Science.gov

Sample records for ethical dilemmas presented

  1. Learning from Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Mark D.

    1987-01-01

    Reports analysis of 60 case studies of ethical dilemmas faced by experiential educators. Identifies issues which enhance likelihood of moral dilemmas: funding, residential programming, and risk-taking. Exposes need for a professional "code of ethics." (NEC)

  2. Nurses' Resolutions of Six Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Jeanette A.; Crisham, Patricia

    Six ethical dilemmas related to nursing practice were developed and presented to registered and trainee nurses for their resolution. A non-nurse group of university students also gave decisions about what a nurse should do in each ethically-loaded situation. A dilemma was classified as recurrent if its core problem was spontaneously mentioned by…

  3. ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN CLIMATE CHANGE

    E-print Network

    Chauve, Cedric

    ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN CLIMATE CHANGE RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CANADIAN CLIMATE POLICY Roundtable Dialogue AND SELECTED THE FOLLOWING CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY AREAS FOR DETAILED DISCUSSION. PARTICIPANTS THEN WORKED Dilemmas in Climate Change roundtable dialogue, convened by Simon Fraser University's Centre for Dialogue

  4. Ethical dilemmas in clerkship rotations.

    PubMed

    Myers, Michael F; Herb, Alice

    2013-11-01

    A sound clinical education should include the opportunity for medical students to engage in a spirited and informed discussion with faculty about the ethical challenges they will undoubtedly face. Unfortunately, in many medical schools today this goal is thwarted by many factors, including denial that a problem exists, relentless system overload, unprofessional behavior, breakdown in communication, and inertia. What is worse is that this problem is not new, and the fallout is not insignificant. Another potential contributing factor is burnout, which is well documented in a high percentage of medical students, residents, and faculty, and two of its most serious consequences are patient dissatisfaction and medical error.The authors draw on hundreds of student reflections on ethical dilemmas submitted during classroom exercises to examine persistent themes. They posit that classroom and didactic teaching is not enough to enable students to face ethical dilemmas. The authors call for a major culture change in medical education: "buy in" from top administration, especially the dean (and associate/assistant deans), chairs of all departments, and clerkship and residency training directors; the appointing of an ombudsperson and/or ethicist to oversee and resolve issues as they arise; instructional workshops and materials to enhance and impart skills for all teachers; remediation or retiring of errant faculty; and ongoing research and dialogue between and among medical centers about novel solutions. PMID:24072128

  5. Ethical dilemmas faced by hospice social workers.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Mary Kate; Washington, Karla T; Koenig, Terry L

    2014-10-01

    Ethical decision making is critically important in hospice social work. Through in-depth interviews, researchers explored ethical dilemmas faced by 14 hospice social workers and the processes they used to move toward resolution. The dilemmas were integrated into a framework focused on the sources of ethical conflict: the client system, the agency, and the profession. Processes involved in resolving ethical dilemmas included consulting with other professionals, weighing the pros and cons of options, and bringing about desired outcomes. Findings suggest that hospice teams should be provided with opportunities to meaningfully discuss ethical decision making. Further, the involvement of social workers in administrative leadership is recommended to increase the likelihood that discipline-specific perspectives are incorporated into formal policies and procedures that shape practice in ethically complex situations. PMID:25397348

  6. Ethical dilemmas in community mental health care.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, A; Van Audenhove, C

    2005-08-01

    Ethical dilemmas in community mental health care is the focus of this article. The dilemmas are derived from a discussion of the results of a qualitative research project that took place in five countries of the European Union. The different stakeholders are confronted with the following dilemmas: community care versus hospital care (clients); a life with care versus a life without care (informal carers); stimulation of the client toward greater responsibility versus protection against such responsibility (professionals); budgetary control versus financial incentives (policy makers), and respect for the client versus particular private needs (neighbourhood residents). These dilemmas are interpreted against the background of a value based ethical model. This model offers an integral approach to the dilemmas and can be used to determine policy. The dilemmas are discussed here as the result of conflicting values-namely autonomy and privacy, support and safety, justice and participation, and trust and solidarity. PMID:16076969

  7. Designing and Introducing Ethical Dilemmas into Computer-Based Business Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethical dilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethical dilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business…

  8. Do not resuscitate: reflections on an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeannie

    This is a reflective account of an ethical dilemma encountered while on placement on a cardiology ward. Reflection is a process which allows practitioners to reveal and expose thoughts, behaviours and feelings that are present at a particular time. All reflective models are based on the principle that purposeful reflection results in a better understanding and awareness, thus enhancing clinical practice (Driscoll and Teh 2001). The Gibbs' Reflective Cycle has been selected for its simplicity and ease of use to aid personal development. The dilemma was identified and analysed from a professional, ethical and legal perspective. Pseudonyms are used to maintain confidentiality and protect the identities of all parties involved. PMID:17711245

  9. Ethical Dilemma in Staff Terminations--Avoided!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    Incidences of staff terminations under clouded circumstances are filled with legal and ethical dilemmas. The benefits of an informal process similar to "plea bargaining" are discussed. There is less emotional and financial toll for the accused employee, and school boards benefit as well in terms of the media, cumbersome disciplinary procedure, and…

  10. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, Rushworth M.; Born, Patricia L.

    1999-01-01

    Ethical teaching dilemmas generally fit four patterns: individual versus community, truth versus loyalty, short-term versus long-term, and justice versus mercy. Research discloses five core shared values: compassion, honesty, fairness, responsibility, and respect. When choosing among end-, rule-, and care-based resolution approaches, teachers'…

  11. Ethical Dilemmas Associated with Self-Disclosure in Student Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Michelle R.

    2004-01-01

    Personal and reflective writing assignments in psychology courses may prompt self-disclosure that presents ethical dilemmas. The literature discusses responsibilities of the psychologist in instances such as disclosure of suicidal ideation or threats of harming others within the context of the therapist-client relationship, but significantly less…

  12. Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching and Nursing: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2010-01-01

    This article explores a cross-occupational approach for dealing with ethical dilemmas by comparing teaching and nursing. Findings indicate more shared patterns of ethical dilemmas (such as caring for needs for others versus following formal codes) than dilemmas specific to teaching (e.g., advancing universal values versus advancing knowledge) or…

  13. Ethical Dilemmas as Perceived by Healthcare Students with Teaching Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buelow, Janet R.; Mahan, Pamela L.; Garrity, April W.

    2010-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are experienced by all individuals, but are especially prevalent among healthcare professionals. Universities and colleges preparing students to work and provide care in this arena are currently addressing this challenge through traditional ethics courses and lectures. However, student perspectives of the major ethical dilemmas in…

  14. Ethical dilemmas in journal publication.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Olubukola; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    2012-01-01

    Physicians often face tremendous pressures and incentives to publish, sometimes leading to a compromise of ethical standards, either consciously or unconsciously. From the vantage of ethical authorship, we discuss what constitutes authorship; avoidance of ghost authorship; plagiarism, as well as self-plagiarism and duplicate publication; falsification; and fabrication. Editors also face ethical challenges, including how best to manage peer-review bias, to address reviewer tardiness, and to locate reviewers with appropriate expertise and professionalism. Editors need to deal with authors who fragment their work into multiple publications to enhance their curriculum vitae ("salami factor"), as well as to manage the financial benefits of advertising and to avoid conflicts of interest for the journal. Both authors and editors should be straightforward and principled throughout the publication process. PMID:22330669

  15. Solving Ethical Dilemmas with Children: Empowering Classroom Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Michelann

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…

  16. An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

    This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

  17. Experienced Speech-Language Pathologists' Responses to Ethical Dilemmas: An Integrated Approach to Ethical Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Belinda; Lincoln, Michelle; Balandin, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the approaches of experienced speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to ethical reasoning and the processes they use to resolve ethical dilemmas. Method: Ten experienced SLPs participated in in-depth interviews. A narrative approach was used to guide participants' descriptions of how they resolved ethical dilemmas. Individual…

  18. A National Survey of U.S. Internists’ Experiences with Ethical Dilemmas and Ethics Consultation

    PubMed Central

    DuVal, Gordon; Clarridge, Brian; Gensler, Gary; Danis, Marion

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify the ethical dilemmas that internists encounter, the strategies they use to address them, and the usefulness of ethics consultation. DESIGN National telephone survey. SETTING Doctors’ offices. PARTICIPANTS General internists, oncologists, and critical care/pulmonologists (N = 344, 64% response rate). MEASUREMENTS Types of ethical dilemmas recently encountered and likelihood of requesting ethics consultation; satisfaction with resolution of ethical dilemmas with and without ethics consultation. RESULTS Internists most commonly reported dilemmas regarding end-of-life decision making, patient autonomy, justice, and conflict resolution. General internists, oncologists, and critical care specialists reported participating in an average of 1.4, 1.3, and 4.1 consultations in the preceding 2 years, respectively (P < .0001). Physicians with the least ethics training had the least access to and participated in the fewest ethics consultations; 19% reported consultation was unavailable at their predominant practice site. Dilemmas about end-of-life decisions and patient autonomy were often referred for consultation, while dilemmas about justice, such as lack of insurance or limited resources, were rarely referred. While most physicians thought consultations yielded information that would be useful in dealing with future ethical dilemmas (72%), some hesitated to seek ethics consultation because they believed it was too time consuming (29%), might make the situation worse (15%), or that consultants were unqualified (11%). CONCLUSIONS While most internists recall recent ethical dilemmas in their practices, those with the least preparation and experience have the least access to ethics consultation. Health care organizations should emphasize ethics educational activities to prepare physicians for handling ethical dilemmas on their own and should improve the accessibility and responsiveness of ethics consultation when needed. PMID:15009780

  19. Ethics and GIS: The Practitioner's Dilemma a position paper on GIS ethics by

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Ethics and GIS: The Practitioner's Dilemma a position paper on GIS ethics by Michael Blakemore1 and Roger Longhorn2 prepared for the AGI 2004 Conference Workshop on "GIS Ethics" to be held 14 October 2004). E-mail: ral@alum.mit.edu Note A discussion forum focused on many of the ethical issues covered

  20. Ethical and legal dilemmas around termination of pregnancy for severe fetal anomalies: A review of two African neonates presenting with ventriculomegaly and holoprosencephaly.

    PubMed

    Chima, S C; Mamdoo, F

    2015-12-01

    Termination of pregnancy (TOP) or feticide for severe fetal anomalies is ethically and morally challenging and maybe considered illegal in countries with restrictive abortion laws. While diagnostic modalities such as fetal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and genetic screening have improved prenatal diagnosis, these technologies remain scarce in many African countries making diagnosis and counseling regarding TOP difficult. Ethical dilemmas such as women's autonomy rights may conflict with fetus' right to personhood, and doctor's moral obligations to society. In liberal jurisdictions, previable fetuses may not have legal rights of personhood; therefore, appropriate action would be to respect pregnant women's decisions regarding TOP. However, in countries with restrictive abortion laws the fetus maybe imbued with the right of personhood at conception, making TOP illegal and exposing doctors and patients to potential criminal prosecution. Birth of a severely disabled baby with independent legal rights creates further conflicts between parents and clinicians complicating healthcare decision-making. Irrespective of the maternal decision to accept or refuse TOP, the psychological and emotional impact of an impaired fetus or neonate, often lead to moral distress and posttraumatic stress reactions in parents. Doctors have legal and ethical obligations to provide an accurate antenatal diagnosis with full disclosure to enable informed decision making. Failure to provide timely or accurate diagnosis may lead to allegations of negligence with potential liability for "wrongful birth" or "wrongful life" following birth of severely disabled babies. Mismanagement of such cases also causes misuse of scarce healthcare resources in resource-poor countries. This paper describes ethical challenges in clinical management of two neonates born following declined and failed feticide for severe central nervous system anomalies with a critical appraisal of the relevant literature. PMID:26620620

  1. Novel ethical dilemmas arising in geriatric clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population. PMID:25185872

  2. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2015-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  3. "Living" Ethical Dilemmas for Researchers When Researching with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortari, Luigina; Harcourt, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore some of the ethical dilemmas that confront researchers when they seek to invite children's participation in research. It firstly tracks the historical landscape of ethical research and will examine the influence of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) on participatory research with children.…

  4. Imperfect twinning: a clinical and ethical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Denardin, Daniela; Telles, Jorge Alberto B.; Betat, Rosilene da Silveira; Fell, Paulo Renato K.; da Cunha, André Campos; Targa, Luciano Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. DATA SYNTHESIS: The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family. PMID:24142323

  5. Prolonging life: legal, ethical, and social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Paulson, Steve; Comfort, Christopher P; Lee, Barbara Coombs; Shemie, Sam; Solomon, Mildred Z

    2014-11-01

    The ability of modern medicine to prolong life has raised a variety of difficult legal, ethical, and social issues on which reasonable minds can differ. Among these are the morality of euthanasia in cases of deep coma or irreversible injury, as well as the Dead Donor Rule with respect to organ harvesting and transplants. As science continues to refine and develop lifesaving technologies, questions remain as to how much medical effort and financial resources should be expended to prolong the lives of patients suspended between life and death. At what point should death be considered irreversible? What criteria should be used to determine when to withhold or withdraw life-prolonging treatments in cases of severe brain damage and terminal illness? To explore these complex dilemmas, Steve Paulson, executive producer and host of To the Best of Our Knowledge, moderated a discussion panel. Pediatrician Sam Shemie, hospice medical director Christopher P. Comfort, bioethicist Mildred Z. Solomon, and attorney Barbara Coombs Lee examined the underlying assumptions and considerations that ultimately shape individual and societal decisions surrounding these issues. The following is an edited transcript of the discussion that occurred November 12, 2013, 7:00-8:30 PM, at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. PMID:25079490

  6. Commentary: The forensic report--an inevitable nexus for resolving ethics dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Ethics-related dilemmas arise in forensic psychiatry as in all psychiatric practice. Although most can be resolved by following the AAPL Ethics Guidelines and the AAPL Ethics Questions and Answers, the more complex ones inevitably have no easy solutions. Ethics-based duties can conflict without clear guidance on prioritization. Weighing competing factors necessitates more than merely following a rule, since there are potentially conflicting rules, and ethical practitioners may prioritize them differently. Concerns pertaining to the death penalty and defendants who are victims of discrimination are especially difficult. Such considerations usually are in the realm of aspirational ethics, with conclusions open to debate. They need consideration by most practitioners concerned with determining the most ethical course of action. Much as it is insufficient for an ethical citizen merely to avoid breaking the law, it is not enough to avoid violating any one guideline while remaining blind to context. Most such dilemmas need resolution long before testimony and arise first in the way the forensic assessment is conducted and in decisions on the data to be included in a report and how they are presented. Although there can be legitimate differences of opinion about how to weigh and resolve conflicting considerations, ethics-related dilemmas should not be sidestepped. PMID:24051589

  7. Ethical dilemmas in the biology undergraduate classroom: role-playing congressional testimony.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Amy M

    2014-12-01

    Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience. PMID:25574284

  8. Ethical Dilemmas in the Biology Undergraduate Classroom: Role-Playing Congressional Testimony †

    PubMed Central

    Wiles, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience. PMID:25574284

  9. Social Workers' Participation in the Resolution of Ethical Dilemmas in Hospice Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikai, Ellen L.

    2004-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas are inherent in every health care setting. A sample of hospice social workers with no direct access to a hospice ethics committee (N = 110) was surveyed regarding ethical issues in hospice care, how the issues were managed, and the extent to which social workers participated in resolution of ethical dilemmas. Common issues…

  10. [The student nurse faced with ethical dilemmas].

    PubMed

    Coudurier, Doriane

    2015-12-01

    Although student nurses are taught ethics, the theoretical dimension is not enough. Students must be given support and guidance in their practice to enable them to carry out ethical reflection and to adapt their nursing approach. PMID:26675106

  11. Ethical Dilemmas: The "Bread and Butter" of Educational Leaders' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston, Neil; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Kimber, Megan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research into the ethical dilemmas faced by school heads from seven independent schools in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the research were gathered by semi-structured in-depth interviews with the Heads, all of whom were experienced school leaders. All the schools had religious…

  12. Teaching, Learning and Ethical Dilemmas: Lessons from Albert Camus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past half century, Albert Camus's story "The Guest" has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. "The Guest" focuses on the ethical dilemmas faced by Daru, a school teacher in Algeria, and the two visitors he receives one day: Balducci, a gendarme, and an unnamed Arab prisoner. This paper addresses Camus's text from an educational…

  13. The dilemma of ethics in engineering education.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Byron

    2004-04-01

    This paper briefly summarizes current thinking in engineering ethics education, argues that much of that ethical instruction runs the risk of being only superficially effective, and explores some of the underlying systemic barriers within academia that contribute to this result. This is not to criticize or discourage efforts to improve ethics instruction. Rather it is to point to some more fundamental problems that still must be addressed in order to realize the full potential of enhanced ethics instruction. Issues discussed will include: intellectual engagement versus emotional engagement; the gravitational pull of curricular structures; the nature of engineering faculty; and the "engineer-ization" of ethics. PMID:15152860

  14. Examining Teacher Ethical Dilemmas in Classroom Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Nakia; Green, Susan K.; Johnson, Robert L.; Mitchell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The current spotlight on assessment in education raises ethical issues as practices evolve. This study documents ethical conflicts faced by teachers in the United States regarding assessment of students. Critical incidents generated by practising teachers revealed a majority of reported conflicts related to score pollution, and conflicts…

  15. Governance of dual-use research: an ethical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the “dual-use dilemma”. There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research. PMID:19784453

  16. Ethical dilemmas in forensic psychiatry: two illustrative cases.

    PubMed

    Sen, Piyal; Gordon, Harvey; Adshead, Gwen; Irons, Ashley

    2007-06-01

    One approach to the analysis of ethical dilemmas in medical practice uses the "four principles plus scope" approach. These principles are: respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, along with concern for their scope of application. However, conflicts between the different principles are commonplace in psychiatric practice, especially in forensic psychiatry, where duties to patients often conflict with duties to third parties such as the public. This article seeks to highlight some of the specific ethical dilemmas encountered in forensic psychiatry: the excessive use of segregation for the protection of others, the ethics of using mechanical restraint when clinically beneficial and the use of physical treatment without consent. We argue that justice, as a principle, should be paramount in forensic psychiatry, and that there is a need for a more specific code of ethics to cover specialised areas of medicine like forensic psychiatry. This code should specify that in cases of conflict between different principles, justice should gain precedence over the other principles. PMID:17526683

  17. From the Woman's Viewpoint: Ethical Dilemmas Confronted by Women as Informal Caregivers of Frail Elders

    E-print Network

    Koenig, Terry L.

    2004-01-01

    Women as informal caregivers face complex ethical dilemmas in caring for a frail elder. Through indepth interviews with 13 ethnically diverse caregivers, this qualitative study explored women's ethical decision-making. Focus group interviews of home...

  18. Ethical and medical dilemmas of space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Melinda

    Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.

  19. Uncovering a Relational Epistemology of Ethical Dilemmas in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirri, Kirsi; Husu, Jukka

    This paper discusses ethical dilemmas in early childhood education as identified by 26 kindergarten and early elementary school teachers. Ethical dilemmas are investigated in the theoretical framework of virtue epistemology. The method used in the study is a relational reading of teachers' narratives. Interpretive accounts are created to allow…

  20. Ethical dilemmas created by the criminalization of status behaviors: case examples from ethnographic field research with injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, David; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Stopka, Tom; Shaw, Susan; Santelices, Claudia; Singer, Merrill

    2002-02-01

    The criminalization of behaviors such as the ingestion of certain mood-altering drugs creates ethical dilemmas for researchers studying those behaviors. The Syringe Access, Use, and Discard (SAUD) project is designed to uncover microcontextual factors that influence HIV and hepatitis risk behaviors of injection drug users. The article presents seven ethical dilemmas encountered using ethnographic methods: issues involving syringe replacement at injection locales, risks of participants' arrest, potential disruptions in participants' supply routes, risks of research staff arrest, threats to the protection of confidentiality, issues surrounding informed consent in working with addicts, and the confiscation of potentially incriminating information by police. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of traditional ethical frameworks, such as utilitarianism, for resolving these dilemmas and recommends instead improving public health professionals' capacity for practical reasoning (phronesis) through the greater use of case studies in public health curricula. PMID:11822551

  1. A Preliminary Analysis of Environmental Dilemmas and Environmental Ethical Reasoning Among Hispanic and

    E-print Network

    A Preliminary Analysis of Environmental Dilemmas and Environmental Ethical Reasoning Among Hispanic of environmental ethical reasoning based upon the moral reasoning contributions of psychologists L. Kolhberg and C) with an environmental ethical context. Subsequently, Christensen and Dustin (1986) suggested that Kohlberg's theory

  2. Ethical Perspective on Quality of Care: The Nature of Ethical Dilemmas Identified by New Graduate and Experienced Speech Pathologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…

  3. Ethical Dilemmas in Pediatric and Adolescent Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Cristie M.; Falcone, Tatiana; Caplan, Rochelle; Timmons-Mitchell, Jane; Jares, Kristine; Ford, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    To date only a very narrow window of ethical dilemmas in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) have been explored. Numerous distinct ethical dilemmas arise in diagnosing and treating pediatric and adolescent patients with PNES. Important ethical values at stake include trust, transparency, confidentiality, professionalism, autonomy of all stakeholders and justice. In order to further elucidate the ethical challenges in caring for this population, an ethical analysis of the special challenges faced in four specific domains is undertaken: (1) conducting and communicating a diagnosis of PNES; (2) advising patients about full transparency and disclosure to community including patients’ peers; (3) responding to requests to continue anti-epileptic drugs; and (4) managing challenges arising from school policy and procedure. An analysis of these ethical issues is essential for the advancement of best care practices that promote the overall well-being of patients and their families. PMID:25022823

  4. Medical education must make room for student-specific ethical dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    St Onge, J

    1997-01-01

    Most contemporary undergraduate courses in medical ethics leave a critical gap unfilled because they fail to address student-specific issues, says third-year student Joye St. Onge. In this article, which won third prize in CMAJs 1996 Dr. William Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest, St. Onge outlines the importance of discussing student-specific ethical dilemmas and suggests ways to introduce such teaching in medical schools. PMID:9141991

  5. Mandatory counseling for gamete donation recipients: ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Benward, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Mental health professionals have engaged in mandatory pretreatment counseling and assessment of patients seeking treatment at IVF programs in the United States since the 1980s. At present, most recipient patients undergoing IVF with egg or embryo donation in the United States are required to meet with a mental health professional for one pretreatment session. Mandatory counseling of gamete recipients is fraught with ethical questions for the mental health professional. Attention to issues of autonomy, confidentiality, role clarity, along with self-evaluation and openness with the patient can help lessen the impact of these ethical challenges. PMID:26235569

  6. REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF APPLIED LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHEN NURSE MANAGERS MAKE DECISIONS.

    PubMed

    Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T

    2014-09-21

    Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas. PMID:25242639

  7. International Ethical Dilemmas Confronting Australian Managers: Implications for the Training and Development of Employees Working Overseas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedigo, Kerry; Marshall, Verena

    2004-01-01

    Globalisation has seen diverse cultures becoming increasingly entwined and interdependent as business organisations operate in a borderless world. When organisations operate internationally they often find that countries differ in what is considered wrong or right. The objectives of the research were to identify cross-cultural ethical dilemmas

  8. Dilemmas of Leadership: Decision Making and Ethics in the Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, George B.; And Others

    Focusing primarily on issues that can be directly influenced by actions of the governing board or president, the nine chapters of this book explore the ethical dilemmas of leadership in today's community colleges. In "Leaders on a Tightrope: The Risks and Tensions of Community College Leadership," George B. Vaughan provides an overview of some of…

  9. Ethical Dilemmas of Child Abuse Reporting: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNair, Rebecca R.

    1992-01-01

    Explores effect of child abuse reporting on counselor-client relationship, mental health profession, and child protective services system. Uses ecological systems approach in exploration of interventions needed to help resolve child abuse reporting dilemma. Within ecosystems framework, discusses ethical guidelines and policymaking for reporting…

  10. A Study of Reactions to Ethical Dilemmas in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.; Wright, Donald K.

    In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…

  11. Educational Context: Preparing Accounting Students to Identify Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billiot, Mary Jo; Daniel, David; Glandon, Sid; Glandon, TerryAnn

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effect of different contexts in an educational process on measures of ethical sensitivity and levels of moral reasoning of accounting majors in the first Intermediate Accounting course. The educational process compared a context that centers on ethical issues with one that focuses on technical accounting issues. At the end of the…

  12. Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Bruce L.

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

  13. Dealing with Dave's Dilemmas: Exploring the Ethics of Pedagogic Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Using an auto-ethnographic case study about a "day in the life" of a new professor as the basis for discussion, reports the reactions of newly-appointed and more-experienced academic staff toward ethical questions. Applying Forsyth's taxonomy of ethical ideology, found that experienced staff were more inclined toward a "situationist" position,…

  14. Moral Dilemmas in a Military Context. a Case Study of a Train the Trainer Course on Military Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Baarle, Eva; Bosch, Jolanda; Widdershoven, Guy; Verweij, Desiree; Molewijk, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Moral competence is important for soldiers who have to deal with complex moral dilemmas in practice. However, openly dealing with moral dilemmas and showing moral competence is not always easy within the culture of a military organization. In this article, based on analysis of experiences during a train the trainer course on military ethics, we…

  15. Reflections on the ethical dilemmas involved in promoting self-management

    PubMed Central

    Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Due to their understanding of self-management, healthcare team members responsible for depressed older persons can experience an ethical dilemma. Each team member contributes important knowledge and experience pertaining to the management of depression, which should be reflected in the management plan. The aim of this study was to explore healthcare team members’ reflections on the ethical dilemmas involved in promoting self-management among depressed older persons. A qualitative design was used and data were collected by means of focus group interviews. The results revealed one main theme: ‘Lack of trust in the community health care system’s commitment to bringing about effectiveness and change, based on three themes; ‘Struggling to ensure the reliable transfer of information about depressed older persons to professionals and family members’, ‘Balancing autonomy, care and dignity’ and ‘Differences in the understanding of responsibility’. Lack of engagement on the part of and trust between the various professional categories who work in the community are extremely counterproductive and have serious implications for patient dignity as well as safety. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas occur when staff members are unable to act in accordance with their professional ethical stance and deliver an appropriate standard of care. PMID:24106261

  16. Reflections on the ethical dilemmas involved in promoting self-management.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anne Lise; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2013-10-01

    Due to their understanding of self-management, healthcare team members responsible for depressed older persons can experience an ethical dilemma. Each team member contributes important knowledge and experience pertaining to the management of depression, which should be reflected in the management plan. The aim of this study was to explore healthcare team members' reflections on the ethical dilemmas involved in promoting self-management among depressed older persons. A qualitative design was used and data were collected by means of focus group interviews. The results revealed one main theme: 'Lack of trust in the community health care system's commitment to bringing about effectiveness and change, based on three themes; 'Struggling to ensure the reliable transfer of information about depressed older persons to professionals and family members', 'Balancing autonomy, care and dignity' and 'Differences in the understanding of responsibility'. Lack of engagement on the part of and trust between the various professional categories who work in the community are extremely counterproductive and have serious implications for patient dignity as well as safety. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas occur when staff members are unable to act in accordance with their professional ethical stance and deliver an appropriate standard of care. PMID:24106261

  17. Legal, Ethical, and Financial Dilemmas in Electronic Health Record Adoption and Use

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) facilitate several innovations capable of reforming health care. Despite their promise, many currently unanswered legal, ethical, and financial questions threaten the widespread adoption and use of EHRs. Key legal dilemmas that must be addressed in the near-term pertain to the extent of clinicians' responsibilities for reviewing the entire computer-accessible clinical synopsis from multiple clinicians and institutions, the liabilities posed by overriding clinical decision support warnings and alerts, and mechanisms for clinicians to publically report potential EHR safety issues. Ethical dilemmas that need additional discussion relate to opt-out provisions that exclude patients from electronic record storage, sale of deidentified patient data by EHR vendors, adolescent control of access to their data, and use of electronic data repositories to redesign the nation's health care delivery and payment mechanisms on the basis of statistical analyses. Finally, one overwhelming financial question is who should pay for EHR implementation because most users and current owners of these systems will not receive the majority of benefits. The authors recommend that key stakeholders begin discussing these issues in a national forum. These actions can help identify and prioritize solutions to the key legal, ethical, and financial dilemmas discussed, so that widespread, safe, effective, interoperable EHRs can help transform health care. PMID:21422090

  18. Online Privacy, Security and Ethical Dilemma: A Recent Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmakar, Nitya L.

    The Internet remains as a wonder for the 21st century and its growth is phenomenon. According to a recent survey, the online population is now about 500 million globally and if this trend continues, it should reach 700 million by the end of 2002. This exponential growth of the Internet has given rise to several security, privacy and ethical

  19. A Right to Die?: Ethical Dilemmas of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…

  20. Exploring Some Ethical Dilemmas and Obligations of the Ethnographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbour, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the ethical position of the ethnographer when encountering unethical activities. Ethnography affords a rich insight into cultures, often behind previously secure doors but it is also a demanding science. Our gatekeepers control our access and our relationships with them can determine our destiny. This paper offers an exchange…

  1. The Fossil Fuel Divestment Movement: An Ethical Dilemma for the Geosciences?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, C. H.; Kammen, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    For over 200 years, fossil fuels have been the basis for an industrial revolution that has delivered a level of prosperity to modern society unimaginable during the previous 5000 years of human civilization. However, society's dependence on fossil fuels is coming to an end for two reasons. The first reason is because our fossil fuel reserves are running out, oil in this century, natural gas during the next century, and coal a few centuries later. The second reason is because fossil fuels are having a devastating impact on the habitability of our planet, disrupting our climate system and acidifying our oceans. So the question is not whether we will discontinue using fossil fuels, but rather whether we will stop using them before they do irreparable damage to the Earth's life-support systems. Within our geoscience community, climate scientists have determined that a majority of existing fossil fuel reserves must remain unburned if dangerous climate change and ocean acidification are to be avoided. In contrast, Exxon-Mobil, Shell, and other members of the fossil fuel industry are pursuing a business model that assumes all of their reserves will be burned and will not become stranded assets. Since the geosciences have had a long and mutually beneficial relationship with the fossil fuel industry, this inherent conflict between climate science and industrial interests presents an ethical dilemma for many geoscientists. This conflict is further heightened by the fossil fuel divestment movement, which is underway at over 400 college and university campuses around the world. This presentation will explore some of the ethical and financial issues being raised by the divestment movement from a geoscientist's perspective.

  2. The ethical dilemma of embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Manzar, Nabeel; Manzar, Bushra; Hussain, Nuzhat; Hussain, M Fawwad Ahmed; Raza, Sajjad

    2013-03-01

    To determine the knowledge, attitude, and ethical concerns of medical students and graduates with regard to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC) research. This questionnaire based descriptive study was conducted at the Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), Pakistan from February to July 2008. A well structured questionnaire was administered to medical students and graduate doctors, which included their demographic profile as well as questions in line with the study objective. Informed consent was taken and full confidentiality was assured to the participants. Data were entered in a Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version.12) and analyzed. A total of 204 male and 216 female medical students and doctors were administered questionnaires out of which 105 males (51.4%) and 108 females (50%) were aware of the embryonic stem cell research and its ethical implications. Forty percent males and 47% of females were of the opinion that life begins at conception. Forty-six percent males and 39% females were in favor of stem cell research while only 31% males and 28% females supported the ESC research. Less than 1/3 of students supported using frozen embryos for research purposes while more than 2/3 indicated that they were unlikely to support abortion for stem cell research purposes. The majority of the students were in favor of stem cell research with some reservations regarding ESC research. A sizeable number of students withheld their views, reflecting their poor understanding of medical ethics. The result of the study indicates a need for incorporating bioethics into the medical curriculum. PMID:22038063

  3. The clinician's dilemma: two dimensions of ethical care.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Grant; Chamberlain, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    There is a continuing intense medico-ethico-legal debate around legalized euthanasia and physician assisted suicide such that ethically informed clinicians often agree with the arguments but feel hesitant about the conclusion, especially when it may bring about a change in law. We argue that this confusion results from the convergence of two continua that underpin the conduct of a clinician and are especially prominent in psychiatry. The two continua concern the duty of care and the importance of patient autonomy and they do not quite map into traditional divides in debates about sanctity of life, paternalism, and autonomy. As ethical dimensions, they come into sharp focus in the psychological complexities of end-of-life care and they form two key factors in most ethical and legal or disciplinary deliberations about a clinician's actions. Whereas both dimensions are important when a clinician reflects on what s/he has done or should do, they need careful balancing in a request for euthanasia or physician assisted suicide where the patient wants to take a decisive role in his or her own end-of-life care. However, end-of-life is also a situation where clinicians often encounter 'cries for help' so that both continua are importantly in play. Balancing these two continua without using blunt legal instruments is often required in psychiatric care in such a way as to problematize the idea that patient decisions should dominate the care options available. A simplistic approach to that issue arguably plays into what has been called an 'impoverished construction of life and death' and, some would say, devalues the basic commitments fundamental to medical care. PMID:23830641

  4. Using fertile couples as embryo donors: An ethical dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Leila; Omani Samani, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The use of donated embryos has offered hope for infertile couples who have no other means to have children. In Iran, fertility centers use fertile couples as embryo donors. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of this procedure will be discussed. We conclude that embryo-donation should be performed with frozen embryos thus preventing healthy donors from being harmed by fertility drugs. There must be guidelines for choosing the appropriate donor families. In countries where commercial egg donation is acceptable, fertile couples can be procured as embryo donors thus fulfilling the possible shortage of good quality embryos. Using frozen embryos seems to have less ethical, religious and legal problems when compared to the use of fertile embryo donors. PMID:24799876

  5. Ethical Dilemmas in Financial Reporting Situations and the Preferred Mode of Resolution of Ethical Conflicts as Taken by Certified and Noncertified Management Accountants in Organizations with Perceived Different Ethical Work Climates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, John N.

