Science.gov

Sample records for ethically informed radioactive

  1. Ethics of Information Supply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Charles

    This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists…

  2. Ethics and biomedical information.

    PubMed

    France, F H

    1998-03-01

    Ethical rules are similar for physicians in most countries that follow the Hippocratic oath. They have no formal legal force, but can be used as a reference to provide answers to solve individual cases. It appears erroneous to believe that privacy is about information. It is about relationship. In medicine, there is a contract between a patient and a physician, where health care personnel has to respect secrecy, while integrity and availability of information should be obtained for continuity of care. These somewhat contradictory objectives have to be applied very carefully to computerised biomedical information. Ethical principles have to be made clear to everyone, and society should take the necessary steps to organise their enforcement. Several examples are given in the delivery of health care, telediagnosis, patient follow-up. clinical research as well as possible breakthroughs that could jeopardise privacy, using biomedical information. PMID:9723809

  3. Ethical Considerations of Information Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ethical concerns of information science professionals from two viewpoints: concerns of practitioners and the information industry, including a prototype for ethical contexts and principles for ethical actions; and concerns of theoreticians and researchers, including system principles and ideological, political, and social frameworks.…

  4. Information Ethics Education for a Multicultural World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischmann, Kenneth R.; Robbins, Russell W.; Wallace, William A.

    2011-01-01

    How can we prepare information systems students to face the ethical challenges of a globalized world? This paper describes a three-step approach for addressing these challenges. First, we have designed undergraduate and graduate information ethics courses that expand the range of learning of ethical theories beyond the traditional Western canon to…

  5. Accessing Electronic Information: A Question of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmore, Timothy M.

    This exploration of ethical conflicts created by information technology and their impacts on teachers, scholars, and students begins by discussing the issue of fairness or ethics, with emphasis on what is fair or ethical in obtaining access to electronic information. Technological barriers involved in obtaining access to desired electronic…

  6. The Ethical Role of Information in Sustainable Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockway, Larry

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of sustainable communities, or sustainable development, focuses on the ethical role of information in fostering sustainable environmental development. Topics include background information, developments in information technology, permaculture in the area of horticulture and information ethics, information ethics models, hardware…

  7. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Molly Malany

    2016-01-01

    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  8. 32 CFR 776.10 - Informal ethics advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Informal ethics advice. 776.10 Section 776.10... § 776.10 Informal ethics advice. (a) Advisors. Covered attorneys may seek informal ethics advice either... of Director, JA Division, HQMC; and (5) Head, Standards of Conduct/Government Ethics...

  9. 32 CFR 776.10 - Informal ethics advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Informal ethics advice. 776.10 Section 776.10... § 776.10 Informal ethics advice. (a) Advisors. Covered attorneys may seek informal ethics advice either... of Director, JA Division, HQMC; and (5) Head, Standards of Conduct/Government Ethics...

  10. 32 CFR 776.10 - Informal ethics advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Informal ethics advice. 776.10 Section 776.10... § 776.10 Informal ethics advice. (a) Advisors. Covered attorneys may seek informal ethics advice either... of Director, JA Division, HQMC; and (5) Head, Standards of Conduct/Government Ethics...

  11. 32 CFR 776.10 - Informal ethics advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Informal ethics advice. 776.10 Section 776.10... § 776.10 Informal ethics advice. (a) Advisors. Covered attorneys may seek informal ethics advice either... of Director, JA Division, HQMC; and (5) Head, Standards of Conduct/Government Ethics...

  12. 32 CFR 776.10 - Informal ethics advice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Informal ethics advice. 776.10 Section 776.10... § 776.10 Informal ethics advice. (a) Advisors. Covered attorneys may seek informal ethics advice either... of Director, JA Division, HQMC; and (5) Head, Standards of Conduct/Government Ethics...

  13. Information Ethics in the Twenty First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The first decade of the twenty first century has seen a growing interest and intellectual debate within the information professions, focusing on issues where an ethical dimension predominates. This paper provides an overview of codes of practice, published literature, conference proceedings and educational programs that focus on information…

  14. Using Debates to Teach Information Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, A. Graham

    2011-01-01

    This experience report details the use of debates in a course on Information Ethics. Formal debates have been used in academia for centuries and create an environment in which students must think critically, communicate well and, above all, synthesize and evaluate the relevant classroom material. They also provide a break from the standard…

  15. Some Ethical Aspects of Being an Information Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wengert, Robert G.

    2001-01-01

    Questions whether a focus on ethics and rights leads to a narrow idea of the library profession and its clients, using issues of censorship as examples. Highlights include a proposed definition of information; information flow; privacy; ethical debates and consequences for libraries; and the American Library Association Code of Ethics. (Author/LRW)

  16. Ethical Principles and Information Professionals: Theory, Practice and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacovino, Livio

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on ethical concepts and thinking processes and their application to professional issues, particularly to information professionals. Topics include conflicts between professional and organizational ethics; regulatory mechanisms and the professions; the practice skills model and the professional-client model for information professionals;…

  17. Ethics in medical information and advertising.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I; Dickens, B M

    2004-05-01

    This article presents findings and recommendations of an international conference held in Cairo, Egypt in 2003 concerning issues of ethical practice in how information is provided to and by medical practitioners. Professional advertising to practitioners and the public is necessary, but should exclude misrepresentation of qualifications, resources, and authorship of research papers. Medical institutions are responsible for how staff members present themselves, and their institutions. Medical associations, both governmental licensing authorities and voluntary societies, have powers and responsibilities to monitor professional advertisement to defend the public interest against deception. Medical journals bear duties to ensure authenticity of authorship and integrity in published papers, and the scientific basis of commercial advertisers' claims. A mounting concern is authors' conflict of interest. Mass newsmedia must ensure accuracy and proportionality in reporting scientific developments, and product manufacturers must observe truth in advertising, particularly in Direct-to-Consumer advertising. Consumer protection by government agencies is a continuing responsibility. PMID:15099793

  18. Ethics Instruction in Library and Information Science: The Role of "Ethics across the Curriculum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bernie Todd

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is an important element of most graduate professional training programs. In the field of Library and Information Science (LIS) the inclusion of ethics in the curriculum is supported by a position paper by library educators and is monitored in the accreditation of graduate programs. Despite the many LIS programs which claim to integrate…

  19. Ethical Considerations Regarding Classroom Use of Personal Genomic Information

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lisa S.; Grubs, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly decreasing costs of genetic technologies—especially next-generation sequencing—and intensifying need for a clinical workforce trained in genomic medicine have increased interest in having students use personal genomic information to motivate and enhance genomics education. Numerous ethical issues attend classroom/pedagogical use of students’ personal genomic information, including their informed decision to participate, pressures to participate, privacy concerns, and psychosocial sequelae of learning genomic information. This paper addresses these issues, advocates explicit discussion of these issues to cultivate students’ ethical reasoning skills, suggests ways to mitigate potential harms, and recommends collection of ethically relevant data regarding pedagogical use of personal genomic information. PMID:25574277

  20. Pediatric Nurses’ Information and Applications Related To Ethical Codes

    PubMed Central

    Turkmen, Ayse Sonay; Savaser, Sevim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ethics is defined as the entirety of moral principles that form the basis of individuals’ behavior; it can also be defined as “moral theory” or “theoretical ethics”. Objectives: To determinate information and applications related to ethical codes of pediatric nurses. Patients and Methods: Participants were nurses attending the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Nursing Course and the Pediatric Nursing Course conducted in Istanbul between September 2011 and December 2012. A total of nurses attending the courses at the specified dates and who agreed to participate in the study were included in the analysis. Data were collected through a questionnaire that we developed in accordance with current literature on nursing ethics. Results 140 nurses participated in this study. Information and applications were related to ethical codes of nurses including four categories; autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice. The principle of confidentiality/keeping secrets. Exactly 64.3% of nurses reported having heard of nursing ethical codes. The best-known ethical code was the principle of justice. Furthermore, while the rates were generally low, some nurses engaged in unethical practices such as patient discrimination and prioritizing acquaintances. Conclusions: We conclude that most nurses working in pediatric clinics act in compliance with ethical codes. We also found that the majority of nurses wanted to learn about ethical codes. For this reason, we recommended that nurses working in clinics and future nurses in training be informed of the appropriate ethical behavior and codes. PMID:26199697

  1. An Approach to Ethics in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Proposes three precepts as an approach to ethics for the information age: accept responsibility when appropriate; anticipate negative effects; and attempt justice through fairness, applying John Rawls' principles of justice. (SR)

  2. Teaching Ethical Reflexivity in Information Systems: How to Equip Students to Deal with Moral and Ethical Issues of Emerging Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Teaching ethics to students of information systems (IS) raises a number of conceptual and content-related issues. The present paper starts out by developing a conceptual framework of moral and ethical issues that distinguishes between moral intuition, explicit morality, ethical theory and meta-ethical reflection. This conceptual framework…

  3. Information technology and ethics: An exploratory factor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Conger, S.; Loch, K.D.; Helft, B.L.

