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1

Ethical Dilemmas in Administrative Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the dimensions of ethics in administrative practice, identifies some of the characteristic circumstances that frequently precipitate ethical dilemmas, and suggests strategies for addressing ethical dilemmas. (Author)

Price, David W.

1997-01-01

2

Nurses' Resolutions of Six Ethical Dilemmas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six ethical dilemmas related to nursing practice were developed and presented to registered and trainee nurses for their resolution. A non-nurse group of university students also gave decisions about what a nurse should do in each ethically-loaded situation. A dilemma was classified as recurrent if its core problem was spontaneously mentioned by…

Lawrence, Jeanette A.; Crisham, Patricia

3

An Ethics Primer: Sample Ethical Dilemmas and "The Lifeboat"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides teachers with an outline of "The Lifeboat," a classical ethics dilemma. The resource includes student handouts and a group discussion activity. Also included are four other classical ethical dilemmas for students to discuss before and after learning about the classic ethical perspectives.

2008-01-01

4

Nature of e-business ethical dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronic business is based on using computers and networks in all aspects of business. This new business concept is developing its own culture, which faces many ethical dilemmas. One is the role of the chief information officer (CIO). As a leader of information technology application in the organisation, the CIO's ethical behaviour influences the ethics of the electronic business culture

Sonja Petrovic-lazarevic; Amrik S. Sohal

2004-01-01

5

Teachers' Ethical Dilemmas: What Would You Do?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators will face a variety of ethical and moral dilemmas throughout their teaching careers; however, they do not have a common board that governs its members' ethical behavior. Instead, there are numerous educational organizations that have written their own specific codes for ethical behavior. The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) has…

Bucholz, Jessica L.; Keller, Cassandra L.; Brady, Michael P.

2007-01-01

6

The Ethical Dilemma of Coached Malingering Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical dilemmas surrounding research in which the efficacy of various coaching strategies designed to outsmart validity scales are discussed in the context of competing demands between the requirement of the ethical principles of the American Psychological Association and the need to give detailed descriptions of research procedures in scientific…

Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

1994-01-01

7

Designing and Introducing Ethical Dilemmas into Computer-Based Business Simulations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article makes two contributions to the teaching of business ethics literature. First, it describes the steps involved in developing effective ethical dilemmas to incorporate into a computer-based business simulation. Second, it illustrates these steps by presenting two ethical dilemmas that an instructor can incorporate into any business…

Schumann, Paul L.; Scott, Timothy W.; Anderson, Philip H.

2006-01-01

8

Ethical dilemma: voluntarily stopping eating and drinking.  

PubMed

Nutritional support is an ethical/legal dilemma that healthcare providers must face when dealing with the elderly population of patients in critical care units. As nurses we have the responsibility to consider the issues concerning this topic. The debate concerning the issue of nutritional support, implications to terminate treatment, and fears concerning liability have shifted the decision-making process from the intensive care bedside to the courtroom. Hence, nurses must face this dilemma daily. This article utilizes a case study approach, explores legal issues, discusses ethical guidelines, and identifies techniques for conflict resolution. PMID:14734899

Stinson, Cynthia Kellam; Godkin, Jennie; Robinson, Ruthie

2004-01-01

9

Peeling Onions: Some Tools and a Recipe for Solving Ethical Dilemmas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a process for solving ethical dilemmas: define the problem; identify facts; determine values; "slice" the problem different ways--duties, virtues, rights, and common good; rank ethical considerations; consult colleagues; and take action. (SK)

Gordon, Joan Claire

1993-01-01

10

Ethical Dilemmas Associated with Self-Disclosure in Student Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Personal and reflective writing assignments in psychology courses may prompt self-disclosure that presents ethical dilemmas. The literature discusses responsibilities of the psychologist in instances such as disclosure of suicidal ideation or threats of harming others within the context of the therapist-client relationship, but significantly less…

Haney, Michelle R.

2004-01-01

11

Ethical Dilemmas in Teaching and Nursing: The Israeli Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a cross-occupational approach for dealing with ethical dilemmas by comparing teaching and nursing. Findings indicate more shared patterns of ethical dilemmas (such as caring for needs for others versus following formal codes) than dilemmas specific to teaching (e.g., advancing universal values versus advancing knowledge) or…

Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

2010-01-01

12

Ethical Dilemmas as Perceived by Healthcare Students with Teaching Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical dilemmas are experienced by all individuals, but are especially prevalent among healthcare professionals. Universities and colleges preparing students to work and provide care in this arena are currently addressing this challenge through traditional ethics courses and lectures. However, student perspectives of the major ethical dilemmas in…

Buelow, Janet R.; Mahan, Pamela L.; Garrity, April W.

2010-01-01

13

Reflexivity and Dialogue: Methodological and Socio-Ethical Dilemmas in Research with HIV-Affected Children in East Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated discussion of methods and ethics by drawing on participatory research with children in Ethiopia and Kenya. It examines the complex social, ethical, practical and methodological dilemmas of research with HIV-affected children, and explores how we confronted some of these dilemmas before, during and after fieldwork. The paper interrogates the role and limitations of ‘global’ ethical

Morten Skovdal; Tatek Abebe

2012-01-01

14

Exploring Ethical Dilemmas Using the "Drifting Goals" Archetype  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article demonstrates how the system archetype "drifting goals" can be used in the classroom to explore ethical dilemmas. System archetypes provide a framework that shifts the focus from seeing ethical dilemmas as stemming solely from the acts of individuals to exploring the systemic structures that are responsible for generic patterns of…

Bardoel, E. Anne; Haslett, Tim

2006-01-01

15

An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

16

Solving Ethical Dilemmas with Children: Empowering Classroom Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…

Parr, Michelann

2010-01-01

17

Ethics and GIS: The Practitioner's Dilemma a position paper on GIS ethics by  

E-print Network

Ethics and GIS: The Practitioner's Dilemma a position paper on GIS ethics by Michael Blakemore1 and Roger Longhorn2 prepared for the AGI 2004 Conference Workshop on "GIS Ethics" to be held 14 October 2004). E-mail: ral@alum.mit.edu Note A discussion forum focused on many of the ethical issues covered

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

18

Ethical dilemmas of do-not-resuscitate orders in surgery.  

PubMed

One of the most troublesome ethical dilemmas that perioperative nurses face is do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders for surgical patients. The principles of futility, informed consent, autonomy, and beneficence underpin ethical decision making about DNR orders in surgical patients. PMID:7979330

Jacobson, B S

1994-09-01

19

Imperfect twinning: a clinical and ethical dilemma  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To review the history, epidemiology, etiology, gestational aspects, diagnosis and prognosis of imperfect twinning. DATA SOURCES Scientific articles were searched in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, using the descriptors "conjoined twins", "multiple pregnancy", "ultrasound", "magnetic resonance imaging" and "prognosis". The research was not delimited to a specific period of time and was supplemented with bibliographic data from books. DATA SYNTHESIS: The description of conjoined twins is legendary. The estimated frequency is 1/45,000-200,000 births. These twins are monozygotic, monochorionic and usually monoamniotic. They can be classified by the most prominent fusion site, by the symmetry between the conjoined twins or by the sharing structure. The diagnosis can be performed in the prenatal period or after birth by different techniques, such as ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography. These tests are of paramount importance for understanding the anatomy of both fetuses/children, as well as for prognosis and surgical plan determination. CONCLUSIONS Although imperfect twinning is a rare condition, the prenatal diagnosis is very important in order to evaluate the fusion site and its complexity. Hence, the evaluation of these children should be multidisciplinary, involving mainly obstetricians, pediatricians and pediatric surgeons. However, some decisions may constitute real ethical dilemmas, in which different points should be discussed and analyzed with the health team and the family. PMID:24142323

Denardin, Daniela; Telles, Jorge Alberto B.; Betat, Rosilene da Silveira; Fell, Paulo Renato K.; da Cunha, André Campos; Targa, Luciano Vieira; Zen, Paulo Ricardo G.; Rosa, Rafael Fabiano M.

2013-01-01

20

Commentary: The forensic report--an inevitable nexus for resolving ethics dilemmas.  

PubMed

Ethics-related dilemmas arise in forensic psychiatry as in all psychiatric practice. Although most can be resolved by following the AAPL Ethics Guidelines and the AAPL Ethics Questions and Answers, the more complex ones inevitably have no easy solutions. Ethics-based duties can conflict without clear guidance on prioritization. Weighing competing factors necessitates more than merely following a rule, since there are potentially conflicting rules, and ethical practitioners may prioritize them differently. Concerns pertaining to the death penalty and defendants who are victims of discrimination are especially difficult. Such considerations usually are in the realm of aspirational ethics, with conclusions open to debate. They need consideration by most practitioners concerned with determining the most ethical course of action. Much as it is insufficient for an ethical citizen merely to avoid breaking the law, it is not enough to avoid violating any one guideline while remaining blind to context. Most such dilemmas need resolution long before testimony and arise first in the way the forensic assessment is conducted and in decisions on the data to be included in a report and how they are presented. Although there can be legitimate differences of opinion about how to weigh and resolve conflicting considerations, ethics-related dilemmas should not be sidestepped. PMID:24051589

Weinstock, Robert

2013-01-01

21

Ethical Dilemmas in the Biology Undergraduate Classroom: Role-Playing Congressional Testimony †  

PubMed Central

Students often struggle with weighing multiple sides of bioethical dilemmas. The assignment described here incorporates discussion of ethical dilemmas in an upper-level undergraduate biology course. Students are introduced to ethical dilemmas in genetics through discussion of issues in small groups. They are then polled as to what positions they take on each dilemma and are assigned to argue a side opposite of one of their choices. Each student receives a subpoena to appear before a Senate subcommittee to give testimony as an expert witness. This role-play provides students with a starting point and motivation for developing their argument as well as a way to distance themselves from their own opinions by acting as someone holding the opposite stance. At the end of the presentations, students are required to reflect on the experience. PMID:25574284

Wiles, Amy M.

2014-01-01

22

From the Woman's Viewpoint: Ethical Dilemmas Confronted by Women as Informal Caregivers of Frail Elders  

E-print Network

impacts ethical dilemmas and decision-making processes (Bedini 8c Guinan, 1996; Pratt, Schmall, 8c Wright, 1987) . In contrast, the proposed ethical decision-making model incorporates caregivers' distinctive viewpoints and narra­ tives about ethical...

Koenig, Terry L.

2004-01-01

23

Ethical dilemmas in intensive care--a case history.  

PubMed

The decision either to withdraw or to continue treating a patient, may often be the source of both ethical and moral dilemmas for the health care professionals involved in that decision. Within the context of an intensive care environment these issues become even more significant as the patient's quality of life is determined by another individual. This case study reviews both the ethical principles that are involved in the decision making process, and the measurement of an individual's quality of life. By focusing on two patients in different situations the ethical problems that nurses face in intensive care are highlighted. PMID:7711397

Jones, J

1995-02-01

24

oday, the benefits of genetic engineering, and the risks and ethical dilemmas that  

E-print Network

T oday, the benefits of genetic engineering, and the risks and ethical dilemmas that it presents policy. Cancer-carrying bacteria Some of the concerns about recombinant DNA experimentation stemmed from- sible for the metabolism of the sugar galactose into the genome of the Simian Virus. Several scientists

Cai, Long

25

Governance of dual-use research: an ethical dilemma  

PubMed Central

Abstract Scenarios where the results of well-intentioned scientific research can be used for both good and harmful purposes give rise to what is now widely known as the “dual-use dilemma”. There has been growing debate about the dual-use nature of life science research with implications for making biological weapons. This paper reviews several controversial publications that have been the focus of debates about dual-use life science research and critically examines relevant policy developments, particularly in the United States of America. Though the dual-use dilemma is inherently ethical in nature, the majority of debates about dual-use research have primarily involved science and security experts rather than ethicists. It is important that there is more ethical input into debates about the governance of dual-use research. PMID:19784453

2009-01-01

26

Ethical and medical dilemmas of space tourism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.

Marsh, Melinda

27

Ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice.  

PubMed

Speech-language pathologists experience ethical dilemmas as they fulfil their professional roles and responsibilities. Previous research findings indicated that speech-language pathologists working in publicly funded settings identified ethical dilemmas when they managed complex clients, negotiated professional relationships, and addressed service delivery issues. However, little is known about ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice settings. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 speech-language pathologists employed in diverse private practice settings. Participants explained the nature of ethical dilemmas they experienced at work and identified their most challenging and frequently occurring ethical conflicts. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse transcribed data and generate themes. Four themes reflected the nature of speech-language pathologists' ethical dilemmas; balancing benefit and harm, fidelity of business practices, distributing funds, and personal and professional integrity. Findings support the need for professional development activities that are specifically targeted towards facilitating ethical practice for speech-language pathologists in the private sector. PMID:24735456

Flatley, Danielle R; Kenny, Belinda J; Lincoln, Michelle A

2014-06-01

28

Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.  

PubMed

Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application. PMID:24503745

Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdio?lu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümü?, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

2014-01-01

29

Ethical Perspective on Quality of Care: The Nature of Ethical Dilemmas Identified by New Graduate and Experienced Speech Pathologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Speech pathologists are confronted by ethical issues when they need to make decisions about client care, address team conflict, and fulfil the range of duties and responsibilities required of health professionals. However, there has been little research into the specific nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech pathologists and…

Kenny, Belinda J.; Lincoln, Michelle; Blyth, Katrina; Balandin, Susan

2009-01-01

30

Focus on the nurse: ethical dilemmas with highly symptomatic patients dying at home.  

PubMed

Some serious issues face the inexperienced nurse who has the responsibility for either providing the care or directing the care of symptomatic patients dying at home. Inexperience in such care, and lack of competent medical support, can result in the nurse perceiving "ethical dilemmas" in practices which are, in reality, part of good and ethical palliative care. PMID:9248395

Coyle, N

1997-01-01

31

Transplant in a patient with comorbid psychiatric illness: an ethical dilemma.  

PubMed

This article addresses a difficult ethical dilemma that transplant surgeons may potentially encounter: whether a patient with a psychiatric illness is a good candidate for a liver transplant. This case study illustrates the challenges involved when considering the ethical principles of patient self-determination, distributive justice of scarce medical resources, "social worth," and protection of vulnerable patient populations. Are patients with psychiatric illness able to provide consent for transplantation? Is it possible to avoid misallocating valuable donor organs and, at the same time, fairly allocate these resources? This article seeks to answer these questions and provide insight into this ethical dilemma. PMID:25509229

Boyum, Eric N; Brown, Douglas; Zihni, Ahmed M; Keune, Jason D; Hong, Barry A; Kodner, Ira J; Ray, Shuddhadeb

2014-11-01

32

REASONS AND CONSEQUENCES OF APPLIED LEADERSHIP STYLES IN ETHICAL DILEMMAS WHEN NURSE MANAGERS MAKE DECISIONS.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Understanding the reasons and consequences of leadership styles in ethical dilemmas is fundamental to exploring nurse managers' abilities to influence outcomes for patients and nursing personnel. Purpose: To explain the associations between different leadership styles, reasons for their application and its consequences when nurse managers make decisions in ethical dilemmas. Methods: The data were collected between 15 October 2011 and 30 April 2012 by statistically validated questionnaire. The respondents (n=278) were nurse managers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0, calculating Spearman's correlations, the Stepwise Regression and ANOVA. Results: The reasons for applying different leadership styles in ethical dilemmas include personal characteristics, years in work position, institutional factors, and the professional authority of nurse managers. The applied leadership styles in ethical dilemmas are associated with the consequences regarding the satisfaction of patients', relatives' and nurse managers' needs. Conclusions: Nurse managers exhibited leadership styles oriented to maintenance, focusing more on the "doing the job" than on managing the decision-making in ethical dilemmas. PMID:25242639

Zydziunaite, V; Suominen, T

2014-09-21

33

Ethics training: A genuine dilemma for engineering educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an examination of three main strategies used by engineering educators to integrate ethics into the engineering curriculum.\\u000a They are: (1) the standalone course, (2) the ethics imperative mandating ethics content for all engineering courses, and (3)\\u000a outsourcing ethics instruction to an external expert. The expectations from each approach are discussed and their main limitations\\u000a described. These limitations include

John Lincourt; Robert Johnson

2004-01-01

34

Ethical Tensions and Dilemmas Experienced in a Northern Ugandan Social Work Internship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the ethical tensions and dilemmas that arose for 2 U.S. social work students during an 8-month international clinical internship in northern Uganda. These students encountered cultural differences related to issues of confidentiality, autonomy, and self-determination. Student experiences were analyzed using the cultural…

Corbin, Joanne

2012-01-01

35

Ethical Dilemmas in Applying Second-Wave Information Technology to Social Work Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes second wave information technology in social work as characterized by modern databases, decision-support systems, expert systems, electronic networks, and therapeutic applications that have greater impact on direct practice. Assesses ethical dilemmas posed by use of second-wave information technology in social work practice to encourage…

Cwikel, Julie G.; Cnaan, Ram A.

1991-01-01

36

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: An Ethical Dilemma for Career Guidance Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual harassment in the workplace poses something of an ethical dilemma for career guidance practice. This is because it is now known that about half of all working women in the UK are likely to be victims at some stage of their employment and that the effects on individuals are invariably negative and can be positively harmful. What, therefore,…

Bimrose, Jenny

2004-01-01

37

Management of cardiac problems in trisomy 18 – a major ethical dilemma; a case series review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trisomy18 (Edwards's syndrome) is the second commonest trisomy. While most affected foetuses either die in-utero or terminated following antenatal diagnosis, postnatally diagnosed cases create a major ethical dilemma. We reviewed five postnatally diagnosed Trisomy 18 cases over last 4 years. Two were antenatally suspected to have dysmorphic features but parents declined diagnostic testing. All were born by emergency section for

V Gali; N Gupta; S Sivakumar

2011-01-01

38

Ethical Dilemmas of Child Abuse Reporting: Implications for Mental Health Counselors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores effect of child abuse reporting on counselor-client relationship, mental health profession, and child protective services system. Uses ecological systems approach in exploration of interventions needed to help resolve child abuse reporting dilemma. Within ecosystems framework, discusses ethical guidelines and policymaking for reporting…

MacNair, Rebecca R.

1992-01-01

39

A Study of Reactions to Ethical Dilemmas in Public Relations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…

Stacks, Don W.; Wright, Donald K.

40

Ethical Dilemmas in Sport Psychology: Discussion and Recommendations for Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice demands required of sport psychologists often complicate the direct and specific fulfillment of several ethical regulations. Many practitioners face specific issues of confidentiality and the appropriate use of informed consent, challenges to practicing within areas of competence, issues regarding termination, and challenges that arise from multiorganizational demands and the formation of multiple relationships. Although ethical guidelines established by

Zella E. Moore

2003-01-01

41

Ethical Dilemmas of Providing Pro Bono Art Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This viewpoint addresses ethical questions regarding the provision of art therapy as a pro bono service, a term from Latin roots that mean "for the public good." Approaches to ethical reasoning are discussed using the case of pro bono art therapy in a residential treatment program for adolescents.

Moon, Bruce L.

2011-01-01

42

If anthropology is global, then so are its ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed

This paper reviews three personal situations of the author as a student: an NGO activist in the women's movement and a UN official working on women's health and tobacco. Each situation, the kinds of ethical issue posed and lessons for the future direction of ethics in anthropology are outlined. The paper argues that applied anthropology is embedded in the position of the field of anthropology within the politics of the State and that this defines the parameters of individual choice. Contradictions in ethical situations and decision-making are posed by changing from the distant observer to active involvement and these may not be resolved by logic alone. Furthermore, governance and defining global ethical standards such as for the behavior of the tobacco multinational corporations is a fascinating new realm for anthropological ethical resolve. PMID:11193019

Yoon, S Y

2000-01-01

43

Ethics and Eugenics Past, Present and Future  

E-print Network

1 Ethics and Eugenics Past, Present and Future I. Ethics II. History of Eugenics A. Francis Galton is the moral regulation of behavior a necessary part of science? #12;2 II. History of Eugenics A. Sir Francis Galton, 1822-1911 Two types of Eugenics: 1) Positive Eugenics = Improve humanity by encouraging

Dever, Jennifer A.

44

Has Our Knowledge of Neuroscience Led to Ethical Dilemmas?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson dealing with a new subdivision of bioethics called neuroethics. As our knowledge of the brain and nervous system expands, so do the ethical issues that result from this knowledge. This new area of study results from our increasing research in the field of neurobiology. In the first part of this activity, students will discuss the stigma associated with psychological illness. They will then be introduced to Dr. Kay Jamison who discusses some of the ethical implications of bipolar disorder. The class will take part in an activity called a Topical Barometer where they will have to choose a position regarding an ethical decision. In Part 2 of the activity, they will write a position paper after exploring the topic of drug enhancement, another controversial issue in the world of neuroscience. From the original handout text by Caren Gough

Musante, Susan

45

Promises to Practice: Learning a PROactive Approach to Ethical Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning to be PROactive, as the title of this article suggests, means Pooling one's knowledge, Reflecting respect, and Opening oneself to action. It recognizes early childhood educators' promises to their field of practice, based on widely held beliefs and principles. Educators can apply professional ethics to everyday problem solving and their…

Ambery, Mary Elizabeth; Steinbrunner, Ruth K.

2007-01-01

46

Entering Guanxi: A Business Ethical Dilemma in Mainland China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper represents an effort to distinguish between two types of guanxi prevalent in mainland China: favor-seeking guanxi that is culturally rooted and rent-seeking guanxi that is institutionally defined. Different rules of maneuvering the two types of guanxi are identified in light of Chinese cultural and business ethics. Strategies for entering guanxi in mainland China are also suggested.

Chenting Su; James E. Littlefield

2001-01-01

47

Exploring Some Ethical Dilemmas and Obligations of the Ethnographer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the ethical position of the ethnographer when encountering unethical activities. Ethnography affords a rich insight into cultures, often behind previously secure doors but it is also a demanding science. Our gatekeepers control our access and our relationships with them can determine our destiny. This paper offers an exchange…

Barbour, Andrew

2010-01-01

48

Accountability to Research Participants: Unresolved Dilemmas and Unravelling Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on findings from an ethnographic study of Romani Gypsy groups in England (1996-2000), along with data from follow-up work involving original and additional participants (2005-ongoing), this paper explores several ethical issues that arose. It traces developing relationships across a 13-year period, identifying the problems of attempting to…

Levinson, Martin P.

2010-01-01

49

e-Ethics: new dilemmas emerge alongside new technologies.  

PubMed

As new informational technologies emerge and ever more innovative applications of existing technologies are found, new circumstances will also evolve. The ethical issues involved in these situations will challenge forward-looking nurse leaders to become aware of the matters in question and to employ critical thinking to ensure that information technology serves all stakeholders well. PMID:15923982

Simpson, Roy L

2005-01-01

50

A Right to Die?: Ethical Dilemmas of Euthanasia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Euthanasia is considered an important social issue of the 1990s. Mental health professionals should understand the differences between voluntary, involuntary, passive, and active euthanasia; mercy killing, and assisted suicide. Encourages counselors to ethically formulate client-supportive positions to help clients face life-and-death decisions.…

Albright, Dianne E.; Hazler, Richard J.

1992-01-01

51

‘I am in blood Stepp'd in so far…’: ethical dilemmas and the sports team doctor  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many ethical dilemmas that are unique to sports medicine because of the unusual clinical environment of caring for players within the context of a team whose primary objective is to win. Many of these ethical issues arise because the traditional relationship between doctor and patient is distorted or absent. The emergence of a doctor–patient–team triad has created a

Brian Meldan Devitt; Conor McCarthy

2010-01-01

52

978-1-4799-4992-2/14/$31.00 2014 Crown The ethical dilemma of implicit vs explicit data  

E-print Network

978-1-4799-4992-2/14/$31.00 ©2014 Crown The ethical dilemma of implicit vs explicit data collection Member, IEEE Horizon Digital Economy Research Intelligent Modelling and Analysis Group School of Computer-- This paper focuses on the examination, analysis and ethical evaluation of the explicit data collection method

Aickelin, Uwe

53

THE KEY ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN MARKETING INSURANCE: A COMPARISON OF THE TWO MAIN SEGMENTS OF THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas the life insurance business and the property-liability insurance business have traditionally been viewed as being quite different from one another, research findings suggest they have become quite similar in terms of the key ethical dilemmas faced by those marketing products in the two segments of the industry.

Robert W. Cooper; Garry L. Frank

54

Medical Ethics Education: Past, Present, and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the 25-year history of undergraduate medical ethics education. Alternatives to the traditional model that focus more directly on students' personal values, attitudes, and behavior, are discussed. Three incipient trends are identified: everyday ethics, student ethics, and macro-ethics. Specific course and curricula are used as…

Fox, Ellen; And Others

1995-01-01

55

Shall I become a zombie? Stories of illness, ethical dilemmas and visions of society.  

PubMed

Three controversial ethical issues, among others, stir the debate in health care institutions, in medical associations, and in the whole society: the care of patients in persistent vegetative state, the regulation of artificial procreation, some individual requests for reshaping an healthy body. Dealing with these dilemmas, typical of advanced medical science and technological practice, implies not only balancing carefully the burdens and benefits for suffering persons, families, equipes, hospitals, cultural and religious communities, but also imaging and realizing new visions of a just society, of a beneficent (without paternalism) medicine and generally of a good life, where each moral agent could write in front of all and in worthy, convincing ways, the next chapter of the book of his/her own life. PMID:21560776

Cattorini, Paolo

2009-01-01

56

'I am in blood Stepp'd in so far...': ethical dilemmas and the sports team doctor.  

PubMed

There are many ethical dilemmas that are unique to sports medicine because of the unusual clinical environment of caring for players within the context of a team whose primary objective is to win. Many of these ethical issues arise because the traditional relationship between doctor and patient is distorted or absent. The emergence of a doctor-patient-team triad has created a scenario in which the team's priority can conflict with or even replace the doctor's primary obligation to player well-being. As a result, the customary ethical norms that provide guidelines for most forms of clinical practice, such as patient autonomy and confidentiality, are not easily translated in the field of sports medicine. Sports doctors are frequently under intense pressure, whether implicit or explicit, from management, coaches, trainers and agents, to improve performance of the athlete in the short term rather than considering the long-term sequelae of such decisions. A myriad of ethical dilemmas are encountered, and for many of these dilemmas there are no right answers. In this article, a number of ethical principles and how they relate to sports medicine are discussed. To conclude, a list of guidelines has been drawn up to offer some support to doctors facing an ethical quandary, the most important of which is 'do not abdicate your responsibility to the individual player.''I am in blood Stepp'd in so far that, should I wade no more, Returning would be as tedious as to go o'er' -Macbeth: Act III, Scene IV, William Shakespeare. PMID:19948531

Devitt, Brian Meldan; McCarthy, Conor

2010-02-01

57

Ethical Dilemmas Surrounding the Use of Ventricular Assist Devices in Supporting Patients with End-Stage Organ Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Successful practice of cardiovascular medicine requires familiarity with the complex ethical issues that accompany therapeutic innovation and diffusion. Even as technologies transition from experimental to standard care, challenges remain. Mechanical circulatory support devices, for instance, are increasingly conceptualized as conventional therapies. Despite this, or perhaps because of it, the ethical issues surrounding the use of these devices in patients with end-stage organ dysfunction are becoming increasingly apparent. In this paper, we provide an introduction to ethical considerations related to the use of ventricular assist devices (VADs) in end-stage organ failure, focusing on three stages or decision points: initiation, continued use, and deactivation. Our goal is not to exhaustively resolve these dilemmas but to illustrate how ethical considerations relate to decision making. PMID:23518898

Bruce, Courtenay R.; Brody, Baruch; Majumder, Mary A.

2013-01-01

58

Ethical aspects and dilemmas of fertility control of unwanted wildlife: an animal welfarist's perspective.  

PubMed

Proposals to manipulate the fertility of wild, free-living animals extend the domination humans already exercise over domesticated animals. Current lethal methods for population control include poisoning, trapping, hunting, dogging, shooting, explosives, fumigants, and deliberately introduced disease. Animal welfare interests are based on individual animal suffering, but those interests are often overshadowed by labelling of groups of animals as pests, resource species, national emblem or endangered species. Public concern for animal welfare and acceptance of new population control methods will be influenced by such labels. The animal welfare implications of new population control technology must be balanced against the existing inhumane lethal methods used. It will be difficult to resolve the dilemma of a mechanism for disseminating a fertility control agent that will cause some animal suffering (e.g. a genetically-manipulated myxoma virus for European rabbits), yet may reduce future rabbit populations and therefore the number suffering from lethal methods. An Animal Impact Statement is proposed as a tool to assist debate during development of fertility control methods and for decision making prior to their use. A comprehensive and objective Animal Impact Statement may introduce an ethic that moves the pendulum from attitudes that allow sentient animals to be destroyed by any and all available means, towards a more objective selection of the most effective and humane methods. PMID:9109207

Oogjes, G

1997-01-01

59

Facing Ethical Dilemmas in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study of HR Managers' Perceptions of the Influences on Their Behavior and the Implications for Building an Ethical Culture in Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study examined the perceptions of human resource managers who had faced ethical dilemmas in the workplace, to gain an understanding of how they felt their life experiences shaped their values in making ethical decisions. The experiences of ten human resource managers who believed they chose a right course of action when faced with…

LaMontagne, Ramona Marie

2012-01-01

60

[Involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community: Legal and ethical dilemmas].  

PubMed

This article focuses on the measure of involuntary treatment of mental patients in the community, not only with regard to human rights and more specifically those of persons with mental disorders, but also with regard to ethics and deontology in mental healthcare delivery service. In this light, the important role of informed consent in psychiatry with regard to the psychiatric act is examined. Informed consent of mental patients in treatment when they are in need of voluntary or involuntary hospitalization is further examined, while emphasis is being put on the case of involuntary treatment. The Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine (Convention of ?viedo), the European Convention of Human Rights, other documents of International Organizations (UN) and specialized national legislation (A. 2071/1992, Chapter vi, Greek law) constitute basic reference and interpretation points. The examination of consent and the demarcation of the exceptions are important issues that need to be approached. More particularly, our interest lies with the article 7 of the Convention for Human Rights and Biomedicine, which specifically refers to the protection of person who suffers from a mental disorder. The opinion that informed consent in psychiatric treatment and involuntary treatment are concepts and processes which are distinct but not always mutually exclusive is enhanced. In any case, involuntary treatment causes major dilemmas as far as informed consent in the psychiatric act is concerned, as it raises issues that affect the autonomy of the person. Today, however, there are many factors which influence public politics towards the adoption of the measure of involuntary treatment within the community. How is it that this paradoxical link is legitimized and justified: involuntary treatment and community? The enactment of the above mentioned measure in many European and North American countries has created new paths in the practice of contemporary psychiatry. Nonetheless, it continues to divide the psychiatric and legal word for it causes intense questioning from a legal, ethical, deontological and clinical aspect, as it offends fundamental rights of the individual. In a legal civilization, in which the principle of informed consent or refusal constitutes a basic rule of the lawfulness of the medical and psychiatric act, any divergence from this rule has consequences for the patients and affects a well-tempered therapeutic treatment. The above mentioned measure could be counterbalanced by the legal regulation of advance directives and the provision for the appointment of a proxy person by the mental patient. PMID:25630547

Mitrossili, M

2014-01-01

61

Case Report: Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma in  

E-print Network

1 Case Report: Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull Lesion: A Dilemma, Shankar A, Bansal S, Bhattacharya A, Bal A. Insular Carcinoma of Thyroid Presenting as a Giant Skull discuss a case of insular carcinoma of thyroid presenting with concurrent distant metastasis to skull

Carr, Leslie

62

Ethical Behavior of Marketing Managers and MBA Students: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical tendencies of graduate business students from the United States were examined by analyzing their reactions to ethical dilemmas in a replicated study, which presented a set of ethical problem situations. These dilemmas dealt with coercion and control, conflict of interest, physical environment, paternalism and personal integrity. A comparison of these findings with the previous study of marketing managers

David E. Smith; J. Robert Skalnik; Patricia C. Skalnik

1999-01-01

63

Psychiatric research ethics: an overview of evolving guidelines and current ethical dilemmas in the study of mental illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of psychiatry has an opportunity to construct a more refined, perhaps more enduring understanding of the ethical basis of mental illness research. The aim of this paper is to help advance this understanding by 1) tracing the evolution of the emerging ethic for biomedical experimentation, including recent recommendations of the President’s National Bioethics Advisory Commission, and 2) reviewing

Laura Weiss Roberts; Brian Roberts

1999-01-01

64

Beyond Avoidance and Secrecy: Using Students' Practice to Teach Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a process-oriented approach to teaching ethical dilemmas to graduate social work students. The authors examine related empirical data and use classroom vignettes to illustrate their teaching methods. Several ethical dilemmas in different phases of clinical practice will be presented, including gift giving and receiving,…

Ringel, Shoshana; Mishna, Faye

2007-01-01

65

The dilemma and reality of transplant tourism: an ethical perspective for liver transplant programs.  

PubMed

Transplant programs are likely to encounter increasing numbers of patients who return after receiving an organ transplant abroad. These patients will require ongoing medical care to monitor their immunosuppression and to provide treatment when the need arises. Transplant societies have condemned transplantation with organs purchased abroad and with organs procured from executed prisoners in China. Nevertheless, transplant programs require guidance on how to respond to the needs of returning transplant tourists and to the needs of patients who may choose to become transplant tourists. This discussion presents a case that raised such issues in our program. It goes on to offer reasons for considering a program's responses in terms of the most relevant principles of medical ethics, namely beneficence and nonjudgmental regard. PMID:20104478

Schiano, Thomas D; Rhodes, Rosamond

2010-02-01

66

Resolving Ethical Dilemmas in Suicide Prevention: The Case of Telephone Helpline Rescue Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ethical basis of suicide prevention is illustrated by contrasting helpline emergency rescue policies of the Samaritans and the AAS and the U.S. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline network. We contrast moralist, relativist, and libertarian ethical premises and question whether suicide can be rational. Samaritans respect a caller's right to…

Mishara, Brian L.; Weisstub, David N.