    1995-01-01

    Responses from 37.7% of 491 chief financial officers surveyed revealed a majority of organizational climates based on law and codes. Most believed their organizations attempted sound financial reporting and ethical operation. Certified accountants perceived a greater likelihood of the occurrence of ethical dilemmas than did noncertified…

  6. Methodological and Ethical Dilemmas Encountered during Field Research of Family Violence Experienced by Adolescent Women in Buenos Aires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luxardo, Natalia; Colombo, Graciela; Iglesias, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine some obstacles and dilemmas related to methodological strategies and ethical considerations that arose during the fieldwork of research focused on family violence during the stages of pregnancy and childbirth in adolescent females in Buenos Aires during 2007. From this study, we are able to contribute some…

  7. Medical Ethics Education: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the 25-year history of undergraduate medical ethics education. Alternatives to the traditional model that focus more directly on students' personal values, attitudes, and behavior, are discussed. Three incipient trends are identified: everyday ethics, student ethics, and macro-ethics. Specific course and curricula are used as…

  8. Advertising Ethics: Student Attitudes and Behavioral Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Jami A.; Kendrick, Alice; McKinnon, Lori Melton

    2013-01-01

    A national survey of 1,045 advertising students measured opinions about the ethical nature of advertising and ethical dilemmas in the advertising business. More than nine out of ten students agreed that working for a company with high ethical standards was important. Students rated all twelve workplace dilemmas presented as somewhat unethical. For…

  9. Shall I become a zombie? Stories of illness, ethical dilemmas and visions of society.

    PubMed

    Cattorini, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Three controversial ethical issues, among others, stir the debate in health care institutions, in medical associations, and in the whole society: the care of patients in persistent vegetative state, the regulation of artificial procreation, some individual requests for reshaping an healthy body. Dealing with these dilemmas, typical of advanced medical science and technological practice, implies not only balancing carefully the burdens and benefits for suffering persons, families, equipes, hospitals, cultural and religious communities, but also imaging and realizing new visions of a just society, of a beneficent (without paternalism) medicine and generally of a good life, where each moral agent could write in front of all and in worthy, convincing ways, the next chapter of the book of his/her own life. PMID:21560776

  10. Latin American Urbanization Presented as a Decision-Making Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rengert, Arlene C.; Monk, Janice J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a college-level geography unit on the socioeconomic influences affecting urban migration of women in Latin America. In role-playing modules, students explore dilemmas influencing individual migration decisions, Peace Corps project planning, and long-term international aid programs for urban Peruvian women. (AM)

  11. Ethical and social dilemmas in community-based controlled trials in situations of poverty: a view from a South African project.

    PubMed

    Nama, Nosisana; Swartz, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    All psychological and social research presents ethical dilemmas, many of which centre around the difficulties which flow from the power imbalances between those conducting the research and the research respondents or participants. Issues of power are magnified in research undertaken in contexts of poverty, and there is a burgeoning literature on ethical issues in research in developing countries. In this article, we augment the existing literature by focusing on the experiences of an assessor working in a controlled trial of a mother-infant intervention in a poor South African community. We consider issues of community expectations, the presentation to our project of physical health problems, the issue of HIV/AIDS, cultural beliefs which impact on the research, child protection issues, and the tensions between research assessment and ubuntu--a cultural norm which requires helpful engagement with others. We suggest that our experiences may assist with the development of further research. PMID:16881161

  12. Ethical issues in presymptomatic genetic testing for minors: a dilemma in Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fresneau, Brice; Brugières, Laurence; Caron, Olivier; Moutel, Grégoire

    2013-06-01

    In 2001, a French expert panel recommended that presymptomatic tests should not be carried out on minors in families affected by Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), flying in the face of possible parental demands for such testing. We decided to investigate the legitimacy of such a recommendation. We conducted a national multicenter survey using self-administered questionnaires mailed to French oncogeneticists in 33 regional centers in France. We aimed to (1) determine the extent to which these doctors were confronted with parental requests for TP53 testing, (2) study how they responded to these requests and the arguments used and (3) assess the attitude of oncogeneticists concerning the normative framework regulating the prescription of tests for minors. Twenty oncogeneticists stated that they had managed at least one LFS family. Eleven of these doctors had been confronted with parental requests for testing and three had prescribed such tests on at least one occasion. The oncogeneticists gave balanced medical, psychological and ethical arguments, highlighting the dilemma they face in the decision-making process. This dilemma is due to the lack of a consensus concerning this recommendation, which aims to protect the minor by limiting presymptomatic tests to cases in which a clear medical benefit can be demonstrated but which prevents the unique situation of particular families from being taken into account. In conclusion, the recommendation has a normative status but first, from a clinical stance, it is difficult to dissociate it from the evaluation of individual family situations, and second, the benefit of a specific medical follow-up for TP53 mutation carriers is currently being investigated. PMID:23233110

  13. Ethics in photojournalism : past, present, and future

    E-print Network

    Bersak, Daniel R., 1980-

    2006-01-01

    Like writers and editors, photojournalists are held to a standard of ethics. Each publication has a set of rules, sometimes written, sometimes unwritten, that governs what that publication considers to be a truthful and ...

  14. Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Individual Rights Versus Public Protection in the Case of Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Phua, Kai-Lit

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases—including emerging and re-emerging diseases such as Ebola and tuberculosis—continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality in the globalizing, contemporary world. This article discusses the ethical issues associated with protecting the rights of individuals versus the protection of the health of populations in the case of infectious diseases. The discussion uses the traditional medical ethics approach together with the public health approach presented by Faden and Shebaya.3 Infectious diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Nipah virus and HIV/AIDS (together with tuberculosis) will be used to illustrate particular points in the discussion. PMID:24847171

  15. Psychotropic Medication Consultation in Schools: An Ethical and Legal Dilemma for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…

  16. [Involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community: legal and ethical dilemmas].

    PubMed

    Mitrossili, M

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the measure of involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community, not only with regard to human rights and more specifically those of persons with mental disorders, but also with regard to ethics and deontology in mental healthcare delivery service. In this light, the important role of informed consent in psychiatry with regard to the psychiatric act is examined. Informed consent of mental patients in treatment when they are in need of voluntary or involuntary hospitalization is further examined, while emphasis is being put on the case of involuntary treatment. The Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine (Convention of ?viedo), the European Convention of Human Rights, other documents of International Organizations (UN) and specialized national legislation (A. 2071/1992, Chapter vi, Greek law) constitute basic reference and interpretation points. The examination of consent and the demarcation of the exceptions are important issues that need to be approached. More particularly, our interest lies with the article 7 of the Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine, which specifically refers to the protection of person who suffers from a mental disorder. The opinion that informed consent in psychiatric treatment and involuntary treatment are concepts and processes which are distinct but not always mutually exclusive is enhanced. In any case, involuntary treatment causes major dilemmas as far as informed consent in the psychiatric act is concerned, as it raises issues that affect the autonomy of the person. Today, however, there are many factors which influence public politics towards the adoption of the measure of involuntary treatment within the community. How is it that this paradoxical link is legitimized and justified: involuntary treatment and community? The enactment of the above mentioned measure in many European and North American countries has created new paths in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. Nonetheless, it continues to divide the psychiatric and legal word for it causes intense questioning from a legal, ethical, deontological and clinical aspect, as it offends fundamental rights of the individual. In a legal civilization, in which the principle of informed consent or refusal constitutes a basic rule of the lawfulness of the medical and psychiatric act, any divergence from this rule has consequences for the patients and affects a well-tempered therapeutic treatment. The above mentioned measure could be counterbalanced by the legal regulation of advance directives and the provision for the appointment of a proxy person by the mental patient. PMID:25630547

  17. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Elliott, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one’s social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168

  18. The Ethical Challenges of Socially Responsible Science.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Elliott, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Social responsibility is an essential part of the responsible conduct of research that presents difficult ethical questions for scientists. Recognizing one's social responsibilities as a scientist is an important first step toward exercising social responsibility, but it is only the beginning, since scientists may confront difficult value questions when deciding how to act responsibly. Ethical dilemmas related to socially responsible science fall into at least three basic categories: 1) dilemmas related to problem selection, 2) dilemmas related to publication and data sharing, and 3) dilemmas related to engaging society. In responding to these dilemmas, scientists must decide how to balance their social responsibilities against other professional commitments and how to avoid compromising their objectivity. In this article, we will examine the philosophical and ethical basis of social responsibility in science, discuss some of the ethical dilemmas related to exercising social responsibility, and make five recommendations to help scientists deal with these issues. PMID:26193168

  19. The "Other Voices" in Contemporary Ethical Dilemmas: The Value of the New Scholarship on Women in the Teaching of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Joan Poliner; Smith-Rosenberg, Carroll

    This paper indicates the need for women's studies ethics courses and the examination of student concepts of morality. It proposes the ethical study of social problems not usually considered in undergraduate classes and illustrates the importance of the study of historical perspectives and situational ethics in the teaching of complex contemporary…

  20. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing in Slovenia: availability, ethical dilemmas and legislation

    PubMed Central

    Vrecar, Irena; Peterlin, Borut; Teran, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over the last few years, many private companies are advertising direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT), mostly with no or only minor clinical utility and validity of tests and without genetic counselling. International professional community does not approve provision of DTC GT and situation in some EU countries has been analysed already. The aim of our study was to analyse current situation in the field of DTC GT in Slovenia and related legal and ethical issues. Materials and methods Information was retrieved through internet search, performed independently by two authors, structured according to individual private company and the types of offered genetic testing. Results Five private companies and three Health Insurance Companies offer DTC GT and it is provided without genetic counselling. Available tests include testing for breast cancer, tests with other health-related information (complex diseases, drug responses) and other tests (nutrigenetic, ancestry, paternity). National legislation is currently being developed and Council of Experts in Medical Genetics has issued an opinion about Genetic Testing and Commercialization of Genetic Tests in Slovenia. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia has signed the Additional protocol to the convention on human rights and biomedicine, concerning genetic testing for health purposes, DTC GT in Slovenia is present and against all international recommendations. There is lack of or no medical supervision, clinical validity and utility of tests and inappropriate genetic testing of minors is available. There is urgent need for regulation of ethical, legal, and social aspects. National legislation on DTC GT is being prepared. PMID:25672471

  1. Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm Presenting as Massive Hematemesis: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Peeyush; Songra, Bhupen; Mathur, Shivank; Gothwal, Sudarshan; Malik, Puneet; Rathi, Mahnedra; Arya, Rajveer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Splenic artery Pseudoaneurysm, a complication of chronic pancreatitis, presenting as massive hematemesis is a rare presentation. Case Report. We present a case of 38-year-old male admitted with chief complaints of pain in the upper abdomen and massive hematemesis for the last 15 days. On examination there was severe pallor. On investigating the patient, Hb was 4.0?gm/dL, upper GI endoscopy revealed a leiomyoma in fundus of stomach, and EUS Doppler also supported the UGI findings. On further investigation of the patient, CECT of the abdomen revealed a possibility of distal pancreatic carcinoma encasing splenic vessels and infiltrating the adjacent structure. FNA taken at the time of EUS was consistent with inflammatory pathology. Triple phase CT of the abdomen revealed a splenic artery pseudoaneurysm with multiple splenic infarcts. After resuscitation we planned an emergency laparotomy; splenic artery pseudoaneurysm densely adherent to adjacent structures and associated with distal pancreatic necrosis was found. We performed splenectomy with repair of the defect in the stomach wall and necrosectomy. Postoperative course was uneventful and patient was discharged on day 8. Conclusion. Pseudoaneurysm can be at times a very difficult situation to manage; options available are either catheter embolisation if patient is vitally stable, or otherwise, exploration. PMID:24716077

  2. 'They say Islam has a solution for everything, so why are there no guidelines for this?' Ethical dilemmas associated with the births and deaths of infants with fatal abnormalities from a small sample of Pakistani Muslim couples in Britain.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Alison

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. PMID:21649685

  3. Faculty Ethics: New Dilemmas, New Choices. AAHE-ERIC/Higher Education Research Currents, June 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Carol Herrnstadt

    Faculty ethics are considered in relation to conflict of interest between academic work and nonacademic consulting jobs, confidentiality of research, the employment of faculty by intelligence agencies, and the need for self-regulation by the academic community. For faculty members who serve as consultants, ethical issues arise concerning the use…

  4. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Suicide Prevention: The Case of Telephone Helpline Rescue Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.

    2010-01-01

    The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to…

  5. Health Care Ethics: Dilemmas, Issues and Conflicts. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Annual Fall Workshop (6th, Indianapolis, Indiana, September 5-6, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prock, Valencia N., Ed.; And Others

    A variety of ethical issues confronting the nursing profession are examined in these proceedings. The following papers are presented: (1) "Ethics: Care & Conflict," by Leah Curtin; (2) "The Interface of Politics and Ethics in Nursing," by Mila Aroskar; (3) "Pluralistic Ethical Decision-Making," by Rita Payton; (4) "Compassion, Technology & the…

  6. Genomic medicine: health care issues and the unresolved ethical and social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Idemyor, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Our perception of the mechanism by which single genes can cause disease is evolving. This has led to the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of common diseases. Genomic Medicine continues to contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of disease. Medicine has strived to achieve the goal of tailoring interventions to individual variations in risk and treatment response and advances in medical genomics will facilitate this process. Relevant to present-day practice is the use of genomic information to classify individuals according to disease susceptibility or expected responsiveness to a pharmacologic treatment and to provide targeted interventions. By investigating the genetic profile of individuals, medical professionals are able to select patients and use the information obtained to plan out a course of treatment that is much more in step with the way their body works. However, society is concerned about the effect genetic knowledge will have on ethnic or racial groups. Currently, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act prohibits discrimination based on genetics. There is a need to increase the understanding of the social and ethical challenges that genomics information may pose to clinicians and scientists. This review is not meant to be exhaustive; rather, clinically relevant examples are used to illustrate how genomic medicine can facilitate the provision of molecular diagnostic methods that improve drug therapy. Finally, the rapid pace of change in genomics may likely make my conclusions today obsolete tomorrow. PMID:22713532

  7. The Conceptual and Practical Ethical Dilemmas of Using Health Discussion Board Posts as Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Hind, Martin; Thomas, Bronwen; Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of people living with a long-term health condition are putting personal health information online, including on discussion boards. Many discussion boards contain material of potential use to researchers; however, it is unclear how this information can and should be used by researchers. To date there has been no evaluation of the views of those individuals sharing health information online regarding the use of their shared information for research purposes. Objective To explore the views of contributors to online diabetes discussion boards with regards to if (and how) they feel their contributions to boards should be used by health researchers. Methods A qualitative approach was employed using online semistructured asynchronous (email) interviews. Interpretative description methodology was used to assess the interview transcripts, and quotations were extracted and anonymized to support each theme. Results 26 interviews were carried out. Participants agreed that forum posts are in the public domain and that aggregated information could be freely used by researchers. This was agreed to be a good way of ensuring that the view of people living with diabetes is being heard in research. There was no consensus on the need for permission to use individual information, such as quotations, with some people happy for this to be freely used and others feeling that permission is necessary. Conclusions Participants acknowledged the dichotomy of having placed information into the public domain in an unrestricted way, with some interviewees also wanting to retain control of its use. The Internet is a new research location, and rather than trying to apply traditional ethical norms to this new genre, a new modus operandi is required. The authors propose introducing new norms for presenting research carried out with online discussion boards. PMID:23748147

  8. COVER It: A Comprehensive Framework for Guiding Students through Ethical Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jennifer M.; Yordy, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model that aims to create a greater ability to recognize the negative aspects of making unethical decisions. To this end, the authors developed an ethical decision-making model to aid students through the process of analyzing these situations--a model that is easy to remember and apply. Through this model, the COVER model,…

  9. Ethical Issues in Covering Teen Suicide Stories: Deadly Dilemmas and Fatal Flaws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Susan

    A study examined news coverage by "The Saint Petersburg Times" of a local double teen suicide in August 1993. Focusing on how the story was covered, the study explored the newspaper's decision-making process, analyzing the process in relation to standard philosophical methods in ethics and recognized journalistic principles. As background,…

  10. Ethical and Epistemic Dilemmas in Empirically-Engaged Philosophy of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Anne; Glass, Ronald David

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines several ethical and epistemological issues that arise when philosophers conduct empirical research focused on, or in collaboration with, community groups seeking to bring about systemic change. This type of research can yield important policy lessons about effective community-driven reform and how to incorporate the voices of…

  11. The Mole's Dilemma: Ethical Aspects of Public Internet Access in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ethical issues concerning public Internet access in academic libraries. Highlights include intellectual freedom, censorship, technical aspects of limiting or restricting use, legal liability for public use of computers for illegal purposes such as child pornography, and the importance of priority use of terminals by the primary academic…

  12. Ethical Dilemmas and Emergent Values Encountered by Working College Students: Implications for Marketing Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Victoria D.; Smith, Rachel Korthage; Bush, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    A large body of pedagogical research exists on developing curricula and ethics training tools to prepare college graduates for entering the workforce. However, many college students are "already" in the workforce while they attend school. Many of these jobs are entry-level or frontline employee positions in retail or service industries,…

  13. Ethical Issues in the Consulting Context--Ethics in Presentation Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Rebecca L.

    In light of the huge volume of headline news stories that reflect ethical concerns from a variety of arenas, it is no wonder that ethics training is a hot topic. Research shows that many leading United States companies have written codes of ethics and/or instituted formal ethics training programs. In this paper, certain principles that have become…

  14. The use of pornographic materials by adolescent male cancer patients when banking sperm in the UK: legal and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A

    2007-09-01

    Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethical dilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined. PMID:17786648

  15. ETHICAL ASPECTS AND DILEMMAS OF PREPARING, WRITING AND PUBLISHING OF THE SCIENTIFIC PAPERS IN THE BIOMEDICAL JOURNALS

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper author discussed about preparing and submitting manuscripts - scientific, research, professional papers, reviews and case reports. Author described it from the Editor’s perspective, and specially talked about ethical aspects of authorship, conflict of interest, copyright, plagiarism and duplicate publication from the point of view of his experiences as Editor-in-Chief of several biomedical journals and Chief of Task Force of European Federation of Medical Informatics journals and member of Task Force of European Cardiology Society journals. The scientific process relies on trust and credibility. The scientific community demands high ethical standards to conduct biomedical research and to publish scientific contents. During the last decade, disclosure of conflicts of interest (COI ), (also called competing loyalties, competing interests or dual commitments), has been considered as a key element to guarantee the credibility of the scientific process. Biases in design, analysis and interpretation of studies may arise when authors or sponsors have vested interests. Therefore, COI should be made clear to the readers to facilitate their own judgment and interpretation of their relevance and potential implications. Results and Discussion: Authors are responsible to fully disclose potential COI . In October 2009 the ICMJE proposed an electronic “uniform” format for COI disclosure. Four main areas were addressed: authors´ associations with entities that supported the submitted manuscript (indefinite time frame), associations with commercial entities with potential interest in the general area of the manuscript (time frame 36 months), financial association of their spouse and children and, finally, non-financial associations potentially relevant to the submitted manuscript. Consumers of medical scholarship expect a reliable system of disclosure in which journals and authors make disclosures appropriately and consistently. There is a stigma surrounding the reporting of COI that should be progressively overcome. Further actions are required to increase awareness of the importance of COI disclosure and to promote policies aimed to enhance transparency in biomedical research. In this article author discuss about important ethical dilemmas in preparing, writing and publishing of scientific manuscripts in biomedical journals. PMID:23322969

  16. Health Ethics Education for Health Administration Chaplains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd

    2008-01-01

    It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…

  17. [Ethical dilemma in the Women's Hospital of Basle. Diaconesses took a stand on abortions].

    PubMed

    Braunschweig, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    In the 1940s there occurred an ethical conflict in the Women's Hospital of Basle. It arose in the context of a shortage of nurses, the introduction of the Swiss national criminal law, the change of the hospital director, the increase of abortion and the nursing ideal of obedience and serving. The conflict showed the social change towards measures of birth control such as abortion and sterilisation. Different political opinions and strong convictions clashed. The paper is focusing on denominationally affiliated nurses, the deaconesses of Riehen, who were standing between the religious conviction to protect unborn life and the professional principle of unconditional nursing. Finally they decided to leave the hospital. PMID:17982959

  18. Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

    2013-01-01

    Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

  19. Resolving ethical dilemas. Applying the institute for Global Ethics' Ethical Fitness model to occupational and environmental health practice issues.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Patricia H

    2002-01-01

    1. Technological advancements have rapidly increased the need for careful ethical choices to preserve life and environment of the global community. 2. No formula exists to resolve ethical dilemmas, but using an ethical decision making model can help maintain a state of ethical fitness. 3. The Ethical Fitness model relies on the assumption that certain core values are universal. Maintaining ethical fitness is essential to resolve ethical dilemmas. 4. The process of resolving ethical dilemmas consists of analyzing the dilemma using nine checkpoints, four dilemma paradigms, and three resolution principles. PMID:11842780

  20. Ethical Decision Making: Developmental Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzl, Barbara; McMahon, Timothy

    This document is a compilation of materials from a presentation on ethical decision making. These components are included: (1) four sample moral dilemmas; (2) graphs of Kohlberg's six stages of moral growth; (3) graphs of Gilligan's Theory of Moral Judgments; (4) graphs of Kitchner's Theory of Ethical Principles; (5) a discussion of the four…

  1. Publishing Ethics and Predatory Practices: A Dilemma for All Stakeholders of Science Communication.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Diyanova, Svetlana N; Kitas, George D

    2015-08-01

    Publishing scholarly articles in traditional and newly-launched journals is a responsible task, requiring diligence from authors, reviewers, editors, and publishers. The current generation of scientific authors has ample opportunities for publicizing their research. However, they have to selectively target journals and publish in compliance with the established norms of publishing ethics. Over the past few years, numerous illegitimate or predatory journals have emerged in most fields of science. By exploiting gold Open Access publishing, these journals paved the way for low-quality articles that threatened to change the landscape of evidence-based science. Authors, reviewers, editors, established publishers, and learned associations should be informed about predatory publishing practices and contribute to the trustworthiness of scholarly publications. In line with this, there have been several attempts to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate journals by blacklisting unethical journals (the Jeffrey Beall's list), issuing a statement on transparency and best publishing practices (the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association's and other global organizations' draft document), and tightening the indexing criteria by the Directory of Open Access Journals. None of these measures alone turned to be sufficient. All stakeholders of science communication should be aware of multiple facets of unethical practices and publish well-checked and evidence-based articles. PMID:26240476

  2. Publishing Ethics and Predatory Practices: A Dilemma for All Stakeholders of Science Communication

    PubMed Central

    Yessirkepov, Marlen; Diyanova, Svetlana N.; Kitas, George D.

    2015-01-01

    Publishing scholarly articles in traditional and newly-launched journals is a responsible task, requiring diligence from authors, reviewers, editors, and publishers. The current generation of scientific authors has ample opportunities for publicizing their research. However, they have to selectively target journals and publish in compliance with the established norms of publishing ethics. Over the past few years, numerous illegitimate or predatory journals have emerged in most fields of science. By exploiting gold Open Access publishing, these journals paved the way for low-quality articles that threatened to change the landscape of evidence-based science. Authors, reviewers, editors, established publishers, and learned associations should be informed about predatory publishing practices and contribute to the trustworthiness of scholarly publications. In line with this, there have been several attempts to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate journals by blacklisting unethical journals (the Jeffrey Beall's list), issuing a statement on transparency and best publishing practices (the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association's and other global organizations' draft document), and tightening the indexing criteria by the Directory of Open Access Journals. None of these measures alone turned to be sufficient. All stakeholders of science communication should be aware of multiple facets of unethical practices and publish well-checked and evidence-based articles. PMID:26240476

  3. Medical geneticists confront ethical dilemmas: cross-cultural comparisons among 18 nations.

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, D C; Fletcher, J C; Mulvihill, J J

    1990-01-01

    To provide a basis for international discussion of ethical problems, we studied responses of medical geneticists in 18 countries to questionnaires about 14 clinical cases and five screening situations. Of 1,053 asked to participate, 677 (64%) responded. There was greater than or equal to 75% consensus on five cases involving (1) disclosure of (1) conflicting diagnostic findings, (2) disclosure of ambiguous results, (3) disclosure of controversial interpretations, (4) protection of mother's confidentiality in cases of false paternity, and (5) nondirective counseling about 45,X and XYY syndrome. A majority (51%-60%) would disclose the diagnosis to relatives at risk for Huntington disease or hemophilia A, against the patient's wishes; would disclose which parent carries a translocation causing Down syndrome; and would disclose XY genotype in a female. As reproductive options for patients with disorders not diagnosable prenatally, 84% would discuss artificial insemination by a donor, 66% would discuss in vitro fertilization with donor egg, and 46% would discuss surrogate motherhood. In all, 85% would perform prenatal diagnosis for (or would refer) parents who refuse abortion, 75% for maternal anxiety, and 42% for selection of fetal sex. Screening questions showed that 72% believed that workplace screening should be voluntary and that results should be confidential. PMID:2339711

  4. Does the Golem Feel Pain? Moral Instincts and Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Suffering and the Brain.

    PubMed

    Devor, Marshall; Rappaport, Isabelle; Rappaport, Z Harry

    2015-07-01

    Pain has variously been used as a means of punishment, extracting information, or testing commitment, as a tool for education and social control, as a commodity for sacrifice, and as a draw for sport and entertainment. Attitudes concerning these uses have undergone major changes in the modern era. Normative convictions on what is right and wrong are generally attributed to religious tradition or to secular-humanist reasoning. Here, we elaborate the perspective that ethical choices concerning pain have much earlier roots that are based on instincts and brain-seated empathetic responses. They are fundamentally a function of brain circuitry shaped by processes of Darwinian evolution. Social convention and other environmental influences, with their idiosyncrasies, are a more recent, ever-changing overlay. We close with an example in which details on the neurobiology of pain processing, specifically the question of where in the brain the experience of pain is generated, affect decision making in end-of-life situations. By separating innate biological substrates from culturally imposed attitudes (memes), we may arrive at a more reasoned approach to a morality of pain prevention. PMID:24766620

  5. Rubber dam application in endodontic practice: an update on critical educational and ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, H M A; Cohen, S; Lévy, G; Steier, L; Bukiet, F

    2014-12-01

    Proper isolation is an essential prerequisite for successful endodontic treatment. This article aims to provide an update on the prevalence of rubber dam (RD) use, and the role of education along with attitudes of general dental practitioners (GDPs) and patients towards the application of RD in endodontics. Critical ethical issues are also highlighted. Using certain keywords, an electronic search was conducted spanning the period from January 1983 to April 2013 to identify the available related investigations, and the pooled data were then analysed. The results show that although RD is the Standard of Care in endodontic practice, there is a clear discrepancy in what GDPs are taught in dental school and what they practice after graduation. There is little scientific evidence to support the application of RD; however, patient safety and clinical practice guidelines indicate that it is unnecessary and unethical to consider a cohort study to prove what is already universally agreed upon. A few clinical situations may require special management which should be highlighted in the current guidelines. This would pave the way for clear and straightforward universal guidelines. PMID:25091028

  6. Brain Science of Ethics: Present Status and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Ryuta; Funane, Tsukasa; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in technologies for neuroscientific research enable us to investigate the neurobiological substrates of the human ethical sense. This article introduces several findings in "the brain science of ethics" obtained through "brain-observation" and "brain-manipulation" approaches. Studies over the past decade have revealed that several…

  7. [Very premature births: Dilemmas and management. Second part: Ethical aspects and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Moriette, G; Rameix, S; Azria, E; Fournié, A; Andrini, P; Caeymaex, L; Dageville, C; Gold, F; Kuhn, P; Storme, L; Siméoni, U

    2010-05-01

    In the first part of this work, the outcome following very premature birth was assessed. This enabled a gray zone to be defined, with inherent major prognostic uncertainty. In France today, the gray zone corresponds to deliveries occurring at 24 and 25 weeks of postmenstrual age. The management of births occurring below and above the gray zone was described. Withholding intensive care at birth for babies born below or within the gray zone does not mean withholding care but rather providing palliative care to prevent pain and suffering during the time period preceding death. Given the high level of uncertainty, making good decisions within the gray zone is problematic. Decisions should be based on the infant's best interests. Decisions should be reached with the parents, who are entitled to receive clear and comprehensive information. Possible decisions to withhold intensive care should be made following the procedures described in the French law of April 2005. Guidelines, based on gestational age and the other prognostic elements, are proposed to the parents before birth. They are applied in an individualized fashion, in order to take into account the individual features of each case. At 25 weeks, resuscitation and/or full intensive care are usually proposed, unless unfavorable factors, such as severe growth restriction, are associated. A senior neonatologist will attend the delivery and will make decisions based on both the baby's condition at birth and the parents' wishes. At 24 weeks, in the absence of unfavorable associated factors, the parents' wishes should be followed in deciding between initiating full intensive care or palliative care. Below 24 weeks, palliative care is the only option to be offered in France at the present time. PMID:20223643

  8. MGMT 4073: Ethical Leadership in Organizations Oklahoma State University

    E-print Network

    Analyze and suggest resolutions to ethical dilemmas ·Critical Thinking ·Ethical Decision Making Recognize decisions ·Critical Thinking ·Ethical Decision Making ·Written Communication Understand organizational Identify and address common ethical issues that arise within organizations ·Critical Thinking ·Ethical

  9. The human face behind an ethical dilemma: reflecting on attempted suicide and outcomes of a case study.

    PubMed

    Sneesby, Ludmilla

    2009-09-01

    This paper presents a challenging case study that reflects on the ethical and legal obligations of health-care workers. The case raised issues about the rights of terminally ill patients to refuse or reject treatment, and changed practice with the formulation of procedures and guidelines about self-harm, the wider issue of euthanasia, and the responsibilities of health-care workers in such cases. This case study is the story of Bernie (pseudonym), an 84-year-old man, from his admission to the palliative care outreach service, to his death. At the time of his attempted suicide, he was a patient of a palliative care outreach team at an Austalian hospital. The right of a person to take their own life, respect for autonomy and the actions of health-care workers are the basis of discussion. PMID:19957456

  10. Ethical Dilemmas in Individual and Collective Rights-Based Approaches to Tertiary Education Scholarships: The Cases of Canada and Cuba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    One of the ongoing debates in Canadian higher education is the dilemma of the brain drain and the seemingly conflicting goals between the strategies and intentions of various government departments. While Citizenship and Immigration Canada aims to recruit the brightest students from across the globe to study in Canada and to enable their long-term…

  11. Dilemmas in Medicine, 2nd Edition 1977. CEM Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Undy, Harry, Ed.

    Published for secondary school youth in England, the PROBE series presents provocative information and discussion questions on topical themes. The focus of this issue is on aspects of medicine which raise moral dilemmas for doctors, patients, and society in general. This issue contains case studies which illustrate ethical questions raised by the…

  12. On the Horns of a Dilemma and Executive Hubris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Charles K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents two focused minicases that an instructor can use in a typical information systems overview course. The first of these deals with a serious ethical dilemma and the second with the politics of information technology executive management. For each case, a discussion of how to use the minicase effectively and a suggested solution…

  13. "Doctors' Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P J; Jerram, Tim; Forsythe, Malcolm

    1985-02-16

    Three British physicians briefly review the final programs in a BBC series, "Doctors' Dilemmas," each consisting of a case history followed by a discussion involving health professionals, administrators, and lawyers. Taylor, an occupational physician, comments on the episode in which a company doctor is asked by management to disclose confidential information about an employee. Psychiatrist Jerram discusses his reactions to the program presenting the dilemmas of treating a patient with anorexia nervosa against her will. Forsythe, a community physician, reviews the final episode, which dealt with resource allocation, the role of health professionals within the National Health Service, and the potential conflict between the NHS and private practice. PMID:11658546

  14. The Impact of the Nurse-Physician Professional Relationship on Nurses' Experience of Ethical Dilemmas in Effective Pain Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Niekerk, Leesa Micole; Martin, Frances

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 1,015 Australian registered nurses found that those who felt adequately consulted by physicians were significantly more likely to initiate consultation. Nurses dissatisfied with their relationship with physicians were more likely to experience ethical conflicts related to pain management. Level of satisfaction with this relationship…

  15. Sponsorships for the 2012 Ethics Advocate Award Gala, presented by The Center for Ethics and Corporate Responsibility at the J. Mack Robinson College of Business, are available at several levels. All

    E-print Network

    Frantz, Kyle J.

