must have a prognosis of 6 months or

  14. Dilemmas, ethics and intent--a commentary.

    PubMed

    Downie, Robin S

    1986-12-01

    Responding to a preceding article by Michael J. Newton ("Moral dilemmas in surgical training: intent and the case for ethical ambiguity"), Downie comments on three of Newton's themes. He agrees that trainees should engage in ethical self-appraisal but cautions that introspection is inappropriate at the time of an operation. Regarding Newton's downplaying of philosophical analysis in medical ethics, Downie agrees that there are limitations to the philosophical approach but contends that it can serve a very worthwhile function in helping doctors deal with ethical uncertainties. Finally, Downie perceives ambiguities in Newton's emphasis on the central importance of "ethical intent," which rejects the idea of ethical standards while urging individuals to take "personal responsibility" for their actions. PMID:11643948

  15. Ethical Dilemmas Associated with Self-Disclosure in Student Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Michelle R.

    2004-01-01

    Personal and reflective writing assignments in psychology courses may prompt self-disclosure that presents ethical dilemmas. The literature discusses responsibilities of the psychologist in instances such as disclosure of suicidal ideation or threats of harming others within the context of the therapist-client relationship, but significantly less…

  16. Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching and Nursing: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2010-01-01

    This article explores a cross-occupational approach for dealing with ethical dilemmas by comparing teaching and nursing. Findings indicate more shared patterns of ethical dilemmas (such as caring for needs for others versus following formal codes) than dilemmas specific to teaching (e.g., advancing universal values versus advancing knowledge) or…

  17. The Information Assurance Ethics Dilemma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario A. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Information assurance focus is on one of the three major tenants: confidentiality, integrity, and avai lability. Undertakings in each have indeed improved the overall security of current information systems. This r esearch seeks to promote Information Assurance ethical awareness. A brief discussion on ethics and moral development along with related works of Plato, Aristotle, Kant and Mi ll will follow

  18. Ethical Dilemmas and the Law

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira J. Kodner; Daniel M. Freeman; Robb R. Whinney; Douglas J. E. Schuerer

    \\u000a Professional responsibilities have been a concern of surgeons since antiquity; however, the last 25 years have displayed a\\u000a dramatic growth of both professional and societal attention to moral and ethical issues involved in the delivery of health\\u000a care. This increased interest in medical ethics has occurred because of such factors as the greater technological power of\\u000a modern medicine, the assigning

  19. Ethical dilemmas in hyperbaric medicine.

    PubMed

    Chan, E C; Brody, B

    2001-01-01

    Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2T) is the primary or adjunctive treatment for a limited number of clinical conditions, off-label use is increasing as a result of public demand. Because of unusual research problems and limited regulatory mechanisms to ensure patient safety, physicians question whether it is ethical to provide HBO2T for an unproven indication. An ethical approach to the off-label use of HBO2T is proposed. This approach requires combining a physician's clinical judgment with guidelines written by recognized organizations in hyperbaric medicine and patient informed consent. Scientific guidelines can identify which off-label uses of HBO2T are not therapeutic, which are potentially therapeutic, and to what degree. Registries or a central repository for the systematic collection of data can promote research. Ethical guidelines should require patient informed consent for approved indications, for potentially therapeutic off-label indications, and for registry or research participation. The creation of a consortium of hyperbaric clinics may improve the validity of information disseminated to the general public and promote the ethical practice of HBO2T. PMID:12067147

  20. Ethics and GIS: The Practitioner's Dilemma a position paper on GIS ethics by

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Ethics and GIS: The Practitioner's Dilemma a position paper on GIS ethics by Michael Blakemore1 and Roger Longhorn2 prepared for the AGI 2004 Conference Workshop on "GIS Ethics" to be held 14 October 2004://www.gsdiassociation.org and go to the Discussions List menu #12;Ethics and GIS: The Practitioner's Dilemma Table of Contents

  1. Solving Ethical Dilemmas with Children: Empowering Classroom Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Michelann

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…

  2. School District Superintendents' Response to Ethical Dilemmas: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprouse, Fay Simpson

    2009-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas, situations involving a conflict between values or principles, often arise when employees of school districts violate laws or professional codes of behavior. Ethical dilemmas also occur when there are inequities in educational programming, resulting in missed opportunities for students. This qualitative study, conducted with the…

  3. Tobacco harm reduction: a call to address the ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Fox, Brion J; Cohen, Joanna E

    2002-01-01

    The 2001 Institute of Medicine report Clearing the Smoke: Assessing the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction has helped to focus attention on the scientific basis for assessing tobacco harm reduction products. As the tobacco research and policy communities tackle the challenges of evaluating harm reduction, there are ethical issues that must also be addressed. There has, however, been very little writing on the ethics of this field. In an effort to spur research into answering these ethical questions, we present two complementary approaches. First we outline three overarching topics in tobacco harm reduction that would particularly lend themselves to study: (a) Is the pursuit of tobacco harm reduction an ethical goal? (b) What are the ethical considerations of tobacco harm reduction vis-à-vis pharmaceutical companies? and (c) What are the ethical considerations for harm reduction vis-à-vis tobacco companies? We then present one possible framework for analyzing the ethical issues that accompany particular tobacco harm reduction strategies. By considering the ethical dilemmas attendant to tobacco harm reduction in a prospective and thoughtful manner, we will be better prepared to handle the challenges that face us individually as researchers and collectively as a tobacco control community. PMID:12573170

  4. How to Resolve an Ethical Dilemma Concerning Randomized Clinical Trials

    E-print Network

    Marquis, Don

    1999-08-26

    An apparent ethical dilemma arises when physicians consider enrolling their patients in randomized clinical trials. Suppose that a randomized clinical trial comparing two treatments is in progress, and a physician has an opinion about which...

  5. Ethical Dilemmas Related to Pediatric Twin-Twin Skin Transplant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer R. Dollar; Arthur M. Boudreaux

    With the expanding practice of anesthesiology to the realm of peri-operative medicine, anesthesiologists will be faced with more ethical questions and dilemmas. It is imperative that anesthesiologists become acquainted with the principles of bioethics in order to approach these questions and dilemmas in a systematic manner. Two bioethical theories and a decision-making framework are described and incorporated into a discussion

  6. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1) recognizing the dilemma; 2) identifying context; 3) determining choices; 4) strategies used; 5) results and choices the mother made; and 6) follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation. PMID:22824376

  7. From the Woman's Viewpoint: Ethical Dilemmas Confronted by Women as Informal Caregivers of Frail Elders

    E-print Network

    Koenig, Terry L.

    2004-01-01

    Elders caregivers' perspectives about ethical dilemmas. Women face ethical dilemmas almost daily in caring for a frail elder. Finding out what they struggle with and the strategies they use to deal with or overcome these dilemmas can help researchers... financial resources). Social Work Ethics Social work writings on professional ethics describe two m a j o r philosophical perspectives involved in ethical deci­ s ion-making: (a) ethical absolutism and (b) ethical rela­ t ivism (Loewenberg, Dolgoff, 8c...

  8. The Jewish patient and terminal dehydration: A hospice ethical dilemma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janet Bodell; Marie-Ange Weng

    2000-01-01

    Culturally competent nursing care regarding the ethical dilemma of terminal dehydration (withholding or withdrawing food and fluid) for the Jewish hospice patient involves applying the ethical principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence to nursing interventions by identifying outcomes that focus on the high value Jews place on life; avoiding stereotyping as to what it means to be Jewish; knowledge

  9. Ethical dilemmas in pediatric and adolescent psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Cole, Cristie M; Falcone, Tatiana; Caplan, Rochelle; Timmons-Mitchell, Jane; Jares, Kristine; Ford, Paul J

    2014-08-01

    To date, only a very narrow window of ethical dilemmas in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) has been explored. Numerous distinct ethical dilemmas arise in diagnosing and treating pediatric and adolescent patients with PNESs. Important ethical values at stake include trust, transparency, confidentiality, professionalism, autonomy of all stakeholders, and justice. In order to further elucidate the ethical challenges in caring for this population, an ethical analysis of the special challenges faced in four specific domains is undertaken: (1) conducting and communicating a diagnosis of PNESs, (2) advising patients about full transparency and disclosure to community including patients' peers, (3) responding to requests to continue antiepileptic drugs, and (4) managing challenges arising from school policy and procedure. An analysis of these ethical issues is essential for the advancement of best care practices that promote the overall well-being of patients and their families. PMID:25022823

  10. Imperfect twinning: a clinical and ethical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Denardin, Daniela; Telles, Jorge Alberto B.; Betat, Rosilene da Silveira; Fell, Paulo Renato K.; da Cunha, André Campos; Targa, Luciano Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. DATA SYNTHESIS: The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family. PMID:24142323

  11. Prolonging life: legal, ethical, and social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Comfort, Christopher P; Lee, Barbara Coombs; Shemie, Sam; Solomon, Mildred Z

    2014-11-01

    The ability of modern medicine to prolong life has raised a variety of difficult legal, ethical, and social issues on which reasonable minds can differ. Among these are the morality of euthanasia in cases of deep coma or irreversible injury, as well as the Dead Donor Rule with respect to organ harvesting and transplants. As science continues to refine and develop lifesaving technologies, questions remain as to how much medical effort and financial resources should be expended to prolong the lives of patients suspended between life and death. At what point should death be considered irreversible? What criteria should be used to determine when to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatments in cases of severe brain damage and terminal illness? To explore these complex dilemmas, Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion panel. Pediatrician Sam Shemie, hospice medical director Christopher P. Comfort, bioethicist Mildred Z. Solomon, and attorney Barbara Coombs Lee examined the underlying assumptions and considerations that ultimately shape individual and societal decisions surrounding these issues. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred November 12, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. PMID:25079490

  12. Commentary: The forensic report--an inevitable nexus for resolving ethics dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ethics-related dilemmas arise in forensic psychiatry as in all psychiatric practice. Although most can be resolved by following the AAPL Ethics Guidelines and the AAPL Ethics Questions and Answers, the more complex ones inevitably have no easy solutions. Ethics-based duties can conflict without clear guidance on prioritization. Weighing competing factors necessitates more than merely following a rule, since there are potentially conflicting rules, and ethical practitioners may prioritize them differently. Concerns pertaining to the death penalty and defendants who are victims of discrimination are especially difficult. Such considerations usually are in the realm of aspirational ethics, with conclusions open to debate. They need consideration by most practitioners concerned with determining the most ethical course of action. Much as it is insufficient for an ethical citizen merely to avoid breaking the law, it is not enough to avoid violating any one guideline while remaining blind to context. Most such dilemmas need resolution long before testimony and arise first in the way the forensic assessment is conducted and in decisions on the data to be included in a report and how they are presented. Although there can be legitimate differences of opinion about how to weigh and resolve conflicting considerations, ethics-related dilemmas should not be sidestepped. PMID:24051589

  13. Ethical Dilemmas in the Biology Undergraduate Classroom: Role-Playing Congressional Testimony †

    PubMed Central

    Wiles, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience. PMID:25574284

  14. Levinas's ethics as a basis of healthcare - challenges and dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Nordtug, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Levinas's ethics has in the last decades exerted a significant influence on Nursing and Caring Science. The core of Levinas's ethics - his analyses of how our subjectivity is established in the ethical encounter with our neighbour or the?Other - is applied both to healthcare practice and in the project of building an identity of Nursing and Caring Science. Levinas's analyses are highly abstract and metaphysical, and also non-normative. Thus, his analyses cannot be applied directly to practical problems and questions. Theorists in Nursing and Caring Science are generally aware of this. Nevertheless, many of them use Levinas's analyses to explore and solve questions of practical and normative character. This article focuses on the challenges and dilemmas of using Levinas in this manner. The article is divided into two parts. The first part presents some central ideas of Levinas's ethics based on the latter part of his authorship. The main focus is on the radicalism of Levinas's critique of the symbolic order (which includes concepts, categories, knowledge, etc.) - or as he puts it 'the said' - as a basis for subjectivity and responsibility. Levinas's notions of saying, anarchy, and singularity accentuate this point of view. These notions refer to conditions in the language, which counteract the symbolic order in the ethical encounter to such an extent that it becomes an incomprehensible. Levinas gives the argumentation a metaphysical frame: The encounter with the incomprehensible is an encounter with the Holy, which is not the ontological God, but a metaphysical desire. It is a mystery as to what this means, and herein lies possibly the main challenge when using Levinas's ethics in science and research: How to maintain the radicalism of his critique of the symbolic order when this is to be communicated in a scientific context that expects clarification of statements and ideas? The second part of the article explores this question by examining how some theorists use Levinas's ethics on questions and problems in the area of healthcare and Nursing and Caring Science. The focus is especially on the theorists' reception and use of the just mentioned notions. The study reveals that these theorists to a large extent transform Levinas's ethics according to their own approaches, with the result that his ethics loses its critical radicalism. Thus, I question the reason why they use Levinas. PMID:25413564

  15. Ethical dilemmas in genetic testing: examples from the Cuban program for predictive diagnosis of hereditary ataxias.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Tania Cruz; Armiñán, Rubén Reynaldo; Cedeño, Humberto Jorge; Mesa, José Miguel Laffita; Zaldivar, Yanetza González; Rodríguez, Raúl Aguilera; Santos, Miguel Velázquez; Mederos, Luis Enrique Almaguer; Herrera, Milena Paneque; Pérez, Luis Velázquez

    2011-06-01

    Predictive testing protocols are intended to help patients affected with hereditary conditions understand their condition and make informed reproductive choices. However, predictive protocols may expose clinicians and patients to ethical dilemmas that interfere with genetic counseling and the decision making process. This paper describes ethical dilemmas in a series of five cases involving predictive testing for hereditary ataxias in Cuba. The examples herein present evidence of the deeply controversial situations faced by both individuals at risk and professionals in charge of these predictive studies, suggesting a need for expanded guidelines to address such complexities. PMID:21264501

  16. A national survey of U.S. internists’ experiences with ethical dilemmas and ethics consultation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon DuVal; Brian Clarridge; Gary Gensler; Marion Danis

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the ethical dilemmas that internists encounter, the strategies they use to address them, and the usefulness of\\u000a ethics consultation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a DESIGN: National telephone survey.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a SETTING: Doctors’ offices.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a PARTICIPANTS: General internists, oncologists, and critical care\\/pulmonologists (N=344, 64% response rate).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MEASUREMENTS: Types of ethical dilemmas recently encountered and likelihood of requesting ethics consultation: satisfaction with resolution\\u000a of ethical dilemmas with

  17. "Bringing the Message Forward": Using Poetic Re-Presentation to Solve Research Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Researchers cannot always rely on traditional methods for solving research dilemmas. In a research project that explored the friendships and social relationships of four students with severe disabilities in four secondary schools in New Zealand, the author uses poetic re-presentation to solve several ethical and pragmatic research dilemmas. Within…

  18. Ethical dilemmas in the care of patients with incurable cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuuppelomäki, M; Lauri, S

    1998-07-01

    This article aims to identify and describe the ethical dilemmas that are involved in the care of patients with incurable cancer. The data were collected in semistructured focused interviews with 32 patients, 13 nurses and 13 doctors from two central hospitals and four community health centres. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Interpretation was based on the method of content analysis. Ethical dilemmas occurred at the time of diagnosis, in connection with telling the truth, in providing information, in the treatment of pain, and in decision-making situations concerning active treatment. Dilemmas of active treatment concerned chemotherapy, intravenous infusions, blood transfusions and antibiotics. There were also problems in relationships between nursing staff and next of kin, as well as a lack of co-operation between nurses and doctors. PMID:9782916

  19. Teachers' Critical Incidents: Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore ethical dilemmas in critical incidents and the emerged responses that these incidents elicit. Most teachers try to suppress these incidences because of the unpleasant feelings they evoke. Fifty teachers participated in the study. A three-stage coding process derived from grounded theory was utilized. A taxonomy…

  20. Ethical Dilemmas: The "Bread and Butter" of Educational Leaders' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston, Neil; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Kimber, Megan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethical dilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the research were gathered by semi-structured in-depth interviews with the Heads, all of whom were experienced school leaders. All the schools had religious…

  1. Teaching, Learning and Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons from Albert Camus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past half century, Albert Camus's story "The Guest" has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. "The Guest" focuses on the ethical dilemmas faced by Daru, a school teacher in Algeria, and the two visitors he receives one day: Balducci, a gendarme, and an unnamed Arab prisoner. This paper addresses Camus's text from an educational…

  2. The dilemma of ethics in engineering education.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Byron

    2004-04-01

    This paper briefly summarizes current thinking in engineering ethics education, argues that much of that ethical instruction runs the risk of being only superficially effective, and explores some of the underlying systemic barriers within academia that contribute to this result. This is not to criticize or discourage efforts to improve ethics instruction. Rather it is to point to some more fundamental problems that still must be addressed in order to realize the full potential of enhanced ethics instruction. Issues discussed will include: intellectual engagement versus emotional engagement; the gravitational pull of curricular structures; the nature of engineering faculty; and the "engineer-ization" of ethics. PMID:15152860

  3. Original Articles Ethical Dilemmas and the Moral Reasoning of Medical Students Ethical Dilemmas and the Moral Reasoning of Medical Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Jafarey; A. Farooqui

    Objectives: To analyze the responses of medical students to ethical dilemmas commonly encountered in the clinical setting. Subjects and Method: A questionnaire based cross sectional survey was conducted on final year medical stu- dents from three different medical colleges in Karachi, Pakistan. Results: One hundred and twenty two students participated. Fifty eight percent were willing to withdraw ventila- tory support

  4. Nursing students' responses to ethical dilemmas in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Grypdonck, M; Vuylsteke-Wauters, M; Janssen, P J

    1997-01-01

    In literature as well as in nursing practice a growing concern about nurses' ethical competence can be observed. Based on the cognitive theory of moral development by Kohlberg, this research examined nursing students' ethical behaviour in five nursing dilemmas. Ethical behaviour refers not only to the ethical reasoning of nursing students but also to the relationship between reasoning and behaviour. Kohlberg's definition of morality was refined by adding a care perspective. The results show that the majority of students can be located in the fourth moral stage according to Kohlberg's theory, that is, the conventional level of moral development. This finding implies that students are still guided by professional rules, norms and duties, and have not (yet) succeeded in making personal ethical decisions on the basis of their own principles and acting according to such decisions. PMID:9052178

  5. [Ethical dilemmas in fieldwork: forgotten issues in qualitative health research in Iberoamerica].

    PubMed

    Robles-Silva, Leticia

    2012-03-01

    This paper explores some ethical dilemmas faced while doing fieldwork. Ethical norms are not enough to appraise the relationship between researchers and participants; a reflexivity practice is needed to understand the dilemmas aroused during this process. Here four issues faced during fieldwork are presented. The academic social time usually defines the schedule of fieldwork; hence, the researcher may decide to follow the academic schedule or to arrange a different schedule with informants. Researchers usually decide which part of their identity will be disclosed for introducing themselves to the informants; but may also decide to hide who really he/she is. Researchers may cope with the dilemma to disclose their private life to informants during the fieldwork. Researchers also may decide to behave according to academic cultural norms of reciprocity or according to the cultural norms of participants. Finally, a reflexivity movement should be developed in Iberoamerica to define an agenda on ethical issues and to develop decolonizing strategies to debate these ethical dilemmas. PMID:22450400

  6. Ethical Dilemmas in Today's Nuclear Medicine and Radiology Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce J. Barron; E. Edmund Kim; M. D. Anderson

    Throughout history, societies have developed their own codes of ethics, including those pertaining to the practice of medicine. In the United States, physicians have adopted a set of ethics based on religious values and historical teachings. We, as phy- sicians, have been presented several codes of ethics, including the American Medical Association Code of Ethics and the Amer- ican College

  7. Burkholderia cepacia: current clinical issues, environmental controversies and ethical dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Jones; M. E. Dodd; A. K. Webb

    2001-01-01

    Burkholderia cepacia: current clinical issues, environmental controversies and ethical dilemmas. A.M. Jones, M.E. Dodd, A.K. Webb. #ERS Journals Ltd 2001. ABSTRACT: Burkholderia cepacia is a plant phytogen and is known as a hardy and versatile organism. Over the past two decades it has emerged as a pathogen in the cystic fibrosis (CF) community, with devastating effects. Pulmonary colonisation can lead

  8. Medical and ethical dilemma in brain death.

    PubMed

    Streba, Irina; Damian, Simona; Ioan, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    For centuries, death has been defined, medically speaking, as the irreversible cessation of breathing and of nervous and cardiac activity. What radically changed this definition was the introduction of the concept "brain death" in 1968, by the "Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School". According to it, the irreversible coma was associated with brain death and considered to be a criterion for the diagnosis of the deceased individual. The evergrowing need for transplant organs (provided this respects the dead honor rule, stipulating that organs can't be harvested unless someone is deceased) lead to making arbitrary decisions regarding the establishment of the exact time of death during the process of "losing life". What actually triggers the controversy related to the concept of brain death is the dilemma of associating this concept with that of biologic death or death of the person, the difference between the two being made by whether the mental characteristics are accepted or not in defining and individualizing the death of the human being. Given these circumstances, a dilemma appears--that of defining the death of the individual: we define death, as it has been for centuries, as the moment when the cardio-respiratory function no longer exists, which leads to the loss of tens of thousands of lives that might have been saved through transplant. Yet, this may lead to manipulating the border between life and death, with the risk of trespassing each individual's right to life. PMID:23272519

  9. Ethical Dilemmas in Medicine: Who Should Decide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorovitz, Samuel

    1978-01-01

    Physicians are in positions to make decisions on which lives depend. The question of who should be making decisions concerning medical research and practice is a moral issue. The problems of medical ethics concern such concepts as autonomy, burden of proof, coercion, informed consent, paternalism, and diminished capacity. (SW)

  10. Action Research in Management—Ethical Dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly Walker; Tim Haslett

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of the guiding ethical principles for the conduct of research involving human subjects in an action research project in a membership-based community psychiatric disability organization. Action research is a collaborative process of critical inquiry between the researcher and the people in the situation, in this case the management executive. The relationship between the researcher and

  11. Ethical dilemmas in antibiotic treatment: focus on the elderly.

    PubMed

    Leibovici, L; Paul, M

    2015-01-01

    Maximal antibiotic treatment for all patients suspected of harbouring a bacterial infection is non-viable, because it will rapidly induce resistance and exhaust this finite resource. This raises two ethical dilemmas: the question of whether we are justified in increasing the danger to a present, named, patient so as to benefit future, unknown, patients; and whether we are allowed to do so without asking the present patient for consent. Although the considerations for healthy elderly patients are similar to younger adults, the answers are complex when addressing patients with dementia, severely reduced quality of life and at end of life. We argue that a public debate on the balance between benefit to a present patient versus harm to future patients should be conducted. Such a debate should include examinations of scenarios in which antibiotic treatment does not gain any benefit in a patient with infection: at the end of life; in situations in which resistance is such that empirical antibiotic treatment seldom matches the susceptibilities of the pathogen; and in patients with no quality of life. An explicit cost-benefit model, incorporating quality of life and risk of resistance, in computerized decision support might obviate a clinician's need to deal with these difficult issues at bedside. PMID:25636923

  12. Paradigms and personhood: a deepening of the dilemmas in ethics and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Erde, E L

    1999-04-01

    There are many calls for a definition of personhood, but also many logical and Wittgensteinian reasons to think fulfilling this is unimportant or impossible. I argue that we can consider many contexts as language-games and consider the person as the key player in each. We can then examine the attributes, presuppositions and implications of personhood in those contexts. I use law and therapeutic psychology as two examples of such contexts or language-games. Each correlates with one of the classic "theories" of ethics-deontology and consequentialism. But each is a large enough cluster to consider them as paradigms in a sense related to Thomas Kuhn's notion in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Showing the presuppositions about and "takes" on personhood together with the connections involved in the paradigms deepens the dilemmas we already know to be present. PMID:10450664

  13. Euthanasia in Greece: moral and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Vidalis, A; Dardavessis, T; Kaprinis, G

    1998-04-01

    Euthanasia as a concept and a practice has led to enormous debate in Greece, as well as in other countries. In this study, we examined the views of the public and of professionals on the issue of euthanasia. A self-administered questionnaire of 28 items was completed by 417 subjects, and provided information about attitudes towards the moral and ethical problems of euthanasia. Psychiatric speculations which arose during the approach of this issue were seen in the majority of the responses (88.3%). Psychodynamic unconscious processes reinforced and violated mechanisms and motives in favour of, or against euthanasia. Of the respondents, 44.3% were against life extension with mechanical devices. Putative main risk factors for suicidal ideation and the desire for death were: pain 66.2%, despair 60.2%, depression 59.7%, and psychopathology 38.6%. This study thus revealed that apart from pain, psychosocial factors play a key role in leading people to ask for euthanasia. On the other hand, the knowledge of the public and professionals regarding this issue is not sufficient, and thus discussion of euthanasia by Medical Societies is needed and necessary. PMID:9666189

  14. Concierge medicine: legal issues, ethical dilemmas, and policy challenges.

    PubMed

    Portman, Robert M; Romanow, Kate

    2008-04-01

    The practice of "concierge" or "retainer" medicine is growingly steadily due to economic and legal pressures on physicians. This practice model, which typically involves charging access or subscription fees to a limited pool of patients, raises legal hazards, contractual challenges, and ethical dilemmas for physicians interested in converting to concierge medicine, as well as important health policy questions. This article examines these legal and contractual issues, and discusses some of the ethical and policy implications of this relatively new form of medical practice. The authors conclude that this innovative practice form provides a beneficial alternative for patients seeking more personal, proactive, and/or intensive medical care. As concierge medicine proliferates, a wider range of practice models and fee structures should make this approach more affordable to lower and middle income patients--and help satisfy the need for greater access to preventive healthcare. Health policy makers should take steps to encourage this outcome. PMID:18507319

  15. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Haines; C de B White; J Gleisner

    1983-01-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil

  16. Subtle ethical dilemmas in geriatric management and clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Rosin, A; van Dijk, Y

    2005-01-01

    Routine management of geriatric problems often raises ethical problems, particularly regarding autonomy of the old person. The carers or children may be unaware of the sensitivity of role reversal in dealing with the financial affairs; the need for a residential carer may compromise the old person's privacy. Attending a day centre confers much benefit, but one must understand the old person's resistance to change in the proposal of a new daily regimen. Similarly his or her autonomy must be the priority in planning for admittance to an old age home, and not the assumption that the family knows best. A common dilemma is the assessment of an old person's competency in decision making, either about management of his affairs, or regarding consent to treatment, or participation in research. Because cognitive capacity is not always identical with competency, meaningful tools have recently been developed in which the emphasis is on the specific situation to be investigated. PMID:15923486

  17. Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.

    PubMed

    Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdio?lu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümü?, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application. PMID:24503745

  18. Public Reactions toward an Ethical Dilemma Faced by Photojournalists: Examining the Conflict between Acting as a Dispassionate Observer and Acting as a “Good Samaritan”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung Soo Kim; James D. Kelly

    2010-01-01

    When documenting human tragedy, photojournalists frequently face ethical dilemmas in choosing between acting as dispassionate observers and “Good Samaritans.” This study asked whether readers adopt a situational ethics rationale when they assess the photojournalist's decision to make a photograph of a person suffering severe trauma. Using a mixed experimental research design, the study presented a news situation, i.e., a photograph

  19. Comparing Two Training Strategies to Increase Competence in Solving Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jorge; Froehlic, Robert; McGuire-Kuletz, Maureen; Rejiester, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study examined which of two training models delivered through the internet led to better cultural competence in resolving ethical dilemmas with a sample of rehabilitation professionals. One type of training involved teaching a transcultural integrative model of ethical decision-making while the other training involved using the same…

  20. Hidden Ethical Dilemmas in Psychiatric Residency Training: The Psychiatry Resident as Dual Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoop, Jinger G.

    2004-01-01

    In addition to learning about confidentiality, civil commitment, informed consent, and other ethical issues, psychiatry residents must deal with less visible ethical dilemmas that arise from the training process itself. Residents grapple with three inherent conflicting duties between their dual roles as physician and learner, as physician and…

  1. Ethical Dilemmas of Rehabilitation Counselors: Results of an International Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarvydas, Vilia; Barros-Bailey, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of an international qualitative study conducted to inform the process of revising the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification's Code of Professional Ethics for Rehabilitation Counselors. The online survey gathered information regarding ethical dilemmas from a sample of certified rehabilitation counselors…

  2. A Preliminary Analysis of Environmental Dilemmas and Environmental Ethical Reasoning Among Hispanic and

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    of environmental ethical reasoning based upon the moral reasoning contributions of psychologists L. Kolhberg and CA Preliminary Analysis of Environmental Dilemmas and Environmental Ethical Reasoning Among Hispanic investigation of environmental reason ing, Hispanic and Anglo-American visitors were interviewed dur ing

  3. Living with conflicts-ethical dilemmas and moral distress in the health care system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofia Kälvemark; Anna T. Höglund; Mats G. Hansson; Peter Westerholm; Bengt Arnetz

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, the Swedish health care system has undergone fundamental changes. The changes have made health care more complex and ethics has increasingly become a required component of clinical practice. Considering this, it is not surprising that many health care professionals suffer from stress-related disorders. Stress due to ethical dilemmas is usually referred to as “moral distress”. The

  4. Action ethical dilemmas in surgery: an interview study of practicing surgeons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsti Torjuul; Ann Nordam; Venke Sørlie

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the kinds of ethical dilemmas surgeons face during practice. METHODS: Five male and five female surgeons at a University hospital in Norway were interviewed as part of a comprehensive investigation into the narratives of physicians and nurses about ethically difficult situations in surgical units. The transcribed interview texts were subjected to

  5. Ethical dilemmas of social science research on AIDS and orphanhood in Western Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erick Otieno Nyambedha

    2008-01-01

    This paper is based on the experiences drawn from a long-term social science research programme on the impact of the AIDS pandemic on orphanhood in western Kenya. It discusses the ethical dilemma of maintaining a delicate balance between research ethics, the expectations of the study population and negotiating the community's vested interests in a health related research project in a

  6. REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF APPLIED LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHEN NURSE MANAGERS MAKE DECISIONS.

    PubMed

    Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T

    2014-09-21

    Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas. PMID:25242639

  7. Ethical Tensions and Dilemmas Experienced in a Northern Ugandan Social Work Internship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical tensions and dilemmas that arose for 2 U.S. social work students during an 8-month international clinical internship in northern Uganda. These students encountered cultural differences related to issues of confidentiality, autonomy, and self-determination. Student experiences were analyzed using the cultural…

  8. Ethical Dilemmas in Applying Second-Wave Information Technology to Social Work Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikel, Julie G.; Cnaan, Ram A.