2010-01-01

67

‘THEY SAY ISLAM HAS A SOLUTION FOR EVERYTHING, SO WHY ARE THERE NO GUIDELINES FOR THIS?’ ETHICAL DILEMMAS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BIRTHS AND DEATHS OF INFANTS WITH FATAL ABNORMALITIES FROM A SMALL SAMPLE OF PAKISTANI MUSLIM COUPLES IN BRITAIN  

PubMed Central

This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. PMID:21649685

SHAW, ALISON

2012-01-01

68

'They say Islam has a solution for everything, so why are there no guidelines for this?' Ethical dilemmas associated with the births and deaths of infants with fatal abnormalities from a small sample of Pakistani Muslim couples in Britain.  

PubMed

This paper presents ethical dilemmas concerning the termination of pregnancy, the management of childbirth, and the withdrawal of life-support from infants in special care, for a small sample of British Pakistani Muslim parents of babies diagnosed with fatal abnormalities. Case studies illustrating these dilemmas are taken from a qualitative study of 66 families of Pakistani origin referred to a genetics clinic in Southern England. The paper shows how parents negotiated between the authoritative knowledge of their doctors, religious experts, and senior family members in response to the ethical dilemmas they faced. There was little knowledge or open discussion of the view that Islam permits the termination of pregnancy for serious or fatal abnormality within 120 days and there was considerable disquiet over the idea of ending a pregnancy. For some parents, whether their newborn baby would draw breath was a main worry, with implications for the baby's Muslim identity and for the recognition of loss the parents would receive from family and community. This concern sometimes conflicted with doctors' concerns to minimize risk to future pregnancies by not performing a Caesarean delivery if a baby is sure to die. The paper also identifies parents' concerns and feelings of wrong-doing regarding the withdrawal of artificial life-support from infants with multiple abnormalities. The conclusion considers some of the implications of these observations for the counselling and support of Muslim parents following the pre- or neo-natal diagnosis of fatal abnormalities in their children. PMID:21649685

Shaw, Alison

2012-11-01

69

Casuistry: A Complement to Principle Ethics and a Foundation for Ethical Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical dilemmas within any system are created when moral/ethical principles, rules, or guidelines can be cited for opposing actions with neither side presenting the obvious, right course to follow. This condition exposes the intricate interrelationship between abstract moral/ethical principles and the description and evaluation of real-life…

Freeman, Stephen J.; Francis, Perry C.

2006-01-01

70

Health Care Ethics: Dilemmas, Issues and Conflicts. Midwest Alliance in Nursing Annual Fall Workshop (6th, Indianapolis, Indiana, September 5-6, 1985).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of ethical issues confronting the nursing profession are examined in these proceedings. The following papers are presented: (1) "Ethics: Care & Conflict," by Leah Curtin; (2) "The Interface of Politics and Ethics in Nursing," by Mila Aroskar; (3) "Pluralistic Ethical Decision-Making," by Rita Payton; (4) "Compassion, Technology & the…

Prock, Valencia N., Ed.; And Others

71

Using NAEYC's Code of Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how to deal with an ethical dilemma concerning a caregiver's dislike for a child. Recognizes that no statement in NAEYC's Code of Ethical Conduct requires that a professional must like each child, and presents some ideals and principles from the code that may guide professionals through similar situations. (BAC)

Young Children, 1995

1995-01-01

72

The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas  

PubMed Central

The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

2010-01-01

73

Ethical Dilemmas and Emergent Values Encountered by Working College Students: Implications for Marketing Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large body of pedagogical research exists on developing curricula and ethics training tools to prepare college graduates for entering the workforce. However, many college students are "already" in the workforce while they attend school. Many of these jobs are entry-level or frontline employee positions in retail or service industries,…

Bush, Victoria D.; Smith, Rachel Korthage; Bush, Alan J.

2013-01-01

74

Exploring Ethical Dilemmas for Principals Arising from Role Conflict with School Counsellors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acting in the best interests of students is central to the moral and ethical work of schools. Yet tensions can arise between principals and school counsellors as they work from at times opposing professional paradigms. In this article we report on principals' and counsellors' responses to scenarios covering confidentiality and the law,…

Kimber, Megan; Campbell, Marilyn

2014-01-01

75

COVER It: A Comprehensive Framework for Guiding Students through Ethical Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a model that aims to create a greater ability to recognize the negative aspects of making unethical decisions. To this end, the authors developed an ethical decision-making model to aid students through the process of analyzing these situations--a model that is easy to remember and apply. Through this model, the COVER model,…

Mitchell, Jennifer M.; Yordy, Eric D.

2010-01-01

76

Students' Perceptions of Ethical Dilemmas Involving Professors: Examining the Impact of the Professor's Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three hundred sixteen undergraduate students from two liberal arts colleges rated the ethical nature of six different fictional scenarios. Each scenario described interactions between a professor and student. The gender of the fictional professor was varied randomly. Thus, for any particular scenario, a participant may be rating the behavior of a…

Oldenburg, Christopher M.

2005-01-01

77

The Social Allocation of Health Care Resources: Ethical Dilemmas in Age-Group Competition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The growing proportion of elderly and rising costs of health care for the aged raise ethical issues about the nature of the social obligation to the elderly as contrasted with the young. Reexamination of health care policy must consider the role of values, social justice, and individual self-respect. (Author/NRB)

Clark, Phillip G.

1985-01-01

78

Expanding organ donation in the UK: ethical, moral and logistical dilemmas.  

PubMed

In the UK, three patients die every day waiting for an organ transplant. Despite there being 18.7 million donors currently registered in the UK, donation rates remain low. This review discusses the legal, ethical and social aspects of organ donation in the UK, and looks at some controversial solutions adopted in other countries. PMID:24022552

Dave, Rajiv; James, Camilla; Ahmad, Niaz

2013-09-01

79

The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of

Leslie London; David Coggon; Angelo Moretto; Peter Westerholm; Martin F Wilks; Claudio Colosio

2010-01-01

80

World blindness and the medical profession: conflicting medical cultures and the ethical dilemmas of helping.  

PubMed

This is an account of a thwarted humanitarian effort and the strategic and ethical issues that is raised. Between 14 and 17 million people in the world are blind with cataract, a condition readily corrected by surgery. In 1989 a proposal was developed to attack this problem by supplying volunteer ophthalmologists to the world's leading private voluntary organizations that carry out programs in less developed countries. The proposal was rejected. This article describes the proposal and the issues on which it foundered: cost effectiveness, appropriate technology, changing ideologies of assistance, and conflict between the cultures of medicine and public health. The account illustrates the far-flung consequences of technological change in medicine, as well as the practical and ethical questions facing organizations that carry out overseas assistance programs. PMID:1406499

Gray, B H

1992-01-01

81

The use of pornographic materials by adolescent male cancer patients when banking sperm in the UK: legal and ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed

Increased awareness of the importance of fertility concerns to teenage cancer survivors is leading to growing numbers of male teenagers being offered sperm banking at the time of diagnosis. This is now extending to males diagnosed with other conditions where gonadotoxic agents are used in treatment. The storage of sperm in these circumstances is a challenging aspect of health care, given the complex issues and timescale involved. UK law has been enacted to protect legal minors from the potentially harmful effects of exposure to pornographic materials, yet there is reason to suppose that their use in this context could have therapeutic benefit in aiding successful masturbation. This paper uses material gained through consultation with the eleven largest UK sperm banks and 94 male teenage cancer survivors, to discuss the associated legal and ethical dilemmas, including those around the role of parents/carers. Findings suggest that there is variable practice in sperm banks, that almost a quarter of teenage males wanted access to soft porn when banking sperm, and half wanted to bring in their own materials. It concludes that there is an urgent need for any legal barriers to the therapeutic use of pornographic materials to be understood and examined. PMID:17786648

Crawshaw, Marilyn A; Glaser, Adam W; Pacey, Allan A

2007-09-01

82

Leadership Tensions and Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from the Tasmanian Successful School Principal Project (SSPP) survey concur with the four major leadership tensions and dilemmas identified in a background literature review. These tensions and dilemmas relate to internal/external control, ethic of care/responsibility, and an emphasis on professional/personal as well as…

Edmunds, Bill; Mulford, Bill; Kendall, Diana; Kendall, Lawrie

2008-01-01

83

Health Ethics Education for Health Administration Chaplains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is imperative for divinity and health administration programs to improve their level of ethics education for their graduates who work as health administration chaplains. With an initial presentation of the variation of ethical dilemmas presented in health care facilities covering social, organizational, and patient levels, we indicate the need…

Porter, Russell; Broussard, Amelia; Duckett, Todd

2008-01-01

84

Ethical dilemmas related to predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster.  

PubMed

Scientists and policy makers issuing predictions and warnings of impending natural disaster are faced with two major challenges, that is, failure to warn and issuing a false alarm. The consequences of failure to warn can be serious for society overall, for example, significant economic losses, heavy infrastructure and environmental damage, large number of human casualties, and social disruption. Failure to warn can also have serious for specific individuals, for example, legal proceedings against disaster research scientists, as in the L'Aquila earthquake affair. The consequences of false alarms may be less serious. Nevertheless, false alarms may violate the principle of nonmaleficence (do no harm), affect individual autonomy (eg, mandatory evacuations), and may result in the "cry wolf" effect. Other ethical issues associated with natural disasters include the promotion of global justice through international predisaster technical assistance and postdisaster aid. Social justice within a particular country is promoted through greater postdisaster aid allocation to the less privileged. PMID:24481888

Phua, Kai-Lit; Hue, J W

2013-01-01

85

Ethical issues, dilemmas and controversies in 'cosmetic' or aesthetic dentistry. A personal opinion.  

PubMed

Stephen Hancocks' elegant editorial of 11 December 2011 raises interesting questions which deserve discussion. Most experienced dentists would agree that the less that is done to teeth for cosmetic reasons, the lesser are the risks of disappointment, failure of expectation, or threat of litigation. Yet there is an increasing number of cases where aesthetics are the primary concern for dentists and patients alike and some patients are consenting to treatment without being properly informed of the destructive nature of the procedures to their sound tooth tissue and structures to achieve the desired 'cosmetic' outcome. This raises ethical issues, as much of this overtreatment is unnecessarily destructive and goes against the healing and caring principles of the dental profession. PMID:22538895

Kelleher, M

2012-04-01

86

Rubber dam application in endodontic practice: an update on critical educational and ethical dilemmas.  

PubMed

Proper isolation is an essential prerequisite for successful endodontic treatment. This article aims to provide an update on the prevalence of rubber dam (RD) use, and the role of education along with attitudes of general dental practitioners (GDPs) and patients towards the application of RD in endodontics. Critical ethical issues are also highlighted. Using certain keywords, an electronic search was conducted spanning the period from January 1983 to April 2013 to identify the available related investigations, and the pooled data were then analysed. The results show that although RD is the Standard of Care in endodontic practice, there is a clear discrepancy in what GDPs are taught in dental school and what they practice after graduation. There is little scientific evidence to support the application of RD; however, patient safety and clinical practice guidelines indicate that it is unnecessary and unethical to consider a cohort study to prove what is already universally agreed upon. A few clinical situations may require special management which should be highlighted in the current guidelines. This would pave the way for clear and straightforward universal guidelines. PMID:25091028

Ahmed, Hma; Cohen, S; Lévy, G; Steier, L; Bukiet, F

2014-12-01

87

The effects of professional education on values and the resolution of ethical dilemmas: Business school vs. law school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior research on the impact of ethics education within the business curriculum has yielded mixed results. Although the impact is often found to be positive, it appears to be both small and short-lived. Interpretation of these results, however, is subject to important methodological limitations. The present research employed a longitudinal methodology to evaluate the impact of an M.B.A. program versus

Donald L. McCabe; Janet M. Dukerich; Jane E. Dutton

1994-01-01

88

Ethics Hotlines” in Transnational Companies: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This empirical study explores the characteristics and degree of implementation of so-called ethics hotlines in transnational\\u000a companies (TNCs), which allow employees to present allegations of wrongdoing and ethical dilemmas, as well as to report concerns.\\u000a Ethics hotlines have not received much attention in literature; therefore, this paper aims to fill that gap. Through the analysis\\u000a of conduct\\/ethics codes and the

Reyes Calderón-Cuadrado; José Luis Álvarez-Arce; Isabel Rodríguez-Tejedo; Stella Salvatierra

2009-01-01

89

While alluring to many, some diamonds continue to pose a serious ethical dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Watchdog Urges Tighter Rein on Conflict Gemshttp://allafrica.com/stories/200610100005.htmlKimberly Process [Macromedia Flash Player]http://www.kimberleyprocess.com:8080/Making It Work: Why The Kimberly Process Must Do More to Stop Conflict Diamonds [pdf]http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/diamond/2005/stopconflict.pdfHistory of Diamonds [QuickTime, Windows Media Player]http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/earth/rock-minerals/130705Diamonds/history-of-diamonds.htmlCrater of Diamonds State Park, Arkansashttp://www.craterofdiamondsstatepark.com/Decades before the DeBeers company created the â??A diamond is foreverâ?ť marketing slogan, diamonds had become the premier precious stone of choice for many engagement rings. In the past few years, diamonds mined in a variety of countries in West Africa have acquired a rather dramatic sobriquet: â??conflict diamondsâ?ť. The word â??conflictâ?ť is specifically meant to refer those diamonds that have been smuggled and sold on the international market in order to fund various wars in countries including Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola. This week a number of news organizations reported that diamonds from the Ivory Coast are still being sold on the international market, which is an explicit breach of an international ban that went into effect a year ago. On a broader scale, the country is also subject to the innovative requirements of the Kimberly Process, which was started in 2002, and which was also meant to prevent the sale of such â??conflict diamondsâ?ť. Members of the United Nationsâ?? Security Council remain optimistic about monitoring the situation, but oversight in this area of international trade remains difficult. The first link will take users to a news article from this Tuesdayâ??s BBC News Online that reports on the revelation that Ivorian diamonds are still available on the international market. Moving along, the second link leads to a news article by Emad Mekay that reports on a recent paper from the U.S. Government Accountability Office that suggests that the United States should adopt stronger oversight measures in order to determine the origins of various diamonds. The third link will lead users to the site that provides detailed information about the Kimberly Process. The fourth link leads to a fascinating 51-page report from the Global Witness organization that provides information about the current shortcomings of the Kimberly Process, and how its scope of operations might be improved over the short and long term. The fifth link will take users away to a very engrossing video introduction to the history of diamonds, proffered by the Natural History Museumâ??s Andy Fleet. During this presentation, visitors will learn about the aesthetic and utility value placed on these gems. Interested diamond prospectors and rock-hounds will be delighted to learn about the final site, which is the virtual home of the Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas. For those not in the know already, this park is the only site in the world where any one can just come, search, and keep any diamonds they might uncover.

Grinnell, Max

2006-01-01

90

Social and Ethical Issues. Paper Presentations: Session A.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains nine papers from the social and ethical issues section of an international conference on vocational education and training (VET) for lifelong learning in the information era. The following papers are included: "Attitudes of University Faculty Members toward Students with Disabilities" (Marie F. Kraska); "Attitude of Gaming…

2000

91

Dilemmas in Medicine, 2nd Edition 1977. CEM Probe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published for secondary school youth in England, the PROBE series presents provocative information and discussion questions on topical themes. The focus of this issue is on aspects of medicine which raise moral dilemmas for doctors, patients, and society in general. This issue contains case studies which illustrate ethical questions raised by the…

Undy, Harry, Ed.

92

Certificate Ethics Certificate Program  

E-print Network

Ethics Certificate Program Passion Purpose Rigor #12;#12;Ethics Certificate Program From, the Ethics Certificate provides you with the skills and confidence you need to create and evaluate solutions to ethical dilemmas. Does a government have the right to insist on another government's adherence to human

Zhou, Pei

93

Identifying Unique Ethical Challenges of Indigenous Field-Workers: A Commentary on Alexander and Richman's "Ethical Dilemmas in Evaluations Using Indigenous Research Workers"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast with nonindigenous workers, to what extent do unique ethical problems arise when indigenous field-workers participate in field studies? Three aspects of study design and operation are considered: data integrity issues, risk issues, and protection issues. Although many of the data quality issues that arise with the use of indigenous…

Smith, Nick L.

2008-01-01

94

Philanthropic dilemmas and the nurse administrator role.  

PubMed

Nurse administrators are in a position to encounter ethical dilemmas when evaluating philanthropic proposals. Nurses may have little formal training in ethics, or they may be most experienced with ethical frameworks that apply primarily to clinical patient encounters. Gifts of goods, services, education, or other benefits to nurses may create ethical dilemmas. Philanthropic ethics and potential dilemmas are discussed in nonnursing professions such as medicine and nonprofit administration but rarely explored in the nursing administration context. Nurse administrators in a position to evaluate generous offers of philanthropy should identify key components to fully assess the ethics of their receipt. A survey of several resources is done to provide nurse administrators with the foundation to develop policies related to philanthropy if they are absent, preferably in advance of the offer. Recommendations for assessment and evaluation of philanthropic proposals are provided to aid nurse administrators in their synthesis and application of ethical principles from multiple sources. PMID:25208151

Klein, Tracy

2014-01-01

95

Ethical considerations for multinationals in Angola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angola's abundance of high quality oil and diamonds has drawn the world's most powerful foreign corporations to its shores. Yet, this war ravaged country ranks among the most destitute in the world. The presence and role of multi- national corporations in Angola therefore presents analysts and responsible busi- ness with an ethical dilemma. Multinationals active in the country must, almost

H Richard Dietrich

96

Ethics Case Studies: The Aggressive Child.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the second in a series reporting the results of YOUNG CHILDREN's May 1987 survey on recurring early childhood education ethical dilemmas. Presented are readers' replies to the case of "The Aggressive Child" and accompanying commentaries. (Author/RWB)

Feeney, Stephanie; And Others

1988-01-01

97

NAEYC Code of Ethical Conduct. Revised = Codigo de Conducta Etica. Revisada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a code of ethics for early childhood educators that offers guidelines for responsible behavior and sets forth a common basis for resolving ethical dilemmas encountered in early education. It represents the English and Spanish versions of the revised code. Its contents were approved by the NAEYC Governing Board in April 2005…

National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), 2005

2005-01-01

98

Ethics  

Cancer.gov

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) has mandated that all research sites outside the United States that participate in research funded by the U.S. Government must file documentation certifying that each research site observes the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and has an independent ethics committee. Sites participating in trials sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) must also undergo regular on-site audits.

99

Designing an Ethics Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

Prager, Richard

1993-01-01

100

Juan's Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When life hands you lemons, make a battery! In this article, the authors describe an activity they refer to as Juan's Dilemma , an extension of the familiar lemon-battery activity (Goodisman 2001). Juan's Dilemma integrates oxidation and reduction

Bruce Palmquist

2010-10-01

101

Presenting the Scientific Process: Introducing Philosophy, Theory, Methods, and Ethics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a course titled Scientific Process, we introduce undergraduates to the philosophy and practice of science and initiate them into a 2-year undergraduate research track. Engaging exercises and discussions help students understand the scientific process and ultimately produce a research proposal in grant application format. Students defend their written proposal during a 15-minute oral presentation.

Mason Meers (University of Tampa;); Nora Demers (Florida Gulf Coast University;); Michael Savarese (Florida Gulf Coast University;)

2003-12-31

102

Planaria Laboratory Activity - Presentation - The Science and Ethics of Stem Cell Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint presentation is for the teacher to use during the laboratory activity. Please also see the PDF files for use by students and the teacher, also in the Planaria Laboratory Activity collection. This lab activity may be used in conjunction with the rest of the The Science and Ethics of Stem Cell Research curriculum.

2009-01-01

103

Socially responsible modeling: a stakeholder approach to the implementation of ethical modeling in operations research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common dilemma for modelers in operations research (OR) involves how to construct ethically sensitive models. Concern for\\u000a ethical modeling has recently become more widespread in the OR literature. Arguably, however, this concern has not manifested\\u000a into concrete frameworks for analyzing models. This paper presents an approach from the organizational ethics field for evaluating\\u000a models. After first reviewing the state

Matthew J. Drake; Virginia W. Gerde; David M. Wasieleski

2011-01-01

104

Computer ethics and teritary level education in Hong Kong  

SciTech Connect

This paper seeks to highlight some ethical issues relating to the increasing proliferation of Information Technology into our everyday lives. The authors explain their understanding of computer ethics, and give some reasons why the study of computer ethics is becoming increasingly pertinent. The paper looks at some of the problems that arise in attempting to develop appropriate ethical concepts in a constantly changing environment, and explores some of the ethical dilemmas arising from the increasing use of computers. Some initial research undertaken to explore the ideas and understanding of tertiary level students in Hong Kong on a number of ethical issues of interest is described, and our findings discussed. We hope that presenting this paper and eliciting subsequent discussion will enable us to draw up more comprehensive guidelines for the teaching of computer related ethics to tertiary level students, as well as reveal some directions for future research.

Wong, E.Y.W.; Davison, R.M.; Wade, P.W. [City Polytechnic of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

1994-12-31

105

A Canadian Perspective on Using Vignettes to Teach Ethics in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vignettes depicting ethical dilemmas are used widely in teaching and learning professional ethics. Such an approach can facilitate learning by allowing opportunities to work through ethical dilemmas using practical, realistic, and complex material that enables participants to: engage in discussion; explore applicable ethical principles; and ideally, to achieve a deeper level of ethical understanding. Despite their widespread use, little research

Michelle C. E. McCarron; Donald W. Stewart

2011-01-01

106

Haemolytic anaemia--PNH type II cells presenting a diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

A 28-year-old man presented with a history of intermittent haematuria over the past 10?years usually following fever episodes and requiring blood transfusions during the episodes. History of any thrombotic complications, chest pain or erectile dysfunction was not forthcoming. Examination revealed severe pallor with mild icterus and mild splenomegaly. His blood picture showed pancytopenia with elevated reticulocytes and indirect hyperbilirubinaemia. Indirect Coombs test was positive but direct was negative, serum lactate dehydrogenase was elevated and agglutinins were found to be of IgG type. Bone marrow showed a hypercellular marrow with myeloid and megakaryocytes suppressed. Donath-Landsteiner antibodies were found to be negative ruling out paroxysmal cold haemoglobinuria. Flow cytometry was performed with a suspicion of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) and was shown to be partially negative for CD59 but positive for CD55, a pattern consistent with type II PNH. PMID:24899011

Pande, Nikhil; Bhat, Rama; Singh, Brij Mohan Kumar; Vivek, Ganapathiraman

2014-01-01

107

Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia Patient Presenting with Rare 'lytic' Lesions and Hypercalcemia: A Diagnostic Dilemma.  

PubMed

Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia (WM) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoproliferative neoplasm characterized by lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltrating the Bone Marrow, along with demonstration of an IgM monoclonal gammopathy in the serum. Lytic lesions are considered one of the basis for differentiating a patient of Multiple Myeloma (MM) and WM. However, very few cases have been reported with a patient presenting with lytic lesions in a WM patient, thereby, complicating the disease. By finding the extent of these lytic lesions and bone involvement, Not only can we signify the presence or absence of bone lesions, but we can also direct the more efficient use of skeletal X-rays for documentation of the extent, location, and response of bone abnormalities to interventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Our case was mimicking the classic case of MM. Using the International Criteria for diagnosis for WM, diagnosis for MM was excluded and diagnosis for WM was made. After two weeks of therapy, the patient showed marked clinical improvement. PMID:25584234

Mehmood, Khalid; Naqvi, Iftikhar Haider; Shah, Syed Raza; Zakir, Nazia; Ali, Syed Mustafa

2014-11-01

108

Waldenstroms Macroglobulinemia Patient Presenting with Rare ’lytic’ Lesions and Hypercalcemia: A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

Waldenstroms macroglobulinemia (WM) is an uncommon B-cell lymphoproliferative neoplasm characterized by lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltrating the Bone Marrow, along with demonstration of an IgM monoclonal gammopathy in the serum. Lytic lesions are considered one of the basis for differentiating a patient of Multiple Myeloma (MM) and WM. However, very few cases have been reported with a patient presenting with lytic lesions in a WM patient, thereby, complicating the disease. By finding the extent of these lytic lesions and bone involvement, Not only can we signify the presence or absence of bone lesions, but we can also direct the more efficient use of skeletal X-rays for documentation of the extent, location, and response of bone abnormalities to interventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Our case was mimicking the classic case of MM. Using the International Criteria for diagnosis for WM, diagnosis for MM was excluded and diagnosis for WM was made. After two weeks of therapy, the patient showed marked clinical improvement. PMID:25584234

Mehmood, Khalid; Naqvi, Iftikhar Haider; Zakir, Nazia; Ali, Syed Mustafa

2014-01-01

109

Ethical decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the health care profession have a responsibility to identify and regulate their practice to protect consumers and assure the delivery of quality service. In this case study in which a patient wakes up during surgery, the nurse's code of ethics, standards of care, and ethical decision-making models provide guidance toward the resolution of this clinical dilemma. Such resolution

Jacqueline Wood

2001-01-01

110

Can unequal be more fair? Ethics, subject allocation, and randomised clinical trials.  

PubMed Central

Randomised clinical trials provide the most valid means of establishing the efficacy of clinical therapeutics. Ethical standards dictate that patients and clinicians should not consent to randomisation unless there is uncertainty about whether any of the treatment options is superior to the others ("equipoise"). However, true equipoise is rarely present; most randomised trials, therefore, present challenging ethical dilemmas. Minimising the tension between science and ethics is an obligation of investigators and clinicians. This article briefly reviews several techniques for addressing this issue and suggests that unbalanced randomisation, a technique rarely employed in current clinical trial practice, may be useful for enhancing the ethical design of human experimentation. PMID:9873981

Avins, A L

1998-01-01

111

Agriculture’s Ethical Horizon, book review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Roughly 6.5 billion people inhabit the earth, but over 1 billion people regularly go hungry. This food shortfall poses an ethical dilemma for agriculture, and Agriculture's Ethical Horizon grapples with this dilemma. It argues that agricultural productivity has been the quintessential value of agr...

112

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Patient Advocacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this second of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the

Kathryn Schroeter

2002-01-01

113

Attending to diversity in group psychotherapy: an ethical imperative.  

PubMed

Ethical issues can arise in dealing with diversity when practicing group psychotherapy. In this paper, a case is presented of a therapist-in-training who is attempting to determine whether a particular psychotherapy group composed exclusively of heterosexual males would be an appropriate and effective treatment venue for a gay male; the clinical vignette is designed to illustrate a process of ethical and culturally competent decision making. The discussion of this vignette articulates the multiple steps through which the group psychotherapist must proceed to successfully resolve ethical dilemmas that are related to diversity. PMID:17266424

Debiak, Dennis

2007-01-01

114

Paediatrics at the cutting edge: do we need clinical ethics committees?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the need for hospital clinical ethics committees by studying the frequency with which ethical dilemmas arose, the perceived adequacy of the process of their resolution, and the teaching and training of staff in medical ethics. DESIGN: Interviews with individuals and three multidisciplinary teams; questionnaire to randomly selected individuals. SETTING: Two major London children's hospitals. RESULTS: Ethical dilemmas

V F Larcher; B Lask; J M McCarthy

1997-01-01

115

Extensive Central Nervous System Cryptococcal Disease Presenting as Immune Reconstitution Syndrome in a Patient with Advanced HIV: Report of a Case and Review of Management Dilemmas and Strategies  

PubMed Central

One of the complications of the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), is particularly problematic in the management of cryptococcal meningitis. We present the case of a 35-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome diagnosed with extensive central nervous system (CNS) cryptococcal disease, including meningitis and multiple intracranial cysts, diagnosed eight weeks after the initiation of ART. The patient experienced a relapsing and remitting clinical course despite repeated courses of potent antifungal therapy and aggressive management of raised intracranial pressure. This review highlights therapeutic dilemmas and strategies in the management of CNS cryptococcosis complicated with IRIS and highlights gaps in available treatment guidelines. PMID:25568756

Ogbuagu, Onyema; Villanueva, Merceditas

2014-01-01

116

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Duty to Foster an Ethical Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this sixth of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the

Patricia C. Seifert

2002-01-01

117

Technology / Society Interaction and Ethics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Technology is something present in our everyday lives. From the computer we type our e-mails on to the plasma television where we watch our favorite shows, technology is an integral part of how we live. This website, created by Engineering Technology Pathways, presents the interaction of technology with society and the ethical issues associated with that interplay. Focusing mostly on the role of engineers in the creation of technology, the website provides examples of responsible practices employed by the profession. The website introduces the reader to different case studies that are examples of these ethical dilemmas. In the end, this is a good overview as it introduces students to issues not typically associated with the field of engineering.

Heitkamp, Greg

118

Coca-Cola and PepsiCo in South Africa: A Landmark Case in Corporate Social Responsibility, Ethical Dilemmas, and the Challenges of International Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex webs of social and ethical responsibilities often make following one's business nose challenging, if not impossible. This case examines the actions of Coca-Cola and PepsiCo, as each sought to dominate the burgeoning soft drink market in South Africa in the years before—and immediately after—the end of that country's apartheid era.

Charles Thurman Moses; Donald Vest

2010-01-01

119

Ethical issues in end-of-life geriatric care: the approach of three monotheistic religions-Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam.  

PubMed

Ethical dilemmas pervade modern geriatric medicine. What is considered right or wrong will differ depending on, among other things, the patient's religion. The three Abrahamic monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity (its Catholic variant), and Islam all have carefully considered positions on medical ethics. Although much is held in common, there are significant differences. The authors present three clinical cases, each of which presents ethical dilemmas typical of geriatric care, especially at the end of life. On the basis of these scenarios, the normative ethical position of each religion is compared and contrasted. It is hoped that this approach will offer the geriatrician a useful approach to treating patients in an increasingly multicultural society. PMID:12890081

Clarfield, A Mark; Gordon, Michael; Markwell, Hazel; Alibhai, Shabbir M H

2003-08-01

120

Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

2005-01-01

121

Parental role in medical decision-making: fact or fiction? A comparative study of ethical dilemmas in French and American neonatal intensive care units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal intensive care has been studied from an epidemiological, ethical, medical and even sociological perspective, but little is known about the impact of parental involvement in decision-making, especially in critical cases. We rely here on a comparative, case-based approach to study the parental role in decision-making within two technologically identical but culturally and institutionally different contexts: France and the United

Kristina Orfali

2004-01-01

122

Relationships between personal values and reported behavior on ethical scenarios for law students.  

PubMed

Lawyers' values might be considered to play some role in the decisions that are made in everyday legal practice. This study aimed to explore the effects of personal value hierarchies on ethical decision making within the context of several ethical dilemmas. A questionnaire was administered utilizing hypothetical situations presented in 11 ethical scenarios and including the Rokeach Value Survey. Logistic regression results suggested that different personal values were significant predictors of reported behavioral choices on respective ethical scenarios. However, the most important values associated with behavior consistent with ethical conduct in scenarios were 'honesty' and 'equality'. The implications of results are discussed in the contexts of ethics education in a tertiary educational environment and in relation to regulation for the professions. PMID:16952219

Palermo, Josephine; Evans, Adrian

2007-01-01

123

Skyview Foods: Eric's Real Dilemma with Channel Partners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a marketing analyst, Eric is faced with several ethical dilemmas. When asked to engage in unethical and illegal behavior, Eric must decide whether to obey his boss and fudge the numbers (the counts of product purchased in order to get reimbursed more from the manufacturer during special sales) or take the ethical route. The case consists of two…

Castleberry, Stephen B.

2011-01-01

124

Can one do good medical ethics without principles?  

PubMed

The criteria for determining what it is to do good medical ethics are the quality of ethical analysis and ethical justifications for decisions and actions. Justifications for decisions and actions rely on ethical principles, be they the 'famous four' or subsidiary ethical principles relevant to specific contexts. Examples from clinical ethics, research ethics and public health ethics reveal that even when not stated explicitly, principles are involved in ethical justifications. Principles may come into conflict, however, and the resolution of an ethical dilemma requires providing good reasons for preferring one principle over another. PMID:25516941

Macklin, Ruth

2015-01-01

125

Developing Ethical Knowledge in the Spirit of Judaism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempts to describe Jewish teachers' perceptions about their ethical dilemmas based on stories derived from the Bible. Sixty teachers were asked to submit descriptions of their ethical dilemmas to the study website; submissions were then discussed in focus groups. The findings were grouped by the ATLAS.ti into five categories: Telling…

Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly

2012-01-01

126

Ethically Challenging Situations Reported by School Psychologists: Implications for Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practitioner-members of the National Association of School Psychologists (N = 208) completed questionnaires regarding their ethics training, preparedness, the types of ethical transgressions and dilemmas encountered in the previous year, and the strategies used to solve problems. Respondents who received multilevel training in ethics (ethics

Dailor, A. Nichole; Jacob, Susan

2011-01-01

127

Applying the principles of Gestalt theory to teaching ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching ethics poses a dilemma for professors of business. First, they have little or no formal training in ethics. Second, they have established ethical values that they may not want to impose upon their students. What is needed is a well-recognized, yet non-sectarian model to facilitate the clarification of ethical questions. Gestalt theory offers such a framework. Four Gestalt principles

Eugene H. Hunt; Ronald K. Bullis

1991-01-01

128

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Values, Integrity, and Social Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and should be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this final article of a nine-part series that is designed to help

Cecil A. King; Catherine Broom

2002-01-01

129

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Advancing the Profession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and should be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this seventh of a nine-part series that is designed to help perioperative

Cecil A. King

2002-01-01

130

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Accountability and Responsibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this third of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the

Jackie L. Berlandi

2002-01-01

131

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Promoting Health, Welfare, and Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and should be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this eighth of a nine-part series that is designed to help perioperative

Cecil A. King

2002-01-01

132

Ethics in Perioperative Practice-Commitment to the Patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this fourth of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the

Patricia C. Seifert

2002-01-01

133

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Principles and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this first of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the

Kathryn Schroeter

2002-01-01

134

The importance of listening to medical students' experiences when teaching them medical ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the change of emphasis that occurred in the teaching of ethics to small groups of clinical students. Although the original focus of the course was on the analysis of ethical dilemmas associated with individual patients known to the students, it soon became evident that there were, for the students themselves, more fundamental ethical dilemmas in their new

L W Osborne; C M Martin

1989-01-01

135

Dilemmas in intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence (IPV), usually men's violence against women, appears universal. It may be associated with pregnancy, but this may be because pregnant women receive more medical attention. Violence may cause bruises, abrasions, and cuts, but its extremes include hospitalization, death, and suicide. IPV is often disclosed when women are asked why they feel in poor health or depressed. A legal dilemma arises when healthcare providers consider that intervention such as law-enforcement is appropriate, but patients refuse approval. Patients may fatalistically accept violence, or fear loss of support for their children and themselves if their partners are held in custody. Legal reforms, such as punishing spousal rape, may provide some protection of women's autonomy. Ethical dilemmas concern intervention without patients' approval, and whether treating violent injuries without taking preventive action breaches the principle to Do No Harm. Professional advocacy and social action have been urged to expose and reduce IPV. PMID:19368921

Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M

2009-07-01

136

Ethical ideology and ethical judgment regarding ethical issues in business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in ethical ideology are thought to influence individuals' reasoning about moral issues (Forsyth and Nye, 1990; Forsyth, 1992). To date, relatively little research has addressed this proposition in terms of business-related ethical issues. In the present study, four groups, representing four distinct ethical ideologies, were created based on the two dimensions of the Ethical Position Questionnaire (idealism and relativism),

Tim Barnett; Ken Bass; Gene Brown

1994-01-01

137

Dilemmas for international mobilization around child abuse and neglect.  