    Sponsorships for the 2012 Ethics Advocate Award Gala, presented by The Center for Ethics throughout the region and recognized on the Center web site and at the event itself. Ethics Advocate Award Presenting Sponsor ($20,000) The Ethics Advocate Award Presenting Sponsor receives twenty (20) complimentary

  16. School Psychologists Ethical Decision Making: Implications from Selected Social Psychological Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry

    2007-01-01

    School psychologists routinely engage in ethical decision making, and existing models have served as useful tools for systematically approaching ethical dilemmas. However, a few of these models have taken account of the rich and salient body of social psychology research. This article reviews social psychological phenomena that present clear…

  17. NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct. Revised = Codigo de Conducta Etica. Revisada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), 2005

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a code of ethics for early childhood educators that offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a common basis for resolving ethical dilemmas encountered in early education. It represents the English and Spanish versions of the revised code. Its contents were approved by the NAEYC Governing Board in April 2005…

  18. Ethical Concerns Raised by the Use of the Internet in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, A. Graham; Hartzel, Kathleen S.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines several major ethical and social concerns that face an institution in attempting to integrate "cyberspace" into its academic arena. Focuses on American universities, though the issues are relevant for all levels of education in all geographic areas. Discusses major ethical dilemmas that academic use of cyberspace may present. Identifies…

  19. Designing an Ethics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  20. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  1. Advancing an ethical framework for long-term care.

    PubMed

    Carter, Mary Whelan

    2002-02-01

    This article represents an effort to formulate an ethical framework for long-term care with the explicit purpose of providing a catalyst to promote further discourse and expand consideration of what an ethic of long-term care might entail. Grounding the discussion, an introduction to traditional ethical philosophy is presented, focusing mainly on the fundamentals of deontological and teleological ethical theories. Attention then shifts to a review of the more frequently cited principles found in the long-term care ethics literature, followed by a critique of the current reliance upon principlism to resolve ethical dilemmas in long-term care. In response to this criticism, an agent-driven ethical framework stressing dignity and respect for personhood, drawn from the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, is advanced. PMID:14598850

  2. Computer ethics and teritary level education in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, E.Y.W.; Davison, R.M.; Wade, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper seeks to highlight some ethical issues relating to the increasing proliferation of Information Technology into our everyday lives. The authors explain their understanding of computer ethics, and give some reasons why the study of computer ethics is becoming increasingly pertinent. The paper looks at some of the problems that arise in attempting to develop appropriate ethical concepts in a constantly changing environment, and explores some of the ethical dilemmas arising from the increasing use of computers. Some initial research undertaken to explore the ideas and understanding of tertiary level students in Hong Kong on a number of ethical issues of interest is described, and our findings discussed. We hope that presenting this paper and eliciting subsequent discussion will enable us to draw up more comprehensive guidelines for the teaching of computer related ethics to tertiary level students, as well as reveal some directions for future research.

  3. Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia Patient Presenting with Rare 'lytic' Lesions and Hypercalcemia: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Khalid; Naqvi, Iftikhar Haider; Shah, Syed Raza; Zakir, Nazia; Ali, Syed Mustafa

    2014-11-01

    Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia (WM) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoproliferative neoplasm characterized by lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltrating the Bone Marrow, along with demonstration of an IgM monoclonal gammopathy in the serum. Lytic lesions are considered one of the basis for differentiating a patient of Multiple Myeloma (MM) and WM. However, very few cases have been reported with a patient presenting with lytic lesions in a WM patient, thereby, complicating the disease. By finding the extent of these lytic lesions and bone involvement, Not only can we signify the presence or absence of bone lesions, but we can also direct the more efficient use of skeletal X-rays for documentation of the extent, location, and response of bone abnormalities to interventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Our case was mimicking the classic case of MM. Using the International Criteria for diagnosis for WM, diagnosis for MM was excluded and diagnosis for WM was made. After two weeks of therapy, the patient showed marked clinical improvement. PMID:25584234

  4. Moral Injury and the Ethics of Educational Injustice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Meira

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Meira Levinson presents a case study of school personnel who must decide whether to expel a fourteen-year-old student for bringing marijuana onto campus. She uses the case to explore a class of ethical dilemmas in which educators are obligated to take action that fulfills the demands of justice but under conditions in which no…

  5. Business Ethics MGTK 407 Online

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Geoff

    Business Ethics MGTK 407 Online SUMMER of 2013 COURSE OVERVIEW This course is designed to provide an analysis and examination of significant contemporary ethical issues and challenges existing throughout responsibilities to a wide variety of stakeholders, including employees, customers and the public. Ethical dilemmas

  6. Business Ethics MGTK 407 Online

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Geoff

    Business Ethics MGTK 407 Online FALL 2013 COURSE OVERVIEW This course is designed to provide an analysis and examination of significant contemporary ethical issues and challenges existing throughout responsibilities to a wide variety of stakeholders, including employees, customers and the public. Ethical dilemmas

  7. Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon, book review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...

  8. Ethics in Early Childhood Field Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Kennece; Newman, Linda

    1997-01-01

    The place of ethics in the professions is often unquestioned. What is not so clear is the awareness of students of early childhood education about ethical issues and their contribution to ethical practice. This study investigated student experiences and perceptions of ethical dilemmas in their practicums. A survey of 171 early childhood students…

  9. Should There Be an Academic Code of Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Daniel

    1982-01-01

    The problem of academic ethics is not in flagrant faculty misbehavior. More difficult moral dilemmas are posed by the university's complexity, the increase in the range of ethical dilemmas facing faculty, and the changing public expectations of the university. A code of ethics would be insufficient to deal with these problems. (Author/MSE)

  10. The Prisoner's Dilemma: Introducing Game Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Doug J.; Miller, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1950, the Prisoner's Dilemma has intrigued economists and amused fans of mathematics. It presents a situation in which two players acting to their own advantage do not do as well together as two players whose actions oppose their individual interests--hence, the dilemma. Variations of the Prisoner's Dilemma have appeared in diverse…

  11. From Theory to Practice: Facing Ethical Challenges as a Clinical Intern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, James P.; Pimentel, Sandra; Albano, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    Although formal ethics classes provide a basic foundation in managing ethical dilemmas, professionals often point to their experiences on internship as an important training ground for consolidation of their ethical development. Clinical interns face many personal and professional transitions that can lead to a number of ethical dilemmas.…

  12. When Ethics and Policy Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hightower, Bynum Blake; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

    2012-01-01

    This case study explores an ethical dilemma faced by a new junior high school principal. It is appropriate for use in all preparation course work, including the internship. Studies show that novice principal decision making differs from that of experienced principals in moral dilemmas, including following policy versus best interests of the…

  13. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  14. Telos: The Revival of an Aristotelian Concept in Present Day Ethics

    PubMed Central

    HAUSKELLER, MICHAEL

    2005-01-01

    Genetic engineering is often looked upon with disfavour on the grounds that it involves ‘tampering with nature’. Most philosophers do not take this notion seriously. However, some do. Those who do tend to understand nature in an Aristotelian sense, as the essence or form which is the final end or telos for the sake of which individual organisms live, and which also explains why they are as they are. But is this really a tenable idea? In order to secure its usage in present day ethics, I will first analyze the contexts in which it is applied today, then discuss the notion of telos as it was employed by Aristotle himself, and finally debate its merits and defend it, as far as possible, against common objections. PMID:16467914

  15. Researching from within: External and Internal Ethical Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Alan; Arthur, Linet

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the superficial and deep ethical and moral dilemmas confronting "insider" researchers, which we term external and internal ethical engagement. External ethical engagement refers to the traditional, easily identifiable ethical issues that insider researchers attend to by submitting their application for ethical approval to…

  16. 21A.216J / SP.622J / WGS.622J Dilemmas in Bio-Medical Ethics: Playing God or Doing Good?, Spring 2005

    E-print Network

    James, Erica

    This course is an introduction to the cross-cultural study of bio-medical ethics. It examines moral foundations of the science and practice of western bio-medicine through case studies of abortion, contraception, cloning, ...

  17. Presenting and Mispresenting Students: Constructing an Ethic of Representation in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Lulu C. H.

    In the last few years, the focus has evolved from considering an "ethic of research" in composition studies to an "ethic of representation" in person-based research. One of the dominant questions that emerged from this shift is how researchers represent their students and their writings in composition research. What does the concept of…

  18. Gender Dysphoria: The Therapist's Dilemma--The Client's Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherebrin, Hannah

    1996-01-01

    Therapist's role and dilemmas faced in treating a gender dysphoric client are discussed. Examines ethical and moral issues relating to transsexualism and discusses the appropriateness of art therapy as a treatment for transsexual clients. (SNR)

  19. GIS and Ethics Undergraduate

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Sunday, April 18, 2010 #12;GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Presentation Overview · Encroachment of Ethics into Classroom · Relationship of GIS and Ethics · Student Perceptions of Ethics 2

  20. Ethics in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Regina L. Garza

    2009-01-01

    The blending of technology and education introduces ethical issues for colleges. In particular, those involved with online education may encounter unique dilemmas that have collegewide implications. In order for ethical decisions to be made in regard to online education, colleges must cultivate a culture of trust, define clearly the correct and…

  1. Road Signs in Ethical Quicksand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrell, S. Lee; Jerrell, Jeanette M.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the major moral and ethical dilemmas illustrated by authors in this special journal issue are highlighted. From an ethical viewpoint, the complexity of evaluation activities is likened to "quicksand" terrain in which directional or warning signs should be erected to aid personal choices when such issues are encountered. (Author/DWH)

  2. Ethics in independent nurse consulting: strategies for avoiding ethical quicksand.

    PubMed

    Creel, Eileen L; Robinson, Jennifer C

    2010-11-01

    Changes in health care have created a variety of new roles and opportunities for nurses in advanced practice. One of these changes is the increasing number of advanced practice nurses carrying out independent consultation. Differences in goals between business and health care may create ethical dilemmas for nurse consultants. The purpose of this article is to describe possible ethical pitfalls that nurse consultants may encounter and strategies to prevent or solve these dilemmas. Three themes related to nursing codes of ethics will be discussed: the duty to uphold human rights, the duty to fulfill commitments, and the duty to practice the profession competently. PMID:21097975

  3. Ethical Issues in Professional Counseling, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Frederic, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume of 4 and 5 contain lessons that provide expert information on a variety of ethical issues in professional counseling. The lessons included in these volumes may be applied toward continuing education credits. Lessons in volume 4 are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Ethical Dilemmas in Multicultural…

  4. Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2005-01-01

    Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

  5. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients. PMID:26673378

  6. Virtue Ethics and the Narrative Identity of American Librarianship 1876 to Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, John Timothy Freedom

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a means of reconciling the competing ideas of library and information science's identity, thereby strengthening professional autonomy. I make the case that developing a system of virtue ethics for librarianship would be an effective way to promote that reconciliation. The first step in developing virtue…

  7. Diagnosis and management of Alzheimer's disease: past, present and future ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, S; Leuzy, A; Racine, E; Rosa-Neto, P

    2013-11-01

    There is great interest in the ethical issues associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias given the prevalence of AD and the evolving neuroscience landscape in matters of diagnoses and therapeutics. Much of the ethics discussion arises in the tension between the principle of not doing harm (principle of non-maleficence) in this vulnerable population and the development of effective treatments (principle of beneficence). Autonomy and capacity issues are also numerous, wide-ranging, and concern (1) day to day affairs such as driving safely and spending money wisely, (2) life-time events such as designating a legal representative in case of incapacity, making a will, (3) consenting to treatment and diagnostic procedures, (4) participating in research. The latter issue is particularly thorny and illustrates well the complexity of tackling concerns related to capacity. The impetus to protect AD patients has partly led to ethics regulation and policies making research on inapt patients more difficult because of stringent requirements for signed informed consent or for showing the value of the research to this specific patient population. New issues are arising that relate to earlier diagnosis using biomarkers and (possibly soon) the use of drugs that modify disease progression. We here summarize and discuss the different ethical issues associated with AD from a historical perspective, with emphasis on diagnostic and treatments issues. PMID:23578568

  8. Presenting and Mispresenting Students: Constructing an Ethic of Representation in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Lulu C. H.

    2003-01-01

    Considers how to represent students and their writings in composition research, specifically how to represent the students themselves. Suggests that when contemplating the "Guidelines for the Ethical Treatment of Students and Student Writing in Composition Studies," educators need to consider their epistemological stance, their choices in…

  9. The Ethics of Setting Course Expectations to Manipulate Student Evaluations of Teaching Effectiveness in Higher Education: An Examination of the Ethical Dilemmas Created by the Use of SETEs and a Proposal for Further Study and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Catherine S.; Elliott, Teressa

    2009-01-01

    Because student evaluations of teaching effectiveness (SETEs) are an important and widely used tool used in the evaluation and reward systems for faculty members in higher education, a discussion and analysis of the ethical problems that may arise as a result of the conflict created by expectations of performance is provided. This discussion…

  10. Developing Ethical Knowledge in the Spirit of Judaism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to describe Jewish teachers' perceptions about their ethical dilemmas based on stories derived from the Bible. Sixty teachers were asked to submit descriptions of their ethical dilemmas to the study website; submissions were then discussed in focus groups. The findings were grouped by the ATLAS.ti into five categories: Telling…

  11. Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

  12. Ethically Challenging Situations Reported by School Psychologists: Implications for Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailor, A. Nichole; Jacob, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Practitioner-members of the National Association of School Psychologists (N = 208) completed questionnaires regarding their ethics training, preparedness, the types of ethical transgressions and dilemmas encountered in the previous year, and the strategies used to solve problems. Respondents who received multilevel training in ethics (ethics

  13. Exploiting loss?: ethical considerations, boundaries, and opportunities for the study of death and grief online.

    PubMed

    Carmack, Heather J; DeGroot, Jocelyn M

    More people are turning to the Internet to communicate about dying, death, and grief experiences. This theoretical article explores the ethical dilemmas, challenges, and opportunities presented to researchers interested in exploring how death and grief are communicated online. Weaving together the literatures of computer-mediated communication and thanatology (dying and death), we discuss the ways in which many common ethical dilemmas uniquely manifest related to death and grief. We also explore the emotional impact studying death and grief online has on researchers and the importance of thinking about researcher emotions on scholars who study these issues. We end with recommendations of how to move forward in the dialogue about ethics and studying death and grief online. PMID:24968619

  14. Dilemmas for international mobilization around child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Lannen, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this commentary is to articulate some issues and dilemmas raised by various efforts to mobilize international action around child abuse and neglect (CAN). We will start by proposing a typology of international mobilization strategies, noting that initiatives to promote CAN programming in new settings have tended to emphasize one of three vectors: governments, professionals, or international NGOs. There are pros and cons to each emphasis, which we discuss. We also review the debates around some of the following dilemmas: Should low-income countries be a top priority for CAN mobilization? Are there cultural and institutional capacities that need to be present in a country in order for CAN programs to work or be ethical? Are some CAN programs more likely to be internationally transferable than others and why so? Has the field adequately considered whether non-CAN programming (e.g., family planning) might actually be more effective at preventing maltreatment than CAN programming? Does the field give adequate acknowledgment that policies and practices emanating from high-resourced and Western countries may not always be the best to disseminate? Are we relying too much on a model of program transplantation over a model of local cultivation? Should we aim for modest rather than ambitious accomplishments in international mobilization? How much emphasis should be placed on the priority dissemination of evidence-based programming? We conclude with some suggestions in the service of clarifying these dilemmas and making some of these decisions more evidence based. PMID:25087071

  15. A survey of ethical and professional challenges experienced by Spanish health-care professionals that provide genetic counseling services.

    PubMed

    Abad-Perotín, Reyes; Asúnsolo-Del Barco, Ángel; Silva-Mato, Agustín

    2012-02-01

    Genetic testing is increasingly applied for diagnosis and clinical treatment. In some countries, genetic counseling services are provided by professionals with specific training in this discipline, whereas other countries have no teaching programs and counseling is offered by physicians, nurses, pharmacists or biochemists. This counseling raises more and more ethical dilemmas for health professionals at their clinics. The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of Spanish professionals devoted to providing genetic counseling services and to investigate the frequency of the ethical dilemmas they face. Results from 72 survey respondents revealed this counseling is provided by an almost even number of male and female professionals, mostly physicians with many years of professional experience. The overall frequency of the ethical dilemmas encountered was not high. The most frequent dilemmas corresponded to emotional responses by patients, informed consent, uncertainty about test results, and limitations on health-care resources. The frequency of dilemmas involving discrimination and provider directiveness was very low. Additional findings, practice implications, and research recommendations are presented. PMID:21701955

  16. A review of "Milton and the Post-Secular Present: Ethics, Politics, Terrorism" by Feisal G. Mohamed 

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    stream_source_info mohamed rev ellis.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9658 Content-Encoding windows-1252 stream_name mohamed rev ellis.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=windows-1252 reviews 5... involved, all Miltonists, declined to present the best possible selection of Milton scholarship. Feisal G. Mohamed. Milton and the Post-Secular Present: Ethics, Politics, Terrorism. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2011. + 167 pp. $21.95. Review...

  17. A meaty matter. Pet diet and the vegetarian's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2013-09-01

    The present research examined pet ownership, current pet diet, and guilt associated with pet diet among a fairly large sample of non-meat-eaters (n=515). It specifically focused on the conflict that pits feeding one's pet an animal-based diet that may be perceived as best promoting their well-being with concerns over animal welfare and environmental degradation threatened by such diets, here labeled the vegetarian's dilemma. Questionnaire responses indicated that ethically motivated meat abstainers were more likely to own pets and owned more of them than those motivated by health concerns or a combination of ethical and health concerns. Vegans and those resisting meat on ethical grounds were more likely to feed their pet a vegetarian diet and expressed the greatest concerns over feeding their pet an animal-based diet. For vegans and ethical meat abstainers, it is suggested that questions concerning what to feed their pet approaches a tragic tradeoff contrasting two sacred values: protecting the well-being of their pets and protecting the well-being of other animals and the environment. For meat abstainers motivated by health concerns, this constitutes a relatively easy moral problem because the primary concern for such individuals is the health of their pet with less or no regard for other ramifications of the decision, i.e., harming other animals or the environment. PMID:23619313

  18. Solid variant of aneurysmal bone cyst presenting as a giant cervical mass: A clinical, radiological, histopathological dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Savardekar, Amey R.; Patra, Deviprasad; Chatterjee, Debajyoti; Ahuja, Chirag K.; Salunke, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Typical aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are osteolytic, multicystic lesions with parietal sclerosis and blood-filled cysts. In rare instances, the cystic components may be completely absent. Such solid variants in ABC (s-ABC) exhibit a solid architecture; making the clinical, radiological, and histological differentiation from other solid bone tumors like osteosarcoma (especially giant cell rich osteosarcoma) and giant cell tumor, a difficult task. Case Report: We report the case of a 45–year-old male presenting with a giant solid cervical spine lesion. Histopathology revealed solid variant of ABC, even though the radiological and fine needle aspiration cytology studies pointed toward a giant cell tumor. Conclusion: We aim to discuss the clinical, radiological, and histological findings of solid ABC (a rare benign entity) vis-à-vis the common neoplastic entities of osteosarcoma and giant cell tumor. The histopathological nuisances in making the diagnosis of s-ABC are put forth, along with its impact on management of such giant bony spinal lesions. PMID:26005581

  19. Ethical issues and accountability in pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Lynn

    2014-10-28

    Pressure ulcers represent a considerable cost, both in terms of healthcare spending and quality of life. They are increasingly viewed in terms of patient harm. For clinicians involved in pressure ulcer prevention, ethical issues surrounding accountability may arise from both policy and practice perspectives. It may be useful for clinicians to refer to ethical theories and principles to create frameworks when addressing ethical dilemmas. However, such theories and principles have been criticised for their simplicity and over-generalisation. Alternative theories, for example, virtue ethics and experiential learning, can provide more comprehensive guidance and promote a pluralistic approach to tackling ethical dilemmas. PMID:25335632

  20. Ethical Issues in Continuing Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Patricia Ann

    2000-01-01

    Continuing professional education practitioners often face ethical dilemmas regarding their obligations to multiple stakeholders and issues arising in new arenas such as the workplace, distance education, and collaboration with business. Codes of ethics can guide practice, but practitioners should also identify their personal core values system…

  1. Salesperson Ethics: An Interactive Computer Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castleberry, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    A new interactive computer simulation designed to teach sales ethics is described. Simulation learner objectives include gaining a better understanding of legal issues in selling; realizing that ethical dilemmas do arise in selling; realizing the need to be honest when selling; seeing that there are conflicting demands from a salesperson's…

  2. Ethical Problems in Teaching: "Paramedic" Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Donald W.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ethical dilemmas that professors face in the classroom, drawing on three examples involving students: (1) discussing the illegal activities of an employer; (2) participating in politically controversial military activities; and (3) making racist comments. Argues that academic and professional organizations should issue codes of ethics

  3. An Ethics Challenge for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet G.; Crews, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Ethical issues arise more often for school counselors than for those who work in other settings (Remley, 2002). The challenge of working not only with minors but also with other stakeholders including parents, teachers, school administrators, and community members sets the stage for potential legal and ethical dilemmas. Awareness and adherence to…

  4. Context-Sensitive Ethics in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry; Robillard, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Ethical codes and licensing rules provide foundational guidance for practicing school psychologists, but these sources fall short in their capacity to facilitate effective decision-making. When faced with ethical dilemmas, school psychologists can turn to decision-making models, but step-wise decision trees frequently lack the situation…

  5. Mentors' Ethical Perceptions: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempts to describe mentors' perceptions of their ethical dilemmas, the derived mentor roles, and the ethical guidelines suggested by mentors, with reference to previous studies exploring the mentors' multifaceted roles. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 60 mentors participated in a two-phase study: the mentors were…

  6. Environmental Dilemmas. Critical Decisions for Society. [Student's Guide.] Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A.; And Others

    The dual purpose of this module is to introduce students (grades 10-11) to current/emerging environmental issues and to emphasize the moral/ethical decision-making related to these issues. The module is organized into 12 topic areas, each containing a dilemma story, introductory reading material, sample student responses, and questions. Dilemmas

  7. Virtual Mentor American Medical Association Journal of Ethics

    E-print Network

    Fujimura, Joan

    Virtual Mentor American Medical Association Journal of Ethics August 2012, Volume 14, Number 8: 657 kinds of information about our DNA, but they have also raised ethical questions. Early results from that such genetic patterns may have medical importance. We note two ethical dilemmas posed by the claims made

  8. Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…

  9. The Development of a Code of Ethics: An Online Classroom Approach to Making Connections between Ethical Foundations and the Challenges Presented by Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rochelle

    2010-01-01

    In today's organizations, ethical challenges relate to areas like fraud, right to privacy for consumers, social responsibility, and trade restrictions. For Information Technology (IT) specifically, these can translate to considerations on how technology is used to violate people's privacy, how automation leads to job reductions, or how management…

  10. Ethical and Moral Decision Making: Praxis and Hermeneutics for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, Joan Quinn

    2011-01-01

    There has been a renewed interest in the inclusion of ethics as part of educators' training and interest in understanding the moral and ethical dimensions of educational practice. This research was designed to study the types of dilemmas school level leaders face, the characteristics of typical dilemmas, and the implications for leader…

  11. Publication aspects of ethics in photogrammetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Morris M.

    1991-01-01

    According to the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the principles on which ethics are founded consist of honesty, justice, and courtesy, forming a moral philosophy associated with mutual interest among men. We will cover in particular the ethical problems of publication of photogrammetric material in the various media. There are many such problems, and we often face a dilemma in selecting a course which is the right thing to do.

  12. Ethics and Improper Laboratory Practices

    E-print Network

    Ethics and Improper Laboratory Practices Ray Terhune US EPA Region 4 Quality Assurance Section #12;#12;Goals for This Presentation Discuss why this training is necessary. Define Ethics, Data Integrity. #12;What is "Ethics"? #12;Ethics: Webster's online dictionary defines ethics as: the discipline

  13. Using MultiMedia Content to Present Business Ethics: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanwick, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…

  14. Rattling the Cage: Moving beyond Ethical Standards to Ethical Praxis in Self-Study Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandenburg, Robyn; Gervasoni, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The ethical practice underpinning self-study research has been addressed extensively in the literature of self-study of teacher education practices. Less attention has been paid to how researchers deal with ethical tensions and dilemmas when they arise unexpectedly during self-study research. In this article, we examine how the extrapolation and…

  15. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Mateji?, Bojana; Kesi?, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status. PMID:23539924

  16. Economics and industry do not mean ethical conduct in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials present an ethical dilemma for pharmaceutical companies. While companies may want to undertake and report these trials in an ethical manner, negative results can significantly affect product sales. There is accumulating evidence that company-financed trials are biased in favor of the product that the company makes. Ethical conduct in this article is defined as whether the trials are conducted in the best interests of the participants and/or reported in the best interests of patients. Nine examples of how clinical trials are violating multiple articles in the Declaration of Helsinki are discussed using concrete case reports from the literature. The recognition of ethical problems in company run trials is not something new, but to date no meaningful action has been taken to resolve this issue. What is necessary is to separate the financing of clinical trials from their conduct. PMID:25848540

  17. Ethical guidelines for orthopaedists and industry.

    PubMed

    Epps, Charles H

    2003-07-01

    During the past decade, there has been a gradual erosion of the ethical principles that guide relationships between physicians and industry. Two areas in which the decline has been most notable are gifts to physicians and the relationships of industry to educational and research activities. The gifts have become more valuable and industry representatives make gifts available under circumstances where frequently there is no educational program. Research support continues at a high level but researchers increasingly find themselves in positions that present conflicts of interest with the interests of patients who are research subjects. These changes have taken place during an era in which professionalism also has declined and physicians are losing control of their practices to government and to the corporate sector. A solution to this dilemma is suggested through strict adherence to the existing ethical principles by physicians and industry. Physicians must renew observance of professionalism and improve oversight and discipline. Medicine cannot impose restrictions on the pharmaceutical and manufacturing industries but can appeal to industry's leadership. Oversight and discipline also must govern marketing and sales representatives of industry. There must be an ethical common ground if a new physician and industry relationship is to succeed in producing a climate of mutual respect and higher ethics; patients will benefit and physicians and industry will regain the public trust. PMID:12838046

  18. Zuckerman's dilemma. A plea for environmental ethics.

    PubMed

    Sagoff, M

    1991-01-01

    E.B. White's Charlotte's Web serves as an environmental parable for our time. As we reflect on our relationship with nature, we might consider the three ways in which Wilbur the pig was valued in White's story. His instrumental value cashes out in ham hocks and sausage. His aesthetic value earns him a ribbon at the county fair. His moral value is the value he has in and of himself, and Charlotte the spider loves him for it. We can value nature the way Charlotte valued Wilbur, or we can, as the farmer Zuckerman did at first, see the natural world only in terms of the pork chops it provides. PMID:1743949

  19. Ethics and Public Health: Forging a Strong Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Daniel; Jennings, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    The field of bioethics arose in the late 1960s in response to the emerging ethical dilemmas of that era. The field for many years focused in general on the dilemmas generated by high-technology medicine rather than on issues of population health and the ethical problems of public health programs and regulations. The time has come to more fully integrate the ethical problems of public health into the field of public health and, at the same time, into the field of bioethics. Public health raises a number of moral problems that extend beyond the earlier boundaries of bioethics and require their own form of ethical analysis. PMID:11818284

  20. The Ethnographic Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aptekar, Lewis

    A dilemma faces the ethnographer whose discipline forces the creation of an objective text from an intimate participatory experience. There have been three ways in which ethnographers have attempted to solve the dilemma of producing the objectivity of a scientific text while acknowledging their presence in the field. The first approach is the…

  1. Ethical issues in rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed

    Blackmer, J

    2000-06-01

    It is only relatively recently that we have begun to examine ethical issues as they relate specifically to the speciality of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Prior to this, most ethicists were more concerned with acute care medical issues involving life and death decisions. However, with the ageing population and the emphasis society now places on returning patients to the maximum possible level of function, greater consideration is being given to ethical dilemmas that are relevant to rehabilitation medicine. This paper examines the major ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence and justice. The issues of resource allocation and patient selection, the ethics of team care and ethical issues in goal setting, as they relate specifically to rehabilitation medicine, are examined in some detail. PMID:10853717

  2. Ethical considerations in bioengineering research.

    PubMed

    Naurato, Nicolas; Smith, Thomas J

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical science and engineering have made rapid advancements in the field of medicine over the past few decades. New ethical problems arising from this technology are influencing biomedical research more and more. It is disturbing that bioengineering professionals have had relatively little contact with moral and legal theory in light of these developments and particularly since they represent the forefront of new medical innovations. The objective of this communication is to introduce the study of bioethics and the use of principlism when examining bioengineering problems and dilemmas. Specific examples derived from actual proceedings, such as the Baltimore case, will alert scientists to the importance of misconduct in academic society. Cases will be used to illustrate how tools learned in this presentation are applied to analyze bioethical issues. New technology has a large social impact and is setting the standard of care for treatment. The health care system continually relies on researchers to produce improvements in patient therapy. Society will increasingly expect scientists to be morally responsible for the research they perform and uphold those virtues that ensure good ethical conduct. PMID:12724954

  3. The Roles, Duties, and Ethical Responsibilities of the Chief Financial Officer. Perspectives…Presenting Thought Leaders' Points of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Lawrence R.

    2011-01-01

    Released in conjunction with the "Sustaining an Ethical Culture on Campus" webcast, this essay in the "Perspectives" series examines the complexities of the role of the chief financial officer. This white paper focuses on how the financial leader of an institution must balance technical knowledge along with stellar…

  4. The Social and Political Structuring of Faculty Ethicality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reybold, L. Earle

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the experience of faculty ethicality in education. Research questions focused on faculty characterizations of professional ethics, related socialization experiences, and responses to dilemmas. Interviews were conducted with 32 faculty members and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Findings describe the experiential…

  5. Integration and Exchange: How Executive MBA Students Envision Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Verena; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.

    2013-01-01

    Ethics education provided by universities in general, and MBA programs aimed at future business leaders in particular, has come under intense public scrutiny because of corporate scandals and ethical dilemmas. To date, academic research has been mainly devoted to the characteristics of instruction formats and their effectiveness, characteristics…

  6. Blueprint of Skills, Concepts for Media Ethics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Discusses how a course in journalism ethics can integrate theory and practice while giving an accurate description of the profession and an overview of its unique ethical dilemmas. Notes that such a course helps students develop skills, analyze concepts and theories, and critically evaluate the profession. (SR)

  7. Ethical Issues in Mentoring Adults in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansman, Catherine A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines practical problems encountered in mentoring adult learners in higher education through stories of ethical dilemmas. Each incident illustrates the power that mentors possess and the ethical challenges of using this power to help or hurt proteges. Each example addresses an aspect of such power; the power to remove oneself as a…

  8. False or Recovered Memories?: Legal and Ethical Implications for Therapists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Places the development of the debate over false or recovered memories in its social and historical context. Identifies some of the ethical and legal implications of this area of work for therapists by using the Drama Triangle. Outlines ethical dilemmas for therapists and some of the implications for therapeutic practice. (RJM)

  9. The Climate Policy Dilemma

    E-print Network

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent GHG abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists over the likelihood of ...

  10. The Climate Policy Dilemma

    E-print Network

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists concerning ...

  11. Ethics in Physical Activity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

  12. [Contributions of ethics to the practice of intensive care].