    1991-01-01

    Describes second wave information technology in social work as characterized by modern databases, decision-support systems, expert systems, electronic networks, and therapeutic applications that have greater impact on direct practice. Assesses ethical dilemmas posed by use of second-wave information technology in social work practice to encourage…

  9. International Ethical Dilemmas Confronting Australian Managers: Implications for the Training and Development of Employees Working Overseas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedigo, Kerry; Marshall, Verena

    2004-01-01

    Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethical dilemmas

  10. Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: An Ethical Dilemma for Career Guidance Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bimrose, Jenny

    2004-01-01

    Sexual harassment in the workplace poses something of an ethical dilemma for career guidance practice. This is because it is now known that about half of all working women in the UK are likely to be victims at some stage of their employment and that the effects on individuals are invariably negative and can be positively harmful. What, therefore,…

  11. Ethical dilemmas of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome in primary care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil A Douglas

    2010-01-01

    A fictionalised case report is used to highlight the author's experience of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome in a primary care setting. The case of a Bangladeshi woman who has a strongly positive result for a screening test for which she has not given informed consent is examined from several different ethical standpoints. The dilemma posed by the case is

  12. Ethical Dilemmas in the Treatment of Battered Women in Individual Psychotherapy: Analysis of the Beneficence Versus Autonomy Polemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katie M. Edwards; Jennifer C. Merrill; Angeli D. Desai; John R. McNamara

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the ethical dilemmas inherent in the treatment of women currently in abusive relationships. Utilizing ethical decision-making models, the conflicting principles of beneficence and autonomy are discussed with regards to whether a therapist should encourage a client to leave an abusive relationship. Given that most ethical decision-making models stress the importance of contextual

  13. Ethics and Reproductive Issues: The Dilemma of Choice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2001-10-20

    This Science NetLinks lesson introduces students to the ethical implications of using our growing knowledge about the human genome to improve our personal and public health. Students will be asked to consider numerous ethical issues related to genetic testing and will find that there are no easy answers. Most importantly, students will learn that there is no one "answer" to an ethical question; rather, there exist a multitude of perspectives that must be taken into account. Ultimately, students will learn that making an ethical choice requires scientific knowledge and rational inquiry.

  14. Surgical patents and patients--the ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    To??oczko, Tadeusz

    2005-01-01

    It is obvious that every inventor should be rewarded for the intellectual effort, and at the same time be encouraged to successively improve his or her discovery and to work on subsequent innovations. Patents also ensure that patent owners are officially protected against intellectual piracy, but protection of intellectual property may be difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless, it all comes down to this basic question: Does a contradiction exist between medical ethics and the "Medical and Surgical Procedure Patents" system? It may well turn out that medical-procedure patents can have a negative influence on the standard of medical care. Medical-method patents may also interfere with the physician-patient relationship. At present, physicians do not question the usefulness of patent protection for medicines, biotechnology, equipment and devices, but they strongly oppose it for surgical procedures. PMID:15727000

  15. The Ethics of Asking: Dilemmas in Higher Education Fund Raising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Deni, Ed.

    This volume provides college and university development officers and administrators practical help with recognizing difficult ethical situations and discerning the correct ethical response. It can also serve as a guide for donors who wonder what's reasonable for them to expect from fund raisers. Section 1 contains chapters on the social and moral…

  16. Ethical Dilemmas in Sport Psychology: Discussion and Recommendations for Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zella E. Moore

    2003-01-01

    The practice demands required of sport psychologists often complicate the direct and specific fulfillment of several ethical regulations. Many practitioners face specific issues of confidentiality and the appropriate use of informed consent, challenges to practicing within areas of competence, issues regarding termination, and challenges that arise from multiorganizational demands and the formation of multiple relationships. Although ethical guidelines established by

  17. Dealing with Dave's Dilemmas: Exploring the Ethics of Pedagogic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Using an auto-ethnographic case study about a "day in the life" of a new professor as the basis for discussion, reports the reactions of newly-appointed and more-experienced academic staff toward ethical questions. Applying Forsyth's taxonomy of ethical ideology, found that experienced staff were more inclined toward a "situationist" position,…

  18. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  19. Educational Context: Preparing Accounting Students to Identify Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billiot, Mary Jo; Daniel, David; Glandon, Sid; Glandon, TerryAnn

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of different contexts in an educational process on measures of ethical sensitivity and levels of moral reasoning of accounting majors in the first Intermediate Accounting course. The educational process compared a context that centers on ethical issues with one that focuses on technical accounting issues. At the end of the…

  20. Ethical dilemmas and moral distress in oncology nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jeryl S; Erickson, Jeanne M

    2006-12-01

    Although ethical values and principles guide oncology nursing practice, nurses often are challenged to fulfill every professional core duty and responsibility in their everyday practice. Nurses commonly encounter clinical situations that have ethical conflicts, and they often have difficulty recognizing and articulating them. Unresolved conflicts can cause feelings of frustration and powerlessness, which can lead to compromises in patient care, job dissatisfaction, disagreements among those in the healthcare team, and burnout. This article reviews the ethical principles and values individual nurses bring to their practice as well as those basic to the profession of nursing. This article also discusses ethical conflicts in oncology practice and describes how nurses, especially students and novice nurses, may react to such situations with moral uncertainty or distress. In addition, a process for analyzing and resolving ethical problems in clinical situations is outlined. Increasing awareness and dialogue about ethical issues is an important first step in the process. Additional resources in the clinical setting may encourage nurses to actively participate in ethical decision making and take deliberate action as moral agents. PMID:17193943

  1. Bioethics: Applying the Basic Principles to Resolve an Ethical Dilemma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neel Karnani

    Given the complexity of medical issues and the often emo- tionally charged situation at hand, clinicians need a moral compass to help guide them when dealing with ethical problems. Beauchamp and Childress have proposed a \\

  2. Nurse Activism in the newborn intensive care unit: actions in response to an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Settle, Peggy Doyle

    2014-03-01

    Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethical dilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance. PMID:23454980

  3. Has Our Knowledge of Neuroscience Led to Ethical Dilemmas?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Susan Musante

    This is a lesson dealing with a new subdivision of bioethics called neuroethics. As our knowledge of the brain and nervous system expands, so do the ethical issues that result from this knowledge. This new area of study results from our increasing research in the field of neurobiology. In the first part of this activity, students will discuss the stigma associated with psychological illness. They will then be introduced to Dr. Kay Jamison who discusses some of the ethical implications of bipolar disorder. The class will take part in an activity called a Topical Barometer where they will have to choose a position regarding an ethical decision. In Part 2 of the activity, they will write a position paper after exploring the topic of drug enhancement, another controversial issue in the world of neuroscience. From the original handout text by Caren Gough

  4. The case of juvenile polygraphy as a clinical ethics dilemma.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Polygraph interrogations are used by half of all surveyed juvenile sex offender (JSO) treatment programs in the United States. This is a distinctive and controversial practice that is rarely if ever used with other juvenile delinquent populations, and that is rarely used or is banned from JSO treatment programs in other countries. Clinical polygraphy is an ethically sensitive issue because it involves mental health therapists in involuntary coercive interrogations of minors. This article reviews core mental health professional ethics principles for juveniles. JSO polygraphy is used as an illustrative issue for applying human rights principles to a practice in light of its benefits, risks, and available alternatives. PMID:20944059

  5. Ethical dilemmas and the nurse practitioner in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Juretschke, L J

    2001-02-01

    With the emergence of advanced practice roles for nurses, including the role of the neonatal nurse practitioner (NNP), nurses are increasingly being placed in the position of making difficult decisions, especially in acute or emergency situations. NNPs, therefore, must have a working knowledge of the ethical decision-making process in order to make appropriate decisions at the bedside. PMID:12143837

  6. Ethical Concerns about Genetic Screening: The Down's Dilemma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret J. McCormick

    2011-01-01

    Antenatal screening for Down's syndrome has been part of the routine landscape of obstetrical practice since the late 1980s. Since that time genetic markers used to screen for Down's syndrome have been refined, and antenatal screening is now available in the first trimester of a woman's pregnancy. This article examines the ethical concerns of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome. Personal

  7. The critical patient who refuses treatment: An ethical dilemma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert B. Palmer; Kenneth V. Iserson

    1997-01-01

    In clinical practice, emergency physicians must often make decisions in their patients' best interests when the patients are unable to do so themselves. The usual requirement for informed consent stems from recognizing individuals' autonomy and their right to make decisions affecting their bodies. Abandoning a requirement for consent is an emergency exception to the ethical and legal principles and comes

  8. ‘I am in blood Stepp'd in so far…’: ethical dilemmas and the sports team doctor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Meldan Devitt; Conor McCarthy

    2010-01-01

    There are many ethical dilemmas that are unique to sports medicine because of the unusual clinical environment of caring for players within the context of a team whose primary objective is to win. Many of these ethical issues arise because the traditional relationship between doctor and patient is distorted or absent. The emergence of a doctor–patient–team triad has created a

  9. Ethics and patient education: health literacy and cultural dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Marks, Ray

    2009-07-01

    This article discusses health literacy and cultural factors that have implications for the ethical practice of health education. It specifically focuses on recent data that speaks to the challenges in carrying out patient education from the perspective of comprehension and equitable distribution of health-related information across diverse cultures and communities. It discusses strategies for reducing the negative impact of low health literacy among diverse groups and the importance of acknowledging this pervasive problem in the context of ensuring equity in the optimal delivery of health promotion messages. PMID:19574584

  10. Ethical dilemmas in scientific publication: pitfalls and solutions for editors.

    PubMed

    Gollogly, Laragh; Momen, Hooman

    2006-08-01

    Editors of scientific journals need to be conversant with the mechanisms by which scientific misconduct is amplified by publication practices. This paper provides definitions, ways to document the extent of the problem, and examples of editorial attempts to counter fraud. Fabrication, falsification, duplication, ghost authorship, gift authorship, lack of ethics approval, non-disclosure, 'salami' publication, conflicts of interest, auto-citation, duplicate submission, duplicate publications, and plagiarism are common problems. Editorial misconduct includes failure to observe due process, undue delay in reaching decisions and communicating these to authors, inappropriate review procedures, and confounding a journal's content with its advertising or promotional potential. Editors also can be admonished by their peers for failure to investigate suspected misconduct, failure to retract when indicated, and failure to abide voluntarily by the six main sources of relevant international guidelines on research, its reporting and editorial practice. Editors are in a good position to promulgate reasonable standards of practice, and can start by using consensus guidelines on publication ethics to state explicitly how their journals function. Reviewers, editors, authors and readers all then have a better chance to understand, and abide by, the rules of publishing. PMID:16924299

  11. Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Steven Breuning fabricated and falsified data in 24 paper. Breuning is convicted of defrauding the federal government ... some questions about a data presented in a paper authored by six of her colleagues published in ...

  12. Futility and the care of surgical patients: ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Grant, Scott B; Modi, Parth K; Singer, Eric A

    2014-07-01

    Futility has been a contentious topic in medicine for several decades. Surgery in critical or end-of-life situations often raises difficult questions about futility. In this article, we discuss the definition of futility, methods for resolving futility disputes, and some ways to reframe the futility debate to a more fruitful discussion about the goals of care, better communication between surgeon and patient/surrogate, and palliative surgical care. Many definitions of futile therapy have been discussed. The most controversial of these is "qualitative futility" which describes a situation in which the treatment provided is likely to result in an unacceptable quality of life. This is an area of continued controversy because it has been impossible to identify universally held beliefs about acceptable quality of life. Many authors have described methods for resolving futility disputes, including community standards and legalistic multi-step due process protocols. Others, however, have abandoned the concept of futility altogether as an unhelpful term. Reframing the issue of futility as one of inadequate physician-patient communication, these authors have advocated for methods of improving communication and strengthening the patient-physician relationship. Finally, we discuss the utilization of consultants who may be of use in resolving futility disputes: ethics committees, palliative care specialists, pastoral care teams, and dedicated patient advocates. Involving these specialists in a futility conflict can help improve communication and provide invaluable assistance in arriving at the appropriate treatment decision. PMID:24849199

  13. Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

  14. Older Women's Perceptions of Elder Maltreatment and Ethical Dilemmas in Adult Protective Services: A Cross-Cultural, Exploratory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Dakin; Sue Pearlmutter

    2009-01-01

    In this study, older African American, Latina, and Caucasian women from varying socioeconomic backgrounds participated in eight focus groups that examined their perceptions of elder maltreatment and three ethical dilemmas within adult protective service work: mandatory reporting, involuntary protective services, and criminalization of elder maltreatment. Participants espoused a broad and inclusive view of elder maltreatment. In responding to illustrative case

  15. Child Abuse Reporting Laws and Attorney-Client Privilege: Ethical Dilemmas and Practical Suggestions for the Forensic Psychologist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan R. Hall

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the legal, ethical, and moral dilemmas faced by forensic psychologists who, during an evaluation for an attorney, discover information that would warrant making a child abuse report. It attempts to assist forensic psychologists with navigating the question of whether attorney-client privilege overrides their duty to report suspected child abuse. Through a review of the legal and psychological

  16. Advertising Ethics: Student Attitudes and Behavioral Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton

    2013-01-01

    A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…

  17. Bringing compassion to the ethical dilemma in killing kangaroos for conservation: comment on "Conservation through sustainable use" by Rob Irvine.

    PubMed

    Ramp, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Ethical debate on the killing of kangaroos has polarised conservation and animal welfare science, yet at the heart of these scientific disciplines is the unifying aim of reducing harm to non-human animals. This aim provides the foundation for common ground, culminating in the development of compassionate conservation principles that seek to provide mechanisms for achieving both conservation and welfare goals. However, environmental decision-making is not devoid of human interests, and conservation strategies are commonly employed that suit entrenched positions and commercial gain, rather than valuing the needs of the non-human animals in need of protection. The case study on the wild kangaroo harvest presents just such a dilemma, whereby a conservation strategy is put forward that can only be rationalised by ignoring difficulties in the potential for realising conservation benefits and the considerable welfare cost to kangaroos. Rather than an open debate on the ethics of killing game over livestock, in this response I argue that efforts to bring transparency and objectivity to the public debate have to date been obfuscated by those seeking to maintain entrenched interests. Only by putting aside these interests will debate about the exploitation of wildlife result in humane, compassionate, and substantive conservation benefits. PMID:23595959

  18. Race and Ethical Reasoning: The Importance of Race to Journalistic Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Renita

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of race of news subjects on student journalists' ethical reasoning. Explains that journalism students were presented with four ethical dilemmas that working journalists might encounter. Concludes that the race of the people in the ethical dilemmas presented had a significant impact on ethical reasoning. (PM)

  19. Ethical dilemmas and decisions concerning the do-not-resuscitate patient undergoing anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Clark, G D; Lucas, K; Stephens, L

    1994-06-01

    The growing geriatric population in this country makes it increasingly difficult to deal with the number of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders. In part, this is due to an increase in the number of elderly undergoing anesthesia and surgery. It can also be attributed to a rise in complex legal, ethical, and moral issues these orders pose for the healthcare professional caring for the DNR patients, including anesthetists. The term "DNR" is confusing to many, including healthcare professionals. As patients progress through the perioperative period, this confusion is compounded by the fact that administration of anesthesia encompasses interventions that include intubation, ventilation, and fluid replacement. These interventions may be regarded as resuscitative efforts outside the operating room. The anesthetist must identify and sort through a maze of conflicting courses of action, which must match the patient's desires and personal rights. The topic of DNR orders is addressed as well as some of the moral and ethical dilemmas they pose for the Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA). Some solutions are offered to help the nurse anesthetist make those decisions that are most "right" for the patient. PMID:7725864

  20. Maintaining Confidentiality with Minors: Dilemmas of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazovsky, Rivka

    2008-01-01

    This article examined the attitudes of 195 school counselors in Israel regarding (a) the decision to maintain or breach confidentiality in a variety of ethical dilemmas, and (b) the reasons given for justifying their decisions. Eighteen ethical dilemmas in three domains were presented to respondents in a questionnaire. School counselors were most…

  1. Ethical issues in presymptomatic genetic testing for minors: a dilemma in Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fresneau, Brice; Brugières, Laurence; Caron, Olivier; Moutel, Grégoire

    2013-06-01

    In 2001, a French expert panel recommended that presymptomatic tests should not be carried out on minors in families affected by Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), flying in the face of possible parental demands for such testing. We decided to investigate the legitimacy of such a recommendation. We conducted a national multicenter survey using self-administered questionnaires mailed to French oncogeneticists in 33 regional centers in France. We aimed to (1) determine the extent to which these doctors were confronted with parental requests for TP53 testing, (2) study how they responded to these requests and the arguments used and (3) assess the attitude of oncogeneticists concerning the normative framework regulating the prescription of tests for minors. Twenty oncogeneticists stated that they had managed at least one LFS family. Eleven of these doctors had been confronted with parental requests for testing and three had prescribed such tests on at least one occasion. The oncogeneticists gave balanced medical, psychological and ethical arguments, highlighting the dilemma they face in the decision-making process. This dilemma is due to the lack of a consensus concerning this recommendation, which aims to protect the minor by limiting presymptomatic tests to cases in which a clear medical benefit can be demonstrated but which prevents the unique situation of particular families from being taken into account. In conclusion, the recommendation has a normative status but first, from a clinical stance, it is difficult to dissociate it from the evaluation of individual family situations, and second, the benefit of a specific medical follow-up for TP53 mutation carriers is currently being investigated. PMID:23233110

  2. Ethical dilemmas, work-related guilt, and posttraumatic stress reactions of news journalists covering the terror attack in Norway in 2011.

    PubMed

    Backholm, Klas; Idås, Trond

    2015-04-01

    News journalists working on crisis-related assignments may experience dilemmas with regard to how to conduct their work without causing additional harm to first-hand victims. In this study, we investigated how exposure to journalistic ethical dilemmas during the Oslo/Utøya terror attack in 2011 and subsequent work-related guilt were related to the development of posttraumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Norwegian journalists (N = 371) covering the terror attack participated in a web-based survey 8-9 months after the incident. We found that females reported more ethical dilemmas during the assignment than males (n = 356, d = 0.51). We also found that being on the scene was not related to more exposure to dilemmas (n = 311, d = 0.01). Moreover, we discovered that work-related guilt had a significant indirect effect on the relationship between exposure to ethical dilemmas and severity of PTS reactions (n = 344, completely standardized indirect effect size = .11, 95% CI [.04, .19]. The results showed that exposure to ethical dilemmas may affect the development of long-term psychological impairment. We concluded that media organizations can prevent postcrisis impairment by preparing employees for possible exposure to dilemmas during crisis-related assignments. PMID:25864505

  3. A Transcultural Integrative Model for Ethical Decision Making in Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Jorge, G.; Cartwright, Brenda; Winston, Stacey M.; Borzuchowska, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The Transcultural Integrative Ethical Decision-Making Model in counseling addresses the need for including cultural factors in the process of ethical dilemma resolution. The proposed model is presented in a step-by-step, linear format that can be used by counselors facing ethical dilemmas in a variety of settings and with different cultural…

  4. Ethics in photojournalism : past, present, and future

    E-print Network

    Bersak, Daniel R., 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Like writers and editors, photojournalists are held to a standard of ethics. Each publication has a set of rules, sometimes written, sometimes unwritten, that governs what that publication considers to be a truthful and ...

  5. Bedside resource stewardship in disasters: a provider's dilemma practicing in an ethical gap.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    During disasters, clinicians may be forced to play dual roles, as both a provider and an allocator of scarce resources. At present, a clear framework to govern resource stewardship at the bedside is lacking. Clinicians who find themselves practicing in this ethical gap between clinical and public health ethics can experience significant moral distress. One provider describes her experience allocating an oxygen tank in the intensive care unit at a hospital in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, immediately following the 2010 earthquake. Using a clinical vignette and reflective narrative she attempts to identify the factors that influenced her allocation decision, opening up the factors for commentary and debate by an ethicist. A better paradigm for the ethical care of patients during disasters is needed to better guide provider choices in the future. PMID:23469693

  6. Ethical decision-making in the dilemma of the intersex infant.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Breanna L; Cheney, Teresa B; Hayman, Annette B

    2014-03-01

    The Making Ethical Decisions about Surgical Intervention (MEDSI) tool is designed to guide health care professionals, patients, and families faced with ethically charged decisions regarding surgical interventions for pediatric patients. MEDSI is built on the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and patient autonomy and created to promote truth-telling, compassion, respect for patient cultural and religious preferences, and appropriate follow up in the clinical setting. Following an overview of the 8 steps that compose MEDSI, the tool is applied to the management of intersex infants. The birth of a child with a disorder of sexual development (DSD) and ambiguous genitalia presents an ethically challenging situation for the family and health care team. The use of the MEDSI model is demonstrated in a case study involving the decision of surgical intervention in the management of an intersex child. PMID:24251985

  7. Facing Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study of HR Managers' Perceptions of the Influences on Their Behavior and the Implications for Building an Ethical Culture in Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMontagne, Ramona Marie

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceptions of human resource managers who had faced ethical dilemmas in the workplace, to gain an understanding of how they felt their life experiences shaped their values in making ethical decisions. The experiences of ten human resource managers who believed they chose a right course of action when faced with…

  8. [Ethical dilemmas in gastroenterology practice in Latin-American countries: the AIGE survey].

    PubMed

    Jmelnitzky, A C; Cohen, H; Fossman, E; Ovando, L; Costa Gil, J E

    1999-01-01

    A survey sponsored by the Interamerican Association of Gastroenterology (AIGE) related to decision making in conflictive ethical situations in the setting of gastroenterological practice was designed (AJ-JCG). Seven problem-cases with 3 to 5 pre-established and not-excluding answers each, demographic and occupational data were included, by public invitation during 1996-97 AIGE educational activities in La Plata (Argentina), Montevideo (Uruguay) and Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). Data were inserted in a computerised data base, and chi square, Fischer and Maentel-Henzel tests were used for statistical studies. 118 out of 460 doctors registered to educational activities answered at the survey (25.6%). Mean age was 42 +/- 15 years and 57.6% were male; 48.5% were under 10 years of professional practice and 19.5% were over 20 years. Gastroenterology was the main specialty in 89.8%. Although only 15.2% of participants reported as not having Ethical Committee (EC) in their institutions, the option of consulting was not very frequently selected, except in cases of request about pregnancy interruption in the HCV infected mother (22.9%), inclusion of the young alcoholic cirrhotic man in the waiting list for liver trasplant (17.8%), and the Jehova's Witness conscious patient with bleeding esophageal varices (13.5%). Cases of direct communication to the patient of early colon cancer diagnosis (66.1%), and inclusion of the young end stage alcoholic cirrhotic patient in the waiting list for liver trasplantation (65.2%), had the higher consensus. On the other hand, lower consensus (39%) was seen in the case of variceal bleeding in the encephalopathic Witness of Jehova patient. Differential criterla were observed related to sex: 38% of women versus 14.7% of men (p < 0.01) refuse the interruption of pregnancy to the infected HCV patient because of personal convictions against abortion. In the case of suspected HIV co-infection in the IVD HBsAG + carrier, 46% of women vs. 27.9% of men (p < 0.05) indicate HIV screening test without any explanation to the patient because "he could transmit a fatal disease". In this same case, time from graduation was related to differences in option selection: 80.9% in the group > 20 years of professional exercise asked for patient consent and accepted his decision, versus 52.7 and 27.5% in 0-9 and 10-19 years group respectively (p < 0.05). Usual medical and social worries as communication (truth, informed consent), the autonomic decision of biological death versus the sacrament of life, justice in allocation resources, confidentiality and social concern, abortion, and many other controversies linked to tecno-scientific development, impact the practice of Gastroenterology in latinoamerican countries. However medical answers to ethical dilemmas are not uniform. Although our results ought to be verified by other studies they clearly suggest the needs for systematic incorporation of applicated Ethics in pre and postgraduate Gastroenterology curricula, besides the regular activities of our regional institutions. PMID:10491718

  9. Perception of Physicians and Medical Students on common Ethical Dilemmas in a Pakistani Medical Institute

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bushra Khizar; Mobeen Iqbal

    Knowledge about medical ethics is limited in Pakistan. The teaching of ethics in both under and postgraduate education is generally not formal. The aim of the survey was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among the medical professionals in relation to medical ethics in an attempt to identify the medical ethics learning needs of Pakistani doctors. A self-administered structured

  10. Case Report: Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma in

    E-print Network

    Carr, Leslie

    1 Case Report: Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma, Shankar A, Bansal S, Bhattacharya A, Bal A. Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull discuss a case of insular carcinoma of thyroid presenting with concurrent distant metastasis to skull

  11. Introduction of contextual legal issues in an interdisciplinary program for the study of ethical dilemmas in obstetrics and gynecology for third-year medical students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria L. Green; Danielle Sara

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To introduce contextual legal issues, and the role of law in resolving ethical dilemmas, in a women's health ethics curriculum for third-year medical students. Methods: Seventeen third-year medical students at Emory University School of Medicine, rotating on an 8-week obstetrics and gynecology clerkship, and 8 third-year law students from the Georgia State University College of Law attended four 1-hour

  12. Interventional radiology in the management of superior thyroid artery injury which presents as a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A K; Agarwal, P; Roy, S; Gambhir, S; Mishra, S K; Phadke, R V

    1994-02-01

    Following a forgotten iron splinter injury, a 19 year old male developed a slowly increasing extrathyroidal haematoma, which presented as a diagnostic dilemma. Surgical exploration failed to establish a diagnosis and was complicated by severe haemorrhage. Emergency angiography demonstrated injury to the superior thyroid artery. Therapeutic embolization and surgical exploration resulted in functional and anatomical recovery of the thyroid lobe. PMID:8147810

  13. The Ethics of Teaching: A Casebook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith-Spiegel, Patricia; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.; Balogh, Deborah Ware; Perkins, David V.; Wittig, Arno F.

    This book discusses the most frequently encountered ethical dilemmas that can arise in higher educational settings and offers tips on how to avoid such predicaments and how to handle them when they occur. Ethical dilemmas are presented as short case scenarios. The 195 cases are grouped into 22 chapters in six parts. Part 1, "The Classroom…

  14. Workplace Literacy: Ethical Issues through the Lens of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folinsbee, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Even though principles to guide practice are crucial, there are no hard-and-fast rules for resolving ethical issues--dilemmas that are not easily resolvable because they present opposing values and outcomes that may harm to certain groups of people if not properly considered. This article describes a number of ethical dilemmas faced as a workplace…

  15. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing in Slovenia: availability, ethical dilemmas and legislation

    PubMed Central

    Vrecar, Irena; Peterlin, Borut; Teran, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over the last few years, many private companies are advertising direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT), mostly with no or only minor clinical utility and validity of tests and without genetic counselling. International professional community does not approve provision of DTC GT and situation in some EU countries has been analysed already. The aim of our study was to analyse current situation in the field of DTC GT in Slovenia and related legal and ethical issues. Materials and methods Information was retrieved through internet search, performed independently by two authors, structured according to individual private company and the types of offered genetic testing. Results Five private companies and three Health Insurance Companies offer DTC GT and it is provided without genetic counselling. Available tests include testing for breast cancer, tests with other health-related information (complex diseases, drug responses) and other tests (nutrigenetic, ancestry, paternity). National legislation is currently being developed and Council of Experts in Medical Genetics has issued an opinion about Genetic Testing and Commercialization of Genetic Tests in Slovenia. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia has signed the Additional protocol to the convention on human rights and biomedicine, concerning genetic testing for health purposes, DTC GT in Slovenia is present and against all international recommendations. There is lack of or no medical supervision, clinical validity and utility of tests and inappropriate genetic testing of minors is available. There is urgent need for regulation of ethical, legal, and social aspects. National legislation on DTC GT is being prepared. PMID:25672471

  16. Blackness, femaleness, and ethics: Moral dilemmas in selected plays of Pearl Cleage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaye Celeste Evans

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates selected plays by womanist playwright Pearl Cleage using the multiple perspectives of femaleness, blackness, and moral dilemma. The characters determine how to negotiate various life challenges, which include race and gender oppression. They are caught between the rules of the external community and the basic rules of survival for themselves and their families. The characters also tackle

  17. Fetal conditions and fatal decisions: Ethical dilemmas in ultrasound screening in Vietnam

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tine Gammeltoft

    2007-01-01

    In the context of globalization, new technologies of pregnancy are spreading rapidly from affluent to low-income countries. Yet, to date, there is very little research on the application of prenatal diagnostic technology in developing country settings or the dilemmas that prenatal screening may give rise to in situations where health-care resources are scarce. In this article, we describe how obstetrical

  18. Ethical Dilemmas Encountered by Members of the American Psychological Association: A National Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth S. Pope; Valerie A. Vetter

    1992-01-01

    A random sample of 1,319 members of the American Psychological Association (APA) were asked to describe incidents that they found ethically challenging or troubling. Responses from 679 psychologists described 703 incidents in 23 categories. This process of gathering critical incidents from the general membership, pioneered by those who developed APA's original code of ethics, may be useful in considering possible

  19. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Suicide Prevention: The Case of Telephone Helpline Rescue Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.

    2010-01-01

    The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to…

  20. Resolving ethical dilemmas through international human resource management: a transaction cost economics perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne Grossman; Lyle F. Schoenfeldt

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction between cross-cultural variation in ethics and international human resource management. Literature is reviewed that suggests the ethical orientation of a culture can vary based upon whether the culture values collective outcomes or adherence to generally accepted rules, processes, and rights. Drawing on transaction cost economics and social contracts theory, it is suggested that differences in

  1. Linking ethical principles with community practice.

    PubMed

    Ross, M E

    1993-01-01

    Nurses must frequently make arduous decisions when faced with ethical dilemmas that occur in clinical practice. Utilizing ethical principles for analyzing and reflecting on the issues may ease this difficult task. In addition, the nurse involved may experience less anxiety and uncertainty over whether or not the correct decision was made. The purpose of this article is to present a case study that involves the allocation of a scarce resource that posed an ethical dilemma for a nursing instructor and her students in a community health setting. Toulmin's framework is utilized for analyzing this dilemma. PMID:8126529

  2. Casuistry: A Complement to Principle Ethics and a Foundation for Ethical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Stephen J.; Francis, Perry C.

    2006-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas within any system are created when moral/ethical principles, rules, or guidelines can be cited for opposing actions with neither side presenting the obvious, right course to follow. This condition exposes the intricate interrelationship between abstract moral/ethical principles and the description and evaluation of real-life…

  3. Health Care Ethics: Dilemmas, Issues and Conflicts. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Annual Fall Workshop (6th, Indianapolis, Indiana, September 5-6, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prock, Valencia N., Ed.; And Others

    A variety of ethical issues confronting the nursing profession are examined in these proceedings. The following papers are presented: (1) "Ethics: Care & Conflict," by Leah Curtin; (2) "The Interface of Politics and Ethics in Nursing," by Mila Aroskar; (3) "Pluralistic Ethical Decision-Making," by Rita Payton; (4) "Compassion, Technology & the…

  4. Genomic medicine: health care issues and the unresolved ethical and social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Idemyor, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Our perception of the mechanism by which single genes can cause disease is evolving. This has led to the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of common diseases. Genomic Medicine continues to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of disease. Medicine has strived to achieve the goal of tailoring interventions to individual variations in risk and treatment response and advances in medical genomics will facilitate this process. Relevant to present-day practice is the use of genomic information to classify individuals according to disease susceptibility or expected responsiveness to a pharmacologic treatment and to provide targeted interventions. By investigating the genetic profile of individuals, medical professionals are able to select patients and use the information obtained to plan out a course of treatment that is much more in step with the way their body works. However, society is concerned about the effect genetic knowledge will have on ethnic or racial groups. Currently, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act prohibits discrimination based on genetics. There is a need to increase the understanding of the social and ethical challenges that genomics information may pose to clinicians and scientists. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; rather, clinically relevant examples are used to illustrate how genomic medicine can facilitate the provision of molecular diagnostic methods that improve drug therapy. Finally, the rapid pace of change in genomics may likely make my conclusions today obsolete tomorrow. PMID:22713532

  5. An ethics toolbox for neurotechnology.

    PubMed

    Farah, Martha J

    2015-04-01

    Advances in neurotechnology will raise new ethical dilemmas, to which scientists and the rest of society must respond. Here I present a "toolbox" of concepts to help us analyze these issues and communicate with each other about them across differences of ethical intuition. PMID:25856484

  6. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  7. Moral orientation of elderly persons: considering ethical dilemmas in health care.