PubMed

The goal of this commentary is to articulate some issues and dilemmas raised by various efforts to mobilize international action around child abuse and neglect (CAN). We will start by proposing a typology of international mobilization strategies, noting that initiatives to promote CAN programming in new settings have tended to emphasize one of three vectors: governments, professionals, or international NGOs. There are pros and cons to each emphasis, which we discuss. We also review the debates around some of the following dilemmas: Should low-income countries be a top priority for CAN mobilization? Are there cultural and institutional capacities that need to be present in a country in order for CAN programs to work or be ethical? Are some CAN programs more likely to be internationally transferable than others and why so? Has the field adequately considered whether non-CAN programming (e.g., family planning) might actually be more effective at preventing maltreatment than CAN programming? Does the field give adequate acknowledgment that policies and practices emanating from high-resourced and Western countries may not always be the best to disseminate? Are we relying too much on a model of program transplantation over a model of local cultivation? Should we aim for modest rather than ambitious accomplishments in international mobilization? How much emphasis should be placed on the priority dissemination of evidence-based programming? We conclude with some suggestions in the service of clarifying these dilemmas and making some of these decisions more evidence based. PMID:25087071

Finkelhor, David; Lannen, Patricia

2014-07-30

138

Iterated crowdsourcing dilemma game  

PubMed Central

The Internet has enabled the emergence of collective problem solving, also known as crowdsourcing, as a viable option for solving complex tasks. However, the openness of crowdsourcing presents a challenge because solutions obtained by it can be sabotaged, stolen, and manipulated at a low cost for the attacker. We extend a previously proposed crowdsourcing dilemma game to an iterated game to address this question. We enumerate pure evolutionarily stable strategies within the class of so-called reactive strategies, i.e., those depending on the last action of the opponent. Among the 4096 possible reactive strategies, we find 16 strategies each of which is stable in some parameter regions. Repeated encounters of the players can improve social welfare when the damage inflicted by an attack and the cost of attack are both small. Under the current framework, repeated interactions do not really ameliorate the crowdsourcing dilemma in a majority of the parameter space. PMID:24526244

Oishi, Koji; Cebrian, Manuel; Abeliuk, Andres; Masuda, Naoki

2014-01-01

139

The Ethics of New Medical Therapies and Other Challenges in Everyday Practice  

E-print Network

The Ethics of New Medical Therapies and Other Challenges in Everyday Practice March 24, 2012 Beca I., MD 11:45am Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: New Medical Therapies, Lagging Ethical Standards in Medical Ethics at ClĂ­nica Alemana de Santiago, Chair of Ethics Committee in ClĂ­nica Alemana, Chair of IRB

140

Prisoners' Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prisoners' Dilemma is a "non-zero-sum" game studied by people in a variety of disciplines, including biology, sociology, and public policy. In this game, "how to maximize one's own payoff depends on the strategy adopted by one's partner." This website offers an interactive cyberspace version of the game -- essentially letting you choose to cooperate or compete with cyber partner known as Serendip and then posting the scores. Some references and articles give background information on "what's so important about this game." From this website, visitors can check out Serendip's other interactive exhibits, articles, links to other resources, and a forum area for comments on topics including Brain and Behavior, Complex Systems, Genes and Behavior, Science and Culture, and Science Education.

141

Dealing with dilemmas of laboratory science: making sense of safety from a constructivist perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical dimensions of science teaching involve complex decisions found in the sense?making process and deeply embedded in the professional lives of teachers. These decisions take the form of ethical dilemmas which catalyse internal conflict within teachers and lack clear paths to solution. In our efforts to understand the ethical dimensions of teacher knowledge we have moved outside the traditional

Deborah J. Tippins; Kenneth G. Tobin; Karl Hook

1993-01-01

142

Anthropology Ethics: Online Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studying humankind can give us great insight into the complexities of society and culture. However, any research involving human subjects comes with a thorny set of ethical considerations. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln's Ethics Center has curated this collection of online resources related to ethical dilemmas and situations in anthropology. The materials are divided into four areas: Case Studies, About, Additional Teaching Resources, and Codes of Ethics. The Case Studies area is quite well-developed, containing 20 rigorously vetted case studies from SUNY-Buffalo, the Society for Economic Botany, and the Smithsonian Institution. For those just entering the field, the Codes of Ethics area might be quite useful. It offers up professional codes from organizations like the American Anthropological Association, the American Association of Museums, and the American Folklore Society.

143

A Dilemmas Task for Eliciting Risk Propensity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Risk propensity (RP) is a trait characterized by an increased probability of engaging in behaviors that have some potential danger or harm but also provide an opportunity for some benefit. In the present study, a new RP task with several dilemmas was explored. Each dilemma includes the initial set plus successive approximations for estimating the…

Botella, Juan; Narvaez, Maria; Martinez-Molina, Agustin; Rubio, Victor J.; Santacreu, Jose

2008-01-01

144

Medical Ethics in the Next 25 Years  

PubMed Central

In the next 10-15 years most of the major ethical dilemmas facing family physicians will grow more acute. This is not to imply that things are getting worse. On the contrary, it is the simultaneous growth of miraculous methods and frightening risks that will make the dilemmas more acute. In the next 15-25 years, we will learn how to minimize the risks. Several major ethical dilemmas of medical practice are reviewed from this perspective. Finally, some issues are considered that do not fit this pattern and that have the potential to become a much greater challenge to humanity. PMID:11662581

Tiberius, Richard G.

1979-01-01

145

Solving the CS1\\/CS2 lab dilemma: students as presenters in CS1\\/CS2 laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our quest to modernize our CS1\\/CS2 curriculum, we ran into several problems in the effective delivery of the courses and their associated laboratories. We have developed a teaching model in which students become the presenters for the hands-on laboratories. In order for this approach to be effective, the laboratories must be reused from semester to semester, so that student

Kay A. Robbins; Catherine Sauls Key; Keith Dickinson; John Montgomery

2001-01-01

146

Recurrent ascites with severe hypoproteinemia in 4-year-old child: A diagnostic dilemma - An atypical presentation of hypothyroidism.  

PubMed

Hypothyroidism is frequently encountered condition to a pediatrician. Passive effusions into serous cavities, sometimes to considerable amount are frequently noted. However, the significant ascites caused by this is rare in a child and in no instance, it is too excessive. So diagnosis is frequently delayed and patient frequently receive unnecessary procedures such as liver, even gastrointestinal biopsies. Analysis of ascitic fluid shows exudative nature with high protein. The case we present here is a 4-year-old female child with recurrent ascites, developmental delay and hypoproteinemia. High index of suspicion can lead to diagnosis. Over all prognosis is excellent after stating replacement therapy with L-thyroxine. PMID:25143889

Mehta, Sudhir; Sanghvi, Jyoti; Kela, Gunjan

2014-07-01

147

Ecology, Ethics, and Responsibility in Family Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that working with marital and family problems complicates the concept of therapeutic responsibility. Discusses several societal contributors to ethical dilemmas in contemporary family therapy and summarizes an ecological framework for therapy on the basis of which a profile of the ethical family therapist is derived. (Author/NB)

Maddock, James W.

1993-01-01

148

Evaluation Team Dynamics: Intragroup Ethical Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical challenges associated with the relationships among members of an evaluative team/organization receive less attention. Examples of the kinds of ethical dilemmas that could occur within an evaluation team include an individual taking undeserved credit, transferring blame, making false promises, withholding information, breaching…

Urias, David

2009-01-01

149

Context-Sensitive Ethics in School Psychology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical codes and licensing rules provide foundational guidance for practicing school psychologists, but these sources fall short in their capacity to facilitate effective decision-making. When faced with ethical dilemmas, school psychologists can turn to decision-making models, but step-wise decision trees frequently lack the situation…

Lasser, Jon; Klose, Laurie McGarry; Robillard, Rachel

2013-01-01

150

Ethically Challenging Situations Encountered by School Psychologists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study provides a description of the kinds of situations school psychology practitioners find ethically challenging. Frequencies of various kinds of dilemmas are reported along with illustrative incidents. Most incidents described by respondents concerned difficult situations rather than violations of professional codes of ethics. Implications for…

Jacob-Timm, Susan

1999-01-01

151

Salesperson Ethics: An Interactive Computer Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new interactive computer simulation designed to teach sales ethics is described. Simulation learner objectives include gaining a better understanding of legal issues in selling; realizing that ethical dilemmas do arise in selling; realizing the need to be honest when selling; seeing that there are conflicting demands from a salesperson's…

Castleberry, Stephen

2014-01-01

152

Virtual Mentor American Medical Association Journal of Ethics  

E-print Network

Virtual Mentor American Medical Association Journal of Ethics August 2012, Volume 14, Number 8: 657 kinds of information about our DNA, but they have also raised ethical questions. Early results from that such genetic patterns may have medical importance. We note two ethical dilemmas posed by the claims made

Fujimura, Joan

153

Child Sexual Abuse: Ethical Issues for the Family Therapist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that marital and family therapists working with families when child sexual abuse is disclosed or suspected face ethical confusion that may not be clearly addressed by professional codes of conduct or legal statutes. Discusses ethical dilemmas commonly encountered in family sexual abuse cases and provides recommendations for ethical decision…

Haverkamp, Beth; Daniluk, Judith C.

1993-01-01

154

'Medical ethics'--an alternative approach.  

PubMed Central

Contemporary medical ethics is generally concerned with the application of ethical theory to medico-moral dilemmas and with the critical analysis of the concepts of medicine. This paper presents an alternative programme: the development of a medical philosophy which, by taking as its starting point the two questions: what is man? and, what constitutes goodness in life? offers an account of health as one of the primary concepts of value. This view of the subject resembles that implied by ancient theories of goodness, and in later sections of the paper it is shown how Aristotle points us towards a coherent theory of human nature as psycho-physical, which overcomes the inadequacies of dualism and physicalist reductionism. What is on offer therefore, is the prospect of an integrated account of human nature and of what constitutes its flourishing: to be healthy is to be an active unity-of-parts in equilibrium. PMID:3761336

Haldane, J J

1986-01-01

155

[Hospital clinical ethics committees].  

PubMed

The scientific and technological advances have been surprising, more in the two last decades, but they don't go united with to the ethical values of the medical professional practice, it has been totally escaped, specially when the biological subsistence, the maintenance of the life through apparatuses and the mechanisms that prolong the existence are who undergoes an alteration that until recently time was mortal shortly lapse. It is common listening that exist a crisis in the medical profession, but what really is it of human values, which as soon and taken into nowadays, actually professional account, which gives rise to a dehumanization towards the life, the health, the disease, the suffering and the death. The ideal of the doctor to give to service to the man in its life and health, as well to be conscious that the last biological process that must fulfill is the death, and when it appears, does not have considered as a actually professional failure. It has protect to the patient as the extreme cruelty therapeutic, that it has right a worthy death. It's taking to the birth of the hospital ethics committees, they have like function to analyze, to advise and to think about the ethical dilemmas that appear actually clinical or in the biomedical investigation. In 1982 in the UEA only 1% of its hospitals had a ethics committees; by 1988, it was 67% and the 100% in 2000. In Mexico the process of the formation by these committees begins, only in the Military Central Hospital, to count the ethics committee on 1983, also the Hospital no. 14 of the IMSS in Guadalajara, it works with regularity from 1995, with internal teaching of bioethic. The Secretariat of Health has asked the formation of the bioethical committees in each hospital, and order the it was be coordinated by the National Committee of Bioética. The integration of these committees is indispensable that their members have the knowledge necessary of bioética. The Mexican Society of Ortopedia, conscious of the responsibility that will have these Committees, presents/displays the following article, with the bioética commite and the support to this in other hospitable units. PMID:17937182

Gómez Velásquez, Luis; Gómez Espinosa, Luis Néstor

2007-01-01

156

Gender Differences in Personal Selling Ethics Evaluations: Do They Exist and What Does Their Existence Mean for Teaching Sales Ethics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sales career opportunities are growing, and the number of women in sales is increasing. Educators must adequately prepare both men and women for today's ethical sales dilemmas. Using the Personal Selling Ethics Scale, the current study analyzes the impact of idealism and relativism on the sales ethics evaluations of men and women. Results indicate…

Donoho, Casey; Heinze, Timothy; Kondo, Christopher

2012-01-01

157

Teaching Business Ethics: A Practical Guide and Case Studies. SBDC Professional Enrichment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching guide is for instructors who wish to include a discussion of ethical dilemmas in their regular business seminars and workshops. It discusses why it is essential to teach ethics and how to do so. It reviews the format of specially annotated ethics cases that are designed to help teach business ethics and shows how to use them. These…

Collins, Denis; Page, Laura V.

158

Publication aspects of ethics in photogrammetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

According to the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the principles on which ethics are founded consist of honesty, justice, and courtesy, forming a moral philosophy associated with mutual interest among men. We will cover in particular the ethical problems of publication of photogrammetric material in the various media. There are many such problems, and we often face a dilemma in selecting a course which is the right thing to do.

Thompson, Morris M.

1991-01-01

159

Ethical Ideology and the Ethical Judgments of Marketing Professionals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study extends the study of individuals' ethical ideology withinthe context of marketing ethics issues. A national sample of marketing professionals participated. Respondents' ethical ideologies were classified as absolutists, situationists, exceptionists, or subjectivists using the Ethical Position Questionnaire (Forsyth, 1980). Respondents then answered questions about three ethically ambiguous situations common to marketing and sales. The results indicated that marketers'

Tim Barnett; Ken Bass; Gene Brown; Frederic J. Hebert

1998-01-01

160

Ethical consequences for professionals from the globalization of food, nutrition and health.  

PubMed

Globalization is the process of increasing interconnections and linkages, within societies and across geography, due to improved communication and expanded world trade. It limits the differentiation wrought by human cultural evolution, and homogenizes health practices, diet and lifestyle. There are both beneficial and adverse consequences of the globalization process. Globalization also presents a challenge to the development of ethics for practice and advocacy by food and nutrition professionals. Among the related terms, 'morals', 'values' and 'ethics', the latter connotes the basic rules of conduct for interactions within society and with the inanimate environment; rules based on recognized principles (ethical principles). The application of these principles is to resolve ethical dilemmas that arise when more than one interest is at play. Recognized ethical principles include autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, justice, utility and stewardship. These can be framed in the context of issues that arise during advocacy for material and behavioural changes to improve the nutritional health of populations. Clearly, at the global level, codes of good conduct and the construction of good food governance can be useful in institutionalizing ethical principles in matters of human diets and eating practices. Ethical dilemmas arise in the context of innate diversity among populations (some individuals benefit, whereas others suffer from the same exposures), and due to the polarity of human physiology and metabolism (practices that prevent some diseases will provoke other maladies). Moreover, the autonomy of one individual to exercise independent will in addressing personal health or treatment of the environment may compromise the health of the individual's neighbours. The challenges for the professional in pursuit of ethical advocacy in a globalized era are to learn the fundamentals of ethical principles; to bear in mind a respect for difference and differentiation that continues to exist, and which should exist, among individuals and societies; and to avoid a total homogenization of agriculture and food supplies. PMID:12492659

Solomons, Noel W

2002-01-01

161

Arguing for a dynamic quality in professional codes of ethics.  

PubMed

Many professional organizations and healthcare institutions have developed codes of ethics for a number of reasons. Unlike legal mandates, codes of ethics provide professionals with a framework for ethical behavior within their specific discipline. Professionals today face challenges because the necessary ethical debates cannot keep pace with the rapidly changing environment in which ethical dilemmas quickly emerge. This article describes components of codes of ethics, outlines the evolving nature of ethics, and argues for a dynamic quality in these codes as a way to provide timely, sensitive guidance for professional practice. PMID:11189536

Gallagher, S M

2000-09-01

162

Research and the Ambiguity of Reflexivity and Ethical Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the methodological dilemmas associated with analytical framing as an aspect of the research process. Doing qualitative research potentially changes a researcher--changes their sense of self, who they think they are, who they want to become. The paper examines the ethical dilemma of what that change might mean--for the project,…

Hastings, Wendy

2010-01-01

163

Organizational Knowledge: Ethics and the Importance of Trust  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The aim of this paper is to grasp the ethical dilemmas that arise into organizational knowledge and the importance of trust\\u000a for diminishing these dilemmas. Therefore, it focuses three key issues: knowledge management (concept; and, schools of thought);\\u000a knowledge flowing models versus ethics (mental models; the Socialization, Externalization, Combination, Internalization (SECI)\\u000a model; and, Fiske’s relational model); and finally, the importance

Gonçalo Jorge Morais Costa; Mary Prior; Simon Rogerson

164

Using MultiMedia Content to Present Business Ethics: An Empirical Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…

Stanwick, Peter A.

2010-01-01

165

Ethical clinical practice and sport psychology: when two worlds collide.  

PubMed

From their own practices, the authors offer insight into potential ethical dilemmas that may frequently develop in an applied psychology setting in which sport psychology is also being practiced. Specific ethical situations offered for the reader's consideration include confidentiality with coaches, administration, parents, and athlete-clients; accountability in ethical billing practices and accurate diagnosing; identification of ethical boundaries in nontraditional practice settings (locker room, field, rink, etc.); and establishment of professional competence as it relates to professional practice and marketing. PMID:17036422

Brown, Jeffrey L; Cogan, Karen D

2006-01-01

166

Ethics in perioperative practice--duty to foster an ethical environment.  

PubMed

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this sixth of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the ANA code to their own area of practice, the author looks at the sixth statement, which emphasizes the nurse's duty to promote a working environment that enhances quality patient care and fosters the values and behaviors that form the foundation of ethical practice. PMID:12227291

Seifert, Patricia C

2002-09-01

167

PHAR 6501 Ethics in Pharmacy Practice (2 Credits) Instructor: Tim Stratton, Ph.D., BCPS, FAPhA  

E-print Network

1 PHAR 6501 ­ Ethics in Pharmacy Practice (2 Credits) SYLLABUS Fall, 2012 Instructor: Tim Stratton description: This elective course reviews ethical principles and selected schools of ethical thought, allowing the student to discuss and debate ethical dilemmas in pharmacy practice, health care and biomedical research

Thomas, David D.

168

Thoracic melioidosis: A diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of melioidosis can be difficult, and it is frequently described as "the great mimicker". We report a case of thoracic melioidosis presenting as a mediastinal mass with impending superior vena cava obstruction. With the presumptive diagnosis of mediastinal tumor, the patient underwent surgery for tissue sampling, and a purulent collection was found. The clinical syndromes of melioidosis and the diagnostic dilemma are discussed. PMID:24585290

Ashraf, Omer; Iyer, Anand; Krishnan, Ramya; Yadav, Sumit

2015-02-01

169

The ethics of state sponsored development  

E-print Network

the structure of assurance and prisoner dilemma games. If this assumption is accurate then the problems of development can, perhaps, be seen as special cases of game theory problems. And the ethic which we will then seek will be one designed to guide choices... in solving similar problems. First we will briefly examine Thomas Hobbes' response to the problems posed by structures of interaction like the prisoners' dilemma. We will then turn to the ethic developed by David Gauthier in Morals B reement. We...

Soisson, Ryan Paul

1993-01-01

170

Health promotion research: dilemmas and challenges  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To analyse dilemmas and challenges in health promotion research, and to generate ideas for future development.?METHOD—The analysis is based on authors' experiences in working in the field of research and action in health promotion and on experiences of others as found in literature.?RESULTS—The assumptions underlying scientific research as based in the biomedical design are difficult to meet in community-based health promotion research. Dilemmas are identified in relation to the possibility of defining the independent and dependent variables beforehand and the intermingling of these variables (the intervention and outcome dilemma), the difficulty in quantifying the desired outcomes (the number dilemma), and the problem of diffusion of the programme to the control group (the control group dilemma).?CONCLUSION—Research in health promotion has specific reasons to reconsider the approach towards research, the selection of outcome variables, and research techniques. Strategies and methods to make activities and their outcomes clear are discussed and criteria to judge confidence and applicability of research findings are presented.???Keywords: health promotion research; research dilemmas; research challenges PMID:11238581

Koelen, M; Vaandrager, L; Colomer, C

2001-01-01

171

Ethics & Integrity Presented by  

E-print Network

shoplifting. You should report this person to the security guard. #12;Spectrum Activity · The death penalty;Consequences of Plagiarism Faculty/Student Resolution Form Student Conduct Record Sanctions Grade Penalty

Roy, Subrata

172

Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Diabetes Diagnosis Dilemma HealthDay November 18, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Diabetes Health Screening Transcript Approximately three out of every ...

173

The Climate Policy Dilemma  

E-print Network

Climate policy poses a dilemma for environmental economists. The economic argument for stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement is far from clear. There is disagreement among both climate scientists and economists concerning ...

Pindyck, Robert S.

174

An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

2008-01-01

175

The Teaching of Ethics and the Ethics of Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship between psychological ethics and the teaching of psychology. Reviews the manner in which ethics is presented in college psychology instruction through textbooks and specific ethics courses. Analyzes ethical psychology instruction principles set forth by the American Psychological Association and how these principles…

Matthews, Janet R.

1991-01-01

176

Integration and Exchange: How Executive MBA Students Envision Ethics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics education provided by universities in general, and MBA programs aimed at future business leaders in particular, has come under intense public scrutiny because of corporate scandals and ethical dilemmas. To date, academic research has been mainly devoted to the characteristics of instruction formats and their effectiveness, characteristics…

Gruber, Verena; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.

2013-01-01

177

Ethical Issues in Mentoring Adults in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines practical problems encountered in mentoring adult learners in higher education through stories of ethical dilemmas. Each incident illustrates the power that mentors possess and the ethical challenges of using this power to help or hurt proteges. Each example addresses an aspect of such power; the power to remove oneself as a…

Hansman, Catherine A.

2009-01-01

178

Environmental Ethics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Ron Epstein of San Francisco State University has compiled this comprehensive online source of information on environmental ethics. The site is simply presented, consisting of a straightforward menu of topics that link mostly to related external Web pages. Topics covered include environmental effects of war, genetic engineering, cloning, indigenous peoples, and much more. While some of the provided links appear to be duds, anyone interested in exploring the field of environmental ethics should find this convenient and well-organized collection of links useful.

179

Communicating Effectively to Resolve Ethical Concerns: The Role of School Psychology Supervisors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is incumbent upon each school psychologist to engage in ethical behavior based on current ethical codes guiding school psychology. The school psychologist is often the team member most knowledgeable regarding federal and state laws mandating educational services. Sometimes ethical dilemmas that school psychologists face are the result of a…

Olley, Rivka I.

2010-01-01

180

Ethical attitudes of students and business professionals: A study of moral reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire on business ethics was administered to business professionals and to upper-class business ethics students. On eight of the seventeen situations involving ethical dilemmas in business, students were significantly more willing to engage in questionable behavior than were their professional counterparts. Apparently, many students were willing to do whatever was necessary to further their own interests, with little or

John A. Wood; Justin G. Longenecker; Joseph A. McKinney; Carlos W. Moore

1988-01-01

181

Teaching a Course on Psychology Ethics to Undergraduates: An Experiential Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details a course for teaching ethics to undergraduates. Argues that participation in service-learning experiences teaches students about moral philosophy and ethical principles for psychologists, and helps them become more sensitive to complex ethical dilemmas involved in psychology and related fields. Reports that students' course evaluations are…

Plante, Thomas G.

1998-01-01

182

Ethics in Physical Activity Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

Kroll, Walter; And Others

1993-01-01

183

Deinstitutionalization in Greece: Ethical problems.  

PubMed

The following paper is based on a Concerted Action which focused on the "Ethical aspects of deistinstutionalisation in mental health care" in 2001. It investigates the development and the ethical dilemmas posed by deinstitutionalization in Greece. This movement has recently undergone a very active phase but the transition from the traditional model of psychiatric care to the community based system unavoidably creates many ethical problems related to the professionals' attitude towards individual liberties, dignity and other fundamental rights of mentally ill persons. These problems exist not only in the level of the therapist-patient relationship but in the level of policy making as well as its implementation. Moreover, the paper deals with specific ethical problems such as stigmatisation and isolation in the community context, as well as the role of the family. PMID:22218080

Ploumpidis, D; Garanis-Papadatos, T; Economou, M

2008-10-01

184

[Public health, genetics and ethics].  

PubMed

Genetics research has shown enormous developments in recent decades, although as yet with only limited clinical application. Bioethical analysis has been unable to deal with the vast problems of genetics because emphasis has been put on the principlism applied to both clinical and research bioethics. Genetics nevertheless poses its most complex moral dilemmas at the public level, where a social brand of ethics ought to supersede the essentially interpersonal perspective of principlism. A more social understanding of ethics in genetics is required to unravel issues such as research and clinical explorations, ownership and patents, genetic manipulation, and allocation of resources. All these issues require reflection based on the requirements of citizenry, consideration of common assets, and definition of public policies in regulating genetic endeavors and protecting the society as a whole Bioethics has privileged the approach to individual ethical issues derived from genetic intervention, thereby neglecting the more salient aspects of genetics and social ethics. PMID:12471377

Kottow, Miguel H

2002-10-01

185

Informed recruitment in partner studies of HIV transmission: an ethical issue in couples research  

PubMed Central

Background Much attention has been devoted to ethical issues related to randomized controlled trials for HIV treatment and prevention. However, there has been less discussion of ethical issues surrounding families involved in observational studies of HIV transmission. This paper describes the process of ethical deliberation about how best to obtain informed consent from sex partners of injection drug users (IDUs) tested for HIV, within a recent HIV study in Eastern Europe. The study aimed to assess the amount of HIV serodiscordance among IDUs and their sexual partners, identify barriers to harm reduction, and explore ways to optimize intervention programs. Including IDUs, either HIV-positive or at high risk for HIV, and their sexual partners would help to gain a more complete understanding of barriers to and opportunities for intervention. Discussion This paper focuses on the ethical dilemma regarding informed recruitment: whether researchers should disclose to sexual partners of IDUs that they were recruited because their partner injects drugs (i.e., their heightened risk for HIV). Disclosing risks to partners upholds the ethical value of respect for persons through informed consent. However, disclosure compromises the IDU's confidentiality, and potentially, the scientific validity of the research. Following a brief literature review, we summarize the researchers' systematic evaluation of this issue from ethical, scientific, and logistical perspectives. While the cultural context may be somewhat unique to Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the issues raised and solutions proposed here inform epidemiological research designs and their underlying ethical tensions. Summary We present ethical arguments in favor of disclosure, discuss how cultural context shapes the ethical issues, and recommend refinement of guidance for couples research of communicable diseases to assist investigators encountering these ethical issues in the future. PMID:19709442

McNutt, Louise-Anne; Gordon, Elisa J; Uusküla, Anneli

2009-01-01

186

Dilemmas in end-stage heart failure  

PubMed Central

Heart failure (HF), a complex clinical syndrome due to structural or functional disorder of the heart, is a major global health issue, with a prevalence of over 5.8 million in the USA alone, and over 23 million worldwide. As a leading cause of hospitalizations among patients aged 65 years or older, HF is a major consumer of healthcare resources, creating a substantial strain on the healthcare system. This paper discusses the epidemiology of HF, financial impact, and multifaceted predicaments in end-stage HF care. A search was conducted on the U.S. National Library of Medicine website (www.pubmed.gov) using keywords such as end-stage heart failure, palliative care, ethical dilemmas. Despite the poor prognosis of HF (worse than that for many cancers), many HF patients, caregivers, and clinicians are unaware of the poor prognosis. In addition, the unpredictable clinical trajectory of HF complicates the planning of end-of-life care, such as palliative care and hospice, leading to underutilization of such resources. In conclusion, ethical dilemmas in end-stage HF are numerous, embroiling not only the patient, but also the caregiver, healthcare team, and society.

Chen-Scarabelli, Carol; Saravolatz, Louis; Hirsh, Benjamin; Agrawal, Pratik; Scarabelli, Tiziano M.

2015-01-01

187

The ethical decision-making processes of information systems workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An empirical investigation was conducted to determine whether management information systems (MIS) majors, on average, exhibit ethical decision-making processes that differ from students in other functional business areas. The research also examined whether the existence of a computer-based information system in an ethical dilemma influences ethical desision-making processes. Although student subjects were used, the research instrument has been highly correlated

David B. Paradice; Roy M. Dejoie

1991-01-01

188

Neonatal ethical decision making: where does the NNP fit in?  

PubMed

Neonatal nurse practitioners are frequently confronted with ethical dilemmas in the NICU. This article reflects on the historical basis of ethical decision making and the issues some novice NNPs face today regarding their participation in the decision-making process. It examines various educational strategies that can be used to help NNPs to develop the skills they need to participate collaboratively in ethical decision making in the NICU. It concludes with recommendations for further research. PMID:11885067

Waltman, P A; Schenk, L K

1999-12-01

189

School Counseling Principles: Ethics and Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practical guide will sensitize the professional school counselor to legal and ethical issues involved in working with minors in school settings. Using a case study approach and more than 100 cases representing school counselors daily dilemmas, chapters help the reader connect the reality of school counseling to critical federal and state…

Stone, Carolyn

2006-01-01

190

Ethical Implications of Computer-Mediated Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the ethical dilemmas related to computer-mediated evaluation. These include issues of anonymity, privacy, confidentiality, informed consent, the disposition of data, and "distance" evaluation. Among the challenges is the development of new notions of professional identity and responsibility. (SLD)

Bennington, Tammy L.

1999-01-01

191

Acting on a living will: a physician's dilemma.  

PubMed

The implementation of a living will can give rise to ethical dilemmas for the patient's family and the health care professionals involved. The case reported here raises questions about the right of patients to self-determination, the importance of quality-of-life considerations in treatment decisions and physicians' obligations with respect to the implementation of living wills. Physicians should ensure in advance that the instructions set out in a living will are unambiguous and should bring to the patient's attention any ethical difficulties that they foresee in carrying out those instructions. PMID:8837536

Gordon, M; Levitt, D

1996-10-01

192

Authenticity or autonomy? When deep brain stimulation causes a dilemma.  

PubMed

While deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease has typically raised ethical questions about autonomy, accountability and personal identity, recent research indicates that we need to begin taking into account issues surrounding the patients' feelings of authenticity and alienation as well. In order to bring out the relevance of this dimension to ethical considerations of DBS, I analyse a recent case study of a Dutch patient who, as a result of DBS, faced a dilemma between autonomy and authenticity. This case study is meant to point out the normatively meaningful tension patients under DBS experience between authenticity and autonomy. PMID:23355227

Kraemer, Felicitas

2013-12-01

193

Ethical Expert Systems  

PubMed Central

The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

Victoroff, Michael S.

1985-01-01

194

Aesthetic/Cosmetic surgery and ethical challenges.  