    1994-12-31

    Ethical dilemmas are situations in which a decision results in unpleasant consequences. The unpleasant consequences are treated as a zero-sum game in which someone always loses. Introducing information technology (IT) to a situation makes the recognition of a potential loser more abstract and difficult to identify, thus an ethical dilemma may go unrecognized. The computer mediates the human relationship which causes a lost sense of contact with a person at the other end of the computer connection. In 1986, Richard O. Mason published an essay identifying privacy, accuracy, property, and Access (PAPA) as the four main ethical issues of the information age. Anecdotes for each issue describe the injured party`s perspective to identify consequences resulting from unethical use of information and information technology. This research sought to validate Mason`s social issues empirically, but with distinct differences. Mason defined issues to raise awareness and initiate debate on the need for a social agenda; our focus is on individual computer users and the attitudes they hold about ethical behavior in computer use. This study examined the attitudes of the computer user who experiences the ethical dilemma to determine the extent to which ethical components are recognized, and whether Mason`s issues form recognizable constructs.

  4. Teaching Information Ethics to High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    The new AASL standards clearly spell out ethical responsibilities, which school librarians strive to instill and model as they work with staff and students. In this article, the author presents the AASL standards together with some tips and lesson ideas which she and her library partner have put into practice within their library media program.

  5. Ethical Behavior in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    In the months following AASL's 13th National Conference, the author has begun to process the new learning standards. The invitation to write about ethical behavior, identified as a Common Belief in the learning standards, has enabled her to reflect on how she is coming to grips with this important professional concept in her own practice. Analysis…

  6. Communication and Ethics: The Informal and Formal Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    1987-01-01

    Noting that humans are educated more by than about the mass media, this paper argues that modern society has produced an informal (mediated) ethics curriculum which may be more powerful than the formal (institutionally educational) curriculum developed by academics and administrators. It first examines the informal curriculum, listing statistics…

  7. Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds. Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Jaegge, W.J.; Kolb, N.L.; Looney, B.B.; Marine, I.W.; Towler, O.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1987-03-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy`s proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (CFR, 1986). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations. The closure options considered for the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  8. Ethics.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, E D

    1989-05-19

    This article is from the 1989 CONTEMPO issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, the purpose of which is to keep physicians informed of recent developments in different areas of medicine through brief overviews by specialists in each field. In his article on ethics, Pellegrino focuses on the issues of euthanasia and fetal research. The practice of active, voluntary euthanasia raises questions about the difference between killing a terminally ill patient and withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment, the limits of patient autonomy, the compatibility of active euthanasia with professional ethics, and the social consequences of legalizing euthanasia. The debate over the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment centers on the issue of induced abortion. PMID:2709576

  9. Ethics and information technology: how nurses balance when integrity and trust are at stake.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Roy L

    2006-01-01

    When we think about ethics in nursing, such things as "Do Not Resuscitate" (DNR) orders and euthanasia come to mind. However, in the information age, there are some often-overlooked ethical issues surrounding information and information systems. This article examines several information technology influences and their impact on the issues of ethics, integrity, and trust. PMID:16449888

  10. Ethics in the Information Exploitation and Manipulation Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Richard; Snow, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to elaborate the need to educate and encourage students to seek an ethical realm in which the researcher not only accurately analyses and documents a problem, but also actually advocates involvement to mitigate negative impacts. Design/methodology/approach: Geographic information systems (GIS) applications are…

  11. Characteristics of the informal curriculum and trainees' ethical choices.

    PubMed

    Hundert, E M; Hafferty, F; Christakis, D

    1996-06-01

    In October 1995, the Association of American Medical Colleges held its first Conference on Students' and Residents' Ethical and Professional Development. In a plenary session and break-out sessions, the 150 participants, representing a wide variety of medical and professional specialties and roles, discussed the factors and programs that affect medical trainees' development of ethical and professional standards of behavior. The main challenge of addressing students' professional development is the enormous range of influences on that development, many of which, such as the declines in civic responsibility and good manners throughout the United States, fall outside the scope of academic medicine. Nonetheless, many influences fall within reach of medical educators. In a pre-conference survey, participants ranked eight issues related to graduating ethical physicians. The respondents ranked highest the inadequacy of the understanding of how best to influence students' ethical development, followed by faculty use of dehumanizing coping mechanisms, and the "business" of medicine's taking precedence over academic goals. The plenary speakers discussed the "informal curriculum" and the "hidden curriculum" and the need for medical faculty to take seriously the great influence they have on students' and residents' moral and professional development as they become physicians. Whether consciously or not, medical education programs are producing physicians who do not meet the ethical standards the profession has traditionally expected its members to meet. In three series of break-out sessions, the participants analyzed the nature of the ethical dilemmas that medical students and residents face from virtually the first day of their training, the use of role playing in promoting ethical development, and ways to improve policies and overcome barriers to change. PMID:9125919

  12. 75 FR 42599 - Technical Amendment to Rules of Organization; Conduct and Ethics; and Information and Requests

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 200 Technical Amendment to Rules of Organization; Conduct and Ethics; and Information..., Conduct and ethics, and Information and requests. Text of Amendments 0 For the reasons set out in the... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS 0 1. The authority citation for part...

  13. Ethical Information Transparency and Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Feltz, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Shared decision making is intended to help protect patient autonomy while satisfying the demands of beneficence. In shared decision making, information is shared between health care professional and patient. The sharing of information presents new and practical problems about how much information to share and how transparent that information should be. Sharing information also allows for subtle paternalistic strategies to be employed to "nudge" the patient in a desired direction. These problems are illustrated in two experiments. Experiment 1 (N = 146) suggested that positively framed messages increased the strength of judgments about whether a patient with HIV should designate a surrogate compared to a negatively framed message. A simple decision aid did not reliably reduce this effect. Experiment 2 (N = 492) replicated these effects. In addition, Experiment 2 suggested that providing some additional information (e.g., about surrogate decision making accuracy) can reduce tendencies to think that one with AIDS should designate a surrogate. These results indicate that in some circumstances, nudges (e.g., framing) influence judgments in ways that non-nudging interventions (e.g., simple graphs) do not. While non-nudging interventions are generally preferable, careful thought is required for determining the relative benefits and costs associated with information transparency and persuasion. PMID:26149163

  14. Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices: patient education, information and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Manaouil, Cécile; Gignon, Maxime; Traulle, Sarah

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) are implanted increasingly frequently. CIEDs are indicated for the treatment of bradycardia, tachycardia and heart failure and therefore improve quality of life and life expectancy. CIED can treat ventricular arrhythmias that would be fatal without immediate care. However, CIEDs raise several patient education, medico-legal, and ethical questions that will be addressed in this article. Information is a patient's right, and necessary for informed consent. When implanting a CIED, the patient must be educated about the need for the device, the function of the device, any restrictions that apply postimplant, and postimplant follow-up methods and schedules. This transfer of information to the patient makes the patient responsible. The occupational physician can determine whether a patient wearing a CIED is able to work. Under current French law, patients are not prohibited from working while wearing a CIED. However, access to certain job categories remains limited, such as jobs involving mechanical stress to the chest, exposure to electromagnetic fields, or jobs requiring permanent vigilance. Pacemakers and defibrillators are medical treatments and are subject to the same ethical and clinical considerations as any other treatment. However, stopping a pacemaker or a defibrillator raises different ethical issues. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator shocks can be considered to be equivalent to resuscitation efforts and can be interpreted as being unreasonable in an end-of-life patient. Pacing is painless and it is unlikely to unnecessarily prolong the life of a patient with a terminal disease. Patients with a CIED should live as normally as possible, but must also be informed about the constraints related to the device and must inform each caregiver about the presence of the device. The forensic and ethical implications must be assessed in relation to current legislation. PMID:23248837

  15. Learning Ethics through Everyday Problems: Informed Consent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdu, Fernando; Frances, Francesc; Castello, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of bioethics and its importance in clinical relationships is to a certain extent complicated when we address students of medicine, young people who are more used to dealing with and solving strictly clinical problems. Informed Consent is one of the aspects of professional practice that is generally and widely accepted in Western…

  16. Radioactive Waste Information for 1998 and Record-To-Date

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. French; R. E. Tallman; K. A. Taylor

    1999-07-01

    This document presents detailed data, bar graphs, and pie charts on volume, radioactivity; isotopic identity, origin, and status of radioactive waste for calendar year 1998 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The data presented are from the INEEL Integrated Waste Information System.

  17. Students' Ethical Decision-Making in an Information Technology Context: A Theory of Planned Behavior Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riemenschneider, Cynthia K.; Leonard, Lori N. K.; Manly, Tracy S.

    2011-01-01

    Business educators have increased the focus on ethics in the classroom. In order for students to become ethical professionals, they must first be held to an ethical standard as students. As information technology continues to permeate every aspect of students' lives, it becomes increasingly important to understand student decision-making in this…

  18. Examining Moral Judgment and Ethical Decision-Making in Information Technology Managers and Their Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahand, Assadullah

    2010-01-01

    Growing incidences of corporate ethical misconducts have revived the debate over ethical reasoning and moral development of corporate managers. The role of information technology (IT) in the ethical dilemmas is becoming more evident as virtual environments become increasingly popular, organizations adopt digital form of record keeping, and the…

  19. 40 CFR 26.1303 - Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ethical conduct of completed human research. 26.1303 Section 26.1303 Protection of Environment... on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1303 Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research. Any person who submits to EPA data derived from...

  20. 40 CFR 26.1303 - Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ethical conduct of completed human research. 26.1303 Section 26.1303 Protection of Environment... on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1303 Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research. Any person who submits to EPA data derived from...