    PubMed

    Pinch, W J; Parsons, M E

    1997-09-01

    Knowledge about moral development and elderly persons is very limited. A hermeneutical interpretative study was conducted with healthy elderly persons (n = 20) in order to explore and describe their moral orientation based on the paradigms of justice (Kohlberg) and care (Gilligan). The types of moral reasoning, dominance, alignment and orientation were determined. All but one participant included both types of reasoning when discussing an ethical conflict. None of the men's moral reasoning was dominated by caring, but justice dominated the reasoning of four women. The implications for ethical decision-making and future research are discussed. PMID:9348895

  8. Learned Ethical Behavior: An Academic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersen, David E.; Capozzoli, Ernest A.; Rajamma, Rajasree K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors analyzed the reactions of various academic-level respondent groups to 14 short scenarios reflecting ethical dilemmas in higher education and research. As the authors hypothesized, groups differed in their views of the dilemmas presented. The results did not support a 2nd hypothesis predicting a linear relationship between academic…

  9. Ethical Issues in Covering Teen Suicide Stories: Deadly Dilemmas and Fatal Flaws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Susan

    A study examined news coverage by "The Saint Petersburg Times" of a local double teen suicide in August 1993. Focusing on how the story was covered, the study explored the newspaper's decision-making process, analyzing the process in relation to standard philosophical methods in ethics and recognized journalistic principles. As background,…

  10. Parental Choices and Ethical Dilemmas Involving Disabilities: Special Education and the Problem of Deliberately Chosen Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M.; Hallahan, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical issues regarding children with disabilities have long involved their treatment after they are born. These issues remain important, but children may be deliberately created with or without characteristics that are usually thought of as disabilities. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and related technologies that involve human…

  11. The Mole's Dilemma: Ethical Aspects of Public Internet Access in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…

  12. Exploring Ethical Dilemmas for Principals Arising from Role Conflict with School Counsellors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimber, Megan; Campbell, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,…

  13. COVER It: A Comprehensive Framework for Guiding Students through Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jennifer M.; Yordy, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model that aims to create a greater ability to recognize the negative aspects of making unethical decisions. To this end, the authors developed an ethical decision-making model to aid students through the process of analyzing these situations--a model that is easy to remember and apply. Through this model, the COVER model,…

  14. Subject, project or self? Thoughts on ethical dilemmas for social and medical researchers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane A. Batchelor; Catherine M. Briggs

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we address an important but sadly neglected area; namely some of the ethical issues which arise for social and medical researchers in the course of their work. Our concern is for a wide spectrum of researchers using the full range of social research methods from small-scale in-depth qualitative work through to large scale quantitative studies. The unifying

  15. Handbook on Ethical Issues in Anthropology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Anthropological Association has recently added number 23 to its series of special online publications. Edited by Joan Cassell and Sue-Ellen Jacobs, this collection of six essays is presented to "stimulate discussion and reflection on ethical issues" among anthropologists. Offerings include a background essay and annotated bibliography, two essays containing fictional ethical dilemmas and proposed solutions, an essay on introducing issues of ethical responsibility into the classroom, and guidelines on holding a workshop on ethical problems in fieldwork.

  16. Resolving ethical dilemmas in suicide prevention: the case of telephone helpline rescue policies.

    PubMed

    Mishara, Brian L; Weisstub, David N

    2010-04-01

    The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to decide to die by suicide; U.S. helplines oblige emergency intervention during an attempt even against the caller's will. We analyze the effect of emergency rescue when there is high suicide risk but an attempt has not been initiated. We examine links between values and actions, needs for empirical evidence to guide practice, and propose vigorous dialogue about values in the gray zone of moral practice. PMID:20465351

  17. Ethical Dilemmas in Community-Based Participatory Research: Recommendations for Institutional Review Boards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Flicker; Robb Travers; Adrian Guta; Sean McDonald; Aileen Meagher

    2007-01-01

    National and international codes of research conduct have been established in most industrialized nations to ensure greater\\u000a adherence to ethical research practices. Despite these safeguards, however, traditional research approaches often continue\\u000a to stigmatize marginalized and vulnerable communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) has evolved as an effective\\u000a new research paradigm that attempts to make research a more inclusive and democratic process

  18. The use of pornographic materials by adolescent male cancer patients when banking sperm in the UK: legal and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A

    2007-09-01

    Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethical dilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined. PMID:17786648

  19. Ethical Issues in the Consulting Context--Ethics in Presentation Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Rebecca L.

    In light of the huge volume of headline news stories that reflect ethical concerns from a variety of arenas, it is no wonder that ethics training is a hot topic. Research shows that many leading United States companies have written codes of ethics and/or instituted formal ethics training programs. In this paper, certain principles that have become…

  20. ETHICAL ASPECTS AND DILEMMAS OF PREPARING, WRITING AND PUBLISHING OF THE SCIENTIFIC PAPERS IN THE BIOMEDICAL JOURNALS

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper author discussed about preparing and submitting manuscripts - scientific, research, professional papers, reviews and case reports. Author described it from the Editor’s perspective, and specially talked about ethical aspects of authorship, conflict of interest, copyright, plagiarism and duplicate publication from the point of view of his experiences as Editor-in-Chief of several biomedical journals and Chief of Task Force of European Federation of Medical Informatics journals and member of Task Force of European Cardiology Society journals. The scientific process relies on trust and credibility. The scientific community demands high ethical standards to conduct biomedical research and to publish scientific contents. During the last decade, disclosure of conflicts of interest (COI ), (also called competing loyalties, competing interests or dual commitments), has been considered as a key element to guarantee the credibility of the scientific process. Biases in design, analysis and interpretation of studies may arise when authors or sponsors have vested interests. Therefore, COI should be made clear to the readers to facilitate their own judgment and interpretation of their relevance and potential implications. Results and Discussion: Authors are responsible to fully disclose potential COI . In October 2009 the ICMJE proposed an electronic “uniform” format for COI disclosure. Four main areas were addressed: authors´ associations with entities that supported the submitted manuscript (indefinite time frame), associations with commercial entities with potential interest in the general area of the manuscript (time frame 36 months), financial association of their spouse and children and, finally, non-financial associations potentially relevant to the submitted manuscript. Consumers of medical scholarship expect a reliable system of disclosure in which journals and authors make disclosures appropriately and consistently. There is a stigma surrounding the reporting of COI that should be progressively overcome. Further actions are required to increase awareness of the importance of COI disclosure and to promote policies aimed to enhance transparency in biomedical research. In this article author discuss about important ethical dilemmas in preparing, writing and publishing of scientific manuscripts in biomedical journals. PMID:23322969

  1. Leadership Tensions and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Bill; Mulford, Bill; Kendall, Diana; Kendall, Lawrie

    2008-01-01

    Results from the Tasmanian Successful School Principal Project (SSPP) survey concur with the four major leadership tensions and dilemmas identified in a background literature review. These tensions and dilemmas relate to internal/external control, ethic of care/responsibility, and an emphasis on professional/personal as well as…

  2. Ethical issues, dilemmas and controversies in 'cosmetic' or aesthetic dentistry. A personal opinion.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, M

    2012-04-01

    Stephen Hancocks' elegant editorial of 11 December 2011 raises interesting questions which deserve discussion. Most experienced dentists would agree that the less that is done to teeth for cosmetic reasons, the lesser are the risks of disappointment, failure of expectation, or threat of litigation. Yet there is an increasing number of cases where aesthetics are the primary concern for dentists and patients alike and some patients are consenting to treatment without being properly informed of the destructive nature of the procedures to their sound tooth tissue and structures to achieve the desired 'cosmetic' outcome. This raises ethical issues, as much of this overtreatment is unnecessarily destructive and goes against the healing and caring principles of the dental profession. PMID:22538895

  3. Resolving ethical dilemas. Applying the institute for Global Ethics' Ethical Fitness model to occupational and environmental health practice issues.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Patricia H

    2002-01-01

    1. Technological advancements have rapidly increased the need for careful ethical choices to preserve life and environment of the global community. 2. No formula exists to resolve ethical dilemmas, but using an ethical decision making model can help maintain a state of ethical fitness. 3. The Ethical Fitness model relies on the assumption that certain core values are universal. Maintaining ethical fitness is essential to resolve ethical dilemmas. 4. The process of resolving ethical dilemmas consists of analyzing the dilemma using nine checkpoints, four dilemma paradigms, and three resolution principles. PMID:11842780

  4. Does the Golem Feel Pain? Moral Instincts and Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Suffering and the Brain.

    PubMed

    Devor, Marshall; Rappaport, Isabelle; Rappaport, Z Harry

    2015-07-01

    Pain has variously been used as a means of punishment, extracting information, or testing commitment, as a tool for education and social control, as a commodity for sacrifice, and as a draw for sport and entertainment. Attitudes concerning these uses have undergone major changes in the modern era. Normative convictions on what is right and wrong are generally attributed to religious tradition or to secular-humanist reasoning. Here, we elaborate the perspective that ethical choices concerning pain have much earlier roots that are based on instincts and brain-seated empathetic responses. They are fundamentally a function of brain circuitry shaped by processes of Darwinian evolution. Social convention and other environmental influences, with their idiosyncrasies, are a more recent, ever-changing overlay. We close with an example in which details on the neurobiology of pain processing, specifically the question of where in the brain the experience of pain is generated, affect decision making in end-of-life situations. By separating innate biological substrates from culturally imposed attitudes (memes), we may arrive at a more reasoned approach to a morality of pain prevention. PMID:24766620

  5. The medical-legal quandary of healthcare in capital punishment: an ethical dilemma for the anesthesia provider.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kevin W

    2008-12-01

    The case of Brase v Rees was presented before the US Supreme Court to consider the constitutionality of death by lethal injection as practiced in the state of Kentucky. The 3-drug combination of sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride is a key aspect in question. Capital punishment conflicts with medical and nursing code of ethics preventing providers who are skilled at difficult intravenous (IV) access, assessment of appropriate sedation, and involvement without fear of disciplinary action. Therefore, untrained or undertrained personnel from the prison have been delegated these duties. Cases in which failure to establish or maintain IV access has led to executions lasting up to 90 minutes before the execution was complete. Participation by skilled medical personnel has been a debate between the medical and legal communities since the inception of lethal injection. Healthcare should reevaluate the ethical and moral principle of beneficence as the legal system attempts to evaluate the constitutionality of lethal injection. Can a nurse or doctor step out of the role of medical professional, use knowledge and skill to make death by lethal injection more humane, and not violate the ethical principle of "do no harm"? PMID:19090308

  6. Brain Science of Ethics: Present Status and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Ryuta; Funane, Tsukasa; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in technologies for neuroscientific research enable us to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the human ethical sense. This article introduces several findings in "the brain science of ethics" obtained through "brain-observation" and "brain-manipulation" approaches. Studies over the past decade have revealed that several…

  7. Confidentiality decisions: The reasoning process of CPAS in resolving ethical dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L. Adams; Fannie L. Malone; Woodrow James

    1995-01-01

    As in other professions, such as law and medicine, accounting has a Code of Professional Conduct (Code) that members are expected to abide by. In today's legalistic society, however, the question of “what is the right thing to do,” is often confused with “what is legal?” In many instances, this may present a conflict between adhering to the Code and

  8. Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

    2008-01-01

    Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

  9. Prenatal Diagnostics and Ethical Dilemmas in a Mother Having a Child with Down Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Samakouri; Evgenia Tsatalmpasidou; Konstantia Ladopoulou; Magdalini Katsikidou; Miltos Livaditis; Nicolas Tzavaras

    \\u000a Prenatal diagnosis is supposed to allow autonomous decision making on the basis of personal goals, plans and values. However,\\u000a often this type of decision-making may not be achieved, as various factors can be implicated in choosing an alternative between\\u000a the available options concerning a pregnancy. The following case illustration presents a woman who decides against an amniocentesis,\\u000a although there is

  10. Should a psychiatrist report a bus driver’s alcohol and drug abuse? An ethical dilemma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cavin P Leeman; Mary Ann Cohen; Valerie Parkas

    2001-01-01

    Denial of alcohol or drug abuse, and of its possible consequences, can complicate medical and psychiatric care. We present the case of an HIV-positive bus driver with substance abuse who initially denied ongoing use of alcohol and of other drugs, but later admitted to both. The psychiatrist’s duty to protect the patient’s confidentiality, coupled with concerns about public safety, created

  11. Governance factors affecting internal auditors' ethical decision-making : An exploratory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Conor OLeary; Jenny Stewart

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the ethical decision making of internal auditors and the impact of corporate governance mechanisms thereon. It also aims to explore whether ethical decision making is influenced by years of experience in internal auditing. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 66 internal auditors were presented with five ethical dilemmas. For each scenario,

  12. "Walk the Talk": Developing Personal Ethical Agency through a Business Partnership Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matherne, Brett P.; Gove, Steve; Forlani, Victor; Janney, Jay J.

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes a pedagogical approach dedicated to help students develop personal ethical agency--the ability to make decisions that involve ethical dilemmas consistent with an individual's ethical standards and professional standards of practice. The approach presented involves a tripartite gathering of students, business executives, and…

  13. Social and Ethical Issues. Paper Presentations: Session A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains nine papers from the social and ethical issues section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Attitudes of University Faculty Members toward Students with Disabilities" (Marie F. Kraska); "Attitude of Gaming…

  14. School Administrators and Ethical Decision-Making in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallio, Brenda R.

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of globalization and the growing concept that schools are marketplaces of ideas, educational administrators need guidance in ethical decision making. Moral dilemma is defined, ethical models are presented, and a process is described in which facts, resolution options, and values are reflected upon and decisions made based on…

  15. On the Horns of a Dilemma and Executive Hubris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Charles K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents two focused minicases that an instructor can use in a typical information systems overview course. The first of these deals with a serious ethical dilemma and the second with the politics of information technology executive management. For each case, a discussion of how to use the minicase effectively and a suggested solution…

  16. The Impact of the Nurse-Physician Professional Relationship on Nurses' Experience of Ethical Dilemmas in Effective Pain Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Niekerk, Leesa Micole; Martin, Frances

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 1,015 Australian registered nurses found that those who felt adequately consulted by physicians were significantly more likely to initiate consultation. Nurses dissatisfied with their relationship with physicians were more likely to experience ethical conflicts related to pain management. Level of satisfaction with this relationship…

  17. Ethical Dilemmas and End-of-Life Choices for Patients with Implantable Cardiac Devices: Decisions Regarding Discontinuation of Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blair P. Grubb; Beverly Karabin

    Opinion statement  It is our belief that a well-designed cardiac device management program should include end-of-life patient and family planning,\\u000a addressing potential decisions regarding withdrawal of pacemaker and\\/or implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy. Guided\\u000a by the basic ethical and legal principles outlined in the article, it is the responsibility of the electrophysiologist and\\u000a other involved health care providers to introduce this topic

  18. Philanthropic dilemmas and the nurse administrator role.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Nurse administrators are in a position to encounter ethical dilemmas when evaluating philanthropic proposals. Nurses may have little formal training in ethics, or they may be most experienced with ethical frameworks that apply primarily to clinical patient encounters. Gifts of goods, services, education, or other benefits to nurses may create ethical dilemmas. Philanthropic ethics and potential dilemmas are discussed in nonnursing professions such as medicine and nonprofit administration but rarely explored in the nursing administration context. Nurse administrators in a position to evaluate generous offers of philanthropy should identify key components to fully assess the ethics of their receipt. A survey of several resources is done to provide nurse administrators with the foundation to develop policies related to philanthropy if they are absent, preferably in advance of the offer. Recommendations for assessment and evaluation of philanthropic proposals are provided to aid nurse administrators in their synthesis and application of ethical principles from multiple sources. PMID:25208151

  19. Ethics: A Matter of Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Rosemary; Kudzma, Elizabeth

    1978-01-01

    Courses in theoretical ethics are unrelated to the moral delemmas that nurses encounter in practice, according to the authors. They present a method for moral education in nursing curricula utilizing seminars for dilemma discussion that can help students to progress in moral judgment. (MF)

  20. Education and Training in Ethical Decision Making: Comparing Context and Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, David F.; Callanan, Gerard A.; Rotenberry, Paul F.; Oehlers, Peter F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a teaching methodology for improving the understanding of ethical decision making. This pedagogical approach is applicable in college courses and in corporate training programs. Design/methodology/approach: Participants are asked to analyze a set of eight ethical dilemmas with differing situational…

  1. School Psychologists Ethical Decision Making: Implications from Selected Social Psychological Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry

    2007-01-01

    School psychologists routinely engage in ethical decision making, and existing models have served as useful tools for systematically approaching ethical dilemmas. However, a few of these models have taken account of the rich and salient body of social psychology research. This article reviews social psychological phenomena that present clear…

  2. NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct. Revised = Codigo de Conducta Etica. Revisada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a code of ethics for early childhood educators that offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a common basis for resolving ethical dilemmas encountered in early education. It represents the English and Spanish versions of the revised code. Its contents were approved by the NAEYC Governing Board in April 2005…

  3. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  4. Presenting the Scientific Process: Introducing Philosophy, Theory, Methods, and Ethics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mason Meers (University of Tampa; )

    2003-12-31

    In a course titled Scientific Process, we introduce undergraduates to the philosophy and practice of science and initiate them into a 2-year undergraduate research track. Engaging exercises and discussions help students understand the scientific process and ultimately produce a research proposal in grant application format. Students defend their written proposal during a 15-minute oral presentation.

  5. Juan's Dilemma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bruce Palmquist

    2010-10-01

    When life hands you lemons, make a battery! In this article, the authors describe an activity they refer to as Juan's Dilemma , an extension of the familiar lemon-battery activity (Goodisman 2001). Juan's Dilemma integrates oxidation and reduction

  6. Planaria Laboratory Activity - Presentation - The Science and Ethics of Stem Cell Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation is for the teacher to use during the laboratory activity. Please also see the PDF files for use by students and the teacher, also in the Planaria Laboratory Activity collection. This lab activity may be used in conjunction with the rest of the The Science and Ethics of Stem Cell Research curriculum.

  7. Addressing Ethics and Technology in Business: Preparing Today's Students for the Ethical Challenges Presented by Technology in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rochelle

    2008-01-01

    The ethical development of information systems is but one of those sensitive scenarios associated with computer technology that has a tremendous impact on individuals and social life. The significance of these issues of concern cannot be overstated. However, since computer ethics is meant to be everybody's responsibility, the result can often be…

  8. Narrative responsibility and moral dilemma: A case study of a family's decision about a brain-dead daughter.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Takanobu; Morioka, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    A brain death case is presented and reinterpreted using the narrative approach. In the case, two Japanese parents face a dilemma about whether to respect their daughter's desire to donate organs even though, for them, it would mean literally killing their daughter. We argue that the ethical dilemma occurred because the parents were confronted with two conflicting narratives to which they felt a "narrative responsibility," namely, the responsibility that drives us to tell, retell, and coauthor the (often unfinished) narratives of loved ones. We suggest that moral dilemmas arise not only from conflicts between moral justifications but also from conflicts between narratives and human relationships. PMID:21053084

  9. Paraganglioma with unusual presentation in parotid gland: A diagnostic dilemma in fine needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Anagh A.; Lai, Chi K.; Rao, Jian Yu; Apple, Sophia K.; Moatamed, Neda A.

    2012-01-01

    Paragangliomas (PGLs) are uncommon tumors. Although PGLs are known to occur in the head and neck region, especially the carotid body, middle ear, and larynx, involvement of the parotid glands has not been reported. In this article, we report the fine needle aspiration features of tumor in an unusual location, presenting as a parotid gland mass, submitted to pathology for initial diagnosis. The clinical presentation, cytomorphology, and the immunohistochemical features for the diagnosis are described. To our knowledge, this is the first case of paraganglioma of the parotid gland reported in the literature. PMID:23358610

  10. Unicentric Castleman’s Disease Presenting as a Pulmonary Mass: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Rawashdeh, Badi; Meyer, Mark; Yimin, Dong; Anthony, Colon; Nguyen, Duy; Moslemi, Mohammad; Golestani, Simin; Richard, Sobonya; Kim, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 16 Final Diagnosis: Castleman’s Disease Symptoms: Chest pain • cough non-productive Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Rare disease Background: Castleman’s disease, or angiofollicular lymphoid hyperplasia, is a rare disorder and can be easily misdiagnosed as lymphoma, neoplasm, or infection. The diagnosis is challenging due to the nonspecific signs and symptoms as well as the rarity of the disease. We present an unusual case of a young girl presenting with an enlarging pulmonary mass that was believed to be infectious in origin. Case Report: A 16-year-old Native American female from Arizona initially presented with occasional non-productive cough and chest pain. Imaging revealed a 3-cm left upper lobe lobulated mass. This mass was thought to be due to coccidioidomycosis and was treated with fluconazole. Follow-up imaging demonstrated growth of the mass to 4.8 cm. The patient underwent a left video-assisted thoracoscopic left upper lobectomy and mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Histopathological examination revealed Castleman’s disease. Conclusions: Pulmonary masses in young patients can be easily misdiagnosed as infections or cancer. We present the case of a 16-year-old female misdiagnosed as having a fungal infection of the lung, which was later revealed to be Castleman’s disease of the left upper lobe. PMID:25928278

  11. Exploring the Absent\\/Present Dilemma: Black Fathers, Family Relationships, and Social Capital in Britain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey Reynolds

    2009-01-01

    Stereotypes show nonresident black fathers as absentee parents. In this article, the author presents a critique of the various ways the literature constructs nonresident black fathers as absent from parenting and family relationships. Drawing on the empirical data collected from two qualitative studies conducted in Britain, this article illustrates that contrary to popular belief, nonresident black fathers are active participants

  12. Feeling Better about Moral Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedene, Jason K.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a trend in contemporary ethics to believe that a morally admirable agent would feel negative self-assessing emotions following even the best possible choice in a moral dilemma. A commonly held reason for holding this position is that agents who are well-brought up are trained to feel negative self-assessing emotions when they do…

  13. Haemolytic anaemia--PNH type II cells presenting a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Pande, Nikhil; Bhat, Rama; Singh, Brij Mohan Kumar; Vivek, Ganapathiraman

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a history of intermittent haematuria over the past 10?years usually following fever episodes and requiring blood transfusions during the episodes. History of any thrombotic complications, chest pain or erectile dysfunction was not forthcoming. Examination revealed severe pallor with mild icterus and mild splenomegaly. His blood picture showed pancytopenia with elevated reticulocytes and indirect hyperbilirubinaemia. Indirect Coombs test was positive but direct was negative, serum lactate dehydrogenase was elevated and agglutinins were found to be of IgG type. Bone marrow showed a hypercellular marrow with myeloid and megakaryocytes suppressed. Donath-Landsteiner antibodies were found to be negative ruling out paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria. Flow cytometry was performed with a suspicion of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) and was shown to be partially negative for CD59 but positive for CD55, a pattern consistent with type II PNH. PMID:24899011

  14. A review of "Milton and the Post-Secular Present: Ethics, Politics, Terrorism" by Feisal G. Mohamed 

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    because the editors involved, all Miltonists, declined to present the best possible selection of Milton scholarship. Feisal G. Mohamed. Milton and the Post-Secular Present: Ethics, Politics, Terrorism. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011. + 167...

  15. Ethics and Representation in Qualitative Studies of Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Peter, Ed.; Kirsch, Gesa E., Ed.

    Reflecting on the practice of qualitative literacy research, this book presents 14 essays that address the most pressing questions faced by qualitative researchers today: how to represent others and themselves in research narratives; how to address ethical dilemmas in research-participant relations; and how to deal with various rhetorical,…

  16. An international agenda for ethics in nursing and genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Black Monsen

    2000-01-01

    Nurses who work with families and communities have an obligation to serve as advocates for ethical practices in health care that rapidly encompasses genetic technologies. Commercialization of gene-based diagnostics and therapies by profit-seeking industrial biotech firms is likely to present new dilemmas for professionals and populations seeking control over inherited risks for illness for themselves and their children. This agenda

  17. Do ethical guidelines give guidance? A critical examination of eight ethics regulations.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Stefan; Höglund, Anna T; Helgesson, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The number of legal and nonlegal ethical regulations in the biomedical field has increased tremendously, leaving present-day practitioners and researchers in a virtual crossfire of legislations and guidelines. Judging by the production and by the way these regulations are motivated and presented, they are held to be of great importance to ethical practice. This view is shared by many commentators. For instance, Commons and Baldwin write that, within the nursing profession, patient care can be performed unethically or ethically depending on the professional standards the nurses have set for themselves. They also hold that such standards are set when nurses become aware of the ethical codes available. As nurses are often not familiar with the codes, they do not all conform to them. Commons and Baldwin argue that nurses' ability to deal with ethical dilemmas is effectively secured with education on guidelines, creating a "barrier" between personal and professional values (p. 5). PMID:18462542

  18. The "hot seat" experience: a multifaceted approach to the teaching of ethics in a dental curriculum.

    PubMed

    Brondani, Mario A; Rossoff, Lawrence P

    2010-11-01

    The subject of ethics and the teaching of skills associated with ethical reasoning in a predoctoral dental curriculum are as important as clinical skills development, but there is no single approach to teaching ethics in dentistry. This article aims to describe the didactic approach used to teach dental ethics and ethical reasoning in the first year of the D.M.D. curriculum at the University of British Columbia. This descriptive article discusses three main pedagogies employed to teach ethics: the "hot seat" experience via a role-play with a trained actor (standardized patient, SP); small-group presentations of a case workup deconstructing an ethical dilemma; and student reflections from the SP encounters. The approach to dental ethics presented here does not profess to make an otherwise unethical person ethical, but it can give all students the tools to recognize when a dilemma exists, use a process to reason ethically, and ultimately make a good decision. The "hot seat" and the case workup approaches have had a positive impact upon students as illustrated through their reflections; however, further study is needed to better understand the implications of ethical issues in both academic and professional settings. PMID:21045227

  19. Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ann

    1995-01-01

    In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

  20. The ethics of assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Chatzinikolaou, Nikolaos

    2010-05-01

    Issues concerning the beginning of life and medical intervention in the onset of human existence are very delicate in their nature; they involve multi-dimensional knowledge, they are difficult to comprehend and sensitive to handle. When pure scientific elements are combined with profound emotions, when the genius of technological discoveries touches upon human dignity and sanctity, when passion for the technological achievement intervenes in basic human rights, then the sense of inadequacy and ignorance becomes intense and critical. Silence seems more sought-after than words, and willingness to learn more prudent than the desire to speak. Fear of the inconceivable consequences and even more so the inability to assess them, experiments with the unknown, the likelihood that basic historical, ethical and social values may change forever, but mainly the replacement of God in His wondrous work of creation--the onset of human life--places the ethics of reproductive technologies on the frontline of contemporary bioethics. This opinion paper does not deal with dangers, insults, fears, threats, "speed limits" or ethical controversies, but rather with the very mystery of life. Although there are no generally accepted replies to the various questions being posed, some thoughts and reservations, which can shed some light upon complicated dilemmas are presented. Firstly, the content of reproductive technologies, the problem of infertility today, the methods of fertility treatment, and of prenatal and pre-implantation testing are described, and then the social impact of IVF, complicated cases, deontological dilemmas and some ethical concerns are discussed. PMID:20412986

  1. Whole-genome association studies for multigenic diseases: ethical dilemmas arising from commercialization—the case of genetic testing for autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bertrand R Jordan; Daniel Fu Chang Tsai

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some ethical issues arising from whole-genome association studies for multigenic diseases, focusing on the case of autism. Events occurring following the announcement of a genetic test for autism in France (2005–2009) are described to exemplify the ethical controversies that can arise when genetic testing for autism is applied prematurely and inappropriately promoted by biotech companies. The authors

  2. Moral Intensity and Ethical Decision-making: An Empirical Examination of Undergraduate Accounting and Business Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Breda Sweeney; Fiona Costello

    2009-01-01

    Ethical decision-making is theorised to consist of four stages: identification of an ethical dilemma, ethical judgement, ethical intentions and ethical actions. The moral intensity of the situation has been found to influence the ethical decision-making process. Using a survey consisting of four scenarios, this study examined the relationship between perceived moral intensity and the first three stages of the ethical

  3. Moral Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Considers ethical questions related to the copying and use of information from World Wide Web sites, especially graphics. Copyright violation, control of distribution, commercial online users, problems of perception, asking permission, and standards of ethical behavior are discussed. (LRW)

  4. Ethical considerations in chronic musculoskeletal disease.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, C Ronald; de Melo-Martin, Inmaculada

    2015-06-01

    Chronic diseases compromise the life of the sufferer, encumber their families, and exert intractable burdens on the health-care system. With the aging of the population, such conditions have become the primary determinants of morbidity and mortality and the leading cause of disability in our society. Despite the serious challenges they impose, the ethical discourse engendered by them has lagged behind that of acute care medicine. Of particular relevance are the challenges to individual autonomy, as the dilemmas arising in the chronic care setting have not only medical but personal and societal dimensions, may require the input of multiple participants, and resolve over longer periods of time. As such, the conventional model of autonomy is often inadequate to address problems in the chronic care setting. This paper deals with this dilemma through an examination of a clinical scenario. A framework for the exploration of ethical problems in the chronic care setting is thus presented. PMID:25864103

  5. Ethical conflicts for physicians treating ESRD patients.

    PubMed

    Bennett, William M

    2004-01-01

    Managing an end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient is complex and presents many ethical challenges for the physician. Ownership of dialysis facilities has shifted over the past decade from largely nonprofit organizations to large companies whose shareholders are primarily interested in the profitability of their investments rather than the well-being of the patients being treated. Furthermore, market forces rather than scientific questions that need to be answered now drive much of the research regarding patients with ESRD. These developments have created ethical dilemmas for treating physicians. This editorial describes some of these ethical challenges and expresses the point of view that the doctor-patient relationship and its ethical imperatives are more important than company profit and loss statements. PMID:14717800

  6. Humane Ethics in Veterinary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    This discussion focuses on the problem faced by biomedical students who are learning objective, factual information and techniques without being given the opportunity to consider the many ethical dilemmas and moral questions that will arise after graduation. (LBH)

  7. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  8. From Theory to Practice: Facing Ethical Challenges as a Clinical Intern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.…

  9. When Ethics and Policy Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Bynum Blake; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

    2012-01-01

    This case study explores an ethical dilemma faced by a new junior high school principal. It is appropriate for use in all preparation course work, including the internship. Studies show that novice principal decision making differs from that of experienced principals in moral dilemmas, including following policy versus best interests of the…

  10. Extensive Central Nervous System Cryptococcal Disease Presenting as Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in a Patient with Advanced HIV: Report of a Case and Review of Management Dilemmas and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ogbuagu, Onyema; Villanueva, Merceditas

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications of the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), is particularly problematic in the management of cryptococcal meningitis. We present the case of a 35-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome diagnosed with extensive central nervous system (CNS) cryptococcal disease, including meningitis and multiple intracranial cysts, diagnosed eight weeks after the initiation of ART. The patient experienced a relapsing and remitting clinical course despite repeated courses of potent antifungal therapy and aggressive management of raised intracranial pressure. This review highlights therapeutic dilemmas and strategies in the management of CNS cryptococcosis complicated with IRIS and highlights gaps in available treatment guidelines. PMID:25568756

  11. Researching from within: External and Internal Ethical Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Alan; Arthur, Linet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting "insider" researchers, which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to…

  12. Making the Right Choices: Ethical Judgments among Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyal, Ori; Berkovich, Izhak; Schwartz, Talya

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Scholars have adopted a multiple ethical paradigms approach in an attempt to better understand the bases upon which everyday ethical dilemmas are resolved by educational leaders. The aim of this study is to examine the ethical considerations in ethical judgments of aspiring principals. Design/methodology/approach: To examine the ethical

  13. Making the right choices: Ethical judgments among educational leaders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ori Eyal; Izhak Berkovich; Talya Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - Scholars have adopted a multiple ethical paradigm s approach in an attempt to better understand the bases upon which everyday ethical dilemmas are resolved by educational leaders. The aim of this study is to ex amine the ethical considerations in ethical judgments of aspiring principals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - To examine the ethical considerations involved in school leadership decision making,

  14. Telos: The Revival of an Aristotelian Concept in Present Day Ethics

    PubMed Central

    HAUSKELLER, MICHAEL

    2005-01-01

    Genetic engineering is often looked upon with disfavour on the grounds that it involves ‘tampering with nature’. Most philosophers do not take this notion seriously. However, some do. Those who do tend to understand nature in an Aristotelian sense, as the essence or form which is the final end or telos for the sake of which individual organisms live, and which also explains why they are as they are. But is this really a tenable idea? In order to secure its usage in present day ethics, I will first analyze the contexts in which it is applied today, then discuss the notion of telos as it was employed by Aristotle himself, and finally debate its merits and defend it, as far as possible, against common objections. PMID:16467914

  15. Feeling better about moral dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason K. Swedene

    2005-01-01

    There has been a trend in contemporary ethics to believe that a morally admirable agent would feel negative self?assessing emotions following even the best possible choice in a moral dilemma. A commonly held reason for holding this position is that agents who are well?brought up are trained to feel negative self?assessing emotions when they do something morally forbidden under ordinary

  16. Ethical issues in the management of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M Sara

    2014-06-01

    The focus of this article is on clinical ethics issues in the thyroid disease context. Clinical ethics is a subspecialty of bioethics that deals with bedside ethical dilemmas that specifically involve the provider-patient relationship. Such issues include consent and capacity; weighing therapeutic benefits against risks and side-effects; innovative therapies; end of life care; unintended versus intentional harms to patients or patient populations; and healthcare access. This article will review core ethical principles for practice, as well as the moral and legal requirements of informed consent. It will then discuss the range of unique and universal ethical issues and considerations that present in the management of autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. PMID:24891177

  17. Ethics of prenatal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Howe, David

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal ultrasound has opened new opportunities to examine, diagnose and treat the fetus, but these advances bring with them ethical dilemmas. In this chapter, I address the ethical principles that need to be considered when treating both mother and fetus as patients, and how these can be applied in practice. In particular, ultrasound practitioners have an ethical duty to maintain their theoretical knowledge and practical skills to ensure they advise parents correctly. I also discuss the ethical issues in carrying out intrauterine therapy, ultrasound-related research, and termination of pregnancy for fetal abnormality. PMID:24374013

  18. Ethical Newsgathering Values of the Public and Press Photographers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Craig H.