PubMed

Is aesthetic surgery a business guided by market structures aimed primarily at material gain and profit or a surgical intervention intended to benefit patients and an integral part of the health-care system? Is it a frivolous subspecialty or does it provide a real and much needed service to a wide range of patients? At present, cosmetic surgery is passing through an identity crisis as well as an acute ethical dilemma. A closer look from an ethical viewpoint makes clear that the doctor who offers aesthetic interventions faces many serious ethical problems which have to do with the identity of the surgeon as a healer. Aesthetic surgery that works only according to market categories runs the risk of losing the view for the real need of patients and will be nothing else than a part of a beauty industry which has the only aim to sell something, not to help people. Such an aesthetic surgery is losing sight of real values and makes profit from the ideology of a society that serves only vanity, youthfulness, and personal success. Unfortunately, some colleagues brag that they chose the plastic surgery specialty just to become rich aesthetic surgeons, using marketing tactics to promote their practice. This is, at present, the image we project. As rightly proposed, going back a little to Hippocrates, to the basics of being a physician, is urgently warranted! Being a physician is all that a "cosmetic" surgeon should be. In the long run, how one skillfully and ethically practices the art of plastic surgery will always speak louder than any words. PMID:18820963

Atiyeh, Bishara S; Rubeiz, Michel T; Hayek, Shady N

2008-11-01

195

Ethics in Librarianship: A Management Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a management model of ethical decision making in librarianship. Highlights include a definition of ethics; ethical concerns in information professions; the concept of social responsibility; ethical dimensions of decision making, including access to information and hiring decisions; ethical considerations for managers; and strategies for…

Du Mont, Rosemary Ruhig

1991-01-01

196

General surgeons and clinical ethics: a survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the preoccupation of general surgeons concerning ethics. Design A survey by questionnaire. Participants One thousand members of the Canadian Association of General Surgeons were surveyed through a questionnaire, which inquired about the influence of ethics in their clinical practices. The questionnaire contained 12 questions. There was no recall for those who did not respond. Main outcome measures Responses to questions concerning the sex of the respondents, location of practice, number of years in practice, the presence of hospital support, surgeons’ interest in ethical issues, use of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice in solving ethical dilemmas and level of education in clinical ethics. Results Men made up 95% of the respondents; 64% of respondents had been in practice more than 16 years; 58% came from a community or regional hospital; only 10% had no interest in clinical ethics; only 3% stated that they experienced no ethical problems in their practices; and 52% had no formal education in ethics. Conclusions There was general sensitivity for clinical ethics but an evident lack of formal education and of the presence of ethics committees and ethics consultants in many hospitals. PMID:9854535

Beauchamp, Gilles

1998-01-01

197

Are there Gender Differences in the Ethics Judgments of Marketing Managers?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study found that moral reasoning predicts intention to act in an ethical dilemma, but that this behavior is not modified\\u000a by gender differences. Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action model was used to predict intention to act in ethical dilemmas,\\u000a while the Kohlberg and Gilligan paradigms of moral reasoning were introduced as exogenous variables. The theory of reasoned\\u000a action model

Dove Izraeli; Eugene D. Jaffe

2000-01-01

198

Social Dilemmas: The Anatomy of Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of social dilemmas is the study of the tension between individual and collective rationality. In a social dilemma, individually reasonable be- havior leads to a situation in which everyone is worse off. The first part of this review is a discussion of categories of social dilemmas and how they are modeled. The key two-person social dilemmas (Prisonerís Dilemma,

Peter Kollock

1998-01-01

199

SCIENCE, POLICY & ETHICS MINOR Faculty: Phil Ammirato (Biology), Randall Balmer (Religion), Diane Dittrick (EnvSci), Tim  

E-print Network

SCIENCE, POLICY & ETHICS MINOR Faculty: Phil Ammirato (Biology), Randall Balmer (Religion), Diane of the human genome, privacy issues and ethical dilemmas arising from genetic testing, misguided eugenics in the US and former Soviet Union. The minor in Science, Policy & Ethics, which requires 5 courses total

Halpin-Healy, Tim

200

A Pedagogical Model for Ethical Inquiry into Socioscientific Issues In Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Internationally there is concern that many science teachers do not address socioscientific issues (SSI) in their classrooms, particularly those that are controversial. However with increasingly complex, science-based dilemmas being presented to society, such as cloning, genetic screening, alternative fuels, reproductive technologies and vaccination, there is a growing call for students to be more scientifically literate and to be able to make informed decisions on issues related to these dilemmas. There have been shifts in science curricula internationally towards a focus on scientific literacy, but research indicates that many secondary science teachers lack the support and confidence to address SSI in their classrooms. This paper reports on a project that developed a pedagogical model that scaffolded teachers through a series of stages in exploring a controversial socioscientific issue with students and supported them in the use of pedagogical strategies and facilitated ways of ethical thinking. The study builds on existing frameworks of ethical thinking. It presents an argument that in today's increasingly pluralistic society, these traditional frameworks need to be extended to acknowledge other worldviews and identities. Pluralism is proposed as an additional framework of ethical thinking in the pedagogical model, from which multiple identities, including cultural, ethnic, religious and gender perspectives, can be explored.

Saunders, Kathryn J.; Rennie, Léonie J.

2013-02-01

201

Ethics outside of inpatient care: the need for alliances between clinical and organizational ethics.  

PubMed

The norms and practices of clinical ethics took form relative to the environment and relationships of hospital care. These practices do not easily translate into the outpatient context because the environment and relational dynamics differ. Yet, as outpatient care becomes the center of health care delivery, the experiences of ethical tension for outpatient clinicians warrant greater responses. Although a substantial body of literature on the nature of the doctor-physician relationship has been developed and could provide theoretical groundwork for an outpatient ethics, this literature is not sufficient to support outpatient caregivers in practical dilemmas. For physicians who are employed by or affiliated with a larger organization, a stronger alliance between clinical ethics and organizational ethics, identity, and mission will promote expansion of ethics resources in outpatient settings and address structural constraints in outpatient clinical care. PMID:24609755

Barina, Rachelle

2014-12-01

202

A cross-cultural comparison of nurses' ethical concerns.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare Swedish and Chinese nurses' experiences of ethical dilemmas and workplace distress in order to deepen understanding of the challenges neuroscience nurses encounter in different cultures. Qualitative interviews from two previously performed empirical studies in Sweden and China were the basis of this comparative study. Four common content areas were identified in both studies: ethical dilemmas, workplace distress, quality of nursing and managing distress. The themes formulated within each content area were compared and synthesized into novel constellations by means of aggregated concept analysis. Despite wide differences in the two health care systems, the nurse participants had similar experiences with regard to work stress and a demanding work situation. They were struggling with similar ethical dilemmas, which concerned seriously ill patients and the possibilities of providing good care. This indicates the importance of providing nurses with the tools to influence their own work situation and thereby reducing their work-related stress. PMID:18849365

Wadensten, Barbro; Wenneberg, Stig; Silén, Marit; Ping Fen Tang; Ahlström, Gerd

2008-11-01

203

Syphilis and human experimentation from World War II to the present: a historical perspective and reflections on ethics.  

PubMed

Even after the Nuremberg code was published, research on syphilis often continued to fall far short of ethical standards. We review post-World War II research on this disease, focusing on the work carried out in Guatemala and Tuskegee. Over a thousand adults were deliberately inoculated with infectious material for syphilis, chancroid, and gonorrhea between 1946 and 1948 in Guatemala, and thousands of serologies were performed in individuals belonging to indigenous populations or sheltered in orphanages. The Tuskegee syphilis study, conducted by the US Public Health Service, took place between 1932 and 1972 with the aim of following the natural history of the disease when left untreated. The subjects belonged to a rural black population and the study was not halted when effective treatment for syphilis became available in 1945. PMID:24461955

Cuerda-Galindo, E; Sierra-Valenti, X; González-López, E; López-Muńoz, F

2014-11-01

204

Ethics and Childbirth Educators: Do Your Values Cause You Ethical Distress?  

PubMed Central

The Code of Ethics for Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators outlines the ethical principles and standards that are derived from childbirth education's core values to assure quality and ethical practice. This article presents a summary of the history of ethics and medical ethics that informs a value-oriented decision-making process in childbirth education. The role of evidence in ethics is explored from the childbirth educator's viewpoint, and scenarios are used to reflect on situations that are examples of ethical distress. The conclusion is that the practice of ethics and ethical decision making includes regular reflection. PMID:19436591

Ondeck, Michele

2009-01-01

205

Ethics in perioperative practice--values, integrity, and social policy.  

PubMed

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and should be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this final article of a nine-part series that is designed to help perioperative nurses relate the ANA code to their own area of practice, the author looks at the ninth provision, which emphasizes the responsibility of professional nursing associations to maintain the value and integrity of the profession. PMID:12528493

King, Cecil A; Broom, Catherine

2002-12-01

206

Ethics in perioperative practice--duty to self.  

PubMed

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this fifth of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the ANA code to their own area of practice, the author looks at the fifth statement, which emphasizes commitment to one's self. PMID:12194657

Seifert, Patricia C

2002-08-01

207

Ethics in perioperative practice--accountability and responsibility.  

PubMed

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this third of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the ANA code to their own area of practice, the author looks at the fourth provision statement, which addresses nurses' accountability and responsibility. PMID:12085402

Berlandi, Jackie L

2002-06-01

208

Ethics in perioperative practice--commitment to the patient.  

PubMed

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this fourth of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the ANA code to their own area of practice, the author looks at the second statement, which emphasizes commitment to the patient. PMID:12134400

Seifert, Patricia C

2002-07-01

209

Ethics in perioperative practice--advancing the profession.  

PubMed

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and should be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this seventh of a nine-part series that is designed to help perioperative nurses relate the ANA code to their own area of practice, the author looks at the seventh statement, which emphasizes commitment to the profession. PMID:12382470

King, Cecil A

2002-10-01

210

Code of Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Sociological Association's code of ethics for sociologists is presented. For sociological research and practice, 10 requirements for ethical behavior are identified, including: maintaining objectivity and integrity; fully reporting findings and research methods, without omission of significant data; reporting fully all sources of…

American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.

211

A diagnostic dilemma following risk-reducing surgery for BRCA1 mutation – a case report of primary papillary serous carcinoma presenting as sigmoid cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Women that carry germ-line mutations for BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are at an increased risk of developing breast, ovarian and peritoneal cancer. Primary peritoneal carcinoma is a rare tumour histologically identical to papillary serous ovarian carcinoma. Risk-reducing surgery in the form of mastectomy and oophorectomy in premenopausal women has been recommended to prevent breast and ovarian cancer occurrence and decrease the risk of developing primary peritoneal cancer. Case presentation We present a case report of a woman with a strong family history of breast cancer who underwent risk-reducing surgery in the form of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy following a mastectomy for a right-sided breast tumour. Following the finding of a BRCA1 mutation, a prophylactic left-sided mastectomy was performed. After remaining well for twenty-seven years, she presented with rectal bleeding and altered bowel habit, and was found to have a secondary cancer of the sigmoid colon. She was finally diagnosed with primary papillary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum (PSCP). Conclusion PSCP can present many years after risk-reducing surgery and be difficult to detect. Surveillance remains the best course of management for patients with known BRCA mutations. PMID:17850658

Chand, Manish; Moore, Patrick J; Clarke, Andrew D; Nash, Guy F; Hickisk, Tamas

2007-01-01

212

When Ethics Survive Where People Do Not  

PubMed Central

The provision of health care service in resource-poor settings is associated with a broad set of ethical issues. Devakumar's case discusses the ethical issues related to the inability to treat in a cholera clinic patients who do not have cholera. This paper gives a closer look on the context in which Devakumar's case took place. It also analyses the potential local and organizational factors that gives rise to ethical dilemmas and aggravate them. It also proposes a framework to help in the proactive handling of the factors that leads to ethical dilemmas and resolving the ethical issues as they appear. It adopts the four principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice as universal and prima facie principles, but with the inclusion of a local understanding of what of each of these principles means. It is based on a collaborative approach that involves the beneficiaries and other partners in the field to help share information and resources, as well as adopting the provision of a wider service to the whole community. This is done by asking three basic questions: (a) who are the relevant stakeholders? (b) what ought to be the ethical principles in place? and (c) how should we take, implement and follow the decision about service provision? PMID:20336229

Hussein, Ghaiath M. A.

2010-01-01

213

Breaking the cyber-security dilemma: aligning security needs and removing vulnerabilities.  

PubMed

Current approaches to cyber-security are not working. Rather than producing more security, we seem to be facing less and less. The reason for this is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted security dilemma that extends beyond the state and its interaction with other states. It will be shown how the focus on the state and "its" security crowds out consideration for the security of the individual citizen, with detrimental effects on the security of the whole system. The threat arising from cyberspace to (national) security is presented as possible disruption to a specific way of life, one building on information technologies and critical functions of infrastructures, with relatively little consideration for humans directly. This non-focus on people makes it easier for state actors to militarize cyber-security and (re-)assert their power in cyberspace, thereby overriding the different security needs of human beings in that space. Paradoxically, the use of cyberspace as a tool for national security, both in the dimension of war fighting and the dimension of mass-surveillance, has detrimental effects on the level of cyber-security globally. A solution out of this dilemma is a cyber-security policy that is decidedly anti-vulnerability and at the same time based on strong considerations for privacy and data protection. Such a security would have to be informed by an ethics of the infosphere that is based on the dignity of information related to human beings. PMID:24781874

Dunn Cavelty, Myriam

2014-09-01

214

The paucity of ethical analysis in allergology  

PubMed Central

While a growing body of research is uncovering the aetiology and effective treatments for allergy, research that assess the broader ethical implications of this disease is lacking significantly. This article will demonstrate both the paucity of academic research concerning ethical implications in allergy and explain why ethical analysis is integral to formulating effective health strategies for allergic disease. An exhaustive literature search of publications in French and English identified less than 35 academic articles focussed on the topic of ethics and allergy; this is a miniscule number when compared to the amount of articles published on ethical issues related to other chronic illnesses, such as obesity. It is important to demonstrate to allergy specialists the need for, and utility of, further incorporating ethical analyses in allergology; the current success of Ethical, Legal, Social Implications (ELSI) research programmes in human genetics and nanotechnology will serve as notable examples. Indeed, future research and innovation in allergy will undoubtedly encounter ethical dilemmas and the allergology community should play a significant role in helping to address these issues. However, incorporating ethical analyses in allergology does not imply that the allergology community must acquire extensive knowledge in bioethics; instead, interdisciplinary research that incorporates expertise from allergology and bioethics would enable allergy specialists to advance critical knowledge development in this largely overlooked domain of study. PMID:23388345

2013-01-01

215

The dilemma of evaluating a continuous murmur in a patient of aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva and coronary cameral fistula presenting with supraventricular tachycardia.  

PubMed

A 39-year-old hypothyroid woman on thyroxine replacement therapy presented with an unresolving episode of palpitations (narrow-complex tachycardia). Clinical examination, after reversion to normal sinus rhythm revealed a precordial continuous murmur. Initial transthoracic echocardiogram showed an unruptured aneurysm of left sinus of Valsalva (LSOV), however, because a continuous murmur could not be explained by this condition, a repeat colour Doppler study was made, revealing a communicating tract from the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and terminating in the right atrium (RA). A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed an aneurysmal LMCA and LSOV, with similar colour Doppler findings. A further CT scan and coronary angiogram confirmed a coronary cameral fistula opening into RA. In conclusion, the relevance of a diligent clinical examination and imaging after conversion to normal sinus rhythm in picking up such anomalies cannot be over-emphasised, as previous routine echocardiograms on the same patient had been reported as normal. PMID:25568273

Chugh, Yashasvi; Chugh, Sanjay; Chugh, Sunita

2015-01-01

216

Congenital miliaria crystallina – A diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Miliaria crystallina is a transient, superficial obstruction of eccrine sweat ducts resulting in rapidly evolving noninflammatory vesicles. The disease is observed frequently in hot, humid, tropical climates and in the neonatal period, most likely due to lack of maturation of the sweat duct during the first few days following birth. It is rarely present at delivery and remains a diagnostic dilemma for the neonatologists. We report a rare case of “Congenital miliaria crystallina” that was present at birth. PMID:24532912

Dixit, Sudhir; Jain, Ashish; Datar, Suhas; Khurana, V.K.

2012-01-01

217

Dilemmas related to pregnancy loss.  

PubMed

Women who lose desired pregnancies by miscarriage, stillbirth, genetic termination, or unsuccessful in vitro fertilization are at risk of suffering from grief, anxiety, guilt, and self-blame that may even present in subsequent pregnancies. A review of the literature reveals the dilemmas about effective means of helping women deal with these losses. The approach to stillbirth has shifted from immediately removing the child from the mother to encouraging viewing and holding the baby. This approach has been questioned as possibly causing persistent anxiety. Women who miscarry are currently encouraged to find ways to memorialize the lost fetus. Immediate crisis intervention and follow-up care should be available, recognizing that individual women may experience different reactions and their specific postloss needs must be assessed. PMID:21814082

Robinson, Gail Erlick

2011-08-01

218

Ethics in America II: A Video Series for Middle School, High School, and Adult Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New, and yet familiar, hypothetical cases are debated and agonized over by eminent leaders from government, business, science and academia. "Ethics in America II" follows its predecessor by exploring gripping ethical dilemmas using the time-honored Socratic Dialogue format. The programs can be used with a discussion guide to help teachers engage…

Annenberg Media, 2007

2007-01-01

219

Gift Giving and Receiving in Child-Centered Play Therapy: An Ethical Response  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child-centered play therapists are often confronted with the challenge of receiving gifts from clients. This article highlights recommended strategies when faced with gift receiving, exemplified by actual ethical dilemmas encountered by child-centered play therapists. Ethical and therapeutic considerations of therapist gift giving to child clients…

Blanco, Pedro J.; Sheely-Moore, Angela I.

2012-01-01

220

Ethics in the Work Environment: Applied Bioethics in the Hospital for Delta's Nursing Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1979, Delta College, in Michigan, established a bioethics requirement for all nursing students. This paper describes a project to teach one of the required ethics course to local hospitals to observe students while they work and discuss ethical dilemmas as they arose. Introductory sections discuss project rationale and procedures, indicating…

Plackowski, Linda C.

221

Messy Ethics: Conducting Moral Participatory Action Research in the Crucible of University-School Relations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we argue that when university researchers engage in democratic participatory action research with schools the process requires a special type of attention to the ethical difficulties which can arise. We note how current professional standards of ethics are inadequate to fully address many of the dilemmas faced in collaborative…

Kuriloff, Peter J.; Andrus, Shannon H.; Ravitch, Sharon M.

2011-01-01

222

Ethics in Violence Against Women Research: The Sensitive, the Dangerous, and the Overlooked  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional disciplinary guidelines are inadequate to address some of the ethical di- lemmas that emerge when conducting research on violence against women and girls. This article is organized according to the ethical principles of respect for persons, pri- vacy and confidentiality, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence. In the article, I describe dilemmas involved in cross-cultural research, research on children, in- formed

Lisa Aronson Fontes

2004-01-01

223

A Stream of Conscience: Reflecting on Ethics and Representation in Drama with Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like art, ethics can be a complex and scary mirror that forces us to consider, practice, and profess specific choices that speak to who we are and what we value. The author of this article observes that confronting specific ethical dilemmas within her work with young people has brought various tensions to the forefront of her practice as a…

Alrutz, Megan

2006-01-01

224

Exploring the ethical basis for conservation policy: the case of inbred wolves on Isle Royale, USA  

E-print Network

rules. Empirical conservation ethics integrate social science methods with conservation dilemmasLETTER Exploring the ethical basis for conservation policy: the case of inbred wolves on Isle and Environmental Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA 4 Tourism Research Unit

225

Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda

2010-01-01

226

Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (6 of 7): ethical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Despite the substantial global burden of preterm and stillbirth, little attention has been given to the ethical considerations related to research and interventions in the global context. Ethical dilemmas surrounding reproductive decisions and the care of preterm newborns impact the delivery of interventions, and are not well understood in low-resource settings. Issues such as how to address the moral

Maureen Kelley; Craig E Rubens

2010-01-01

227

Work in Progress - Dystopian Science Fiction as Ethical Case Studies for Undergraduate Engineering Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the use of dystopian science fiction as a means of introducing first-year engineering students to thinking critically about ethics and professional responsibility. Focused academic analysis of films such as Minority Report can enrich students' understanding of the decisions they will face as professional engineers and provide them with tools for evaluating ethical dilemmas. These films allow students

Christina Matta; Laura Grossenbacher

228

Archaeology, Ethics, and Character: Using Our Cultural Heritage to Teach Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Archaeology is a highly interdisciplinary field. Its main goal is to construct culture histories, but it uses many scientific methods in the process. Ethical dilemmas inherent in archaeology make it a good vehicle for teaching ethics and character in the classroom (Moe 2000). The interdisciplinary nature of the field makes it possible to weave…

Moe, Jeanne M.; Coleman, Carolee; Fink, Kristie; Krejs, Kirsti

2002-01-01

229

An Ethic of Connectedness: Enacting Moral School Leadership through People and Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As educators, we grapple with a myriad of dilemmas and often have difficulty resolving issues that relate to curriculum and instruction, funding, facilities and supervision, to name a few. Depending on the leader(s), a variety of ethics come in to play when making decisions. The ethic of connectedness refers to community building and welfare as…

Frick, J. Edward; Frick, William C.

2010-01-01

230

Library Ethics: An Aspirational and Culturally Sensitive Alternative to Its Commandments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cultural diversity raises dilemmas for the library profession, some of which are difficult to resolve on the basis of its absolutist ethical prescriptions. Psychological studies of class, cultural, and gender differences in moral reasoning support a professional ethics based upon care and cultural sensitivity, instead of universal and obligatory…

Spivey, Mark A.

231

Uncle Henry's Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Uncle Henry's Dilemma is a problem solving lesson to determine the global location for the reading of Uncle Henry's will. The students will interpret data sets which include temperature, rainfall, air pollution, travel cost, flight times and health issues to rank five global locations for Uncle Henry's relatives to travel to for the reading of his will. This is an engaging, fun-filled MEA lesson with twists and turns throughout. Students will learn how this procedure of selecting locations can be applied to everyday decisions by the government, a business, a family, or individuals.

Susie Waters

2012-08-01

232

Ethical challenges in biobanking: moving the agenda forward in India.  

PubMed

There is no agreement on the typology and definition of biobanks.The present regulations across countries, including India, focus ongenomic and genetic databases and DNA and cell line biobanking.It is unclear how the range of the holdings of biological samples in diagnostic and research laboratories fall under these regulatory frameworks. Biobank-related research has become very attractive because of advances in sample storage and data processing, a better understanding of the human genome, and high throughput laboratory assays. There is extensive literature and much debate on the subject, especially on the ethical and regulatory dilemmas, in the developed countries, but this is hardly the casein developing countries. This paper is based on a review of the published documents and data, and aims at evaluating the ethical frameworks for biobanking in the Indian context. The issues of"'broad consent; commercialisation of samples, and extended sample use are discussed. The governance of biobanks emerges as an integral part of the ethical responsibilities of institutions. It also makes the implementation of national guidelines possible, and helps to enhance the trust and confidence of local contributors in biobank research. PMID:24727618

Vaz, Manjulika; Vaz, Mario; Srinivasan, K

2014-01-01

233

(The Ethics of) Teaching Science and Ethics: A Collaborative Proposal  

PubMed Central

I offer a normative argument for a collaborative approach to teaching ethical issues in the sciences. Teaching science ethics requires expertise in at least two knowledge domains—the relevant science(s) and philosophical ethics. Accomplishing the aims of ethics education, while ensuring that science ethics discussions remain grounded in the best empirical science, can generally best be done through collaboration between a scientist and an ethicist. Ethics as a discipline is in danger of being misrepresented or distorted if presented by someone who lacks appropriate disciplinary training and experience. While there are exceptions, I take philosophy to be the most appropriate disciplinary domain in which to gain training in ethics teaching. Science students, who must be prepared to engage with many science ethics issues, are poorly served if their education includes a misrepresentation of ethics or specific issues. Students are less well prepared to engage specific issues in science ethics if they lack an appreciation of the resources the discipline of ethics provides. My collaborative proposal looks at a variety of ways scientists and ethicists might collaborate in the classroom to foster good science ethics education. PMID:25574263

Kabasenche, William P.

2014-01-01

234

(The Ethics of) Teaching Science and Ethics: A Collaborative Proposal.  

PubMed

I offer a normative argument for a collaborative approach to teaching ethical issues in the sciences. Teaching science ethics requires expertise in at least two knowledge domains-the relevant science(s) and philosophical ethics. Accomplishing the aims of ethics education, while ensuring that science ethics discussions remain grounded in the best empirical science, can generally best be done through collaboration between a scientist and an ethicist. Ethics as a discipline is in danger of being misrepresented or distorted if presented by someone who lacks appropriate disciplinary training and experience. While there are exceptions, I take philosophy to be the most appropriate disciplinary domain in which to gain training in ethics teaching. Science students, who must be prepared to engage with many science ethics issues, are poorly served if their education includes a misrepresentation of ethics or specific issues. Students are less well prepared to engage specific issues in science ethics if they lack an appreciation of the resources the discipline of ethics provides. My collaborative proposal looks at a variety of ways scientists and ethicists might collaborate in the classroom to foster good science ethics education. PMID:25574263

Kabasenche, William P

2014-12-01

235

Ethics in Action: A Conference on  

E-print Network

Ethics in Action: A Conference on Corporate Social Responsibility Reflecting on the past and inventing the future ETHICAL LEADERSHIP 2 013 CONFERENCE Presented by Rutgers Institute for Ethical Leadership at the Newark Museum April 19, 2013 #12;Mission: We strengthen ethical leadership to enhance civil

Lin, Xiaodong

236

Ethics Perception: Does Teaching Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined student learning in business ethics, particularly ethical judgment, using R. E. Reidenbach and D. P. Robin's (1990) Multidimensional Ethics Scale (MES). The authors asked 262 undergraduate students to provide ethical judgment rating, first at the beginning of the semester and again at the end of the semester. Students…

Nguyen, Nhung T.; Basuray, M. Tom; Smith, William P.; Kopka, Donald; McCulloh, Donald N.

2008-01-01

237

Jehovah's Witness parents' refusal of blood transfusions: Ethical considerations for psychologists.  

PubMed

Psychologists in medical settings may be confronted with Jehovah's Witness parents refusing blood transfusions for their children as an ethical dilemma. The purpose of this discussion is to help psychologists provide informed, ethical consultations and support by investigating the values of the Jehovah's Witness community and the origin of the blood transfusion taboo, how medical and legal professionals have approached this dilemma, exploring relevant ethical principles and standards for psychologists, and suggestions for how to move toward a better understanding of harm with Jehovah's Witness families. PMID:25476572

Hoffman, Anna

2014-12-01

238

Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 2007, this website is a superb tool for learning about the ethical dilemmas engineers face in areas such as emerging technologies, environment, safety and sustainability, and responsible research. Visitors can learn about various ethical dilemmas via the site's collection of "Cases", "Essays & Articles", "Instructional Resources", and "Other Resources". The "Cases" link contains a fascinating collection of historical cases, hypothetical cases, fictionalized cases, numerical problems, and scenarios. Visitors will find cases that address a killer robot, reverse engineering, Internet privacy, and the real case of a "computerized radiation therapy machine and its software flaws, which caused massive overdoses to patients." The "Instructional Resources" link provides various university syllabi for courses on computers and the Internet, as well as a syllabus for a course for both young people and senior citizens which addresses the future of technology. Visitors will also find an informational article on the misuse of emerging technologies, entitled "Antibiotic Resistance and Dual Use".

239

The current state of clinical ethics and healthcare ethics committees in Belgium  

PubMed Central

Ethics committees are the most important practical instrument of clinical ethics in Belgium and fulfil three tasks: the ethical review of experimental protocols, advising on the ethical aspects of healthcare practice, and ethics consultation. In this article the authors examine the current situation of ethics committees in Belgium from the perspective of clinical ethics. Firstly, the most important steps which thus far have been taken in Belgium are examined. Secondly, recent opinion by the Belgian Advisory Committee on Bioethics with regard to ethics committees is presented and the activities of Belgian ethics committees are discussed. Finally, the option to bring research ethics and clinical ethics under the roof of just one committee is criticised using a pragmatic and a methodological argument. Concomitantly, the authors build an argument in favour of the further development of ethics consultation. PMID:15923477

Meulenbergs, T; Vermylen, J; Schotsmans, P

2005-01-01

240

Ethics Updates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.

Hinman, Lawrence M.

241

Ethics and proposals: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Who can read about ethics in technical communication at 2 a.m. when you have to face an ethical problem the next day at work In the middle of ethical turmoil, examining the balance of power can be helpful in finding the best course of action, particularly if the situation is sales- or marketing-related. The author points out that it never hurts to examine honestly all sides of a situation, including checking the balance of power, to see what you would do. In fact, it's the only way to start preparing yourself for your next dilemma. And because all communication can be seen as at least persuasive, if not downright marketing-oriented, each of us may have the opportunity to face our own ethical issues.

Agnew, M.J.

1992-01-01

242

Ethics and proposals: A case study  

SciTech Connect

Who can read about ethics in technical communication at 2 a.m. when you have to face an ethical problem the next day at work? In the middle of ethical turmoil, examining the balance of power can be helpful in finding the best course of action, particularly if the situation is sales- or marketing-related. The author points out that it never hurts to examine honestly all sides of a situation, including checking the balance of power, to see what you would do. In fact, it`s the only way to start preparing yourself for your next dilemma. And because all communication can be seen as at least persuasive, if not downright marketing-oriented, each of us may have the opportunity to face our own ethical issues.

Agnew, M.J.

1992-08-01

243

COLLABORATION: DILEMMAS AND STRATEGIES  

E-print Network

This report examines some of the ethical dimensions of teacher-researcher collaboration. Following a discussion of the trade-offs in collaborative research, the report examines some of the problems related to the topic, including those of identifying the specific roles of teachers and researchers, time constraints, and institutional and political constraints. The report concludes with a list of conditions for successful

Kathryn Meyer Reimer; Bertram C. Bruce; Kathryn Meyer Reimer; Bertram C. Bruce; Diane Bottomley; Eurydice M. Bouchereau; Clark A. Chinn; Judith Davidson; Colleen P. Gilrane; Heriberto Godina; Richard Henne; Carole Janisch; Christopher Kolir; Brian A. Levine; Punyashloke Mishra; Jane Montes; Billie Jo Rylance; Shobha Sinha

1993-01-01

244

Information technology and ethics: An exploratory factor analysis  

SciTech Connect

Ethical dilemmas are situations in which a decision results in unpleasant consequences. The unpleasant consequences are treated as a zero-sum game in which someone always loses. Introducing information technology (IT) to a situation makes the recognition of a potential loser more abstract and difficult to identify, thus an ethical dilemma may go unrecognized. The computer mediates the human relationship which causes a lost sense of contact with a person at the other end of the computer connection. In 1986, Richard O. Mason published an essay identifying privacy, accuracy, property, and Access (PAPA) as the four main ethical issues of the information age. Anecdotes for each issue describe the injured party`s perspective to identify consequences resulting from unethical use of information and information technology. This research sought to validate Mason`s social issues empirically, but with distinct differences. Mason defined issues to raise awareness and initiate debate on the need for a social agenda; our focus is on individual computer users and the attitudes they hold about ethical behavior in computer use. This study examined the attitudes of the computer user who experiences the ethical dilemma to determine the extent to which ethical components are recognized, and whether Mason`s issues form recognizable constructs.

Conger, S. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Loch, K.D. [Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Helft, B.L. [Baruch College, New York, NY (United States)

1994-12-31

245

Five-year experience of clinical ethics consultations in a pediatric teaching hospital.  

PubMed

Our retrospective study presents and evaluates clinical ethics consultations (CECs) in pediatrics as a structure for implementing hospital-wide ethics. We performed a descriptive and statistical analysis of clinical ethics decision making and its implementation in pediatric CECs at Zurich University Children's Hospital. Ninety-five CECs were held over 5 years for 80 patients. The care team reached a consensus treatment recommendation after one session in 75 consultations (89 %) and on 82 of 84 ethical issues (98 %) after two or more sessions (11 repeats). Fifty-seven CECs recommended limited treatment and 23 maximal treatment. Team recommendations were agreed outright by parents and/or patient in 59 of 73 consultations (81 %). Initial dissensus yielded to explanatory discussion or repeat CEC in seven consultations (10 %). In a further seven families (10 %), no solution was found within the CEC framework: five (7 %) required involvement of the child protection service, and in two families, the parents took their child elsewhere. Eventual team-parent/patient consensus was reached in 66 of 73 families (90 %) with documented parental/patient decisions (missing data, n?=?11). Patient preference was assessable in ten CECs. Patient autonomy was part of the ethical dilemma in only three CECs. The Zurich clinical ethics structure produced a 98 % intra-team consensus rate in 95 CECs and reduced initial team-parent dissensus from 21 to 10 %. Success depends closely on a standardized CEC protocol and an underlying institutional clinical ethics framework embodying a comprehensive set of transparently articulated values and opinions, with regular evaluation of decisions and their consequences for care teams and families. PMID:24323344

Streuli, Jürg C; Staubli, Georg; Pfändler-Poletti, Marlis; Baumann-Hölzle, Ruth; Ersch, Jörg

2014-05-01

246

Approaching Ethical Reasoning in Nursing Research through a Communitarian Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies depict dilemmas in nursing research involving protection of community rights and community informed consent. Outlines research guidelines derived from communitarian ethical frameworks that consider beneficence, justice, and respect for autonomy in the context of community. (Contains 58 references.) (SK)

Dresden, Elissa; McElmurry, Beverly J.; McCreary, Linda L.

2003-01-01

247

When Values and Ethics Conflict: The Counselor's Role and Responsibility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the core conditions of client-centered counseling and supported by aspects of psychodynamic, cognitive developmental, and behavioral theories, a perspective is introduced that provides a resolution to the dilemma experienced by counselors and counseling students whose personal values and beliefs conflict with the ethical guidelines of the…

Elliott, Glenda R.

2011-01-01

248

The role of veterinarians in equestrian sport: A comparative review of ethical issues surrounding human and equine sports medicine?  

PubMed Central

Veterinarians have a key role in providing medical care for sports horses during and between competitions, but the standard client:veterinarian relationship that exists in companion and production animal medicine is distorted by the involvement of third parties in sports medicine, resulting in distinct ethical dilemmas which warrant focused academic attention. By comparing the existing literature on human sports medicine, this article reviews the ethical dilemmas which face veterinarians treating equine athletes, and the role of regulators in contributing to or resolving those dilemmas. Major ethical dilemmas occur both between and during competitions. These include conflicts of responsibility, conflicts between the need for client confidentiality and the need to share information in order to maximise animal welfare, and the need for an evidence base for treatment. Although many of the ethical problems faced in human and equine sports medicine are similar, the duty conferred upon a veterinarian by the licensing authority to ensure the welfare of animals committed to his or her care requires different obligations to those of a human sports medicine doctor. Suggested improvements to current practice which would help to address ethical dilemmas in equine sports medicine include an enhanced system for recording equine injuries, the use of professional Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics to establish acceptable responses to common ethical problems, and insistence that treatment of equine athletes is evidence-based (so far as possible) rather than economics-driven. PMID:23773811

Campbell, Madeleine L.H.

2013-01-01

249

The solid waste dilemma  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1976, the U.S. Congress enacted the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to further address the problem of increasing industrial and municipal waste. The main objectives of RCRA were to responsibly manage hazardous and solid waste and to procure materials made from recovered wastes. To fulfill these objectives, four main programs of waste management were developed. These programs were defined under Subtitle C, the Hazardous Waste Program; Subtitle D, the Solid Waste Program; Subtitle I, the Underground Storage Tank Program; and Subtitle J, the Medical Waste Program. Subtitle D illustrates the solid waste dilemma occurring in the United States. Under this program, states are encouraged to develop and implement their own waste management plans. These plans include the promotion of recycling solid wastes and the closing and upgrading of all environmentally unsound dumps. ?? 1996 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

Amey, E.B.; Russell, J.A.; Hurdelbrink, R.J.