  1. 40 CFR 26.1303 - Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ethical conduct of completed human research. 26.1303 Section 26.1303 Protection of Environment... on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1303 Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research. Any person who submits to EPA data derived from...

  2. 40 CFR 26.1303 - Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ethical conduct of completed human research. 26.1303 Section 26.1303 Protection of Environment... on the Ethical Conduct of Completed Human Research § 26.1303 Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research. Any person who submits to EPA data derived from...

  3. 77 FR 45612 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Notice of Radioactive Materials

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Notice of Radioactive Materials AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning Notice of Radioactive Materials. Public comments are... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0107, Notice of Radioactive Materials, by any of...

  4. Are open-Label Placebos Ethical? Informed Consent and Ethical Equivocations.

    PubMed

    Blease, Charlotte; Colloca, Luana; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2016-07-01

    The doctor-patient relationship is built on an implicit covenant of trust, yet it was not until the post-World War Two era that respect for patient autonomy emerged as an article of mainstream medical ethics. Unlike their medical forebears, physicians today are expected to furnish patients with adequate information about diagnoses, prognoses and treatments. Against these dicta there has been ongoing debate over whether placebos pose a threat to patient autonomy. A key premise underlying medical ethics discussion is the notion that the placebo effect necessitates patient deception. Indeed, the American Medical Association guidelines imply that placebo treatment necessary entails a form of deception. As a consequence of this assumption, the fulcrum of debate on the use of placebo treatment has hinged on whether that deception is ever justified. Recently performed experiments with open-label transparently prescribed placebos have begun to challenge the notion that deception is necessary in eliciting the placebo effect and such effects necessarily involve a binary distinction between autonomy and beneficence. In this article we focus on the content of disclosures in distinctive open-label, transparently disclosed placebo studies and inquire whether they might be said to invoke deception in clinical contexts, and if so, whether the deception is unethical. We find that open placebos may be said to involve equivocation over how placebos work. However, drawing on surveys of patient attitudes we suggest that this equivocation appears to be acceptable to patients. We conclude that open placebos fulfil current American Medical Association guidelines for placebo use, and propose future research directions for harnessing the placebo effect ethically. PMID:26840547

  5. ARE OPEN-LABEL PLACEBOS ETHICAL? INFORMED CONSENT AND ETHICAL EQUIVOCATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Blease, Charlotte; Colloca, Luana; Kaptchuk, Ted J

    2016-01-01

    The doctor-patient relationship is built on an implicit covenant of trust yet it was not until the post-World War Two era that respect for patient autonomy emerged as an article of mainstream medical ethics. Unlike their medical forebearers physicians today are expected to furnish patients with adequate information about diagnoses, prognoses and treatments. Against these dicta there has been ongoing debate over whether placebos pose a threat to patient autonomy. A key premise underlying medical ethics discussion is the notion that the placebo effect necessitates patient deception. Indeed, the American Medical Association guidelines imply that placebo treatment necessary entails a form of deception. As a consequence of this assumption, the fulcrum of debate on the use of placebo treatment has hinged on whether that deception is ever justified.. Recently performed experiments with open-label transparently prescribed placebos have begun to challenge the notion that deception is necessary in eliciting the placebo effect AND SUCH EFFECTS NECESSARILY INVOLVE A BINARY DISTIINCTION BETWEEN AUTONOMY AND BENEFICIENCE. In this paper we focus on the content of disclosures in distinctive open-label, transparently disclosed placebo studies and inquire whether they might be said to invoke deception in clinical contexts, and if so, whether the deception is unethical. We find that open placebos may be said to involve equivocation over how placebos work. However, drawing on surveys of patient attitudes we suggest that this equivocation appears to be acceptable to patients. We conclude that open placebos fulfil current American Medical Association guidelines for placebo use, and propose future research directions for harnessing the placebo effect ethically. PMID:26840547

  6. Informed Consent in Social Work Ethics Education: Guiding Student Education with an Informed Consent Template

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkemper, Ellen M.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the use of an informed consent template for educating social work students. The elements of informed consent, derived primarily from the National Association of Social Workers' "Code of Ethics", are operationalized in the template. The suggestion is that instructors will use the template for classroom instruction and require…

  7. Ethical Issues Regarding Informed Consent for Minors for Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Melvin S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the difficulty with informed consent and debates whether or not whether adults should be able to ethically, morally, and legally consent for their children during the high-risk activity of space tourism. The experimental nature of space vehicles combined with the high likelihood of medical complications and the destination places space tourism legally in the category of "adventure activities," which include adventure travel to exotic locations as well as adventure sports, such as mountain climbing, rafting, etc. which carry a high risk of danger (http://rescommunis.wordpress.com/2008/02/14/interview-tracey-l-knutson-adventure-sports-defense-attorney-on-space-tourism-risk-and-informed-consente/). However, unlike other adventure sports, adults currently cannot consent for their minor children. Other topics also receive attention, such as a "mature minors" clause, radiation exposure of potential future children, and other difficulties preventing adults from legally consenting to space travel.

  8. The ethical duty to preserve the quality of scientific information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arattano, Massimo; Gatti, Albertina; Eusebio, Elisa

    2016-04-01

    The commitment to communicate and divulge the knowledge acquired during his/her professional activity is certainly one of the ethical duties of the geologist. However nowadays, in the Internet era, the spreading of knowledge involves potential risks that the geologist should be aware of. These risks require a careful analysis aimed to mitigate their effects. The Internet may in fact contribute to spread (e.g. through websites like Wikipedia) information badly or even incorrectly presented. The final result could be an impediment to the diffusion of knowledge and a reduction of its effectiveness, which is precisely the opposite of the goal that a geologist should pursue. Specific criteria aimed to recognize incorrect or inadequate information would be, therefore, extremely useful. Their development and application might avoid, or at least reduce, the above mentioned risk. Ideally, such criteria could be also used to develop specific algorithms to automatically verify the quality of information available all over the Internet. A possible criterion will be here presented for the quality control of knowledge and scientific information. An example of its application in the field of geology will be provided, to verify and correct a piece of information available on the Internet. The proposed criterion could be also used for the simplification of the scientific information and the increase of its informative efficacy.

  9. 40 CFR 26.1303 - Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission of information pertaining to ethical conduct of completed human research. 26.1303 Section 26.1303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Requirements for Submission of Information on the Ethical Conduct of Completed...

  10. 76 FR 81517 - Submission for Review and Comment: “The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ..., DHS S&T sponsored work on ethics in Information and Communication Technology Research (ICTR). This...: Science and Technology, ``The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information and Communication... Communication Technology Research'' (``Menlo Report'') for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS),...

  11. 75 FR 26345 - Agency Information Collection (Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT)) New Enrollee Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT)) New Enrollee Survey... collection of information abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review...

  12. 78 FR 24469 - Proposed Information Collection (Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT)) Activity; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT)) Activity; Comment... Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for each collection of information they conduct or sponsor....

  13. Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document

    SciTech Connect

    Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L.

    1993-11-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

  14. The Use of Informational Formats to Implement APA Ethical Principles in Collecting Classroom Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolly, John P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Providing more information about experimental studies than required under the ethical principles formulated by the American Psychological Association can result in data bias on a specific task; overall, however, the implementation of ethical principles has little effect on data collected in classroom settings. (RL)

  15. Assessing the Relationship between Ethical Project Management and Information Technology Project Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Byron Winter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the relationship between ethical project management and information technology (IT) project success. The success of IT projects is important for organizational success, but the rate of IT projects is historically low, costing billions of dollars annually. Using four key ethical variables…

  16. Ethical Practices in Journal Publishing: A Study of Library and Information Science Periodicals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serebnick, Judith; Harter, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study that examined generally accepted ethical norms in library and information science journals regarding practices such as the multiple publication of the same article, plagiarism, and cronyism. The responses of editors to action scenarios focused on ethical behavior are discussed and conclusions are drawn about the ethical…

  17. Teaching Ethical Behavior in the Global World of Information and the New AASL Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Mirah

    2008-01-01

    The American Association of School Librarians "Standards for the 21st Century Learner" (2007) expresses nine fundamental common beliefs. One of these beliefs is that "ethical behavior in the use of information must be taught" (AASL 2007, 1). It is important for library media specialists to understand that teaching ethical behavior is much more…

  18. Ethical Issues Associated with Information and Communication Technology in Counseling and Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; Makela, Julia Panke

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, literature on the use of information and communication technology in counseling and guidance has presented ethical issues related to the development and use of technologies in practice. This paper reviews the ethical issues raised, organizing them into three categories: Social equity, resources, and services. Career…

  19. Too much information: visual research ethics in the age of wearable cameras.

    PubMed

    Mok, Tze Ming; Cornish, Flora; Tarr, Jen

    2015-06-01

    When everything you see is data, what ethical principles apply? This paper argues that first-person digital recording technologies challenge traditional institutional approaches to research ethics, but that this makes ethics governance more important, not less so. We review evolving ethical concerns across four fields: Visual ethics; ubiquitous computing; mobile health; and grey literature from applied or market research. Collectively, these bodies of literature identify new challenges to traditional notions of informed consent, anonymity, confidentiality, privacy, beneficence and maleficence. Challenges come from the ever-increasing power, breadth and multi-functional integration of recording technologies, and the ubiquity and normalization of their use by participants. Some authors argue that these evolving relationships mean that institutional ethics governance procedures are irrelevant or no longer apply. By contrast, we argue that the fundamental principles of research ethics frameworks have become even more important for the protection of research participants, and that institutional frameworks need to adapt to keep pace with the ever-increasing power of recording technologies and the consequent risks to privacy. We conclude with four recommendations for efforts to ensure that contemporary visual recording research is held appropriately accountable to ethical standards: (i) minimizing the detail, scope, integration and retention of captured data, and limiting its accessibility; (ii) formulating an approach to ethics that takes in both the 'common rule' approaches privileging anonymity and confidentiality together with principles of contextual judgement and consent as an ongoing process; (iii) developing stronger ethical regulation of research outside academia; (iv) engaging the public and research participants in the development of ethical guidelines. PMID:25537955

  20. Radioactive waste management information for 1996 and record-to-date

    SciTech Connect

    French, D.L.; Lisee, D.J.; Taylor, K.A.