    1983-01-01

    Compares the reactions of photojournalists and the public to hypothetical ethical dilemmas confronting press photographers. Concludes that the two groups disagree significantly in their reactions to 17 of 19 ethical situations. (FL)

  19. HIV and AIDS--the ethical dilemma central to many issues in HIV/AIDS revolves around individual good versus societal good.

    PubMed

    Moodley, K

    2003-09-01

    Using patient advocacy as a point of departure, there are three possible ethical options where the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is concerned: a 'strict advocacy' approach, a 'moderate advocacy' approach and a 'no advocacy' approach. In South Africa, a 'moderate advocacy' approach is favoured in general. PMID:14648911

  20. ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN GENERAL PRACTICE: MATTERS OF LIFE AND DEATH ETI^NE DILEME V SPLO(NI PRAKSI: VPRA(ANJA @IVLJENJA IN SMRTI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iona Heath

    Ethics helps us to discuss and make sense of issues of right and wrong. Nowhere are such issues more pressing than in the care of those who are dying. Contemporary medicine appears, to a very large extent, to have lost touch with the view that how we live is more important than when we die. As doctors, we sometimes contribute

  1. The challenges and ethical dilemmas of a military medical officer serving with a peacekeeping operation in regard to the medical care of the local population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Tobin

    2005-01-01

    Medical Officers serving with their national contingents in peacekeeping operations are faced with difficult ethical decisions in regard to their obligations to the local civilian population. Such populations may be under-resourced in regard to medical care, and vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Though the medical officer may support the local medical services, he\\/she should never undermine these resources. Adopting a

  2. The use of moral dilemmas for teaching agricultural engineers.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J Félix; Palau-Salvador, Guillermo; Gozálvez, Vincent; Boni, Alejandra

    2006-04-01

    Agricultural engineers' jobs are especially related to sustainability and earth life issues. They usually work with plants or animals, and the aim of their work is often linked to producing food to allow people to improve their quality of life. Taking into account this dual function, the moral requirements of their day-to-day professional practice are arguably greater than those of other professions. Agricultural engineers can develop their ability to live up to this professional responsibility by receiving ethical training during their university studies, not only by taking courses specifically devoted to ethics, but also by having to deal with moral questions that are integrated into their technical courses through a program of Ethics Across the Curriculum (EAC). The authors feel that a suitable pedagogical technique for achieving this goal is the use of moral dilemmas, following Kohlberg's theory of levels of morality (1981), with the final objective of attaining a post-conventional level. This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of using moral dilemmas as a pedagogical technique for training agricultural engineers. The cases, discussions, and evaluation used in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Technical University of Valencia (Spain) are also presented. PMID:16609719

  3. Ethics and the treatment of sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Mela, Mansfield; Ahmed, A G

    2014-06-01

    Clinicians in sex offender treatment programs always encounter the need to balance the best interests of sex offenders and the safety needs of the community. The protection of the community often takes primacy, resulting in violation of traditional mental health codes of ethics. These ethical dilemmas have generated debates in the academic community. To minimize ethical dilemmas, clinicians in sex offender treatment programs need to acknowledge the conflicts, adhere to safeguards, and thoughtfully address the challenges with profession-specific ethical values and codes. This article reviews ethical principles in relation to conceptualization of sex offenders and their assessment and treatment and research involving sex offenders. PMID:24877710

  4. The ethical challenges in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Mckeown, Emily J

    2015-06-01

    Ethical dilemmas arise with regularity, indeed daily, in the practice of rheumatology. As such, the practitioner must have the sensitivity and capacity to recognize them, reflect on their implications, and formulate responses directed at their mitigation. This article presents relevant ethical considerations (old and new) arising in the contemporary practice of rheumatology. A number of considerations stand out for their relevance to the rheumatic diseases. Conspicuous among these are the high costs associated with modern antirheumatic therapy, the complex relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, as well as challenges to the provision of care to patients suffering from complex chronic diseases. In this regard, patient autonomy is discussed, as is the need to insure for the provision of the time and resources for adequate patient education. The importance of such concerns goes beyond the patients' themselves extending to the future generation of physicians who we will educate. PMID:25749485

  5. Ethical Issues in Professional Counseling, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Frederic, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume of 4 and 5 contain lessons that provide expert information on a variety of ethical issues in professional counseling. The lessons included in these volumes may be applied toward continuing education credits. Lessons in volume 4 are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Ethical Dilemmas in Multicultural…

  6. How Medical Students Think about Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Johanna; Miller, Ron

    1994-01-01

    A study in which 92 second-year medical students wrote essays on ethical dilemmas found most students were familiar with major ethical theories and principles currently in use and able to apply them appropriately. Gender differences were found in choice of topic, ethical principles used, and level of personal orientation. (Author/MSE)

  7. Ethics, Collaboration, and Presentation Methods for Local and Traditional Knowledge for Understanding Arctic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.; McNeave, C.

    2009-12-01

    Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide ‘frontline’ observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. Managing these data presents unique ethical challenges in terms of appropriate use of rare human knowledge and ensuring that knowledge is not lost from the local communities and not exploited in ways antithetical to community culture and desires. Local Arctic residents must be engaged as true collaborative partners while respecting their perspectives, which may vary substantially from a western science perspective. At the same time, we seek to derive scientific meaning from the local knowledge that can be used in conjunction with quantitative science data. This creates new challenges in terms of data presentation, knowledge representations, and basic issues of metadata. This presentation reviews these challenges, some initial approaches to addressing them, and overall lessons learned and future directions.

  8. The challenges and ethical dilemmas of a military medical officer serving with a peacekeeping operation in regard to the medical care of the local population

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, J

    2005-01-01

    Medical Officers serving with their national contingents in peacekeeping operations are faced with difficult ethical decisions in regard to their obligations to the local civilian population. Such populations may be under-resourced in regard to medical care, and vulnerable to abuse and exploitation. Though the medical officer may support the local medical services, he/she should never undermine these resources. Adopting a human rights approach and observing the requirements of ethical medicine, aids the doctor in prioritising his/her duties. At times there may be conflict with one's own military superiors. It is wise to discuss potential difficulties prior to setting out on the mission. Human rights abuses cannot be ignored. The medical officer has a duty to do his/her best to report their observations so as to prevent abuse or to bring it to an end. PMID:16199596

  9. Parental role in medical decision-making: fact or fiction? A comparative study of ethical dilemmas in French and American neonatal intensive care units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Orfali

    2004-01-01

    Neonatal intensive care has been studied from an epidemiological, ethical, medical and even sociological perspective, but little is known about the impact of parental involvement in decision-making, especially in critical cases. We rely here on a comparative, case-based approach to study the parental role in decision-making within two technologically identical but culturally and institutionally different contexts: France and the United

  10. Moral Courage in a World of Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, Rushworth M.; Born, Patricia L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses four attributes of a decision-making process to resolve ethical dilemmas successfully: consists of core, shared values; emphasizes right-versus-right rather than right-versus-wrong; provides resolution principles; emphasizes moral courage. Describes characteristics of moral courage. (PKP)

  11. Developing Ethical Knowledge in the Spirit of Judaism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to describe Jewish teachers' perceptions about their ethical dilemmas based on stories derived from the Bible. Sixty teachers were asked to submit descriptions of their ethical dilemmas to the study website; submissions were then discussed in focus groups. The findings were grouped by the ATLAS.ti into five categories: Telling…

  12. Ethical Values in the Classroom: How College Students Responded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbarger, Michele; DeVaney, Sharon A.

    2005-01-01

    It is important to understand the ethical values of college students because they will be the leaders of the future. As part of an undergraduate honors project, a survey was developed that consisted of eight cases depicting ethical dilemmas in the classroom. Each case included a choice of four actions ranging from most ethical to least ethical.…

  13. Ethical Implications of Technological Advances on Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschel, Richard T.; Andrews, Patricia Hayes

    1997-01-01

    Explores ethical issues heightened by use of technology, and examines a means for managing these ethical concerns. Argues that ethical problems are not inherent in technological advances, but rather it is how human beings choose to use these new tools that may lead to ethical dilemmas in business contexts. (SR)

  14. Information ethics for twenty-first century library professionals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Fallis

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – To provide an introduction to concepts and resources that will be useful to library professionals learning about information ethics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper argues for the importance of information ethics to twenty-first century library professionals. It describes what various authors have said about how information ethics can be applied to the ethical dilemmas faced by library professionals. Findings

  15. Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Casey Donoho; Timothy Heinze; Christopher Kondo

    2012-01-01

    Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today’s ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate that women evaluate sales ethics scenarios

  16. Do Clinical Clerks Suffer Ethical Erosion? Students' Perceptions of Their Ethical Environment and Personal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feudtner, Chris; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 665 fourth-year medical students in 6 schools investigated whether students had encountered ethically problematic situations, their attitudes about them, and their perceptions of their personal ethical development. Results suggest that ethical dilemmas are commonly encountered and often detrimental, warranting attention of physicians,…

  17. Simulation: a new approach to teaching ethics.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Margaret; Phillippi, Julia C; Collins, Michelle R

    2015-01-01

    The importance of ethical conduct in health care was acknowledged as early as the fifth century in the Hippocratic Oath and continues to be an essential element of clinical practice. Providers face ethical dilemmas that are complex and unfold over time, testing both practitioners' knowledge and communication skills. Students learning to be health care providers need to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to negotiate complex situations involving ethical conflict. Simulation has been shown to be an effective learning environment for students to learn and practice complex and overlapping skills sets. However, there is little guidance in the literature on constructing effective simulation environments to assist students in applying ethical concepts. This article describes realistic simulations with trained, standardized patients that present ethical problems to graduate-level nurse-midwifery students. Student interactions with the standardized patients were monitored by faculty and peers, and group debriefing was used to help explore students' emotions and reactions. Student feedback postsimulation was exceedingly positive. This simulation could be easily adapted for use by health care education programs to assist students in developing competency with ethics. PMID:25141791

  18. Dilemmas in intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

    2009-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), usually men's violence against women, appears universal. It may be associated with pregnancy, but this may be because pregnant women receive more medical attention. Violence may cause bruises, abrasions, and cuts, but its extremes include hospitalization, death, and suicide. IPV is often disclosed when women are asked why they feel in poor health or depressed. A legal dilemma arises when healthcare providers consider that intervention such as law-enforcement is appropriate, but patients refuse approval. Patients may fatalistically accept violence, or fear loss of support for their children and themselves if their partners are held in custody. Legal reforms, such as punishing spousal rape, may provide some protection of women's autonomy. Ethical dilemmas concern intervention without patients' approval, and whether treating violent injuries without taking preventive action breaches the principle to Do No Harm. Professional advocacy and social action have been urged to expose and reduce IPV. PMID:19368921

  19. Tuskegee Bioethics Center 10th anniversary presentation: "Commemorating 10 years: ethical perspectives on origin and destiny".

    PubMed

    Prograis, Lawrence J

    2010-08-01

    More than 70 years have passed since the beginning of the Public Health Service syphilis study in Tuskegee, Alabama, and it has been over a decade since President Bill Clinton formally apologized for it and held a ceremony for the Tuskegee study participants. The official launching of the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care took place two years after President Clinton's apology. How might we fittingly discuss the Center's 10th Anniversary and the topic 'Commemorating 10 Years: Ethical Perspectives on Origin and Destiny'? Over a decade ago, a series of writers, many of them African Americans, wrote a text entitled 'African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics'; their text was partly responsible for a prolonged reflection by others to produce a subsequent work, 'African American Bioethics: Culture, Race and Identity'. What is the relationship between the discipline of bioethics and African American culture? This and related questions are explored in this commentary. PMID:20675942

  20. Theory skepticism and moral dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Seay, Gary

    2002-09-01

    Moral-theory skepticism is not an option in any sort of thinking that could actually be used in resolving dilemmas in applied ethics, since its characteristic doctrines entail positions that in practice often will lead to a kind of paralysis in in moral reasoning, where persons faced with having to decide what to do in particularly difficulty cases are unable to rule out the most implausible conclusions. Moral-theory skepticism thus makes it difficult to formulate decision-making procedures that will provide guidance in action, and, so, seems not to succeed as a fully coherent account of moral reasoning. PMID:12472081

  1. Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Koji; Cebrian, Manuel; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space. PMID:24526244

  2. Hippocratic Economics (the Physician's Dilemma).

    PubMed

    Reinus, William R; Reinus, John F

    2005-08-01

    The nature of the medical profession puts physicians in an unusual position. Patients seek out physicians' help because of their expertise in dealing with illnesses, possibly even life-threatening ones. The asymmetry of knowledge in this relationship, the expert physician and the inexpert patient, creates an ethical dilemma for physicians regarding the delivery of care. Physicians determine how much care to offer while receiving remuneration for this care. Here, acting as patients' agents, physicians have immense discretionary power not only with patients' health but also with their pocketbooks. Known as the principal-agency problem, this type of relationship is part and parcel of what business scholars refer to as moral hazard. This article explains the problem of moral hazard and how it affects radiologists and places it in the context of professional and ethical behavior. Its causes and relationship to human nature are explored. The consequences of falling prey to moral hazard in the practice of radiology are discussed. PMID:17411903

  3. Solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as a giant cervical mass: A clinical, radiological, histopathological dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Savardekar, Amey R.; Patra, Deviprasad; Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Ahuja, Chirag K.; Salunke, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Typical aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are osteolytic, multicystic lesions with parietal sclerosis and blood-filled cysts. In rare instances, the cystic components may be completely absent. Such solid variants in ABC (s-ABC) exhibit a solid architecture; making the clinical, radiological, and histological differentiation from other solid bone tumors like osteosarcoma (especially giant cell rich osteosarcoma) and giant cell tumor, a difficult task. Case Report: We report the case of a 45–year-old male presenting with a giant solid cervical spine lesion. Histopathology revealed solid variant of ABC, even though the radiological and fine needle aspiration cytology studies pointed toward a giant cell tumor. Conclusion: We aim to discuss the clinical, radiological, and histological findings of solid ABC (a rare benign entity) vis-à-vis the common neoplastic entities of osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor. The histopathological nuisances in making the diagnosis of s-ABC are put forth, along with its impact on management of such giant bony spinal lesions. PMID:26005581

  4. An ethical framework for developing and sustaining a healthy workplace.

    PubMed

    Robichaux, Catherine; Parsons, Mickey L

    2009-01-01

    Acute and critical care nurses provide care that is intellectually challenging and physically demanding in environments that are often characterized by ethical concerns and dilemmas. As complex adaptive systems, these environments include nurses, physicians, social workers, chaplains, case managers, and administrators who interact together in situations of tremendous uncertainty and frequently in the face of professional or social disagreement about patient/family care, processes, and outcomes. Nurses' ability to identify and resolve concerns in such situations as part of a collaborative ethical climate is a significant retention factor and a hallmark of a healthy workplace. The purpose of this article is to describe a pluralist ethical framework that evolved from the formation of a healthy workplace and that may be integrated to sustain an ethical climate. Discussion of development of a healthy workplace employing participatory action research will be followed by a description of ethical theories supporting the framework and their relevance to creating and sustaining a healthy workplace and ethical practice environment. Finally, specific application examples of the ethical framework from nursing units' staff participatory action research studies will be presented. PMID:19542971

  5. An Ethics Challenge for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet G.; Crews, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Ethical issues arise more often for school counselors than for those who work in other settings (Remley, 2002). The challenge of working not only with minors but also with other stakeholders including parents, teachers, school administrators, and community members sets the stage for potential legal and ethical dilemmas. Awareness and adherence to…

  6. Ethical challenges in reproductive medicine: posthumous reproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Bahadur

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: New technologies in the field of reproductive medicine have given rise to new possibilities for the application of this technology. These possibilities have in turn led to new ethical and policy dilemmas. This paper discusses the complex moral, ethical and legal concerns that posthumous assisted reproduction (PAR) gives rise to: questions such as what constitutes informed consent, and whether

  7. Context-Sensitive Ethics in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry; Robillard, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Ethical codes and licensing rules provide foundational guidance for practicing school psychologists, but these sources fall short in their capacity to facilitate effective decision-making. When faced with ethical dilemmas, school psychologists can turn to decision-making models, but step-wise decision trees frequently lack the situation…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse: Ethical Issues for the Family Therapist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverkamp, Beth; Daniluk, Judith C.

    1993-01-01

    Notes that marital and family therapists working with families when child sexual abuse is disclosed or suspected face ethical confusion that may not be clearly addressed by professional codes of conduct or legal statutes. Discusses ethical dilemmas commonly encountered in family sexual abuse cases and provides recommendations for ethical decision…

  9. Teacher-Student Sexual Relations: Key Risks and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Researching actual or purported sexual contact between teachers and students raises many difficult ethical issues, questions and dilemmas, which may help to explain why few have ventured into the field. This experientially based paper addresses key problem areas under the headings of: the ethics of researching a sensitive taboo topic; the ethics

  10. Commentary: compassion at the core of forensic ethics.

    PubMed

    Norko, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    In 1982, Dr. Alan Stone raised a central dilemma in ethics for forensic psychiatry that has prompted significant and important discussion of the concerns about twisting justice, prostituting the profession, and operating without adequate ethics guidelines in the course of our work. In presidential addresses to the membership of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL), Dr. Paul Appelbaum and Dr. Ezra Griffith have attempted to deal with Stone's challenges, the former by providing a theory of forensic ethics, the latter by advocating cultural formulation and narrative as the methodology of our work. In his present contribution, Dr. Griffith advances the idea of narrative to involve compassion for the subject of the evaluation. In so doing, he brings us to a far more satisfactory resolution of the dilemma described by Dr. Stone. The obligation to show compassion deserves to be at the core of any valuable statement of forensic ethics. The role of compassion in justice, as discussed, for example, by Simone Weil, warrants further interdisciplinary study. PMID:16186205

  11. Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…

  12. An Ethics Primer: A Few Short Ethics Cases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with several short ethics case studies: Two Tales of Rice (genetically modified food), Talk About Short (growth hormone for short stature -- fictionalized), and One Family's Dilemma (a family considers what to do about excess IVF embryos).

  13. Ethical and Economic Issues in Academe: The Point of View of a University President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Paul

    Ethical dilemmas concerning faculty compensation are considered by a university president who served as a nonadministrative professor of law for 10 years. It is suggested that trustees, administrators, and board members have as much to be concerned about as do faculty members when compensation and ethical dilemmas are addressed. The fact that…

  14. Ethical and Moral Decision Making: Praxis and Hermeneutics for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, Joan Quinn

    2011-01-01

    There has been a renewed interest in the inclusion of ethics as part of educators' training and interest in understanding the moral and ethical dimensions of educational practice. This research was designed to study the types of dilemmas school level leaders face, the characteristics of typical dilemmas, and the implications for leader…

  15. The Development of a Code of Ethics: An Online Classroom Approach to Making Connections between Ethical Foundations and the Challenges Presented by Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rochelle

    2010-01-01

    In today's organizations, ethical challenges relate to areas like fraud, right to privacy for consumers, social responsibility, and trade restrictions. For Information Technology (IT) specifically, these can translate to considerations on how technology is used to violate people's privacy, how automation leads to job reductions, or how management…

  16. The Relative Importance of the Ethical Principles Adopted by the American Psychological Association

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hadjistavropoulos; David C. Malloy; Donald Sharpe; Sheryl M. Green; Shannon Fuchs-Lacelle

    2002-01-01

    A primary purpose of a code of ethics is to assist members of an organization in making consistent choices when faced with ethical dilemmas. In instances where two or more ethical principles are in conflict with one another, decision-makers are typically left to determine which of the two should be given most weight. Nonetheless, in the code of ethics adopted

  17. Ethical Issues in the Mental Health Treatment of Gender Dysphoric Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Stephanie; Herbert, Sarah E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines ethical dilemmas arising when treating adolescents with gender dysphoria, discussing ethical and legal issues pertinent to treating any adolescent and highlighting gender dysphoric adolescents. Reviews legal decisions, existing data on adolescent decision making, and ethical principles for resolving complex situations. Illustrates ethical

  18. Strategies for Resolving Value Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymchuk, Alexander J.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a model that can be used by social scientists to formulate and test choice alternatives to select the most ethical course of action when values are in conflict. Graduate students in psychology, education, and medicine have used the model to recognize and resolve ethical problems. (RM)

  19. Some ethical issues in technology transfer and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shine, Kenneth I.

    1995-10-01

    Health care systems all around the world are struggling to provide care in an era of limited resources. In an article entitled, 'Straight Talk About Rationing,' Arthur Kaplan reviews the work of the Swedish Commission designed to prioritize health care for that country. The commission identified three core principles that they felt should underlie decisions about priorities for health care. Those principles were (1) all human beings are equally valuable; (2) society must pay special attention to the needs of the weakest and most vulnerable; and (3) all other things being equal, cost efficiency in gaining the greatest return for the amount of money spent must prevail. These are three extremely useful principles which can be helpful to us as we consider many of the issues confronted in this country about the allocation of resources for health. I would like to consider three major issues. The first issue is the current evolving nature of health care and the ethical dilemmas that exist in the present system. In balancing increased access to care with decreasing cost, particularly in managed care, all of us are concerned about ethical issues. I would like to emphasize that the current system -- the system that we have lived with and is changing -- has inherent in it a series of ethical dilemmas. Secondly, I would like to consider issues related to productivity and its measurement in relation to technology. This relates to the third item in the Swedish Commission, which is the principle that we ought to spend money in the most cost-efficient way. Finally, I would like to discuss the dilemma of decision making about health and how that impacts upon the ethics of health care in the application of technology.

  20. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Mateji?, Bojana; Kesi?, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status. PMID:23539924

  1. Queer teachers’ ethical dilemmas regarding queer youth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa Tamara Russell

    2010-01-01

    Although all teachers are expected to be “role models,” discursive trajectories reaching back to the West’s gay liberation pressure queer teachers to be role models in specific ways – by “coming out” and helping queer students out of their “time of difficulty.” Paradoxically, discourses that construct children as innocent and queers?as?a?threat make it difficult for queer teachers not only to

  2. Surgical patents and patients — The ethical dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadeusz To??oczko

    2005-01-01

    It is obvious that every inventor should be rewarded for the intellectual effort, and at the same time be encouraged to successively\\u000a improve his or her discovery and to work on subsequent innovations. Patents also ensure that patent owners are officially\\u000a protected against intellectual piracy, but protection of intellectual property may be difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless,\\u000a it all comes down

  3. The Ugly Scholar: Neocolonialism and Ethical Issues in International Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakowski, Cathy A.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that sociologists confront criticism of the nature and ends of sociological research and ethical dilemmas in the study of social problems and people. Provides suggestions for ending neocolonial attitudes among social science researchers. (CFR)

  4. Research with children: challenges and dilemmas as an insider researcher

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye Won Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas raised by my own experience of researching an immigrant Korean child at an ethnic Sunday School where I taught. I review the ethical and methodological challenges raised in my interactions with the child as an insider researcher from the ways I approached consent forms through to interview reciprocity. Based on my own reflexivity

  5. Research with children: challenges and dilemmas as an insider researcher

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hye Won Kim

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas raised by my own experience of researching an immigrant Korean child at an ethnic Sunday School where I taught. I review the ethical and methodological challenges raised in my interactions with the child as an insider researcher from the ways I approached consent forms through to interview reciprocity. Based on my own reflexivity

  6. Office of the Vice President for Ethics and Compliance and Office of Institutional Equity Present

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    :00 p.m., Stewart Center, Room 111 March 7, 2014 Navigating Food Allergies at Purdue Presented and Co.m. ­ 3:30 p.m., Young Hall, Room 1057 March 14, 2014 HR Learning Center LLC Webinar: Food Allergy Becomes the Disability Resource Center, the National AgrAbility Project, Purdue Dining & Catering, and Krannert School

  7. Microethics: the ethics of everyday clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Truog, Robert D; Brown, Stephen D; Browning, David; Hundert, Edward M; Rider, Elizabeth A; Bell, Sigall K; Meyer, Elaine C

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, medical ethics has gained a solid foothold in medical education and is now a required course in most medical schools. Although the field of medical ethics is by nature eclectic, moral philosophy has played a dominant role in defining both the content of what is taught and the methodology for reasoning about ethical dilemmas. Most educators largely rely on the case-based method for teaching ethics, grounding the ethical reasoning in an amalgam of theories drawn from moral philosophy, including consequentialism, deontology, and principlism. In this article we hope to make a case for augmenting the focus of education in medical ethics. We propose complementing the traditional approach to medical ethics with a more embedded approach, one that has been described by others as "microethics," the ethics of everyday clinical practice. PMID:25600383

  8. What should the management of incest pregnancies be? An ethical view presented via three cases.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, B; Kilic, S; Akin Su, F; Tasdemir, N; Uzunlar, O; Mollamahmutoglu, L

    2008-01-01

    Incest is a taboo and a neglected social problem. Especially in the adolescent population, which is a very sensitive period of development, it becomes harder for the patients to share their secret with either legal or health authorities. Sometimes pregnancy becomes the only vehicle to uncover this secret. There is a contradiction whether their pregnancies should continue or not. Some authors believe abortion is the best choice for the victim to pull herself together, whereas others advocate that it is just another trauma that will not solve the problem but merely hide it. In this report, three paternal incest cases and their pregnancies will be presented. The aim is not only to discuss the different points of view regarding the management of these pregnancies but also to make the clinicians think about the different choices before making a decision. PMID:18983738

  9. Shared medical decision-making: considering what options to present based on an ethical analysis of the treatment of brain tumors in very young children.

    PubMed

    Levine, Deena; Cohen, Kenneth; Wendler, David

    2012-08-01

    The treatment of brain tumors in very young children poses both a therapeutic challenge and a bioethical quandary. The administration of craniospinal radiation after surgery offers the greatest chance for cure but causes severe neurocognitive damage. As a result, current practice does not offer parents the option of full-dose postoperative craniospinal radiation. Some may regard this approach as inappropriate medical paternalism, while others may consider it an example of responsible therapeutics. Evaluation of this dilemma reveals principles which can guide clinicians in determining which treatment options to present to their patients or surrogates, in the context of shared medical decision-making. PMID:22522647

  10. Moral Dilemma Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Gwynn M.

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes research concerning the influence of different types of discussions about moral dilemmas between adolescents and either parents or peers on the adolescents' moral development. Discusses implications for camp staff, who may lead campers in discussions based on real-life moral dilemmas in their cabins. (SV)

  11. An Ethics Study: Implications of Knowledge for School Counselor Candidates, School Counseling Supervisors, Practicing School Counselors and Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boes, Susan R.; Chibbaro, Julia S.; Bingeman, Brittany A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses a survey conducted to examine knowledge of ethics in school counselor candidates. Students in school counseling practicum and internship classes indicated their familiarity with ethical codes and ethical decision making-models and responded to items pertaining to ethical dilemmas. Areas of concern to counselor educators…

  12. Professional Ethics in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin

    Major problems and issues of ethics in elementary, secondary, and higher education are examined. The function and present status of professional ethics are considered, along with specific codes of ethics, including those of the National Education Association, American Association of University Professors, and the American Association of School…

  13. An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

  14. Best Interests of the Student: An Ethical Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefkovich, Jacqueline A.; O'Brien, G. Michaele

    2004-01-01

    Shapiro and Stefkovich in their 2001 book on ethics propose a framework for examining ethical dilemmas. At the heart of this conceptualization is "the best interests of the student." Yet a review of the literature reveals this term is interpreted broadly and few systematic attempts have been made to define it. In response to this lack of clarity,…

  15. Ethical issues relating to reproduction control and women's health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Schenker; V. H. Eisenberg

    1997-01-01

    There are many ethical aspects which derive from the application of reproduction control in women's health. Women's health can be enhanced if women are given the opportunity to make their own reproduction choices about sex, contraception, abortion and application of reproductive technologies. The main issues that raise ethical dilemmas following the development of assisted reproduction techniques are: the right to

  16. Evaluators' Reflections on the Ethical Implications of Their Early Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooksy, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    What kinds of ethical dilemmas do people who are new to the profession of evaluation face? Are they different from the challenges faced by more experienced evaluators? What strategies do they use to resolve them? These questions were the starting point for the essays included in this issue of the Ethical Challenges section. The essays were written…

  17. Ethical Issues in Mentoring Adults in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansman, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines practical problems encountered in mentoring adult learners in higher education through stories of ethical dilemmas. Each incident illustrates the power that mentors possess and the ethical challenges of using this power to help or hurt proteges. Each example addresses an aspect of such power; the power to remove oneself as a…

  18. The Climate Policy Dilemma

    E-print Network

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent GHG abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists over the likelihood of ...