    PubMed

    Doucet, H

    1995-06-10

    Intensive care, one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine, is not without its problems. In what sense could ethics contribute towards an intensive care medicine which would be humane and respectful of what it means to be sick? After having presented a phenomenology of what it means to be sick and in intensive care, the author proposes an ethical framework which could guide the decision-making of physicians specialized in the field. This framework has three levels. Level one deals with the basic values of benevolence and autonomy which are those of medicine itself. Level two deals with the implementation of these values, which bioethics sees as conflicting. Implementation is achieved by "conversation" between the physician and the patient. Finally, the physician is invited to question his or her own attitude towards the unavoidable dilemmas created by the paradoxes and contradictions of modern medicine. PMID:7597401

  13. A Contingency Model for Ethical Decision-Making by Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, James; Walker, Keith

    2009-01-01

    While numerous philosophical essays offer speculative explanations of how persons should make ethical decisions, empirical investigations of the phenomenon of ethical decision-making are limited to just a few studies in the discipline of business management. This investigation focused on the ethical dilemmas confronted by educators, with emphasis…

  14. Examining Moral Judgment and Ethical Decision-Making in Information Technology Managers and Their Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahand, Assadullah

    2010-01-01

    Growing incidences of corporate ethical misconducts have revived the debate over ethical reasoning and moral development of corporate managers. The role of information technology (IT) in the ethical dilemmas is becoming more evident as virtual environments become increasingly popular, organizations adopt digital form of record keeping, and the…

  15. A Need to Know: An Ethical Decision-Making Model for Research Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Holmes, Elizabeth K.

    2008-01-01

    When faced with a morally charged situation, individuals engage in an ethical decision-making process to resolve the ethical dilemma. This paper outlines a model that describes the steps in the ethical decision-making process and identifies situational factors, collectively termed moral intensity, which may influence this process. The use of a…

  16. Developing an Ethical Framework in Decision Making of Rural Elementary School Principals in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hozien, Wafa Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore and describe individual Pennsylvania rural elementary principals' experiences of ethical decision-making in a complex era. Ethical dilemma, in this case, is the term used to depict an incident which calls for a decision to be made when moral values or ethical principles were in conflict. Also, to learn how…

  17. Communicating Effectively to Resolve Ethical Concerns: The Role of School Psychology Supervisors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olley, Rivka I.

    2010-01-01

    It is incumbent upon each school psychologist to engage in ethical behavior based on current ethical codes guiding school psychology. The school psychologist is often the team member most knowledgeable regarding federal and state laws mandating educational services. Sometimes ethical dilemmas that school psychologists face are the result of a…

  18. Rethinking the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge: A Case Study of Teaching the Environment in Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we argue that scientific literacy ought to be rethought in that it involves ethics as its core element. Considering the fact that science education has addressed ethical dilemmas of Science, Technology, Society and Environment (STSE) issues, it is worthwhile to question what the ethics of scientific knowledge mean in terms of their…

  19. 1 GB 401 Syllabus Summer 2015 Ms. Robin 5.28.2015 GB 401 Business Ethics

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Geoff

    1 GB 401 Syllabus Summer 2015 Ms. Robin 5.28.2015 GB 401 Business Ethics COURSE SYLLABUS: Summer to provide an examination of contemporary organizational ethical issues and challenges. Emphasis responsibilities to a wide variety of stakeholders. Ethical dilemmas and decision-making frameworks and approaches

  20. 1 GB 401 Syllabus Fall 2015 Ms. Robin 7.30.2015 GB 401 Business Ethics

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Geoff

    1 GB 401 Syllabus Fall 2015 Ms. Robin 7.30.2015 GB 401 Business Ethics COURSE SYLLABUS: Fall 2015 an examination of contemporary organizational ethical issues and challenges. Emphasis will be placed upon variety of stakeholders. Ethical dilemmas and decision-making frameworks and approaches at the personal

  1. MGMT 407, Summer 2012 Professor Altman 6.3.2012 1 MGMT 407 Business Ethics

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Geoff

    MGMT 407, Summer 2012 Professor Altman 6.3.2012 1 MGMT 407 Business Ethics COURSE SYLLABUS: Summer an analysis and examination of significant contemporary ethical issues and challenges existing throughout responsibilities to a wide variety of stakeholders, including employees, customers and the public. Ethical dilemmas

  2. 1 GB 401 Syllabus Spring 2015 Dr. Altman 1.14.2015 GB 401 Business Ethics

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Geoff

    1 GB 401 Syllabus Spring 2015 Dr. Altman 1.14.2015 GB 401 Business Ethics COURSE SYLLABUS: Spring is designed to provide an examination of contemporary organizational ethical issues and challenges. Emphasis responsibilities to a wide variety of stakeholders. Ethical dilemmas and decision-making frameworks and approaches

  3. 1 GB 401 Syllabus Fall 2015 Blended Dr. Altman GB 401 Business Ethics

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Geoff

    1 GB 401 Syllabus Fall 2015 Blended Dr. Altman GB 401 Business Ethics COURSE SYLLABUS: Fall 2015 to provide an examination of contemporary organizational ethical issues and challenges. Emphasis responsibilities to a wide variety of stakeholders. Ethical dilemmas and decision-making frameworks and approaches

  4. Contingencies of Reinforcement in a Five-Person Prisoner's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Rachlin, Howard

    2004-01-01

    As in studies of self-control, a tit-for-tat contingency in an iterated prisoner's dilemma game creates a conflict between maximization of local and global reinforcement. The present experiments examine this conflict in a multiplayer prisoner's dilemma game. Versus tit for tat, cooperation corresponds to self-control; defection, always immediately…

  5. The object of environmental ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petulla, Joseph M.

    1989-05-01

    Since the term “environmental ethics” began to be used a generation ago, it has covered many different kinds of environmental notions, problems, ethical systems, and forms of behavior. A variety of cases are presented and examined under two terms, environmental ethics and ecological morality, in an effort to illustrate different kinds of ethical objectives. In order to understand the connections between various strands of environmental ethics, personal and social values and subcultural norms of environmental ethics are examined under Christopher Stone's concept of moral pluralism. G. J. Warnock's notion of the “general object” of morality is proposed to integrate the variegated purposes of environmental ethics.

  6. The Teaching of Ethics and the Ethics of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Janet R.

    This presentation covers the topic of psychological ethics from two perspectives. One part of the presentation considers how ethics is presented in the classroom through both textbook consideration and specifically designed courses. The other part of the presentation considers ethical issues as they are related to the activity of teaching. Each of…

  7. Ethics of Rationing the Flu Vaccine

    E-print Network

    Duesberg, Peter

    in Asia, are seri- ously underfunded. Big failures of policy and politics have led to ethical dilemmas the likelihood of rationing in the future. MARC LIPSITCH Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public is the world's largest hydroelectric dam and will form a huge reservoir of 1080 km2 (3). The common jellyfish

  8. Making an Ethical Decision: A Utilitarian Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    By identifying and weighing the effects of an act on each constituency, a matrix based on John Stuart Mill's theories of utilitarianism illuminates and helps resolve complex ethical dilemmas. Application of the approach is illustrated with a simulated case study concerning the issue of reputation in a small private college. (Author/MSE)

  9. E-Mail and Ethical Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, Bret

    2009-01-01

    The proliferation of the use of e-mail and texting has created some ethical dilemmas for family counselors. Although e-mail can expand and encourage communication, it is not problem free and, in fact, can pose problems. There are issues with privacy, confidentiality, and maintaining an appropriate professional relationship. Family counselors…

  10. Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society. PMID:25678905

  11. Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society. PMID:25678905

  12. Five Dilemmas of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ban, John R.

    1972-01-01

    Five dilemmas constitute the root causes of the major problems in higher education. These are the dilemmas of its institutionality, its definition, its internal reputation, its monastery complex, and its enrollment policies. (Author/HS)

  13. Medical Ethics

    MedlinePLUS

    The field of ethics studies principles of right and wrong. There is hardly an area in medicine that doesn't have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: ...

  14. Community health nursing, wound care, and...ethics?

    PubMed

    Bell, Sue Ellen

    2003-09-01

    Because of changing demographics and other factors, patients receiving care for wounds, ostomies, or incontinence are being referred in increasing numbers to community health nursing organizations for initial or continued care. As home-based wound care becomes big business, little discussion is being focused on the moral and ethical issues likely to arise in the high-tech home setting. Progressively more complex and expensive home care relies on family members to take on complicated care regimens in the face of decreasing numbers of allowable skilled nursing home visits. A framework and a principle-based theory for reflection on the character and content of moral and ethical conflicts are provided to encourage informed and competent care of patients in the home. Common moral and ethical conflicts for WOC nurses in the United States are presented. These conflicts include issues of wound care supply procurement; use of documentation to maximize care or profit; problems of quality, care consistency, and caregiver consent; and dilemmas of tiered health care options. The advantages of a framework to address ethical conflicts are discussed. PMID:14560284

  15. General surgeons and clinical ethics: a survey

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Gilles

    1998-01-01

    Objective To determine the preoccupation of general surgeons concerning ethics. Design A survey by questionnaire. Participants One thousand members of the Canadian Association of General Surgeons were surveyed through a questionnaire, which inquired about the influence of ethics in their clinical practices. The questionnaire contained 12 questions. There was no recall for those who did not respond. Main outcome measures Responses to questions concerning the sex of the respondents, location of practice, number of years in practice, the presence of hospital support, surgeons’ interest in ethical issues, use of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice in solving ethical dilemmas and level of education in clinical ethics. Results Men made up 95% of the respondents; 64% of respondents had been in practice more than 16 years; 58% came from a community or regional hospital; only 10% had no interest in clinical ethics; only 3% stated that they experienced no ethical problems in their practices; and 52% had no formal education in ethics. Conclusions There was general sensitivity for clinical ethics but an evident lack of formal education and of the presence of ethics committees and ethics consultants in many hospitals. PMID:9854535

  16. Syphilis and human experimentation from World War II to the present: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics.

    PubMed

    Cuerda-Galindo, E; Sierra-Valenti, X; González-López, E; López-Muñoz, F

    2014-11-01

    Even after the Nuremberg code was published, research on syphilis often continued to fall far short of ethical standards. We review post-World War II research on this disease, focusing on the work carried out in Guatemala and Tuskegee. Over a thousand adults were deliberately inoculated with infectious material for syphilis, chancroid, and gonorrhea between 1946 and 1948 in Guatemala, and thousands of serologies were performed in individuals belonging to indigenous populations or sheltered in orphanages. The Tuskegee syphilis study, conducted by the US Public Health Service, took place between 1932 and 1972 with the aim of following the natural history of the disease when left untreated. The subjects belonged to a rural black population and the study was not halted when effective treatment for syphilis became available in 1945. PMID:24461955

  17. A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

    2013-02-01

    Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

  18. MGMT 407, Fall First 8 Week Term 2013 Professor Silva 8.26.2013 MGMT 407 Business Ethics

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Geoff

    MGMT 407, Fall First 8 Week Term 2013 Professor Silva 8.26.2013 1 MGMT 407 Business Ethics COURSE: This course is designed to provide an analysis and examination of significant contemporary ethical issues, customers and the public. Ethical dilemmas and decision-making frameworks and approaches at the personal

  19. SCIENCE, POLICY & ETHICS MINOR Faculty: Phil Ammirato (Biology), Randall Balmer (Religion), Diane Dittrick (EnvSci), Tim

    E-print Network

    Halpin-Healy, Tim

    SCIENCE, POLICY & ETHICS MINOR Faculty: Phil Ammirato (Biology), Randall Balmer (Religion), Diane of the human genome, privacy issues and ethical dilemmas arising from genetic testing, misguided eugenics in the US and former Soviet Union. The minor in Science, Policy & Ethics, which requires 5 courses total

  20. The Herdsmen's Dilemma

    E-print Network

    Ura, Karma

    2002-01-01

    breeds of cattle. They have skilful foraging capabilities in jungles or different terrain. When they are in jungle, they cruise with their nozzles at a height of four feet, gobbling creepers and foliage. They have a fine instinct, as though... of the people of Haa consist of Lamtsa, Gangtsekha, Guchey and Shingkathang. Winter grazing areas, which belong jointly to The Herdsmen's Dilemma 21 Haa...

  1. Dilemmas and Discarded Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Joyce A.

    2009-01-01

    Women are challenged most by cultural norms, particularly sex-role norms, religious and political ideologies, and gender-structured opportunities that favor men. Although some stereotypes have loosened a bit, dilemmas remain for women who aspire to fill school district leadership positions. The author's predicament is not unique. It is something…

  2. Dilemmas in Teaching Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Chris; Martin, Brian

    2009-01-01

    There is a burgeoning amount of research into happiness and greatly increased popular attention, so it seems logical to add a course on happiness to the university curriculum. We encountered, in developing and running such a course, a number of dilemmas that the topic of happiness makes especially acute. Should the teacher remain separate from the…

  3. The Dewey Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt the library world is in a dilemma about Dewey, but the system is hardly dead. In his 2007 book, Everything Is Miscellaneous, David Weinberger said bluntly, "It can't be fixed." In spite of that, Dewey is currently the most widely used classification system in the world, employed in 138 countries by over 200,000 libraries. But the…

  4.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    September 2012 NCI ETHICS OFFICE UPDATES Office of Ethics to Welcome New Director       Effective October 7, 2012, the NCI Office of Ethics welcomes Nancy O’Hanlon as its Director and Deputy Ethics Counselor.Nancy was most recently the Director of the Eth

  5.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    NIH Ethics Office  http://ethics.od.nih.gov/ NIH Enterprise Ethics System https://nees.nih.gov/nees/ Office of Government Ethics   http://www.oge.gov/ NIH Manual: http://oma.od.nih.gov/manualchapters/ NIH Intramural Research Sourcebook: http://sourcebook.

  6. The ethics and safety of medical student global health electives

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Evelyn M.; Varpio, Lara; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Gajaria, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore and characterize the ethical and safety challenges of global health experiences as they affect medical students in order to better prepare trainees to face them. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 Canadian medical trainees who had participated in global health experiences during medical school. Convenience and snowball sampling were utilized. Using Moustakas’s transcendental phenomenological approach, participant descriptions of ethical dilemmas and patient/trainee safety problems were analyzed. This generated an aggregate that illustrates the essential meanings of global health experience ethical and safety issues faced. Results We interviewed 23 participants who had completed 38 electives (71%, n=27, during pre-clinical years) spend-ing a mean 6.9 weeks abroad, and having visited 23 countries. Sixty percent (n=23) had pre-departure training while 36% (n=14) had post-experience debriefing. Three macro-level themes were identified: resource disparities and provision of care; navigating clinical ethical dilemmas; and threats to trainee safety. Conclusions Medical schools have a responsibility to ensure ethical and safe global health experiences. However, our findings suggest that medical students are often poorly prepared for the ethical and safety dilemmas they encounter during these electives. Medical students require intensive pre-departure training that will prepare them emotionally to deal with these dilemmas. Such training should include discussions of how to comply with clinical limitations. PMID:25341214

  7. Whistleblowing and organizational ethics.

    PubMed

    Ray, Susan L

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss an external whistleblowing event that occurred after all internal whistleblowing through the hierarchy of the organization had failed. It is argued that an organization that does not support those that whistle blow because of violation of professional standards is indicative of a failure of organizational ethics. Several ways to build an ethics infrastructure that could reduce the need to resort to external whistleblowing are discussed. A relational ethics approach is presented as a way to eliminate the negative consequences of whistleblowing by fostering an interdependent moral community to address ethical concerns. PMID:16838574

  8. Communication and group identity in a public goods dilemma 

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Laura Echerd

    1996-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between communication, group identity, and share size on cooperation rates in a public goods dilemma. An investment game was played by 265 undergraduate students participating in groups of 5. Three...

  9. [Ethics: a challenge for education].

    PubMed

    Moreau, D; Larochelle, C

    1993-05-01

    Because of new advances in biomedical science and bio-technology, nurses are confronted with dilemmas for which no easy solutions are available. For this reason, it is becoming increasingly crucial that nursing students develop moral judgement. Nursing students find it difficult to relate the principles of ethics (moral conduct, duty and judgment) to concrete nursing situations. Blondeau (1986) believes the case study to be one of the most effective teaching strategies that can be used to raise moral sensitivity. However, it is very difficult to use this strategy with young adult students. The authors believe that if students learn ethical principles prior to the case study they will become aware of ethical problems and will be better prepared to discuss in depth ethical implications. They designed a self-learning module and compared the results with an equivalent group of students. Post-test cognitive results showed a difference between the two groups. Students using the new case study module expressed great satisfaction with the format, utilization and attitudes of this module. The approach proved useful since students were able to learn at their own pace. The time previously used to teach ethical principles was then allotted to class discussions and the process of ethical decision-making. PMID:8500090

  10. From environmental to ecological ethics: toward a practical ethics for ecologists and conservationists.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Ben A; Collins, James P

    2008-12-01

    Ecological research and conservation practice frequently raise difficult and varied ethical questions for scientific investigators and managers, including duties to public welfare, nonhuman individuals (i.e., animals and plants), populations, and ecosystems. The field of environmental ethics has contributed much to the understanding of general duties and values to nature, but it has not developed the resources to address the diverse and often unique practical concerns of ecological researchers and managers in the field, lab, and conservation facility. The emerging field of "ecological ethics" is a practical or scientific ethics that offers a superior approach to the ethical dilemmas of the ecologist and conservation manager. Even though ecological ethics necessarily draws from the principles and commitments of mainstream environmental ethics, it is normatively pluralistic, including as well the frameworks of animal, research, and professional ethics. It is also methodologically pragmatic, focused on the practical problems of researchers and managers and informed by these problems in turn. The ecological ethics model offers environmental scientists and practitioners a useful analytical tool for identifying, clarifying, and harmonizing values and positions in challenging ecological research and management situations. Just as bioethics provides a critical intellectual and problem-solving service to the biomedical community, ecological ethics can help inform and improve ethical decision making in the ecology and conservation communities. PMID:18985441

  11. Exploration-exploitation: A cognitive dilemma still unresolved.

    PubMed

    James, Russell N

    2015-12-01

    The solution to the exploration-exploitation dilemma presented essentially subsumes exploitation into an information-maximizing model. Such a single-maximization model is shown to be (1) more tractable than the initial dual-maximization dilemma, (2) useful in modeling information-maximizing subsystems, and (3) profitably applied in artificial simulations where exploration is costless. However, the model fails to resolve the dilemma in ethological or practical circumstances with objective outcomes, such as inclusive fitness, rather than information outcomes, such as lack of surprise. PMID:26317249

  12. Ethics. 1983 APME Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Associated Press Managing Editors.

    Dealing with a variety of issues related to media ethics and press responsibility, this report presents 12 essays on editorial policy and reporters' responsibility. The essays discuss the following: (1) a reporter who posed as a jail officer to gain entry into a prison to interview an inmate, (2) a journalism professor's opinion as to the ethics

  13. Brief History of pharmacy ethics in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farsam, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy. PMID:23908727

  14. Literary works as case studies for teaching human experimentation ethics.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, V R

    1996-03-01

    Case studies are widely used as a teaching strategy for a variety of topics in various disciplines. They are particularly valued as a teaching strategy in the teaching of ethics because they provide a context for understanding the complexities of situations involving ethical dilemmas. This article describes the successful use of two literary works as case studies in teaching master's students about the ethical issues in human experimentation. Pygmalion and Flowers for Algernon were selected to exemplify the ethical considerations important in the conduct of research with human subjects. Students found the assignment both personally and professionally stimulating and recommended continued use of the assignment in the course. PMID:8676212

  15. Ethics and the University. Professional Ethics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael

    This book brings together the closely related topics of the practice of ethics in the university, "academic ethics," and the teaching of practical, or applied, ethics in the university. The volume considers practical ethics, research ethics, the teaching of ethics, and sexual ethics as related to the university. The chapters are: (1) "The Ethics

  16. The dilemma of evaluating a continuous murmur in a patient of aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva and coronary cameral fistula presenting with supraventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Yashasvi; Chugh, Sanjay; Chugh, Sunita

    2015-01-01

    A 39-year-old hypothyroid woman on thyroxine replacement therapy presented with an unresolving episode of palpitations (narrow-complex tachycardia). Clinical examination, after reversion to normal sinus rhythm revealed a precordial continuous murmur. Initial transthoracic echocardiogram showed an unruptured aneurysm of left sinus of Valsalva (LSOV), however, because a continuous murmur could not be explained by this condition, a repeat colour Doppler study was made, revealing a communicating tract from the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and terminating in the right atrium (RA). A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed an aneurysmal LMCA and LSOV, with similar colour Doppler findings. A further CT scan and coronary angiogram confirmed a coronary cameral fistula opening into RA. In conclusion, the relevance of a diligent clinical examination and imaging after conversion to normal sinus rhythm in picking up such anomalies cannot be over-emphasised, as previous routine echocardiograms on the same patient had been reported as normal. PMID:25568273

  17. The paucity of ethical analysis in allergology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    While a growing body of research is uncovering the aetiology and effective treatments for allergy, research that assess the broader ethical implications of this disease is lacking significantly. This article will demonstrate both the paucity of academic research concerning ethical implications in allergy and explain why ethical analysis is integral to formulating effective health strategies for allergic disease. An exhaustive literature search of publications in French and English identified less than 35 academic articles focussed on the topic of ethics and allergy; this is a miniscule number when compared to the amount of articles published on ethical issues related to other chronic illnesses, such as obesity. It is important to demonstrate to allergy specialists the need for, and utility of, further incorporating ethical analyses in allergology; the current success of Ethical, Legal, Social Implications (ELSI) research programmes in human genetics and nanotechnology will serve as notable examples. Indeed, future research and innovation in allergy will undoubtedly encounter ethical dilemmas and the allergology community should play a significant role in helping to address these issues. However, incorporating ethical analyses in allergology does not imply that the allergology community must acquire extensive knowledge in bioethics; instead, interdisciplinary research that incorporates expertise from allergology and bioethics would enable allergy specialists to advance critical knowledge development in this largely overlooked domain of study. PMID:23388345

  18. Breaking the cyber-security dilemma: aligning security needs and removing vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam

    2014-09-01

    Current approaches to cyber-security are not working. Rather than producing more security, we seem to be facing less and less. The reason for this is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted security dilemma that extends beyond the state and its interaction with other states. It will be shown how the focus on the state and "its" security crowds out consideration for the security of the individual citizen, with detrimental effects on the security of the whole system. The threat arising from cyberspace to (national) security is presented as possible disruption to a specific way of life, one building on information technologies and critical functions of infrastructures, with relatively little consideration for humans directly. This non-focus on people makes it easier for state actors to militarize cyber-security and (re-)assert their power in cyberspace, thereby overriding the different security needs of human beings in that space. Paradoxically, the use of cyberspace as a tool for national security, both in the dimension of war fighting and the dimension of mass-surveillance, has detrimental effects on the level of cyber-security globally. A solution out of this dilemma is a cyber-security policy that is decidedly anti-vulnerability and at the same time based on strong considerations for privacy and data protection. Such a security would have to be informed by an ethics of the infosphere that is based on the dignity of information related to human beings. PMID:24781874

  19. An Investigation of the Ethical Decision-Making of Preschool Teachers: A Cultural Study of a Sample in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Safak

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the ethical decision-making of preschool teachers (N = 26) in Samsun, on the northern coast of Turkey, was examined. For this analysis, six real-life dilemmas were prepared, chosen from the problems that most often arise in kindergartens in Turkey. These dilemmas addressed the commitment of the teacher to the child, to self, to the…

  20. Congenital miliaria crystallina – A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Sudhir; Jain, Ashish; Datar, Suhas; Khurana, V.K.

    2012-01-01

    Miliaria crystallina is a transient, superficial obstruction of eccrine sweat ducts resulting in rapidly evolving noninflammatory vesicles. The disease is observed frequently in hot, humid, tropical climates and in the neonatal period, most likely due to lack of maturation of the sweat duct during the first few days following birth. It is rarely present at delivery and remains a diagnostic dilemma for the neonatologists. We report a rare case of “Congenital miliaria crystallina” that was present at birth. PMID:24532912

  1. When Practice Takes Precedence: Conceptions of Inquiry and the Link to Ethical Posture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Karen; Birchley, Jacinta; Bruce, Jayne; Hurrell, Alison; Paterson, Sandra; Stephen, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Using participatory action research (PAR), this paper explores the ethical practice of students engaged in practitioner research in a higher education context. Using narrative enquiry, the paper explores the participants' experiences of practitioner research, including ethical dilemmas that resulted from a conflict of values between the…

  2. Ethics in America II: A Video Series for Middle School, High School, and Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annenberg Media, 2007

    2007-01-01

    New, and yet familiar, hypothetical cases are debated and agonized over by eminent leaders from government, business, science and academia. "Ethics in America II" follows its predecessor by exploring gripping ethical dilemmas using the time-honored Socratic Dialogue format. The programs can be used with a discussion guide to help teachers engage…

  3. A Comparison of Special Education Administrators' and Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Ethics and Professional Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Craig R.; Van Haren, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The field of special education is wrought with ethical dilemmas. The Council for Exceptional Children has outlined its code of ethics and standards for professional practice for individuals working in the field of special education. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which special education administrators and teachers possess…

  4. A Stream of Conscience: Reflecting on Ethics and Representation in Drama with Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alrutz, Megan

    2006-01-01

    Like art, ethics can be a complex and scary mirror that forces us to consider, practice, and profess specific choices that speak to who we are and what we value. The author of this article observes that confronting specific ethical dilemmas within her work with young people has brought various tensions to the forefront of her practice as a…

  5. Examining Moral Reasoning and Ethical Decision Making among Mississippi's Community College Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Vernesia Bracey

    2010-01-01

    As ethical dilemmas arise in community colleges, administrators make decisions that require sensitivity to the organizational, political, and environmental factors surrounding their particular institutional climates and locales. The moral reasoning and ethical decision-making of community college administrators were examined in this study. In…

  6. Gift Giving and Receiving in Child-Centered Play Therapy: An Ethical Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, Pedro J.; Sheely-Moore, Angela I.

    2012-01-01

    Child-centered play therapists are often confronted with the challenge of receiving gifts from clients. This article highlights recommended strategies when faced with gift receiving, exemplified by actual ethical dilemmas encountered by child-centered play therapists. Ethical and therapeutic considerations of therapist gift giving to child clients…

  7. Comparing Men's and Women's Perception of Modality of Teaching Business Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdavi, Iraj

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the second report of a research project involving collecting information via e-survey about occasions in which graduates of a California private University have encountered ethical issues/dilemma after graduation and the role that they think their education and the ethics course they had taken played in recognition and resolution of…

  8. Archaeology, Ethics, and Character: Using Our Cultural Heritage to Teach Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti

    2002-01-01

    Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…

  9. Messy Ethics: Conducting Moral Participatory Action Research in the Crucible of University-School Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…

  10. An Ethic of Connectedness: Enacting Moral School Leadership through People and Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, J. Edward; Frick, William C.

    2010-01-01

    As educators, we grapple with a myriad of dilemmas and often have difficulty resolving issues that relate to curriculum and instruction, funding, facilities and supervision, to name a few. Depending on the leader(s), a variety of ethics come in to play when making decisions. The ethic of connectedness refers to community building and welfare as…

  11. The Moral Imperative: Transformative Leadership and the Perceptions of Ethics Training among High School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meakin, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    School leadership has always been a moral undertaking. Contemporary school leaders face complex ethical dilemmas every day. A limited amount of research exists to describe the extent to which school principals feel formally prepared to be ethical leaders. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between the self-identified…

  12. Ethics from the Viewpoint of Organized Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four papers on ethics from the viewpoint of organized agencies are presented: (1) "Business, Ethics, and the Physical Activity Field" (R. Martens); (2) "On Old Wine and New Bottles: The Transformation of Ethical Emphasis in Higher Education" (C. Thomas); (3) a reaction to the first two papers; and (4) "American Academy of Physical Education Ethics

  13. Ethics Perception: Does Teaching Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Nhung T.; Basuray, M. Tom; Smith, William P.; Kopka, Donald; McCulloh, Donald N.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined student learning in business ethics, particularly ethical judgment, using R. E. Reidenbach and D. P. Robin's (1990) Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES). The authors asked 262 undergraduate students to provide ethical judgment rating, first at the beginning of the semester and again at the end of the semester. Students…

  14. An ethical framework for the management of pain in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Fromm, Christian; Isaacs, Eric; Ibarra, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    Pain is a ubiquitous problem, affecting more than 100 million individuals in the United States chronically and many more in the acute setting. Up to three-quarters of patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) report pain as a key component of their reasons for requiring acute care. While pain management is a fundamental component of emergency medicine (EM), there are numerous attitudinal and structural barriers that have been identified to effectively providing pain control in the ED. Coupled with public demands and administrative mandates, concerns surrounding ED pain management have reached a crisis level that should be considered an ethical issue in the profession of EM. In this article, the authors propose an ethical framework based on a combination of virtue, narrative, and relationship theories that can be used to address the clinical dilemmas that arise in managing pain in ED patients. PMID:23859586

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis: is it ethical?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A

    1992-01-01

    Many clinicians believe that allowing costs to influence clinical decisions is unethical. They are mistaken in this belief, because it cannot be ethical to ignore the adverse consequences upon others of the decisions you make, which is what 'costs' represent. There are, however, some important ethical issues in deciding what costs to count, and how to count them. But these dilemmas are equally strong with respect to what benefits to count and how to count them, some of which expose ethically untenable assumptions about such widely-used clinical criteria as survival rates. One of the advantages of systematic cost-effectiveness analysis is that it exposes these hidden assumptions, and requires explicit judgements to be made about which ethical position is appropriate in a particular policy context. This should have the important incidental benefit of improving the accountability of policy-makers to the community they are serving. PMID:1573655

  16. Ethics and proposals: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, M.J.

    1992-08-01

    Who can read about ethics in technical communication at 2 a.m. when you have to face an ethical problem the next day at work? In the middle of ethical turmoil, examining the balance of power can be helpful in finding the best course of action, particularly if the situation is sales- or marketing-related. The author points out that it never hurts to examine honestly all sides of a situation, including checking the balance of power, to see what you would do. In fact, it`s the only way to start preparing yourself for your next dilemma. And because all communication can be seen as at least persuasive, if not downright marketing-oriented, each of us may have the opportunity to face our own ethical issues.

  17. Ethics and proposals: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Agnew, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Who can read about ethics in technical communication at 2 a.m. when you have to face an ethical problem the next day at work In the middle of ethical turmoil, examining the balance of power can be helpful in finding the best course of action, particularly if the situation is sales- or marketing-related. The author points out that it never hurts to examine honestly all sides of a situation, including checking the balance of power, to see what you would do. In fact, it's the only way to start preparing yourself for your next dilemma. And because all communication can be seen as at least persuasive, if not downright marketing-oriented, each of us may have the opportunity to face our own ethical issues.

  18. Information technology and ethics: An exploratory factor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Conger, S.; Loch, K.D.; Helft, B.L.

    1994-12-31

    Ethical dilemmas are situations in which a decision results in unpleasant consequences. The unpleasant consequences are treated as a zero-sum game in which someone always loses. Introducing information technology (IT) to a situation makes the recognition of a potential loser more abstract and difficult to identify, thus an ethical dilemma may go unrecognized. The computer mediates the human relationship which causes a lost sense of contact with a person at the other end of the computer connection. In 1986, Richard O. Mason published an essay identifying privacy, accuracy, property, and Access (PAPA) as the four main ethical issues of the information age. Anecdotes for each issue describe the injured party`s perspective to identify consequences resulting from unethical use of information and information technology. This research sought to validate Mason`s social issues empirically, but with distinct differences. Mason defined issues to raise awareness and initiate debate on the need for a social agenda; our focus is on individual computer users and the attitudes they hold about ethical behavior in computer use. This study examined the attitudes of the computer user who experiences the ethical dilemma to determine the extent to which ethical components are recognized, and whether Mason`s issues form recognizable constructs.

  19. The Problem of Whistleblowing in Engineering Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the features of whistleblowing by considering the arguments about whistleblowing in engineering ethics. First, I analyze the concept of ‘whistleblowing’ by defining the word as clearly as possible. Second, I examine the standard justification theory of whistleblowing by showing the problems of the theory. Finally, I analyze the dilemma about whistleblowing by revealing a prospective whistleblower?s struggle to choose moral value or non-moral value.

  20. The role of developing countries in protecting the ozone layer: An ethical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zatz, M.N.

    1994-12-31

    In an effort to reduce the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer, the nations of the world joined together in a landmark effort to address this most important problem. Unlike many environmental issues which are localized, ozone depletion is an environmental problem which must be addressed on a global scale. In order to successfully halt the depletion of the ozone layer, it is imperative that all countries amend their current practices and reduce their consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This necessity presents an ethical dilemma when assigning responsibility for ozone layer protection among nations. This paper will address the difficulties in dealing with ozone depletion on a global scale and will discuss the ethically correct role which should be assumed by developing countries. After presenting a brief history of the problem of ozone depletion and the measures which have been taken to halt it, this paper will describe an ethical framework in which ozone layer protection policies in developing countries should be evaluated. This framework is based on the concept of balancing morally-correct policies with economically-sound policies. It illustrates, in detail, how the environmental impacts of policies must be considered in conjunction with the impacts of such policies on the lives and well-being of the country`s citizens. The paper presents an ethical analysis of three primary policy options. These options address the phaseout of ozone-depleting substances (such as CFCs) and include: the no-phaseout option, the developed country accelerated phaseout schedule, and the delayed phaseout schedule. Each option is examined within the ethical framework presented earlier in the paper. Finally, the paper concludes by addressing the ethical responsibilities of developed countries. It discusses the various ways in which developed countries should provide aid.