    1997-07-01

    This document presents detailed data, bar graphs, and pie charts on volume, radioactivity, isotopic identity, origin, and status of radioactive waste for calendar year 1996. It also summarizes the radioactive waste data records compiled from 1952 to present for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The data presented are from the INEEL Radioactive Waste Management Information System.

  1. Radioactive waste management information for 1993 and record-to-date

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.A.

    1994-07-01

    This document presents detailed data, bar graphs, and pie charts on volume, radioactivity, isotopic identity, origin, and decay status of radioactive waste for the calendar year 1993. It also summarizes the radioactive waste data records compiled from 1952 to present for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Information System.

  2. Reporting ethics committee approval and informed consent: Review of an Ayurvedic journal

    PubMed Central

    Bolshete, Pravin M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Reporting of ethical approval and informed consent in clinical research articles involving human subjects is necessary as per the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Aim: To assess the reporting of ethics committee approval and informed consent in clinical research articles published in AYU journal. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of published articles in AYU from 2012 to 2014. All original articles (clinical research) were included. Data was collected to note – Ethics Committee approval and written informed consent (assent from children when applicable). Descriptive statistics was used to report the findings. Results: A total of 104 articles were included in this analysis. Of these, 38 articles included children. Ethics committee approval was reported in 53 (51.0%) articles and consent was also reported in 51 (49.0%) articles. Thirty-eight (36.5%) articles reported both ethics committee approval and consent, whereas 38 (36.5%) articles did not report both. Only five articles reported consent from guardian or parent whereas none of the articles were reported assent. Conclusion: Findings from this study demonstrate that Ayurvedic clinical research articles lack in reporting ethics committee approval and written informed consent.

  3. Information, consent and treatment of patients with Morgellons disease: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Söderfeldt, Ylva; Groß, Dominik

    2014-04-01

    Morgellons is a medically contested diagnosis with foremost dermatological symptoms. Patients experience fibers emerging from the skin, together with a range of other somatic, psychiatric, and neurological complaints. Within the medical community, it is generally held to be a variation of delusional parasitosis/delusional infestation, which is usually treated with antipsychotics. Little attention has been paid in the literature to the ethical aspects of treating patients with Morgellons disease. The communicative strategies suggested in the literature display significant ethical issues, primarily the use of therapeutic privilege, i.e. withholding information from the patient. Since this limits patient autonomy, that approach is ethically problematic. Instead, the physician has an ethical obligation to respect the patient's autonomy, provide full information, and seek consent before initiating a psychiatric referral. PMID:24671866

  4. "Doing Ethics" in the Context of Sharing Patients' Personal Health Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    There are at present two inconsistencies with respect to the sharing of personal health information (PHI) among health care professionals caring for a patient whom the information concerns. First, there is an inconsistency between what is in theory the ethics and law governing the confidentiality and privacy of this information--it may only be…

  5. Advanced patient records: some ethical and legal considerations touching medical information space.

    PubMed

    Kluge, E H

    1993-04-01

    The application of advanced computer-based information technology to patient records presents an opportunity for expanding the informational resource base that is available to health-care providers at all levels. Consequently, it has the potential for fundamentally restructuring the ethics of the physician/patient relationship and the ethos of contemporary health-care delivery. At the same time, the technology raises several important ethical problems. This paper explores some of these implications. It suggests that the fundamental ethical issue at stake in these developments is the status of the electronic record which functions as the analog of the health-care consumer in health-care decision making. Matters such as control and patient dignity are implicated. Other important ethical issues requiring solution include data ownership, data liability, informed consent to use and retrieval, security and access. The paper suggests that the ethical problems that arise cannot be solved in piecemeal fashion and on a purely national basis. They should be addressed in a coordinated international fashion and receive appropriate legal expression in the relevant countries and be incorporated into appropriate codes of ethics. PMID:8321138

  6. Radioactive Waste Management information for 1994 and record-to-date

    SciTech Connect

    French, D.L.; Lisee, D.J.; Taylor, K.A.

    1995-07-01

    This document, Radioactive Waste Management Information for 1994 and Record-To-Date, contains computerized radioactive waste data records from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Data are compiled from information supplied by the US Department of Energy (DOE) contractors. Data listed are on airborne and liquid radioactive effluents and solid radioactive waste that is stored, disposed, and sent to the INEL for reduction. Data are summarized for the years 1952 through 1993. Data are detailed for the calendar year 1994.

  7. Giving information to family members of patients in the intensive care unit: Iranian nurses’ ethical approaches

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients’ conditions and prognoses, their families’ emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families’ peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU. PMID:25512830

  8. Giving information to family members of patients in the intensive care unit: Iranian nurses' ethical approaches.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients' conditions and prognoses, their families' emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families' peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU. PMID:25512830

  9. [Patterns of information and informed consent procedures. Study of the Ethical Commission of the ANMCO].

    PubMed

    Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Bobbio, Marco; Geraci, Enrico; Martelloni, Massimo; Spinsanti, Sandro; Vergassola, Rossano; Violini, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    A survey on patterns of information and informed consent procedures during daily clinical practice has been performed by the Ethical Commission of ANMCO. A structured questionnaire (38 questions) was sent to the 653 cardiological units of the National Health Service in Italy. Four hundred and eighty (73.5%) were received. The following variables were considered to evaluate differences in the answers from the various cardiological units: geographical site, presence or absence of an in-patient department, a cath-lab, and of cardiac surgery facilities. Independent predictors of returning questionnaires were: geographical site (Northern Italy vs Central and Southern) and the presence of a cath-lab. Informed consent forms were provided in 53% of instances, while in 40% a free comment about the topic of informed consent was sent. Statistically significant differences in the answers were found about physicians' and nurses' role, ways of information, qualitative and quantitative risk estimates, other persons' role, models of consent forms and procedures of obtaining consent. Free comments and informed consent forms did not allow a statistical analysis. However, they still provided sufficient material to identify specific patterns of how cardiologists deal with the informed consent process. The distinction between the two phases of information and consent was rarely clear. Information or educational material was often mixed with consent forms. While some still showed a paternalistic approach, or else considered informed consent as a formal act, others demonstrated a deep understanding of the significance of the concept of informed consent. A widespread need of guidelines and standard patterns resulted. PMID:11899574

  10. Radioactive Waste Management Information for 1991 and Record-to-Date

    SciTech Connect

    Litteer, D.L.; Peterson, C.N.; Sims, A.M.

    1993-04-01

    This document presents detailed data, bar graphs, and pie charts on volume, radioactivity, isotopic identity, origin, and decay status of radioactive waste for the calendar year 1991. It also summarizes the radiative waste data records compiled from 1952 to present for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Information System.

  11. Informed Consent: An Ethical Issue in Conducting Research with Male Partner Violent Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory A.; Hawes, Samuel W.; Mandel, Dolores; Easton, Caroline J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethical codes help guide the methods of research that involve samples gathered from “at-risk” populations. The current paper reviews general as well as specific ethical principles related to gathering informed consent from partner violent offenders mandated to outpatient treatment, a group that may be at increased risk of unintentional coercion in behavioral sciences research due to court-mandates that require outpatient treatment without the ethical protections imbued upon prison populations. Recommendations are advanced to improve the process of informed consent within this special population and data supporting the utility of the recommendations in a sample 70 partner violent offenders are provided. Data demonstrate that participants were capable of comprehending all essential elements of consent. PMID:25892900

  12. Ethics of care in medical tourism: Informal caregivers' narratives of responsibility, vulnerability and mutuality.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Rebecca; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the experiences of informal caregivers in medical tourism through an ethics of care lens. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 Canadians who had accompanied their friends or family members abroad for surgery, asking questions that dealt with their experiences prior to, during and after travel. Thematic analysis revealed three themes central to an ethics of care: responsibility, vulnerability and mutuality. Ethics of care theorists have highlighted how care has been historically devalued. We posit that medical tourism reproduces dominant narratives about care in a novel care landscape. Informal care goes unaccounted for by the industry, as it occurs in largely private spaces at a geographic distance from the home countries of medical tourists. PMID:26313855