  19. Examining Moral Judgment and Ethical Decision-Making in Information Technology Managers and Their Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahand, Assadullah

    2010-01-01

    Growing incidences of corporate ethical misconducts have revived the debate over ethical reasoning and moral development of corporate managers. The role of information technology (IT) in the ethical dilemmas is becoming more evident as virtual environments become increasingly popular, organizations adopt digital form of record keeping, and the…

  20. Teacher Researchers: Technology and Ethical Considerations while Conducting an Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isman, Aytekin; Altinay Aksal, Fahriye; Altinay Gazi, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    The research study stimulates critical approach to research and practice, with an increasing emphasis on ethics and ethical decision making of the teacher researchers within action research process by using technology in its process. The study investigates the impact of technology within the action research, ethical considerations and dilemmas

  1. A Need to Know: An Ethical Decision-Making Model for Research Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Holmes, Elizabeth K.

    2008-01-01

    When faced with a morally charged situation, individuals engage in an ethical decision-making process to resolve the ethical dilemma. This paper outlines a model that describes the steps in the ethical decision-making process and identifies situational factors, collectively termed moral intensity, which may influence this process. The use of a…

  2. Ethical attitudes of students and business professionals: A study of moral reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Wood; Justin G. Longenecker; Joseph A. McKinney; Carlos W. Moore

    1988-01-01

    A questionnaire on business ethics was administered to business professionals and to upper-class business ethics students. On eight of the seventeen situations involving ethical dilemmas in business, students were significantly more willing to engage in questionable behavior than were their professional counterparts. Apparently, many students were willing to do whatever was necessary to further their own interests, with little or

  3. Ethics: A Bridge for Studying the Social Contexts of Professional Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speck, Bruce W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a method for helping students evaluate ethical issues in a systematic way, based on Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Recommends the case-study approach for creating social constructs in which students face ethical dilemmas, and outlines a case-study ethics unit using Kohlberg's model. (MM)

  4. Developing an Ethical Framework in Decision Making of Rural Elementary School Principals in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hozien, Wafa Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore and describe individual Pennsylvania rural elementary principals' experiences of ethical decision-making in a complex era. Ethical dilemma, in this case, is the term used to depict an incident which calls for a decision to be made when moral values or ethical principles were in conflict. Also, to learn how…

  5. An overview of nursing ethics for nurse educators.

    PubMed

    Turner, S L; Rufo, M K

    1992-01-01

    Nursing ethics is a topic included in most health care institutions as a requirement for accreditation by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). This article provides an overview of nursing ethics in a format that allows the reader to understand the basic principles while applying the information to daily work situations in a format for use in a classroom environment. The issue of dilemma recognition is addressed as well as mechanisms that may be used to facilitate dilemma resolution. Information is also provided for use in the development of skills in ethical decision-making. PMID:1430465

  6. Transfer effects between moral dilemmas: a causal model theory.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, Alex; Waldmann, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    Evaluations of analogous situations are an important source for our moral intuitions. A puzzling recent set of findings in experiments exploring transfer effects between intuitions about moral dilemmas has demonstrated a striking asymmetry. Transfer often occurred with a specific ordering of moral dilemmas, but not when the sequence was reversed. In this article we present a new theory of transfer between moral intuitions that focuses on two components of moral dilemmas, namely their causal structure and their default evaluations. According to this theory, transfer effects are expected when the causal models underlying the considered dilemmas allow for a mapping of the highlighted aspect of the first scenario onto the causal structure of the second dilemma, and when the default evaluations of the two dilemmas substantially differ. The theory's key predictions for the occurrence and the direction of transfer effects between two moral dilemmas are tested in five experiments with various variants of moral dilemmas from different domains. A sixth experiment tests the predictions of the theory for how the target action in the moral dilemmas is represented. PMID:24440432

  7. Contingencies of Reinforcement in a Five-Person Prisoner's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Rachlin, Howard

    2004-01-01

    As in studies of self-control, a tit-for-tat contingency in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game creates a conflict between maximization of local and global reinforcement. The present experiments examine this conflict in a multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game. Versus tit for tat, cooperation corresponds to self-control; defection, always immediately…

  8. The ethical decision-making processes of information systems workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David B. Paradice; Roy M. Dejoie

    1991-01-01

    An empirical investigation was conducted to determine whether management information systems (MIS) majors, on average, exhibit ethical decision-making processes that differ from students in other functional business areas. The research also examined whether the existence of a computer-based information system in an ethical dilemma influences ethical desision-making processes. Although student subjects were used, the research instrument has been highly correlated

  9. Making an Ethical Decision: A Utilitarian Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    By identifying and weighing the effects of an act on each constituency, a matrix based on John Stuart Mill's theories of utilitarianism illuminates and helps resolve complex ethical dilemmas. Application of the approach is illustrated with a simulated case study concerning the issue of reputation in a small private college. (Author/MSE)

  10. E-Mail and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethical dilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors…

  11. The Ethics of Counseling Via the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Marsha Wiggins

    1997-01-01

    States that the Internet has become a popular and frequently used tool for many consumers. It is not surprising, then, that for-profit counseling services are being offered via the Internet. Provides a case study followed by a discussion of the ethical dilemmas raised by cybercounseling. (Author/MKA)

  12. Dilemmas in undertaking research in paediatric intensive care.

    PubMed

    Kanthimathinathan, Hari Krishnan; Scholefield, Barnaby R

    2014-11-01

    Providing evidence-based interventions for infants and children is important in paediatric intensive care, where decision making impacts most acutely on morbidity and mortality. However, despite the major progress of medicine in the 21st century, we still lack this evidence for majority of the decisions we make. In this article, we explore and suggest possible solutions for several dilemmas faced by paediatric intensive care researchers. These include ethical dilemmas such as validity of informed consent, use of deferred consent, balancing risk versus benefit and methodological dilemmas such as how to generate high-quality evidence with low-patient volume, choice of valid outcome measures and how best to use research and researchers' networks. PMID:24919710

  13. Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society. PMID:25678905

  14. Aesthetic/Cosmetic surgery and ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Rubeiz, Michel T; Hayek, Shady N

    2008-11-01

    Is aesthetic surgery a business guided by market structures aimed primarily at material gain and profit or a surgical intervention intended to benefit patients and an integral part of the health-care system? Is it a frivolous subspecialty or does it provide a real and much needed service to a wide range of patients? At present, cosmetic surgery is passing through an identity crisis as well as an acute ethical dilemma. A closer look from an ethical viewpoint makes clear that the doctor who offers aesthetic interventions faces many serious ethical problems which have to do with the identity of the surgeon as a healer. Aesthetic surgery that works only according to market categories runs the risk of losing the view for the real need of patients and will be nothing else than a part of a beauty industry which has the only aim to sell something, not to help people. Such an aesthetic surgery is losing sight of real values and makes profit from the ideology of a society that serves only vanity, youthfulness, and personal success. Unfortunately, some colleagues brag that they chose the plastic surgery specialty just to become rich aesthetic surgeons, using marketing tactics to promote their practice. This is, at present, the image we project. As rightly proposed, going back a little to Hippocrates, to the basics of being a physician, is urgently warranted! Being a physician is all that a "cosmetic" surgeon should be. In the long run, how one skillfully and ethically practices the art of plastic surgery will always speak louder than any words. PMID:18820963

  15. Social Dilemma: A Teaching Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrod, Wendy J.

    1983-01-01

    Manageable in a 50-minute class with as many as 60 students, this game is designed to help college- level sociology students recognize (1) the reward structure leading to social dilemmas, (2) the individualistic strategy people follow in social dilemmas, and (3) the inefficacy and hypocrisy of communication in social dilemmas. (RM)

  16. Authenticity or autonomy? When deep brain stimulation causes a dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Felicitas

    2013-12-01

    While deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease has typically raised ethical questions about autonomy, accountability and personal identity, recent research indicates that we need to begin taking into account issues surrounding the patients' feelings of authenticity and alienation as well. In order to bring out the relevance of this dimension to ethical considerations of DBS, I analyse a recent case study of a Dutch patient who, as a result of DBS, faced a dilemma between autonomy and authenticity. This case study is meant to point out the normatively meaningful tension patients under DBS experience between authenticity and autonomy. PMID:23355227

  17. Without 'informed consent'? Ethics and ancient mummy research.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, I M; Rühli, F J

    2010-10-01

    Ethical issues are of foremost importance in modern bio-medical science. Ethical guidelines and socio-cultural public awareness exist for modern samples, whereas for ancient mummy studies both are de facto lacking. This is particularly striking considering the fact that examinations are done without informed consent or that the investigations are invasive due to technological aspects and that it affects personality traits. The aim of this study is to show the pro and contra arguments of ancient mummy research from an ethical point of view with a particular focus on the various stakeholders involved in this research. Relevant stakeholders in addition to the examined individual are, for example, a particular researcher, and the science community in general, likely descendents of the mummy or any future generation. Our broad discussion of the moral dilemma of mummy research should help to extract relevant decision-making criteria for any such study in future. We specifically do not make any recommendations about how to rate these decision-factors, since this is highly dependent on temporal and cultural affiliations of the involved researcher. The sustainability of modern mummy research is dependent on ethical orientation, which can only be given and eventually settled in an interdisciplinary approach such as the one we attempt to present here. PMID:20671292

  18. Community health nursing, wound care, and...ethics?

    PubMed

    Bell, Sue Ellen

    2003-09-01

    Because of changing demographics and other factors, patients receiving care for wounds, ostomies, or incontinence are being referred in increasing numbers to community health nursing organizations for initial or continued care. As home-based wound care becomes big business, little discussion is being focused on the moral and ethical issues likely to arise in the high-tech home setting. Progressively more complex and expensive home care relies on family members to take on complicated care regimens in the face of decreasing numbers of allowable skilled nursing home visits. A framework and a principle-based theory for reflection on the character and content of moral and ethical conflicts are provided to encourage informed and competent care of patients in the home. Common moral and ethical conflicts for WOC nurses in the United States are presented. These conflicts include issues of wound care supply procurement; use of documentation to maximize care or profit; problems of quality, care consistency, and caregiver consent; and dilemmas of tiered health care options. The advantages of a framework to address ethical conflicts are discussed. PMID:14560284

  19. Integrating justice and care in animal ethics.

    PubMed

    Lekan, Todd

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the standoff between justice and care approaches to animal ethics presents us with a false dilemma. We should take justice's focus on reasoning from principles, and care's use of sympathetic awareness, as two integrated deliberative capacities necessary for the consideration of arguments for extending moral concern to animals. Such an integrated approach rests on a plausible account of the psychology of moral deliberation. I develop my argument as follows. Section I summarizes the nature of the debate between justice and care approaches to animal ethics, focusing on Brian Luke's arguments against justice approaches. Section II provides pro-justice rebuttals to Luke's objections. These rebuttals, while largely successful against Luke's objections, do not account for the intuition that sympathy does play a central epistemological role in animal ethics. Section III explains how sympathy cognitively simulates the perspective of the other, and thus can play an epistemological role in animal ethics. I argue that the abilities to simulate the perspective of the other and to reason from moral principles can complement each other. In section IV, I argue that though it may not be desirable to use both sympathy and reasoning from principles in all moral deliberation, it is a desirable aim when offering, and considering, moral arguments for what I will term the "extensionist project" of extending over moral concern to animals. I make this idea plausible by elucidating the claim that arguments for this project are best thought of as second-order deliberations about our first-order deliberative life. PMID:15462029

  20. Ethical Considerations for School Psychologists in Planning for Special Needs Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Dorothy B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A questionnaire completed by school psychologists indicated ethical and legal dilemmas involved in evaluation, decision making, and placement of students under P.L. 94-142. These conflicts arose from budgetary restraints and professional disagreements. The dilemmas are discussed and possible preventive measures are suggested. (DWH)

  1. FEMALE CAREGIVERS’ REFLECTIONS ON ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING: THE INTERSECTION OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND ELDER CARE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry L. Koenig; Elaine S. Rinfrette; Wendy A. Lutz

    2006-01-01

    As our population ages, increasing numbers of social workers and other therapists will provide counseling to women who are caregivers of frail elders. These female caregivers often face complex ethical dilemmas in caring for a frail elder. Furthermore, these dilemmas are compounded by domestic violence in the caregiver\\/frail elder relationship initiated before the onset of caregiving. Illustrated with case examples,

  2. [Research ethics: the case with the tule (kuna), Urabbá, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Gloria; Correa, Adriana

    2006-03-01

    An ethical analysis was performed during the development of a research project titled "Culture, nourishment and malaria in the Kuna aboriginals of Urabá, Colombia." This project had 2 objectives; (1) to investigate the prevalence of malaria and its relationship with hypovitaminosis A and nutritional status, and (2) to understand the community's conceptions and practices towards malaria. The current paper summarizes reflections concerning the application of ethical principles and moral values during the course of the malaria research project. Two intercultural relationships were clearly defined: the culture of the Tule (Kuna) Indians, with a traditional medical system, and the culture of the research group, focused on the biomedical model. The rationale and the discussion proposed during the writing of the project proposal was presented as well as the dilemmas that developed during the project within the communities. These problems required rapid decision-making in situations for which the scientists had not been adequately prepared. A need was indicated for application of ethical principles to permeate the analysis throughout the research process in a horizontal manner, such that the human dignity of the participants and the ethnicity of the community are preserved above the purposes of the project. In the research process, mediation between the ethics of conviction and the ethics of consequences must take precedence, with both outcomes tied to an informed consent in place during the process. The establishment of national and local research ethics committees was indicated as necessary to preserve the lifestyle and culture of the ethnic groups. These values were seen as endangered given the trading pressures and health policies in a globalized world. PMID:16929899

  3. The ethics and safety of medical student global health electives

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Evelyn M.; Varpio, Lara; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Gajaria, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore and characterize the ethical and safety challenges of global health experiences as they affect medical students in order to better prepare trainees to face them. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 Canadian medical trainees who had participated in global health experiences during medical school. Convenience and snowball sampling were utilized. Using Moustakas’s transcendental phenomenological approach, participant descriptions of ethical dilemmas and patient/trainee safety problems were analyzed. This generated an aggregate that illustrates the essential meanings of global health experience ethical and safety issues faced. Results We interviewed 23 participants who had completed 38 electives (71%, n=27, during pre-clinical years) spend-ing a mean 6.9 weeks abroad, and having visited 23 countries. Sixty percent (n=23) had pre-departure training while 36% (n=14) had post-experience debriefing. Three macro-level themes were identified: resource disparities and provision of care; navigating clinical ethical dilemmas; and threats to trainee safety. Conclusions Medical schools have a responsibility to ensure ethical and safe global health experiences. However, our findings suggest that medical students are often poorly prepared for the ethical and safety dilemmas they encounter during these electives. Medical students require intensive pre-departure training that will prepare them emotionally to deal with these dilemmas. Such training should include discussions of how to comply with clinical limitations. PMID:25341214

  4. Jeb Stewart's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cedo, Kelli M.; Dickerson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    This case study creates a dilemma that many school districts face. Public education is under-funded. Principals are expected to be the instructional leaders and are held accountable for student achievement. Is it appropriate then for public schools to have local businesses as benefactors when teaching personnel are involved? The conflict between…

  5. An American Dilemma Still.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagemann, Ellen Condliffe

    1995-01-01

    Introduces 21 papers on racial inequality, examining 2 documents that significantly influenced American aspirations early in the century--"An American Dilemma" (Gunnar Myrdal) and "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas." The article discusses the impact of racial inequality on public education and the role of public schools in achieving…

  6. The Dewey Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt the library world is in a dilemma about Dewey, but the system is hardly dead. In his 2007 book, Everything Is Miscellaneous, David Weinberger said bluntly, "It can't be fixed." In spite of that, Dewey is currently the most widely used classification system in the world, employed in 138 countries by over 200,000 libraries. But the…

  7. CHINA'S AIRCRAFT CARRIER DILEMMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew S. Erickson; Andrew R. Wilson

    2006-01-01

    hina's national leadership is facing a dilemma that has bedeviled many other powers in modern history. The challenge—an especially difficult one in an era of rapid technological change—is discerning when and how to spend finite military budgets on new technology, organization, doctrine, and force structure. The history of navies trying to anticipate and prepare for the next war is replete

  8. Being Aristotelian: Using Virtue Ethics in an Applied Media Ethics Course

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy N. Wyatt

    2008-01-01

    This pedagogical essay explores the tendency of undergraduate media ethics students to do what Bernard Gert calls “morality by slogans” and their tendency to misuse Aristotle's golden mean slogan. While not solving the dilemma of morality by slogans, the essay suggests some ways of rectifying the misuse of the golden mean and encouraging its more authentic application.

  9. Ethics of fetal tissue transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, L M; Giudice, L; Raffin, T A

    1993-01-01

    Now that the Clinton Administration has overturned the ban on federal funding for fetal tissue transplantation, old ethical issues renew their relevance and new ethical issues arise. Is fetal tissue transplantation necessary and beneficial? Are fetal rights violated by the use of fetal tissue in research? Is there a moral danger that the potential of fetal tissue donation will encourage elective abortions? Should pregnant women be allowed to designate specific fetal transplant recipients? What criteria should be used to select fetal tissue transplants? Whose consent should be required for the use of fetal tissue for transplantation? We review the current state of clinical research with fetal tissue transplantation, the legal history of fetal tissue research, the major arguments against the use of fetal tissue for transplantation, and the new postmoratorium ethical dilemmas. We include recommendations for guidelines to govern the medical treatment of fetal tissue in transplantation. Images PMID:8236984

  10. An ethical framework for global psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Katz, Craig L; Lahey, Timothy P; Campbell, Hilary T

    2014-01-01

    Existing literature addresses the ethical considerations of global health work and how medical school curricula can help prepare students for them, but little has been written regarding an ethical approach to global psychiatry. In this paper we summarize prominent ethical issues that arise in global health psychiatry in order to provide a foundation for a framework in global health psychiatry. These issues include obtaining informed consent in the face of language barriers, diagnosing and treating for mental illnesses while navigating communities where such conditions are heavily stigmatized, and justifying the cessation of proving care to current patients for the sake of providing care to new patients abroad. To help prepare psychiatrists and students for work that engages these issues, we propose a multi-step process to assist the practicing global psychiatrist in recognizing ethical dilemmas and evaluating potential courses of action based on their respective ethical merits. PMID:24976554

  11. Ethical issues in the development of new agents.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, C K

    1999-01-01

    In the early drug development process for cancer therapy, several ethical dilemmas result from the use of cancer patients with advanced disease as the subjects of research in clinical trials studying agents of unknown toxicity and/or efficacy. Although several accepted ethical principles guide the behavior of involved physicians and investigators, many of these principles are allowed to be violated in order to achieve the overall goal of clinical research in improving medical care for future patients. Informed consent has been a process viewed by many as a mechanism which protects potentially vulnerable patients from harm in the clinical trial process. However, the ability of the traditionally regulated process of obtaining informed consent for clinical research may be inadequate to ensure appropriate understanding of the purposes and the goals of early clinical trial research by potentially vulnerable advanced cancer patients. This creates further dilemmas with regard to physician-investigator and patient-subject communications. In the setting of phase I trials, where the specific goal of the research is to obtain toxicity information regarding a new potential anticancer agent, many heightened ethical conflicts are present. The fact that patients do not participate in these studies as a result of altruism, and that their main goals of participation are intensely therapeutic, create issues that may be in direct conflict with the research purpose of phase I trials. As well, the presence of therapeutic intentions on the part of involved physician-investigators creates challenging issues when one realizes the very low likelihood of benefit for individual patients participating in these studies. Within the phase II setting, the statistical constraints placed on new drug trials and, again, the low likelihood of benefit for participating-subjects, also creates challenging dilemmas. These statistical requirements may be in direct conflict with involved clinicians' attitudes and beliefs regarding potential efficacy of an agent in this setting. As well, these issues become problematic when thinking about the desired structure and outcome for informed consent in phase II anticancer trials. The ability to conduct clinical research on advanced cancer patients using agents of unknown efficacy and toxicity is a daunting privilege granted to physicians and accompanying institutions. The weight of this privilege should not be underestimated, and involved physician-investigators should be aware of the significant ethical challenges involved in appropriately and successfully conducting this form of research. PMID:10638485

  12. Ethics and Childbirth Educators: Do Your Values Cause You Ethical Distress?

    PubMed Central

    Ondeck, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics for Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators outlines the ethical principles and standards that are derived from childbirth education's core values to assure quality and ethical practice. This article presents a summary of the history of ethics and medical ethics that informs a value-oriented decision-making process in childbirth education. The role of evidence in ethics is explored from the childbirth educator's viewpoint, and scenarios are used to reflect on situations that are examples of ethical distress. The conclusion is that the practice of ethics and ethical decision making includes regular reflection. PMID:19436591

  13. Principles of Biomedical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498

  14. Brief History of pharmacy ethics in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farsam, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy. PMID:23908727

  15. How to Have a Successful Science and Ethics Discussion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeanne Ting Chowning

    2005-12-01

    Students often come to class discussions with preformed opinions on many ethical issues. The challenging task for teachers is to help students learn to identify the facts of a case, recognize the underlying ethical dilemmas, and to understand the different perspectives involved. These objectives can be met successfully by following the three key components to effective discussions related to ethics and science that are discussed in this article: Content and lesson strategies, a decision-making model, and a familiarity with ethical perspectives (see Figure 1).

  16. When Ethics Survive Where People Do Not

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Ghaiath M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The provision of health care service in resource-poor settings is associated with a broad set of ethical issues. Devakumar's case discusses the ethical issues related to the inability to treat in a cholera clinic patients who do not have cholera. This paper gives a closer look on the context in which Devakumar's case took place. It also analyses the potential local and organizational factors that gives rise to ethical dilemmas and aggravate them. It also proposes a framework to help in the proactive handling of the factors that leads to ethical dilemmas and resolving the ethical issues as they appear. It adopts the four principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice as universal and prima facie principles, but with the inclusion of a local understanding of what of each of these principles means. It is based on a collaborative approach that involves the beneficiaries and other partners in the field to help share information and resources, as well as adopting the provision of a wider service to the whole community. This is done by asking three basic questions: (a) who are the relevant stakeholders? (b) what ought to be the ethical principles in place? and (c) how should we take, implement and follow the decision about service provision? PMID:20336229

  17. The relationship between education and ethical behavior of nursing students.

    PubMed

    Dierckx de Casterlé, B; Janssen, P J; Grypdonck, M

    1996-06-01

    Based on the cognitive theory of moral development of Kohlberg, refined by the addition of the dimension "ethics of care" and the educational theory of Janssen, the relationship of education and ethical behavior of nursing students was examined. Ethical behavior referred not only to the ethical reasoning of students but also to the relationship between this reasoning and their behavior. This study examined the responses of 2,624 nursing students to five ethical nursing dilemmas included in the Ethical Behavior Test by relating them to four educational variables: students' level of education, level of enrollment, school, and students' perceptions of the educational process. A significant relationship between education and ethical behavior was found. PMID:8693726

  18. Ethical Issues within the Gerontological Nursing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahr, Rose Therese

    This presentation focuses on ethical issues that need to be addressed within the gerontological nursing curriculum for preparing nurses to become change agents and catalysts in the health care of the older population. Ethics and ethical principles are defined, and three ethical principles are discussed: justice; beneficence; and autonomy.…

  19. An Investigation of the Ethical Decision-Making of Preschool Teachers: A Cultural Study of a Sample in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Safak

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the ethical decision-making of preschool teachers (N = 26) in Samsun, on the northern coast of Turkey, was examined. For this analysis, six real-life dilemmas were prepared, chosen from the problems that most often arise in kindergartens in Turkey. These dilemmas addressed the commitment of the teacher to the child, to self, to the…

  20. Ethical Reasoning Used by Teachers of Children with Severe and Profound Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredberg, Elizabeth; Davidson, Iain F. W. K.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the ethical reasoning of five Canadian teachers of children with severe and profound intellectual disabilities in segregated classrooms. Findings indicated that teachers gave almost exclusive consideration to individual student interests in their discussion of four ethical dilemmas. The governing principle in their argument…

  1. Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

  2. Ethical Leadership in Schools: Creating Community in an Environment of Accountability. Leadership for Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    2006-01-01

    Discover the link between ethical leadership and successful educational communities! In an age of accountability and transparency, principals are held responsible for everything from test scores to school finances. Because of this increased accountability, school leaders must regularly confront difficult ethical dilemmas. This book teaches…

  3. A Comparison of Special Education Administrators' and Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Ethics and Professional Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Craig R.; Van Haren, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The field of special education is wrought with ethical dilemmas. The Council for Exceptional Children has outlined its code of ethics and standards for professional practice for individuals working in the field of special education. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which special education administrators and teachers possess…

  4. Examining Moral Reasoning and Ethical Decision Making among Mississippi's Community College Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Vernesia Bracey

    2010-01-01

    As ethical dilemmas arise in community colleges, administrators make decisions that require sensitivity to the organizational, political, and environmental factors surrounding their particular institutional climates and locales. The moral reasoning and ethical decision-making of community college administrators were examined in this study. In…

  5. When Practice Takes Precedence: Conceptions of Inquiry and the Link to Ethical Posture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Karen; Birchley, Jacinta; Bruce, Jayne; Hurrell, Alison; Paterson, Sandra; Stephen, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Using participatory action research (PAR), this paper explores the ethical practice of students engaged in practitioner research in a higher education context. Using narrative enquiry, the paper explores the participants' experiences of practitioner research, including ethical dilemmas that resulted from a conflict of values between the…

  6. The Human genome project and genetic research: what are the implications for ethics and equity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai-Lit Phua

    2004-01-01

    The Human Genome Project and related genetic research are exciting scientific quests that are also giving rise to significant ethical dilemmas and equity considerations. These include: the question of where to draw the line, e.g. is research on human cloning ethical, privacy of genetic and medical records, genetic discrimination, implications for public health programmes, unequal access to new but expensive

  7. Gift Giving and Receiving in Child-Centered Play Therapy: An Ethical Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Pedro J.; Sheely-Moore, Angela I.

    2012-01-01

    Child-centered play therapists are often confronted with the challenge of receiving gifts from clients. This article highlights recommended strategies when faced with gift receiving, exemplified by actual ethical dilemmas encountered by child-centered play therapists. Ethical and therapeutic considerations of therapist gift giving to child clients…

  8. A Stream of Conscience: Reflecting on Ethics and Representation in Drama with Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrutz, Megan

    2006-01-01

    Like art, ethics can be a complex and scary mirror that forces us to consider, practice, and profess specific choices that speak to who we are and what we value. The author of this article observes that confronting specific ethical dilemmas within her work with young people has brought various tensions to the forefront of her practice as a…

  9. Ethical Issues in Computer Use. Article Reprints from "The Computing Teacher," August/September 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council for Computers in Education, Eugene, OR.

    Five articles and two columns reprinted from 1984 and 1985 issues of "The Computing Teacher" address various ethical and legal issues involved in computer use. In "A Question of Ethics," Larry S. Hannah and Charles B. Matus suggest guidelines for dilemma discussion in the classroom to address social and moral issues and to help students to develop…

  10. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (6 of 7): ethical considerations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen Kelley; Craig E Rubens

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite the substantial global burden of preterm and stillbirth, little attention has been given to the ethical considerations related to research and interventions in the global context. Ethical dilemmas surrounding reproductive decisions and the care of preterm newborns impact the delivery of interventions, and are not well understood in low-resource settings. Issues such as how to address the moral

  11. [Medical ethics in residency training].

    PubMed

    Civaner, Murat; Sarikaya, Ozlem; Balcio?lu, Harun

    2009-04-01

    Medical ethics education in residency training is one of the hot topics of continuous medical education debates. Its importance and necessity is constantly stressed in declarations and statements on national and international level. Parallel to the major structural changes in the organization and the finance model of health care system, patient-physician relationship, identity of physicianship, social perception and status of profession are changing. Besides, scientific developments and technological advancements create possibilities that never exists before, and bring new ethical dilemmas along with. To be able to transplant human organs has created two major problems for instance; procurement of organs in sufficient numbers, and allocating them to the patients in need by using some prioritizing criteria. All those new and challenging questions force the health care workers to find authentic and justifiable solutions while keeping the basic professional values. In that sense, proper medical ethics education in undergraduate and postgraduate term that would make physician-to-be's and student-physicians acquire the core professional values and skill to notice, analyze and develop justifiable solutions to ethical problems is paramount. This article aims to express the importance of medical ethics education in residency training, and to propose major topics and educational methods to be implemented into. To this aim, first, undergraduate medical education, physician's working conditions, the exam of selection for residency training, and educational environment were revised, and then, some topics and educational methods, which are oriented to educate physicians regarding the professional values that they should have, were proposed. PMID:19357056

  12. Ethics Updates

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hinman, Lawrence M.

    Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.

  13. Moral Dilemmas and Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekarsky, Daniel

    1980-01-01

    Suggests that serious problems exist with a moral education program built around Lawrence Kohlberg's approach of analyzing predesigned moral dilemmas. The dilemmas are often unrealistic. Although students usually try to find alternatives to the situation, as one would do in real life, teachers discourage them from doing so. (Author/KC)

  14. Jehovah's Witness parents' refusal of blood transfusions: Ethical considerations for psychologists.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Psychologists in medical settings may be confronted with Jehovah's Witness parents refusing blood transfusions for their children as an ethical dilemma. The purpose of this discussion is to help psychologists provide informed, ethical consultations and support by investigating the values of the Jehovah's Witness community and the origin of the blood transfusion taboo, how medical and legal professionals have approached this dilemma, exploring relevant ethical principles and standards for psychologists, and suggestions for how to move toward a better understanding of harm with Jehovah's Witness families. PMID:25476572

  15. Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Created in 2007, this website is a superb tool for learning about the ethical dilemmas engineers face in areas such as emerging technologies, environment, safety and sustainability, and responsible research. Visitors can learn about various ethical dilemmas via the site's collection of "Cases", "Essays & Articles", "Instructional Resources", and "Other Resources". The "Cases" link contains a fascinating collection of historical cases, hypothetical cases, fictionalized cases, numerical problems, and scenarios. Visitors will find cases that address a killer robot, reverse engineering, Internet privacy, and the real case of a "computerized radiation therapy machine and its software flaws, which caused massive overdoses to patients." The "Instructional Resources" link provides various university syllabi for courses on computers and the Internet, as well as a syllabus for a course for both young people and senior citizens which addresses the future of technology. Visitors will also find an informational article on the misuse of emerging technologies, entitled "Antibiotic Resistance and Dual Use".