  1. Dilemma of Dilemmas: How Collective and Individual Perspectives Can Clarify the Size Dilemma in Voluntary Linear Public Goods Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Shank, Daniel B.; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Saber, Saam; Gale, Thomas; Kirley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Empirical findings on public goods dilemmas indicate an unresolved dilemma: that increasing size—the number of people in the dilemma—sometimes increases, decreases, or does not influence cooperation. We clarify this dilemma by first classifying public goods dilemma properties that specify individual outcomes as individual properties (e.g., Marginal Per Capita Return) and group outcomes as group properties (e.g., public good multiplier), mathematically showing how only one set of properties can remain constant as the dilemma size increases. Underpinning decision-making regarding individual and group properties, we propose that individuals are motivated by both individual and group preferences based on a theory of collective rationality. We use Van Lange's integrated model of social value orientations to operationalize these preferences as an amalgamation of outcomes for self, outcomes for others, and equality of outcomes. Based on this model, we then predict how the public good's benefit and size, combined with controlling individual versus group properties, produce different levels of cooperation in public goods dilemmas. A two (low vs. high benefit) by three (2-person baseline vs. 5-person holding constant individual properties vs. 5-person holding constant group properties) factorial experiment (group n = 99; participant n = 390) confirms our hypotheses. The results indicate that when holding constant group properties, size decreases cooperation. Yet when holding constant individual properties, size increases cooperation when benefit is low and does not affect cooperation when benefit is high. Using agent-based simulations of individual and group preferences vis-à-vis the integrative model, we fit a weighted simulation model to the empirical data. This fitted model is sufficient to reproduce the empirical results, but only when both individual (self-interest) and group (other-interest and equality) preference are included. Our research contributes to understanding how people's motivations and behaviors within public goods dilemmas interact with the properties of the dilemma to lead to collective outcomes. PMID:25799355

  2. Dilemma of dilemmas: how collective and individual perspectives can clarify the size dilemma in voluntary linear public goods dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Shank, Daniel B; Kashima, Yoshihisa; Saber, Saam; Gale, Thomas; Kirley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Empirical findings on public goods dilemmas indicate an unresolved dilemma: that increasing size-the number of people in the dilemma-sometimes increases, decreases, or does not influence cooperation. We clarify this dilemma by first classifying public goods dilemma properties that specify individual outcomes as individual properties (e.g., Marginal Per Capita Return) and group outcomes as group properties (e.g., public good multiplier), mathematically showing how only one set of properties can remain constant as the dilemma size increases. Underpinning decision-making regarding individual and group properties, we propose that individuals are motivated by both individual and group preferences based on a theory of collective rationality. We use Van Lange's integrated model of social value orientations to operationalize these preferences as an amalgamation of outcomes for self, outcomes for others, and equality of outcomes. Based on this model, we then predict how the public good's benefit and size, combined with controlling individual versus group properties, produce different levels of cooperation in public goods dilemmas. A two (low vs. high benefit) by three (2-person baseline vs. 5-person holding constant individual properties vs. 5-person holding constant group properties) factorial experiment (group n = 99; participant n = 390) confirms our hypotheses. The results indicate that when holding constant group properties, size decreases cooperation. Yet when holding constant individual properties, size increases cooperation when benefit is low and does not affect cooperation when benefit is high. Using agent-based simulations of individual and group preferences vis-à-vis the integrative model, we fit a weighted simulation model to the empirical data. This fitted model is sufficient to reproduce the empirical results, but only when both individual (self-interest) and group (other-interest and equality) preference are included. Our research contributes to understanding how people's motivations and behaviors within public goods dilemmas interact with the properties of the dilemma to lead to collective outcomes. PMID:25799355

  3. Exploring Ethical Tensions on the Path to becoming a Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, M. Shaun; Pinnegar, Eliza; Pinnegar, Stefinee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the authors', two teacher educators' and a pre-service teacher's, understanding of the ethical dilemmas, obligations, and plotlines that emerged in the experiences of a pre-service teacher as she began to develop her identity as a teacher. The inquiry, based in narrative inquiry, used the analysis of narratives from a…

  4. Journal Editing and Ethical Research Practice: Perspectives of Journal Editors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randell-Moon, Holly; Anderson, Nicole; Bretag, Tracey; Burke, Anthony; Grieshaber, Sue; Lambert, Anthony; Saltmarsh, David; Yelland, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    This article offers perspectives from academics with recent journal editing experience on a range of ethical issues and dilemmas that regularly pose challenges for those in editorial roles. Each contributing author has provided commentary and reflection on a select topic that was identified in the research literature concerning academic publishing…

  5. Sport and Technology: Ethics on the Cutting Edge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, William H.

    This paper deals with growing ethical dilemmas in sport as technology advances. Three aspects of sport are discussed: (l) the perpetual conflict between process (training) and product (the actual contest); (2) technophobia, the fear of the new world of technology; and (3) "technosport" or technological training. It is necessary to understand that…

  6. The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: A comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Madeleine L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethical dilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethical dilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven. PMID:23773811

  7. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  8. Admission, Ethics, and Financial Aid: Formulating and Applying an Ethical Framework to the Need-Blind Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    Explores the history and current status of college admission and develops an approach to resolve ethical problems. Applies this approach to the need-blind versus aid-blind controversy, an admission situation rooted in the counseling versus recruitment dilemma. (MKA)

  9. 1 CJ 412 Criminal Justice Ethics Spring 2015 CJ 412 Criminal Justice Ethics Spring 2015

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Geoff

    1 CJ 412 ­ Criminal Justice Ethics ­ Spring 2015 CJ 412 ­ Criminal Justice Ethics ­ Spring 2015: This course presents an analysis of contemporary ethical issues in crime and justice. Classical and contemporary ethical theories will be applied to the discussion of such issues as discretion, corruption, use

  10. The solid waste dilemma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amey, E.B.; Russell, J.A.; Hurdelbrink, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    In 1976, the U.S. Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to further address the problem of increasing industrial and municipal waste. The main objectives of RCRA were to responsibly manage hazardous and solid waste and to procure materials made from recovered wastes. To fulfill these objectives, four main programs of waste management were developed. These programs were defined under Subtitle C, the Hazardous Waste Program; Subtitle D, the Solid Waste Program; Subtitle I, the Underground Storage Tank Program; and Subtitle J, the Medical Waste Program. Subtitle D illustrates the solid waste dilemma occurring in the United States. Under this program, states are encouraged to develop and implement their own waste management plans. These plans include the promotion of recycling solid wastes and the closing and upgrading of all environmentally unsound dumps. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  11. The formaldehyde dilemma.

    PubMed

    Salthammer, Tunga

    2015-06-01

    The IARC's 2004 classification of formaldehyde as a human carcinogen has led to intensive discussion on scientific and regulatory levels. In June 2014, the European Union followed and classified formaldehyde as a cause of cancer. This automatically triggers consequences in terms of emission minimization and the health-related assessment of building and consumer products. On the other hand, authorities are demanding and authorizing technologies and products which can release significant quantities of formaldehyde into the atmosphere. In the outdoor environment, this particularly applies to combusting fuels. The formation of formaldehyde through photochemical smog has also been a recognized problem for years. Indoors there are various processes which can contribute to increased formaldehyde concentrations. Overall, legislation faces a dilemma: primary sources are often over-regulated while a lack of consideration of secondary sources negates the regulations' effects. PMID:25772784

  12. A Dilemma for Moral Fictionalism 

    E-print Network

    Chrisman, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Mark Kalderon has defended an interesting form of moral fictionalism in his 2005 book. In this paper I challenge his view by pressing a dilemma stemming from the question of what the fictionalist should say is expressed ...

  13. The population dilemma.

    PubMed

    Kunugi, T

    1990-06-01

    Technology and population rely on each other for sustenance and growth. Technology has helped produce more food, provide better health care, better communication, faster modes of travel, better consumer durables, greater amenities, and increased the quality of life for millions of people. There has been a price in terms of the widening gap between the technology of the developed and developing countries. There has also been rapid population growth that has resulted in a host of ills. Further, technology itself has produced toxic wastes and consumed a large amount of natural resources. This situation is easily seen as a dilemma between the limitless promises of technology and the limited resources created by large populations. The solution to the dilemma is sustainable development, a concept often talked about but seldom realized. The 90s will be a crucial decade for sustainable development as population is growing by 90 million/annum. 90% of the increase is occurring in developing countries. Within each country there is a trend towards urbanization. By 2000, 75% of Latin Americans, 42% of Africans, and 37% of Asians will live in urban environments. By 2050 there should be 100s of millions of migrants running from the slowly rising sea. The survival equation is sustainability S equals resources R time ingenuity 1 over population P. This is a conceptual equation, but it does illustrate that the impact of human ingenuity is just as important as resources. World commitment must come before any meaningful change will occur. The almost universal acceptance of human rights and fundamental freedoms exceeds the will to change in decision makers and expert consultants. PMID:12283486

  14. Moral Dilemmas in Pediatric Orthopedics.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, John J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan M; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2015-12-01

    All orthopedic surgeons face moral dilemmas on a regular basis; however, little has been written about the moral dilemmas that are encountered when providing orthopedic care to pediatric patients and their families. This article aims to provide surgeons with a better understanding of how bioethics and professionalism apply to the care of their pediatric patients. First, several foundational concepts of both bioethics and professionalism are summarized, and definitions are offered for 16 important terms within the disciplines. Next, some of the unique aspects of pediatric orthopedics as a subspecialty are reviewed before engaging in a discussion of 5 common moral dilemmas within the field. Those dilemmas include the following: (1) obtaining informed consent and assent for either surgery or research from pediatric patients and their families; (2) performing cosmetic surgery on pediatric patients; (3) caring for pediatric patients with cognitive or physical impairments; (4) caring for injured pediatric athletes; and (5) meeting the demand for pediatric orthopedic care in the United States. Pertinent considerations are reviewed for each of these 5 moral dilemmas, thereby better preparing surgeons for principled moral decision making in their own practices. Each of these dilemmas is inherently complex with few straightforward answers; however, orthopedic surgeons have an obligation to take the lead and better define these kinds of difficult issues within their field. The lives of pediatric patients and their families will be immeasurably improved as a result. [Orthopedics. 2015; 38(12):e1133-e1138.]. PMID:26652336

  15. Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of primary and secondary sources identifies five basic properties of professional ethics codes. The author's own theory, which is related directly to intra- and extraprofessional statuses, is added to the two traditional theories (functional and monopoly) which explain these properties. Professional ethics in America since 1900 are…

  16.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    Welcome to the first edition of the NCI Office of Ethics Newsletter!  We created this newsletter to keep staff up to date on ethics topics, news, and current events.  Please feel free to contact us with questions, requests for newsletter article topics or

  17. Research Ethics Timeline (1932-Present)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 1990 W. French Anderson begins the first human gene therapy clinical trial on patients with ADA deficiency, a ... fired. 1999 Jessie Gelsinger dies in a human gene therapy experiment at the University of Pennsylvania. The event ...

  18. The Ethics of Human Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoloth, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    This chapter intends to lay out some essential ethics questions that might frame the next step of space exploration. In this, I undertake two sorts of tasks. The first is to respond to the core ethic question: Is it ethical to travel in space? The second, assuming for the moment that I can convince you that the first premise can be justified, is to comment on what ethical challenges will face us there. It is appropriate to have a philosopher comment on this at the fortieth anniversary celebration, since it was also in 1962 that the National Academy of Science first convened a panel of philosophers to comment on space travel. They asked at that time whether it was indeed a worthwhile pursuit to travel in space and what might be expected of such an effort. What is at stake in any such boundary crossing is how the changing of essential human perimeters changes our own moral status. Will such boundary crossing worsen our human condition, or will it enhance it? In this way, the geopolitical quest is then linked to the quest for ontology, Pisarro hunting for the fountain of youth, for gold, and for territory. What follows are a series of ethical claims that link the problem of discovery in the larger world and the attendant ethical dilemmas of our explorations, as well as how this exploration alters our concepts of life on Earth. In this, the role of the ethicist is to function as both a skeptic and a stranger, aware of the optimism of science and the pessimism of philosophy.

  19. Ethics in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues. PMID:17218662

  20. Dilemmas of Leading National Curriculum Reform in a Global Era: A Chinese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Hongbiao; Lee, John Chi-Kin; Wang, Wenlan

    2014-01-01

    Since the mid-1980s, a global resurgence of large-scale reform in the field of education has been witnessed. Implementing these reforms has created many dilemmas for change leaders. Following a three-year qualitative research project, the present study explores the dilemmas leaders faced during the implementation of the national curriculum reform…

  1. Of Tricksters and Dilemmas in ESL Writing Classes: An Epistolary Account.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herendeen, Warren

    1986-01-01

    Uses an epistolary form to recommend the incorporation of "trickster and dilemma tales" (in which characters trick their way through a story or present moral dilemmas to the reader) in English as a second language (ESL) classes. Notes that such tales act as catalysts for critical and creative thinking. (RS)

  2. Engineering Ethics and Environmental Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how environmental problems are dealt with in engineering ethics and clarify the issues with it. First, the author presents three patterns of engineering ethics from the viewpoint of environmental problems. Second, the author examines these three patterns in terms of sustainable development and anthropocentrism and makes some suggestions about how environmental problems should be dealt with in engineering ethics.

  3. Dissolving the engineering moral dilemmas within the Islamic ethico-legal praxes.

    PubMed

    Solihu, Abdul Kabir Hussain; Ambali, Abdul Rauf

    2011-03-01

    The goal of responsible engineers is the creation of useful and safe technological products and commitment to public health, while respecting the autonomy of the clients and the public. Because engineers often face moral dilemma to resolve such issues, different engineers have chosen different course of actions depending on their respective moral value orientations. Islam provides a value-based mechanism rooted in the Maqasid al-Shari'ah (the objectives of Islamic law). This mechanism prioritizes some values over others and could help resolve the moral dilemmas faced in engineering. This paper introduces the Islamic interpretive-evaluative maxims to two core issues in engineering ethics: genetically modified foods and whistleblowing. The study aims primarily to provide problem-solving maxims within the Maqasid al-Shari'ah matrix through which such moral dilemmas in science and engineering could be studied and resolved. PMID:19937149

  4. The Importance of Teaching Ethics of Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biedenweg, Kelly; Monroe, Martha C.; Oxarart, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance of a focus on ethics in sustainability education and present results from a pilot graduate-level course titled the Ethics of Sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: This is a case study presenting a qualitative evaluation from a pilot 14-week Ethics of Sustainability course.…

  5. Energy partitioning schemes: a dilemma.

    PubMed

    Mayer, I

    2007-01-01

    Two closely related energy partitioning schemes, in which the total energy is presented as a sum of atomic and diatomic contributions by using the "atomic decomposition of identity", are compared on the example of N,N-dimethylformamide, a simple but chemically rich molecule. Both schemes account for different intramolecular interactions, for instance they identify the weak C-H...O intramolecular interactions, but give completely different numbers. (The energy decomposition scheme based on the virial theorem is also considered.) The comparison of the two schemes resulted in a dilemma which is especially striking when these schemes are applied for molecules distorted from their equilibrium structures: one either gets numbers which are "on the chemical scale" and have quite appealing values at the equilibrium molecular geometries, but exhibiting a counter-intuitive distance dependence (the two-center energy components increase in absolute value with the increase of the interatomic distances)--or numbers with too large absolute values but "correct" distance behaviour. The problem is connected with the quick decay of the diatomic kinetic energy components. PMID:17328441

  6. Ethical leadership.

    PubMed

    Keselman, David

    2012-01-01

    In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness. PMID:22864295

  7.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

       Thanks for visiting the NCI Ethics Newsletter webpage!  Click on the links below to access the most current version of the newsletter, as well as the archives.   Volume 1, January 2012  Volume 2, May 2012  Volume 3, September 2012

  8.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    For OGE-450 Filers Confidential Financial Disclosure Report (OGE-450) Employees in certain positions are required by the Ethics in Government Act (EIGA), as amended, to file a Confidential Financial Disclosure Report (OGE-450) because of the responsibilit

  9. Evolutionary Stability in the Traveler's Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Andrew T.

    2009-01-01

    The traveler's dilemma is a generalization of the prisoner's dilemma which shows clearly a paradox of game theory. In the traveler's dilemma, the strategy chosen by analysis and theory seems obviously wrong intuitively. Here we develop a measure of evolutionary stability and show that the evolutionarily stable equilibrium is in some sense not very…

  10. Reflecting on the ethical administration of computerized medical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collmann, Jeff R.

    1995-05-01

    This presentation examines the ethical issues raised by computerized image management and communication systems (IMAC), the ethical principals that should guide development of policies, procedures and practices for IMACS systems, and who should be involved in developing a hospital's approach to these issues. The ready access of computerized records creates special hazards of which hospitals must beware. Hospitals must maintain confidentiality of patient's records while making records available to authorized users as efficiently as possible. The general conditions of contemporary health care undermine protecting the confidentiality of patient record. Patients may not provide health care institutions with information about themselves under conditions of informed consent. The field of information science must design sophisticated systems of computer security that stratify access, create audit trails on data changes and system use, safeguard patient data from corruption, and protect the databases from outside invasion. Radiology professionals must both work with information science experts in their own hospitals to create institutional safeguards and include the adequacy of security measures as a criterion for evaluating PACS systems. New policies and procedures on maintaining computerized patient records must be developed that obligate all members of the health care staff, not just care givers. Patients must be informed about the existence of computerized medical records, the rules and practices that govern their dissemination and given the opportunity to give or withhold consent for their use. Departmental and hospital policies on confidentiality should be reviewed to determine if revisions are necessary to manage computer-based records. Well developed discussions of the ethical principles and administrative policies on confidentiality and informed consent and of the risks posed by computer-based patient records systems should be included in initial and continuing staff system training. Administration should develop ways to monitor staff compliance with confidentiality policies and should assess diligence in maintaining patient record confidentiality as part of staff annual performance evaluations. Ethical management of IMAC systems is the business of all members of the health care team. Computerized patient records management (including IMAC) should be scrutinized as any other clinical medial ethical issue. If hospitals include these processes in their planning for RIS, IMACS, and HIS systems, they should have time to develop institutional expertise on these questions before and as systems are installed rather than only as ethical dilemmas develop during their use.

  11. 'Utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A C; Earp, Brian D; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has focused on so-called 'utilitarian' judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such 'utilitarian' judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between 'utilitarian' judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of 'utilitarian' judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that 'utilitarian' judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between 'utilitarian' judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in 'utilitarian' judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. PMID:25460392

  12. ‘Utilitarian’ judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A.C.; Earp, Brian D.; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has focused on so-called ‘utilitarian’ judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such ‘utilitarian’ judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between ‘utilitarian’ judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of ‘utilitarian’ judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that ‘utilitarian’ judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between ‘utilitarian’ judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in ‘utilitarian’ judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. PMID:25460392

  13. Paediatrics at the cutting edge: do we need clinical ethics committees?

    PubMed Central

    Larcher, V F; Lask, B; McCarthy, J M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the need for hospital clinical ethics committees by studying the frequency with which ethical dilemmas arose, the perceived adequacy of the process of their resolution, and the teaching and training of staff in medical ethics. DESIGN: Interviews with individuals and three multidisciplinary teams; questionnaire to randomly selected individuals. SETTING: Two major London children's hospitals. RESULTS: Ethical dilemmas arose frequently but were resolved in a relatively unstructured fashion. Ethical concerns included: the validity of consent for investigations and treatment; lack of children's involvement in consent; initiation of heroic or futile treatments; resource allocation. Staff expressed the need for a forum which would provide consultation on ethical issues, develop guidelines for good ethical practice, undertake teaching and training, and provide ethical reflection outside the acute clinical setting. CONCLUSION: Multidisciplinary, accountable and audited clinical ethics committees with predominantly advisory, practice development and educational roles could provide a valuable contribution to UK clinical practice and perhaps in other countries that have not developed hospital clinical ethics committees. PMID:9279747

  14. Teaching Medical Ethics during Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Henry S.

    1989-01-01

    Three reasons for teaching medical ethics during residency are presented. Key ethical concepts to be addressed include moral aspects of medical practice, obtaining informed consent, dealing with incompetent patients and those who refuse treatment, knowing when to withhold or disclose clinical information, and using medical resources properly. (MSE)

  15. How to Resolve an Ethical Dilemma Concerning Randomized Clinical Trials

    E-print Network

    Marquis, Don

    1999-08-26

    was started with “front-loaded” alteplase. Since the patient re- mained in cardiogenic shock, a transesophageal echocar- diogram was obtained on an urgent basis; it revealed se- vere, diffuse left ventricular hypokinesis, severe aortic and moderate mitral... and for clinicians in search of direction.”2 Suppose my institution partici- pates in a future SHOCK (Should We Emergently Revas- cularize Occluded Coronaries for Cardiogenic Shock) trial, and I find myself caring for a patient in cardiogenic shock. Is the weight...

  16. Discomforting Pedagogies: Emotional Tensions, Ethical Dilemmas and Transformative Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos; McGlynn, Claire

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the potential and limitations of pedagogy of discomfort in a classroom of 10- and 11-year-old students of an integrated school in Northern Ireland. At the centre of the analysis are the students' and the teacher's emotional experiences and the resulting consequences when a discomforting pedagogical activity (an adaptation of…

  17. Ethical Dilemmas of In-Service Music Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Joelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Like professionals in other disciplines, music educators are expected to observe certain behavioral standards. In addition to teaching musical skills, concepts, and context, music educators are also expected to protect the welfare of children, serve as trustworthy stewards of public property, and generally behave responsibly and professionally…

  18. Analytics For Distracted Driver Behavior Modeling in Dilemma Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jan-Mou; Malikopoulos, Andreas; Thakur, Gautam; Vatsavai, Raju

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results obtained and insights gained through the analysis of TRB contest data. We used exploratory analysis, regression, and clustering models for gaining insights into the driver behavior in a dilemma zone while driving under distraction. While simple exploratory analysis showed the distinguishing driver behavior patterns among different popu- lation groups in the dilemma zone, regression analysis showed statically signification relationships between groups of variables. In addition to analyzing the contest data, we have also looked into the possible impact of distracted driving on the fuel economy.

  19. Teaching corner: "first do no harm": teaching global health ethics to medical trainees through experiential learning.

    PubMed

    Logar, Tea; Le, Phuoc; Harrison, James D; Glass, Marcia

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies show that returning global health trainees often report having felt inadequately prepared to deal with ethical dilemmas they encountered during outreach clinical work. While global health training guidelines emphasize the importance of developing ethical and cultural competencies before embarking on fieldwork, their practical implementation is often lacking and consists mainly of recommendations regarding professional behavior and discussions of case studies. Evidence suggests that one of the most effective ways to teach certain skills in global health, including ethical and cultural competencies, is through service learning. This approach combines community service with experiential learning. Unfortunately, this approach to global health ethics training is often unattainable due to a lack of supervision and resources available at host locations. This often means that trainees enter global health initiatives unprepared to deal with ethical dilemmas, which has the potential for adverse consequences for patients and host institutions, thus contributing to growing concerns about exploitation and "medical tourism." From an educational perspective, exposure alone to such ethical dilemmas does not contribute to learning, due to lack of proper guidance. We propose that the tension between the benefits of service learning on the one hand and the respect for patients' rights and well-being on the other could be resolved by the application of a simulation-based approach to global health ethics education. PMID:25648122

  20. Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies in Mathematics and Statistics

    E-print Network

    Hillen, Thomas

    Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies Ethics in Mathematics and Statistics Thomas Hillen University of Alberta March 26, 2013 #12;Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies Outline Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies #12

  1. Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system.

    PubMed

    Millstone, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine. PMID:24802645

  2. Ethics committees and achievement of good clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Glasa, J; Holomán, J; Klepanec, J; Soltés, L

    1996-01-01

    Local ethics committees (institutional review boards, or similar bodies) were established during the last decades at (bio)medical research institutions worldwide to serve as review bodies of the proposed research projects (inclusive protocols of clinical trials), and also to monitor if the ethical principles, including the requirements of good practice (clinical, laboratory, and scientific) are respected and fulfilled during the conduct of research projects. Existing pluralism of the philosophical background on which contemporary bioethics theories are developed is questioning seriously the ancient traditions of Hippocratic, non-utilitarian medical ethics, trying to promote more utilitarian and secular approaches. Individual physicians, or researchers, as well as the ethics committee itself, are faced today with complicated ethical dilemmas, that frequently have to be solved in the atmosphere of considerable social, collegiate, economical, and time pressures, and sometimes without helpful guidance of appropriate legislation. An interesting possibility of how to overcome some of the pitfalls of the ethics review process is to express a common ethical responsibility for the research project or trial protocol in a statement of most (or all) parties involved (such as the principal investigator, sponsor, ethics committee, the patient, "society'). Such an approach has proven helpful in enhancing concrete deliberations of ethics committees-established in Slovakia since 1991 according to the requirements of the national guidelines issued by the Slovak Ministry of Health. PMID:8953810

  3. The Technology/Content Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Shelley; Cole, Karen; Syer, Christina

    Even in schools where there is a strong push to adopt and use technologies, the road to content fulfillment is a long one. The technology learning curve tends to eclipse content learning temporarily--both students and teachers seem to orient to technology until they become comfortable. This dilemma has important implications for teachers'…

  4. Reflections on Counselors' Organizational Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole

    1994-01-01

    Focuses on dilemma of how counselors' organizational groups sometimes function contradictory to professional knowledge and ideals. Explores group theory, expectations of counselors, and coping strategies to articulate how counselors may better understand and manage in an uncomfortable and distressful work group. Includes 37 references. (Author/CRR)

  5. Understanding the National Energy Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

    This graphic representation of our energy dilemma provides government officials, industry, and general public with an understanding of the broad problems and complexity of our energy crisis. An energy display system projects effects of energy policies on our domestic energy situation. This display contains sheets indicating total energy flow…

  6. Postcolonial Dilemmas in Narrative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Narrative research methodology embraces multiple ways of representing lived experience discursively, regardless of a participant's levels of literacy, education or formal occupation. This article explores some of the dilemmas of "doing" narrative research in comparative and international education, with particular emphasis on the postcolonial…

  7. Moral Dilemmas and Moral Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Shaun; Mallon, Ron

    2006-01-01

    Recent work shows an important asymmetry in lay intuitions about moral dilemmas. Most people think it is permissible to divert a train so that it will kill one innocent person instead of five, but most people think that it is not permissible to push a stranger in front of a train to save five innocents. We argue that recent emotion-based…

  8. Some dilemmas of master's level nurse education.

    PubMed

    Gerrish, K; Ashworth, P D; McManus, M

    2000-10-01

    Despite an increase in the growth of master's level provision for qualified nurses in the United Kingdom uncertainty exists regarding the characteristics of master's level performance in respect of professional practice. This paper presents selected findings from a multidisciplinary study that sought to examine the characteristics of master's level performance in health professional courses that had an expressed practice orientation. It focuses specifically on dilemmas nurse educators encountered in relation to British master's level nurse education. Following an initial pilot stage involving focus group interviews with separate groups of nurses, occupational therapists and physiotherapists, an interview agenda was developed to explore participants' perspectives of the characteristics of master's level performance. Individual in-depth interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of 18 nurse educators drawn from eight universities in England. Interview transcripts were coded and thematically analysed. Six kinds of dilemma emerged from the interviews. These were breadth vs. depth in the conceptualization of master's level for nursing, relevance to practice vs. academic detachment, facilitating creative thinking vs. reinforcing rigidity, encouraging or suppressing different modes of critical thinking, postgraduate nurses as loyal change agents vs. the problem of well-qualified mavericks, and professional experience as facilitating or hindering master's level performance. These dilemmas raise important questions about course design and the role of stakeholders in determining curriculum content. Moreover, a pervasive tension between a utilitarian emphasis on the application and utility of knowledge on one hand, and aspirations to promote creativity and critical thinking which look to alternative possibilities on the other hand, suggests that nurse educators exercise a degree of conservatism in relation to master's level. It is concluded that this apparent quest to maintain a safe variant of the status quo as the best way of promoting the wellbeing of patients should be subject to profound questioning. PMID:11095221

  9. Teaching the Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma with a Computerized Tournament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Carsten; Baylor, Amy L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors present a constructivist approach for teaching game theory, on the basis, in part, of Axelrod's research approach. Using the Axelrod tournament multi-user system (ATMUS) software, students create strategies for a repeated prisoner's dilemma (RPD). Later, these strategies are matched with those of their classmates' in a classroom…

  10. Monty's Dilemma with No Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruma

    2014-01-01

    The article presents an attempt to analyse Monty's dilemma by means of conversational formula-free dialogues and to simulate the problem by composing isomorphic stories. The crucial roles of specifying the underlying scenarios and explicating epistemic and probabilistic assumptions are highlighted.

  11. Motivational Correlations of Strategy Choices in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Carl D.; Steele, Matthew W.; Tedeschi, James T.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the motivational dimensions assessed by the Motivation Analysis Test and prisoner's dilemma game behavior as measured both by the number of competitive strategy choices and the two-stage stochastic variables labelled trustworthiness, forgiveness, repentance, and trust by Rapoport.

  12. Suicide and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Margaret P., Ed.; Maris, Ronald W., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents five articles by philosophers and a psychiatrist on the ethics of suicide, as well as comments and a literature review. Discusses the rationality and morality of suicide from several philosophical viewpoints including self-ownership, Kant's theories, and a libertarian perspective. (JAC)

  13. Computer ethics: A capstone course

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, T.G.; Abunawass, A.M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a capstone course on computer ethics required for all computer science majors in our program. The course was designed to encourage students to evaluate their own personal value systems in terms of the established values in computer science as represented by the ACM Code of Ethics. The structure, activities, and topics of the course as well as assessment of the students are presented. Observations on various course components and student evaluations of the course are also presented.

  14. Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Ethical Challenges scenario in the June 2004 issue of the American Journal of Evaluation focused on an evaluator-client disagreement concerning the wisdom of having consumer representation on a steering committee that would help plan and oversee an evaluation in an agency providing community-based residential services to the chronically…

  15.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    THIS SITE IS A WORK IN PROGRESS AS OF 5/9/2013. VIST THE NIH WEBSITE FOR MORE ACCURATE INFORMATION: http://ethics.od.nih.gov/overview.htm  PLEASE CHECK BACK SOON!!  ~9609 Medical Center Dr. ~ Rockville, MD 20850 ~~Phone: (240) 276-5790 ~ E-mail: NCIEthics

  16.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

      May 2012 NCI ETHICS OFFICE UPDATES Widely Attended Gathering Form Now Available in NEES The NIH-2803 Request for Approval to Accept Free Attendance under the Widely Attended Gathering (WAG) exception is now ready for use by employees in the NIH Enterpri

  17. Media Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, S. L.

    A return to excellence and ethics can end the bashing of the press and earn it respect. H. L. Mencken was an outstanding press-basher. One problem he identified is that journalists see themselves as professionals, when they are no more than "hired hands" unable to control admission to the craft. A solution Mencken offered was to improve schools of…

  18.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    Award Analysis Sheet: Award-Analysis-Sheet-2-8-11.doc Request for Approval to Accept Gifts Associated With An Award from an Outside Organization: nih-2854-Award.pdf Link: http://ethics.od.nih.gov/topics/awards-new.htm

  19. Introduction to Ethics What is Ethics?

    E-print Network

    Callender, Craig

    Introduction to Ethics #12;What is Ethics? Morality concerns the norms (rules, principles) we accept regarding how to treat one another. Ethics is the study of these norms ­ what they are and how we attempt to justify them. #12;What Ethics Isn't Morality and religion are not the same thing; the norms

  20. Introduction to International Ethical Standards Related to Genetics and Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Seon-Hee; Chung, Yeun-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The rapid advances in genetic knowledge and technology raise various, sometimes unprecedented, ethical dilemmas in the scientific community as well as the public realm. To deal with these dilemmas, the international community has prepared and issued ethical standards in various formats. In this review, seven international standards regarding genetics and genomics will be briefly introduced in chronological order. Critical reflections on them will not be provided in this review, and naturally, they have their own problems and shortcomings. However, a common set of the principles expressed in them will be highlighted here, because they are still relevant, and many of them will be more relevant in the future. Some of the interesting contents will be selected and described. After that, the morality of one recent event related to whole-genome sequencing and person-identifiable genetic data will be explored based on those international standards. PMID:24465233

  1. The Importance of the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex for Strategic Decision Making in the Prisoner's Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Soutschek, Alexander; Sauter, Marian; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-12-01

    Previous functional imaging studies investigating the neural basis of strategic decision making in the prisoner's dilemma reported a correlation between cooperative behavior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activity; however, the precise function of the DLPFC in establishing cooperation remains unclear so far. The present study investigated the causal role of the DLPFC in an iterative prisoner's dilemma game with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We discovered that disrupting the DLPFC with TMS decreased cooperation rates in comparison to control conditions, with this effect being most pronounced when the partner had defected previously. Thus, the current results suggest that the DLPFC contributes to strategic decision making in the prisoner's dilemma game. PMID:26238626

  2. Normative Sentimentalism and Animal Ethics

    E-print Network

    Gerrek, Monica

    2008-01-09

    principle noted above. I then show how this normative sentimentalist ethic handles the issues raised by factory farming and using animals for research. Next, I present the two most well-known arguments regarding the treatment of animals, Peter Singer...