  13. WORK ETHICS, ORGANIZATIONAL ALIENATION AND JUSTICE AMONG HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGERS

    PubMed Central

    Zadeh, Jamileh Mahdi; Kahouei, Mehdi; Cheshmenour, Omran; Sangestani, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Failure to comply with work ethics by employees working in Health Information Technology (HIT) Departments and their negative attitudes about organizational justice may have an adverse impact on patient satisfaction, quality of care, collecting health statistics, reimbursement, and management and planning at all levels of health care; it can also lead to unbearable damages to the health information system in the country. As so far there has been no research on HIT managers to assess the moral and ethical aspects of works and their relationship with organizational alienation and justice, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between work ethics and organizational justice and alienation among the HIT managers. Methods: This study was performed in affiliated hospitals of Semnan University of medical sciences in Semnan, Iran, in 2015. In this study, a census method was used. The data collection tool was a researcher made questionnaire. Results: There was a negative and significant relationship between work ethic and organizational alienation (B= - 0.217, P<0.001), and there was also a positive and significant relationship between work ethic and organizational justice (B= 0.580, P<0.001). There were negative and significant relationships among between education level and work ethic (B= - 0.215, P=0.034) and organizational justice (B=- 0.147, P=0.047). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the managers’ attitude toward justice and equality in the organization can affect their organizational commitment and loyalty and thus have a significant impact on the work ethics in the work environment. On the other hand, with increasing the education level of the managers, they will have higher expectation of the justice in the organization, and they feel that the justice is not observed in the organization. PMID:27482167

  14. Case-Based Learning as Pedagogy for Teaching Information Ethics Based on the Dervin Sense-Making Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Mirah J.; Boettcher, Carrie A.; Diego, Juana F.; Karch, Marziah E.; Todd-Diaz, Ashley; Woods, Kristine M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study is to determine the effectiveness of case-based pedagogy in teaching basic principles of information ethics and ethical decision making. Study reports results of pre- and post-assessment completed by 49 library and information science (LIS) graduate students at a Midwestern university. Using Creswell's…

  15. [Ethical reflection on multidisciplinarity and confidentiality of information in medical imaging through new information and communication technologies].

    PubMed

    Béranger, J; Le Coz, P

    2012-05-01

    Technological advances in medical imaging has resulted in the exponential increase of the number of images per examination, caused the irreversible decline of the silver film and imposed digital imaging. This digitization is a concept whose levels of development are multiple, reflecting the complexity of this process of technological change. Under these conditions, the use of medical information via new information and communication technologies is at the crossroads of several scientific approaches and several disciplines (medicine, ethics, law, economics, psychology, etc.) surrounding the information systems in health, doctor-patient relationship and concepts that are associated. Each day, these new information and communication technologies open up new horizons and the space of possibilities, spectacularly developing access to information and knowledge. In this perspective of digital technology emergence impacting the multidisciplinary use of health information systems, the ethical questions are numerous, especially on the preservation of privacy, confidentiality and security of medical data, and their accessibility and integrity. PMID:22521872

  16. Confidentiality, Informed Consent, and Ethical Considerations in Reviewing the Client's Psychotherapy Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blunt, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas that break the confidentiality of the client eventually test the psychologist's boundaries such that not taking action may place the patient in a position where they suffer, hurt themselves, or others. The effectiveness in obtaining a valid informed consent might depend upon the therapists training, experience, and sound judgment…

  17. 78 FR 49335 - Agency Information Collection (Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT)) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT)) Activity Under OMB Review... abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and comment. The PRA...

  18. 75 FR 9490 - Proposed Information Collection (Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT)) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Ethics Consultation Feedback Tool (ECFT)) Activity: Comment....S.C. 3501-3521), Federal agencies must obtain approval from the Office of Management and Budget...

  19. Information sharing: transparency, nursing ethics, and practice implications with electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2009-07-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 has spurred national and international debate over possible ethical implications for a mandated electronic database for medical records. What role(s) will the discipline of nursing assume and what policy statements will the discipline of nursing articulate with regard to the need for enhancing privacy and confidentiality with access to medical and nursing documentation found in the electronic database? In this column the author provides an ethical discussion on information sharing and human freedom, and the need for transparency as specified in the humanbecoming leadership model. PMID:19567726

  20. Ethics of emergent information and communication technology applications in humanitarian medical assistance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew; Pringle, John; Christen, Markus; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Schwartz, Lisa; Davé, Anushree

    2016-07-01

    New applications of information and communication technology (ICT) are shaping the way we understand and provide humanitarian medical assistance in situations of disaster, disease outbreak or conflict. Each new crisis appears to be accompanied by advancements in humanitarian technology, leading to significant improvements in the humanitarian aid sector. However, ICTs raise ethical questions that warrant attention. Focusing on the context of humanitarian medical assistance, we review key domains of ICT innovation. We then discuss ethical challenges and uncertainties associated with the development and application of new ICTs in humanitarian medical assistance, including avoiding harm, ensuring privacy and security, responding to inequalities, demonstrating respect, protecting relationships, and addressing expectations. In doing so, we emphasize the centrality of ethics in humanitarian ICT design, application and evaluation. PMID:27481835

  1. Ethical issues in informed consent with substance abusers.

    PubMed

    McCrady, B S; Bux, D A

    1999-04-01

    Alcohol and drug abusers present issues that complicate the informed consent process. The present study examined the practices of federally funded clinical investigators in obtaining informed consent from alcohol and drug abusers. Ninety-one (51%) researchers completed a 27-item survey on informed consent issues. The majority of investigators (57%) recruited participants susceptible to coercion; most used procedures to minimize coercion. Two thirds of researchers used objective means to determine competence to give consent and comprehension of consent forms. Virtually all investigators had policies to deal with suicidality, homicidality, or reports of child abuse; less than 1/2 informed participants of these limits to confidentiality. Almost 50% of investigators had dealt with intoxicated or suicidal participants; 12% had encountered homicidal participants; and 23% had encountered child abuse or neglect. Half of the sample used collateral data sources; about 1/2 of these obtained written informed consent from collaterals. Guidelines for informed consent with substance abusers are suggested. PMID:10224728

  2. Informed consent: corner stone in ethical medical and dental practice.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Heena; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Singh, Simarpreet; Kaur, Amarinder; Nanda, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Progress in health care technologies has enabled patients to be better informed about all aspects of health care. Patients' informed consent is a legal regulation and a moral principle which represents patients' rights to take part in the clinical decisions concerning their treatment. With increasing awareness among the patients, the concept of informed consent is also evolving in developing countries like India. It is important for the medical and dental practitioners to have a written and signed informed consent from their patients before performing any invasive or irreversible procedures. Informed consent is also needed when providing medical care to children, foreign patients, and incorporating images of the patients while conducting medical and dental research. The present review addresses some of the vital issues regarding informed consent when providing medical and dental care with current review of the literature. PMID:24791241

  3. User assumptions about information retrieval systems: Ethical concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    Information professionals, whether designers, intermediaries, database producers or vendors, bear some responsibility for the information that they make available to users of information systems. The users of such systems may tend to make many assumptions about the information that a system provides, such as believing: that the data are comprehensive, current and accurate, that the information resources or databases have same degree of quality and consistency of indexing; that the abstracts, if they exist, correctly and adequate reflect the content of the article; that there is consistency informs of author names or journal titles or indexing within and across databases; that there is standardization in and across databases; that once errors are detected, they are corrected; that appropriate choices of databases or information resources are a relatively easy matter, etc. The truth is that few of these assumptions are valid in commercia or corporate or organizational databases. However, given these beliefs and assumptions by many users, often promoted by information providers, information professionals, impossible, should intervene to warn users about the limitations and constraints of the databases they are using. With the growth of the Internet and end-user products (e.g., CD-ROMs), such interventions have significantly declined. In such cases, information should be provided on start-up or through interface screens, indicating to users, the constraints and orientation of the system they are using. The principle of {open_quotes}caveat emptor{close_quotes} is naive and socially irresponsible: information professionals or systems have an obligation to provide some framework or context for the information that users are accessing.

  4. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  5. [ETHICAL ASPECTS OF INFORMED CONSENT IN REFRACTIVE SURGERY].

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberge, F; Rakic, J-M; Rorive, G

    2016-03-01

    With the introduction of the use of Laser assisted surgery, refractive eye surgery knows a very large success. Surgery of well being, it requires that an extensive information is delivered to the patient concerning the benefit and possible side-effects of the available treatments. This information process may reduce the frequency of negligence claims relating to Laser eye surgery. PMID:27311245

  6. The Ethics of Information: Absolute Risk Reduction and Patient Understanding of Screening

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Eric M.