1996-01-01

250

The Productivity Dilemma in Manufacturing  

E-print Network

THE PRODUCTIVITY DILEMMA IN MANUFACTURING Thomas G. Byrer Battelle Columbus Division Columbus, Ohio ABSTRACT The crises facing U.S. industry today due to increasing costs of operation, low productivity, lack of modern equipment, lack...

Byrer, T. G.

1983-01-01

251

The dilemma of revealing sensitive information on paternity status in Arabian social and cultural contexts: telling the truth about paternity in Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Telling the truth is one of the most respected virtues in medical history and one of the most emphasized in the code of medical ethics. Health care providers are frequently confronted with the dilemma as to whether or not to tell the truth. This dilemma deepens when both choices are critically vicious: The choice is no longer between "right and right" or "right and wrong," it is between "wrong and wrong." In the case presented and discussed in this paper, a research team in Saudi Arabia unintentionally uncovered information regarding misattributed paternity. In such a situation and in the context of a tribal cultural system, what should the team do with this information? This case analysis demonstrates the joint application of ethical resources originating from within and outside the Saudi Arabian context. The article analyses the case based on the moral problems involved, relevant medical application, and the impact of such information in the Saudi tribal and Islamic domains. The most pertinent relevant values and secular debates on similar matters are discussed. Finally, the article aims to provide an Islamic dimension of family, fatherhood, and adultery. PMID:23180120

Adlan, Abdallah A; ten Have, Henk A M J

2012-12-01

252

A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics  

PubMed Central

This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action.

Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

2014-01-01

253

Ethics Updates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego provides ethics students with a unique kind of meta-page where the user can choose from a wide array of information formats within each of the 23 topics under the main sub-headings of ethical theory and applied ethics. Topics covered include ethical relativism, utilitarianism, race and ethnicity, and euthanasia, among others. Information formats include links to web sites, bibliographies, court decisions, legislation, relevant documents, and articles in popular and professional literature. Much of the site content is adapted from Hinman's books.

254

An assessment of ethics instruction in accounting education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business school faculty have begun to increase ethics instruction, but very little has been done to assess the effectiveness of this instruction. Curricula-wide studies present conflicting results of the effect of ethics integration into the business curricula. Several studies suggest that courses like business ethics and business and society might have an effect on the ethical awareness or ethical reasoning

Kenneth M. Hiltebeitel; Scott K. Jones

1992-01-01

255

Ethics in systematic reviews.  

PubMed

Since its introduction by the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, the place held by ethics in biomedical research has been continuously increasing in importance. The past 30 years have also seen exponential growth in the number of biomedical articles published. A systematic review of the literature is the scientific way of synthesising a plethora of information, by exhaustively searching out and objectively analysing the studies dealing with a given issue. However, the question of ethics in systematic reviews is rarely touched upon. This could lead to some drawbacks, as systematic reviews may contain studies with ethical insufficiencies, may be a possible way to publish unethical research and may also be prone to conflict of interest. Finally, informed consent given for an original study is not necessarily still valid at the systematic review level. There is no doubt that routine ethical assessment in systematic reviews would help to improve the ethical and methodological quality of studies in general. However, ethical issues change so much with time and location, and are so broad in scope and in context that it appears illusory to search for a universal, internationally accepted standard for ethical assessment in systematic reviews. Some simple suggestions could nevertheless be drawn from the present reflection and are discussed in the paper. PMID:20952493

Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Nabet, Cathy; Maret, Delphine; Hamel, Olivier

2010-12-01

256

Ethics Creep: Governing Social Science Research in the Name of Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an analysis of the Canadian ethics review process by a member of a Research Ethics Board. The author suggests that the new formal system for regulating the ethical conduct of scholarly research is experiencing a form of “ethics creep.” This is characterized by a dual process whereby the regulatory system is expanding outward to incorporate a host

Kevin D. Haggerty

2004-01-01

257

Teaching of Legal and Ethical Standards for Marketing Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the importance of stressing business ethics in marketing courses, and presents a model ethical perspectives exercise to stimulate student thinking on legal, ethical, and community considerations of market research.

Franklin D. Krohn

1982-01-01

258

Science and ethics: Some issues for education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethical issues concerning pain and suffering of animals are necessarily a consideration when it comes to killing pest or feral species in Australia. Within a continent where there are no large predators, many introduced animal species such as rabbits, foxes, horses, donkeys, camels, goats, and mice have been able to thrive, competing with the interests of farmers and graziers, and livestock and food production. These species, thus, gain the label of pest. Many methods now exist to kill these species and, consequently, ethical issues arise concerning the possible pain and suffering caused as a direct result of these methods. Yet within government and scientific communities, ethical issues are reduced to a secondary consideration without serious debate or contention. Ethical issues appear to be at odds with scientific agendas. How can environmental ethics be incorporated as part of science-based decision making that appeals to objectivity and scientific evidence? Within educational institutions as well, the same dilemma exists: How can ethical issues be addressed within the science curriculum and in the classroom? A greater understanding of various perspectives on the subject of environmental ethics and the value positions advocated by proponents of these perspectives may help teachers consider ways of handling such issues in the science classroom.

Andrew, Jennifer; Robottom, Ian

2001-11-01

259

The Ethics of Human Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This chapter intends to lay out some essential ethics questions that might frame the next step of space exploration. In this, I undertake two sorts of tasks. The first is to respond to the core ethic question: Is it ethical to travel in space? The second, assuming for the moment that I can convince you that the first premise can be justified, is to comment on what ethical challenges will face us there. It is appropriate to have a philosopher comment on this at the fortieth anniversary celebration, since it was also in 1962 that the National Academy of Science first convened a panel of philosophers to comment on space travel. They asked at that time whether it was indeed a worthwhile pursuit to travel in space and what might be expected of such an effort. What is at stake in any such boundary crossing is how the changing of essential human perimeters changes our own moral status. Will such boundary crossing worsen our human condition, or will it enhance it? In this way, the geopolitical quest is then linked to the quest for ontology, Pisarro hunting for the fountain of youth, for gold, and for territory. What follows are a series of ethical claims that link the problem of discovery in the larger world and the attendant ethical dilemmas of our explorations, as well as how this exploration alters our concepts of life on Earth. In this, the role of the ethicist is to function as both a skeptic and a stranger, aware of the optimism of science and the pessimism of philosophy.

Zoloth, Laurie

2005-01-01

260

Egocentric Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical judgments are often egocentrically biased, such that moral reasoners tend to conclude that self-interested outcomes are not only desirable but morally justifiable. Although such egocentric ethics can arise from deliberate self-interested reasoning, we suggest that they may also arise through unconscious and automatic psychological mechanisms. People automatically interpret their perceptions egocentrically, automatically evaluate stimuli on a semantic differential as

Nicholas Epley; Eugene M. Caruso

2004-01-01

261

Ethical Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

Morris, Michael

2004-01-01

262

Managing complexity: An integration of ethics, management, and technology viewed through the Dow Corning silicone implant case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is a contextual examination of an ethical organizational dilemma complicated by elaborate and interrelated systems or soft technologies. Dow Corning's silicone breast implant case is analyzed by example, to show the usefulness of a more varied, flexible, and multi-faceted approach to ethics and management in the midst of a rapidly expanding technological society. This case represents an ongoing

Patricia Jane Tod

1999-01-01

263

Ethics CORE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ethics CORE Digital Library, funded by the National Science Foundation, "brings together information on best practices in research, ethics instruction and responding to ethical problems that arise in research and professional life." It's a remarkable site where visitors can make their way through ethics resources for dozens of different professions and activities. The Resources by Discipline area is a great place to start. Here you will find materials related to the biological sciences, business, computer & information science, along with 14 additional disciplines. The Current News area is a great place to learn about the latest updates from the field. Of note, these pieces can easily be used in the classroom or shared with colleagues. The dynamism of the site can be found at the Interact with Ethics CORE area. Active learning exercises can be found here, along with instructional materials and visitors' own lessons learned.

264

Moral–Ethical Character and Science Education: EcoJustice Ethics Through Socioscientific Issues (SSI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Socioscientific issues (SSI) provide situations where science teachers and students analyze complex issues associated with\\u000a ethical, political, and social dilemmas, such as whether animals should be kept in zoos or whether plants should be genetically\\u000a modified. While engaging in socioscientific issues, students become informed about scientific conditions and develop epistemological\\u000a styles for dealing with scientific research and the consequences thereof.

Michael P. Mueller; Dana L. Zeidler

265

Ethics in sports medicine.  

PubMed

Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues. PMID:17218662

Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

2007-05-01

266

Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?  

MedlinePLUS

... Dairy Dilemma Dairy Dilemma Are You Getting Enough Calcium? You may be avoiding dairy products because of ... But dairy products are a major source of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that are important ...

267

Nursing and genetics: applying the American Nurses Association's Code of Ethics.  

PubMed

A professional code of ethics is essential for behaviors to be reinforced in any discipline. The American Nurses Association (ANA) has established a code of ethics for nurses to use as a framework for making ethical decisions with all aspects of health care delivered to the public. With the explosion of genetic discoveries, nurses and clients are facing new ethical dilemmas. It is important for nurses to understand how to use the ANA Code of Ethics when faced with the many complexities of ethical issues involving genetics and health care. This article illustrates how the ANA Code of Ethics can be applied in nursing practice to establish professional behaviors related to ethical issues and genetics. PMID:15806508

Dugas, Robbie

2005-01-01

268

A professional code of ethics provides guidance for genetic nursing practice.  

PubMed

While ethical quandaries and dilemmas are commonplace for nurses, recent advances in human genetics have and will continue to create new challenges and controversies. Throughout time, nursing has been an ethical endeavour, with nurses viewing the ethical mandates of their responsibilities on a par with other core dimensions of their professional life. The (American) profession's code of ethics, Code for nurses with interpretive statements, provides direction for practice and for the fulfillment of ethical obligations. The explication of these ethical norms and values that shape professional practice is necessary as nurses confront the integration of genetic services into health care. The goal of preserving professional integrity and ethical soundness in the context of genetic health care mandates that nurses rely on and act upon the profession's national and international codes of ethics. PMID:10986949

Scanlon, C

2000-05-01

269

Managing wildlife ethics issues ethically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlifers seldom write about ethics, yet ethical issues are among the most intractable of wildlife management issues. Society's value orientations about wildlife have been changing slowly over the last several decades. An increasingly urbanized and educated population no longer unequivocally supports wildlife management programs that tend to regard wildlife as utilitarian objects. State wildlife agencies and their employees have been

R. Bruce Gill

2000-01-01

270

Ethical Standards Casebook. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this casebook for counselors presents the 1981 Ethical Standards of the American Personnel and Guidance Association, now the American Association for Counseling and Development. The second part of the book presents individual ethical standards followed by several incidents intended to illustrate and clarify the meaning of the…

Callis, Robert; And Others

271

Evolutionary Stability in the Traveler's Dilemma  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The traveler's dilemma is a generalization of the prisoner's dilemma which shows clearly a paradox of game theory. In the traveler's dilemma, the strategy chosen by analysis and theory seems obviously wrong intuitively. Here we develop a measure of evolutionary stability and show that the evolutionarily stable equilibrium is in some sense not very…

Barker, Andrew T.

2009-01-01

272

Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 385. Professional and Ethical Issues in Computer Science (1) Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing in computer science. Student presentations and discussions of case studies relating to computer ethics.

Vetter, Ron

2003-04-21

273

Some Ethical-Moral Concerns in Administration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents and analyzes moral-ethical issues that arise in administration and concludes that past descriptive, objective, and scientific approaches to administration have failed to take full account of the moral-ethical dimension of human existence. (Author/WD)

Enns, Frederick

1981-01-01

274

‘Utilitarian’ judgments in sacrificial moral dilemmas do not reflect impartial concern for the greater good  

PubMed Central

A growing body of research has focused on so-called ‘utilitarian’ judgments in moral dilemmas in which participants have to choose whether to sacrifice one person in order to save the lives of a greater number. However, the relation between such ‘utilitarian’ judgments and genuine utilitarian impartial concern for the greater good remains unclear. Across four studies, we investigated the relationship between ‘utilitarian’ judgment in such sacrificial dilemmas and a range of traits, attitudes, judgments and behaviors that either reflect or reject an impartial concern for the greater good of all. In Study 1, we found that rates of ‘utilitarian’ judgment were associated with a broadly immoral outlook concerning clear ethical transgressions in a business context, as well as with sub-clinical psychopathy. In Study 2, we found that ‘utilitarian’ judgment was associated with greater endorsement of rational egoism, less donation of money to a charity, and less identification with the whole of humanity, a core feature of classical utilitarianism. In Studies 3 and 4, we found no association between ‘utilitarian’ judgments in sacrificial dilemmas and characteristic utilitarian judgments relating to assistance to distant people in need, self-sacrifice and impartiality, even when the utilitarian justification for these judgments was made explicit and unequivocal. This lack of association remained even when we controlled for the antisocial element in ‘utilitarian’ judgment. Taken together, these results suggest that there is very little relation between sacrificial judgments in the hypothetical dilemmas that dominate current research, and a genuine utilitarian approach to ethics. PMID:25460392

Kahane, Guy; Everett, Jim A.C.; Earp, Brian D.; Farias, Miguel; Savulescu, Julian

2015-01-01

275

The Importance of Teaching Ethics of Sustainability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the importance of a focus on ethics in sustainability education and present results from a pilot graduate-level course titled the Ethics of Sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: This is a case study presenting a qualitative evaluation from a pilot 14-week Ethics of Sustainability course.…

Biedenweg, Kelly; Monroe, Martha C.; Oxarart, Annie

2013-01-01

276

Ethics and the pediatric perioperative nurse (continuing education credit).  

PubMed

1. Nurses encounter a number of ethical issues specific to the pediatric patient; however, they participate in surgical procedures that are the result of decisions made elsewhere, and in which they have little or no input. Nurses may believe that decisions are based on the best interest of the decision makers, and not the best interest of the patient. 2. Ethical problems often occur when one asks oneself the question, "What should I do?" Ethical problems exist when available facts and information do not make it clear what must be done and uncertainty prevails about which action to choose. 3. By using a rational approach to the resolution of ethical dilemmas, decisions based on emotions and incomplete information can be avoided. The nurse must identify these issues, act on them, and evaluate results. The evaluation of actions will assist nurses in developing an understanding of ethical decision making and its application to practice issues on a regular basis. PMID:8140605

Hamblet, J L

1994-01-01

277

Presentations  

Cancer.gov

Presentations Name Position Presentation (ppt) Sudhir Srivastava, PhD, MPH Chief, Cancer Biomarkers Research Group Metabolomics: An Untapped Frontier (ppt, 161kb) John Milner, PhD Chief, Nutritional Sciences research Group Can Metabolomics

278

Reflecting on the ethical administration of computerized medical records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation examines the ethical issues raised by computerized image management and communication systems (IMAC), the ethical principals that should guide development of policies, procedures and practices for IMACS systems, and who should be involved in developing a hospital's approach to these issues. The ready access of computerized records creates special hazards of which hospitals must beware. Hospitals must maintain confidentiality of patient's records while making records available to authorized users as efficiently as possible. The general conditions of contemporary health care undermine protecting the confidentiality of patient record. Patients may not provide health care institutions with information about themselves under conditions of informed consent. The field of information science must design sophisticated systems of computer security that stratify access, create audit trails on data changes and system use, safeguard patient data from corruption, and protect the databases from outside invasion. Radiology professionals must both work with information science experts in their own hospitals to create institutional safeguards and include the adequacy of security measures as a criterion for evaluating PACS systems. New policies and procedures on maintaining computerized patient records must be developed that obligate all members of the health care staff, not just care givers. Patients must be informed about the existence of computerized medical records, the rules and practices that govern their dissemination and given the opportunity to give or withhold consent for their use. Departmental and hospital policies on confidentiality should be reviewed to determine if revisions are necessary to manage computer-based records. Well developed discussions of the ethical principles and administrative policies on confidentiality and informed consent and of the risks posed by computer-based patient records systems should be included in initial and continuing staff system training. Administration should develop ways to monitor staff compliance with confidentiality policies and should assess diligence in maintaining patient record confidentiality as part of staff annual performance evaluations. Ethical management of IMAC systems is the business of all members of the health care team. Computerized patient records management (including IMAC) should be scrutinized as any other clinical medial ethical issue. If hospitals include these processes in their planning for RIS, IMACS, and HIS systems, they should have time to develop institutional expertise on these questions before and as systems are installed rather than only as ethical dilemmas develop during their use.

Collmann, Jeff R.

1995-05-01

279

Ethics (lesson)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine some examples of ethical issues that have resulted from our expanded knowledge of neuroscience. They are asked to write a position paper describing their own point of view on one of these controversial topics.

2009-04-14

280

Ethical Dilemmas of In-Service Music Educators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like professionals in other disciplines, music educators are expected to observe certain behavioral standards. In addition to teaching musical skills, concepts, and context, music educators are also expected to protect the welfare of children, serve as trustworthy stewards of public property, and generally behave responsibly and professionally…

Lien, Joelle L.

2012-01-01

281

Use of animals in experimental research: an ethical dilemma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mankind has been using animals already for a long time for food, for transport and as companion. The use of animals in experimental research parallels the development of medicine, which had its roots in ancient Greece (Aristotle, Hippocrate). With the Cartesian philosophy in the 17th century, experiments on animals could be performed without great moral problems. The discovery of anaesthetics

V Baumans

2004-01-01

282

Analytics For Distracted Driver Behavior Modeling in Dilemma Zone  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we present the results obtained and insights gained through the analysis of TRB contest data. We used exploratory analysis, regression, and clustering models for gaining insights into the driver behavior in a dilemma zone while driving under distraction. While simple exploratory analysis showed the distinguishing driver behavior patterns among different popu- lation groups in the dilemma zone, regression analysis showed statically signification relationships between groups of variables. In addition to analyzing the contest data, we have also looked into the possible impact of distracted driving on the fuel economy.

Li, Jan-Mou [ORNL] [ORNL; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL] [ORNL; Thakur, Gautam [ORNL] [ORNL; Vatsavai, Raju [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

283

Teaching Medical Ethics during Residency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three reasons for teaching medical ethics during residency are presented. Key ethical concepts to be addressed include moral aspects of medical practice, obtaining informed consent, dealing with incompetent patients and those who refuse treatment, knowing when to withhold or disclose clinical information, and using medical resources properly. (MSE)

Perkins, Henry S.

1989-01-01

284

Understanding the National Energy Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This graphic representation of our energy dilemma provides government officials, industry, and general public with an understanding of the broad problems and complexity of our energy crisis. An energy display system projects effects of energy policies on our domestic energy situation. This display contains sheets indicating total energy flow…

Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC. Center for Strategic and International Studies.

285

Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses American Psychological Association code of ethics to understand ethical issues present in the conduct of supervision. Discusses ethical issues of responsibility, client and supervisee welfare, confidentiality, competency, moral and legal standards, public statements, and professional relationships in relation to supervision. (Author/NB)

Sherry, Patrick

1991-01-01

286

[Bioethics in medical institutions--new custom or help? The example of clinical ethics consultation at a University Medical Center].  

PubMed

Although ethics committees are well established in the medical sciences for human clinical trials, animal research and scientific integrity, the development of clinical ethics in German hospitals started much later during the first decade of the twenty-first century. Clinical ethics consultation should be pragmatic and problem-centered and can be defined as an ethically qualified and informed conflict management within a given legal framework to deal with and resolve value-driven, normative problems in the care of patients. Clinical ethics consultations enable shared clinical decision-making of all parties (e.g. clinicians, patients, family and surrogates) involved in a particular patient's care. The clinical ethicist does not act as an ethics expert by making independent recommendations or decisions; therefore, the focus is different from other medical consultants. Ethics consultation was first established by healthcare ethics committees (HEC) or clinical ethics consultation (CEC) groups which were called in to respond to an ethically problematic situation. To avoid ethical dilemmas or crises and to act preventively with regard to ethical issues in individual patients, an ethics liaison service is an additional option to ethics case consultations which take place on a regular basis by scheduled ethics rounds during the normal ward rounds. The presence of the ethicist offers some unique advantages: it allows early recognition of even minor ethical problems and accommodates the dynamics of ethical and clinical goal-setting in the course of patient care. Most importantly, regular and non-authoritative participation of the ethicist in normal ward rounds allows continuous ethical education of the staff within the everyday clinical routine. By facilitating clinical ethical decision-making, the ethicist seeks to empower physicians and medical staff to deal appropriately with ethical problems by themselves. Because of this proactive approach, the ethics liaison service can make a significant contribution to preventative ethics in reducing the number of emerging ethical problems to the satisfaction of all parties involved. PMID:24902533

Richter, G

2014-08-01

287

Bioethical dimensions of cultural psychosomatics: the need for an ethical research approach.  

PubMed

Contemporary psychosomatics is a research-based technical discipline and its social power depends on how scientific knowledge is obtained and applied in practice, considering cultural contexts. This article presents the view that the dialogical principles on which bioethical discourse is based are more inclusive than professional ethics and philosophical reflection. The distinction is advanced between rule-guided behavior and norm-justifiable acts (substantiation and justification). The practical implications of good practices in the generation of valid, reliable, generalizable and applicable knowledge are emphasized. For practitioners and researchers, the need to reflect on the distinction between patient and research participant can avoid the therapeutic misunderstanding, a form of abuse of the doctor-patient relationship. In addition, in resource-poor settings, the dilemma presented by the know-do gap (inapplicability of research results due to financial or social constraints) is part of the ethics' realm of the profession. Future prospects include a wider use of research results in practice, but avoidance of the know-do gap (the disparity between what is known and what can be done, particularly in settings with limited resources) requires a synthetic and holistic approach to medical ethics, combining moral reflection, theoretical analysis and empirical data. PMID:23816868

Lolas, Fernando

2013-01-01

288

Ethics of vaccination programs.  

PubMed

Ethical issues are present at each stage in the vaccine product life cycle, the period extending from the earliest stages of research through the eventual design and implementation of global vaccination programs. Recent developments highlight fundamental principles of vaccine ethics and raise unique issues for ongoing vaccination activities worldwide. These include the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination campaign, renewed attention to the potential global eradication of polio, and the ongoing evaluation of vaccine risk controversies, most notably the alleged link between childhood vaccines and autism. These cases present ethical challenges for public health policy-makers, scientists, physicians, and other stakeholders in their efforts to improve the health of individuals, communities, and nations through vaccination. PMID:22440783

Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L

2011-10-01

289

Presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by the pioneering work of Abbas Edalat, several authors have sought to develop the theory of integration on a domain-theoretic foundation. The so-called “theory of charges” (finitely additive measures on algebras) provides tools for extending Edalat's original program of a general Riemann integral to a very wide class of domains. We present the appropriate definitions and general results that

Jimmie Lawson

2001-01-01

290

Motivational Correlations of Strategy Choices in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the motivational dimensions assessed by the Motivation Analysis Test and prisoner's dilemma game behavior as measured both by the number of competitive strategy choices and the two-stage stochastic variables labelled trustworthiness, forgiveness, repentance, and trust by Rapoport.

Williams, Carl D.; Steele, Matthew W.; Tedeschi, James T.

1969-01-01

291

Teaching the Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma with a Computerized Tournament  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors present a constructivist approach for teaching game theory, on the basis, in part, of Axelrod's research approach. Using the Axelrod tournament multi-user system (ATMUS) software, students create strategies for a repeated prisoner's dilemma (RPD). Later, these strategies are matched with those of their classmates' in a classroom…

Lange, Carsten; Baylor, Amy L.

2007-01-01

292

Monty's Dilemma with No Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article presents an attempt to analyse Monty's dilemma by means of conversational formula-free dialogues and to simulate the problem by composing isomorphic stories. The crucial roles of specifying the underlying scenarios and explicating epistemic and probabilistic assumptions are highlighted.

Falk, Ruma

2014-01-01

293

Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system.  

PubMed

The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine. PMID:24802645

Millstone, Michael

2014-06-01

294

Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies in Mathematics and Statistics  

E-print Network

Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies Ethics in Mathematics Questions ? Case Studies Outline Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies #12;Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies References · Laura Shanner, Prof

Hillen, Thomas

295

Engineering Ethics Education Having Reflected Various Values and a Global Code of Ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the present day, a movement trying to establish a global code of ethics for science and engineering is in activity. The author overviews the context of this movement, and examines the possibility of engineering ethics education which uses global code of ethics. In this paper, the engineering ethics education which uses code of ethics in general will be considered, and an expected function of global code of ethics will be also. Engineering ethics education in the new century should be aimed to share the values among different countries and cultures. To use global code of ethics as a tool for such education, the code should include various values, especially Asian values which engineering ethics has paid little attention to.

Kanemitsu, Hidekazu

296

Ethical Mindfulness and Reflexivity: Managing a Research Relationship with Children and Young People in a 14-Year Qualitative Longitudinal Research (QLR) Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article draws on the articulation of a value for reflexivity that has accumulated within qualitative methods debates in the past decade. It demonstrates how reflexivity is interwoven with the concept of ethical mindfulness. The argument has developed from a consideration of the ethical dilemmas that were a salient aspect of an ongoing…

Warin, Jo

2011-01-01

297

Engineering ethics beyond engineers' ethics.  

PubMed

Engineering ethics is usually focused on engineers' ethics, engineers acting as individuals. Certainly, these professionals play a central role in the matter, but engineers are not a singularity inside engineering; they exist and operate as a part of a complex network of mutual relationships between many other people, organizations and groups. When engineering ethics and engineers' ethics are taken as one and the same thing the paradigm of the ethical engineer which prevails is that of the heroic engineer, a certain model of the ideal engineer: someone both quite individualistic and strong enough to deal with all the moral challenges that could arise. We argue that this is not the best approach, at least today in our interrelated world. We have achieved a high degree of independence from nature by means of technology. In exchange for this autonomy we have become increasingly tied up with very complex systems to which we constantly delegate new tasks and powers. Concerns about safety keep growing everywhere due to the fact that now we have a sensitive awareness of the huge amount of power we are both consuming and deploying, thus, new forms of dialogue and consensus have to be incorporated at different levels, in different forums and at different times. Within these democratic channels of participation not just the needs and interests, but also the responsibilities and mutual commitments of all parties should be taken into account. PMID:21761243

Basart, Josep M; Serra, Montse

2013-03-01

298

ETHICS COM M ISSION STATE OF OKLAHOM A  

E-print Network

ETHICS COM M ISSION STATE OF OKLAHOM A 2008 ETHICS MANUAL for STATE OFFICERS and STATE EMPLOYEES under the Constitutional Ethics Rules July 1, 2008 #12;Legal Authority, Mission, Objectives The present Ethics Commission [" Commission" ] w as established under Article XXIX of the Oklahoma Constitution

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

299

Ethical Decision-Making: Issues and Applications to American Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ethical decision making within American sports, explaining its evolution from nobility and virtue to win at all costs. Presents various views and perspectives on ethics. Also describes how established codes of ethics can assist interscholastic athletic programs, how professionals can establish an ethical workplace, and how decisions can…

Conn, James H.; Gerdes, Daniel A.

1998-01-01

300

ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH  

Cancer.gov

Ethical dilemmas and regulatory concerns are highly significant in today's cancer research environment. Deep sequencing and bioinformatics technologies that enable identification of molecular signatures of cancer create novel ethical and regulatory challenges, including protecting research participant autonomy and privacy as increasing amounts of data are accumulated. As cancer research becomes more focused on a vision of genetically informed clinical care and precision medicine, decision-making becomes both more complex and more critical.

301

An Integrated Model for Ethical Decisions in Marketing Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

While many models of ethical decision-making in marketing have been presented in the literature, no recent attempts have been made to explicitly account for ethical decision-making from a marketing research perspective. We present an ethical framework for marketing research, the various philosophies of ethics, and a few enduring marketing ethical decision-making models, thus laying the foundation for a descriptive model

Naresh K. Malhotra; Gina L. Miller

1998-01-01

302

Principles for Professional Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews principles based on assumptions that school psychologists will act as advocates for their clients and will do no harm. Includes sections on professional competency, relationships and responsibilities, and practice in public and private settings. Presents extensive information on procedural guidelines for adjudication of ethical complaints.…

School Psychology Review, 1997

1997-01-01

303

Computer ethics: A capstone course  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a capstone course on computer ethics required for all computer science majors in our program. The course was designed to encourage students to evaluate their own personal value systems in terms of the established values in computer science as represented by the ACM Code of Ethics. The structure, activities, and topics of the course as well as assessment of the students are presented. Observations on various course components and student evaluations of the course are also presented.

Fisher, T.G. [St. Cloud State Univ., MN (United States); Abunawass, A.M. [Western Illinois Univ., Macomb, IL (United States)

1994-12-31

304

Ethics Committee (COMETS) Ethics and expert assessments  

E-print Network

Ethics Committee (COMETS) Ethics and expert assessments ajor topicExpert assessments are an area of the CNRS, the French National Centre for Scientific Research, made a formal request to the ethics committee programme on Ethics and Evaluation (see http://www2.cnrs.fr/band/254.htm), the COMETS began its study

van Tiggelen, Bart

305

Ethics Checklist Senate Committee on Ethics  

E-print Network

Ethics Checklist 1 Senate Committee on Ethics in Human Research and Scholarship (SCEHRS) Revised: July 2010 Category `B' Human Ethics Checklist Category B includes all research/scholarship not exempted from ethics review that is NOT about an individual in the public arena or an artist. This Checklist

Martin, Jeff

306

Ethics Checklist Senate Committee on Ethics  

E-print Network

Ethics Checklist 1 Senate Committee on Ethics in Human Research and Scholarship (SCEHRS) Revised: July 2010 Category `A' Human Ethics Checklist Category A includes research/scholarship about a living and for categories of research/scholarship exempted from ethics review, see the SCHERS Policies and Procedures

Martin, Jeff

307

Introduction to Ethics What is Ethics?  

E-print Network

Introduction to Ethics #12;What is Ethics? Morality concerns the norms (rules, principles) we accept regarding how to treat one another. Ethics is the study of these norms ­ what they are and how we attempt to justify them. #12;What Ethics Isn't Morality and religion are not the same thing; the norms

Callender, Craig

308

Reflections on ethical issues in psychopharmacology: an American perspective.  

PubMed

Psychopharmacology has revolutionized psychiatric practice but raises a number of ethical issues. This review from an American perspective first describes ethics analyses and attempts to portray the ethical practitioner. Pressures that interfere with appropriate prescribing come from outside the prescriber and from within, including from insurers, other treatment staff and the prescriber's own will to act for the patient. Clinicians also face binds in which alternate choices seem to have merit and leave the prescriber feeling pulled in contradictory directions, frequently related to risk-benefit dilemmas. The ethics of psychopharmacology poses many questions that cannot yet be answered at the current state of the field. Pharmacology also seems to promote extremes of attitudes, such as "All such drugs are poisons" and the like. This review then provides some risk management principles, and concludes that such a review, though not comprehensive, may serve to open questions that are not always considered by clinicians. PMID:23063110

Gutheil, Thomas G

2012-01-01

309

Preschoolers face moral dilemmas: a longitudinal study of acknowledging and resolving internal conflict.  

PubMed

Following on from research that indicated significant moral internalisations by age 3, using a play narrative approach in which children were asked to complete story stems describing a range of moral dilemmas, the purpose of this study was to replicate the results, extend them with longitudinal information and assess the child's developing capacities to acknowledge both sides of moral dilemmas and resolve them in a prosocial way. Fifty-one children were presented with three enacted story stems describing moral dilemmas as they might occur in everyday life. Story completions were obtained from children at ages 3, 4, and 5 and were coded for the level of acknowledgement of the dilemmas and the degree of prosocialness involved in story resolution. Results included the following: firstly, some children acknowledged the dilemmas and resolved them prosocially as early as age 3; secondly, the ability to acknowledge dilemmas and resolve them improved with age; and thirdly, children showed a greater capacity to acknowledge dilemmas with support from an examiner. The implications of these findings for our understanding early moral development are discussed, along with questions pointing to new research. PMID:9459096

Oppenheim, D; Emde, R N; Hasson, M; Warren, S

1997-10-01

310

The Prisoners' (Plea Bargain) Dilemma  

E-print Network

of the criminal process and of lawyers’ ethics undermine thelawyer is common and clearly permissible in the civil context, the situation is more complicated in the criminalLawyers .. 31 IV. E XTENSIONS . 36 A. Non-Criminal

Bar-Gill, Oren; Ben-Shahar, Omri

2007-01-01

311

Selecting the Perfect Baby The Ethics of "Embryo Design"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This dilemma case is based on the true story of Jack and Lisa Nash, whose daughter Molly was born with a rare genetic disorder, Fanconi anemia. By having another child with specific genetic markers, the Nashes hoped to cure Molly using stem cells from the new baby’s umbilical cord blood. Students learn about developmental disorders and consider the ethical issues of genetic manipulation and fertility treatments. Although the case was written for beginning developmental psychology students, the issues raised involving genetic manipulation, advances in medical technology, and scientific ethics would be relevant in many other science courses.

Julia Omarzu

2002-01-01

312

The great downside dilemma for risky emerging technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some emerging technologies promise to significantly improve the human condition, but come with a risk of failure so catastrophic that human civilization may not survive. This article discusses the great downside dilemma posed by the decision of whether or not to use these technologies. The dilemma is: use the technology, and risk the downside of catastrophic failure, or do not use the technology, and suffer through life without it. Historical precedents include the first nuclear weapon test and messaging to extraterrestrial intelligence. Contemporary examples include stratospheric geoengineering, a technology under development in response to global warming, and artificial general intelligence, a technology that could even take over the world. How the dilemma should be resolved depends on the details of each technology’s downside risk and on what the human condition would otherwise be. Meanwhile, other technologies do not pose this dilemma, including sustainable design technologies, nuclear fusion power, and space colonization. Decisions on all of these technologies should be made with the long-term interests of human civilization in mind. This paper is part of a series of papers based on presentations at the Emerging Technologies and the Future of Humanity event held at the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 17 March 2014.