  3. Selected anatomists: at the boundary of contemporary ethics.

    PubMed

    Arango, Dillon; Greiffenstein, Patrick; O'Leary, James Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Fascination with the interworkings of the human body has permeated scientific discovery for eons. Materials for dissection proved problematic for anatomists. Andreas Vesalius solved his dilemma by visiting local gallows where criminals had been executed. Eduard Pernkopf has been alleged to have taken some of his materials from victims of the Holocaust. Even today, executed criminals have served as subjects for anatomical educational purposes. These circumstances are explored and the contemporary ethics of each are compared. PMID:23324845

  4. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe…

  5. Regulations and Ethical Considerations for Astronomy Education Research III: A Suggested Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brogt, Erik; Foster, Tom; Dokter, Erin; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

    2009-01-01

    We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research…

  6. Empirical ethics as dialogical practice.

    PubMed

    Widdershoven, Guy; Abma, Tineke; Molewijk, Bert

    2009-05-01

    In this article, we present a dialogical approach to empirical ethics, based upon hermeneutic ethics and responsive evaluation. Hermeneutic ethics regards experience as the concrete source of moral wisdom. In order to gain a good understanding of moral issues, concrete detailed experiences and perspectives need to be exchanged. Within hermeneutic ethics dialogue is seen as a vehicle for moral learning and developing normative conclusions. Dialogue stands for a specific view on moral epistemology and methodological criteria for moral inquiry. Responsive evaluation involves a structured way of setting up dialogical learning processes, by eliciting stories of participants, exchanging experiences in (homogeneous and heterogeneous) groups and drawing normative conclusions for practice. By combining these traditions we develop both a theoretical and a practical approach to empirical ethics, in which ethical issues are addressed and shaped together with stakeholders in practice. Stakeholders' experiences are not only used as a source for reflection by the ethicist; stakeholders are involved in the process of reflection and analysis, which takes place in a dialogue between participants in practice, facilitated by the ethicist. This dialogical approach to empirical ethics may give rise to questions such as: What contribution does the ethicist make? What role does ethical theory play? What is the relationship between empirical research and ethical theory in the dialogical process? In this article, these questions will be addressed by reflecting upon a project in empirical ethics that was set up in a dialogical way. The aim of this project was to develop and implement normative guidelines with and within practice, in order to improve the practice concerning coercion and compulsion in psychiatry. PMID:19338524

  7. Encapsulating Moral Dilemma through Short Story: Challenging Pre-Service Teachers to Critically Think about the Student/Teacher Personality and Leadership Dynamic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Sean M.

    2007-01-01

    Pre-service teachers and education students in three different classes (N = 53) were directed to read a short story by Mark Twain titled "Heaven or Hell?" written within a compilation of short stories late in his career. The story, "Heaven or Hell?" illustrates a koan, or an unanswerable moral or ethical dilemma. The students, after finishing the…

  8. Vulval Swelling: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Sapre, Shilpa; Natu, Neeta

    2015-01-01

    Vulval swellings have always caused dilemmas in diagnosis and more so when they are huge in size. Sebaceous cysts are known to occur as a result of blocked pilo-sebaceous gland and duct or as a result of any injury to the skin. Face, neck, chest, back, scalp, and ears are known sites, however, they also occur over private parts. They are mostly asymptomatic but cause intense pain and discomfort if infected. Symptomatic cysts warrant removal. PMID:26538748

  9. The great downside dilemma for risky emerging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, Seth D.

    2014-12-01

    Some emerging technologies promise to significantly improve the human condition, but come with a risk of failure so catastrophic that human civilization may not survive. This article discusses the great downside dilemma posed by the decision of whether or not to use these technologies. The dilemma is: use the technology, and risk the downside of catastrophic failure, or do not use the technology, and suffer through life without it. Historical precedents include the first nuclear weapon test and messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence. Contemporary examples include stratospheric geoengineering, a technology under development in response to global warming, and artificial general intelligence, a technology that could even take over the world. How the dilemma should be resolved depends on the details of each technology’s downside risk and on what the human condition would otherwise be. Meanwhile, other technologies do not pose this dilemma, including sustainable design technologies, nuclear fusion power, and space colonization. Decisions on all of these technologies should be made with the long-term interests of human civilization in mind. This paper is part of a series of papers based on presentations at the Emerging Technologies and the Future of Humanity event held at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 17 March 2014.

  10. Ethics committees. Research ethics: beyond the guidelines.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, C C

    2001-05-01

    There is international recognition of the need for sustainable research ethics committees to provide ethical review of human subjects research in developing countries, but many developing countries do not have such committees (often called 'IRBs'). Theoretical and practical uncertainties encountered by an IRB on the Caribbean island of Grenada offer insight into ethical review of research in developing countries. Theoretical uncertainties include questions about whether means of ensuring confidentiality and obtaining informed consent will be effective in local settings, and whether deviations from Western norms are justifiable. International guidelines are helpful in addressing these concerns, but are subject to interpretation. Guidelines are less helpful in practical areas like selecting members or chairs. They do not address what sort of procedures and paperwork will work in a developing country, or IRBs' relationships to governments that have no mandate for them. Experiences presented here show that IRBs in developing countries can sustainably adhere to international standards. Sustainability requires knowledge, personal commitment, and an official mandate to uphold international standards. Capacity building must therefore focus on educational programs to make developing country leaders knowledgeable about the value of international guidelines to their nations. Such knowledge is needed before people will become motivated to promote, implement, and uphold their guidelines. People in developing countries must help design bridges to help their nations put international standards into practice. The structure of such bridges may, of necessity, very in different settings. PMID:12870511

  11. Joseph A. Burton Forum Award: Some Nuclear Weapons Dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear weapons pose a combination of political and ethical dilemmas the solution to which has not been found. On one hand, in the view of both US government leaders and US allies, nuclear deterrence continues to play an essential part in the US role as the ultimate source of military strength for the alliances among the major democratic countries. It also continues to be in demand by countries that believe themselves to be isolated and threatened. On the other hand, nuclear weapons, besides being effective deterrents, can cause unprecedented loss of life and risk the demise of civilizations. No ban or technical precaution could prevent the rebuilding of nuclear weapons in a crisis. No diplomatic arrangement to date has erased the threat of invasion and war in the world. Only the abandonment of war and the threat of war as instruments of policy can make nuclear weapons obsolete. The slow, halting, risky road to that end remains the only hope for a world in which lasting solutions to the nuclear dilemmas are possible.

  12. Eer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Orwant, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

  13. Confidentiality, Informed Consent, and Ethical Considerations in Reviewing the Client's Psychotherapy Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas that break the confidentiality of the client eventually test the psychologist's boundaries such that not taking action may place the patient in a position where they suffer, hurt themselves, or others. The effectiveness in obtaining a valid informed consent might depend upon the therapists training, experience, and sound judgment…

  14. Questions of Ethics and Loyalty: An Assistant Principal's Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by real-life events, this case describes the dilemma of a novice assistant principal who must balance her role as an administrator at her high school campus where a cousin's son, Eddie, recently enrolled and is proving to be disruptive the first month of school. Troubled by questions of ethics and loyalty, the issue is complicated…

  15. The Nazi Origins of Eduard Pernkopf's "Topographische Anatomie des Menschen:" The Biomedical Ethical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Howard A.

    1998-01-01

    The discovery of the Nazi origins of the classic Pernkopf anatomy atlas is one example of scientific information obtained by doctors who violated the Hippocratic Oath. The ethical dilemmas that doctors and medical centers face as a result of this and other potentially tainted data is reviewed. (Author/AEF)

  16. Creating the Conditions for Ethics: A Look at Project Adventure the Corporation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Nancy

    1996-01-01

    Since "Project Adventure" teaches others to use the Full Value Contract (FVC), its corporate behavior should reflect FVC values of honesty and integrity. Nine dilemmas outline questions of business ethics related to "product" quality, financial survival, treatment of customers and their expectations, relationship with competitors, participative…

  17. Therapeutic Implications of Pharmacotherapy: Current Trends and Ethical Issues.(practice & Theory)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jason H.; Anderson, Shannon M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of psychotropic medications (pharmacotherapy) in conjunction with psychotherapy is regarded as the standard of care for many mental health disorders. Counselors, therefore, need to be knowledgeable about psychopharmacology to monitor its impact on the therapeutic relationship and on client outcome. Discussed are potential ethical dilemmas

  18. Ethics in College and University Admissions: A Trilogy of Concerns and Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuddy, Michael K.; Nondorf, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore ethical challenges and dilemmas that exist within admissions systems at colleges and universities in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Although the issues considered herein are examined primarily from the perspective of admissions officers, this paper also considers the viewpoint of prospective…

  19. [Environmental ethics].

    PubMed

    Fisso, M B

    1998-01-01

    After analyzing the origins of environmental ethics the Author describes the various non-anthropocentric theories in order to criticize their significance. Then she examines the anthropocentric theories. She describes "moderate" or "weak" anthropocentrism based on the idea of a duty to defend and preserve nature and which admits a kind of limited moral relevance of nature in its relationship with man. In conclusion, it is auspiciated a collaborative action of all anthropocentric philosophic models to realize an authentic environmental protection. PMID:9810753

  20. Ethical issues in surgical innovation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Megan E; Siegler, Mark; Angelos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Innovation is responsible for most advances in the field of surgery. Innovative approaches to solving clinical problems have significantly decreased morbidity and mortality for many surgical procedures, and have led to improved patient outcomes. While innovation is motivated by the surgeon's expectation that the new approach will be beneficial to patients, not all innovations are successful or result in improved patient care. The ethical dilemma of surgical innovation lies in the uncertainty of whether a particular innovation will prove to be a "good thing." This uncertainty creates challenges for surgeons, patients, and the healthcare system. By its very nature, innovation introduces a potential risk to patient safety, a risk that may not be fully known, and it simultaneously fosters an optimism bias. These factors increase the complexity of informed consent and shared decision making for the surgeon and the patient. Innovative procedures and their associated technology raise issues of cost and resource distribution in the contemporary, financially conscious, healthcare environment. Surgeons and institutions must identify and address conflicts of interest created by the development and application of an innovation, always preserving the best interest of the patient above the academic or financial rewards of success. Potential strategies to address the challenges inherent in surgical innovation include collecting and reporting objective outcomes data, enhancing the informed consent process, and adhering to the principles of disclosure and professionalism. As surgeons, we must encourage creativity and innovation while maintaining our ethical awareness and responsibility to patients. PMID:24728580

  1. Rethinking research ethics.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Rosamond

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary research ethics policies started with reflection on the atrocities perpetrated upon concentration camp inmates by Nazi doctors. Apparently, as a consequence of that experience, the policies that now guide human subject research focus on the protection of human subjects by making informed consent the centerpiece of regulatory attention. I take the choice of context for policy design, the initial prioritization of informed consent, and several associated conceptual missteps, to have set research ethics off in the wrong direction. The aim of this paper is to sort out these confusions and their implications and to offer instead a straightforward framework for considering the ethical conduct of human subject research. In the course of this discussion I clarify different senses of autonomy that have been confounded and present more intelligible justifications for informed consent. I also take issue with several of the now accepted dogmas that govern research ethics. These include: the primacy of informed consent, the protection of the vulnerable, the substitution of beneficence for research's social purpose, and the introduction of an untenable distinction between innovation and research. PMID:16036651

  2. Engineering Ethics Book Engineering Ethics Concepts, Viewpoints, Cases and Codes

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xinzhong

    Engineering Ethics Book Engineering Ethics ­ Concepts, Viewpoints, Cases and Codes 2nd edition - ©2008 A 372-page engineering ethics reference book published by the National Institute for Engineering Ethics Description of Contents: Engineering Ethics ­ Concepts, Viewpoints, Cases and Codes

  3. Teaching Ethics in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes arguments for and against teaching ethics within science education, and clarifies what might be the several aims of teaching ethics in science. Discusses how ethics instruction might be incorporated into the science curriculum. (Contains 120 references.) (WRM)

  4. Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Kokubo, Satoshi; Jusup, Marko; Tanimoto, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Why would natural selection favor the prevalence of cooperation within the groups of selfish individuals? A fruitful framework to address this question is evolutionary game theory, the essence of which is captured in the so-called social dilemmas. Such dilemmas have sparked the development of a variety of mathematical approaches to assess the conditions under which cooperation evolves. Furthermore, borrowing from statistical physics and network science, the research of the evolutionary game dynamics has been enriched with phenomena such as pattern formation, equilibrium selection, and self-organization. Numerous advances in understanding the evolution of cooperative behavior over the last few decades have recently been distilled into five reciprocity mechanisms: direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, kin selection, group selection, and network reciprocity. However, when social viscosity is introduced into a population via any of the reciprocity mechanisms, the existing scaling parameters for the dilemma strength do not yield a unique answer as to how the evolutionary dynamics should unfold. Motivated by this problem, we review the developments that led to the present state of affairs, highlight the accompanying pitfalls, and propose new universal scaling parameters for the dilemma strength. We prove universality by showing that the conditions for an ESS and the expressions for the internal equilibriums in an infinite, well-mixed population subjected to any of the five reciprocity mechanisms depend only on the new scaling parameters. A similar result is shown to hold for the fixation probability of the different strategies in a finite, well-mixed population. Furthermore, by means of numerical simulations, the same scaling parameters are shown to be effective even if the evolution of cooperation is considered on the spatial networks (with the exception of highly heterogeneous setups). We close the discussion by suggesting promising directions for future research including (i) how to handle the dilemma strength in the context of co-evolution and (ii) where to seek opportunities for applying the game theoretical approach with meaningful impact. PMID:25979121

  5. Universal scaling for the dilemma strength in evolutionary games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Kokubo, Satoshi; Jusup, Marko; Tanimoto, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Why would natural selection favor the prevalence of cooperation within the groups of selfish individuals? A fruitful framework to address this question is evolutionary game theory, the essence of which is captured in the so-called social dilemmas. Such dilemmas have sparked the development of a variety of mathematical approaches to assess the conditions under which cooperation evolves. Furthermore, borrowing from statistical physics and network science, the research of the evolutionary game dynamics has been enriched with phenomena such as pattern formation, equilibrium selection, and self-organization. Numerous advances in understanding the evolution of cooperative behavior over the last few decades have recently been distilled into five reciprocity mechanisms: direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, kin selection, group selection, and network reciprocity. However, when social viscosity is introduced into a population via any of the reciprocity mechanisms, the existing scaling parameters for the dilemma strength do not yield a unique answer as to how the evolutionary dynamics should unfold. Motivated by this problem, we review the developments that led to the present state of affairs, highlight the accompanying pitfalls, and propose new universal scaling parameters for the dilemma strength. We prove universality by showing that the conditions for an ESS and the expressions for the internal equilibriums in an infinite, well-mixed population subjected to any of the five reciprocity mechanisms depend only on the new scaling parameters. A similar result is shown to hold for the fixation probability of the different strategies in a finite, well-mixed population. Furthermore, by means of numerical simulations, the same scaling parameters are shown to be effective even if the evolution of cooperation is considered on the spatial networks (with the exception of highly heterogeneous setups). We close the discussion by suggesting promising directions for future research including (i) how to handle the dilemma strength in the context of co-evolution and (ii) where to seek opportunities for applying the game theoretical approach with meaningful impact.

  6. Dilemma of Growing Up Black and Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Algea O.

    How do black females attempt to resolve the dilemma of femininity and high achievement goals? This paper discusses and reviews the nature of that relationship between femininity and high achievement need which has generally been of a reverse nature. The dilemma of being female for the black women is that she is being urged by society in general to…

  7. Zones of Cooperation Demographic Prisoner's Dilemma

    E-print Network

    Kimbrough, Steven Orla

    Zones of Cooperation in Demographic Prisoner's Dilemma Joshua M. Epstein ABSTRACT The emergence and defectors to distinguish one another. In the Demographic Prisoner's Dilemma, neither assumption is made in the Demographic Game below) that is a repeated game. A "strategy" in a repeated game is a rule that specifies

  8. Environmental ethics.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, J J

    2000-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held the first meeting on environmental ethics sponsored by the Scientific Advisory Panel and Board on 10-11 December 1998 in Arlington, Virginia (1). The report from the meeting will more completely inform scientists and the community of current issues. This editorial should serve as an initial brief of this meeting [which was held on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights (adopted by the United Nations on 10 December 1948)]. PMID:10706536

  9. Environmental ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, J J

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held the first meeting on environmental ethics sponsored by the Scientific Advisory Panel and Board on 10-11 December 1998 in Arlington, Virginia (1). The report from the meeting will more completely inform scientists and the community of current issues. This editorial should serve as an initial brief of this meeting [which was held on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights (adopted by the United Nations on 10 December 1948)]. Images pA108-a PMID:10706536

  10. Ethical dimensions of psychotherapy: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Chodoff, P

    1996-01-01

    A substantial increase in the interest devoted to ethical issues has been a defining feature of my 50 years in psychotherapeutic practice. Reasons include a shift from a paternalistic to a contractual model of the doctor-patient relationship, increased litigiousness, and greater emphasis on the business rather than professional aspects of practice. Many ethical violations stem from misuse of therapist power in the psychotherapeutic relationship. One of the most egregious of these is overt sexual acting out between therapist and patient, a dereliction now viewed much more sternly, largely because of the rise of the women's movement. Therapist power can also be misused for purposes of psychopathological gratification, such as to dominate patients or impose values, and by emphasizing financial rewards over patient needs. A sea change I have observed has been the gradual replacement of a two-party by a three-party system of payment for psychotherapy. Among its most serious consequences in the ethical domain has been the weakening of the therapist's guarantee of absolute confidentiality to the patient. Managed care has further compounded the ethical dilemma by imposing a need to choose between the interests of patients and the organizations from which therapists receive remuneration. In their efforts to ensure parity coverage for psychotherapy, therapists need to respond to certain questions about their claims that their work promotes both individual welfare and the common good. Questions include the professional qualifications for skillful practice of psychotherapy, the evidence for its efficacy, the delimitation of the conditions properly treated by psychotherapy, and the extent to which these conditions fall within the medical model and thus satisfy the criterion of medical necessity. I conclude that, in spite of the efforts needed to maintain ethical standards, the "ethical revolution" that I have witnessed has enhanced the integrity and value of psychotherapy, both for its practitioners and for the public that they serve. PMID:8886230

  11. Ethical issues in psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, L

    2006-01-01

    The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment. PMID:16816041

  12. Sidetracked by trolleys: Why sacrificial moral dilemmas tell us little (or nothing) about utilitarian judgment

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Research into moral decision-making has been dominated by sacrificial dilemmas where, in order to save several lives, it is necessary to sacrifice the life of another person. It is widely assumed that these dilemmas draw a sharp contrast between utilitarian and deontological approaches to morality, and thereby enable us to study the psychological and neural basis of utilitarian judgment. However, it has been previously shown that some sacrificial dilemmas fail to present a genuine contrast between utilitarian and deontological options. Here, I raise deeper problems for this research paradigm. Even when sacrificial dilemmas present a contrast between utilitarian and deontological options at a philosophical level, it is misleading to interpret the responses of ordinary folk in these terms. What is currently classified as “utilitarian judgment” does not in fact share essential features of a genuine utilitarian outlook, and is better explained in terms of commonsensical moral notions. When subjects deliberate about such dilemmas, they are not deciding between opposing utilitarian and deontological solutions, but engaging in a richer process of weighing opposing moral reasons. Sacrificial dilemmas therefore tell us little about utilitarian decision-making. An alternative approach to studying proto-utilitarian tendencies in everyday moral thinking is proposed. PMID:25791902

  13. Ethical Issues in Sports Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Bruce H.; West, Charles Robert

    2012-01-01

    Ethical issues present a challenge for health care professionals working with athletes of sports teams. Health care professionals—including the team physician, the physical therapist, and the athletic trainer—are faced with the challenge of returning an athlete to competition as quickly as possible but as safely as possible. Conflicts of interest arise due to conflicting obligations of the team physician to the athlete and other members of the sports organization, including coaches and the team owner. The multiple stakeholders involved in sports teams challenge the traditional notion of confidentiality and autonomy. The aims of this article are to explicate the ethics of sports medicine, highlight the ethical issues, and provide some strategies and suggestions for ethical decision making. PMID:24179585

  14. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  15. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  16. Incorporating global components into ethics education.

    PubMed

    Wang, George; Thompson, Russell G

    2013-03-01

    Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena. PMID:21769592

  17. A foundation for public health ethics at Tuskegee University in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Warren, Rueben C; Tarver, Will L

    2010-08-01

    This commentary is a reflection on Tuskegee University's National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care on the health and ethical challenges of the 21st century. The Center has dedicated the last 10 years to addressing the unresolved biomedicine and public health issues and/or the ethical dilemmas that plague the nation's health. The authors believe that health disparities continue to worsen because the approach under-appreciates the ethical dilemma that plagues health policy and health disparities. The authors discuss synergies and the paradigmatic differences between science and medicine, religion, spirituality, and faith. They also discuss the importance of considering these relationships if improvements in the health of people of African descent are expected. The concept of Optimal Health is explored. PMID:20675945

  18. Governmental population incentives: ethical issues at stake.

    PubMed

    Veatch, R M

    1977-04-01

    Governmental incentives to influence population-related decisions are examined in terms of the ethical issues at stake. A typology of incentive schemes is presented, and ethical implications of various incentives are discussed. It is argued that, in a just scheme, a progressive, negative incentive or fee, calculated as a surtax on a modified income tax or an equivalent standard, would distribute burdens equally. A set of guidelines for ethical evaluation of incentive schemes is proposed. PMID:850928

  19. Research ethics consultation: ethical and professional practice challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Richard R; Taylor, Holly A; Brinich, Margaret A; Boyle, Mary M; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical and Translational Science Award Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: (1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, (2) managing sensitive information, and (3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942

  20. Robot companions and ethics a pragmatic approach of ethical design.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Gérard

    2013-12-01

    From his experience as ethical expert for two Robot Companion prototype projects aiming at empowering older MCI persons to remain at home and to support their family carers, Gerard Cornet, Gerontologist, review the ethical rules, principles and pragmatic approaches in different cultures. The ethical process of these two funded projects, one European, Companionable (FP7 e-inclusion call1), the other French, Quo vadis (ANR tecsan) are described from the inclusion of the targeted end users in the process, to the assessment and ranking of their main needs and whishes to design the specifications, test the performance expected. Obstacles to turn round and limits for risks evaluation (directs or implicit), acceptability, utility, respect of intimacy and dignity, and balance with freedom and security and frontiers to artificial intelligence are discussed As quoted in the discussion with the French and Japanese experts attending the Toulouse Robotics and medicine symposium (March 26th 2011), the need of a new ethical approach, going further the present ethical rules is needed for the design and social status of ethical robots, having capacity cas factor of progress and global quality of innovation design in an ageing society. PMID:24558735

  1. [Ethics in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters." PMID:24290007

  2. Research Ethics & Compliance Support

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Research Ethics & Compliance Support Dr Ted Rohr, Director RECS #12;http://research.unsw.edu.au/research-ethics-and-compliance-support-recs #12;Research is considered by: Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) A and B: · All human research involving more than low risk Human Research Ethics Advisory Panels (HREAPs) A to I: · All human research

  3. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  4. OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy

    E-print Network

    Kunkle, Tom

    OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy 1.0 PREFACE It is the intent of this Ethics Policy to state those standards of ethical conduct that are expected of all members of the College Community. These standards must the minimum standards of ethical conduct that are required by South Carolina law and reflect the aspirations

  5. THE ETHICAL EDUCATION OF OPHTHALMOLOGY RESIDENTS: AN EXPERIMENT

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the effect of ethics education on a resident’s ability to answer questions that relate to moral dilemmas and on the clinical evaluations of residents by faculty. Methods The curriculum for the ethics education that was used for this study was designed by the author and consisted of 10 lectures of 1.5 hours each. Five residencies were included in the project. One residency received one lecture, two residencies received three lectures, and two residencies received 10 lectures. To evaluate the moral skills of the residents at the beginning of the course and at the end, the residents were given the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) developed by James Rest, which involves answering standardized questions about four moral dilemmas. Faculty evaluations were completed before and after the ethics lectures were given. At the beginning of the ethics course, each resident was given a social survey that was designed to assess participation in community, religious, political, and societal activities as well as attitudes about these activities. All residents were also asked demographic information, including their age, gender, and year of residency. Results The results of the DIT-2 taken before and after the ethics lectures were compared. No correlations were found in faculty evaluations of clinical performance of the residents before and after the course (P = .052). Associations between DIT-2 scores and questions on community and religion in the social survey were noted. Conclusion The finding that the effect of an ethics course on residents’ ability to answer moral dilemmas did not achieve statistical significance should be accepted with the understanding that this was a first attempt at standardization of many variables, especially the format of the curriculum and materials used. The use of faculty evaluations to assess clinical performance needs to be standardized, and the faculty members need additional training to ensure validity of the results. The social survey was also the first attempt to assess an association between a resident’s response to moral dilemmas, attending evaluations, and residents’ opinions that relate to community, society, politics, and religion. PMID:17057806

  6. Ethics of primate use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    This article provides an overview of the ethical issues raised by the use of non-human primates (NHPs) in research involving scientific procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. It is not an exhaustive review of the literature and views on this subject, and it does not present any conclusions about the moral acceptability or otherwise of NHP research. Rather the aim has been to identify the ethical issues involved and to provide guidance on how these might be addressed, in particular by carefully examining the scientific rationale for NHP use, implementing fully the 3Rs principle of Russell and Burch (1959) and applying a robust "harm-benefit assessment" to research proposals involving NHPs.

  7. Ethical Issues Encountered by Military Nurses During Wartime.

    PubMed

    Agazio, Janice; Goodman, Petra; Opanubi, Oluwakemi; McMullen, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Military nurses encounter similar issues as civilian nurses in daily practice situations; however, wartime and humanitarian missions may bring unique and difficult ethical dilemmas. While nursing has the American Nurses Association code of ethics to provide a framework to guide ethical practice decisions, conflicts may arise from the unique aspects of nursing within a wartime environment. Understanding those conflicts occuring within the military wartime scenario can provide nurses with experiential examples from which to derive strategies for personal coping and professional behavior and decision making. This chapter describes the research that has focused upon the identification of these issues, the effects from uresolved issues, and those directions for future research to better prepare miltiary nurses before and during deployment. PMID:26673384

  8. Dilemmas, tetralemmas, reimagining the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Petrovskaya, Olga; McIntyre, Marjorie; McDonald, Carol

    2009-01-01

    With the transition from paper-based to computer-based records, nursing practice shifts to computerized documentation of care in the electronic health record (EHR). Viewed not only as an electronic document, but as an instrument of modern economic and technological ideology that serves organizational goals of cost-efficiency, the EHR can be perceived as creating a dilemma for a patient-centered nursing practice. Viewing the EHR as relying solely on the use of standardized languages begets a number of questions and furthers the dilemma for nurses. Through a discussion that draws on the Indian tradition of the tetralemma, authors transcend the EHR/nursing dilemma. PMID:19707092

  9. Orocutaneous Fistula or Traumatic Infectious Skin Lesion: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Vermani, Mayank; Kalia, Vimal; Singh, Sumita; Garg, Sunny; Aggarwal, Shweta; Khurana, Richa; Kalra, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    Orocutaneous fistula (OCF) (of dental origin) is an uncommon but well-described condition in the literature. These are often misdiagnosed by physicians and dentists. Careful selection of investigating modality is important in case of diagnostically challenging cases. A 19-year-old female came with a complaint of a lesion on the chin reported with h/o trauma with the impact on chin presented as diagnostic dilemma because of unusual case history and clinical examination. Commonly used radiographic investigations like IOPA and orthopantomograph did not resolve the dilemma whereas advanced imaging modality like CT scan, 3D volume imaging, and contrast enhanced CT played an important role in the diagnosis of OCF and selecting the treatment plan. PMID:26618009

  10. [Ecologic ethics: a response for our times].

    PubMed

    Trejo, C

    1991-11-01

    To understand the ethics of our present time (macrocosmos), the patient-physician relationship (microcosmos complex) and its changes through history are analyzed. The patient-physician relationship is no longer between two individuals, it is plural and technified. An individualistic forms of ethic cannot answer the questions that arise from contemporary society. The power (political) of medical science has placed us at the threshold of a qualitative change, new that the human genome can be known and the very nature of the species can be modified. Man's destiny will depend on the way (ethic) he uses his knowledge. An ecological ethic could be the answer. PMID:9723085

  11. Pragmatic neuroethics: the social aspects of ethics in disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, evolution of ethics and bioethics is traced to show how an abstract and individualistic paradigm was at the core of mainstream ethics prior to the advent of bioethics and applied ethics. Bioethics has transformed this individualistic paradigm because of its inherent interdisciplinarity and real-world connection. This evolution has raised questions regarding how nonabstract (e.g., experiential) and nonindividualistic (e.g., social, relational) components of ethics could be married to normative theory and ethics reflection, the latter usually not amenable to empiric research. In the first part of this chapter, pragmatism is introduced as an approach offering perspectives on the integration of social, nonindividualistic aspects of ethics, supporting the use of social science methods within ethics and neuroethics. In the second part of this chapter, using the example of disorders of consciousness, a pragmatic perspective is explored to reframe questions and help foster nonreductionistic understandings of ethical questions and ethical dilemmas. This chapter aims to generate reflections on a set of specific clinical contexts that will also stimulate a discussion on the nature of ethical approaches. PMID:24182392

  12. Generalized precedent logics for resolving insecurity dilemmas

    E-print Network

    Alker, Hayward R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper proposes the development and application of a series of gradually more powerful "reflective" logical procedures to increasingly complex and realistic sets of data on collective insecurity dilemmas. Such procedures ...