    2008-01-01

    Some experts have argued that patients should routinely be told the specific magnitude and absolute probability of potential risks and benefits of screening tests. This position is motivated by the idea that framing risk information in ways that are less precise violates the ethical principle of respect for autonomy and its application in informed consent or shared decision-making. In this Perspective, we consider a number of problems with this view that have not been adequately addressed. The most important challenges stem from the danger that patients will misunderstand the information or have irrational responses to it. Any initiative in this area should take such factors into account and should consider carefully how to apply the ethical principles of respect for autonomy and beneficence. PMID:18421509

  7. Delayed clarification: information, clarification and ethical decisions in critical care in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bunch, E H

    2000-12-01

    Following the analysis of about 150 hours of field observation on a critical care unit in Norway a theory was generated to explain the actual ethical decision-making process. This was grounded in the empirical reality of physicians, nurses and family. The core theme in this study was a delayed clarification in assessing the prognosis of accident victims with neurosurgical traumas. The physicians, nurses and family had to wait for the clinical picture to clarify, during which time there was an exchange and emergence of information. Exchanging information, a subprocess to delayed clarification, involved a continuous flow of collecting and dispersing information about the clinical status of the patient. The nurses engaged in two useful strategies: grading information to family when the patient prognosis was poor, and providing grieving strategies for themselves, colleagues and family members. The core variable, delayed clarification has three dimensions: clinical, psychological and ethical. The nurses participated in the decision-making process to discontinue treatment as passive participants, they did not engage in collegial deliberations with the physicians. Ethical dilemmas were end of life questions, resource allocations, and questions of justice and organ transplants. PMID:11136417

  8. Confidentiality and Informed Consent: School Counsellors' Perceptions of Ethical Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Ron; Lehr, Andria; Sumarah, John

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the findings of in-depth interviews with school counsellors in Nova Scotia on issues related to confidentiality and informed consent. Of the 224 school counsellors in the province, 43 counsellors, representing all school boards, agreed to a 45-minute semi-structured telephone interview focusing on their current practices…

  9. Industrial age to information age organizations: Changing business ethic

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we argue that Informatoin age organizations both allow and require a higher level of moral development on the part of the members of the organizations. We describe industrial age and information age organization structure charactreistics and identify moral values consistent with each structure.

  10. Co-design of RAD and ETHICS methodologies: a combination of information system development methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi, Arezo; Shahriyari, Salman

    2011-12-01

    Co-design is a new trend in the social world which tries to capture different ideas in order to use the most appropriate features for a system. In this paper, co-design of two information system methodologies is regarded; rapid application development (RAD) and effective technical and human implementation of computer-based systems (ETHICS). We tried to consider the characteristics of these methodologies to see the possibility of having a co-design or combination of them for developing an information system. To reach this purpose, four different aspects of them are analyzed: social or technical approach, user participation and user involvement, job satisfaction, and overcoming change resistance. Finally, a case study using the quantitative method is analyzed in order to examine the possibility of co-design using these factors. The paper concludes that RAD and ETHICS are appropriate to be co-designed and brings some suggestions for the co-design.

  11. Ethical issues in implementation research: a discussion of the problems in achieving informed consent

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Jane L; Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2008-01-01

    Background Improved quality of care is a policy objective of health care systems around the world. Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the systematic uptake of clinical research findings into routine clinical practice, and hence to reduce inappropriate care. It includes the study of influences on healthcare professionals' behaviour and methods to enable them to use research findings more effectively. Cluster randomized trials represent the optimal design for evaluating the effectiveness of implementation strategies. Various codes of medical ethics, such as the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki inform medical research, but their relevance to cluster randomised trials in implementation research is unclear. This paper discusses the applicability of various ethical codes to obtaining consent in cluster trials in implementation research. Discussion The appropriate application of biomedical codes to implementation research is not obvious. Discussion of the nature and practice of informed consent in implementation research cluster trials must consider the levels at which consent can be sought, and for what purpose it can be sought. The level at which an intervention is delivered can render the idea of patient level consent meaningless. Careful consideration of the ownership of information, and rights of access to and exploitation of data is required. For health care professionals and organizations, there is a balance between clinical freedom and responsibility to participate in research. Summary While ethical justification for clinical trials relies heavily on individual consent, for implementation research aspects of distributive justice, economics, and political philosophy underlie the debate. Societies may need to trade off decisions on the choice between individualized consent and valid implementation research. We suggest that social sciences codes could usefully inform the consideration of implementation research by

  12. The Development of a Code of Ethics: An Online Classroom Approach to Making Connections between Ethical Foundations and the Challenges Presented by Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rochelle

    2010-01-01

    In today's organizations, ethical challenges relate to areas like fraud, right to privacy for consumers, social responsibility, and trade restrictions. For Information Technology (IT) specifically, these can translate to considerations on how technology is used to violate people's privacy, how automation leads to job reductions, or how management…

  13. Information age organization: No new ethics need apply

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, A.

    1994-12-31

    Customer oriented decisions will be made by those closest to the customer, not by those at a distance. Information needed for customer oriented decisions will be readily available to the decider. Levels of hierarchy will be reduced but there will still be command accountability; if only for who hired that guy? Goals will be customer oriented - not level or job oriented. That is, protecting one`s ass or furthering one`s position will not be as easy as it is now; nor, for that matter, needed.

  14. Utilizing Social Media to Study Information-Seeking and Ethical Issues in Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Robillard, Julie M; Whiteley, Louise; Johnson, Thomas Wade; Lim, Jonathan; Wasserman, Wyeth W

    2013-01-01

    Background The field of gene therapy is rapidly evolving, and while hopes of treating disorders of the central nervous system and ethical concerns have been articulated within the academic community, little is known about views and opinions of different stakeholder groups. Objective To address this gap, we utilized social media to investigate the kind of information public users are seeking about gene therapy and the hopes, concerns, and attitudes they express. Methods We conducted a content analysis of questions containing the keywords “gene therapy” from the Q&A site “Yahoo! Answers” for the 5-year period between 2006 and 2010. From the pool of questions retrieved (N=903), we identified those containing at least one theme related to ethics, environment, economics, law, or society (n=173) and then characterized the content of relevant answers (n=399) through emergent coding. Results The results show that users seek a wide range of information regarding gene therapy, with requests for scientific information and ethical issues at the forefront of enquiry. The question sample reveals high expectations for gene therapy that range from cures for genetic and nongenetic diseases to pre- and postnatal enhancement of physiological attributes. Ethics questions are commonly expressed as fears about the impact of gene therapy on self and society. The answer sample echoes these concerns but further suggests that the acceptability of gene therapy varies depending on the specific application. Conclusions Overall, the findings highlight the powerful role of social media as a rich resource for research into attitudes toward biomedicine and as a platform for knowledge exchange and public engagement for topics relating to health and disease. PMID:23470490

  15. "Doing ethics" in the context of sharing patients' personal health information.

    PubMed

    Somerville, Margaret A

    2004-01-01

    There are at present two inconsistencies with respect to the sharing of personal health information (PHI) among health care professionals caring for a patient whom the information concerns. First, there is an inconsistency between what is in theory the ethics and law governing the confidentiality and privacy of this information--it may only be disclosed with informed consent--and what is the actual practice of health care professionals--they share it without such consent. Second, there is an inconsistency between what ethics and law demand in theory and what all parties want: They all approve of the current practice. Ethics and law can be brought into line with what is needed to act in the patient's best interests and with what people want, without opening up any serious potential for abuse of privacy and confidentiality, by establishing a safeguarded, provision-of-care exception that allows co-caring health care professionals to share patients' PHI. The requirements for a system establishing such safeguards are proposed. The basic governing presumption is respect for the person and for rights to autonomy, self-determination, privacy, and confidentiality. Therefore, disclosure may only be made with the informed consent of the competent person to whom the information pertains, unless a defence of necessity applies. Where there is doubt about someone's competence, there should likewise be doubt about disclosure without that person's informed consent. Where the person is incompetent, such a disclosure can be made to the patient's substitute decision makers, most often the family, if that is necessary for the care of the patient and in the patient's best interests. To the extent possible, consistent with the best interests of the patient, the wishes of incompetent people should be respected. PMID:15660294

  16. Different concepts and models of information for family-relevant genetic findings: comparison and ethical analysis.

    PubMed

    Lenk, Christian; Frommeld, Debora

    2015-08-01

    Genetic predispositions often concern not only individual persons, but also other family members. Advances in the development of genetic tests lead to a growing number of genetic diagnoses in medical practice and to an increasing importance of genetic counseling. In the present article, a number of ethical foundations and preconditions for this issue are discussed. Four different models for the handling of genetic information are presented and analyzed including a discussion of practical implications. The different models' ranges of content reach from a strictly autonomous position over self-governed arrangements in the practice of genetic counseling up to the involvement of official bodies and committees. The different models show a number of elements which seem to be very useful for the handling of genetic data in families from an ethical perspective. In contrast, the limitations of the standard medical attempt regarding confidentiality and personal autonomy in the context of genetic information in the family are described. Finally, recommendations for further ethical research and the development of genetic counseling in families are given. PMID:25894235

  17. An Empirically Informed Analysis of the Ethical Issues Surrounding Split Liver Transplantation in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Moorlock, Greg; Neuberger, James; Bramhall, Simon; Draper, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Surgical advances have allowed for the development of split liver transplantation, providing two recipients with the opportunity to potentially benefit from one donated liver by splitting the liver into two usable parts. Although current data suggest that the splitting of livers provides overall benefit to the liver-recipient population, relatively low numbers of livers are actually split in the United Kingdom. This article addresses the question of whether ethical concerns are posing an unnecessary barrier to further increasing the number of life-saving transplantations. Recognizing that an important aspect of exploring these concerns is gaining insight into how transplant staff and patients regard splitting livers, the article presents the findings of a qualitative study examining the views of senior transplant staff and liver transplant patients in the UK and uses these to inform a commentary on the ethical issues relating to split liver transplantation. PMID:27348828

  18. 75 FR 74059 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Radioactive Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Radioactive Drug Research Committees AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an opportunity for...