  16. The catatonic dilemma expanded

    PubMed Central

    Penland, Heath R; Weder, Natalie; Tampi, Rajesh R

    2006-01-01

    Catatonia is a common syndrome that was first described in the literature by Karl Kahlbaum in 1874. The literature is still developing and remains unclear on many issues, especially classification, diagnosis, and pathophysiology. Clinicians caring for psychiatric patients with catatonic syndromes continue to face many dilemmas in diagnosis and treatment. We discuss many of the common problems encountered in the care of a catatonic patient, and discuss each problem with a review of the literature. Focus is on practical aspects of classification, epidemiology, differential diagnosis, treatment, medical comorbidity, cognition, emotion, prognosis, and areas for future research in catatonic syndromes. PMID:16959040

  17. Moral Dilemmas, Collective Responsibility, and Moral Progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Marino

    2001-01-01

    Ruth Marcus has offered an account of moral dilemmas in which the presence of dilemmas acts as a motivating force, pushing us to try to minimize predicaments of moral conflict. In this paper, I defend a Marcus-style account of dilemmas against two objections: first, that if dilemmas are real, we are forced to blame those who have done their best,

  18. Five-year experience of clinical ethics consultations in a pediatric teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Streuli, Jürg C; Staubli, Georg; Pfändler-Poletti, Marlis; Baumann-Hölzle, Ruth; Ersch, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    Our retrospective study presents and evaluates clinical ethics consultations (CECs) in pediatrics as a structure for implementing hospital-wide ethics. We performed a descriptive and statistical analysis of clinical ethics decision making and its implementation in pediatric CECs at Zurich University Children's Hospital. Ninety-five CECs were held over 5 years for 80 patients. The care team reached a consensus treatment recommendation after one session in 75 consultations (89 %) and on 82 of 84 ethical issues (98 %) after two or more sessions (11 repeats). Fifty-seven CECs recommended limited treatment and 23 maximal treatment. Team recommendations were agreed outright by parents and/or patient in 59 of 73 consultations (81 %). Initial dissensus yielded to explanatory discussion or repeat CEC in seven consultations (10 %). In a further seven families (10 %), no solution was found within the CEC framework: five (7 %) required involvement of the child protection service, and in two families, the parents took their child elsewhere. Eventual team-parent/patient consensus was reached in 66 of 73 families (90 %) with documented parental/patient decisions (missing data, n?=?11). Patient preference was assessable in ten CECs. Patient autonomy was part of the ethical dilemma in only three CECs. The Zurich clinical ethics structure produced a 98 % intra-team consensus rate in 95 CECs and reduced initial team-parent dissensus from 21 to 10 %. Success depends closely on a standardized CEC protocol and an underlying institutional clinical ethics framework embodying a comprehensive set of transparently articulated values and opinions, with regular evaluation of decisions and their consequences for care teams and families. PMID:24323344

  19. Emerging ethical issues in pediatric surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedict C. NwomehDonna; Donna A. Caniano

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid pace of technological advancement and changing political, social, and legal attitudes, physicians face new\\u000a ethical dilemmas. For pediatric surgeons, these emerging issues affect our relationship with, and the care we provide, to\\u000a our patients and their families. In this review, we explore issues related to professionalism in pediatric surgery practice,\\u000a the value of apology, and the risks

  20. Case report of autogynophilia--family, ethical and surgical implications.

    PubMed

    Duisin, Dragana; Barisi?, Jasmina; Nikoli?-Balkoski, Gordana

    2009-06-01

    Through the case presentation of a diagnostically and therapeutically interesting gender dysphoric individual, the authors wish to address diagnostic problems associated with this controversial category, illustrate dilemmas and emphasize the importance of diagnostic procedures in differentiating between primary transsexualism and other transgender states. Many questions have been triggered by this case, mainly about whether this patient should be classified as a paraphilia (transvestite, transvestite with transsexual trend), primary transsexualism or autogynephilia and about the most adequate treatment (e.g., sex-reassignment surgery, hormone therapy as a way of partial feminisation or exclusively psychotherapy). The issue of reconstructive surgery, i.e. its justification in the case of this particular condition is specifically discussed. Before any decision is made, both medical but also ethical consequences of the treatment choice need to be considered (e.g., the client is the father of two underage children). PMID:19556956

  1. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  2. Sport and Technology: Ethics on the Cutting Edge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, William H.

    This paper deals with growing ethical dilemmas in sport as technology advances. Three aspects of sport are discussed: (l) the perpetual conflict between process (training) and product (the actual contest); (2) technophobia, the fear of the new world of technology; and (3) "technosport" or technological training. It is necessary to understand that…

  3. The Revised AACD Ethical Standards: New Clarity and New Uncertainty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    1992-01-01

    Offers brief summary of 1988 revision of "Ethical Standards of the American Association for Counseling and Development." Provides speculative commentary regarding these changes in the principles to which counselors must refer to resolve dilemmas in their decisions concerning services to clients, storage and retrieval of client data, and related…

  4. Is Love the Answer? A Commentary on Naturalistic Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Gary

    1991-01-01

    Yvonna Lincoln and Egon Guba's challenge to the traditional positivist approach to social science research, naturalistic inquiry, is seen as posing ethical dilemmas of its own. Greater awareness of problems of over-idealizing "special relationships" in research practices and in focusing too much on individual rather than systemic settings is…

  5. When Values and Ethics Conflict: The Counselor's Role and Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Glenda R.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the core conditions of client-centered counseling and supported by aspects of psychodynamic, cognitive developmental, and behavioral theories, a perspective is introduced that provides a resolution to the dilemma experienced by counselors and counseling students whose personal values and beliefs conflict with the ethical guidelines of the…

  6. An analytic approach to resolving problems in medical ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Candee; B Puka

    1984-01-01

    Education in ethics among practising professionals should provide a systematic procedure for resolving moral problems. A method for such decision-making is outlined using the two classical orientations in moral philosophy, teleology and deontology. Teleological views such as utilitarianism resolve moral dilemmas by calculating the excess of good over harm expected to be produced by each feasible alternative for action. The

  7. The Human Brain Project: social and ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nikolas

    2014-06-18

    Focusing on the Human Brain Project, I discuss some social and ethical challenges raised by such programs of research: the possibility of a unified knowledge of "the brain," balancing privacy and the public good, dilemmas of "dual use," brain-computer interfaces, and "responsible research and innovation" in governance of emerging technologies. PMID:24945767

  8. Anthropology and Participatory Research: Ethical Considerations in International Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Finnis

    2004-01-01

    Anthropologists working in the field of development may encounter a number of difficult ethical issues, although there is comparatively little literature that directly addresses such dilemmas. Potential concerns include questions of access to development and participation in projects and plans; questions about how research is used; issues of power differentials in the field; and the problem of ownership of knowledge.

  9. Professional Decisions and Ethical Values in Medical and Law Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezler, Agnes G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This project evaluated and compared the values used by medical and law students when dealing with ethical dilemmas in the practice of law and medicine. The Professional Decisions and Values Test was given to 77 medical students and 92 law students. Differences were noted on beneficence, professional responsibility, and harm avoidance. (MLW)

  10. Approaching Ethical Reasoning in Nursing Research through a Communitarian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.

    2003-01-01

    Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)

  11. Implant ethics

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, S

    2005-01-01

    Implant ethics is defined here as the study of ethical aspects of the lasting introduction of technological devices into the human body. Whereas technological implants relieve us of some of the ethical problems connected with transplantation, other difficulties arise that are in need of careful analysis. A systematic approach to implant ethics is proposed. The major specific problems are identified as those concerning end of life issues (turning off devices), enhancement of human capabilities beyond normal levels, mental changes and personal identity, and cultural effects. PMID:16131553

  12. Ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Sacchini, D; Pennacchini, M

    2010-01-01

    Ethics committees (ECs) are a relevant body for dealing with ethical issues in healthcare. They born in order to resolve dilemmatic situations. Contemporary ECs are independent standing committees with multidisciplinary representation, including medicine, nursing, social work, law, pastoral care, healthcare administration, and other different expertises. The functions of ECs are various: estimating clinical trials; analyzing ethically relevant clinical cases; drafting hospital/organizational guidelines, and to carry out education activity. The composition and kind of skills requested in an EC could change according to national laws. About international ethical standards in clinical experimentation, the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki is the reference according to which examining clinical trials by ECs. PMID:20589364

  13. Egocentric Ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Epley; Eugene M. Caruso

    2004-01-01

    Ethical judgments are often egocentrically biased, such that moral reasoners tend to conclude that self-interested outcomes are not only desirable but morally justifiable. Although such egocentric ethics can arise from deliberate self-interested reasoning, we suggest that they may also arise through unconscious and automatic psychological mechanisms. People automatically interpret their perceptions egocentrically, automatically evaluate stimuli on a semantic differential as

  14. "Ethics Shock."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knefelkamp, L. Lee

    1990-01-01

    Four books focusing on ethical issues in collegiate sports are reviewed: "Paterno by the Book,""Personal Fouls,""Never Too Young to Die: The Death of Len Bias," and "Rules of the Game: Ethics in College Sport." The themes of academic standards, student responsibility, the coach's role and responsibilities, the need for reform in college athletics…

  15. Science and ethics: Some issues for education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

    2001-11-01

    Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.

  16. [Ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Della Morte, E; Cappellano, F; Catanzaro, F

    1998-12-01

    The relation is considered between ethical choices, morals and deontology in plastic surgery of the male external genitals. Ethics dictates the behavioural model applied by an individual or group in their actions. Professional ethics--deontology--is the collection of duties governing the exercise of a certain profession. Morals are the set of rules governing an individual's life in society. Ethics, deontology and morals do not always convey the same message, since environmental, racial and religious situations, custom, and even fashion can influence a patient's demands, reflecting his desire to improve his quality of life, even only from the purely hedonistic viewpoint, and the specialist's attitude. Surgeons are increasingly tending to bend to these demands or--much worse--even encourage and foster them, with a view to financial considerations. The attitude and ethical choices available are examined in relation to surgery to lengthen or enlarge the penis. PMID:9882901

  17. Special Education Leadership: Integrating Professional and Personal Codes of Ethics to Serve the Best Interests of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bon, Susan C.; Bigbee, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    Special education teachers who also serve as case managers for students with disabilities are in unique leadership positions in which they face complex ethical dilemmas and are called on to make decisions that involve multiple competing interests and pressures. The purpose of this study was to explore how special education leaders identify ethical

  18. Dialectical principlism: an approach to finding the most ethical action.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Most forensic psychiatrists occasionally face complex situations in forensic work in which ethics dilemmas cause discomfort. They want to determine the most ethical action, but the best choice is unclear. Fostering justice is primary in forensic roles, but secondary duties such as traditional biomedical ethics and personal values like helping society, combating racism, and being sensitive to cultural issues can impinge on or even outweigh the presumptive primary duty in extreme cases. Similarly, in treatment the psychiatrists' primary duty is to patients, but that can be outweighed by secondary duties such as protecting children and the elderly or maintaining security. The implications of one's actions matter. In forensic work, if the psychiatrist determines that he should not assist the party who wants to hire him, despite evidence clearly supporting its side, the only ethical option becomes not to accept the case at all, because the evidence does not support the better side. Sometimes it can be ethical to accept cases only for one side. In ethics-related dilemmas, I call the method of prioritizing and balancing all types of conflicting principles, duties, and personal and societal values in a dialectic to resolve conflicts among them dialectical principlism. This approach is designed to help determine the most ethical action. It is aspirational and is not intended to get the psychiatrist into trouble. PMID:25770274

  19. Some Ethical-Moral Concerns in Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enns, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Presents and analyzes moral-ethical issues that arise in administration and concludes that past descriptive, objective, and scientific approaches to administration have failed to take full account of the moral-ethical dimension of human existence. (Author/WD)

  20. Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Ron Vetter

    CSC 385. Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science (1) Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing in computer science. Student presentations and discussions of case studies relating to computer ethics.

  1. The Importance of Teaching Ethics of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedenweg, Kelly; Monroe, Martha C.; Oxarart, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance of a focus on ethics in sustainability education and present results from a pilot graduate-level course titled the Ethics of Sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: This is a case study presenting a qualitative evaluation from a pilot 14-week Ethics of Sustainability course.…

  2. Ethics--Business Educators Teach Students To Do the Right Thing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keying In, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This issue focuses on teaching ethics in business education programs. Exploring the teaching of ethics in both high school and college, the newsletter first presents an overview of ethics and the study of ethics and makes a case for teaching ethics in business education courses. Following a short commentary on the difficulty of teaching ethics is…

  3. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dairy Dilemma Dairy Dilemma Are You Getting Enough Calcium? You may be avoiding dairy products because of ... But dairy products are a major source of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that are important ...

  4. Ethics (lesson)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-04-14

    Students examine some examples of ethical issues that have resulted from our expanded knowledge of neuroscience. They are asked to write a position paper describing their own point of view on one of these controversial topics.

  5. Energy partitioning schemes: a dilemma.

    PubMed

    Mayer, I

    2007-01-01

    Two closely related energy partitioning schemes, in which the total energy is presented as a sum of atomic and diatomic contributions by using the "atomic decomposition of identity", are compared on the example of N,N-dimethylformamide, a simple but chemically rich molecule. Both schemes account for different intramolecular interactions, for instance they identify the weak C-H...O intramolecular interactions, but give completely different numbers. (The energy decomposition scheme based on the virial theorem is also considered.) The comparison of the two schemes resulted in a dilemma which is especially striking when these schemes are applied for molecules distorted from their equilibrium structures: one either gets numbers which are "on the chemical scale" and have quite appealing values at the equilibrium molecular geometries, but exhibiting a counter-intuitive distance dependence (the two-center energy components increase in absolute value with the increase of the interatomic distances)--or numbers with too large absolute values but "correct" distance behaviour. The problem is connected with the quick decay of the diatomic kinetic energy components. PMID:17328441

  6. What's the matter with business ethics?

    PubMed

    Stark, A

    1993-01-01

    The more business ethics secures its status in campuses across the country, the more bewildering it appears to actual managers. It's not that managers dislike the idea of doing the right thing. As University of Toronto Assistant Professor Andrew Stark argues, far too many business ethicists just haven't offered them the practical advice they need. Before business ethics became a formal discipline, advocates of corporate social responsibility claimed that the market would ultimately reward ethical behavior. But ethics and interests did not always intersect so fruitfully in the real world. And when they did not, managers were left in the dark to grope for the right ethical course. In the 1970s, the brand-new field of business ethics came onto the scene to address this issue. Critical of the "ethics pays" approach, academics held that ethics and interests can and do conflict. Still, scholars took an equally unrealistic line. To them, a manager's motivation could be either altruistic or self-interested, but never both. In short, ethicists still weren't addressing the difficult moral dilemmas that managers face on a day-to-day basis, and only recently have they begun to do so. After some initial stumbles, ethicists are getting their hands dirty and seriously considering the costs of doing the right thing. Finally, a new business ethics is emerging that acknowledges and accepts the messy world of mixed motives. As a result, novel concepts are springing up: moderation, pragmatism, minimalism, among others.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10126154

  7. Ethical Dilemmas of In-Service Music Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Joelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Like professionals in other disciplines, music educators are expected to observe certain behavioral standards. In addition to teaching musical skills, concepts, and context, music educators are also expected to protect the welfare of children, serve as trustworthy stewards of public property, and generally behave responsibly and professionally…

  8. Podcasting and Vodcasting: Legal Issues and Ethical Dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi L. Schnackenberg; Edwin S. Vega; Dustin H. Relation; Clinton County

    Portable media devices like iPods, iRivers, and others are becoming quite common in today's society. Concurrent with the advent of portable hardware is the development of downloadable media. Two of these forms of downloadable programming are podcasting and vodcasting. While these media are rapidly becoming a part of everyday life, written laws that govern technology and its uses are not

  9. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sybille van den Hove; Marc Le Menestrel; Henri-Claude de Bettignies

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the ‘fight against emission constraints,’ ‘wait and see,’ and ‘proactive’ strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business

  10. Use of animals in experimental research: an ethical dilemma?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Baumans

    2004-01-01

    Mankind has been using animals already for a long time for food, for transport and as companion. The use of animals in experimental research parallels the development of medicine, which had its roots in ancient Greece (Aristotle, Hippocrate). With the Cartesian philosophy in the 17th century, experiments on animals could be performed without great moral problems. The discovery of anaesthetics

  11. A critical technico-ethical dilemma of current medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Castriotta

    1993-01-01

    For days and days he had lived only by the aid of enormous quantities of oxygen. Yesterday alone he had consumed forty containers, at six francs apiece — that mounted up, the gentlemen could reckon the cost themselves; and his wife, in whose arms he had died, was left wholly penniless. Joachim expressed disapproval of this expenditure. Why delay by

  12. Discomforting Pedagogies: Emotional Tensions, Ethical Dilemmas and Transformative Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos; McGlynn, Claire

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the potential and limitations of pedagogy of discomfort in a classroom of 10- and 11-year-old students of an integrated school in Northern Ireland. At the centre of the analysis are the students' and the teacher's emotional experiences and the resulting consequences when a discomforting pedagogical activity (an adaptation of…

  13. Managed Care: Ethical Considerations for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glosoff, Harriet L.; Garcia, Jorge; Herlihy, Barbara; Remley, Jr., Theodore P.

    1999-01-01

    Key factors and trends in health care will have an impact on the ethical practice of counselors. Ethical challenges to clinical practice presented by trends in managed care are discussed in relation to the American Counseling Association (1995) Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice. Recommendations for practice are also included. (Author/MKA)

  14. Evolution of Clinical Military Psychology Ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carrie H. Kennedy; Bret A. Moore

    2007-01-01

    Ethical quandaries for military psychologists are a challenge. Effective military mental health providers must have a thorough understanding of their ethics code, pertinent military instructions, military law, and the mental health laws of the countries in which they practice. This article traces the evolution of clinical military psychology ethics from World War II to present day and serves to introduce

  15. Teaching corner: "first do no harm": teaching global health ethics to medical trainees through experiential learning.

    PubMed

    Logar, Tea; Le, Phuoc; Harrison, James D; Glass, Marcia

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies show that returning global health trainees often report having felt inadequately prepared to deal with ethical dilemmas they encountered during outreach clinical work. While global health training guidelines emphasize the importance of developing ethical and cultural competencies before embarking on fieldwork, their practical implementation is often lacking and consists mainly of recommendations regarding professional behavior and discussions of case studies. Evidence suggests that one of the most effective ways to teach certain skills in global health, including ethical and cultural competencies, is through service learning. This approach combines community service with experiential learning. Unfortunately, this approach to global health ethics training is often unattainable due to a lack of supervision and resources available at host locations. This often means that trainees enter global health initiatives unprepared to deal with ethical dilemmas, which has the potential for adverse consequences for patients and host institutions, thus contributing to growing concerns about exploitation and "medical tourism." From an educational perspective, exposure alone to such ethical dilemmas does not contribute to learning, due to lack of proper guidance. We propose that the tension between the benefits of service learning on the one hand and the respect for patients' rights and well-being on the other could be resolved by the application of a simulation-based approach to global health ethics education. PMID:25648122

  16. Ethics committees and achievement of good clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Glasa, J; Holomán, J; Klepanec, J; Soltés, L

    1996-01-01

    Local ethics committees (institutional review boards, or similar bodies) were established during the last decades at (bio)medical research institutions worldwide to serve as review bodies of the proposed research projects (inclusive protocols of clinical trials), and also to monitor if the ethical principles, including the requirements of good practice (clinical, laboratory, and scientific) are respected and fulfilled during the conduct of research projects. Existing pluralism of the philosophical background on which contemporary bioethics theories are developed is questioning seriously the ancient traditions of Hippocratic, non-utilitarian medical ethics, trying to promote more utilitarian and secular approaches. Individual physicians, or researchers, as well as the ethics committee itself, are faced today with complicated ethical dilemmas, that frequently have to be solved in the atmosphere of considerable social, collegiate, economical, and time pressures, and sometimes without helpful guidance of appropriate legislation. An interesting possibility of how to overcome some of the pitfalls of the ethics review process is to express a common ethical responsibility for the research project or trial protocol in a statement of most (or all) parties involved (such as the principal investigator, sponsor, ethics committee, the patient, "society'). Such an approach has proven helpful in enhancing concrete deliberations of ethics committees-established in Slovakia since 1991 according to the requirements of the national guidelines issued by the Slovak Ministry of Health. PMID:8953810

  17. Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system.

    PubMed

    Millstone, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine. PMID:24802645

  18. Classroom Games: A Prisoner's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Charles A.; Capra, Monica

    2000-01-01

    Describes a classroom game called the prisoner's dilemma that illustrates the conflict between social incentives to cooperate and private incentives to defect. Explains that it is a simple card game involving a large number of students. States that the students should be introduced to the real-world applications of the game. (CMK)

  19. Moral Dilemmas and Moral Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Shaun; Mallon, Ron

    2006-01-01

    Recent work shows an important asymmetry in lay intuitions about moral dilemmas. Most people think it is permissible to divert a train so that it will kill one innocent person instead of five, but most people think that it is not permissible to push a stranger in front of a train to save five innocents. We argue that recent emotion-based…

  20. Understanding the National Energy Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

    This graphic representation of our energy dilemma provides government officials, industry, and general public with an understanding of the broad problems and complexity of our energy crisis. An energy display system projects effects of energy policies on our domestic energy situation. This display contains sheets indicating total energy flow…

  1. Monty's Dilemma with No Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruma

    2014-01-01

    The article presents an attempt to analyse Monty's dilemma by means of conversational formula-free dialogues and to simulate the problem by composing isomorphic stories. The crucial roles of specifying the underlying scenarios and explicating epistemic and probabilistic assumptions are highlighted.

  2. Dignity, death, and dilemmas: a study of Washington hospices and physician-assisted death.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Courtney S; Black, Margaret A

    2014-01-01

    The legalization of physician-assisted death in states such as Washington and Oregon has presented defining ethical issues for hospice programs because up to 90% of terminally ill patients who use the state-regulated procedure to end their lives are enrolled in hospice care. The authors recently partnered with the Washington State Hospice and Palliative Care Organization to examine the policies developed by individual hospice programs on program and staff participation in the Washington Death with Dignity Act. This article sets a national and local context for the discussion of hospice involvement in physician-assisted death, summarizes the content of hospice policies in Washington State, and presents an analysis of these findings. The study reveals meaningful differences among hospice programs about the integrity and identity of hospice and hospice care, leading to different policies, values, understandings of the medical procedure, and caregiving practices. In particular, the authors found differences 1) in the language used by hospices to refer to the Washington statute that reflect differences among national organizations, 2) the values that hospice programs draw on to support their policies, 3) dilemmas created by requests by patients for hospice staff to be present at a patient's death, and 4) five primary levels of noninvolvement and participation by hospice programs in requests from patients for physician-assisted death. This analysis concludes with a framework of questions for developing a comprehensive hospice policy on involvement in physician-assisted death and to assist national, state, local, and personal reflection. PMID:23830529

  3. Suicide and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Margaret P., Ed.; Maris, Ronald W., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents five articles by philosophers and a psychiatrist on the ethics of suicide, as well as comments and a literature review. Discusses the rationality and morality of suicide from several philosophical viewpoints including self-ownership, Kant's theories, and a libertarian perspective. (JAC)

  4. Principles for Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Psychology Review, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Reviews principles based on assumptions that school psychologists will act as advocates for their clients and will do no harm. Includes sections on professional competency, relationships and responsibilities, and practice in public and private settings. Presents extensive information on procedural guidelines for adjudication of ethical complaints.…

  5. Medical Ethics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... donate an organ to a sick relative? Your personal health information: who has access to your records? Patient rights: Do you have the right to refuse treatment? When you talk with your doctor, is it ethical for her to withhold information from you or your family?

  6. Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Ethical Challenges scenario in the June 2004 issue of the American Journal of Evaluation focused on an evaluator-client disagreement concerning the wisdom of having consumer representation on a steering committee that would help plan and oversee an evaluation in an agency providing community-based residential services to the chronically…

  7. Ethics fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession. PMID:22263371

  8. Are ethical theories relevant for ethical leadership?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michel Dion

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this study is to know if ethical theories could be connected to some leadership approaches. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In the paper eight leadership approaches are selected: directive leadership, self-leadership, authentic leadership, transactional leadership, shared leadership, charismatic leadership, servant leadership, transformational leadership. Five western ethical theories (philosophical egoism, utilitarianism, Kantianism, ethics of virtue, ethics of responsibility) are

  9. ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH

    Cancer.gov

    Ethical dilemmas and regulatory concerns are highly significant in today's cancer research environment. Deep sequencing and bioinformatics technologies that enable identification of molecular signatures of cancer create novel ethical and regulatory challenges, including protecting research participant autonomy and privacy as increasing amounts of data are accumulated. As cancer research becomes more focused on a vision of genetically informed clinical care and precision medicine, decision-making becomes both more complex and more critical.

  10. Mixed Agency in Military Psychology: Applying the American Psychological Association Ethics Code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carrie H. Kennedy; W. Brad Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Military psychology can diverge significantly from traditional psychological practice. Mixed-agency conflicts—those arising when a military psychologist's obligations to individual patients compete with obligations to the Department of Defense or federal regulations—can generate challenging ethical dilemmas. This article explores the notion of mixed agency within the military setting and addresses the most pertinent aspects of the American Psychological Association's (2002) Ethical

  11. Incidental visual field loss: ethical considerations in assessing and reporting ability to drive.

    PubMed

    Szewka, Aimee J; Newman, Nancy

    2014-08-01

    Driving safety is an issue frequently encountered in the neurology clinic, particularly as it pertains to cognitive decline, vision loss, and motor limitations. This case illustrates the ethical dilemmas associated with determining driving safety, particularly those associated with an incidentally found congenital visual field abnormality. The authors discuss the issues involved with overruling patient autonomy for the principle of beneficence and the ethics of reporting patients with unsafe vision to authorities. PMID:25099108

  12. The myth of the ethical consumer – do ethics matter in purchase behaviour?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marylyn Carrigan; Ahmad Attalla

    2001-01-01

    Marketing ethics and social responsibility are inherently controversial, and years of research continue to present conflicts and challenges for marketers on the value of a socially responsible approach to marketing activities. This article examines whether or not consumers care about ethical behaviour, and investigates the effect of good and bad ethical conduct on consumer purchase behaviour. Through focus group discussions

  13. Regulations and Ethical Considerations for Astronomy Education Research III: A Suggested Code of Ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Brogt; Tom Foster; Erin Dokter; Sanlyn Buxner; Jessie Antonellis

    2008-01-01

    We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research study as an example for working

  14. Regulations and Ethical Considerations for Astronomy Education Research III: A Suggested Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogt, Erik; Foster, Tom; Dokter, Erin; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2009-01-01

    We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research…

  15. Selecting the Perfect Baby The Ethics of "Embryo Design"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Julia Omarzu

    2002-01-01

    This dilemma case is based on the true story of Jack and Lisa Nash, whose daughter Molly was born with a rare genetic disorder, Fanconi anemia. By having another child with specific genetic markers, the Nashes hoped to cure Molly using stem cells from the new baby’s umbilical cord blood. Students learn about developmental disorders and consider the ethical issues of genetic manipulation and fertility treatments. Although the case was written for beginning developmental psychology students, the issues raised involving genetic manipulation, advances in medical technology, and scientific ethics would be relevant in many other science courses.

  16. Eer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Orwant, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

  17. Ethical Profiling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Boylan

    2011-01-01

    This essay will argue for ethical procedures governing criminal profiling. A model based upon psychological\\/behavioral data,\\u000a witness data, and forensic profiling data is sketched out. This model fits the legitimate uses of criminal profiling as an\\u000a investigation procedure. Racial profiling as a primary sorting factor does not fit the preferred model and has significant\\u000a downsides and so is rejected as

  18. Immortal ethics.

    PubMed

    Harris, John

    2004-06-01

    This article draws on ideas published in my "Intimations of Immortality" essay in Science (Vol. 288, No. 5463, p. 59, April 7, 2000) and my "Intimations of Immortality-The Ethics and Justice of Life Extending Therapies" in editor Michael Freeman's Current Legal Problems (Oxford University Press 2002: 65-97). This article outlines the ethical issues involved in life-extending therapies. The arguments against life extension are examined and found wanting. The consequences of life extension are explored and found challenging but not sufficiently daunting to warrant regulation or control. In short, there is no doubt that immortality would be a mixed blessing, but we should be slow to reject cures for terrible diseases that may be an inextricable part of life-extending procedures even if the price we have to pay for those cures is increasing life expectancy and even creating immortals. Better surely to accompany the scientific race to achieve immortality with commensurate work in ethics and social policy to ensure that we know how to cope with the transition to parallel populations of mortals and immortals as envisaged in mythology. PMID:15247080

  19. IRB decision-making with imperfect knowledge: a framework for evidence-based research ethics review.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emily E; DuBois, James M

    2012-01-01

    Here we describe the five steps of evidence-based practice as applied to research ethics review and apply these steps to three exemplar dilemmas: incentive payments in substance abuse research; informed consent for biobanking; and placebo-controlled trials involving pregnant women in order to demonstrate the potential of empirical data to inform and improve IRB decision-making. PMID:23289698

  20. Therapeutic Implications of Pharmacotherapy: Current Trends and Ethical Issues.(practice & Theory)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jason H.; Anderson, Shannon M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of psychotropic medications (pharmacotherapy) in conjunction with psychotherapy is regarded as the standard of care for many mental health disorders. Counselors, therefore, need to be knowledgeable about psychopharmacology to monitor its impact on the therapeutic relationship and on client outcome. Discussed are potential ethical dilemmas

  1. The Nazi Origins of Eduard Pernkopf's "Topographische Anatomie des Menschen:" The Biomedical Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Howard A.