Baum, Seth D.

2014-12-01

313

Selected anatomists: at the boundary of contemporary ethics.  

PubMed

Fascination with the interworkings of the human body has permeated scientific discovery for eons. Materials for dissection proved problematic for anatomists. Andreas Vesalius solved his dilemma by visiting local gallows where criminals had been executed. Eduard Pernkopf has been alleged to have taken some of his materials from victims of the Holocaust. Even today, executed criminals have served as subjects for anatomical educational purposes. These circumstances are explored and the contemporary ethics of each are compared. PMID:23324845

Arango, Dillon; Greiffenstein, Patrick; O'Leary, James Patrick

2013-01-01

314

Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe…

Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

2014-01-01

315

Business ethics: A literature review with a focus on marketing ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the business ethics literature has exploded in both volume and importance. Because of the sheer volume and diversity of this literature, a review article was deemed necessary to provide focus and clarity to the area. The present paper reviews the literature on business ethics with a special focus in marketing ethics. The literature is divided into normative

John Tsalikis; David J. Fritzsche

1989-01-01

316

Regulations and Ethical Considerations for Astronomy Education Research III: A Suggested Code of Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research…

Brogt, Erik; Foster, Tom; Dokter, Erin; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

2009-01-01

317

Virtual decisions: video game ethics, Just Consequentialism, and ethics on the fly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video games are ethically controversial. Some video games are effective training tools for learning various skills and approaches to problem-solving, but some video games are notorious for promoting discriminatory and barbaric behavior. We consider such ethical pros and cons of video games, but we also present a more fundamental ethical issue about video games. Most video games have a bias

Don Gotterbarn; James Moor

2009-01-01

318

Regulations and Ethical Considerations for Astronomy Education Research III: A Suggested Code of Ethics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an argument for, and suggested implementation of, a code of ethics for the astronomy education research community. This code of ethics is based on legal and ethical considerations set forth by U.S. federal regulations and the existing code of conduct of the American Educational Research Association. We also provide a fictitious research study as an example for working through the suggested code of ethics.

Brogt, Erik; Foster, Tom; Dokter, Erin; Buxner, Sanlyn; Antonellis, Jessie

319

Business ethics cases and decision models: A call for relevancy in the classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classroom cases and decision making models used in the teaching of business ethics may be inconsistent with the actual needs of practicing manager students. Three summary cases written by practicing manager students are included in this paper as well as evidence that concerns a focus more on interpersonal dilemmas rather than top management decisions. As well, the relevancy of philosophical

David L. Mathison

1988-01-01

320

Women, Genocide, and MemoryThe Ethics of Feminist Ethnography in Holocaust Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the ethical dilemmas of doing a feminist ethnography of gender and Holocaust memory. In response to the conflicts the author experienced as both a participant\\/Jewish woman and an observer\\/feminist ethnographer, she engaged in a critical examination of her research methods and goals that led to an exploration into the complex moral issues that inform research on women

Janet Liebman Jacobs

2004-01-01

321

Cultural and Ethical Issues in Korea's Recent Elder Abuse Reporting System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of cultural values, such as familism and individualism, that influence public policy implementation processes for protecting older adults in Korea and the United States. The secondary purpose is to identify ethical dilemmas and policy implications for effectively implementing the recently developed public law designed to protect vulnerable older adults

Sondra SeungJa Doe; Hye Kyung Han; Rosemary McCaslin

2009-01-01

322

Ethical, methodological and political issues of aids research in Central Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIDS represents research challenges for anthropology as well as for biomedicine. In many ways the dilemmas of anthropologists appear to be of lesser magnitude than those confronting biomedical researchers charged with the responsibility for treating patients and searching for cures and vaccines. Yet anthropological research is both politically sensitive and policy-relevant. Ethical practice in anthropology is linked to questions of

Brooke Grundfest Schoepf

1991-01-01

323

A focus group study of the motivation to invest: ‘ethical\\/green’ and ‘ordinary’ investors compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

45 ‘ordinary’ investors, in 7 focus groups, and 49 ‘ethical\\/green’ investors in a further 7 focus groups discussed their various motivations for investing; any moral dilemmas they faced and what they were hoping to achieve. (The use of focus groups is an innovation in this area of research).Interpretations of the results were produced with the aid of NUDIST software and

Alan Lewis

2001-01-01

324

The ethics of euthanasia—Attitudes and practice among Norwegian physicians  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical guidelines of the Norwegian Medical Association strongly condemn physician participation in euthanasia and assisted suicide. A previous study on attitudes towards euthanasia in the Norwegian population, however, indicates that a substantial part of the population is quite liberal. This study explores Norwegian physicians' attitudes towards and experience with end of life dilemmas. Sixty-six percent of a representative sample

Reidun Fřrde; Olaf Gjerlřw Aasland; Erik Falkum

1997-01-01

325

Hypereosinophilia: A Diagnostic Dilemma  

PubMed Central

A case of hypereosinophilia is presented. The case illustrates the complexity of the diagnostic processes in certain conditions like hypereosinophilia. Keywords Hypereosinophilia; Myocarditis; Stroke PMID:21629546

Rehman, Habib Ur

2010-01-01

326

Teaching ethics in psychiatry: a one-day workshop for clinical students.  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe the objectives of teaching medical ethics to undergraduates and the teaching methods used. We describe a workshop used in the University of Liverpool Department of Psychiatry, designed to enhance ethical sensitivity in psychiatry. The workshop reviews significant historical and current errors in the ethical practice of psychiatry and doctors' defence mechanisms against accepting responsibility for deficiencies in ethical practice. The workshop explores the student doctors' own group ethos in response to ethical dilemmas, and demonstrates how the individual contributes to and is responsible for the group ethos through participation and also through nonparticipation. The student feedback about the workshop is reviewed. The Toronto Ethical Sensitivity Instrument was used to assess whether or not the workshop altered sensitivity. Compared to a control group the attenders' sensitivity was significantly increased (on Student's t-test p equals or is less than 0.002). PMID:7473644

Green, B; Miller, P D; Routh, C P

1995-01-01

327

Eer ethics  

SciTech Connect

Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

Orwant, C.J.

1994-12-31

328

Ethical consideration.  

PubMed

The twofold distinction between interventions into the germ line and interventions into somatic cells on the one hand and between the treatment of diseases and enhancement on the other hand resulted in the concept of somatic gene therapy. There is a nearly unanimous agreement that somatic gene therapy has a high-ranking moral objective and uses methods that extend current techniques for treating diseases in a morally acceptable way. In its experimental phase principles of research ethics as the autonomy and the informed consent of the patient or the test person, a fair selection of test persons and a careful weighing of risks and benefits have to be taken into account and several specific points have to be considered. Experimental somatic gene therapy requires a positive vote of a competent and independent ethics committee. PMID:21590407

Fuchs, Michael

2011-01-01

329

Knowledge of ethics, perceived ethical problems and ethical judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to investigate: the influence of knowledge of ethics (KOE) on auditors' perceived ethical problems (PEB); the influence of PEB on ethical judgments (EJ); and the mediating impact of PEB that mediate the relationship between KOE and EJ. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 940 questionnaires were distributed to auditors of audit firms in Malaysia and 250

Maheran Zakaria; Hasnah Haron; Ishak Ismail

2010-01-01

330

Throwaway ethic in America  

SciTech Connect

The throwaway ethic is the belief that it is desirable to use and discard products rapidly, rather than maintain and reuse them for a long period of time. The purpose of this dissertation is to show how and why the throwaway ethic evolved in America, and to describe its place in the structure of American society. The approach used is that of material culture: the study of a society's attitudes through its artifacts. The three artifact groups chosen are watches, paper products, and bottles, representing durable products, nondurable products, and packaging, the three broad categories of consumer products. Changing patterns in the use and disposal of these artifacts, from the eighteenth century to the present, are described in depth. We find that throwaway products and habits appear in the late nineteenth century. The throwaway ethic as a recognized and articulated principle of conduct emerges after World War II. The final conclusion is that the throwaway ethic is a result both of mass production, which alters the monetary value of products, and affluence, which alters the social values of leisure and thrift, and as such is intimately related to the economic foundations of industrial society.

Busch, J.C.

1983-01-01

331

The Ethics Connection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created and maintained by the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University, the Ethics Connection demonstrates the power of the Web as an interactive information and communication medium. This site combines excellent content, form, and function to provide teachers, researchers, community leaders, and the public "with strategies to heighten ethical awareness and improve ethical decision making." The rich information resources at the Ethics Connection include an interactive forum for the discussion of ethical issues; an extensive collection of the latest news and publications on ethics, featuring the Markkula Center's own quarterly, Issues in Ethics; a collection of several case studies on ethics, which include message boards for visitors' comments; a Practicing Ethics section, offering numerous resources for day-to-day ethical decision making; and a compilation of 900 ethical links, all of which are categorized, rated, and reviewed.

332

Biomedical Ethics & Medical Humanities  

E-print Network

BEMH Biomedical Ethics & Medical Humanities Scholarly Concentration Stanford University School? The Biomedical Ethics and Medical Humanities Scholarly Concentration is part of the new initiative at Stanford interactions, neonatology, issues of limited resources, ethics of medical advances, informed consent issues

Ford, James

333

Epiploic appendagitis of caecum: a diagnostic dilemma.  

PubMed

Epiploic appendagitis is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Depending on the site of occurrence, it can mimic any cause of acute abdomen or disease of the colon and caecal appendix; making its preoperative diagnosis very difficult. We present here a case of a 7-year-old boy misdiagnosed preoperatively as acute appendicitis and later on, upon surgical exploration, found to have caecal appendagitis. The affected epiploic appendage was removed and the patient had an uneventful recovery. We also review the relevant literature and discuss the measures to overcome this diagnostic dilemma. General surgeons should be aware of this self-limiting disease and consider it as a differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. PMID:23255877

Rashid, Arshad; Nazir, Saima; Hakim, Suhail Yaqoob; Chalkoo, Manzoor Ahamad

2012-01-01

334

Epiploic appendagitis of caecum: a diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Epiploic appendagitis is a rare cause of acute abdomen. Depending on the site of occurrence, it can mimic any cause of acute abdomen or disease of the colon and caecal appendix; making its preoperative diagnosis very difficult. We present here a case of a 7-year-old boy misdiagnosed preoperatively as acute appendicitis and later on, upon surgical exploration, found to have caecal appendagitis. The affected epiploic appendage was removed and the patient had an uneventful recovery. We also review the relevant literature and discuss the measures to overcome this diagnostic dilemma. General surgeons should be aware of this self-limiting disease and consider it as a differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. PMID:23255877

Rashid, Arshad; Nazir, Saima; Hakim, Suhail Yaqoob; Chalkoo, Manzoor Ahamad

2012-01-01

335

"How far do you go and where are the issues surrounding that?" Dilemmas at the boundaries of clinical competency in humanitarian health work.  

PubMed

Health professionals working in humanitarian relief projects encounter a range of ethical challenges. Applying professional and ethical norms may be especially challenging in crisis settings where needs are elevated, resources scarce, and socio-political structures strained. Situations when clinicians must decide whether to provide care that is near the margins of their professional competency are a source of moral uncertainty that can give rise to moral distress. The authors suggest that responding ethically to these dilemmas requires more than familiarity with ethical codes of conduct and guidelines; it requires practical wisdom, that is, the ability to relate past experience and general guidance to a current situation in order to render a morally sound action. Two sets of questions are proposed to guide reflection and deliberation for clinicians who face competency dilemmas. The first is prospective and intended to aid clinicians in evaluating an unfolding situation. The second is retrospective and designed to support debriefing about past experiences and difficult situations. The aim of this analysis is to support clinicians in evaluating competency dilemmas and provide ethical care and services. PMID:23890475

Hunt, Matthew R; Schwartz, Lisa; Fraser, Veronique

2013-10-01

336

A Borderline Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents case of psychotherapist and 40-year-old female client whom he sees twice weekly in individual sessions. Describes client's symptoms and progress over 2.5 years of therapy and focuses on client's inability to pay therapy costs. Comments and advice to therapist regarding case are offered by Paul Rosen, Barent Walsh, Michael Stone, and…

Berman, Alan L., Ed.; And Others

1994-01-01

337

The Ecological Footprint Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is it better to have a new parking lot on campus or use that space to develop a community garden? This is the issue presented in this "clicker case," which pulls students into the decision-making process. Students learn about concepts related to sustainability and the challenges of developing more sustainable life styles. They also calculate their ecological footprint. The case combines the use of  personal response systems (clickers) with case teaching methods and formats. It is presented in class using a series of PowerPoint slides (~800KB) punctuated by questions that students respond to before moving on to the next slide. Written for a non-majors introductory biology class, the case also is suitable for use in courses in ecology, environmental science, conservation biology, environmental studies, and general biology.

Bruno Borsari

2009-01-01

338

[The diversity of animal ethics].  

PubMed

Animal ethics is not a set of rules telling humans how to behave when interacting with animals, but an area for research into the moral responsibility of humans towards animals as individuals. The present article studies the subject by examining a number of dichotomies: French humanism and Anglo-Saxon animal ethics, justice vs. compassion, welfarism and abolitionism, and the divide between proponents of animal rights and those who prefer to speak of "interests". PMID:23516752

Vilmer, J B Jeangčne

2013-01-01

339

Deontological and utilitarian ethics: a brief introduction in the context of disorders of consciousness.  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose: The aims of this paper are to discuss three different ethical frameworks; to briefly consider some of the philosophical positions concerning the nature of personhood. Clear consideration of these issues demonstrates the complexity of decision making in persisting disorders of consciousness. Method: Three different ethical frameworks, Kantian deontology, act utilitarianism and rule utilitarianism, are described and three different accounts of personhood are presented and analysed. Results: These result in very different approaches to the management of patients in permanent vegetative states (PVSs), making it possible to argue for withdrawal of clinically assisted nutrition and hydration in all cases, considering the issues on a case by case basis or continuing to treat all patients whatever their wishes. Conclusions: These results explain why doctors often have different views on how to treat patients in PVS, particularly with regard to the withdrawal of clinically assisted nutrition and hydration. Understanding such issues may help clinicians articulate more clearly the reasons for their intuitions surrounding the management of patients in PVSs. Implications for Rehabilitation Patients with persisting disorders of consciousness pose significant dilemmas for clinicians and family members. Utilitarianism is a consequentialist theory, that is, it is concerned with the outcome of our actions to determine their morality. It is the concept that the right action is the one that will result in "the greatest amount of good for the greatest number". Deontological ethics suggests that there are certain sorts of acts that are wrong in themselves independent of the result of such actions. Personhood can be approached from a variety of perspectives including biological, relational, religious and psychological. Understanding different ethical frameworks, and the nature of personhood, may help clinicians articulate more clearly the reasons for their intuitions. PMID:25482728

Playford, Richard C; Roberts, Tom; Playford, E Diane

2014-12-01

340

The Shell Island Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry simulation is to investigate the issues concerning the fate of the Shell Island Resort, which is in danger of being destroyed by a migrating inlet, and then debate the future of this and other oceanfront structures threatened by coastal erosion. As students engage in their investigation, they are asked to identify the social, political, and scientific issues with which different stakeholders must deal. They will place themselves into the role of one of the stakeholders. The site lists the stakeholders and provides several sources of information for each. After reviewing the resources, students will prepare a statement to decide what should be the next course of action regarding the Shell Island Resort. Students then will present statements in a debate to decide the future of the resort.

341

Stockertown Sinkhole Dilemma  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students learn about the Stockertown sinkholes and decide who should be responsible for compensating property damage caused by a sinkhole. Students read a description of a stakeholder's role and access the resources that they will use to develop a position statement about who should be responsible for the investigation and remediation of the Stockertown, Pennsylvania sinkholes. They create a position statement based on their assigned role of the stakeholder and cover who should be responsible for the investigation and remediation of the Stockertown sinkholes, what should be done to solve the sinkhole problem, what might be causing the sinkholes, and what new policies should be created to protect the interest of homeowners affected by sinkholes. They will be responsible for presenting a long-term action plan to prevent and/or remediate sinkhole destruction in class during a simulated town hall meeting.

Bodzin, Alec

342

The proteomics quantification dilemma.  

PubMed

Proteomics is dominated today by the protein expression discourse, which favorites the bottom-up approach because of its high throughput and its high sensitivity. For quantification this proceeding is misleading, if a protein is present with more than one protein species in the sample to be analyzed. The protein speciation discourse considers this more realistic situation and affords the top-down procedures or at least a separation of the protein species in advance to identification and quantification. Today all of the top-down procedures are one order of magnitude less sensitive than the bottom-up ones. To increase sensitivity and to increase throughput are major challenges for proteomics of the next years. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 20years of Proteomics in memory of Viatliano Pallini. Guest Editors: Luca Bini, Juan J. Calvete, Natacha Turck, Denis Hochstrasser and Jean-Charles Sanchez. PMID:24681132

Jungblut, Peter R

2014-07-31

343

Cross-Cultural Health Ethics in Resource-Poor Settings ". . . the first step would be to try separating the kernel of Western science and technology from its Western packaging the entire  

E-print Network

manner by which the dilemma was resolved. C. Tips for Applying Ethical Analysis in Global Health BeforeCross-Cultural Health Ethics in Resource-Poor Settings ". . . the first step would be to try proceed with an intended or proposed health action when the balance between all possible benefits

MacMillan, Andrew

344

Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

Stablein, Ralph

2003-01-01

345

Ethical Issues in Sports Medicine  

PubMed Central

Ethical issues present a challenge for health care professionals working with athletes of sports teams. Health care professionals—including the team physician, the physical therapist, and the athletic trainer—are faced with the challenge of returning an athlete to competition as quickly as possible but as safely as possible. Conflicts of interest arise due to conflicting obligations of the team physician to the athlete and other members of the sports organization, including coaches and the team owner. The multiple stakeholders involved in sports teams challenge the traditional notion of confidentiality and autonomy. The aims of this article are to explicate the ethics of sports medicine, highlight the ethical issues, and provide some strategies and suggestions for ethical decision making. PMID:24179585

Greenfield, Bruce H.; West, Charles Robert

2012-01-01

346

Ethics at Israeli universities: unlearned lessons from professional ethics.  

PubMed

At the practical level, sustained attention to ethical issues in academia in Israel is inadequate. This paper suggests that professional models of ethics education and training present constructive alternatives. The author views this topic from the dual perspective of a professional clinical psychologist and a committed faculty member. After a brief introduction, the paper opens with a case vignette of ethical violations of trust in academia, its handling, and how a similar case 25 years later illustrates the lack of progress in preparing the academic community for such things. A discussion of normative actions and behavioral norms in academia follows. Three lessons from the professions are offered: 1) the importance of involving members in the process of identifying ethical violations; 2) the value of adopting for academia current practices preparing persons for work in research, (for example the standardization of online modules for training in ethics); and c) the significance of addressing self-interest and its limits. If silence around a code of ethics is being practiced, that silence should be broken. PMID:21528798

Rubin, Simon Shimshon

2011-03-01

347

Robot companions and ethics a pragmatic approach of ethical design.  

PubMed

From his experience as ethical expert for two Robot Companion prototype projects aiming at empowering older MCI persons to remain at home and to support their family carers, Gerard Cornet, Gerontologist, review the ethical rules, principles and pragmatic approaches in different cultures. The ethical process of these two funded projects, one European, Companionable (FP7 e-inclusion call1), the other French, Quo vadis (ANR tecsan) are described from the inclusion of the targeted end users in the process, to the assessment and ranking of their main needs and whishes to design the specifications, test the performance expected. Obstacles to turn round and limits for risks evaluation (directs or implicit), acceptability, utility, respect of intimacy and dignity, and balance with freedom and security and frontiers to artificial intelligence are discussed As quoted in the discussion with the French and Japanese experts attending the Toulouse Robotics and medicine symposium (March 26th 2011), the need of a new ethical approach, going further the present ethical rules is needed for the design and social status of ethical robots, having capacity cas factor of progress and global quality of innovation design in an ageing society. PMID:24558735

Cornet, Gérard

2013-12-01

348

An Ethics Primer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides a basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues.

2008-01-01

349

OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy  

E-print Network

OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy 1.0 PREFACE It is the intent of this Ethics Policy to state those standards of ethical conduct that are expected of all members of the College Community. These standards must the minimum standards of ethical conduct that are required by South Carolina law and reflect the aspirations

Kasman, Alex

350

Seamless Integration of Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

Beggs, Jeri Mullins

2011-01-01

351

Ethical doings in naturecultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

What new forms of ethical engagement are emerging in naturecultural worlds? In this paper I explore the example of the practical ethics of the permaculture movement. I put these in dialogue first with new approaches to ethics in biopolitics and naturecultures and second with a reading of feminist care ethics. Across this discussion I focus on the potential of ethos

María Puig de la Bellacasa

2010-01-01

352

Putting Law into Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of ethics in law is followed from the harshness of caveat emptor to the humanistic ethics of the 1970s, including a renewal of formal ethics in the post-Watergate era. The impact on universities and individual disciplines of legalizing ethical conduct is examined cautiously. (JMF)

Lieberman, Jethro K.

1979-01-01

353

Ethics Primer: Ethics and Bioethics Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ethics Primer provides engaging, interactive, and classroom-friendly lesson ideas for integrating ethical issues into a science classroom. It also provides basic background on ethics as a discipline, with straightforward descriptions of major ethical theories. Several decision-making frameworks are included to help students apply reasoned analysis to ethical issues. Although the Primer is designed for secondary school science classrooms, it has been used by teachers in a variety of classes and grade levels. The Primer is free for download but the author requests information before accessing the file.

2007-01-01

354

Malignant myoepithelioma of the maxilla posing a diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Malignant myoepithelioma is an extremely rare tumor of the salivary glands. Myoepitheliomas make up less than 1% of all salivary gland tumors. We report of a case of malignant myoepithelioma of the upper jaw in a 55-year old man. The tumor primarily arose from the maxillary sinus and secondarily involved the palate. A diagnosis of pleomorphic adenoma was interpreted, following fine needle aspiration cytology and spindle cell tumor, following incision biopsy with a dilemma. The surgery consisted of subtotal maxillectomy preserving the infra orbital rim and posterior wall of the maxillary sinus, with wide local resection. Neck dissection was not carried out. The final histologic diagnosis of the tumor proper was made out to be malignant myoepithelioma. Three different diagnoses were made in dilemma to reach out the final diagnosis, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The case presented and discussed, underscores the importance of diagnosis and treatment of this rare clinicopathologic entity. PMID:24665184

Badal, Sheeraz; Ahmed, Syed; Patil, Padmakar S.; Badal, Afreen

2013-01-01

355

Ethics, the law, and prisoners: protecting society, changing human behavior, and protecting human rights.  

PubMed

Restricting a person's liberty presents society with many inherent ethical challenges. The historical purposes of confinement have included punishment, penitence, containment, rehabilitation, and habilitation. While the purposes are indeed complex, multifaceted, and at times ambiguous or contradictory, the fact of incarceration intrinsically creates many ethical challenges for psychiatrists working in correctional settings. Role definition of a psychiatrist may be ambiguous, with potential tensions between forensic and therapeutic demands. Privacy may be limited or absent and confidentiality may be compromised. Patient autonomy may be threatened to address real or perceived security concerns. Care delivery may actually have harmful consequences in court cases for pretrial detainees or lethal consequences for those under a death sentence. An absence of data and targeted research hampers the development of evidence-based care delivery for the disenfranchised, understudied, and disproportionately ill prisoner population. In this review paper, I discuss a few of the challenges and dilemmas routinely faced and present a series of questions. Where feasible, proposed resolutions are offered. PMID:24996632

Trestman, Robert L

2014-09-01

356

Ethics of primate use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview of the ethical issues raised by the use of non-human primates (NHPs) in research involving scientific procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. It is not an exhaustive review of the literature and views on this subject, and it does not present any conclusions about the moral acceptability or otherwise of NHP research. Rather the aim has been to identify the ethical issues involved and to provide guidance on how these might be addressed, in particular by carefully examining the scientific rationale for NHP use, implementing fully the 3Rs principle of Russell and Burch (1959) and applying a robust "harm-benefit assessment" to research proposals involving NHPs.

Prescott, M. J.

2010-11-01

357

Undergraduate Research Ethics Cases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you help undergraduate students learn about research ethics? Well you might try the three case studies developed by the University of Delaware's Undergraduate Science Education Program and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute designed to help students learn about this important subject. On this site, visitors will find the following studies: "Tripped Up," "Helping Hand," and "Organic Reactions." Each study describes a potentially tricky or nuanced ethical conundrum that an undergraduate student might encounter. For example, "Tripped Up" involves a student whose scientific results are "too hot for public consumption" and is told by his supervisor that he cannot present the findings at a national meeting. Each case study is complemented by a set of discussion questions and additional resources.

2012-01-13

358

Revisions Proposed for NAEYC's Code of Ethical Conduct.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents proposed changes to the Code of Ethics of the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), which were suggested at the November 21, 1996, meeting of the NAEYC Ethics Panel. Requests comments on the proposed revisions. (KDFB)

Young Children, 1997

1997-01-01

359

Business ethics: Conflicts, practices and beliefs of industrial executives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the responses of 118 executives to a mail survey which examined their views of business ethics and various business practices. In addition to identifying various sources of ethical conflict, current business practices are also examined with respect to how ethical or unethical each is believed to be. Results are also presented which outline executive responses to four

Scott J. Vitell; Troy A. Festervand

1987-01-01

360

Dynamics of spatial traveler's dilemma games  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By examining payoff structures, we elucidate the traveler's dilemma (TD) game. It can be said that the TD game as the 2-player & multi-strategy game is a variant of the donor & recipient game, which itself is a subclass of the 2-player & 2-strategy (2 × 2) prisoner's dilemma, in the sense that the Nash equilibrium and fair Pareto optimum appear on mutual defection and mutual cooperation, respectively. Exploring spatial TD games, we observed that the network reciprocity of TD games can be universally scaled with a single dilemma parameter as can be performed in usual 2 × 2 games. Furthermore, we observed a local peak event reflecting a resurging cooperation fraction with increasing dilemma strength after degradation to a low level. We successfully demonstrate that this is caused by the specific dynamics of TD games created by their specific payoff structure.

Tanimoto, Jun

2014-11-01

361

Digital Dilemmas: Cosmopolitans, Content, and Productivity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses several dilemmas stemming from the appropriate role of information technology in higher education, such as the relationship among costs, quality, and productivity, and the ease of plagiarism using the Web. (EV)

Green, Kenneth C.

2001-01-01

362

Code of Ethics for Electrical Engineers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan (IEEJ) has established the rules of practice for its members recently, based on its code of ethics enacted in 1998. In this paper, first, the characteristics of the IEEJ 1998 ethical code are explained in detail compared to the other ethical codes for other fields of engineering. Secondly, the contents which shall be included in the modern code of ethics for electrical engineers are discussed. Thirdly, the newly-established rules of practice and the modified code of ethics are presented. Finally, results of questionnaires on the new ethical code and rules which were answered on May 23, 2007, by 51 electrical and electronic students of the University of Fukui are shown.

Matsuki, Junya

363

Nursing students' perceptions of ethical behavior in undergraduate nursing faculty.  

PubMed

Ethical dilemmas in clinical nursing practice and areas of nursing research have been reported, but a paucity of current nursing research exists pertaining to ethical concerns between undergraduate nursing students and nurse educators. The study examined students' perceptions of ethical behavior in faculty of undergraduate nursing. Using an exploratory, mixed-methods approach, 101 members of a student nursing organization in the southeastern region of the United States participated in the study by completing the 16-item, anonymous questionnaire. Thirteen participants also submitted narratives describing their personal experiences with nursing faculty as it related to ethical interactions in the learning environment. The majority reported their experiences with nursing instructors to be ethical with no reports of sexual involvement with students. Instructor expectations of gifts from their students were almost non-existent. The narrative analysis yielded the following themes: bias: racial, gender, and other; humiliation, confidentiality, grading, uncaring, and cheating. Faculty-student interactions in nursing education are extremely complex. Instructors' increased awareness of their interaction with students and the adoption of ethical guidelines by schools of nursing are suggested. PMID:19040855

Savage, Jane S; Favret, Jacqueline O

2006-01-01

364

Political involvement in nursing--politics, ethics, and strategic action.  

PubMed

Political apathy in the nursing profession can be attributed to numerous factors, including a perceived ethical conflict between professional values and political involvement, as well as a lack of strategy for political action. Differences in personal and professional ethics, conflicting loyalties, and a negative image of politics create ethical tension for nurses. Political-ethical conflicts can mean choosing between job, patient care, and personal ideals. Many nurses never have considered it their place to challenge the structure of the health care system or the rules guiding that system. Supporting political action that demands change in the system, therefore, can cause tension among nurses. The political-ethical dilemma for nurses is related to outdated images of nursing, repression, fear of power, and lack of knowledge. Many guidelines exist to help nurses understand why they should get involved in the political process. By using these guidelines, nurses can evaluate issues and use a valid method to assess problems, plan for action, and evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of specific strategies. In the second of this two-part series on political involvement in nursing, political-ethical conflict is explored, along with strategies for political action. PMID:11725441

Des Jardin, K

2001-11-01

365

The Roles and Ethics of Journalism: How Chinese Students and American Students Perceive Them Similarly and Differently  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares how American and Chinese journalism students view the importance of various journalistic roles and the difficulties of ethical dilemmas faced by journalists. Chinese students perceive greater difficulty in resolving conflict of interests and making a fair representation of the news while American students find greater…

Yang, Jin; Arant, David

2014-01-01

366

Patient misconceptions and ethical challenges in radioactive iodine scanning and therapy.  

PubMed

The use and nature of radioactive iodine (RAI) are complex topics for patients with thyroid conditions to understand. Fear and anxiety over its use, misinformation in patient advocacy books and on the Internet, medical jargon, confusion regarding postscanning and posttreatment procedures, patient literacy, thyroid health status, and several other socioeconomic factors can create serious barriers to genuine informed consent in RAI scanning and treatment. The following discussion will review the origins of patient misconceptions and misinterpretations, including international differences in physician attitudes regarding RAI usage. Next, this article will present the core ethical duties, problems, and moral dilemmas that can arise in the RAI setting. Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to describe the core ethical principles of respect for persons (patient autonomy), beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice; describe the 3 components of informed consent; identify common barriers to informed consent and describe how such barriers can lead to misconceptions, misinformation, and refusal of treatment with RAI; and summarize where RAI candidates and patients first look for information and identify the common ways in which misinformation surfaces. PMID:16951283

Rosenthal, M Sara

2006-09-01

367

Shades of grey: The business ethics game  

E-print Network

Educational game playing This game draws on a number of benefits from educational game playing. Student engagement, motivation from a fun activity, short and sharp discussions amongst small groups, all combined with the use of technology tools. The game encompasses some of the standard principles of good practice in undergraduate education (Chickering & Gamson, 1987) including the development of cooperation among students; the use of active learning techniques; providing prompt feedback; and emphasis on time management. Although the use of technology is an important feature of this game, it is also recognised that technology alone will not improve learning (Mcvay, Murphy, & Yoon, 2008) Making the learning process more enjoyable supports the motivation levels and increases the attention levels (Cermignano, Hargadon, & McMullen, 1998). The move away from a traditional lecture is not a new concept, nevertheless due to the cost-effectiveness and low threat to student involvement, the traditional lecture method is still widely used in business classrooms (Cook & Hazelwood, 2002). The game uses ethical dilemmas to challenge students to apply ethical codes of conduct. This is especially important for business students in their future professional lives and for them to gain critical perspectives on ethical issues (Haywood, McMullen, & Wygal, 2004). The challenge for educators is to effectively

James Oldfield; Andrew Slessor

368

Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…

Stahl, Bernd Carsten

2011-01-01

369

Empiricism in business ethics: Suggested research directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers future directions of empirical research in business ethics and presents a series of recommendations. Greater emphasis should be placed on the normative basis of empirical studies, behavior (rather than attitudes) should be established as the key dependent variable, theoretical models of ethical decision making should be tested, and empirical studies need to focus on theory-building. Extensions of

Diana C. Robertson

1993-01-01

370

Business Ethics of Future Marketing Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the findings of a study which examined the business ethics of college students. The study utilized a series of ten vignettes which posed five dif ferent types of ethical problems. The responses were analyzed to determine student values.