  19. Ethical Considerations about EHR-Mediated Results Disclosure and Pathology Information Presented via Patient Portals.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kristina A; Smith, Lauren B

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) now include patient portals where patients can obtain clinical reports, including notes, radiology reports, and laboratory/anatomic pathology results. Although portals increase patient access to information, no guidelines have been developed for hospitals about appropriate delays in posting different types of pathology reports to the EHR. Delays exist as a matter of policy to allow physicians time to answer questions and provide emotional support when discussing sensitive results with patients. Some types of results are more sensitive than others, however, including results of cancer, genetic, and HIV testing. Ethical questions about patient access to test results online are discussed. PMID:27550567

  20. Informed consent in the ethics of responsibility as stated by Emmanuel Levinas.

    PubMed

    Benito, Javier Jiménez; García, Sonia Ester Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we analyze some of the major difficulties of informed consent (IC). We consider insufficient to base IC on the principle of autonomy. We must not forget that the patient may be in a situation of extreme vulnerability and the good doctor should assume a degree of commitment and responsibility with his/her decisions. Our aim is to introduce the ethics of responsibility of Levinas in practice and theory of IC in order to generate a beneficent medical practice in which the supervision and overseeing of the patient do not undermine his/her autonomy. PMID:27021386

  1. Duty to Inform and Informed Consent in Diagnostic Radiology: How Ethics and Law can Better Guide Practice.

    PubMed

    Doudenkova, Victoria; Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Although there is consensus on the fact that ionizing radiation used in radiological examinations can affect health, the stochastic (random) nature of risk makes it difficult to anticipate and assess specific health implications for patients. The issue of radiation protection is peculiar as any dosage received in life is cumulative, the sensitivity to radiation is highly variable from one person to another, and between 20 % and 50 % of radiological examinations appear not to be necessary. In this context, one might reasonably assume that information and patient consent would play an important role in regulating radiological practice. However, there is to date no clear consensus regarding the nature and content of-or even need for-consent by patients exposed to ionizing radiation. While law and ethics support the same principles for respecting the dignity of the person (inviolability and integrity), in the context of radiology practice, they do not provide a consistent message to guide clinical decision-making. This article analyzes the issue of healthcare professionals' duty to inform and obtain patient consent for radiological examinations. Considering that both law and ethics have as one of their aims to protect vulnerable populations, it is important that they begin to give greater attention to issues raised by the use of ionizing radiation in medicine. While the situation in Canada serves as a backdrop for a reflective analysis of the problem, the conclusions are pertinent for professional practice in other jurisdictions because the principles underlying health law and jurisprudence are fairly general. PMID:25749428

  2. Student-generated behavioral guidelines to inform ethical practice: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Nancy; Bowllan, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Nursing faculty members have become increasingly concerned with student incidences of cheating and the associated lack of commitment to ethical conduct. Our faculty believed that actively engaging students in the development of specific behavioral guidelines would result in improved ethical conduct and provide a bridge to future professional ethical practice. The authors discuss the use of focus groups to establish clear behavioral guidelines that align with the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics. PMID:22024685

  3. Investigation of the Ethical Concepts that Inform the Laws Limiting Genetic Screening in Employment Decisions: Privacy, Human Dignity, Equality, Autonomy, Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Pasquerella, Lynn; Rothstein, Lawrence E.

    2003-01-16

    The broad question addressed in our research is : What is the influence of ethical concepts on legislative outcomes? The research focuses on the important ethical concerns that surround the use of genetic information in employment matters and in American state legislatures. By analyzing the contents of hearings, interviews and advocacy documents involved in the legislative process, the research seeks to answer the question: How might the dominance of a particular ethical concept informing the discussion of a bill influence the legislative outcome?

  4. Involving citizens in the ethics of biobank research: informing institutional policy through structured public deliberation.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, Kieran C; Hawkins, Alice K; Burgess, Michael M

    2012-11-01

    This paper reports on the design, implementation, and results of a structured public deliberation on human tissue biobanking conducted in Vancouver, Canada, in 2009. This study builds on previous work on the use of deliberative democratic principles and methods to engage publics on the social and ethical implications of human tissue biobanking. In a significant refinement of methods, we focus on providing public input to institutional practice and governance of biobanks using a tailored workbook structure to guide participants' discussion. Our focus is on the local context and practices of a particular institution, the BC BioLibrary. However, elements of both the methodological innovations and the ethical guidance implied by our findings are generalisable for biobanking internationally. Recommendations from the deliberative forum include issues of informed consent, privacy protections, collection of biospecimens, governance of biobanks, and how to manage the process of introduction between biobanks and potential donors. Notable findings include public support for research use of anonymised un-consented tissue samples when these come from archived collections, but lack of support when they are collected prospectively. PMID:22867865

  5. "Obligated aliens": recognizing sperm donors' ethical obligation to disclose genetic information.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Sivan

    2013-03-01

    Sperm donors' obligations are typically constrained to the immediate circumstances surrounding the donation and to its time frame. This paper makes the case for recognizing an ongoing ethical obligation that binds sperm donors to disclose, in a timely manner, meaningful genetic information to recipients and donor-conceived children. The paper delineates and conceptualizes the suggested (potentially reciprocal) duty and argues that it is not the genetic link between the donor and the donor-conceived child that binds donors by said duty, but rather social responsibility. Accordingly, an original perception of the donor as an obligated alien is suggested and developed. The main thesis of the paper is supported inter alia by a comparison between transmitting infectious diseases and passing faulty genes on to donor-conceived children. The paper also provides an in-depth analysis of the conflicting interests of the parties generated by such an obligation and proposes a model for embedding this ethical duty in a (legal) contractual framework. PMID:23678628

  6. Ethical issues of informed consent: mothers' experiences enrolling their children in bone marrow transplantation research.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Patricia E; Pletsch, Pamela K

    2002-04-01

    Twelve mothers whose children had undergone bone marrow transplantation were interviewed about their experiences giving informed consent. They were asked to describe how they were introduced to bone marrow transplantation as a course of action to treat their gravely ill children, what their understanding of the protocol was, and the process by which they gave their consent. Their stories reveal complex ethical issues that may surface in the course of informed consent for research involving children. Findings suggest that mothers perceive life-and-death circumstances when a child is offered bone marrow transplantation, altering the voluntary nature of the research enterprise. The emotional trauma of the diagnosis decreases a mother's ability to absorb and understand vital information, and the emergent nature of the children's condition and the urgency to begin treatment further compromise informed consent by constricting the time and resources mothers may need to make a decision. Once a protocol is underway, mothers often experience regrets and self-recriminations about their decision to consent. Recommendations are offered that expand upon the current cognitive/rational approach to informed consent and take into account emotional experiences and the importance of building relationships to ensure informed consent over the life of a clinical trial. PMID:11984094

  7. Withholding differential risk information on legal consumer nicotine/tobacco products: The public health ethics of health information quarantines.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Lynn T; Sweanor, David

    2016-06-01

    The United States provides an example of a country with (a) legal tobacco/nicotine products (e.g., snus, other smokeless tobacco, cigarettes) differing greatly in risks to health and (b) respected health information websites that continue to omit or provide incorrect differential risk information. Concern for the principles of individual rights, health literacy, and personal autonomy (making decisions for oneself), which are key principles of public health ethics, has been countered by utilitarian arguments for the use of misleading or limited information to protect public health overall. We argue that omitting key health relevant information for current or prospective consumers represents a kind of quarantine of health-relevant information. As with disease quarantines, the coercive effects of quarantining information on differential risks need to be justified, not merely by fears of net negative public health effects, but by convincing evidence that such measures are actually warranted, that public health overall is in imminent danger and that the danger is sufficient to override principles of individual autonomy. Omitting such health-relevant information for consumers of such products effectively blindfolds them and impairs their making informed personal choices. Moral psychological issues that treat all tobacco/nicotine products similarly may also be influencing the reluctance to inform on differential risks. In countries where tobacco/nicotine products are legally sold and also differ greatly in disease risks compared to cigarettes (e.g., smokeless tobacco and vape), science-based, comprehensible, and actionable health information (consistent with health literacy principles) on differential risks should be available and only reconsidered if it is established that this information is causing losses to population health overall. PMID:27209528

  8. Framing ethical acceptability: a problem with nuclear waste in Canada.

    PubMed

    Wilding, Ethan T

    2012-06-01

    Ethical frameworks are often used in professional fields as a means of providing explicit ethical guidance for individuals and institutions when confronted with ethically important decisions. The notion of an ethical framework has received little critical attention, however, and the concept subsequently lends itself easily to misuse and ambiguous application. This is the case with the 'ethical framework' offered by Canada's Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), the crown-corporation which owns and is responsible for the long-term management of Canada's high-level nuclear fuel waste. It makes a very specific claim, namely that it is managing Canada's long-lived radioactive nuclear fuel waste in an ethically responsible manner. According to this organization, what it means to behave in an ethically responsible manner is to act and develop policy in accordance with its ethical framework. What, then, is its ethical framework, and can it be satisfied? In this paper I will show that the NWMO's ethical and social framework is deeply flawed in two respects: (a) it fails to meet the minimum requirements of a code of ethic or ethical framework by offering only questions, and no principles or rules of conduct; and (b) if posed as principles or rules of conduct, some of its questions are unsatisfiable. In particular, I will show that one of its claims, namely that it seek informed consent from individuals exposed to risk of harm from nuclear waste, cannot be satisfied as formulated. The result is that the NWMO's ethical framework is not, at present, ethically acceptable. PMID:21318321

  9. Ethical, legal, and social implications of incorporating genomic information into electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Ribhi; Brothers, Kyle B.; Malin, Bradley A.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Sanderson, Saskia C.; Rothstein, Mark A.; Williams, Marc S.; Clayton, Ellen W.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.