  13. Ethical challenges of containing Ebola: the Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Maduka, Omosivie; Odia, Osaretin

    2015-11-01

    Responding effectively to an outbreak of disease often requires routine processes to be set aside in favour of unconventional approaches. Consequently, an emergency response situation usually generates ethical dilemmas. The emergence of the Ebola virus in the densely populated cities of Lagos and Port Harcourt in Nigeria brought bleak warnings of a rapidly expanding epidemic. However, these fears never materialised largely due to the swift reaction of emergency response and incident management organisations, and the WHO has now declared Nigeria free of Ebola. However, numerous ethical issues arose in relation to the response to the outbreak. This paper discusses some of these ethical challenges and the vital lessons learned. Ethical challenges relating to confidentiality, the dignity of persons, non-maleficence, stigma and the ethical obligations of health workers are examined. Interventions implemented to ensure that confidentiality and the dignity of persons improved and stigma was reduced, included community meetings, knowledge communication and the training of media personnel in the ethical reporting of Ebola issues. In addition, training in infection prevention and control helped to allay the fears of health workers. A potential disaster was also averted when the use of an experimental medicine was reconsidered. Other countries currently battling the epidemic can learn a lot from the Nigerian experience. PMID:26091816

  14. The Roles and Ethics of Journalism: How Chinese Students and American Students Perceive Them Similarly and Differently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jin; Arant, David

    2014-01-01

    This study compares how American and Chinese journalism students view the importance of various journalistic roles and the difficulties of ethical dilemmas faced by journalists. Chinese students perceive greater difficulty in resolving conflict of interests and making a fair representation of the news while American students find greater…

  15. Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…

  16. Seyed E. Hasnain Ethical, Legal and Social

    E-print Network

    Mittal, Aditya

    Cow Pox (1796) ­ Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-72) The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: A clear example of ethically unacceptable research by present standards Source:http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/File:Syphilis of information about ... syphilis." (Caplan, 419) #12;Codes of Research Ethics · Nuremberg Code (1947) ­ informed

  17. GIS Ethics Panel Preparation Panel Session

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    GIS Ethics Panel Preparation Panel Session: 3236 Geographic Information Ethics and GIScience II historicism, but we would like panel comments to discuss issues that offer insightful, practical reasoning about your contribution. Remember there is a session with presentations right before the panel

  18. Ethical Realism: A Guide to Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Gary Miller's essay entitled "Ethical Realism and Continuing Education." In his essay, Dr. Miller has provided a valuable opportunity to reflect on the practice of continuing education (CE) leadership. Dr. Miller reviews six principles that are encapsulated in the concept of ethical realism, but are…

  19. The business of pain medicine: the present mirrors antiquity.

    PubMed

    Kulich, Ronald; Loeser, John D

    2011-07-01

    The practice of pain medicine is often considered a fledgling field, as are the economic, business, and related ethical issues associated with providing these services. This article first traces the history of pain care and its relationships to industry and business, as well as the impact of government regulations over the ages. The authors challenge the view that the commonly discussed health care issues facing pain medicine are new by tracing the business and regulatory-related antecedents of pain care practice from the first through 21st century. The controversies associated with the practice of delivering pain-related health care services in an ethical manner are discussed with specific reference to the early work of clinicians, health care activists, and policy makers. The early activities of noteworthy individuals such as Pliny the Great, Hua T'o, John Locke, Benjamin Franklin, Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr., William Morton, Henry and William James, Heinrick Dresser, and other recent health care activists are reviewed. Issues of practitioner liability and regulatory restrictions on practice are also discussed in a historical context. The authors conclude that familiar ethical dilemmas commonly arose in past centuries, and history may be repeating itself with respect to the concerns now being discussed within our field. These arguments are reflected against the pain medicine Ethics Charters of the American Academy of Pain Medicine throughout the document. Finally, we outline the challenges for the present and future. With an understanding of these eight historical events as a backdrop, we may be at an opportune time to better address these issues in a manner that could provide the most effective pain care in our society. PMID:21699650

  20. Pediatric facial transplantation: Ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Jennifer; Shaul, Randi Zlotnik; Hanson, Mark D; Borschel, Gregory H; Zuker, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Facial transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of reconstructing otherwise unreconstructable adult faces. As this modality is made more available, we must turn our attention to pediatric patients who may benefit from facial transplantation. In the current article, the authors present and briefly examine the most pressing ethical challenges posed by the possibility of performing facial transplantation on pediatric patients. Furthermore, they issue a call for a policy statement on pediatric facial transplantation. The present article may serve as a first step in that direction, highlighting ethical issues that would need to be considered in the creation of such a statement. PMID:25114614

  1. Hospital Ethics Committees in Poland.

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Szyma?ska, Beata

    2015-12-01

    According to UNESCO guidelines, one of the four forms of bioethics committees in medicine are the Hospital Ethics Committees (HECs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the above guidelines are implemented in real practice. There were 111 hospitals selected out of 176 Polish clinical hospitals and hospitals accredited by Center of Monitoring Quality in Health System. The study was conducted by the survey method. There were 56 (50 %) hospitals that responded to the survey. The number of HECs members fluctuated between 3 and 16 members, where usually 5 (22 % of HECs) members were part of the board committee. The composition of the HECs for professions other than physicians was diverse and non-standardized (nurses-in 86 % of HECs, clergy-42 %, lawyers-38 %, psychologists-28 %, hospital management-23 %, rehab staff-7 %, patient representatives-3 %, ethicists-2 %). Only 55 % of HECs had a professional set of standards. 98 % of HECs had specific tasks. 62 % of HECs were asked for their expertise, and 55 % prepared <6.88 % of the opinions were related to interpersonal relations between hospital personnel, patients and their families with emphasis on the interactions between superiors and their inferiors or hospital staff and patients and their families. Only 12 % of the opinions were reported by the respondents as related to ethical dilemmas. In conclusion, few Polish hospitals have HECs, and the structure, services and workload are not always adequate. To ensure a reliable operation of HECs requires the development of relevant legislation, standard operating procedures and well trained members. PMID:25388547

  2. George Williams in Thailand: An Ethical Decision-Making Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Constance R.; Smith, J. Goosby

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a classroom ethical decision-making exercise designed to help students make reasoned ethical decisions while gaining insight into their own and others' ethical decision-making strategies. During the exercise, students individually analyze an original mini-case, then meet in small groups to reach consensus on the advice and…

  3. Ethics and the Professions: An Assessment of the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael H., Ed.; Powell, Allan R., Ed.

    The presentations included in this collection were made in 1988 at the second Hagerstown Junior College seminar on ethics. The seminar was conducted to raise the level of awareness of breaches of ethics in the professions and to encourage improvements in ethical practice. Seminar participants included college personnel, business personnel, and…

  4. Experiential Learning and Research Ethics: Enhancing Knowledge through Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M.; Cameron, Abigail E.; Schulman, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    How can instructors use experiential learning strategies to enhance student understanding of research ethics and responsible research conduct? In this article, the authors review literature on using experiential learning to teach research ethics and responsible research conduct. They present a three-step exercise for teaching research ethics and…

  5. Preferences for Key Ethical Principles that Guide Business School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyette, Roger; Piotrowski, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business…

  6. Faculty's Perceptions of Teaching Ethics and Leadership in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlSagheer, Abdullah; Al-Sagheer, Areej

    2011-01-01

    This paper addressed the faculty's perception of engineering ethics and leadership training. The study looks into the present state of and methodologies for teaching engineering ethics and leadership and aims to determine the faculty's perception of an identified gap in this aspect of engineering education. Engineering education has strong ethics

  7. Human cooperation in social dilemmas: comparing the Snowdrift game with the Prisoner's Dilemma

    E-print Network

    Kümmerli, Rolf

    Human cooperation in social dilemmas: comparing the Snowdrift game with the Prisoner's Dilemma Rolf game (ISD), which has received little attention so far, and compared it with human cooperation are shared between cooperators. Such a situation is encapsulated in the Snowdrift (SD) game, which derives

  8. The Productivity Dilemma in Workplace Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Cherniack, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background. Worksite-based programs to improve workforce health and well-being (Workplace Health Promotion (WHP)) have been advanced as conduits for improved worker productivity and decreased health care costs. There has been a countervailing health economics contention that return on investment (ROI) does not merit preventive health investment. Methods/Procedures. Pertinent studies were reviewed and results reconsidered. A simple economic model is presented based on conventional and alternate assumptions used in cost benefit analysis (CBA), such as discounting and negative value. The issues are presented in the format of 3 conceptual dilemmas. Principal Findings. In some occupations such as nursing, the utility of patient survival and staff health is undervalued. WHP may miss important components of work related health risk. Altering assumptions on discounting and eliminating the drag of negative value radically change the CBA value. Significance. Simple monetization of a work life and calculation of return on workforce health investment as a simple alternate opportunity involve highly selective interpretations of productivity and utility. PMID:26380374

  9. Professional Ethics, System Design Methods

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Professional Ethics, System Design Methods and Geospatial Data Quality #12;Objectives #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics

  10. The Ethnographer as "Impresario-Joker" in the (Re)presentation of Educational Research as Performance Art: Towards a Performance Ethic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The paper reflects critically on the use of arts-based approaches to (re)present ethnographic educational research data, positing that the use of these artistic genres while creating new opportunities for engaging and enacting the complexities of twenty-first century realities also pose new challenges particularly in relation to the application of…

  11. [Ethics in psychiatric research].

    PubMed

    Helmchen, Hanfried

    2014-07-01

    This review presents the results of a book 1 on ethical problems of clinical research in psychiatry and its framework. The requirement of societally necessary research can be satisfied only if every research patient is appropriately protected against risks and burdens. A clinical research intervention is acceptable only if - its benefit-risk-relationship is reasonable and justified, and - the patient's informed consent is valid. Basic and only unsatisfactorily solved questions are related to the capacity to consent and to problems in the evaluation of the benefit-risk-relationship, particularly of individual versus societal benefits and risks. PMID:24983573

  12. Ethics for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  13. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  14. Resisting the seduction of "ethics creep": using Foucault to surface complexity and contradiction in research ethics review.

    PubMed

    Guta, Adrian; Nixon, Stephanie A; Wilson, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we examine "ethics creep", a concept developed by Haggerty (2004) to account for the increasing bureaucratization of research ethics boards and institutional review boards (REB/IRBs) and the expanding reach of ethics review. We start with an overview of the recent surge of academic interest in ethics creep and similar arguments about the prohibitive effect of ethics review. We then introduce elements of Michel Foucault's theoretical framework which are used to inform our analysis of empirical data drawn from a multi-phase study exploring the accessibility of community-engaged research within existing ethics review structures in Canada. First, we present how ethics creep emerged both explicitly and implicitly in our data. We then present data that demonstrate how REB/IRBs are experiencing their own form of regulation. Finally, we present data that situate ethics review alongside other trends affecting the academy. Our results show that ethics review is growing in some ways while simultaneously being constrained in others. Drawing on Foucauldian theory we reframe ethics creep as a repressive hypothesis which belies the complexity of the phenomenon it purports to explain. Our discussion complicates ethics creep by proposing an understanding of REB/IRBs that locates them at the intersection of various neoliberal discourses about the role of science, ethics, and knowledge production. PMID:23063216

  15. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  16. Health research ethics in malaria vector trials in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kilama, Wen L

    2010-01-01

    Malaria mosquito research in Africa as elsewhere is just over a century old. Early trials for development of mosquito control tools were driven by colonial enterprises and war efforts; they were, therefore, tested in military or colonial settings. The failure of those tools and environmental concerns, coupled with the desperate need for integrated malaria control strategies, has necessitated the development of new malaria mosquito control tools, which are to be tested on humans, their environment and mosquito habitats. Ethical concerns start with phase 2 trials, which pose limited ethical dilemmas. Phase 3 trials, which are undertaken on vulnerable civilian populations, pose ethical dilemmas ranging from individual to community concerns. It is argued that such trials must abide by established ethical principles especially safety, which is mainly enshrined in the principle of non-maleficence. As there is total lack of experience with many of the promising candidate tools (eg genetically modified mosquitoes, entomopathogenic fungi, and biocontrol agents), great caution must be exercised before they are introduced in the field. Since malaria vector trials, especially phase 3 are intrusive and in large populations, individual and community respect is mandatory, and must give great priority to community engagement. It is concluded that new tools must be safe, beneficial, efficacious, effective, and acceptable to large populations in the short and long-term, and that research benefits should be equitably distributed to all who bear the brunt of the research burdens. It is further concluded that individual and institutional capacity strengthening should be provided, in order to undertake essential research, carry out scientific and ethical review, and establish competent regulatory frameworks. PMID:21144083

  17. The Ethical Analysis Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Raul G.

    1992-01-01

    The Ethical Analysis Protocol is a set of questions on treatment of participants, research practices, and sociopolitical dimensions of research that can be used to elicit information about ethical assumptions, constraints, and implications of institutional research studies. They provide a framework for ethical analysis of an institutional research…

  18. Making Ethics Come Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueeney, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

  19. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  20. "Not" Teaching Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    If the goal of teaching ethics is to affect behavior and ultimately produce thoughtful, ethical people, then the best process to do this is by embedding ethical practices in student discussions. One teacher demonstrates how she has done this in her classrooms.

  1. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. PMID:24870041

  2. [Which ethics for medical ethics? Homage to Hans Jonas, 1903-1993].

    PubMed

    Munzarová, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Hans Jonas, one of the greatest philosophers of the 20th century, devoted several studies to the ethics in context with medicine and/or to the new biomedical research. His main thoughts in this field are presented (death and dying, mortality, reflections on experimenting with human subjects - nontherapeutic research, cloning, chimaeras). He was a man of wisdom and his humanity and moral sensibility are a matter of admiration. His ethics is in full consent with ethics and the dignity of medical profession. His ideas are compared (and contrasted) with those of the new bio"ethics". PMID:25370772

  3. Ethics Leadership in Research, Healthcare and Organizational Systems: Commentary and Critical Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriele, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    In the last decades there has arisen a greater awareness of the ever present need for critical academic reflection on the nature of ethics leadership and committees in research, healthcare, and organizational systems. Yet what is meant by ethics itself? How is ethics understood as a historical phenomenon? What challenges must ethics leaders face…

  4. Teaching Ethical Issues in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Ralph

    This paper presents a study that investigates the teaching and learning aspects of controversial issues in science education. Teaching ethical issues is mandatory for science teachers in England; however, teachers may experience difficulties in exploring contemporary issues in science due to rapid and unpredictable changes. The study carries an…

  5. Ethical Practices for College Presidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    A policy statement on ethical practices for college presidents developed by the Committee on Governance of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) is presented. Presidents of AASCU member institutions recognize the special responsibilities that pertain to them by virtue of the public trust they hold. To fulfill that…

  6. Psychiatric ethics in war and peace

    PubMed Central

    Raju, M. S. V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Practice of psychiatry is a complex activity because the psychiatrist generally practises his art in an emotionally charged environment with patients who may not be in a in a state of mind to exercise autonomy as a result of cognitive impairment and preoccupation with symptoms. No one principle of ethics will be suitable to guide right conduct in widely variable situations. Making ethical judgements in the military context can be difficult and may have potential for abuse as for an uniformed psychiatrist mission takes priority over man. However mission centered and medical text book centred ethics need not be compartamentalised. The present paper seeks to offer a brief overview of ethical principles and specific situations in which one may have to make ethical judgements. PMID:24459379

  7. [What is "ethical weighing" in animal testing?

    PubMed

    Herzberg

    1999-01-01

    Ethical justification of legally required testing procedures with respect to pain, suffering or harm inflicted on animals are frequently being trivialised to meaningless phrases with a predictable outcome. Most applicants will not realise what kind of burdens they are placing upon ethics as an instrument for justification. Also, in ethical theory "defensibility" of animal testing is much less rigorously contemplated as it is, or would be, in comparable human testing. For these reasons, the article presented is critically investigating judicial and legal interpretations of the term "ethical weighing". In cases where true progress for the cause of animals becomes evident it chooses a rather unusual route based on the ground work of other scientists. The centre of attention is not given to more or less fictions cost/benefit calculations or point-systems but rather to the moral self- examination or possible self-justification of the scientist, meaning: a true reflection on ethics. PMID:11107325

  8. The Ethical Significance of Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Littmann, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a state-of-the-art overview of the ethical challenges that arise in the context of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which includes an introduction to the contributions to the symposium in this issue. We begin by discussing why AMR is a distinct ethical issue, and should not be viewed purely as a technical or medical problem. In the second section, we expand on some of these arguments and argue that AMR presents us with a broad range of ethical problems that must be addressed as part of a successful policy response to emerging drug resistance. In the third section, we discuss how some of these ethical challenges should be addressed, and we argue that this requires contributions from citizens, ethicists, policy makers, practitioners and industry. We conclude with an overview of steps that should be taken in moving forward and addressing the ethical problems of AMR. PMID:26566395

  9. Novice Teachers' Case Dilemmas: Surprising Perspectives Related to Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrilli, Thomas; Sardo-Brown, Deborah; Hinson, Stephanie

    This study described novice teachers' case dilemmas, analyzing them for assumptions made by teachers about teaching and learning as well as for solutions to the dilemmas. Twenty-one of the thirty-six dilemmas emphasized either minority students, students of low socioeconomic status, or students from single-parent households. Among the issues…

  10. Dilemmas in Bioethics. [Student's Guide.] Preparing for Tomorrow's World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iozzi, Louis A.; And Others

    The purpose of this module is to introduce students (grades 10-11) to critical bioethical issues by considering moral dilemmas and knowledge of biomedical advances. The module is organized into 12 topic areas, each containing a dilemma story, introductory reading material, sample student responses, and questions. Dilemmas are essentially brief…

  11. Institutional Heterogeneity in Social Dilemma Games: A Bayesian Examination

    E-print Network

    Murphy, James J.

    Institutional Heterogeneity in Social Dilemma Games: A Bayesian Examination Klaus Moeltner@cabnr.unr.edu #12;Institutional Heterogeneity in Social Dilemma Games: A Bayesian Examination Abstract: A main research focus in many Social Dilemma Games is the suitability of external institutional treatments

  12. Social Values, Subjective Transformations, and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Brent

    2004-01-01

    A persistent anomaly in the social dilemmas literature is the surprisingly high level of cooperation observed in experimental investigations of the one-shot Prisoners' Dilemma (PD). The exchange heuristic hypothesis and related approaches explain this finding by arguing that actors subjectively transform PD into the Assurance Dilemma. A tendency…

  13. Ethical aspects of malaria control and research.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; de la Fuente-Núñez, Vânia; Reis, Andreas; Ringwald, Pascal; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Malaria currently causes more harm to human beings than any other parasitic disease, and disproportionally affects low-income populations. The ethical issues raised by efforts to control or eliminate malaria have received little explicit analysis, in comparison with other major diseases of poverty. While some ethical issues associated with malaria are similar to those that have been the subject of debate in the context of other infectious diseases, malaria also raises distinct ethical issues in virtue of its unique history, epidemiology, and biology. This paper provides preliminary ethical analyses of the especially salient issues of: (i) global health justice, (ii) universal access to malaria control initiatives, (iii) multidrug resistance, including artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistance, (iv) mandatory screening, (v) mass drug administration, (vi) benefits and risks of primaquine, and (vii) malaria in the context of blood donation and transfusion. Several ethical issues are also raised by past, present and future malaria research initiatives, in particular: (i) controlled infection studies, (ii) human landing catches, (iii) transmission-blocking vaccines, and (iv) genetically-modified mosquitoes. This article maps the terrain of these major ethical issues surrounding malaria control and elimination. Its objective is to motivate further research and discussion of ethical issues associated with malaria-and to assist health workers, researchers, and policy makers in pursuit of ethically sound malaria control practice and policy. PMID:26693920

  14. A review of ethical issues in dementia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rebecca A; Karlawish, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Dementia raises many ethical issues. The present review, taking note of the fact that the stages of dementia raise distinct ethical issues, focuses on three issues associated with stages of dementia's progression: (1) how the emergence of preclinical and asymptomatic but at-risk categories for dementia creates complex questions about preventive measures, risk disclosure, and protection from stigma and discrimination; (2) how despite efforts at dementia prevention, important research continues to investigate ways to alleviate clinical dementia's symptoms, and requires additional human subjects protections to ethically enroll persons with dementia; and (3) how in spite of research and prevention efforts, persons continue to need to live with dementia. This review highlights two major themes. First is how expanding the boundaries of dementias such as Alzheimer's to include asymptomatic but at-risk persons generate new ethical questions. One promising way to address these questions is to take an integrated approach to dementia ethics, which can include incorporating ethics-related data collection into the design of a dementia research study itself. Second is the interdisciplinary nature of ethical questions related to dementia, from health policy questions about insurance coverage for long-term care to political questions about voting, driving, and other civic rights and privileges to economic questions about balancing an employer's right to a safe and productive workforce with an employee's rights to avoid discrimination on the basis of their dementia risk. The review highlights these themes and emerging ethical issues in dementia. PMID:26061118

  15. Critique of the "tragic case" method in ethics education.

    PubMed

    Liaschenko, J; Oguz, N Y; Brunnquell, D

    2006-11-01

    It is time for the noon conference. Your job is to impart a career-changing experience in ethics to a group of students and interns gathered from four different schools with varying curriculums in ethics. They have just finished 1 1/2 h of didactic sessions and lunch. One third of them were on call last night. Your first job is to keep them awake. The authors argue that this "tragic case" approach to ethics education is of limited value because it limits understanding of moral problems to dilemmas; negates the moral agency of the student; encourages solutions that are merely intellectual; and suggests that ethical encounters are a matter for experts. The authors propose an alternative that focuses on three issues: the provider-patient relationship, the relationships between providers in the everyday world of health work and, the social position of healthcare providers in society. In this approach, teachers are not experts but more like guides on a journey who help students to learn that much of ethical practice comprises living through difficult situations of caring for vulnerable others and who help students to navigate some of these difficulties. PMID:17074827

  16. Pharmaceutical ethics and physician liability in Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Gaurav J; Amber, Kyle T

    2013-12-01

    We review Side Effects, a 2013 film involving bioethics, pharmaceuticals, and financial conspiracies. After the main character Emily unsuccessfully attempts suicide, she begins receiving care from a psychiatrist, Dr. Banks. Following numerous events, she is placed on a fictional antidepressant, Ablixa, which leads her to suffer from sleepwalking. During an episode of sleepwalking she commits a serious crime. The film poses an interesting dilemma: How responsible would the physician be in this instance? We analyze this question by applying numerous ethical principles. PMID:23996742

  17. Statistical Physics of the Spatial Prisoner's Dilemma

    E-print Network

    Javarone, Marco Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an analytical model to study the evolution towards equilibrium in spatial games. In particular, we focus our attention on the spatial Prisoner's Dilemma, as it constitutes an emblematic example of a game whose Nash equilibrium is defection. Previous investigations showed that, under opportune conditions, it is possible to reach, in the evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma, an equilibrium of cooperation. Notably, it seems that mechanisms like motion may lead a population to become cooperative. In the proposed model, we map agents to particles of a gas so that, on varying the system temperature, they randomly move. In doing so, we are able to identify a relation between the temperature and the final equilibrium of the population, explaining how it is possible to break the classical Nash equilibrium in the spatial Prisoner's Dilemma. Moreover, we introduce a formalism to study order-disorder phase transitions in these dynamics. As result, we highlight that the proposed model allows to explain analyticall...

  18. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    PubMed

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008. PMID:19235389

  19. Improving epistemological beliefs and moral judgment through an STS-based science ethics education program.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyemin; Jeong, Changwoo

    2014-03-01

    This study develops a Science-Technology-Society (STS)-based science ethics education program for high school students majoring in or planning to major in science and engineering. Our education program includes the fields of philosophy, history, sociology and ethics of science and technology, and other STS-related theories. We expected our STS-based science ethics education program to promote students' epistemological beliefs and moral judgment development. These psychological constructs are needed to properly solve complicated moral and social dilemmas in the fields of science and engineering. We applied this program to a group of Korean high school science students gifted in science and engineering. To measure the effects of this program, we used an essay-based qualitative measurement. The results indicate that there was significant development in both epistemological beliefs and moral judgment. In closing, we briefly discuss the need to develop epistemological beliefs and moral judgment using an STS-based science ethics education program. PMID:23338794

  20. Dilemmas Presented by State Agency Takeovers of Local School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E.

    During the 1988-89 school year, two local school districts were placed into "Phase III" of the Kentucky Educational Improvement Act (1978), a category of state receivership in which much local decision-making power was transferred to Kentucky Department of Education officials. When state education department intervention occurs, major issues arise…

  1. Research Ethics Committees: Policy and Procedures for Research Ethical Approval

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Research Ethics Committees: Policy and Procedures for Research Ethical Approval Contents Page INTRODUCTION PROCEDURES 1 Establishment of Research Ethics Committees 3 2 Responsibilities of the University Research Ethics Committee 3 3 Terms of Reference of Faculty Research Ethics Committees 4 4 Responsibilities

  2. Non-Official Roads Dilemma in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perz, Stephen G.; Arima, Eugenio; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Caldas, Marcellus; Brandao, Amintas de O., Jr.; Araujo de Souza, Francisco Kennedy; Walker, Robert

    2005-01-01

    At the beginning of this millennium, "non-official" roads predominate in Amazonia. The opening of these roads, a phenomenon that has not been studied in depth, represents a major dilemma - it generates environmental and social impacts, but it helps to reduce the isolation of the communities in Amazonia and to improve the quality of life for those rural populations. The combined positive and negative aspects of this dilemma mean that it is a matter of crucial importance for the government at last to do a proper job in building these roads; if this is disregarded, in the future, the environment and the Brazilians living in that region will be at risk.

  3. Ethics in Rehabilitation Education and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvo, Donna R.; Parker, Randall M.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews ethical issues that rehabilitation educators may face in meeting their everyday teaching and research responsibilities. Issues presented include dual relationships; selection of students; measurement of student competence; supervision of students; confidentiality concerning student information; faculty competence; multicultural issues; and…

  4. Staying Current Ethics and scientific publication

    E-print Network

    Wang, Hao "Howard"

    . We discuss ethical issues that can arise because of conflict of interest, author conflicts, and human experimentation. We also present a brief discussion of animal welfare concerns, but because of the breadth

  5. Global dilemmas and the plausibility of whole-system change

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, W.W.

    1995-05-01

    Approaching the global dilemmas of our time with whole-system thinking implies that the much-talked-about problems of environmental degradation, deforestation, desertification, man-made climate change, chronic hunger and poverty, etc. are not so much problems as symptoms of a deeper-level condition that must be dealt with. This has to do with the basic incompatibility between widely proclaimed goals and underlying system assumptions. Pressures toward whole-system change are increasing in intensity. The critical issue is whether that change can be smooth and nondisruptive, or whether it will involve some disintegration of present structures. Constructive interventions are discussed. 1 tab.

  6. Endodontic diagnostic dilemmas: thorough examination may preclude inappropriate treatment.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Gary; Lenga, Yair; Maggio, Joseph D

    2014-05-01

    In situations where suspicious lesions of undetermined origins are encountered, it is important for clinicians to consider non-endodontic and perhaps non-odontogenic sources to properly diagnose the condition in order to provide appropriate treatment. Differential diagnoses may include cysts, anatomic variations, and neoplastic lesions. Diagnostic dilemmas and misperceptions can be prevented and ineffective treatment avoided by thoroughly reviewing the patient's medical and dental histories and employing a detailed clinical and radiographic examination. This article presents three cases that were referred to the authors' clinic for endodontic treatment but were ultimately diagnosed as non-endodontic in origin. PMID:24841040

  7. "How dare you sport thus with life?": Frankensteinian fictions as case studies in scientific ethics.

    PubMed

    Goldbort, Robert C

    1995-01-01

    Fictional scenarios involving "hard" science offer what are in effect case studies of scientific ethics. From his analysis of Shelley's novel, biologist Leonard Isaacs constructed a model of a "Frankenstein scenario," applicable to the dilemmas posed by the advancement of science in our time, as well as to fiction about science by such contemporary writers as Robin Cook and Michael Crichton. The special contribution of fiction to the study of ethics is that it both reflects and evaluates reality's infinite permutations. In reflecting and judging, the fictional scenarios engage our moral imagination and compel us to confront our personal ethos in relation to the evolving ethos of science. PMID:11652921

  8. Family medicine and medical ethics--a natural and necessary union.

    PubMed

    Dickman, R L

    1980-04-01

    Since many ethical dilemmas in the practice of medicine involve cases associated with tertiary care, primary care providers may feel removed from these kinds of problems. Family medicine, committed to an intellectual synergism with a variety of non-biomedical disciplines as well as being a "specialty in breadth" should develop a strong bond with medical ethics. Because of their ongoing relationships with patients and subsequent knowledge of their value systems, family physicians can provide leadership in guiding ethical decision making in intensive care settings. In addition, since a significant number of ethical dilemmas in medicine involve common problems, family physicians may be more sensitive to and feel more comfortable with this aspect of medical practice. Some family practice residency programs have begun to provide educational experiences in medical ethics for their trainees. Although the evaluation methodology for this aspect of training is not fully developed, it seems clear that residency programs should give additional attention to these areas in planning their curricula. PMID:7365436

  9. Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.

    PubMed

    Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles. PMID:25319836

  10. Addiction Research Ethics and the Belmont Principles: Do Drug Users Have a Different Moral Voice?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Celia B.

    2013-01-01

    This study used semi-structured interviews and content analysis to examine moral principles that street drug users apply to three hypothetical addiction research ethical dilemmas. Participants (n = 90) were ethnically diverse, economically disadvantaged drug users recruited in New York City in 2009. Participants applied a wide range of contextually sensitive moral precepts, including respect, beneficence, justice, relationality, professional obligations, rules, and pragmatic self-interest. Limitations and implications for future research and the responsible conduct of addiction research are discussed. PMID:21073412

  11. Teaching ethics to engineers: ethical decision making parallels the engineering design process.

    PubMed

    Bero, Bridget; Kuhlman, Alana

    2011-09-01

    In order to fulfill ABET requirements, Northern Arizona University's Civil and Environmental engineering programs incorporate professional ethics in several of its engineering courses. This paper discusses an ethics module in a 3rd year engineering design course that focuses on the design process and technical writing. Engineering students early in their student careers generally possess good black/white critical thinking skills on technical issues. Engineering design is the first time students are exposed to "grey" or multiple possible solution technical problems. To identify and solve these problems, the engineering design process is used. Ethical problems are also "grey" problems and present similar challenges to students. Students need a practical tool for solving these ethical problems. The step-wise engineering design process was used as a model to demonstrate a similar process for ethical situations. The ethical decision making process of Martin and Schinzinger was adapted for parallelism to the design process and presented to students as a step-wise technique for identification of the pertinent ethical issues, relevant moral theories, possible outcomes and a final decision. Students had greatest difficulty identifying the broader, global issues presented in an ethical situation, but by the end of the module, were better able to not only identify the broader issues, but also to more comprehensively assess specific issues, generate solutions and a desired response to the issue. PMID:20524076

  12. Medicine and the Holocaust: a visit to the Nazi death camps as a means of teaching medical ethics in the Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps.

    PubMed

    Oberman, Anthony S; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Ash, Nachman

    2010-12-01

    A novel method of teaching military medical ethics, medical ethics and military ethics in the Israel Defense Force (IDF) Medical Corps, essential topics for all military medical personnel, is discussed. Very little time is devoted to medical ethics in medical curricula, and even less to military medical ethics. Ninety-five per cent of American students in eight medical schools had less than 1 h of military medical ethics teaching and few knew the basic tenets of the Geneva Convention. Medical ethics differs from military medical ethics: the former deals with the relationship between medical professional and patient, while in the latter military physicians have to balance between military necessity and their traditional priorities to their patients. The underlying principles, however, are the same in both: the right to life, autonomy, dignity and utility. The IDF maintains high moral and ethical standards. This stems from the preciousness of human life in Jewish history, tradition and religious law. Emphasis is placed on these qualities within the Israeli education system; the IDF teaches and enforces moral and ethical standards in all of its training programmes and units. One such programme is 'Witnesses in Uniform' in which the IDF takes groups of officers to visit Holocaust memorial sites and Nazi death camps. During these visits daily discussions touch on intricate medical and military ethical issues, and contemporary ethical dilemmas relevant to IDF officers during active missions. PMID:21030474

  13. The Dilemma of the Racist Patient.

    PubMed

    Singh, Keerat; Sivasubramaniam, Priya; Ghuman, Sultan; Mir, Hassan R

    2015-12-01

    Encounters with racist patients can be distressing, damage the physician-patient relationship, and threaten the collegial environment of the health care setting. Although policies guiding physician interactions may exist, providers may be uncomfortable and left vulnerable in racially charged interactions. When providers deal with racially intolerant patients, a courteous address of their inappropriate behavior is crucial, after which a dialogue should ensue to identify causes of potentially misplaced anger. Unsuccessful attempts at relationship salvage should be further guided by ethics teams, and in cases of a continued impasse, physicians should absolve themselves of medical duties provided that an appropriate alternative provider is available. Although racism in the health care setting can present a reasonable window to generate productive dialogue to improve race relations, a deeply entrenched and pervasive mindset can be difficult to reverse and should not impede the primary goal of providing timely patient care. PMID:26665247

  14. Using an ecological ethics framework to make decisions about the relocation of wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, E.D.; Berry, K.

    2008-01-01

    Relocation is an increasingly prominent conservation tool for a variety of wildlife, but the technique also is controversial, even among conservation practitioners. An organized framework for addressing the moral dilemmas often accompanying conservation actions such as relocation has been lacking. Ecological ethics may provide such a framework and appears to be an important step forward in aiding ecological researchers and biodiversity managers to make difficult moral choices. A specific application of this framework can make the reasoning process more transparent and give more emphasis to the strong sentiments about non-human organisms held by many potential users. Providing an example of the application of the framework may also increase the appeal of the reasoning process to ecological researchers and biodiversity managers. Relocation as a conservation action can be accompanied by a variety of moral dilemmas that reflect the interconnection of values, ethical positions, and conservation decisions. A model that is designed to address moral dilemmas arising from relocation of humans provides/demonstrates/illustrates a possible way to apply the ecological ethics framework and to involve practicing conservationists in the overall decision-making process. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Law, ethics and research ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Beyleveld, Deryck

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the view of the operational management of the UK Research Ethics Committee (REC) system that RECs may not reject applications on purely legal grounds. Two arguments are offered for this view: the first rests on the contention that being lawful and being ethical are not the same thing; the second is that RECs lack expertise and authority to base their decisions on legal considerations. However, whatever the philosophical standing of the first argument, it is contrary to published guidance, the basis of RECs' official authority, unethical, and politically imprudent to permit RECs not to consider conformity with the law to be at least a necessary condition for REC approval. In any event, RECs can obtain competent and authoritative advice on the law (though the Department of Health has been remiss in this regard), and they do not exceed their authority by applying the law, because this is within their ethical remit. When current guidance to RECs about advising researchers on whether or not breaches of confidence are permissible in the public interest is linked to the view of the REC management that the role of RECs is to facilitate research (albeit ethical research), this raises serious doubts about the integrity of the system of ethical review currently in place, which is illustrated by a recent "agreement" of the Chairmen of the MRECs not to consider the Data Protection Act 1998 in their ethical review. PMID:12017445

  16. The nuclear dilemma and the just war tradition

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, W.V.; Langan, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents papers on the ethical aspects of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include the concept of a ''just'' war, national defense, political aspects, religion and politics, the failure of deterrence, conventional warfare, nuclear deterrence and democratic politics, the future of the nuclear debate, non-proliferation policy, arms control, national security, and government policies.