David J. Fritzsche; Helmut Becker

1982-01-01

371

The ethics of leveraged management buyouts revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous ethical analyses of management buyouts have presented useful insights, they have been flawed in three major ways. First, they define the transaction too narrowly, emphasizing the “going private” aspect and ignoring the “leveraged” aspect. Leveraging alters the nature of the transaction substantially and warrants additional ethical analysis. Second, these previous analyses ignore the impact of buyouts on non-stockholder

Thomas M. Jones; Reed O. Hunt

1991-01-01

372

Seyed E. Hasnain Ethical, Legal and Social  

E-print Network

Cow Pox (1796) ­ Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-72) The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment: A clear example of ethically unacceptable research by present standards Source:http://en.wikipedia.or g/wiki/File:Syphilis of information about ... syphilis." (Caplan, 419) #12;Codes of Research Ethics · Nuremberg Code (1947) ­ informed

Mittal, Aditya

373

Ethical Considerations in Research on Coached Malingering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducting and publishing research on coached malingering that might undermine the security of psychological tests and procedures presents a real problem of ethical issues. Until a consensus is reached by responsible parties, producers and consumers of research must keep their ethical responsibilities well in mind. (SLD)

Berry, David T. R.; And Others

1994-01-01

374

Ethics Scenarios: A Critical Theory Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium chaired by John C. Belland addressed the ethical position of educational communications and technology in society. Presenters created ethics scenarios and applied critical theory to provide insight. Intended to stimulate questions, the approach was philosophical, literary, and sociopolitical, and reflected Derrida, Foucault, and…

Anderson, Jane; And Others

375

Nurses' reflections on ethical decision-making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, nurses have engaged in moral conduct and adherence to various codes of ethics which specify expected behaviors and a covenant with society. However, advances in technology, complexity in health care delivery, and the changing environment in the health care industry present nurses with recurring situations in which basic human values and needs pose ethical problems. This requires nurses to

Carmelita Louise Blake

1996-01-01

376

UNESCO REPORT 2010 Engineering Ethics  

E-print Network

UNESCO REPORT 2010 Engineering Ethics Christelle DIDIER, Ethics Department, Catholic university of Lille, France Introduction Ethical reflections applied to engineering are a lot more recent than to other professional activities. Nevertheless, there is a subject called "engineering ethics". Established

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

Top 10 things you can do to improve your REB application: Avoiding common errors in research ethics submissions  

E-print Network

Top 10 things you can do to improve your REB application: Avoiding common errors in research ethics submissions Research Ethics, Dalhousie University 1. Complete the online Course on Research Ethics, Tri principles of research ethics and help you prepare to present the ethical implications of your proposed

Brownstone, Rob

378

Preferences for Key Ethical Principles that Guide Business School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business…

Guyette, Roger; Piotrowski, Chris

2010-01-01

379

Faculty's Perceptions of Teaching Ethics and Leadership in Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addressed the faculty's perception of engineering ethics and leadership training. The study looks into the present state of and methodologies for teaching engineering ethics and leadership and aims to determine the faculty's perception of an identified gap in this aspect of engineering education. Engineering education has strong ethics

AlSagheer, Abdullah; Al-Sagheer, Areej

2011-01-01

380

A Step Towards Medical Ethics Modeling Miguel Miranda1,  

E-print Network

A Step Towards Medical Ethics Modeling Miguel Miranda1, , José Machado1 , António Abelha1 , Gabriel.pontes@chaa.min-saude.pt Abstract: Modeling of ethical reasoning has been a matter of discussion and research among distinct. In this paper we present some of the modeling lines of ethical reasoning applied to medicine, and defend

Boyer, Edmond

381

Curriculum Guidelines on Ethics and Professionalism in Dentistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools for curriculum development aids are presented. The dental ethics curriculum should provide opportunities for refining skills of ethical analysis so students are able to apply ethical principles to problems in the profession. (MLW)

Journal of Dental Education, 1989

1989-01-01

382

Ethics and international marketing : Research background and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper is a general review contextualising the current debate on ethics and international marketing. The aim of the paper is to present an overview of historical and current trends as a background for this special issue edition of International Marketing Review focusing on international marketing ethics. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper examines how ethics in international marketing have

Marylyn Carrigan; Svetla Marinova; Isabelle Szmigin

2005-01-01

383

Experiential Learning and Research Ethics: Enhancing Knowledge through Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can instructors use experiential learning strategies to enhance student understanding of research ethics and responsible research conduct? In this article, the authors review literature on using experiential learning to teach research ethics and responsible research conduct. They present a three-step exercise for teaching research ethics and…

Teixeira-Poit, Stephanie M.; Cameron, Abigail E.; Schulman, Michael D.

2011-01-01

384

The Ethics of Cloud Computing: A Conceptual Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud computing can raise ethical issues. In many cases these will depend on particular applications and circumstances. The present paper sets out to identify ethical issues of cloud computing that arise from the fundamental nature of the technology rather than any specific circumstances. The paper describes how these general features were identified, how ethical issues arising from them were collected

Job Timmermans; Bernd Carsten Stahl; Veikko Ikonen; Engin Bozdag

2010-01-01

385

Ethical Orientation as an Influence Upon Leadership Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective leadership is driven by clear ethical thinking. This paper presents the results of a study which compares and assesses the ethical orientation of three groups vested with the responsibility of leadership and\\/or leadership development: undergraduate education majors, undergraduate business majors and practicing educators. The study addresses a number of ethical positions, all defined in the paper. The well regarded

Thomas E. Deering; Thomas D. Cavenagh; Karl Kelley

1994-01-01

386

Business Ethics Resources on WWW  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the University of British Columbia's Centre for Applied Ethics, this extensive catalog of business ethics resources is divided into eight sections including Public Sector Ethics, Publications, Codes of Ethics, and Ethics Institutions and Organizations. Each section consists of briefly indexed links, organized in alphabetical order. Business Ethics Resources on the WWW also links to a page of applied ethics resources and the Centre for Applied Ethics.

387

Professional Ethics, System Design Methods  

E-print Network

Professional Ethics, System Design Methods and Geospatial Data Quality #12;Objectives #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

388

Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.  

PubMed

Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation. PMID:24870041

Lamba, Shakti

2014-07-22

389

Ethics for Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

Jaques, Elliott

2003-01-01

390

Dealing with dilemmas in health campaigning.  

PubMed

Campaigners on public health issues face a number of dilemmas when tactical choices in public debating involve uncomfortable mixtures of benefits and costs. Key dilemmas for campaigners are whether to acknowledge weaknesses in their own position, whether to advocate research to address claims by opponents, whether to acknowledge vested interests on their own side, whether to debate with opponents, whether to launch attacks on opposition individuals and groups and whether to criticize extreme behaviour by those on their own side. Drawing on the literature on scientific controversies, these dilemmas are outlined, with illustrations from the Australian vaccination debate. Dilemmas in health campaigning warrant attention because choices made can affect both the success of policy initiatives and the image of professions, sometimes with trade-offs between these. However, dilemmas have been neglected because most studies of health controversies give little attention to campaigning tactics. Campaigners can choose options that seem to maximize the likelihood of winning in the short term. However, options for short-term advantage may establish a precedent for approaches to campaigning that undermine commitment to free and open debate to possible long-term disadvantage. PMID:22983693

Martin, Brian

2013-03-01

391

Diagnostic dilemma: Kikuchi's disease or tuberculosis?  

PubMed Central

Any patient from a tuberculosis (TB) endemic area such as India with classical clinical features of fever, weight loss and lymphadenopathy, making a diagnosis of Kikuchi's disease (KD) prior to waiting for the 6-week culture is not appropriate. KD or histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis is a rare self-limiting cervical lymphadenitis, often a diagnosis of exclusion. One needs to exclude TB, sarcodosis, lymphoma and autoimmune diseases to make such a diagnosis. The patient here with classical clinical presentation of TB with lymph node biopsy mimicking KD (biopsy and immunohistochemistry) posed a big diagnostic dilemma. However, culture of the biopsied lymphatic tissue was confirmed to be mycobacterium TB after the 6th week of incubation. The patient was treated with antitubercular drugs initially, and later, steroid was added in view of his persistent symptoms and he responded. One should wait for the tissue culture report to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of TB. Exclusion should not be based only on laboratory criteria. Histopathogically, TB can mimic any other granulomatous disorder. PMID:23365168

Nayak, Hemanta Kumar; Mohanty, Pankaj Kumar; Mallick, Saumyaranjan; Bagchi, Avishek

2013-01-01

392

Health research ethics in malaria vector trials in Africa  

PubMed Central

Malaria mosquito research in Africa as elsewhere is just over a century old. Early trials for development of mosquito control tools were driven by colonial enterprises and war efforts; they were, therefore, tested in military or colonial settings. The failure of those tools and environmental concerns, coupled with the desperate need for integrated malaria control strategies, has necessitated the development of new malaria mosquito control tools, which are to be tested on humans, their environment and mosquito habitats. Ethical concerns start with phase 2 trials, which pose limited ethical dilemmas. Phase 3 trials, which are undertaken on vulnerable civilian populations, pose ethical dilemmas ranging from individual to community concerns. It is argued that such trials must abide by established ethical principles especially safety, which is mainly enshrined in the principle of non-maleficence. As there is total lack of experience with many of the promising candidate tools (eg genetically modified mosquitoes, entomopathogenic fungi, and biocontrol agents), great caution must be exercised before they are introduced in the field. Since malaria vector trials, especially phase 3 are intrusive and in large populations, individual and community respect is mandatory, and must give great priority to community engagement. It is concluded that new tools must be safe, beneficial, efficacious, effective, and acceptable to large populations in the short and long-term, and that research benefits should be equitably distributed to all who bear the brunt of the research burdens. It is further concluded that individual and institutional capacity strengthening should be provided, in order to undertake essential research, carry out scientific and ethical review, and establish competent regulatory frameworks. PMID:21144083

2010-01-01

393

Giftedness and Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is, or should be, the role of ethics in giftedness? In this article, I consider why ethical behavior is much harder to come by than one would expect. Ethical behavior requires completion of a series of eight steps to action, the failure of any one of which may result in a person, even one who is ethically well trained, to act in a manner that…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2012-01-01

394

Normative ethics in sports medicine.  

PubMed

The relationship between a team physician and an athlete differs significantly from the traditional doctor-patient relationship. To better define the ethical norms and ideals in sports medicine, we surveyed the views of practicing team physicians in the Ivy, National Football, and National Hockey Leagues and compared them with responses offered by professional ethicists. Six hypothetical cases were presented, each representing a distinct area of ethical conflict: advertising, conflicting healthcare goals, confidentiality, innovative treatments, enabling dangerous behavior, and treating children. Thirty-one ethicists and 131 team physicians responded to the surveys. Subjects were asked to rate agreement or disagreement with statements that followed the case description. Responses were converted to scores ranging from 0 to 100. A priori, a difference greater than 20 points was set to represent significant disagreement. By that standard, there was agreement between the physicians and ethicists for 18 of 23 statements. We concluded that team physicians and ethicists share many of the same ethical views on common ethical issues in sports medicine. The high degree of variance in the responses in both groups, however, suggests that many unresolved areas remain in the field of ethics in sports medicine. PMID:15057114

Bernstein, Joseph; Perlis, Clifford; Bartolozzi, Arthur R

2004-03-01

395

The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

2014-01-01

396

Resisting the seduction of "ethics creep": using Foucault to surface complexity and contradiction in research ethics review.  

PubMed

In this paper we examine "ethics creep", a concept developed by Haggerty (2004) to account for the increasing bureaucratization of research ethics boards and institutional review boards (REB/IRBs) and the expanding reach of ethics review. We start with an overview of the recent surge of academic interest in ethics creep and similar arguments about the prohibitive effect of ethics review. We then introduce elements of Michel Foucault's theoretical framework which are used to inform our analysis of empirical data drawn from a multi-phase study exploring the accessibility of community-engaged research within existing ethics review structures in Canada. First, we present how ethics creep emerged both explicitly and implicitly in our data. We then present data that demonstrate how REB/IRBs are experiencing their own form of regulation. Finally, we present data that situate ethics review alongside other trends affecting the academy. Our results show that ethics review is growing in some ways while simultaneously being constrained in others. Drawing on Foucauldian theory we reframe ethics creep as a repressive hypothesis which belies the complexity of the phenomenon it purports to explain. Our discussion complicates ethics creep by proposing an understanding of REB/IRBs that locates them at the intersection of various neoliberal discourses about the role of science, ethics, and knowledge production. PMID:23063216

Guta, Adrian; Nixon, Stephanie A; Wilson, Michael G

2013-12-01

397

Understanding Representational Sensitivity in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma with Fingerprints  

E-print Network

in populations of agents trained to play prisoner's dilemma with an evolutionary algorithm. This study varies. In this design, a population of agents is evolved using round-robin play of the iterated prisoner's dilemmaUnderstanding Representational Sensitivity in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma with Fingerprints

Ashlock, Dan

398

Cooperation in Prisoner's Dilemma on Graphs Daniel A. Ashlock  

E-print Network

a geography on a population of evolving agents. In this paper agents are trained to play Prisoner's dilemmaCooperation in Prisoner's Dilemma on Graphs Daniel A. Ashlock Mathematics and Statistics University for each graph: one in which agents only play prisoners dilemma against their neighbors and one in which

Ashlock, Dan

399

Vaccination dilemma with imperfect efficiency: A game theoretical model  

E-print Network

Vaccination dilemma with imperfect efficiency: A game theoretical model [1] Bauch C. T University, Beijing, China Vaccination dilemma Voluntary vaccination can lead to huge decline in vaccine uptake while benefit the public by high- level vaccination uptake, thus a dilemma. Self- interested

400

Social Values, Subjective Transformations, and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A persistent anomaly in the social dilemmas literature is the surprisingly high level of cooperation observed in experimental investigations of the one-shot Prisoners' Dilemma (PD). The exchange heuristic hypothesis and related approaches explain this finding by arguing that actors subjectively transform PD into the Assurance Dilemma. A tendency…

Simpson, Brent

2004-01-01

401

Making Ethics Come Alive  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

McQueeney, Edward

2006-01-01

402

Ethics across the Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All colleges teach ethics across their undergraduate curricula, yet relatively few institutions do so deliberately. That is, few colleges make explicit attempts to coordinate or integrate the various ethical lessons their students might be learning. This does not mean that most colleges are bad for students' ethical development; research shows…

Matchett, Nancy J.

2008-01-01

403

Student Research and Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical codes of practice have largely ignored student project work, although there has been some discussion that it ought to be treated as a special case and handled by less stringent ethical review. However, if ethical review is about safeguarding the interests and rights of those who volunteer to participate, then there can be no case for…

Foot, Hugh C.

2006-01-01

404

GIS and Ethics Undergraduate  

E-print Network

#12;GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom ...research shows that the Canadian polar bear"p://pbsg.npolar.no/en/status/statustable.html USGS:Polar_Bear_Habitat.png #12;GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Context of Ethics

Wright, Dawn Jeannine

405

ETHICS AND DRUG RESISTANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTThis paper reviews the dynamics behind, and ethical issues associated with, the phenomenon of drug resistance. Drug resistance is an important ethical issue partly because of the severe consequences likely to result from the increase in drug resistant pathogens if more is not done to control them. Drug resistance is also an ethical issue because, rather than being a mere

MICHAEL J. SELGELID

2007-01-01

406

The Ethics of Biowarfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article alarms that nations need to take preventative measures to curb the development and proliferation of biological and chemical weapons, such as: adopting a scientific code of ethics, incorporating ethics into graduate science courses, formulating accountability mechanisms for research, and raising academic, industry, and public awareness of ethical issues.

Daniel Reyes (Santa Clara University, California;)

2003-02-01

407

Global health ethics for students.  

PubMed

As a result of increased interest in global health, more and more medical students and trainees from the 'developed world' are working and studying in the 'developing world'. However, while opportunities to do this important work increase, there has been insufficient development of ethical guidelines for students. It is often assumed that ethics training in developed world situations is applicable to health experiences globally. However, fundamental differences in both clinical and research settings necessitate an alternative paradigm of analysis. This article is intended for teachers who are responsible for preparing students prior to such experiences. A review of major ethical issues is presented, how they pertain to students, and a framework is outlined to help guide students in their work. PMID:19302567

Pinto, Andrew D; Upshur, Ross E G

2009-04-01

408

American College of Physicians Ethics Manual. Third edition.  

PubMed

Medicine, law, and social values are not static and must be re-examined periodically. This edition of the ACP Ethics Manual covers emerging issues in medical ethics and revisits some old issues. The overview of the evolution of medical ethics, which appeared in previous editions of the Manual, has been eliminated to allow more space for the consideration of today's ethical dilemmas. Other changes include a revised chapter on end-of-life care, discussion of physician-assisted suicide, revised sections on conflicts of interest and on medical risk to the physician and patient, given developments in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and discussion of sexual contact between physician and patient. A statement on disclosure of errors and a section on care of the physician's family have also been added. The sections on confidential information told by a patient's family or friend to the physician; on physician-pharmaceutical industry relations; on physicians in training; and on the impaired physician have been expanded. Sections on advertising, peer review, and resource allocation have been revised. The literature of biomedical ethics expands at a rate that does not allow a bibliography to remain current, so an exhaustive list of references or suggested readings is not included in this manual. Instead, only cited references are listed. PMID:1443957

1992-12-01

409

Toward the development of a multidimensional scale for improving evaluations of Business Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study represents an improvement in the ethics scales inventory published in a 1988 Journal of Business Ethics article. The article presents the distillation and validation process whereby the original 33 item inventory was reduced to eight items. These eight items comprise the following ethical dimensions: a moral equity dimension, a relativism dimension, and a contractualism dimension. The multidimensional ethics

R. E. Reidenbach; D. P. Robin

1990-01-01

410

Ethics Leadership in Research, Healthcare and Organizational Systems: Commentary and Critical Reflections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last decades there has arisen a greater awareness of the ever present need for critical academic reflection on the nature of ethics leadership and committees in research, healthcare, and organizational systems. Yet what is meant by ethics itself? How is ethics understood as a historical phenomenon? What challenges must ethics leaders face…

Gabriele, Edward F.

2011-01-01

411

Is gender inclusivity an answer to ethical issues in business? An Indian stance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – If females are more ethical than males, as the literature on the subject generally suggests, engaging and encouraging females in their careers would certainly promote an ethical environment. The present paper is motivated by such a viewpoint and aims to investigate gender-based differences in the ethical disposition and the underlying dimensions in ethical decision-making processes, by specific examination

Suveera Gill

2010-01-01

412

Animal Ethics and the Scientific Study of Animals: Bridging the “Is” and the “Ought”  

Microsoft Academic Search

From ancient Greece to the present, philosophers have variously emphasized either the similarities or the differences between humans and nonhuman animals as a basis for ethical conclusions. Thus animal ethics has traditionally involved both factual claims, usually about animals’ mental states and capacities, and ethical claims about their moral standing. However, even in modern animal ethics the factual claims are

David Fraser; Rod Preece

2004-01-01

413

Psychiatric ethics in war and peace  

PubMed Central

Practice of psychiatry is a complex activity because the psychiatrist generally practises his art in an emotionally charged environment with patients who may not be in a in a state of mind to exercise autonomy as a result of cognitive impairment and preoccupation with symptoms. No one principle of ethics will be suitable to guide right conduct in widely variable situations. Making ethical judgements in the military context can be difficult and may have potential for abuse as for an uniformed psychiatrist mission takes priority over man. However mission centered and medical text book centred ethics need not be compartamentalised. The present paper seeks to offer a brief overview of ethical principles and specific situations in which one may have to make ethical judgements. PMID:24459379

Raju, M. S. V. K.

2013-01-01

414

Ethical Issues in Community Policing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community policing requires fundamental changes to the philosophy and organization of police work. Among these changes will be substantial reduction in the political and social isolation of police departments and police officers as well as the granting of more autonomy and discretion to individual police officers. Just as the traditional, professional model of police work presents ethical challenges to police

Peter J. Nelligan; Robert W. Taylor

1994-01-01

415

Teaching Ethical Issues in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a study that investigates the teaching and learning aspects of controversial issues in science education. Teaching ethical issues is mandatory for science teachers in England; however, teachers may experience difficulties in exploring contemporary issues in science due to rapid and unpredictable changes. The study carries an…

Levinson, Ralph

416

Non-Official Roads Dilemma in Amazonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At the beginning of this millennium, "non-official" roads predominate in Amazonia. The opening of these roads, a phenomenon that has not been studied in depth, represents a major dilemma - it generates environmental and social impacts, but it helps to reduce the isolation of the communities in Amazonia and to improve the quality of life for those rural populations. The combined positive and negative aspects of this dilemma mean that it is a matter of crucial importance for the government at last to do a proper job in building these roads; if this is disregarded, in the future, the environment and the Brazilians living in that region will be at risk.

Perz, Stephen G.; Arima, Eugenio; Souza, Carlos, Jr.; Caldas, Marcellus; Brandao, Amintas de O., Jr.; Araujo de Souza, Francisco Kennedy; Walker, Robert

2005-01-01

417

Spring 2014 Ethics Certificate Program Approved Courses  

E-print Network

Spring 2014 Ethics Certificate Program Approved Courses Note: Crosslisted courses are listed. ************************************************************************************ Required Courses ETHICS 101D Challenges of Living an Ethical Life (POLSCI 120D) ETHICS 102S-1; ETHICS 102S02: Discussions in Ethics I & II ETHICS 490S: Capstone: Research Seminar in Ethics Other Ethics

Zhou, Pei

418

Pharmaceutical ethics and physician liability in Side Effects.  

PubMed

We review Side Effects, a 2013 film involving bioethics, pharmaceuticals, and financial conspiracies. After the main character Emily unsuccessfully attempts suicide, she begins receiving care from a psychiatrist, Dr. Banks. Following numerous events, she is placed on a fictional antidepressant, Ablixa, which leads her to suffer from sleepwalking. During an episode of sleepwalking she commits a serious crime. The film poses an interesting dilemma: How responsible would the physician be in this instance? We analyze this question by applying numerous ethical principles. PMID:23996742

Dhiman, Gaurav J; Amber, Kyle T

2013-12-01

419

Ethical issues in the introduction of case management for elderly people.  

PubMed

As case management is under development in France for elderly people, this study sets out to identify and analyse key situations responsible for ethical dilemmas for French case managers. We based our study on the analyses of individual interviews made with case managers and focus-group discussions, bringing together all case managers working in local organisations running for at least a year. We identified three situations giving rise to ethical dilemmas: in the order of importance, the refusals of care, the practicalities of collecting and sharing personal data and the allocation of resources. These three situations can lead to conflict between the principle of beneficence and those of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence and justice. We describe here how French case managers practically deal with these situations. PMID:22918055

Corvol, Aline; Moutel, Grégoire; Gagnon, Dominique; Nugue, Mathilde; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique

2013-02-01

420

Ethical issues in nanotechnology.  

PubMed

Nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area in science involved with manipulating matter at the atomic or molecular level. Nanotechnology is typically defined at a scale on the order of less than approximately 100 nm. Matter possesses unique properties at these size levels that are neither Newtonian nor quantum, but between the two regimes.These unique properties have created significant interest and excitement, sparking numerous research investigations. Nanotechnology is a very broad field with many current and potential applications. Some important examples of applications include battlefield activated dynamic armor clothing for soldiers, additives to sunscreens, and diagnostic laboratories on a chip to monitor general personal health. Groundbreaking capabilities often raise new questions. Any new scientific or technological development has the usual concomitant associated ethical issues, specifically regarding containment and regulation. These ethical issues are more pronounced with nanotechnology due to the sharp divide between those who see its great potential and opponents who express fears. Nanotechnology supporters believe that it has the potential to transform our lives dramatically, while opponents of nanotechnology fear that self-replicating "nanobots" could escape from laboratories and reduce all life on earth to "gray goo. "These fears have swayed generally uninformed public opinions via the media and sensational entertainment. A critical discussion of ethical issues surrounding nanotechnology, including the interaction of nanotechnology with the body and the environment--nanobiotechnology--and regulation of nanotechnology, is presented. We advocate strong, uniform regulations for nanotechnology, but only the use of regulations as needed. The limited use of regulations prevents the regulations from becoming burdensome and inhibiting research in the field. PMID:19023950

Florczyk, Stephen J; Saha, Subrata

2007-01-01

421

Global dilemmas and the plausibility of whole-system change  

SciTech Connect

Approaching the global dilemmas of our time with whole-system thinking implies that the much-talked-about problems of environmental degradation, deforestation, desertification, man-made climate change, chronic hunger and poverty, etc. are not so much problems as symptoms of a deeper-level condition that must be dealt with. This has to do with the basic incompatibility between widely proclaimed goals and underlying system assumptions. Pressures toward whole-system change are increasing in intensity. The critical issue is whether that change can be smooth and nondisruptive, or whether it will involve some disintegration of present structures. Constructive interventions are discussed. 1 tab.

Harman, W.W. [Inst. of Noetic Sciences, Sausalito, CA (United States)] [Inst. of Noetic Sciences, Sausalito, CA (United States)

1995-05-01

422

Endodontic diagnostic dilemmas: thorough examination may preclude inappropriate treatment.  

PubMed

In situations where suspicious lesions of undetermined origins are encountered, it is important for clinicians to consider non-endodontic and perhaps non-odontogenic sources to properly diagnose the condition in order to provide appropriate treatment. Differential diagnoses may include cysts, anatomic variations, and neoplastic lesions. Diagnostic dilemmas and misperceptions can be prevented and ineffective treatment avoided by thoroughly reviewing the patient's medical and dental histories and employing a detailed clinical and radiographic examination. This article presents three cases that were referred to the authors' clinic for endodontic treatment but were ultimately diagnosed as non-endodontic in origin. PMID:24841040

Glassman, Gary; Lenga, Yair; Maggio, Joseph D

2014-05-01

423

Improving epistemological beliefs and moral judgment through an STS-based science ethics education program.  

PubMed

This study develops a Science-Technology-Society (STS)-based science ethics education program for high school students majoring in or planning to major in science and engineering. Our education program includes the fields of philosophy, history, sociology and ethics of science and technology, and other STS-related theories. We expected our STS-based science ethics education program to promote students' epistemological beliefs and moral judgment development. These psychological constructs are needed to properly solve complicated moral and social dilemmas in the fields of science and engineering. We applied this program to a group of Korean high school science students gifted in science and engineering. To measure the effects of this program, we used an essay-based qualitative measurement. The results indicate that there was significant development in both epistemological beliefs and moral judgment. In closing, we briefly discuss the need to develop epistemological beliefs and moral judgment using an STS-based science ethics education program. PMID:23338794

Han, Hyemin; Jeong, Changwoo

2014-03-01

424

Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.  

PubMed

A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008. PMID:19235389

Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

2009-01-01

425

Ethics of biopsy in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.  

PubMed

To understand the ethical dilemmas that beset this issue of biopsy in children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, one must understand both the history behind it and the current dominant interpretation of ethics through the medium of the institutional review boards. It is also important to understand that this article represents the author's personal viewpoint. At a consensus meeting to discuss the issue of biopsies in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG) at the National institutes of Health held in the fall of 2011, there were a variety of opinions expressed. PMID:24451810

Foreman, Nicholas K

2012-01-01

426

"How dare you sport thus with life?": Frankensteinian fictions as case studies in scientific ethics.  

PubMed

Fictional scenarios involving "hard" science offer what are in effect case studies of scientific ethics. From his analysis of Shelley's novel, biologist Leonard Isaacs constructed a model of a "Frankenstein scenario," applicable to the dilemmas posed by the advancement of science in our time, as well as to fiction about science by such contemporary writers as Robin Cook and Michael Crichton. The special contribution of fiction to the study of ethics is that it both reflects and evaluates reality's infinite permutations. In reflecting and judging, the fictional scenarios engage our moral imagination and compel us to confront our personal ethos in relation to the evolving ethos of science. PMID:11652921

Goldbort, Robert C

1995-01-01

427

Center for Biomedical Ethics and Humanities Program in Biomedical Ethics  

E-print Network

Center for Biomedical Ethics and Humanities Program in Biomedical Ethics School of Medicine University of Virginia 2015 Summer Biomedical Ethics Internship The Program in Biomedical Ethics at the Center for Biomedical Ethics and Humanities at the University of Virginia School of Medicine invites

Acton, Scott

428

Research Ethics Committees: Policy and Procedures for Research Ethical Approval  

E-print Network

Research Ethics Committees: Policy and Procedures for Research Ethical Approval Contents Page INTRODUCTION PROCEDURES 1 Establishment of Research Ethics Committees 3 2 Responsibilities of the University Research Ethics Committee 3 3 Terms of Reference of Faculty Research Ethics Committees 4 4 Responsibilities

Aickelin, Uwe

429

Perceived Importance of Ethics and Ethical Decisions in Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the influences of perceptions regarding the importance of ethics and social responsibility on ethical intentions of marketing professionals. It also investigates the effects of perceived ethical problems and gender on ethical intentions. The results, based on a survey of practitioner members of the American Marketing Association, revealed that a marketing professional’s perception regarding the importance of ethics

Anusorn Singhapakdi

1999-01-01

430

Ethics and biomedical engineering education: the continual defiance.  

PubMed

All engineering programs must demonstrate that their students attain an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility. BM engineers are expected to be introduced to ethics at the beginning of their career. The ethical issues to be included in the curriculum and their extent still represent a challenge in Biomedical Engineering education. In this paper we present the outline of an Ethics program of study for engineering students. We discuss some of the topics that must integrate the courses on the foundations and on the practice of Ethics, as Biomedical Engineering schools must prepare professionals able to perform their duties under strong moral standards. PMID:19964036

Monzon, Jorge E; Monzon-Wyngaard, Alvaro

2009-01-01

431

Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.  

PubMed

Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles. PMID:25319836

Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

2014-10-16

432

Do organizational and clinical ethics in a hospital setting need different venues?  

PubMed

The structure of ethics work in a hospital is complex. Professional ethics, research ethics and clinical ethics committees (CECs) are important parts of this structure, in addition to laws and national and institutional codes of ethics. In Norway all hospital trusts have a CEC, most of these discuss cases by means of a method which seeks to include relevant guidelines and laws into the discussion. In recent years many committees have received more cases which have concerned questions of principle. According to Ellen Fox and co-authors the traditional CEC model suffers from a number of weaknesses. Therefore, in their organization a separate body deals with organizational matters. In this paper, we discuss what is gained and what is lost by creating two separate bodies doing ethics consultation. We do this through an analysis of detailed minutes of CEC discussions in one CEC during a 6-year period. 30 % of all referrals concerned matters of principle. Some of these discussions originated in a dilemma related to a particular patient. Most of the discussions had some consequences within the hospital organization, for clinical practice, for adjustment of guidelines, or may have influenced national policy. We conclude that a multiprofessional CEC with law and ethics competency and patient representation may be well suited also for discussion of general ethical principles. A CEC is a forum which can help bridge the gap between clinicians and management by increasing understanding for each others' perspectives. PMID:24647554

Fřrde, Reidun; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud

2014-06-01

433

Cross-cultural business ethics: Ethical beliefs difference between blacks and whites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the differences in ethical beliefs between blacks and whites in the United States. Two hundred and thirty four white students and two hundred and fifty five black students were presented with two scenarios and given the Reidenbach-Robin instrument measuring their ethical reactions to the scenarios.

John Tsalikis; Osita Nwachukwu

1988-01-01

434

Promoting ethical behavior and organizational citizenship behaviors: The influence of corporate ethical values  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a model of antecedents and outcomes of ethical behavior in work organizations was developed and tested. Antecedents included are corporate ethical values, organizational justice, and organizational commitment. The outcome of organizational citizenship behaviors was also examined. Data were gathered from 489 members of a regional chapter of the National Association of Purchasing Managers (NAPM). Structural equation modeling

Thomas L. Baker; Tammy G. Hunt; Martha C. Andrews

2006-01-01

435

Endorsement of Money Ethic and Protestant Work Ethic among Three Groups of Welfare Recipients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Endorsement of the money ethic and the Protestant work ethic among past and present welfare recipients was examined in a study of three groups: 164 current recipients of Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC); 159 individuals receiving AFDC while enrolled in various training programs; and 158 past AFDC recipients who are now employed. The…

Tang, Thomas Li-Ping; Smith-Brandon, Vancie L.; Tang, Theresa Li-Na

436

Ethics in Educational Research: Introducing a Methodological Tool for Effective Ethical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics is a complicated field and much has been written about its application to educational research. In this paper we introduce a way of planning for and dealing with situations that arise in the course of research that promotes detailed ethical analysis. We present a framework based on the work of Seedhouse and Flinders and describe a…

Stutchbury, Kris; Fox, Alison

2009-01-01

437

An Ethical Approach to Doing Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a case study examining a business transaction with regard to the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Code of Ethics. It describes how an AECT member should conduct professional business. (JLB)

Welliver, Paul W.

1994-01-01

438

Ethics in Rehabilitation Education and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews ethical issues that rehabilitation educators may face in meeting their everyday teaching and research responsibilities. Issues presented include dual relationships; selection of students; measurement of student competence; supervision of students; confidentiality concerning student information; faculty competence; multicultural issues; and…

Falvo, Donna R.; Parker, Randall M.

2000-01-01

439

Dilemmas and Deliberations in Reflexive Ethnographic Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper traces insights into the challenges and dilemmas experienced whilst researching students' interpretations and understandings of the Behaviour Management in Schools policy in Western Australia. Journal records, supported by student transcripts, are woven together in a reflexive ethnographic journey--from the beginning phase of…

Robinson, Janean Valerie

2014-01-01

440

Evolving Behaviors in the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary programming experiments are conducted to investigate the conditions that promote the evolution of cooperative behavior in the iterated prisoner's dilemma. A population of logical stimulus-response devices is maintained over successive generations with selection based on individual fitness. The reward for selfish behavior is varied across a series of trials. Simulations indicate three distinct patterns of behaviors in which mutual

David B. Fogel

1993-01-01

441

Psychologists' Dilemmas in Career Counselling Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we explored main dilemmas psychologists face in career counselling in two main professional settings: employment and education. Participants included 24 experienced Portuguese psychologists, working in employment (n = 14) and educational (n = 10) settings. We used consensual qualitative research to conduct and analyse…

Cardoso, Paulo Miguel; Taveira, Maria Ceu; Biscaia, Constanca Sacadura; Santos, Maria Graca

2012-01-01

442

Public goods dilemma in asexual ant societies.  