    1998-01-01

    The discovery of the Nazi origins of the classic Pernkopf anatomy atlas is one example of scientific information obtained by doctors who violated the Hippocratic Oath. The ethical dilemmas that doctors and medical centers face as a result of this and other potentially tainted data is reviewed. (Author/AEF)

  2. Providing life-saving health care to undocumented children: controversies and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Young, Janine; Flores, Glenn; Berman, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    Pediatricians and hospitals with special pediatric expertise are facing the dilemma of rationing care to uninsured, undocumented children, especially for expensive life-saving care such as transplants, chemotherapy, and dialysis. This article reviews a relevant case history and provides a review and discussion of the ethical and policy issues associated with this problem. PMID:15520114

  3. A focus group study of the motivation to invest: ‘ethical\\/green’ and ‘ordinary’ investors compared

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Lewis

    2001-01-01

    45 ‘ordinary’ investors, in 7 focus groups, and 49 ‘ethical\\/green’ investors in a further 7 focus groups discussed their various motivations for investing; any moral dilemmas they faced and what they were hoping to achieve. (The use of focus groups is an innovation in this area of research).Interpretations of the results were produced with the aid of NUDIST software and

  4. Business ethics cases and decision models: A call for relevancy in the classroom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Mathison

    1988-01-01

    Classroom cases and decision making models used in the teaching of business ethics may be inconsistent with the actual needs of practicing manager students. Three summary cases written by practicing manager students are included in this paper as well as evidence that concerns a focus more on interpersonal dilemmas rather than top management decisions. As well, the relevancy of philosophical

  5. Ethical, methodological and political issues of aids research in Central Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brooke Grundfest Schoepf

    1991-01-01

    AIDS represents research challenges for anthropology as well as for biomedicine. In many ways the dilemmas of anthropologists appear to be of lesser magnitude than those confronting biomedical researchers charged with the responsibility for treating patients and searching for cures and vaccines. Yet anthropological research is both politically sensitive and policy-relevant. Ethical practice in anthropology is linked to questions of

  6. Confidentiality, Informed Consent, and Ethical Considerations in Reviewing the Client's Psychotherapy Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas that break the confidentiality of the client eventually test the psychologist's boundaries such that not taking action may place the patient in a position where they suffer, hurt themselves, or others. The effectiveness in obtaining a valid informed consent might depend upon the therapists training, experience, and sound judgment…

  7. Ethical issues in surgical innovation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Megan E; Siegler, Mark; Angelos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Innovation is responsible for most advances in the field of surgery. Innovative approaches to solving clinical problems have significantly decreased morbidity and mortality for many surgical procedures, and have led to improved patient outcomes. While innovation is motivated by the surgeon's expectation that the new approach will be beneficial to patients, not all innovations are successful or result in improved patient care. The ethical dilemma of surgical innovation lies in the uncertainty of whether a particular innovation will prove to be a "good thing." This uncertainty creates challenges for surgeons, patients, and the healthcare system. By its very nature, innovation introduces a potential risk to patient safety, a risk that may not be fully known, and it simultaneously fosters an optimism bias. These factors increase the complexity of informed consent and shared decision making for the surgeon and the patient. Innovative procedures and their associated technology raise issues of cost and resource distribution in the contemporary, financially conscious, healthcare environment. Surgeons and institutions must identify and address conflicts of interest created by the development and application of an innovation, always preserving the best interest of the patient above the academic or financial rewards of success. Potential strategies to address the challenges inherent in surgical innovation include collecting and reporting objective outcomes data, enhancing the informed consent process, and adhering to the principles of disclosure and professionalism. As surgeons, we must encourage creativity and innovation while maintaining our ethical awareness and responsibility to patients. PMID:24728580

  8. Business Ethics Index: Measuring Consumer Sentiments Toward Business Ethical Practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Tsalikis; Bruce Seaton

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes the development of an ongoing and systematic index to measure consumers’ sentiments towards business\\u000a ethical practices. The Business Ethics Index (BEI) is based on the well established measurements of consumer sentiments, namely\\u000a the ICS (Index of Consumer Sentiment) and CBCCI (Conference Board Consumer Confidence Index). The BEI is comprised of 4 measurements\\u000a representing the dimensions of

  9. Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Research

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Bernard; Parham, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell research offers great promise for understanding basic mechanisms of human development and differentiation, as well as the hope for new treatments for diseases such as diabetes, spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, and myocardial infarction. However, human stem cell (hSC) research also raises sharp ethical and political controversies. The derivation of pluripotent stem cell lines from oocytes and embryos is fraught with disputes about the onset of human personhood. The reprogramming of somatic cells to produce induced pluripotent stem cells avoids the ethical problems specific to embryonic stem cell research. In any hSC research, however, difficult dilemmas arise regarding sensitive downstream research, consent to donate materials for hSC research, early clinical trials of hSC therapies, and oversight of hSC research. These ethical and policy issues need to be discussed along with scientific challenges to ensure that stem cell research is carried out in an ethically appropriate manner. This article provides a critical analysis of these issues and how they are addressed in current policies. PMID:19366754

  10. Communication, Commitment, and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert L. Kerr; Cynthia M. Kaufman-Gilliland

    1994-01-01

    Intragroup communication promotes cooperation in social dilemmas. Two explanations are plausible: Discussion may (a) enhance feelings of group identity or (b) induce commitments to cooperate. Some remedies for social dilemmas (like group communication) may be subclassified as public-welfare remedies (of which enhanced group identity is an example) versus cooperation-contingent remedies (of which commitment is an example). The efficacy of a

  11. How do Autonomous Agents Solve Social Dilemmas?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Ito

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the problem of cooperation of autonomous agents. Why it is important for autonomous agents to solve social dilemma problems is explained. They must be solved in a way that does not restrict the autonomy of agents. For that purpose, a social sanction by the disclosure of information is proposed. Agents were made to play the Prisoner's Dilemma

  12. The physician workforce: a medical school dilemma.

    PubMed

    Wood, Douglas L

    2003-01-01

    Richard Cooper has advanced a projection of a sizable deficit in physicians in the United States, requiring the training of as many as 10,000 additional physicians annually by the year 2025. He questions the ability of U.S. medical schools to "fill the gap." This challenge presents another important dilemma for medical education. Could the applicant pool be enlarged sufficiently to increase qualified applicants? Would medical schools be able to accommodate this increase in students? The impact of these increases could be an ultimate decrease in the quality of health care and the production of physicians who are not current with research findings, particularly in the area of genetics. PMID:12889757

  13. Ecological reasoning: Ethical alternatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alla Frolova

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents some ideas of Russian philosophers and scientists of the 19th–20th centuries, concerned with ethical, economic and ecological problems. Their common feature is the anti-utilitarian, altruistic and often even utopian approach to reality. Nevertheless, they relate to the ongoing discussion of the causes of and remedies for the global environmental crisis. Their arguments often directly address the most

  14. Ethics, Ricoeur And Philosophy: Ethical Teacher Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Baumann, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This work is about the ethics of education, and about philosophy as a discipline that can help us to help children look at ethics afresh. The study and practice of ethics is about morals and uncertainties and, as such, poses problems for the research community. The philosopher Ricoeur challenges research as only one way to find meaning in the…

  15. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  16. A panel interview on the ethical practice of neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bush, Shane S; Grote, Christopher L; Johnson-Greene, Doug E; Macartney-Filgate, Michele

    2008-03-01

    Neuropsychologists who have considerable experience reflecting, presenting, publishing, and advising on ethical matters are a rich resource for clinicians who have ethics questions. Consultation with such colleagues can be an important part of the ethical decision-making process. The purpose of the present article is to provide the opinions and perspectives of three neuropsychologists who, based on their experience and scholarly activities, served as panelists regarding ethical matters. Although the advice and opinions of colleagues are not a substitute for familiarity with relevant ethical requirements, guidelines, and professional literature, they offer valuable information that enhances the ethical decision-making process. PMID:17853148

  17. A Borderline Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Alan L., Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents case of psychotherapist and 40-year-old female client whom he sees twice weekly in individual sessions. Describes client's symptoms and progress over 2.5 years of therapy and focuses on client's inability to pay therapy costs. Comments and advice to therapist regarding case are offered by Paul Rosen, Barent Walsh, Michael Stone, and…

  18. Incorporating global components into ethics education.

    PubMed

    Wang, George; Thompson, Russell G

    2013-03-01

    Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena. PMID:21769592

  19. Moral dilemmas in cognitive neuroscience of moral decision-making: a principled review.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J F; Gomila, A

    2012-04-01

    Moral dilemma tasks have been a much appreciated experimental paradigm in empirical studies on moral cognition for decades and have, more recently, also become a preferred paradigm in the field of cognitive neuroscience of moral decision-making. Yet, studies using moral dilemmas suffer from two main shortcomings: they lack methodological homogeneity which impedes reliable comparisons of results across studies, thus making a metaanalysis manifestly impossible; and second, they overlook control of relevant design parameters. In this paper, we review from a principled standpoint the studies that use moral dilemmas to approach the psychology of moral judgment and its neural underpinnings. We present a systematic review of 19 experimental design parameters that can be identified in moral dilemmas. Accordingly, our analysis establishes a methodological basis for the required homogeneity between studies and suggests the consideration of experimental aspects that have not yet received much attention despite their relevance. PMID:22353427

  20. [An essay on the topicality and problem complex. Ethics of the Reverence for Life].

    PubMed

    Benz-Schwarzburg, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Albert Schweitzer developed an egalitarian biocentrism which follows the maxim "I am life that wants to live, in the midst of life that wants to live". Following Schweitzer's idea of the Reverence for Life obviously leads to ethical dilemmas - as for example in the case of animal experimentation. In many situations we cannot but kill or harm, even if we don't want to, and must live at the cost of other living beings. How can the Reverence for Life stand up to that? Overcoming ethical dilemmas often means agreeing to compromises, which often leave us behind in discomfort. This discomfort and its meaning for Schweitzer's ethical concept can be illustrated by means of an example. Imagine two biologists, both conducting animal experiments that seem ethically justified and necessary to them. Nevertheless they can hold very different positions concerning their action. In some respect Schweitzer's ideas may be problematic and fairly radical. But they are also interesting and topical in so far as they don't let us get away easily after the decision-making process in an ethical dilemma. His theory opens up for the idea of compensation and development of alternative methods arising from what he calls a unique solidarity between human and non-human animals. PMID:18360730

  1. Myiasis: A Traveler's Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Mammino, Jere; Lal, Karan

    2013-12-01

    Myiasis is a tropical infection most often caused by Dermatotobia hominis, also known as the botfly. It is rarely seen in the United States. The infection has a slow evolution and often presents with painful lesions that mimic furunculosis, boils, and infected cysts. The mechanism of infection is based on the deposition of botfly eggs onto an arthropod, which acts as a vector of transmission. The arthropod infects various hosts and botfly eggs are concomitantly deposited on the host. The Dermatobia eggs transform into their larval form and penetrate the skin through adjacent adnexal structures or through the arthropod-based site of inoculation itself. Growth of the organisms within the tissues causes painful cystlike lesions. This article describes cutaneous furuncular myiasis and discusses patterns of recognition and treatment modalities, with a case presentation of an individual diagnosed with the condition attained from a visit to Belize. PMID:24765225

  2. The Ecological Footprint Dilemma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bruno Borsari

    2009-01-01

    Is it better to have a new parking lot on campus or use that space to develop a community garden? This is the issue presented in this "clicker case," which pulls students into the decision-making process. Students learn about concepts related to sustainability and the challenges of developing more sustainable life styles. They also calculate their ecological footprint. The case combines the use of  personal response systems (clickers) with case teaching methods and formats. It is presented in class using a series of PowerPoint slides (~800KB) punctuated by questions that students respond to before moving on to the next slide. Written for a non-majors introductory biology class, the case also is suitable for use in courses in ecology, environmental science, conservation biology, environmental studies, and general biology.

  3. Scleromyxedema, a therapeutic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Salas-Alanis, Julio Cesar; Martinez-Jaramillo, Brayant; Gomez-Flores, Minerva; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Scleromyxedema is characterized by indurated erythematous papules disseminated on the face, chest and limbs. About twenty cases treated with thalidomide, stem cells, melphalan and immunoglobulin with varying results have been described. We present the case of a 28-year-old male patient diagnosed with scleromyxedema not associated with monoclonal gammopathy, multi-treated with anti-leprosy drugs, UVA1, and thalidomide for 4 years with no improvement. PMID:25814746

  4. "Robin Hood" of techno-Turkey or organ trafficking in the state of ethical beings.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Aslihan

    2004-09-01

    Dr S. is a famous transplant surgeon in the Middle East. He operates "underground" on wealthy patients in different countries, from Israel to Turkey to Russia. The media refer to him as the "Organ Mafia doctor," and patients diagnosed with renal failure speak of him sardonically as "Robin Hood," acknowledging that he takes organs from the poor to give to the rich. But ethical issues of organ trafficking are not limited to marginal private clinics and "Mafia" doctors. All-living related organ transplants in Turkey involve similar ethical dilemmas: many related or nonrelated organ recipients pay their donors, and demand continues to rise. This paper explores practices in state and university hospitals and the ethical dilemmas doctors encounter to understand where and how judicial, cultural, and social categories of "human rights" and "crime" are constructed in our high-tech world. PMID:15600114

  5. A foundation for public health ethics at Tuskegee University in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Warren, Rueben C; Tarver, Will L

    2010-08-01

    This commentary is a reflection on Tuskegee University's National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care on the health and ethical challenges of the 21st century. The Center has dedicated the last 10 years to addressing the unresolved biomedicine and public health issues and/or the ethical dilemmas that plague the nation's health. The authors believe that health disparities continue to worsen because the approach under-appreciates the ethical dilemma that plagues health policy and health disparities. The authors discuss synergies and the paradigmatic differences between science and medicine, religion, spirituality, and faith. They also discuss the importance of considering these relationships if improvements in the health of people of African descent are expected. The concept of Optimal Health is explored. PMID:20675945

  6. Governmental population incentives: ethical issues at stake.

    PubMed

    Veatch, R M

    1977-04-01

    Governmental incentives to influence population-related decisions are examined in terms of the ethical issues at stake. A typology of incentive schemes is presented, and ethical implications of various incentives are discussed. It is argued that, in a just scheme, a progressive, negative incentive or fee, calculated as a surtax on a modified income tax or an equivalent standard, would distribute burdens equally. A set of guidelines for ethical evaluation of incentive schemes is proposed. PMID:850928

  7. Ethics in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, E. Lander

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical

  8. Ethical doings in naturecultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Puig de la Bellacasa

    2010-01-01

    What new forms of ethical engagement are emerging in naturecultural worlds? In this paper I explore the example of the practical ethics of the permaculture movement. I put these in dialogue first with new approaches to ethics in biopolitics and naturecultures and second with a reading of feminist care ethics. Across this discussion I focus on the potential of ethos

  9. An Ethics Primer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides a basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues.

  10. The Social Studies Teacher: An Exploration of Ethical Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Anna

    1977-01-01

    The article identifies ethical criteria for social studies teachers. Examples of tensions between parents, students, and teachers are presented to illustrate how the ethical criteria impinge on the social studies teacher. (Author/DB)

  11. The dynamo dilemma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1987-01-01

    The recent determination that the angular velocity Omega of the sun declines downward through the convective zone raises serious questions about the nature of the solar dynamo. The principal qualitative features of the sun are the azimuthal fields that migrate toward the equator in association with an oscillating poloidal field which reverses at about the time of maximum appearance of bipolar magnetic regions. If Omega decreases downward, or is negligible, the horizontal gradient in Omega produces a dynamo with some of these essential characteristics. There is reason to think that the dynamo is confined to the lower half of the convective zone, where alpha has the opposite sign from the usual (alpha of greater than 0 in the northern hemisphere) producing equatorward migration but reversing the sign of the associated poloidal field. Meridional circulation may play an essential role in shaping the dynamo. At the present time it is essential to measure Omega accurately and determine the nature of the meridional circulation.

  12. THE ETHICAL EDUCATION OF OPHTHALMOLOGY RESIDENTS: AN EXPERIMENT

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the effect of ethics education on a resident’s ability to answer questions that relate to moral dilemmas and on the clinical evaluations of residents by faculty. Methods The curriculum for the ethics education that was used for this study was designed by the author and consisted of 10 lectures of 1.5 hours each. Five residencies were included in the project. One residency received one lecture, two residencies received three lectures, and two residencies received 10 lectures. To evaluate the moral skills of the residents at the beginning of the course and at the end, the residents were given the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) developed by James Rest, which involves answering standardized questions about four moral dilemmas. Faculty evaluations were completed before and after the ethics lectures were given. At the beginning of the ethics course, each resident was given a social survey that was designed to assess participation in community, religious, political, and societal activities as well as attitudes about these activities. All residents were also asked demographic information, including their age, gender, and year of residency. Results The results of the DIT-2 taken before and after the ethics lectures were compared. No correlations were found in faculty evaluations of clinical performance of the residents before and after the course (P = .052). Associations between DIT-2 scores and questions on community and religion in the social survey were noted. Conclusion The finding that the effect of an ethics course on residents’ ability to answer moral dilemmas did not achieve statistical significance should be accepted with the understanding that this was a first attempt at standardization of many variables, especially the format of the curriculum and materials used. The use of faculty evaluations to assess clinical performance needs to be standardized, and the faculty members need additional training to ensure validity of the results. The social survey was also the first attempt to assess an association between a resident’s response to moral dilemmas, attending evaluations, and residents’ opinions that relate to community, society, politics, and religion. PMID:17057806

  13. Ethics, the law, and prisoners: protecting society, changing human behavior, and protecting human rights.

    PubMed

    Trestman, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Restricting a person's liberty presents society with many inherent ethical challenges. The historical purposes of confinement have included punishment, penitence, containment, rehabilitation, and habilitation. While the purposes are indeed complex, multifaceted, and at times ambiguous or contradictory, the fact of incarceration intrinsically creates many ethical challenges for psychiatrists working in correctional settings. Role definition of a psychiatrist may be ambiguous, with potential tensions between forensic and therapeutic demands. Privacy may be limited or absent and confidentiality may be compromised. Patient autonomy may be threatened to address real or perceived security concerns. Care delivery may actually have harmful consequences in court cases for pretrial detainees or lethal consequences for those under a death sentence. An absence of data and targeted research hampers the development of evidence-based care delivery for the disenfranchised, understudied, and disproportionately ill prisoner population. In this review paper, I discuss a few of the challenges and dilemmas routinely faced and present a series of questions. Where feasible, proposed resolutions are offered. PMID:24996632

  14. [Nursing and sport practices: learning with ethical dilemas].

    PubMed

    de França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier; Baptista, Rosilene Santos; Brito, Virgínia Rossana de Souza; de Souza, Jeová Alves

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the difficulties related to the first aids during one students competition and also it correlates the experience learned regarding technician aspects, cientifics and ethical approaches when the performance of the first-aid nurse. The report was taking into account the production basis regarding the performance of the first aids professionals and a workshop of consensus to solve ethical dilemmas. It was described the taking decision ethical, the material resources available and also the harms which might affected the physical integrity of the athletes and the interventions executed. It was concluded that the sports has a feature of preventive and curative medicine that demands the moral commitment of the organizers to provide the necessary material resources for occasion of some damage suffered for the athletes. PMID:18472550

  15. Abortion ethics.

    PubMed

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view of ensoulment. The fetus is owed some moral obligations because of its greatly increased potentiality. After a certain point it deserves legal and moral protection. A woman would have the right to be relieved of carrying the fetus, but she would not have the right to the death of the fetus. A significant moral difference exists in these 2 concepts, and it is this issue that forms the basis of the debate concerning the conflict between maternal and fetal rights. When the rights of the fetus and those of the pregnant woman come into direct conflict the rights of the fetus are always subordinated to those of the women. The 3rd ethical foundation of the abortion debate, that of circumstances of horror and hardship surrounding the pregnancy, is really a combination of the first two. A fetus that is known to suffer from disease or deformity has as many or as few rights vis-a-vis the pregnant woman as does a perfectly healthy fetus. The assignment and hierarchy of fetal rights is not dependent upon the circumstances of conception. The next concern is whether the state can enter the private social spheres to regulate the personal activities of individuals. The Supreme court has never made a statement regarding the moral permissibility of abortion. The Court simply has prevented individual states from interfering with a woman's action based on her personal convictions. This is an important difference, and no step should be taken to abrogate this fundamental civil right. PMID:7041095

  16. A critical public-health ethics analysis of Canada's international response to HIV.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Stephanie A; Benatar, Solomon R

    2011-01-01

    As interconnections between health, ideology and politics become increasingly acknowledged, gaps in the literature also become visible in terms of analytic frameworks to engage these issues and empirical studies to understand the complexities. 'Critical public-health ethics' provides such an analytic lens. This article presents the results of a critical public-health ethics analysis of the government of Canada's international response to HIV. This qualitative study involved in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 23 experts on Canada's international response over time. Descriptive, thematic and theoretical analyses revealed an underlying dilemma between Canada's philanthropic desire to 'do the right thing' for the broader public good and Canada's commitment to its own economic growth and other forms of self-interest. Related to this tension were four conspicuous areas of silence in the data: (1) The relative absence of moral vocabulary for discussing Canada's duty to respond to the global HIV pandemic. (2) Scant reference to solutions based on poverty reduction. (3) Little awareness about the dominance of neoliberal economic rationality and its impact on HIV. (4) Limited understanding of Canada's function within the international economic order in terms of its role in poverty creation. Our study has implications for Canada and other rich nations through its empirical contribution to the chorus of calls challenging the legitimised, institutionalised and normative practice of considering the economic growth of wealthy countries as the primary objective of global economic policy. PMID:21390963

  17. Computer Aids Instruction in Photojournalism Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Examines the effectiveness of paper versions and computer versions of 10 ethical situations posed for student photojournalists. Finds that in-depth situations presented through computer software can give students more information on photojournalism ethics than 2-sentence scenarios on paper. (MS)

  18. Ethical Realism: A Guide to Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Gary Miller's essay entitled "Ethical Realism and Continuing Education." In his essay, Dr. Miller has provided a valuable opportunity to reflect on the practice of continuing education (CE) leadership. Dr. Miller reviews six principles that are encapsulated in the concept of ethical realism, but are…

  19. Can hospital promotional activities be more ethical?

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiyi; Yin, Zhou; Xie, Qiong; Shao, Zhexin

    2014-05-01

    At present, there exist a lot of violations of medical ethics in advertising and promotional activities, which have been infringing the rights of patients. Therefore, the ethical criteria should be established as soon as possible to regulate the hospital promotional activities, to regain the trust of people. PMID:24948998

  20. The Cyborg's Dilemma: Embodiment in Virtual Environments

    E-print Network

    Lindeman, Robert W.

    The Cyborg's Dilemma: Embodiment in Virtual Environments Dr. Frank Biocca Ameritech-computer interaction, virtual reality, embodiment,presence, cyborgs. Note: The following text was part of keynote talk

  1. Generalized precedent logics for resolving insecurity dilemmas

    E-print Network

    Alker, Hayward R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper proposes the development and application of a series of gradually more powerful "reflective" logical procedures to increasingly complex and realistic sets of data on collective insecurity dilemmas. Such procedures ...

  2. ETHICALLY COMPLEX DECISIONS IN THE NICU: IMPACT OF THE NEW FRENCH LEGISLATION ON ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES OF PHYSICIANS AND NURSES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    45 59 50 89 KEY-WORDS: neonatal intensive care, ethical dilemmas, legislation, professionals, EURONIC about neonatal intensive care and decisions concerning treatment withdrawal. These guidelines have, neither specific to neonatal care : L. 2002-303 (dated March 4, 2002) on patients' rights, which affirmed

  3. MORALITY FOR SALE? EMBRACING A CHRISTIAN ETHIC IN THE FACE OF A BUSINESS DIVESTMENT: A PERSONAL CASE ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID J. HAGENBUCH

    Lying, stealing, cheating--American business stands accused of these and other vices on a daily basis, simply in the context of normal operations. What happens, then, when businesses are purchased, divested, merged, or divided, as have become the popular trends? Unfortunately, these situations often bring a new array of ethical dilemmas. Christian businesspeople should be familiar with these strategic initiatives and

  4. Getting around the Impasse: A Grounded Approach to Teaching Ethics and Social Responsibility in International Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marc T.; Lok, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Considers the dilemma of teaching ethics and social responsibility in international business courses with either an ethnocentric absolutist or an unengaged relativistic approach. Suggests a strategy that focuses on a grounded understanding of the elements, processes, and properties of capitalism that would serve as a common understanding upon…

  5. Ethics: A Theory of Medical Ethics.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard

    This book review characterizes Robert Veatch's A Theory of Medical Ethics as a "third-generation" treatise that looks beyond case- and issue-oriented analysis to develop the theoretical bases of a "true system of medical ethics." Veatch proposes a "draft medical ethical covenant" based on a "triple contract" model, in which the moral principles of contract keeping, autonomy, honesty, avoiding killing, and justice govern the physician's relationship to both individual patients and society. PMID:11652360

  6. Business ethics, medical ethics and economic medicalization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey Poitras

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ethical implications of economic medicalization: where non-medical problems are transformed into medical problems in order to achieve the objective of shareholder wealth maximization. After considering differences between business ethics and medical ethics, economic medicalization arising from corporate marketing strategies is detailed. Both direct-to-consumer and more traditional physician centred marketing methods are considered. In addition, the economic

  7. Ethical Relativism and Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)

  8. Pediatric facial transplantation: Ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614

  9. Governing Back: The Emergence of the Ethical Consumer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Nelle

    In this essay, I explore the political emergence of the ethical consumer in the Western marketplace and the proliferation of discourses that proclaim to speak for and\\/or target the ethical consumer as a subject for political mobilization. Contemporary literature in political science and theory has been relatively silent regarding the importance of the ethical consumer. Here, I present a genealogical

  10. George Williams in Thailand: An Ethical Decision-Making Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Constance R.; Smith, J. Goosby

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a classroom ethical decision-making exercise designed to help students make reasoned ethical decisions while gaining insight into their own and others' ethical decision-making strategies. During the exercise, students individually analyze an original mini-case, then meet in small groups to reach consensus on the advice and…

  11. Ethics and the Professions: An Assessment of the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael H., Ed.; Powell, Allan R., Ed.

    The presentations included in this collection were made in 1988 at the second Hagerstown Junior College seminar on ethics. The seminar was conducted to raise the level of awareness of breaches of ethics in the professions and to encourage improvements in ethical practice. Seminar participants included college personnel, business personnel, and…

  12. Code of Ethics: Principles for Ethical Leadership

    PubMed Central

    Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.

    2013-01-01

    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes. PMID:23346028

  13. Hospital Ethics Committees in Poland.

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Szyma?ska, Beata

    2014-11-12

    According to UNESCO guidelines, one of the four forms of bioethics committees in medicine are the Hospital Ethics Committees (HECs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the above guidelines are implemented in real practice. There were 111 hospitals selected out of 176 Polish clinical hospitals and hospitals accredited by Center of Monitoring Quality in Health System. The study was conducted by the survey method. There were 56 (50 %) hospitals that responded to the survey. The number of HECs members fluctuated between 3 and 16 members, where usually 5 (22 % of HECs) members were part of the board committee. The composition of the HECs for professions other than physicians was diverse and non-standardized (nurses-in 86 % of HECs, clergy-42 %, lawyers-38 %, psychologists-28 %, hospital management-23 %, rehab staff-7 %, patient representatives-3 %, ethicists-2 %). Only 55 % of HECs had a professional set of standards. 98 % of HECs had specific tasks. 62 % of HECs were asked for their expertise, and 55 % prepared <6.88 % of the opinions were related to interpersonal relations between hospital personnel, patients and their families with emphasis on the interactions between superiors and their inferiors or hospital staff and patients and their families. Only 12 % of the opinions were reported by the respondents as related to ethical dilemmas. In conclusion, few Polish hospitals have HECs, and the structure, services and workload are not always adequate. To ensure a reliable operation of HECs requires the development of relevant legislation, standard operating procedures and well trained members. PMID:25388547

  14. Anthropogenic climate change: Scientific uncertainties and moral dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillerbrand, Rafaela; Ghil, Michael

    2008-08-01

    This paper considers the role of scientific expertise and moral reasoning in the decision making process involved in climate-change issues. It points to an unresolved moral dilemma that lies at the heart of this decision making, namely how to balance duties towards future generations against duties towards our contemporaries. At present, the prevailing moral and political discourses shy away from addressing this dilemma and evade responsibility by falsely drawing normative conclusions from the predictions of climate models alone. We argue that such moral dilemmas are best addressed in the framework of Expected Utility Theory. A crucial issue is to adequately incorporate into this framework the uncertainties associated with the predicted consequences of climate change on the well-being of future generations. The uncertainties that need to be considered include those usually associated with climate modeling and prediction, but also moral and general epistemic ones. This paper suggests a way to correctly incorporate all the relevant uncertainties into the decision making process.

  15. Empirical investigation of the ethical reasoning of physicians and molecular biologists – the importance of the four principles of biomedical ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mette Ebbesen; Birthe D Pedersen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study presents an empirical investigation of the ethical reasoning and ethical issues at stake in the daily work of physicians and molecular biologists in Denmark. The aim of this study was to test empirically whether there is a difference in ethical considerations and principles between Danish physicians and Danish molecular biologists, and whether the bioethical principles of the

  16. The business of pain medicine: the present mirrors antiquity.

    PubMed

    Kulich, Ronald; Loeser, John D

    2011-07-01

    The practice of pain medicine is often considered a fledgling field, as are the economic, business, and related ethical issues associated with providing these services. This article first traces the history of pain care and its relationships to industry and business, as well as the impact of government regulations over the ages. The authors challenge the view that the commonly discussed health care issues facing pain medicine are new by tracing the business and regulatory-related antecedents of pain care practice from the first through 21st century. The controversies associated with the practice of delivering pain-related health care services in an ethical manner are discussed with specific reference to the early work of clinicians, health care activists, and policy makers. The early activities of noteworthy individuals such as Pliny the Great, Hua T'o, John Locke, Benjamin Franklin, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., William Morton, Henry and William James, Heinrick Dresser, and other recent health care activists are reviewed. Issues of practitioner liability and regulatory restrictions on practice are also discussed in a historical context. The authors conclude that familiar ethical dilemmas commonly arose in past centuries, and history may be repeating itself with respect to the concerns now being discussed within our field. These arguments are reflected against the pain medicine Ethics Charters of the American Academy of Pain Medicine throughout the document. Finally, we outline the challenges for the present and future. With an understanding of these eight historical events as a backdrop, we may be at an opportune time to better address these issues in a manner that could provide the most effective pain care in our society. PMID:21699650

  17. Ethics and Nanotechnology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page from the Understanding Nano website introduces concepts of nanotechnology-related ethics. In addition to the reading materials, the page provides a list of websites and organizations that focus on ethics and nanotechnology.

  18. Ethics Committee or Community? Examining the identity of Czech Ethics Committees in the period of transition.

    PubMed

    Simek, Jiri; Zamykalova, Lenka; Mesanyova, Marie

    2010-09-01

    Reflecting on a three year long exploratory research of ethics committees in the Czech Republic authors discuss the current role and identity of research ethics committees. The research of Czech ethics committees focused on both self-presentation and self-understanding of ECs members, and how other stakeholders (representatives of the pharmaceutical industry) view them. The exploratory research was based on formal and informal communication with the members of the ethics committees. Members of the research team took part at six regular voluntary meetings of the ethics committees' members, organised by the Forum of Czech Ethics Committees, and at three summer schools of medical ethics. There were realised twenty-five semi-structured interviews as well as six focus group sessions and a participant observation of several regular meetings of three ethics committees. On the grounds of experience from the interviews a simple questionnaire survey was realised among the members of the ethics committees. The ethics committees comprise a community of members working voluntarily, without claims to remuneration or prestige; the unifying goal is protection of subjects of research. The principal working methods are dialogue and agreement. The members of the ethics committees thus, among other things, create an informal community, which can be to a certain extent seen as a Kantian ethical community in a weak sense. The phenomenon of ethics committees can also be described by terms of an epistemic community and a community of practice. These concepts, which are borrowed from other authors and areas, are used as a way how to think of ECs role and identity a bit differently and are meant as a contribution to the current international debate on the topic. PMID:20675735

  19. Giftedness and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    What is, or should be, the role of ethics in giftedness? In this article, I consider why ethical behavior is much harder to come by than one would expect. Ethical behavior requires completion of a series of eight steps to action, the failure of any one of which may result in a person, even one who is ethically well trained, to act in a manner that…

  20. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    PubMed

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. PMID:25878171

  1. Resisting the seduction of "ethics creep": using Foucault to surface complexity and contradiction in research ethics review.