  17. The Drama in School Leadership: An Arts-Based Approach to Understanding the Ethical Dimensions of Decision Making for Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston, Jerome A.; Kusanovich, Kristin A.

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the implications and effectiveness of a performing arts-based pedagogy in the professional development of school leaders. It reports on the findings from a study that exposed educational leaders to methods of dramatic analysis as a means of reflecting on the ethical dilemmas found in personnel management. Through the dynamic…

  18. To Feed or Not to Feed? A Case Report and Ethical Analysis of Withholding Food and Drink in a Patient With Advanced Dementia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Cynthia A; Ong, Thuan D

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that competent patients have the right to refuse artificial nutrition and hydration. There is less clarity regarding withholding nutrition in patients who lack decision-making capacity but who are still physically able to eat and drink. This case highlights the ethical dilemma of withholding food and drink in a patient with advanced dementia. PMID:26300024

  19. Ethical Principles: Guiding the Use of Animals in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents arguments on the use of animals in biological and medical research. Discusses ethical considerations, principles, and animal rights in scientific research. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/YDS)

  20. Ethics in Medical Research and Publication

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Hodzic, Ajla; Mulic, Smaila

    2014-01-01

    To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature. Investing in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research ethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of it repercussion is essential for finding a solution to this problem and ensuring careers are constructed on honesty and integrity. PMID:25317288

  1. Teaching ethics in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Claudot, Frédérique; Alla, François; Ducrocq, Xavier; Coudane, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Aim To carry out an appropriate overview and inventory of the teaching of ethics within the European Union Schools of Medicine. Methods A questionnaire was sent by email to 45 randomly selected medical schools from each of 23 countries in the European Union in February 2006. Results 25 schools of medicine from 18 European countries were included (response rate?=?56%). In 21 of 25 medical schools, there was at least one ethics module. In 11 of 25 medical schools, the teaching of ethics was transversal. Only one of the responding schools did not teach ethics. The mean time invested in ethics teaching was 44?h during the overall curriculum. Conclusions Ethics now has an established place within the medical curriculum throughout the European Union. However, there is a notable disparity in programme characteristics among schools of medicine. PMID:17664312

  2. The Nature of Psychology: The Great Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila, Ruben

    2007-01-01

    Research about the nature of psychology, its subject matter, its level of analysis, its scientific laws, its relationship with other disciplines, and its social relevance has been a matter of great concern and interest during the development of psychology. This problem can be analyzed in terms of the dilemmas of the psychological discipline, which…

  3. Secrecy: The Communication Dilemma of the CIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Dirk C.

    1987-01-01

    Explores the response of the CIA to public criticism when caught in the dilemma of having to put forth information to the public about its activities and yet carry out secret intelligence-gathering and covert operations. Concludes that its response, attempted cover-ups and censorship, failed due to this conflict in its position. (JC)

  4. Dilemmas and Deliberations in Reflexive Ethnographic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Janean Valerie

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces insights into the challenges and dilemmas experienced whilst researching students' interpretations and understandings of the Behaviour Management in Schools policy in Western Australia. Journal records, supported by student transcripts, are woven together in a reflexive ethnographic journey--from the beginning phase of…

  5. Prisoner's Dilemma as a Social Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, John F.

    A simulation game of strategy relating to alternate confession choices of two prisoners is described. The game, Prisoner's Dilemma, is designed to help participants learn about trust, cooperation, competition, intergroup dynamics, and their own life role and feelings. Three choices are offered at the beginning of the game to two prisoners, held…

  6. Social Discounting and the Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locey, Matthew L.; Safin, Vasiliy; Rachlin, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Altruistic behavior has been defined in economic terms as “…costly acts that confer economic benefits on other individuals” (Fehr & Fischbacher, 2003). In a prisoner's dilemma game, cooperation benefits the group but is costly to the individual (relative to defection), yet a significant number of players choose to cooperate. We propose that people…

  7. The Doubly Exceptional Child: A Principal's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains two articles concerned with doubly exceptional children and gifted education. In "The Doubly Exceptional Child: A Principal's Dilemma," (Carol J. Mills and Linda E. Brody), such children do not fit into the usual categories for sorting children because their gifts and disabilities often mask each other. Suggestions are…

  8. Adaptation and The Provider's Dilemma Christina Aperjis

    E-print Network

    Huberman, Bernardo A.

    media" advertising formats (Godes et al. 2009). Given that a provider can increase his revenueAdaptation and The Provider's Dilemma Christina Aperjis Social Computing Group, HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA 94304 Bernardo A. Huberman Social Computing Group, HP Labs, Palo Alto, CA 94304 While attracting

  9. Resolving the Dilemma between Organizing and Services: Los Angeles Acorn's Welfare Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Fred

    2005-01-01

    The issue of providing individual services historically has been a major dilemma for social action, Alinsky-style community organizations. Empirical evidence suggests that most action organizations that moved into service provision lost mass-based participation, militant tactics, and a power-building orientation. The author presents a case study…

  10. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  11. Ethics for Medical Educators: An Overview and Fallacies

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arjun

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is the rule of right conduct or practice in a profession. The basic principles of ethics are beneficence, justice and autonomy or individual freedom. There is very minor demarcation between ethics and the law. The ethics is promulgated by the professional bodies. All are expected to guide the medical professional in their practice. Medical educators have dual ethical obligations: firstly, to the society at large which expects us to produce competent health professionals, and secondly, to the students under our care. The students observe and copy what their teacher does and his/her role modelling can be a gateway to a student's character building. Due to rapid increase in the number of medical colleges, privatization, and capitalism, ethical issue has become much more relevant and needs to discuss in detail. The present paper discusses the ethics for medical educators in detail with, basic principles, common breaches of ethics and fallacies due to wrong application of ethical principles, and the approach to ethics and methods by which we can prevent and avoid breach of ethics. PMID:21716861

  12. Ethics and Professionalism Clinical Medicine II

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Ethics and Professionalism Years I-IV 2014-2015 Year II Clinical Medicine II · Advance Care Planning; End-of-Life Issues; Ethics- Small Group Session · Ethical Principles- Lecture · HIV/ Ethics- Panel · HIV/ Ethics- Small groups · HIV/ Ethics- Lecture · Ethical Principles- Lecture · Clinical Ethics

  13. A diagnostic dilemma: infectious versus noninfectious multifocal choroiditis with panuveitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to report a diagnostic dilemma in a patient with multifocal choroiditis. This is a case report study. Findings A 68-year-old female presented with new onset of floaters in both eyes and diagnosed with bilateral panuveitis. Her visual acuity was 20/200 in both eyes. Slit-lamp examination showed 1+ anterior chamber cells in both eyes. Ophthalmoscopic examination of both eyes showed vitreous cells, optic disc edema, small amounts of subretinal hemorrhage, and punctate choroidal lesions throughout the fundus. Laboratory work-up revealed a positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold result, and the patient was started on antituberculosis medications. However, given the patient’s intolerance to antituberculosis medications and progressive worsening of vision, she underwent a chorioretinal biopsy to assist with determining a definitive diagnosis. Biopsy results showed noncaseating granulomas and were negative for an infectious etiology. The patient was diagnosed with ocular sarcoidosis and started on immunomodulatory therapy for sarcoid-related multifocal choroiditis. Conclusions Multifocal chorioretinal lesions of unknown etiology can present as a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. Laboratory work-up is useful in determining an etiology; however, more invasive procedures, such as chorioretinal biopsy, may be necessary to guide treatment. PMID:23514267

  14. Risk and medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Pochin, E

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of risk, and their comparison with quantitative estimates of benefit, contribute usefully to decision-making in many fields. In medicine, our assessments of the probability of harm, and of the likelihood of benefit, resulting from many procedures are at present very limited. Moreover, the comparison of risk and of benefit is difficult to make in any quantitative way, whether for a procedure in general or, even more so, for its application in any particular patient. Yet it must be ethically insecure to propose or to use a procedure without some assessment, however approximate, of the hazards involved, and without some indication of whether those hazards will be clearly offset by the likelihood of benefit that should result from use of the procedure. PMID:7154031

  15. ORIGINAL PAPER Connecting Past with Present: A Mixed-Methods

    E-print Network

    ethics is not the same thing as havinginternalized science ethics. A quite different educational design in science education (Matthews 1994) and the value of case-based learning in ethics education (Shulman 1992ORIGINAL PAPER Connecting Past with Present: A Mixed-Methods Science Ethics Course and its

  16. Cystic fibrosis and lung transplantation: ethical concerns.

    PubMed

    Dickinson-Herbst, D

    2001-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disorder affecting respiratory, digestive, integumentary, and reproductive systems. Despite the medical advancements treating cystic fibrosis, lung disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults. A case study of a 21-year-old's struggle to undergo double lung transplantation is presented, and four ethical considerations are identified. An ethical decision-making model provides an avenue for discussing these concerns. PMID:12025156

  17. [Ethical aspects of plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Coli?, M

    1989-01-01

    In the past few years the abuse of ethical principles in plastic surgery has become increasingly noticeable. The reasons are various; it may be the desire to achieve personal recognition of plastic surgeons by means of different press articles or numerous yellow-press articles written by journalists whose only aim is to increase the circulation of their newspapers. In extreme cases the violation of medical secret or the surgeon's personality advertising is noticeable. Although this phenomenon is much more evident in the countries where plastic surgery is being performed at private clinics, it has in the past few years also become more obvious in our country. These ethical problems are present in plastic surgery because it is to often identified with aesthetic surgery. The fact that, with its more or less favorable results, it appears highly attractive to the public and thus get even the unwilling surgeon into the focus of various yellow-press articles and headlines. On the other hand, the very nature of the individual who specializes in this kind of surgery may be the principal basis for publicity. Such abuse of professional ethics is usually explained by claiming that the public should be properly informed, but in some cases it is but open advertising of the surgeon and his/her abilities. Establishing an ethical code which would entail all necessary moral sanctions in plastic surgery would act favorably to the protection of those plastic surgeons who perform their work according to the moral and ethical principles of their profession. PMID:2489525

  18. Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

  19. Tobacco taxation and public health: ethical problems, policy responses.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2005-08-01

    This article aims to describe the major ethical issues surrounding tobacco taxation, and to identify policy responses to minimise any ethical dilemmas. It uses the standard ethical framework for biomedicine (covering beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for autonomy and justice), in conjunction with relevant data on tobacco taxation from various developed countries. Tobacco taxation contributes substantial benefits at the population level by protecting health (i.e., by deterring the uptake of smoking by youth, by promoting quitting, and by reducing harm from exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS)). However, tobacco taxes can contribute to financial hardship among low-socioeconomic status populations where smoking persists. Such taxes can contribute to autonomy, by reducing SHS exposure to non-smokers, and by allowing freedom from nicotine-dependency for those who quit smoking or do not start regular smoking as a result of high tobacco prices. Furthermore, increases in tobacco taxation may reduce health inequalities and so contribute to justice. Nevertheless, the additional tax burden imposed on smokers who wish to continue to smoke, or are unable to quit, can be considered unjust. The autonomy of such smokers may be partly impaired. Although tobacco tax can be regarded as ethically justifiable because of its substantial overall benefit to society, there is substantial scope for policy changes to further reduce any harms and injustices for those populations who continue to smoke. PMID:15899323

  20. Covert medication in psychiatric emergencies: is it ever ethically permissible?

    PubMed

    Hung, Erick K; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2012-01-01

    Covert administration of medications to patients, defined as the administration of medication to patients without their knowledge, is a practice surrounded by clinical, legal, ethics-related, and cultural controversy. Many psychiatrists would be likely to advocate that the practice of covert medication in emergency psychiatry is not clinically, ethically, or legally acceptable. This article explores whether there may be exceptions to this stance that would be ethical. We first review the standard of emergency psychiatric care. Although we could identify no published empirical studies of covert administration of medicine in emergency departments, we review the prevalence of this practice in other clinical settings. While the courts have not ruled with respect to covert medication, we discuss the evolving legal landscape of informed consent, competency, and the right to refuse treatment. We discuss dilemmas regarding the ethics involved in this practice, including the tensions among autonomy, beneficence, and duty to protect. We explore how differences between cultures regarding the value placed on individual versus family autonomy may affect perspectives with regard to this practice. We investigate how consumers view this practice and their treatment preferences during a psychiatric emergency. Finally, we discuss psychiatric advance directives and explore how these contracts may affect the debate over the practice. PMID:22635297

  1. Procedure versus process: ethical paradigms and the conduct of qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally) genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic ‘procedural’ resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are ‘unethical’ but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of ‘micro-ethics’ based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. Summary This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of ‘empirical ethics’ as a means of liberating qualitative (and other) research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values. PMID:23016663

  2. Is Business Ethics Dying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamental, George L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the need for business ethics courses in undergraduate and graduate business degree programs. Describes reasons for and objections to such programs. Explains that business ethics instruction requires varied case studies, adequate teaching materials, cooperation between philosophers and business faculty, and instructors who are forthcoming…

  3. The Ethical Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

  4. Ethical? Toward Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Nonrational processes in ethical decision making" by M. D. Rogerson et al (see record 2011-19198-001). Among the many insightful points made by Rogerson, Gottlieb, Handelsman, Knapp, and Younggren (October 2011) regarding nonrational processes in ethical decision making, one deserves further explication: Many of…

  5. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  6. Ethics and the Nonprofit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Toni; Hudspeth, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The American nonprofit sector is large, effective and influential, but with influence comes responsibility. Ethical lapses, whether real or perceived, can draw the attention of regulators and the public, leading to financial and reputational damage that can impair an organization's ability to carry out its mission. Written ethics and compliance…

  7. Ethics and Value Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Daniel

    1978-01-01

    The teaching of ethics and values is a concern of American education. Scientific and technological developments and the responsibilities of professional life and of personal morality are discussed. Steps to a quality program in ethics, and the need for a theoretical framework are also addressed. (SW)

  8. Ethics for Industrial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Balamuralikrishna, Radha

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes aim at one specific, as well as basic, need in teamwork and interdisciplinary projects--ethics and its implications for professional practice. A preliminary study suggests that students majoring in industrial technology degree programs may not have adequate opportunity to formally study and engage in ethical aspects of technology…

  9. Ethical issues in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Desikan, P; Chakrabarti, A; Muthuswamy, V

    2011-01-01

    Ethical issues facing microbiologists could be considered in two parts. The first relates to the way the ethical issues during their laboratory work. The second pertains to ethical issues on the data/reports they generate for the patients or in research. In both segments, there is pressure to perform, which is exerted by both, the community, as well as peers. It has therefore become increasingly necessary to recognize the facts that unethical actions might be a frequent reality. Since some of these activities generate serious ethical concerns, both in practice and research, it is necessary for microbiologists to be aware and equipped to meet these issues in a prepared and measured way. In an attempt to highlight this requirement, this article outlines the important ethical issues and guidelines relevant to the field of Microbiology. PMID:22120789

  10. Ethics and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Macnaughton, M

    1990-04-01

    In Western culture, the ethical principles of respect for persons can be further divided into 2 categories - a) autonomy and b) protection of the vulnerable; beneficence; and justice. The principles of ethics can be directed towards 2 levels: microethics - concerned with the individual and macroethics - concerned with the greater community. In the case of obstetrical procedures such as in vitro fertilization, prenatal diagnosis, and fetal sex selection, the principles of microethics and macroethics conflict. The exact number and/or kind of babies may benefit the parents by they may not benefit a society that is expected to accommodate these new members. This aspect can also be addressed when dealing with abortion. Support for and against has led to a questioning and reexamining of present abortion laws; the aim is to either restrict abortion or reduce the abortion time limit from 28 to 24 weeks. Policies of the United States have an effect on other policies, worldwide. Abortions are needed as a form of birth control in developing countries; 500,000 women/year die from birthing complications and 100,000 die from complications of illegal abortions. There has also been some questioning of in vitro fertilization. Why fertilize a certain number of eggs which may never be allowed to grow and mature? There has also been some questioning of whether or not an embryo in vitro fertilization is a person or not. Deciding the status of the embryo has opened up research possibilities in the United State and the United Kingdom. Discussion on in vitro fertilization has opened up discussion on surrogacy. There seems to be more support for surrogacy in the United States than in the United Kingdom - where there is a restrictive ban on commercial surrogacy. PMID:2327460

  11. A Catholic ethical approach to human reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Ford, Norman M

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the Catholic Christian tradition and teaching on the moral respect due to human life from conception, supported by natural law moral philosophical reasoning. This approach contrasts with the ethical views of secular philosophers on human embryo research for therapeutic purposes. The challenges for Catholic healthcare institutions is to find ethical ways of using suitable pluripotent stem cells for therapies without creating or destroying human embryos. Catholic teaching on infertility treatment and reproductive technology are presented with emphasis given to the ethical need for children to be conceived and born of the marriage union compared with alterative ethical approaches for the use of infertility treatment and reproductive technology. PMID:18983736

  12. Economic Ethics and Industrial Policy: The Analysis of Ethical Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnal, Juliette

    2008-01-01

    Beyond the presupposed cleavage between economics and ethics, the institutional dimension of economic ethics needs to be emphasized. The firm can use a large scope of instruments in order to formalize economic ethics. The asset of ethical standards is that they represent a specific way of coordination. They engender positive effects such as the…

  13. Ethical Awareness and Ethical Orientation of Turkish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökçe, Asiye Toker

    2013-01-01

    This study inquires ethical evaluation of teachers, investigating their moral reasoning to ethical decision making, in Turkey. Specifically three hypotheses were tested: Overall ethical awareness of teachers is high; Teachers will identify reasons for ethical evaluation related to philosophical values such as justice, deontology, utilitarianism,…

  14. RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES: POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR RESEARCH ETHICAL

    E-print Network

    Aickelin, Uwe

    RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES: POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR RESEARCH ETHICAL APPROVAL CONTENTS Page POLICY ­ Summary 1 PROCEDURES 4 1 Establishment of Research Ethics Committees 4 2 Composition and Membership 4 3 Basis of approval by the UREC and FRECs 5 4 Processing ethics applications 7 5 Research

  15. The University of Birmingham Code of Ethics Ethics at Birmingham

    E-print Network

    Birmingham, University of

    1 The University of Birmingham Code of Ethics Ethics at Birmingham The University of Birmingham is committed to the highest standards of ethical conduct in all our activities. Each member of the University University committees -- has a responsibility to act ethically and in accordance with the Nolan Committee

  16. Extortion outperforms generosity in iterated Prisoners' Dilemma

    E-print Network

    Xu, Bin; Lien, Jaimie W; Zheng, Jie; Wang, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    Promoting cooperation is an intellectual challenge in the social sciences, for which the iterated Prisoners' Dilemma (IPD) is a fundamental framework. The traditional view that there exists no simple ultimatum strategy whereby one player can unilaterally control the share of the surplus has been challenged by a new class of "zero-determinant" (ZD) strategies raised by Press and Dyson. In particular, the extortionate strategies can subdue the opponent and obtain higher scores. However, no empirical evidence has yet been found to support this theoretical finding. In a long-run laboratory experiment of the iterated Prisoners' Dilemma pairing each human subject with a computer co-player, we demonstrate that the extortionate strategy indeed outperforms the generous strategy against human subjects. Our results show that the extortionate strategy achieves higher scores than the generous strategy, the extortionate strategy promotes the cooperation rate to a similar level as the generous strategy does, and the human s...

  17. Resolving social dilemmas on evolving random networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2009-05-01

    We show that strategy-independent adaptations of random interaction networks can induce powerful mechanisms, ranging from the Red Queen to group selection, which promote cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas. These two mechanisms emerge spontaneously as dynamical processes due to deletions and additions of links, which are performed whenever players adopt new strategies and after a certain number of game iterations, respectively. The potency of cooperation promotion, as well as the mechanism responsible for it, can thereby be tuned via a single parameter determining the frequency of link additions. We thus demonstrate that coevolving random networks may evoke an appropriate mechanism for each social dilemma, such that cooperation prevails even in highly unfavorable conditions.

  18. The nuclear dilemma in American strategic thought

    SciTech Connect

    Osgood, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Since the end of World War II, the United States has faced moral and strategic issues in its management of force that are unique in the history of international politics. At the heart of these issues is the heavy reliance of the United States and its allies on the deterrent effect of nuclear weapons and the fact that their use would very likely lead to self-defeating destruction and ecological catastrophe. This dilemma affects every major military decision and strategic debate, and the history of U.S. strategic thought can be viewed as an attempt to cope by rejecting, abolishing, or weakening the nuclear specter. In this review, the author explores the evolution of postwar strategic thought in the United States, examining the moral and practical implications of the nuclear dilemma.

  19. Forecaster's dilemma: Extreme events and forecast evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerch, Sebastian; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Ravazzolo, Francesco; Gneiting, Tilmann

    2015-04-01

    In discussions of the quality of forecasts in the media and public, attention often focuses on the predictive performance in the case of extreme events. Intuitively, accurate predictions on the subset of extreme events seem to suggest better predictive ability. However, it can be demonstrated that restricting conventional forecast verification methods to subsets of observations might have unexpected and undesired effects and may discredit even the most skillful forecasters. Hand-picking extreme events is incompatible with the theoretical assumptions of established forecast verification methods, thus confronting forecasters with what we refer to as the forecaster's dilemma. For probabilistic forecasts, weighted proper scoring rules provide suitable alternatives for forecast evaluation with an emphasis on extreme events. Using theoretical arguments, simulation experiments and a case study on probabilistic forecasts of wind speed over Germany, we illustrate the forecaster's dilemma and the use of weighted proper scoring rules.

  20. Evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on evolving random networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaojin; Le, Yun; Zhang, Lianzhong

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game by incorporating partner choice into the framework of evolutionary game theory. Our research shows that the introduction of partner choice can notably promote the cooperative behavior in the prisoner's dilemma game. All the players are more likely to play the game with cooperators, which makes it easier for cooperators to form alliances. In particular, the system will be dominated completely by cooperators in a comfortable environment (i.e., with lower survival cost) because the cooperators can get more benefits than the defectors in this case due to their good reputation. In addition, we have found that the sustenance of cooperators improves notably as well in the snowdrift game and the stag-hunt game due to this introduction. PMID:24827227

  1. Playing with a "Full DECK": A Creative Application of the Integrative Decision-Making Framework of Ethical Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Jan C.; Plaisance, Pamela M.; Renfrow, Jennifer J.; Olivier, Brandi N.

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation practitioners are faced with a variety of complex ethical decisions in a dynamic, changing world. Attention to principle ethics, virtue ethics, critical thinking, and creativity are essential for best practice. This article presents one tool (DECK--Decision-Making that Enhances Counselor Know-How) to facilitate such ethical

  2. Research Ethics I: Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR)--Historical and Contemporary Issues Pertaining to Human and Animal Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics I", they present a historical overview of the evolution of…

  3. Ebola, epidemics, and ethics - what we have learned

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The current Ebola epidemic has presented challenges both medical and ethical. Although we have known epidemics of untreatable diseases in the past, this particular one may be unique in the intensity and rapidity of its spread, as well as ethical challenges that it has created, exacerbated by its geographic location. We will look at the infectious agent and the epidemic it is causing, in order to understand the ethical problems that have arisen. PMID:25342227

  4. Cognition and norms: toward a developmental account of moral agency in social dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Leandro F. F.; Braga, Marcelo J.

    2015-01-01

    Most recent developments in the study of social dilemmas give an increasing amount of attention to cognition, belief systems, valuations, and language. However, developments in this field operate almost entirely under epistemological assumptions which only recognize the instrumental form of rationality and deny that “value judgments” or “moral questions” have cognitive content. This standpoint erodes the moral aspect of the choice situation and obstructs acknowledgment of the links connecting cognition, inner growth, and moral reasoning, and the significance of such links in reaching cooperative solutions to many social dilemmas. Concurrently, this standpoint places the role of communication and mutual understanding in promoting cooperation in morally relevant conflicts of action in a rather mysterious situation. This paper draws on Habermas’s critique of instrumental action, and on the most recent developments in institutional and behavioral economics with a view to enhancing our knowledge of the interventions used to cope with social dilemmas. We conclude the paper with a brief presentation of a research strategy for examining the capacity of alternative developmental models to predict dissimilar choices under similar incentive conditions in social dilemmas. PMID:25610414

  5. Ethical Inclinations of Tomorrow's Managers: One More Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, George E.

    1985-01-01

    This article reports comparison of the results of the ethical inclinations of present and future managers. Three hundred and six undergraduate business majors completed the survey. Results and implications are presented, along with a discussion of the ethics of future executives. (CT)

  6. Cooperation and control in multiplayer social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Hilbe, Christian; Wu, Bin; Traulsen, Arne; Nowak, Martin A

    2014-11-18

    Direct reciprocity and conditional cooperation are important mechanisms to prevent free riding in social dilemmas. However, in large groups, these mechanisms may become ineffective because they require single individuals to have a substantial influence on their peers. However, the recent discovery of zero-determinant strategies in the iterated prisoner's dilemma suggests that we may have underestimated the degree of control that a single player can exert. Here, we develop a theory for zero-determinant strategies for iterated multiplayer social dilemmas, with any number of involved players. We distinguish several particularly interesting subclasses of strategies: fair strategies ensure that the own payoff matches the average payoff of the group; extortionate strategies allow a player to perform above average; and generous strategies let a player perform below average. We use this theory to describe strategies that sustain cooperation, including generalized variants of Tit-for-Tat and Win-Stay Lose-Shift. Moreover, we explore two models that show how individuals can further enhance their strategic options by coordinating their play with others. Our results highlight the importance of individual control and coordination to succeed in large groups. PMID:25349400

  7. Strategies for Teaching Internet Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.

    2002-01-01

    Ten strategies for teaching Internet ethics are as follows: establish acceptable use policy; communicate ethical codes; model behaviors and values; encourage discussion of ethical issues; reinforce ethical conduct; monitor student behavior; secure systems and software; discourage surfing without supervision; monitor e-mail and websites; and…

  8. Medicine, Ethics, and the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Sally

    1980-01-01

    Medical ethical problems involving the elderly elucidate the relation between broader social views of aging and ethical principles basic to medicine. Three clinical situations are described and alternative principles of medical ethics are discussed as a basis for resolution of ethical problems in the health care of the elderly. (Author)

  9. Humankind Takes up Environmental Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huiying, Xu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…

  10. Teaching the Ethics of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Carol K.; Harris, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Points out the challenges of educating students about bioethics and the limited training of many biologists on ethics. Discusses the basic principles of ethics and ethical decision making as applied to biology. Explains the models of ethical decision making that are often difficult for students to determine where to begin analyzing. (Contains 28…

  11. Ethics: From Thought to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Translating ethics knowledge into ethical behavior is much harder than it appears, writes Sternberg. In this article, he outlines an eight-step process that individuals must go through to act in an ethical way--for example, recognizing that there is an event to which to react, taking personal responsibility for generating an ethical solution to…

  12. ETHICS ADVISORY UW Internal Audit

    E-print Network

    Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    May 2010 ETHICS ADVISORY UW Internal Audit 2010 - 01 The following information is provided the Washington State Ethics Act. Background On September 15, 2008, the Washington State Executive Ethics Board released a news item stating that it is a violation of the state Ethics Act for a faculty member who

  13. Ethics and Statistics Andrew Gelman,

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    CHANCE 51 Ethics and Statistics Andrew Gelman, Column Editor A n ethics problem arises when you, and (c) violates some rule. Other definitionsarepossible;thereisavastlit- erature on professional ethics that I will not discuss, instead focusing here on my own perspective as a statistician. Any ethical

  14. Flourishing Ethics Terrell Ward Bynum

    E-print Network

    De Montfort University

    Flourishing Ethics Terrell Ward Bynum Research Center on Computing & Society, Southern Connecticut a new ethical theory that has begun to coalesce from the works of several scholars in the international computer ethics community. I call the new theory `Flourishing Ethics' because of its Aristotelian roots

  15. Ethical considerations in hibernation research.

    PubMed

    Jinka, Tulasi R; Duffy, Lawrence K

    2013-07-01

    Ethical research practices are a key component of scientific integrity and of public support for research. Hibernation research presents specific ethical issues in regard to animal welfare. In this article, the authors apply the '3Rs' principles of humane experimental technique (replacement, reduction and refinement) to hibernation research. They provide recommendations for hibernation researchers and suggest future directions for addressing issues specific to hibernation research. They discuss the use of appropriate behavioral and physiological monitoring procedures, the development of species-specific brain atlases for placement of brain probes, the provision of environmental enrichment and the management of studies involving pharmacological induction of torpor. Addressing these issues in hibernation research will lead to improvements in research outcomes and in welfare of hibernating species. PMID:23783315

  16. Ethics in psychiatry: a framework

    PubMed Central

    LOLAS, FERNANDO

    2006-01-01

    Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, if considered in the context of bioethics, should fulfil: it should be appropriateto the problem at hand, it should be good (in the sense that it does good to those who receive it but also to those who perform it),and it should be just (in the sense that its outcomes can be generalized to the whole of society). Some implications of these notions for thepractice and teaching of psychiatry are presented. PMID:17139356

  17. When courts intervene: public health, legal and ethical issues surrounding HIV, pregnant women, and newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Tessmer-Tuck, Jennifer A; Poku, Joseph K; Burkle, Christopher M

    2014-11-01

    Ninety-three percent of pediatric AIDS cases are the result of perinatal HIV transmission, a disease that is almost entirely preventable with early intervention, which reduces the risk of perinatal HIV infection from 25% to <2%. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics both recommend routine HIV testing of all pregnant women and at-risk newborn infants. When pregnant women decline HIV testing and/or treatment, public health, legal, and ethical dilemmas can result. Federal courts consistently uphold a woman's right to refuse medical testing and treatment, even though it may benefit her fetus/newborn infant. Federal courts also reliably respect the rights of parents to make health care decisions for their newborn infants, which may include declining medical testing and treatment. Confusing the issue of HIV testing and treatment, however, is the fact that there is no definitive United States Supreme Court ruling on the issue. State laws and standards vary widely and serve as guiding principles for practicing clinicians, who must be vigilant of ongoing legal challenges and changes in the states in which they practice. We present a case of an HIV-positive pregnant woman who declined treatment and then testing or treatment of her newborn infant. Ultimately, the legal system intervened. Given the rarity of such cases, we use this as a primer for the practicing clinician to highlight the public health, legal, and ethical issues surrounding prenatal and newborn infant HIV testing and treatment in the United States, including summarizing key state-to-state regulatory differences. PMID:24732002

  18. Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Muir, William M.; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

    2014-01-01

    As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions are readily available and should be used, which will ultimately lead to the best possible outcomes for all impacted. PMID:25505483

  19. [From bioethics to the new technology ethics].

    PubMed

    Pompidou, A

    2000-01-01

    Just as what we can all "technoscience" is emerging in our everyday life, a reflection should be conducted concerning the implications of the scientific and technical progress within our society from now on globalised. We will tackle successively: 1. The ambiguities and paradoxes related to the development of new technologies: in the field of bioethics: artificial reproduction, mammal cloning, genetically modified organisms. towards the ethics of new technologies: ethics of information and communication technologies and ethics of space policy; 2. Nature, foundation and characteristics of the ethical approach; the precaution principle must be completed with two other principles: the principle of experience and the principle of vigilance; 3. The modalities of a democratic management of the ethical approach: it is a matter of defining the role of the three main actors, i.e.: experts, politicians and citizens representing public opinion. It is necessary to promote the ethical approach within a democratic context, that is to ensure a dialogue between experts, policy decision-makers and public opinion on all of the applications of science and technology. It is from such a permanent and renewed dialogue that will emerge the image we give from ourselves in the present world. PMID:11475899

  20. Isolated brachiocephalic artery dissection presenting as acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Mani, Hariharasudan; Ahluwalia, Sharat

    2015-01-01

    Isolated brachiocephalic artery dissection is an extremely rare condition. Its presentation as an acute stroke can pose a significant diagnostic challenge in patients because of its rarity. We present a case of isolated spontaneous brachiocephalic artery dissection presenting as acute cerebrovascular accident. This case also illustrates the treatment dilemma brachiocephalic artery dissection can present, whether to choose antithrombotic/anticoagulation therapy and/or surgery, and also the dilemma in blood pressure management. PMID:26315357