PubMed

Cooperation in biological, social, and economic groups is underpinned by public goods that are generated by group members at some personal cost. Theory predicts that public goods will be exploited by cheaters who benefit from the goods by not paying for them, thereby leading to the collapse of cooperation. This situation, described as the "public goods dilemma" in game theory, makes the ubiquity of cooperation a major evolutionary puzzle. Despite this generalization, the demonstration of genetic background and fitness effects of the public goods dilemma has been limited to interactions between viruses and between cells, and thus its relevance at higher levels of organismal complexity is still largely unexplored. Here we provide experimental evidence for the public goods dilemma in a social insect, the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus. In this species, all workers are involved in both asexual reproduction and cooperative tasks. Genetic cheaters infiltrate field colonies, reproducing more than the workers but shunning cooperative tasks. In laboratory experiments, cheaters outcompeted coexisting workers in both survival and reproduction, although a group composed only of cheaters failed to produce offspring. The operations of the public goods dilemma in P. punctatus showed a remarkable convergence with those in microbial societies, not only in fitness consequences but also in behavioral mechanisms. Our study reinforces the evolutionary impact of cheaters on diverse cooperative systems in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:24046364

Dobata, Shigeto; Tsuji, Kazuki

2013-10-01

443

Tensions and Dilemmas in Leading Australia's Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we address several tensions and dilemmas that are impacting on Australian principals and other school leaders. The first section explores areas associated with improving teaching and learning and includes discussion of education trends, the construction of new learning environments and the implication of these for more…

Gurr, David; Drysdale, Lawrie

2012-01-01

444

Public goods dilemma in asexual ant societies  

PubMed Central

Cooperation in biological, social, and economic groups is underpinned by public goods that are generated by group members at some personal cost. Theory predicts that public goods will be exploited by cheaters who benefit from the goods by not paying for them, thereby leading to the collapse of cooperation. This situation, described as the “public goods dilemma” in game theory, makes the ubiquity of cooperation a major evolutionary puzzle. Despite this generalization, the demonstration of genetic background and fitness effects of the public goods dilemma has been limited to interactions between viruses and between cells, and thus its relevance at higher levels of organismal complexity is still largely unexplored. Here we provide experimental evidence for the public goods dilemma in a social insect, the ant Pristomyrmex punctatus. In this species, all workers are involved in both asexual reproduction and cooperative tasks. Genetic cheaters infiltrate field colonies, reproducing more than the workers but shunning cooperative tasks. In laboratory experiments, cheaters outcompeted coexisting workers in both survival and reproduction, although a group composed only of cheaters failed to produce offspring. The operations of the public goods dilemma in P. punctatus showed a remarkable convergence with those in microbial societies, not only in fitness consequences but also in behavioral mechanisms. Our study reinforces the evolutionary impact of cheaters on diverse cooperative systems in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:24046364

Dobata, Shigeto; Tsuji, Kazuki

2013-01-01

445

[Clinical trials in developing countries: who should define ethics?].  

PubMed

Many clinical trials have proved much more difficult to implement in developing countries than in the Northern countries if not totally impossible. Should we therefore just observe this situation and approve a "double ethical standard"? Clinical trials in developing countries are also a means for volunteers to have access to medical care, therefore how could the process of informed consent keep its significance? In this context, should the participation in clinical trials be restricted or even stopped? If so, we would thus justify the superiority of an international duty of charity compared with the right of autonomy of these populations. This theoretical analysis cannot be precisely justified. On the contrary, it reveals that while informed consent, international organisations and guidelines have the tendency to play a major role in this debate, local ethics committee are too absent although they represent the more relevant and legitimate discussion partners in this dilemma. PMID:18543701

Béréterbide, F; Hirsch, F

2008-04-01

446

Using an ecological ethics framework to make decisions about the relocation of wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relocation is an increasingly prominent conservation tool for a variety of wildlife, but the technique also is controversial, even among conservation practitioners. An organized framework for addressing the moral dilemmas often accompanying conservation actions such as relocation has been lacking. Ecological ethics may provide such a framework and appears to be an important step forward in aiding ecological researchers and biodiversity managers to make difficult moral choices. A specific application of this framework can make the reasoning process more transparent and give more emphasis to the strong sentiments about non-human organisms held by many potential users. Providing an example of the application of the framework may also increase the appeal of the reasoning process to ecological researchers and biodiversity managers. Relocation as a conservation action can be accompanied by a variety of moral dilemmas that reflect the interconnection of values, ethical positions, and conservation decisions. A model that is designed to address moral dilemmas arising from relocation of humans provides/demonstrates/illustrates a possible way to apply the ecological ethics framework and to involve practicing conservationists in the overall decision-making process. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

McCoy, E.D.; Berry, K.

2008-01-01

447

on education Code of Ethics  

E-print Network

the forum Abroad on education Code of Ethics for Education Abroad #12;The Forum on Education Abroad Code of Ethics for Education Abroad Contents Page Section I Preamble 2 Section II Ethical Principles for Education Abroad 3 Section III Ethical Guidelines: Examples of Ethical Best 6 Practices for Education Abroad

Illinois at Chicago, University of

448

Teaching Ethics in Medical School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature regarding the teaching of ethics in medical schools. Defines medical ethics and attempts to determine the scope of medical ethics teaching. Discusses ways medical ethics could be taught and how that teaching can be assessed. Calls for increased attention into the teaching of medical ethics. (TW)

Ewan, Christine

1986-01-01

449

La valutazione degli outcomes e le implicazioni etiche e gestionali nella nutrizione enterale The analysis of clinical outcomes and the ethical aspects in tube feeding decision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Deciding whether to iniziate artificial enteral nutrition (EN) in pa- tients with severe cognitive impairment or with permanent vegetative state is a common dilemma. The decision is based not only an clinical grounds but also on ethical aspects. Recent studies have not demonstrated that tube feeding can improve important outcomes; many authors discourage this practice in severe- ly demented

A. ATTANASIO; M. BEDIN; G. MANTINEO; S. STOCCO; M. TAGLIAPIETRA; G. CECCHETTO; E. VECCHIATO; M. Zanocchi; M. Bo; E. Giona; E. Martinelli; E. Nicola; L. Corsinovi; F. Francisetti; F. Cerrato; E. Ponte; A. Luppino; M. Molaschi

2006-01-01

450

From the outside Looking in: The Praxis Dilemma of Linking Psychopolitical Validity with Community Policing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author applies the concept of psychopolitical validity beyond the confines of the academy to the contemporary practice of American community policing. As such, it presents the promise and pitfalls of this potential union by highlighting points of linkage and places of conflict and tension and provides a commentary on the praxis dilemma of…

Williams, Brian N.

2008-01-01

451

[Occupational medicine: practice and ethical requirements of the new law on health and safety in the workplace (legislative decree 81/2008)].  

PubMed

Decisions in occupational health may involve ethical conflicts arising from conflicts between stakeholders' interests. Codes of ethics can provide a practical guide to solve dilemmas. The new law on health and safety in the workplace in Italy (decree 81/2008) states that occupational health practice must comply with the code of ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health. The universally acknowledged ethical principles of beneficience/nonmaleficience, autonomy and justice, which are the basis of the Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union, inspired this code. Although the code is not a systematic textbook of occupational health ethics and does not cover all possible aspects arising from the practice, making decisions based on it will assure their effectiveness and compliance with ethical principles, besides the formal respect of the law. PMID:19776459

Franco, Giuliano; Mora, Erika

2009-01-01

452

Saving Superman: Ethics and Stem Cell Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case explores the political and ethical issues associated with stem cell research. Students read the case describing Christopher Reeve’s accident and injuries and his advocacy for stem cell research along with background readings on stem cells and the ethics of stem cell research. They are then assigned to one of four stakeholder groups and asked to develop a position on whether or not the U.S. Senate should expand stem cell research with a focus on the ethics underlying the issue.  They present their positions in class in a simulated public hearing.

Doug M. Post

2006-01-01

453

Personal Ethics and Business Ethics: The Ethical Attitudes of Owner\\/ Managers of Small Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the study of business ethics has been largely the study of the ethics of large companies. This paper is concerned with owner\\/managers of small firms and the link between the personal ethics of the owner\\/manager and his or her attitude to ethical problems in business. By using active membership of an organisation with an overt ethical dimension (for

John J. Quinn

1997-01-01

454

Ethical Principles: Guiding the Use of Animals in Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents arguments on the use of animals in biological and medical research. Discusses ethical considerations, principles, and animal rights in scientific research. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/YDS)

Morrison, Adrian R.

2003-01-01

455

Codes of Ethics Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at the Illinois Institute of Technology maintains the Codes of Ethics Online Web site. The Center writes: "With the advent of the Internet, it seemed clear that digitizing the codes and making them accessible over the World-Wide Web would benefit researchers, students, and professionals alike." The science page contains links to over fifty organizations' ethical codes, including the American Institute of Chemists, the American Physical Society, the Water Quality Association, etc.

456

Embodied Ethical Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intention of this article is to introduce research questions and some initial findings about the place of embodiment in\\u000a ethical decision making. This approach to ethics has yet to be discussed in the literature of dance\\/movement therapy, and\\u000a with few exceptions, has only been hypothesized in the ethics literature of other fields. Because this is a new area of

Lenore Wadsworth Hervey

2007-01-01

457

Evolving Ethical Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

Potter, Van Rensselaer

1977-01-01

458

Risk and medical ethics.  

PubMed Central

Quantitative estimates of risk, and their comparison with quantitative estimates of benefit, contribute usefully to decision-making in many fields. In medicine, our assessments of the probability of harm, and of the likelihood of benefit, resulting from many procedures are at present very limited. Moreover, the comparison of risk and of benefit is difficult to make in any quantitative way, whether for a procedure in general or, even more so, for its application in any particular patient. Yet it must be ethically insecure to propose or to use a procedure without some assessment, however approximate, of the hazards involved, and without some indication of whether those hazards will be clearly offset by the likelihood of benefit that should result from use of the procedure. PMID:7154031

Pochin, E

1982-01-01

459

Ethics & Global Politics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The guiding principle behind the new open access scholarly journal "Ethics & Global Politics" is "to foster theoretical contributions to the study of global politics by providing a forum for presenting novel ways of understanding and conceptualizing the global political challenges the world faces today." The journal is published by Co-Action Publishing with substantial support from The Swedish Research Council and the Department of Political Science at Stockholm University. On their homepage, visitors can learn about their editorial board, register for updates, read their latest announcements, and also find out about their submissions guidelines. Recently, the journal has published compelling and thoughtful pieces like "Neither global nor national: novel assemblages of territory, authority and rights" by Saskia Sassen and "Amnesty on trial: impunity, accountability, and the norms of international law" by Max Pensky.

460

Genetic Ethics Debate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students select topics relating to bioethical questions which they research and debate. With the revolution in the areas of molecular biology, including gene therapy and the work of The Human Genome Project, there arise many questions of interest and concern to society. Research in the areas of gene manipulation and the ethical, legal, and social implications, that this research will have on society are being presented in the media and literature. To best address these issues, this activity uses the format of group research on the following selected list of topics. This activity provides students with a chance to investigate topics of interest and to provide a comprehensive overview of the topics, in a debate format for their peers.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Joan K. Carlson N:K. Carlson;Joan ORG:Bancroft School REV:2005-04-11 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

461

Virtue and the Scientist: Using Virtue Ethics to Examine Science's Ethical and Moral Challenges.  

PubMed

As science has grown in size and scope, it has also presented a number of ethical and moral challenges. Approaching these challenges from an ethical framework can provide guidance when engaging with them. In this article, I place science within a virtue ethics framework, as discussed by Aristotle. By framing science within virtue ethics, I discuss what virtue ethics entails for the practicing scientist. Virtue ethics holds that each person should work towards her conception of flourishing where the virtues enable her to realize that conception. The virtues must become part of the scientist's character, undergirding her intentions and motivations, as well as the resulting decisions and actions. The virtue of phronęsis, or practical wisdom, is critical for cultivating virtue, enabling the moral agent to discern the appropriate actions for a particular situation. In exercising phronęsis, the scientist considers the situation from multiple perspectives for an in-depth and nuanced understanding of the situation, discerns the relevant factors, and settles upon an appropriate decision. I examine goods internal to a practice, which are constitutive of science practiced well and discuss the role of phronęsis when grappling with science's ethical and moral features and how the scientist might exercise it. Although phronęsis is important for producing scientific knowledge, it is equally critical for working through the moral and ethical questions science poses. PMID:24497005

Chen, Jiin-Yu

2015-02-01

462

Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

Lindorff, Margaret

2010-01-01

463

Procedure versus process: ethical paradigms and the conduct of qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally) genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic ‘procedural’ resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are ‘unethical’ but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of ‘micro-ethics’ based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. Summary This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of ‘empirical ethics’ as a means of liberating qualitative (and other) research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values. PMID:23016663

2012-01-01

464

Framing ethical acceptability: a problem with nuclear waste in Canada.  

PubMed

Ethical frameworks are often used in professional fields as a means of providing explicit ethical guidance for individuals and institutions when confronted with ethically important decisions. The notion of an ethical framework has received little critical attention, however, and the concept subsequently lends itself easily to misuse and ambiguous application. This is the case with the 'ethical framework' offered by Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), the crown-corporation which owns and is responsible for the long-term management of Canada's high-level nuclear fuel waste. It makes a very specific claim, namely that it is managing Canada's long-lived radioactive nuclear fuel waste in an ethically responsible manner. According to this organization, what it means to behave in an ethically responsible manner is to act and develop policy in accordance with its ethical framework. What, then, is its ethical framework, and can it be satisfied? In this paper I will show that the NWMO's ethical and social framework is deeply flawed in two respects: (a) it fails to meet the minimum requirements of a code of ethic or ethical framework by offering only questions, and no principles or rules of conduct; and (b) if posed as principles or rules of conduct, some of its questions are unsatisfiable. In particular, I will show that one of its claims, namely that it seek informed consent from individuals exposed to risk of harm from nuclear waste, cannot be satisfied as formulated. The result is that the NWMO's ethical framework is not, at present, ethically acceptable. PMID:21318321

Wilding, Ethan T

2012-06-01

465

Ethics and professionalism in medical physics: A survey of AAPM members  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics. Methods: A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents’ assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as “frequent.” Results: Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents’ preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting, incidents of unethical or ethically questionable practices were only frequently recollected with respect to mentorship/guidance. With respect to professional conduct, favoritism, hostile work/learning environment, and maltreatment of subordinates and colleagues were frequently reported. A significantly larger proportion of women reported experiences with hostile work/learning environments, favoritism, poor mentorship, unfairness in educational settings, and concerns about student privacy and confidentiality. Conclusions: The survey found broad interest in ethics/professionalism topics and revealed that these topics were being integrated into the curriculum at many institutions. The incorporation of ethics and professionalism instruction into both graduate education and postgraduate training of medical physicists, and into their subsequent lifelong continuing education is important given the nontrivial number of medical physicists who had direct personal knowledge of unethical or ethically questionable incidents in clinical practice, research, education, and professionalism. PMID:23556930

Ozturk, Naim; Armato, Samuel G.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Serago, Christopher F.; Ross, Lainie F.

2013-01-01

466

Evolutionary prisoner's dilemma on evolving random networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we investigate the evolution of cooperation in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game by incorporating partner choice into the framework of evolutionary game theory. Our research shows that the introduction of partner choice can notably promote the cooperative behavior in the prisoner's dilemma game. All the players are more likely to play the game with cooperators, which makes it easier for cooperators to form alliances. In particular, the system will be dominated completely by cooperators in a comfortable environment (i.e., with lower survival cost) because the cooperators can get more benefits than the defectors in this case due to their good reputation. In addition, we have found that the sustenance of cooperators improves notably as well in the snowdrift game and the stag-hunt game due to this introduction.

Xu, Zhaojin; Le, Yun; Zhang, Lianzhong

2014-04-01

467

Management dilemmas in acute pulmonary embolism  

PubMed Central

Background Physicians treating acute pulmonary embolism (PE) are faced with difficult management decisions while specific guidance from recent guidelines may be absent. Methods Fourteen clinical dilemmas were identified by physicians and haematologists with specific interests in acute and chronic PE. Current evidence was reviewed and a practical approach suggested. Results Management dilemmas discussed include: sub-massive PE, PE following recent stroke or surgery, thrombolysis dosing and use in cardiac arrest, surgical or catheter-based therapy, failure to respond to initial thrombolysis, PE in pregnancy, right atrial thrombus, role of caval filter insertion, incidental and sub-segmental PE, differentiating acute from chronic PE, early discharge and novel oral anticoagulants. Conclusion The suggested approaches are based on a review of the available evidence and guidelines and on our clinical experience. Management in an individual patient requires clinical assessment of risks and benefits and also depends on local availability of therapeutic interventions. PMID:24343784

Condliffe, Robin; Elliot, Charlie A; Hughes, Rodney J; Hurdman, Judith; Maclean, Rhona M; Sabroe, Ian; van Veen, Joost J; Kiely, David G

2014-01-01

468

Education of ethics committee members: experiences from Croatia  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study knowledge and attitudes of hospital ethics committee members at the first workshop for ethics committees in Croatia. Design Before/after cross?sectional study using a self administered questionnaire. Setting Educational workshop for members of hospital ethics committees, Zagreb, 2003. Main outcome measurements Knowledge and attitudes of participants before and after the workshop; everyday functioning of hospital ethics committees. Results The majority of the respondents came from committees with at least five members. The majority of ethics committees were appointed by the governing bodies of their hospitals. Most committees were founded after the implementation of the law on health protection in 1997. Membership structure (three physicians and two members from other fields) and functions were established on the basis of that law. Analysis of research protocols was the main part of their work. Other important functions—education, case analysis, guidelines formation—were neglected. Members' level of knowledge was not sufficient for the complicated tasks they were supposed to perform. However, it was significantly higher after the workshop. Most respondents felt their knowledge should be improved by additional education. Their views on certain issues and bioethical dilemmas displayed a high level of paternalism and over protectiveness, which did not change after the workshop. Conclusions The committees developed according to bureaucratic requirements. Furthermore, there are concerns about members' knowledge levels. More efforts need to be made to use education to improve the quality of the work. Additional research is necessary to explore ethics committees' work in Croatia especially in the hospital setting. PMID:16507656

Borove?ki, A; Have, H ten; Oreškovi?, S

2006-01-01

469

Ethics Education Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), the Ethics Education Library seeks "to connect people interested in developing new and interesting ethics training methods and programs, to disseminate best practices and tools that have already been developed, and to ultimately foster the creation of new methods and programs for teaching students about ethical issues inherent in research and practice." Visitors to the site can take advantage of the Browse feature to look for online tutorials, syllabi, teaching modules, and case studies. The case studies section has over 5,500 items, some of which are available in full and all of which have an abstract for perusal. Additionally, visitors can use the Publications area to find books, journal articles and other published materials relating to all areas of ethics education. These materials are arranged topically into sections that include bioethics, business ethics, and media ethics. Finally, visitors can scroll through the Ethics News on the right-hand side of the page for more information about current appearances of ethics in the daily news.

2012-05-11

470

On Ethics and Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this elegant critique, Amartya Sen argues that welfare economics can be enriched by paying more explicit attention fo ethics, and that modern ethical studies can also benefit from a closer contact with economics. Predicitive and descriptive economics can be helped by making room for welfare-economic considerations in the explanation of behaviour. In this context, he explores the rationality of

Amaryta Sen

1987-01-01

471

Code of Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet expresses the ethical principles and values of the Canadian Counseling Association and serves as a guide to the professional conduct of all its members. It also informs the public served by the association of the standards of ethical conduct for which members are to be responsible and accountable. This guide reflects the values of…

Sheppard, Glenn W.; Schulz, William E.; McMahon, Sylvia-Anne

472

Teaching business ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business ethics should be taught in business schools as an integrated part of core curricula in MBA programs with a dual focus on both analytical frameworks and their applications to the business disciplines. To overcome the reluctance of many faculty to handle ethical issues, a critical mass of faculty must develop suitable materials, educate their peers in its use, and

Jeffrey Gandz; Nadine Hayes

1988-01-01

473

Living (not learning) ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much has been written recently about both the urgency and efficacy of teaching business ethics. The results of our survey of AACSB member schools confirm prior reports of similar surveys: The teaching of business ethics is indiscriminate, unorganized, and undisciplined in most North American schools of business. If universities are to be taken seriously in their efforts to create more

Joseph Solberg; Kelly C. Strong; Charles McGuire

1995-01-01

474

Religiousness and Business Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is strong theoretical support for a relationship between various characteristics of religiousness and attitudes towards business ethics. This paper examines three frequently- studied dimensions of religiousness (fundamentalism, conservatism, and intrinsic religiousness) and their ability to predict students' willingness to behave unethically. Because prior research indicated a possible relationship between the religious affiliation of an institution and its members' ethical

Ellen J. Kennedy; Leigh Lawton

1998-01-01

475

Ethical? Toward Whom?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comments on the original article, "Nonrational processes in ethical decision making" by M. D. Rogerson et al (see record 2011-19198-001). Among the many insightful points made by Rogerson, Gottlieb, Handelsman, Knapp, and Younggren (October 2011) regarding nonrational processes in ethical decision making, one deserves further explication: Many of…

Pomerantz, Andrew M.

2012-01-01

476

Ethics of Reproductive Engineering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

Buuck, R. John

1977-01-01

477

Code of Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

2009-01-01

478

Adrenocortical carcinoma posing as a pheochromocytoma: a diagnostic dilemma  

PubMed Central

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a malignant tumour arising from the adrenal cortex, whereas pheochromocytoma is a tumour of the adrenal medulla with occasional presence at extra-adrenal sites. Most of the adrenocortical tumours present clinically with Cushing's syndrome and signs of virilization due to over-production of the respective hormones. It is, however, rare for an adrenocortical tumour to present clinically as a pheochromocytoma. We report the case of a 45-year-old female presenting with clinical symptoms and signs of pheochromocytoma and investigations that resulted in a diagnostic dilemma. The histopathological examination confirmed the presence of ACC after the tumour was excised. This phenomenon was due to the presence of neuroendocrine features of ACC referred to, as a pseudo-pheochromocytoma with extremely limited data in the literature. PMID:24876502

Jain, Sumita; Agarwal, Lakshman; Nadkarni, Shravan; Ameta, Atul; Goyal, Ashish; Kumar, Ranjan; Rao, Arjun; Gupta, Kamalkant

2014-01-01

479

An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on Internet Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on  

E-print Network

Page on Internet Ethics, Computer Ethics, Cyber Ethics, E-Commerce Ethics, Web Ethics, Business Ethics Information in the Twenty-First Century Jewish Business Ethics From Amazon.com httpAn Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on Internet Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web

Redmiles, David F.

480

[Animals and environmentalist ethics].  

PubMed

While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753

Guichet, Jean-Luc

2013-01-01

481

Cooperation and control in multiplayer social dilemmas.  

PubMed

Direct reciprocity and conditional cooperation are important mechanisms to prevent free riding in social dilemmas. However, in large groups, these mechanisms may become ineffective because they require single individuals to have a substantial influence on their peers. However, the recent discovery of zero-determinant strategies in the iterated prisoner's dilemma suggests that we may have underestimated the degree of control that a single player can exert. Here, we develop a theory for zero-determinant strategies for iterated multiplayer social dilemmas, with any number of involved players. We distinguish several particularly interesting subclasses of strategies: fair strategies ensure that the own payoff matches the average payoff of the group; extortionate strategies allow a player to perform above average; and generous strategies let a player perform below average. We use this theory to describe strategies that sustain cooperation, including generalized variants of Tit-for-Tat and Win-Stay Lose-Shift. Moreover, we explore two models that show how individuals can further enhance their strategic options by coordinating their play with others. Our results highlight the importance of individual control and coordination to succeed in large groups. PMID:25349400

Hilbe, Christian; Wu, Bin; Traulsen, Arne; Nowak, Martin A

2014-11-18

482

Cooperation and control in multiplayer social dilemmas  

PubMed Central

Direct reciprocity and conditional cooperation are important mechanisms to prevent free riding in social dilemmas. However, in large groups, these mechanisms may become ineffective because they require single individuals to have a substantial influence on their peers. However, the recent discovery of zero-determinant strategies in the iterated prisoner’s dilemma suggests that we may have underestimated the degree of control that a single player can exert. Here, we develop a theory for zero-determinant strategies for iterated multiplayer social dilemmas, with any number of involved players. We distinguish several particularly interesting subclasses of strategies: fair strategies ensure that the own payoff matches the average payoff of the group; extortionate strategies allow a player to perform above average; and generous strategies let a player perform below average. We use this theory to describe strategies that sustain cooperation, including generalized variants of Tit-for-Tat and Win-Stay Lose-Shift. Moreover, we explore two models that show how individuals can further enhance their strategic options by coordinating their play with others. Our results highlight the importance of individual control and coordination to succeed in large groups. PMID:25349400

Hilbe, Christian; Wu, Bin; Traulsen, Arne; Nowak, Martin A.

2014-01-01

483

Ethics in 15 min per week.  

PubMed

The demand for science trainees to have appropriate responsible conduct of research instruction continues to increase the attention shown by federal agencies and graduate school programs to the development of effective ethics curriculums. However, it is important to consider that the main learning environment for science graduate students and post-doctoral research fellows is within a laboratory setting. Here we discuss an internal laboratory program of weekly 15-minute ethics discussions implemented and used over the last 3 years in addition to the graduate school's program of scientific integrity training. During this time, the environment and culture within our laboratory has changed to place greater emphasis on the ethical implications of our own research and the research we evaluate. We still struggle with how to accurately assess this behavioral change; although, we present preliminary survey results on the evaluation and impact of this style of curriculum for ethics instruction in our laboratory. PMID:20213534

Peiffer, Ann M; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Laurienti, Paul J

2011-06-01

484

The University of Birmingham Code of Ethics Ethics at Birmingham  

E-print Network

1 The University of Birmingham Code of Ethics Ethics at Birmingham The University of Birmingham is committed to the highest standards of ethical conduct in all our activities. Each member of the University University committees -- has a responsibility to act ethically and in accordance with the Nolan Committee

Birmingham, University of

485

Ethics, Logs and Videotape: Ethics in Large Scale User Trials  

E-print Network

Ethics, Logs and Videotape: Ethics in Large Scale User Trials and User Generated Content Abstract ethical responsibilities we have towards participants. This workshop brings together researchers to discuss the ethical issues of running large-scale user trials, and to provide guidance for future research

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

486

Cognition and norms: toward a developmental account of moral agency in social dilemmas  

PubMed Central

Most recent developments in the study of social dilemmas give an increasing amount of attention to cognition, belief systems, valuations, and language. However, developments in this field operate almost entirely under epistemological assumptions which only recognize the instrumental form of rationality and deny that “value judgments” or “moral questions” have cognitive content. This standpoint erodes the moral aspect of the choice situation and obstructs acknowledgment of the links connecting cognition, inner growth, and moral reasoning, and the significance of such links in reaching cooperative solutions to many social dilemmas. Concurrently, this standpoint places the role of communication and mutual understanding in promoting cooperation in morally relevant conflicts of action in a rather mysterious situation. This paper draws on Habermas’s critique of instrumental action, and on the most recent developments in institutional and behavioral economics with a view to enhancing our knowledge of the interventions used to cope with social dilemmas. We conclude the paper with a brief presentation of a research strategy for examining the capacity of alternative developmental models to predict dissimilar choices under similar incentive conditions in social dilemmas. PMID:25610414

Meyer, Leandro F. F.; Braga, Marcelo J.

2015-01-01

487

A Catholic ethical approach to human reproductive technology.  

PubMed

This article presents the Catholic Christian tradition and teaching on the moral respect due to human life from conception, supported by natural law moral philosophical reasoning. This approach contrasts with the ethical views of secular philosophers on human embryo research for therapeutic purposes. The challenges for Catholic healthcare institutions is to find ethical ways of using suitable pluripotent stem cells for therapies without creating or destroying human embryos. Catholic teaching on infertility treatment and reproductive technology are presented with emphasis given to the ethical need for children to be conceived and born of the marriage union compared with alterative ethical approaches for the use of infertility treatment and reproductive technology. PMID:18983736

Ford, Norman M

2008-01-01

488

[Respect for self-determination and use of coercion in the treatment of mentally ill persons: an ethical position statement of the DGPPN].  

PubMed

Respect for patient self-determination is a central ethical principle of medical care. Every person has the right to make decisions regarding his or her health autonomously, even if these decisions appear irrational to third parties. Free and informed consent is the necessary prerequisite for every diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. A patient's ability for self-determination is one requirement for valid consent. In illness, the ability for self-determination may be limited or absent in individual cases. An ethical dilemma arises if severely ill patients who are unable to make autonomous decisions put their health at significant risk and refuse medical procedures in this situation. While non-treatment can be severely detrimental to health, forced procedures can result in traumatization and can damage the relationship of trust between the doctor and patient. The dilemma is intensified in cases of danger to others. In these difficult situations doctors, therapists and nursing staff require ethical guidance for the professional conduct. The primary objective thereby is to avoid coercion. For this purpose recommendations for medical practice are formulated that can reduce the use of forced procedures (e.g. de-escalation procedures, communication competency, clinical ethics counseling, treatment agreements and patient living wills) or if they are unavoidable, that allow them to be conducted in an ethically and legally appropriate way. Further and continued education must pay greater attention to this ethical objective; therefore, for ethical reasons adequate personnel, spatial and structural are vital in hospitals. PMID:25388831

2014-11-01

489

Research Ethics I: Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR)--Historical and Contemporary Issues Pertaining to Human and Animal Experimentation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this series of articles--"Research Ethics I", "Research Ethics II", and "Research Ethics III"--the authors provide a comprehensive review of the 9 core domains for the responsible conduct of research (RCR) as articulated by the Office of Research Integrity. In "Research Ethics I", they present a historical overview of the evolution of…

Horner, Jennifer; Minifie, Fred D.

2011-01-01

490

TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY Ethics Center  

E-print Network

TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY Ethics Center 2011-2012 Annual Report #12;#12;TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY October 1, 2012 Prepared by the TTU Ethics Center Annual Report II 2011-2012 #12;1 AnnualReportII|10/1/2012 Our a university ethics center to provide the campus with ethics education resources. Since its establishment

Rock, Chris

491

Ethics and Statistics Andrew Gelman,  

E-print Network

CHANCE 51 Ethics and Statistics Andrew Gelman, Column Editor A n ethics problem arises when you, and (c) violates some rule. Other definitionsarepossible;thereisavastlit- erature on professional ethics that I will not discuss, instead focusing here on my own perspective as a statistician. Any ethical

Gelman, Andrew

492

Ethics Center Annual Report III  

E-print Network

#12;Ethics Center Annual Report III 2012-2013 TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY #12;#12;TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY August 31, 2013 Prepared by the TTU Ethics Center Annual Report III 2012-2013 #12;1 AnnualReportIII|8 proposed a university ethics center to provide the campus with ethics education resources. Since its

Rock, Chris

493

An Overview of Environmental Ethics  

E-print Network

An Overview of Environmental Ethics With a focus on Ecotourism and an introduction to Florida SEE Kathy Hill Florida Society for Ethical Ecotourism kathleenhill@floridaSEE.org #12;Outline: · What are "environmental ethics?" · Defining "ethical ecotourism" · Who is the ecotraveler? · About Florida Society

Jawitz, James W.

494

Ethics: From Thought to Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Translating ethics knowledge into ethical behavior is much harder than it appears, writes Sternberg. In this article, he outlines an eight-step process that individuals must go through to act in an ethical way--for example, recognizing that there is an event to which to react, taking personal responsibility for generating an ethical solution to…

Sternberg, Robert J.

2011-01-01

495

Ethics and accounting doctoral education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper expands the literature on accounting ethics education by considering the teaching of ethics in accounting doctoral education. Some of the ethical issues that might be addressed in accounting doctoral education are reviewed. A number of matters relating to teaching ethics to accounting doctoral students are considered. The paper concludes with a summary and some final remarks.

Stephen E. Loeb

1994-01-01

496

Teaching the Ethics of Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the challenges of educating students about bioethics and the limited training of many biologists on ethics. Discusses the basic principles of ethics and ethical decision making as applied to biology. Explains the models of ethical decision making that are often difficult for students to determine where to begin analyzing. (Contains 28…

Johansen, Carol K.; Harris, David E.

2000-01-01

497

Ethics: Personal and Professional Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics are often taught in higher education. but research shows that family environment and early childhood are most influential in developing ethical behavior. The importance of ethics to work and family life suggests that ethical training should not be limited to vocational/business courses and it should start early. (SK)

Hira, Tahira K.

1996-01-01

498

RESEARCH ETHICS BOARD APPROVAL FORM  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ETHICS BOARD APPROVAL FORM Please check [ X ] one of the following options before by the Research Ethics Board (REB). [ ] This is a research project and a full Research Ethics Board review WITH HUMAN SUBJECTS SHOULD NOT BE UNDERTAKEN PRIOR TO APPROVAL BY THE RESEARCH ETHICS BOARD. #12

Northern British Columbia, University of

499

Catherine Connors, Director RESEARCH ETHICS  

E-print Network

Committee on Laboratory Animals. This report offers an overview of the activity of Research Ethics overCatherine Connors, Director April 2013 RESEARCH ETHICS ANNUAL REPORT 2012-13 Research Ethics, Dalhousie University Research Ethics advances the strategic objectives of Dalhousie Research Services

Lotze, Heike K.

500

Methods to address poultry robustness and welfare issues through breeding and associated ethical considerations.  

PubMed

As consumers and society in general become more aware of ethical and moral dilemmas associated with intensive rearing systems, pressure is put on the animal and poultry industries to adopt alternative forms of housing. This presents challenges especially regarding managing competitive social interactions between animals. However, selective breeding programs are rapidly advancing, enhanced by both genomics and new quantitative genetic theory that offer potential solutions by improving adaptation of the bird to existing and proposed production environments. The outcomes of adaptation could lead to improvement of animal welfare by increasing fitness of the animal for the given environments, which might lead to increased contentment and decreased distress of birds in those systems. Genomic selection, based on dense genetic markers, will allow for more rapid improvement of traits that are expensive or difficult to measure, or have a low heritability, such as pecking, cannibalism, robustness, mortality, leg score, bone strength, disease resistance, and thus has the potential to address many poultry welfare concerns. Recently selection programs to include social effects, known as associative or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), have received much attention. Group, kin, multi-level, and multi-trait selection including IGEs have all been shown to be highly effective in reducing mortality while increasing productivity of poultry layers and reduce or eliminate the need for beak trimming. Multi-level selection was shown to increases robustness as indicated by the greater ability of birds to cope with stressors. Kin selection has been shown to be easy to implement and improve both productivity and animal well-being. Management practices and rearing conditions employed for domestic animal production will continue to change based on ethical and scientific results. However, the animal breeding tools necessary to provide an animal that is best adapted to these changing conditions are readily available and should be used, which will ultimately lead to the best possible outcomes for all impacted. PMID:25505483

Muir, William M; Cheng, Heng-Wei; Croney, Candace

2014-01-01