    PubMed

    Guta, Adrian; Nixon, Stephanie A; Wilson, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we examine "ethics creep", a concept developed by Haggerty (2004) to account for the increasing bureaucratization of research ethics boards and institutional review boards (REB/IRBs) and the expanding reach of ethics review. We start with an overview of the recent surge of academic interest in ethics creep and similar arguments about the prohibitive effect of ethics review. We then introduce elements of Michel Foucault's theoretical framework which are used to inform our analysis of empirical data drawn from a multi-phase study exploring the accessibility of community-engaged research within existing ethics review structures in Canada. First, we present how ethics creep emerged both explicitly and implicitly in our data. We then present data that demonstrate how REB/IRBs are experiencing their own form of regulation. Finally, we present data that situate ethics review alongside other trends affecting the academy. Our results show that ethics review is growing in some ways while simultaneously being constrained in others. Drawing on Foucauldian theory we reframe ethics creep as a repressive hypothesis which belies the complexity of the phenomenon it purports to explain. Our discussion complicates ethics creep by proposing an understanding of REB/IRBs that locates them at the intersection of various neoliberal discourses about the role of science, ethics, and knowledge production. PMID:23063216

  2. An FPGA architecture for solving the Table Maker's Dilemma F. de Dinechin, J.-M. Muller, B. Pasca, and A. Plesco

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An FPGA architecture for solving the Table Maker's Dilemma F. de Dinechin, J.-M. Muller, B. Pasca such computations on a very regular architecture, and present an FPGA implementation of that algorithm. Keywords-table maker's dilemma; floating-point arithmetic; correct rounding; elementary functions; FPGA; I. THE TABLE

  3. Foucault and ethical universality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Cordner

    2004-01-01

    Foucault's resistance to a universalist ethics, especially in his later writings, is well-known. Foucault thinks that ethical universalism presupposes a shared human essence, and that this presupposition makes it a straitjacket, an attempt to force people to conform to an externally imposed 'pattern'. Foucault's hostility may be warranted for one - perhaps the usual - conception of ethical universality. But

  4. "Not" Teaching Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    If the goal of teaching ethics is to affect behavior and ultimately produce thoughtful, ethical people, then the best process to do this is by embedding ethical practices in student discussions. One teacher demonstrates how she has done this in her classrooms.

  5. Ethics and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Erin; Eastmond, Nick; Geertsen, Reed; Johnson, Doug; Lewandowski, Judith; Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Contains four articles covering trends and issues on ethics and privacy in instructional technology, including: considerations for assessing ethical issues; what schools must do to develop ethical behaviors in students; a privacy primer for educators; and manufacturing technophopia. Each article contains references. (MES)

  6. Ethics in public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Public health programmes pose some very important ethical problems. One of the most pressing is the possible conflict between individual interests (and rights) and collective interests, which becomes particularly important in the public health surveillance setting. The present article first looks at the definitions of "public health surveillance" in a historical context and then identifies the key ethical problems that are raised. These reveal the differences - and sometimes deviations - between the bioethical issues typically encountered in a clinical setting and those that prevail in a public health context. Human rights are suggested as a possible common ground between the two. The article then draws on the specialised literature to indicate tools and checklists to help evaluate the ethical acceptability of public health surveillance programmes. It concludes with a description of the key criteria underlying these tools and checklists. PMID:24334778

  7. Hope and the ethics of disclosure for terminally ill cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Manship, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis presents a disclosure dilemma for physicians, holding in tension the physician's obligation to provide diagnosis and its impact on the patient. To address this dilemma the traditional approach of physicians, typified as the psychological-empirical approach to hope, needs to be complemented by a patient-oriented approach, described as the phenomenological hermeneutics of hope. PMID:16607707

  8. An information systems perspective on ethical trade and self-regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Duncombe; Richard Heeks

    2003-01-01

    Increasing numbers of ethical trade initiatives are being launched, reflecting concerns about the limited benefits that globalising trade brings to producers in developing countries. Ethical trade is an information-intensive activity. Yet little is known about the role of information systems in supporting ethical trade. This paper provides a preliminary conceptualisation of ethical trade regulatory information systems. It presents models and

  9. Ethical Practices for College Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    A policy statement on ethical practices for college presidents developed by the Committee on Governance of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) is presented. Presidents of AASCU member institutions recognize the special responsibilities that pertain to them by virtue of the public trust they hold. To fulfill that…

  10. Normative Sentimentalism and Animal Ethics

    E-print Network

    Gerrek, Monica

    2008-01-09

    The purpose of this dissertation is to present what I think is a particularly compelling normative version of sentimentalism. The moral principle which is the foundation of this ethic is: An act, or a failure to act, is morally wrong if and only...

  11. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    PubMed

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008. PMID:19235389

  12. Ethical issues in emerging new treatments such as growth hormone therapy for children with Down syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kodish, E; Cuttler, L

    1996-08-01

    As new therapies and new applications of existing drugs expand, pediatricians are often in the position of trying to decide when and whether use of a new treatment is appropriate. In this paper, we address this dilemma by focusing on ethical issues in the use of growth hormone therapy for children with Down syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome as an example. We discuss six major questions that link scientific and ethical considerations in analyzing these difficult issues. PMID:8954275

  13. Embryonic stem cell research in Iran: status and ethics.

    PubMed

    Saniei, Mansooreh; De Vries, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    Various successes in regenerative medicine by therapeutic cloning have given rise to expectations that treatments will soon be developed for incurable diseases. But using embryonic stem cells for this purpose raises many ethical dilemmas including those about the beginning of human life. Arguments concerning stem cell research and therapeutic cloning in different countries are influenced by both the religious and bioethical traditions which dominate in these cultures. This article examines how these traditions have influenced stem cell research in Iran through an account of scientific advances and the development of regulations on embryonic stem cell research in Iran. PMID:18988380

  14. [Neonatal screening and the right to know: ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry provides information on numerous metabolites and is widely used for neonatal screening of congenital metabolic disorders. The list of disorders covered by screening programmes in different nations and regions varies, leading to the dilemma of whether parents have an absolute "right to know" information that can be provided by technology but that is not included in the programme implemented by one's country/region. The article discusses some ethical points to consider: the right to know is not absolute, parents are not always the best judges, and it may be in the patient's interest not to provide some of the information. PMID:25353270

  15. Dilemmas in Bioethics. [Student's Guide.] Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A.; And Others

    The purpose of this module is to introduce students (grades 10-11) to critical bioethical issues by considering moral dilemmas and knowledge of biomedical advances. The module is organized into 12 topic areas, each containing a dilemma story, introductory reading material, sample student responses, and questions. Dilemmas are essentially brief…

  16. The Construction of Moral Dilemmas in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wark, Gillian R.; Krebs, Dennis L.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the extent to which people interpret real-life moral dilemmas in terms of an internal moral orientation or the content of the dilemma. Lists the opinions of 30 women and 30 men describing their views on real-life prosocial, antisocial, and social pressure types of moral dilemmas. Includes references. (CMK)

  17. Life Science EthicsLife Science Ethics Dr. Kristen Hessler

    E-print Network

    Song, Joe

    · plus · Ethical claims · equals · Ethical conclusion #12;Ethical Argument ­ Example · Human cloning of adults. · Therefore, human cloning is morally wrong. Conclusion Premises #12;Evaluating Ethical Arguments · Human cloning produces exact physical replicas of adults. · It is ethically wrong to produce exact

  18. Improving epistemological beliefs and moral judgment through an STS-based science ethics education program.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyemin; Jeong, Changwoo

    2014-03-01

    This study develops a Science-Technology-Society (STS)-based science ethics education program for high school students majoring in or planning to major in science and engineering. Our education program includes the fields of philosophy, history, sociology and ethics of science and technology, and other STS-related theories. We expected our STS-based science ethics education program to promote students' epistemological beliefs and moral judgment development. These psychological constructs are needed to properly solve complicated moral and social dilemmas in the fields of science and engineering. We applied this program to a group of Korean high school science students gifted in science and engineering. To measure the effects of this program, we used an essay-based qualitative measurement. The results indicate that there was significant development in both epistemological beliefs and moral judgment. In closing, we briefly discuss the need to develop epistemological beliefs and moral judgment using an STS-based science ethics education program. PMID:23338794

  19. Lessons on Law, Ethics Establish Checkpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tantillo, Susan Hathaway

    1992-01-01

    Presents a 10-day teaching unit on the law and ethics of press rights, particularly regarding high school student newspapers. Includes unit objectives and suggested resources, as well as sample situations for class activities. (SR)

  20. Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.

    PubMed

    Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

    2014-10-16

    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles. PMID:25319836

  1. A professional ethics learning module for use in co-operative education.

    PubMed

    Cates, Cheryl; Dansberry, Bryan

    2004-04-01

    The Professional Practice Program, also known as the co-operative education (co-op) program, at the University of Cincinnati (UC) is designed to provide eligible students with the most comprehensive and professional preparation available. Beginning with the Class of 2006, students in UC's Centennial Co-op Class will be following a new co-op curriculum centered around a set of learning outcomes Regardless of their particular discipline, students will pursue common learning outcomes by participating in the Professional Practice Program, which will cover issues of organizational culture, technology, professional ethics, and the integration of theory and practice. During their third co-op work term, students will complete a learning module on Professional Ethics. To complete the learning module students must familiarize themselves with the code of ethics for their profession, create a hypothetical scenario portraying an ethical dilemma that involves issues covered by the code, resolve the dilemma, and explain why their resolution is the best course of action based upon the code of ethics. A three-party assessment process including students, employers and faculty complete the module. PMID:15152866

  2. Non-Official Roads Dilemma in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Arima, Eugenio; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Caldas, Marcellus; Brandao, Amintas de O., Jr.; Araujo de Souza, Francisco Kennedy; Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of this millennium, "non-official" roads predominate in Amazonia. The opening of these roads, a phenomenon that has not been studied in depth, represents a major dilemma - it generates environmental and social impacts, but it helps to reduce the isolation of the communities in Amazonia and to improve the quality of life for those rural populations. The combined positive and negative aspects of this dilemma mean that it is a matter of crucial importance for the government at last to do a proper job in building these roads; if this is disregarded, in the future, the environment and the Brazilians living in that region will be at risk.

  3. Accountability: the ethics of devising a practice-as-research performance with learning-disabled practitioners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fran Leighton

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the dilemmas encountered by non-disabled performance researchers and practitioners working with learning-disabled people. I demonstrate how the ‘accounts’ of empirical social scientists informed my PARIP [practice-as-research-in-performance] project, BluYesBlu, and how Judith Butler's reformulation of the concept of ethics, from the responsibility of the individual to negotiations within social relations, has revealed the complexity of the tensions between

  4. Global dilemmas and the plausibility of whole-system change

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, W.W. [Inst. of Noetic Sciences, Sausalito, CA (United States)] [Inst. of Noetic Sciences, Sausalito, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Approaching the global dilemmas of our time with whole-system thinking implies that the much-talked-about problems of environmental degradation, deforestation, desertification, man-made climate change, chronic hunger and poverty, etc. are not so much problems as symptoms of a deeper-level condition that must be dealt with. This has to do with the basic incompatibility between widely proclaimed goals and underlying system assumptions. Pressures toward whole-system change are increasing in intensity. The critical issue is whether that change can be smooth and nondisruptive, or whether it will involve some disintegration of present structures. Constructive interventions are discussed. 1 tab.

  5. Dilemmas Presented by State Agency Takeovers of Local School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E.

    During the 1988-89 school year, two local school districts were placed into "Phase III" of the Kentucky Educational Improvement Act (1978), a category of state receivership in which much local decision-making power was transferred to Kentucky Department of Education officials. When state education department intervention occurs, major issues arise…

  6. Law, ethics and research ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Beyleveld, Deryck

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the view of the operational management of the UK Research Ethics Committee (REC) system that RECs may not reject applications on purely legal grounds. Two arguments are offered for this view: the first rests on the contention that being lawful and being ethical are not the same thing; the second is that RECs lack expertise and authority to base their decisions on legal considerations. However, whatever the philosophical standing of the first argument, it is contrary to published guidance, the basis of RECs' official authority, unethical, and politically imprudent to permit RECs not to consider conformity with the law to be at least a necessary condition for REC approval. In any event, RECs can obtain competent and authoritative advice on the law (though the Department of Health has been remiss in this regard), and they do not exceed their authority by applying the law, because this is within their ethical remit. When current guidance to RECs about advising researchers on whether or not breaches of confidence are permissible in the public interest is linked to the view of the REC management that the role of RECs is to facilitate research (albeit ethical research), this raises serious doubts about the integrity of the system of ethical review currently in place, which is illustrated by a recent "agreement" of the Chairmen of the MRECs not to consider the Data Protection Act 1998 in their ethical review. PMID:12017445

  7. An Appropriate Role for Ethics in Teaching Contemporary Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith K. Schillo

    ABSTRACT: There seems,to be general,agreement among,animal,scientists,that,training,in,contem- porary,issues is an appropriate,goal of animal,science curricula. One,approach,is based,on,the,view,that public policy issues embody,moral,dilemmas,that arise when,the,moral,perspectives,(values) of opposing groups are incompatible. Based on this view, an understanding,of such,issues,requires,some,training in ethics. More specifically, knowledge of major moral theories,and,the,nature,of values,is necessary,to identify and,analyze,the moral,components,of issues. An appreciation,for ethics,also provides,insight,into addressing,issues,in a morally,responsible,manner. The plurality,of values,and,the contextual,nature,of policy

  8. Ethical challenges in home mechanical ventilation: A secondary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dybwik, Knut; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Brinchmann, Berit Støre

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ethical challenges in home mechanical ventilation based on a secondary analysis of qualitative empirical data. The data included perceptions of healthcare professionals in hospitals and community health services and family members of children and adults using home mechanical ventilation. The findings show that a number of ethical challenges, or dilemmas, arise at all levels in the course of treatment: deciding who should be offered home mechanical ventilation, respect for patient and family wishes, quality of life, dignity and equal access to home mechanical ventilation. Other challenges were the impacts home mechanical ventilation had on the patient, the family, the healthcare services and the allocation of resources. A better and broader understanding of these issues is crucial in order to improve the quality of care for both patient and family and assist healthcare professionals involved in home mechanical ventilation to make decisions for the good of the patient and his or her family. PMID:22183963

  9. Ethics in Medical Research and Publication

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Hodzic, Ajla; Mulic, Smaila

    2014-01-01

    To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature. Investing in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research ethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of it repercussion is essential for finding a solution to this problem and ensuring careers are constructed on honesty and integrity. PMID:25317288

  10. Saving Superman: Ethics and Stem Cell Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Doug M. Post

    2006-01-01

    This case explores the political and ethical issues associated with stem cell research. Students read the case describing Christopher Reeve’s accident and injuries and his advocacy for stem cell research along with background readings on stem cells and the ethics of stem cell research. They are then assigned to one of four stakeholder groups and asked to develop a position on whether or not the U.S. Senate should expand stem cell research with a focus on the ethics underlying the issue.  They present their positions in class in a simulated public hearing.

  11. Dismembering the ethical physician

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, S J

    2006-01-01

    Physicians may experience ethical distress when they are caught in difficult clinical situations that demand ethical decision making, particularly when their preferred action may contravene the expectations of patients and established authorities. When principled and competent doctors succumb to patient wishes or establishment guidelines and participate in actions they perceive to be ethically inappropriate, or agree to refrain from interventions they believe to be in the best interests of patients, individual professional integrity may be diminished, and ethical reliability is potentially compromised. In a climate of ever?proliferating ethical quandaries, it is essential for the medical community, health institutions, and governing bodies to pursue a judicious tension between the indispensable regulation of physicians necessary to maintain professional standards and preserve public safety, and the support for “freedom of conscience” that principled physicians require to practise medicine in keeping with their personal ethical orientation. PMID:16597808

  12. Perspectives on energy: issues, ideas, and environmental dilemmas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Ruedisili; M. W. Firebaugh

    1982-01-01

    An international group of contributors, recognized experts in their respective fields, present the scientific, economic, environmental, ethical, and policy aspects of the energy problem, as well as information on the basic background and limitations of various energy alternatives. New material in the revised edition includes articles on energy-growth patterns, fossil fuels, the World Coal Study (WOCOL) synfuels, atmospheric carbon dioxide,

  13. Ethical Implications of Psychopharmacotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanfried Helmchen

    \\u000a Both the efficient application of a marketed psychotropic drug to mentally ill persons in practice and the assessment of effectiveness and safety of a potentially therapeutic drug through research imply ethical problems. The basic ethical issue is to find an optimum of the relationship between the benefits and risks\\u000a of a medication with regard to major ethical principles.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The therapeutic

  14. Research on tobacco use among teenagers: ethical challenges 1 1 The full text of this article is available online via http:\\/\\/www.elsevier.com\\/locate\\/jahonline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric T. Moolchan; Robin Mermelstein

    2002-01-01

    Recent increases in adolescent smoking portend upcoming public health challenges as the majority of smokers initiate long-term addiction during youth, but experience major health consequences later in life. To effectively address this important teenage and adult health issue, critical research information and early interventions are needed, yet conducting tobacco research with teen smokers poses substantial challenges, including several ethical dilemmas.

  15. The Drama in School Leadership: An Arts-Based Approach to Understanding the Ethical Dimensions of Decision Making for Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston, Jerome A.; Kusanovich, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the implications and effectiveness of a performing arts-based pedagogy in the professional development of school leaders. It reports on the findings from a study that exposed educational leaders to methods of dramatic analysis as a means of reflecting on the ethical dilemmas found in personnel management. Through the dynamic…

  16. Newborn screening: ethical, legal, and social implications.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rebecca; Rothwell, Erin; Botkin, Jeffrey R

    2011-01-01

    Newborn dried blood spot screening (NBS) is a core public health service and is the largest application of genetic testing in the United States. NBS is conducted by state public health departments to identify infants with certain genetic, metabolic, and endocrine disorders. Screening is performed in the first few days of life through blood testing. Several drops of blood are taken from the baby's heel and placed on a filter paper card. The dried blood, on the filter cards, is sent from the newborn nursery to the state health department laboratory, or a commercial partner, where the blood is analyzed. Scientific and technological advances have lead to a significant expansion in the number of tests-from an average of 6 to more than 50--and there is a national trend to further expand the NBS program. This rapid expansion has created significant ethical, legal, and social challenges for the health care system and opportunity for scholarly inquiry to address these issues. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the NBS programs and to provide an in-depth examination of two significant concerns raised from expanded newborn screening, specifically false-positives and lack of information for parents. Implications for nursing research in managing these ethical dilemmas are discussed. PMID:22891501

  17. Professional Ethics: Caught and Taught.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Belliston, Lisa M.

    2001-01-01

    Compares codes of professional ethics of several professional associations in light of rapidly changing technology. Explores the relation between academic honesty and ethical practice and provides a summary of approaches to teaching ethics. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)

  18. [Ethical medicine in Paracelsus].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, D V

    1997-01-01

    The last decades have been an increasing interest in medical ethics. Paracelsus occupies an important place in the development of ethics in medicine in the crucial cultural passage between Middle Ages and Renaissance. Paracelsus' biography is in itself connected with ethical choices and theories. In his medical doctrines ethics is rooted in the belief in a strict correspondence between micro- and macrocosmos. Love is the basis on which a correct doctor-patient relationship can be built. Ilnesses are but episodes in the human life, and care for both spiritual and bodily health should dominate the entire life, and not ony the crucial moments of birth, sickness and death. PMID:11619967

  19. Ethics for medical educators: an overview and fallacies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arjun

    2010-07-01

    Ethics is the rule of right conduct or practice in a profession. The basic principles of ethics are beneficence, justice and autonomy or individual freedom. There is very minor demarcation between ethics and the law. The ethics is promulgated by the professional bodies. All are expected to guide the medical professional in their practice. Medical educators have dual ethical obligations: firstly, to the society at large which expects us to produce competent health professionals, and secondly, to the students under our care. The students observe and copy what their teacher does and his/her role modelling can be a gateway to a student's character building. Due to rapid increase in the number of medical colleges, privatization, and capitalism, ethical issue has become much more relevant and needs to discuss in detail. The present paper discusses the ethics for medical educators in detail with, basic principles, common breaches of ethics and fallacies due to wrong application of ethical principles, and the approach to ethics and methods by which we can prevent and avoid breach of ethics. PMID:21716861

  20. Perceptions of ethical problems by forensic psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, R

    1989-01-01

    A survey was undertaken of the opinions of two groups of forensic psychiatrists to determine their views regarding forensic ethical issues. Although AAPL has made significant strides for our profession by adopting ethical guidelines, some important issues have not yet been addressed, as revealed by our survey. Included were items heretofore considered too "controversial" for incorporation into guidelines, as well as items from the APA ethical framework. All APA items were evaluated as addressing ethical problems. The majority of respondents also viewed most of the "controversial" items as confronting relevant ethical problems, thereby suggesting their inclusion, in some form, in the profession's guidelines. They also appeared to favor retention of many traditional medical ethical values when functioning as a forensic psychiatrist. Clear selective discrimination existed among differing death penalty facets. Since AAPL at present does not wish to conduct its own ethics hearings, the AAPL guidelines as well as the items supported in this paper's survey would best be translated into a form consistent with the APA framework. In this way, AAPL's guidelines and also the new suggested items could readily be coordinated within the APA framework and could play a role in the APA local district branch enforcement process. PMID:2758120

  1. Tensions and Dilemmas in Leading Australia's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie

    2012-01-01

    In this article we address several tensions and dilemmas that are impacting on Australian principals and other school leaders. The first section explores areas associated with improving teaching and learning and includes discussion of education trends, the construction of new learning environments and the implication of these for more…

  2. Evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game on hierarchical lattices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeromos Vukov; György Szabó

    2005-01-01

    An evolutionary prisoner's dilemma (PD) game is studied with players located on a hierarchical structure of layered square lattices. The players can follow two strategies [ D (defector) and C (cooperator)] and their income comes from PD games with the ``neighbors.'' The adoption of one of the neighboring strategies is allowed with a probability dependent on the payoff difference. Monte

  3. Galston's Dilemmas and Wisconsin v. Yoder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Eamonn

    2006-01-01

    William Galston posed two dilemmas about parental rights and education in "Liberal Purposes". The first of these arises from conflict between the proper ends of civic education in a liberal society and the values that some parents will want to honor in the way they rear their children; the second arises from conflict between how the basic…

  4. Modern Dilemmas - Science (World History Series).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    The publication, referred to as a unit on "Modern Dilemmas," was completed in 1969 and is part of a Modern World History pilot project integrating areas of art, literature, philosophy, and science into the social studies curriculum. The unit seeks to explore all of the facets of science as part of man's search for meaning, but because of time…

  5. The Great Job Hunt: Health Educators' Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Geraldine; Banks, Rebecca

    1981-01-01

    The difficulty in getting a job has become a dilemma for health education graduates. The preparation of the curriculum vitae, methods of personal interviewing, and ideas for evaluating the potential employer are discussed. Sample questions which might be asked of the potential employer are included. (JN)

  6. Risk and medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Pochin, E

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of risk, and their comparison with quantitative estimates of benefit, contribute usefully to decision-making in many fields. In medicine, our assessments of the probability of harm, and of the likelihood of benefit, resulting from many procedures are at present very limited. Moreover, the comparison of risk and of benefit is difficult to make in any quantitative way, whether for a procedure in general or, even more so, for its application in any particular patient. Yet it must be ethically insecure to propose or to use a procedure without some assessment, however approximate, of the hazards involved, and without some indication of whether those hazards will be clearly offset by the likelihood of benefit that should result from use of the procedure. PMID:7154031

  7. Ethics of cochlear implantation in young children: a review and reply from a Deaf-World perspective.

    PubMed

    Lane, H; Bahan, B

    1998-10-01

    This article examines ethical dilemmas related to cochlear implant surgery in children. These dilemmas arise from the existence of a linguistic and cultural minority called the Deaf World. Organizations of culturally Deaf adults in the United States and abroad, as well as the World Federation of the Deaf, have, on ethical grounds, strongly criticized the practice of cochlear implant surgery in children. Three ethical dilemmas are examined. (1) The surgery is of unproven value for the main significant benefit sought, language acquisition, whereas the psychological, social, and linguistic risks have not been assessed. Thus the surgery appears to be innovative, but innovative surgery on children is ethically problematic. (2) It is now widely recognized that the signed languages of the world are full-fledged natural languages, and the communities that speak those languages have distinct social organizations and cultures. Deaf culture values lead to a different assessment of pediatric cochlear implant surgery than do mainstream (hearing) values, and both sets of values have standing. (3) The fields of otology and audiology want to provide cochlear implants to Deaf children but also, their leaders say, want to protect Deaf culture; those appear to be conflicting goals in principle because, if there were perfect implants, the ranks of the Deaf World would diminish. PMID:9781982

  8. Children's Perspectives on Everyday Experiences of Shared Residence: Time, Emotions and Agency Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugen, Gry Mette D.

    2010-01-01

    Shared residence is often presented as an arrangement that is in the best interests of the child following the divorce of its parents. Based on in-depth interviews with Norwegian children who have experienced shared residence, this article seeks to explore some dilemmas concerning time, agency and the children's emotions. Three characteristics of…

  9. From the outside Looking in: The Praxis Dilemma of Linking Psychopolitical Validity with Community Policing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Brian N.

    2008-01-01

    The author applies the concept of psychopolitical validity beyond the confines of the academy to the contemporary practice of American community policing. As such, it presents the promise and pitfalls of this potential union by highlighting points of linkage and places of conflict and tension and provides a commentary on the praxis dilemma of…

  10. Cyborg morals, cyborg values, cyborg ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Warwick

    2003-01-01

    The era of the Cyborg is now upon us. This has enormous implications on ethical values for both humans and cyborgs. In this\\u000a paper the state of play is discussed. Routes to cyborgisation are introduced and different types of Cyborg are considered.\\u000a The author's own self-experimentation projects are described as central to the theme taken. The presentation involves ethical\\u000a aspects

  11. Ethics Beyond the IRB: An Introductory Essay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen M. Blee; Ashley Currier

    2011-01-01

    Qualitative sociologists confront thorny ethical issues, many of which are beyond the scope of institutional review board\\u000a procedures and protocols. This essay presents the broad themes of this special issue by reviewing major approaches to scholarly\\u000a ethical practice, offering a set of orienting propositions, and introducing the contributions of and connections among the\\u000a articles that follow.

  12. Ethical issues in the response to Ebola virus disease in US emergency departments: a position paper of the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Wolf, Lisa; Geiderman, Joel M; Asher, Shellie L; Marco, Catherine A; McGreevy, Jolion; Derse, Arthur R; Otten, Edward J; Jesus, John E; Kreitzer, Natalie P; Escalante, Monica; Levine, Adam C

    2015-03-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has presented a significant public health crisis to the international health community and challenged US emergency departments to prepare for patients with a disease of exceeding rarity in developed nations. With the presentation of patients with Ebola to US acute care facilities, ethical questions have been raised in both the press and medical literature as to how US emergency departments, emergency physicians, emergency nurses and other stakeholders in the healthcare system should approach the current epidemic and its potential for spread in the domestic environment. To address these concerns, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine developed this joint position paper to provide guidance to US emergency physicians, emergency nurses and other stakeholders in the healthcare system on how to approach the ethical dilemmas posed by the outbreak of EVD. This paper will address areas of immediate and potential ethical concern to US emergency departments in how they approach preparation for and management of potential patients with EVD. PMID:25770003

  13. Ethical issues in the response to ebola virus disease in United States emergency departments: a position paper of the american college of emergency physicians, the emergency nurses association, and the society for academic emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Asher, Shellie L; Wolf, Lisa; Geiderman, Joel M; Marco, Catherine A; McGreevy, Jolion; Derse, Arthur R; Otten, Edward J; Jesus, John E; Kreitzer, Natalie P; Escalante, Monica; Levine, Adam C

    2015-05-01

    The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has presented a significant public health crisis to the international health community and challenged U.S. emergency departments (EDs) to prepare for patients with a disease of exceeding rarity in developed nations. With the presentation of patients with Ebola to U.S. acute care facilities, ethical questions have been raised in both the press and medical literature as to how U.S. EDs, emergency physicians (EPs), emergency nurses, and other stakeholders in the health care system should approach the current epidemic and its potential for spread in the domestic environment. To address these concerns, the American College of Emergency Physicians, the Emergency Nurses Association, and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine developed this joint position paper to provide guidance to U.S. EPs, emergency nurses, and other stakeholders in the health care system on how to approach the ethical dilemmas posed by the outbreak of EVD. This paper will address areas of immediate and potential ethical concern to U.S. EDs in how they approach preparation for and management of potential patients with EVD. PMID:25903144

  14. Framing ethical acceptability: a problem with nuclear waste in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Ethan T

    2012-06-01

    Ethical frameworks are often used in professional fields as a means of providing explicit ethical guidance for individuals and institutions when confronted with ethically important decisions. The notion of an ethical framework has received little critical attention, however, and the concept subsequently lends itself easily to misuse and ambiguous application. This is the case with the 'ethical framework' offered by Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), the crown-corporation which owns and is responsible for the long-term management of Canada's high-level nuclear fuel waste. It makes a very specific claim, namely that it is managing Canada's long-lived radioactive nuclear fuel waste in an ethically responsible manner. According to this organization, what it means to behave in an ethically responsible manner is to act and develop policy in accordance with its ethical framework. What, then, is its ethical framework, and can it be satisfied? In this paper I will show that the NWMO's ethical and social framework is deeply flawed in two respects: (a) it fails to meet the minimum requirements of a code of ethic or ethical framework by offering only questions, and no principles or rules of conduct; and (b) if posed as principles or rules of conduct, some of its questions are unsatisfiable. In particular, I will show that one of its claims, namely that it seek informed consent from individuals exposed to risk of harm from nuclear waste, cannot be satisfied as formulated. The result is that the NWMO's ethical framework is not, at present, ethically acceptable. PMID:21318321

  15. Ethical considerations for the conduct of antidementia trials in Canada.

    PubMed

    Fisk, John D

    2007-03-01

    Clinical trials in persons with dementia bring into focus the ethical dilemmas frequently confronting the clinician-scientist. Despite the existence of various ethical guidelines, most with common underlying principles, few are specific to dementia. A particular difficulty is finding a balance between respect for the autonomy of the individual and the protection of vulnerable persons, while at the same time defining an acceptable risk/benefit ratio for the study. The availability of symptomatic treatments for Alzheimer's disease also now make it difficult to argue that withholding treatment from those in the placebo arm of a clinical trial fulfills one's duty to provide best care. Those conducting clinical trials must be knowledgeable about existing legislation and ethical guidelines in order to justify to themselves and others, the design of clinical trials and their risks. They must be prepared to educate patients and family members about dementia and research, determine each potential subject's competence to consent, and ensure that decisions about participation are in accordance with the best interests of the subject. Ethical conduct of clinical trials of new antidementia therapies will require that everyone involved understands the values and beliefs that guide their decision-making and the potentially conflicting roles facing the clinician-scientist. PMID:17469679

  16. The Ethical Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

  17. Ethics for Industrial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Balamuralikrishna, Radha

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes aim at one specific, as well as basic, need in teamwork and interdisciplinary projects--ethics and its implications for professional practice. A preliminary study suggests that students majoring in industrial technology degree programs may not have adequate opportunity to formally study and engage in ethical aspects of technology…

  18. New-World Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Businesses, particularly training departments, have reacted to terrorist attacks, collapse of major businesses, and wrongdoing by religious figures. Trainers have responded by offering safety and security-related training, helping establish risk-management procedures, increasing ethics training, and rewriting ethics codes. (JOW)

  19. Ethics and Value Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Daniel

    1978-01-01

    The teaching of ethics and values is a concern of American education. Scientific and technological developments and the responsibilities of professional life and of personal morality are discussed. Steps to a quality program in ethics, and the need for a theoretical framework are also addressed. (SW)

  20. Ethics in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Lawrence K.

    The issues of ethics in the university and the role of higher education in society are addressed. Distinctions are made between legal behavior and ethical behavior, and the question of how the university needs to balance the two in order to fulfill its unique role in society while it simultaneously strives to reside and survive within it is…