    2014-01-01

    The inclusion of genomic data in the electronic health record raises important ethical, legal, and social issues. In this article, we highlight these challenges and discuss potential solutions. We provide a brief background on the current state of electronic health records in the context of genomic medicine, discuss the importance of equitable access to genome-enabled electronic health records, and consider the potential use of electronic health records for improving genomic literacy in patients and providers. We highlight the importance of privacy, access, and security, and of determining which genomic information is included in the electronic health record. Finally, we discuss the challenges of reporting incidental findings, storing and reinterpreting genomic data, and nondocumentation and duty to warn family members at potential genetic risk. PMID:24030434

  10. Intervention Research with Youths at Elevated Risk for Suicide: Meeting the Ethical and Regulatory Challenges of Informed Consent and Assent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Cheryl A.; Kramer, Anne C.

    2008-01-01

    Intervention research with youths at elevated risk for suicidal behavior and suicide--a vulnerable and high risk population--presents investigators with numerous ethical challenges. This report specifically addresses those challenges involving the informed consent and assent process with parents/guardians and youths. The challenges are delineated…

  11. The ethics of unlinked anonymous testing of blood: views from in-depth interviews with key informants in four countries

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, Anthony S; Datta, Jessica; Wellings, Kaye; Perman, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In this study we explore the ethical issues around unlinked anonymous testing (UAT) of blood, a method of seroprevalence surveillance for infectious diseases. Our study focused on UAT for HIV, although UAT can be used for other infectious diseases. The objectives of the research were to gain a better understanding of the views of key informants in countries adopting different UAT testing strategies, and to use the findings of the research to inform health policy. Design Qualitative study using in-depth interviews and ethical analysis. Setting Four countries using different strategies around UAT of blood for HIV (the UK, the USA, the Netherlands and Norway). Participants Twenty-three key informants in the four countries. Results Participants from the four countries have different views on UAT of blood, and the approaches and policies on UAT adopted by different countries have been historically and culturally determined. We use our findings to explore the relationship between public health policy and ethics, framing our discussion in relation to two important contemporary debates: informed consent for participation in medical and public health research; and the balance between the individual good and the public good. Conclusions Qualitative research and ethical analysis of UAT of blood in different countries has yielded important findings for consideration by policy makers. The policy of UAT of blood for HIV and other diseases in the UK needs reconsideration in the light of these findings. PMID:23263019

  12. Biobank research and ethics: the problem of informed consent in Polish biobanks

    PubMed Central

    Pawlikowski, Jakub; Sak, Jarosław; Marczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The dynamic development of biobanks causes some ethical, social, and legal problems. The most discussed problems are obtaining informed consent, especially for future research, from minors and from deceased people. The aim of this article is to present the current standards held by Polish biobanks concerning obtaining a participant's informed consent in some aspects. Material and methods Survey was carried out by anonymous questionnaire among 59 institutions which deal with the collecting and storage of human cells and tissues in the year 2008. Twenty four filled-in copies of the questionnaires were sent back (return=41%). Results Almost every institution (92%) obtains written consent, but a third of the surveyed institutions (29%) do not obtain consent for the future use of the samples. The majority of the respondents (83%) support the idea of using biological materials for research purposes of a donor who died if he did not leave any written objection to such practices and 46% of respondents stated that biobanks should obtain the consent from the already mature donor who gave their samples as a child. Conclusions The practice and rules for obtaining informed consent for the scientific research require improvement. The possibility to use the human materials in the future, conditions for getting access to the data, the possibility of their withdrawal from the database and using the materials and data after the death of the donor should be clearly determined when the informed consent to collect the material is obtained. PMID:22291838

  13. Inadequate reporting of research ethics review and informed consent in cluster randomised trials: review of random sample of published trials

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Andrew D; Weijer, Charles; Bennett, Carol; Dixon, Stephanie; Taleban, Julia; Skea, Zoe; Eccles, Martin P; Brehaut, Jamie C; Donner, Allan; Saginur, Raphael; Boruch, Robert F; Grimshaw, Jeremy M

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the extent to which authors of cluster randomised trials adhered to two basic requirements of the World Medical Association’s Declaration of Helsinki and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ uniform requirements for manuscripts (namely, reporting of research ethics review and informed consent), to determine whether the adequacy of reporting has improved over time, and to identify characteristics of cluster randomised trials associated with reporting of ethics practices. Design Review of a random sample of published cluster randomised trials from an electronic search in Medline. Setting Cluster randomised trials in health research published in English language journals from 2000 to 2008. Study sample 300 cluster randomised trials published in 150 journals. Results 77 (26%, 95% confidence interval 21% to 31%) trials failed to report ethics review. The proportion reporting ethics review increased significantly over time (P<0.001). Trials with data collection interventions at the individual level were more likely to report ethics review than were trials that used routine data sources only (79% (n=151) v 55% (23); P=0.008). Trials that accounted for clustering in the design and analysis were more likely to report ethics review. The median impact factor of the journal of publication was higher for trials that reported ethics review (3.4 v 2.3; P<0.001). 93 (31%, 26% to 36%) trials failed to report consent. Reporting of consent increased significantly over time (P<0.001). Trials with interventions targeting participants at the individual level were more likely to report consent than were trials with interventions targeting the cluster level (87% (90) v 48% (41); P<0.001). Trials with data collection interventions at the individual level were more likely to report consent than were those that used routine data sources only (78% (146) v 29% (11); P<0.001). Conclusions Reporting of research ethics protections in cluster

  14. Small ethics.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, ethics in the professions has focused on big problems that could be found on other peoples' back porches. Small, habitual, frequent, and personal lapses get little attention. In this essay, the literature on opportunism is applied to dentistry with a view toward bringing matters of "near ethics" within reach. Examples of small lapses are discussed under the headings of shirking, free riding, shrinkage, pressing, adverse selection, moral hazard, and risk shifting. The conditions that support opportunism include relationships with small numbers of transactions and uneven access to information. Practical limits on understanding all the consequences of agreements and the costs of supervising others and enforcing corrections of breaches are inescapable aspects of opportunism. Opportunism may not be accepted by all as the subject matter of ethical, but curbing it is a worthy goal and understanding the causes and management of opportunism casts some light on the ethical enterprise. Four suggestions are offered for addressing issue of opportunism. PMID:17691498

  15. Visiatome: The French Discovery and Information Center on Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Brunel, G.; Rabbe, C.; Moncouyoux, J.P.

    2006-07-01

    The French radioactive waste management act of December 30, 1991, included two key provisions. It initiated a major research program with three areas of investigation concerning high-level long-lived radioactive waste management routes, and called for the Government to submit a legislative proposal to Parliament within 15 years (by 2006) specifying the policy guidelines adopted. Considering the sensitive nature of the subject, the questions surrounding the issue of radioactive waste, and the social, economic and environmental concerns for present and future generations, the Government has inaugurated, in 2005, a nationwide public debate on these issues between the submittal of the research reports and the parliamentary discussion of the proposed law. In this context, the CEA has decided to concentrate at Marcoule the expertise and experience acquired in the area of radioactive waste management and to make it available to stakeholders and to the public. A scientific cultural center, Visiatome, has been built to inform the public and facilitate the acceptance of nuclear energy and radioactive waste management by presenting the subject in a manner adapted to the level of knowledge of the visitors. A modern, fun and interactive exhibition of 600 m{sup 2} allows visitors to find out more about energy, waste products, sources of radioactive waste, their treatment and where they are stored, natural and artificial radioactivity, effects of radiation on mankind. It also offers a media library, an auditorium for group discussions and teaching rooms for school groups with the aim of encouraging students to discover science through enjoyment. Visiatome has received several thousand visitors since it was opened to the public on April 10, 2005, and the initial results of this experience can now be reviewed: the design principles of the center and its permanent exhibits, the characteristics of the visitors and their perception of the subjects presented. (authors)

  16. Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists’ perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from former Canadian medical tourists regarding the use of an information sheet to address this knowledge gap and raise awareness of the safety and ethical concerns related to medical tourism. Results According to feedback provided in interviews with former Canadian medical tourists, the majority of participants responded positively to the information sheet and indicated that this document prompted them to engage in further consideration of these issues. Participants indicated some frustration after reading the information sheet regarding a lack of know-how in terms of learning more about the concerns discussed in the document and changing their decision-making. This frustration was due to participants’ desperation for medical care, a topic which participants frequently discussed regarding ethical concerns related to health care provision. Conclusions The overall perceptions of former medical tourists indicate that an information sheet may promote further consideration of ethical concerns of medical tourism. However, given that these interviews were performed with former medical tourists, it remains unknown whether such a document might impact upon the decision-making of prospective medical tourists. Furthermore, participants indicated a need for an additional tool such as a website for continued discussion about these concerns. As such, along with dissemination of the information sheet

  17. Informed consent in the psychosis prodrome: ethical, procedural and cultural considerations.

    PubMed

    Morris, Sarah E; Heinssen, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Research focused on the prodromal period prior to the onset of psychosis is essential for the further development of strategies for early detection, early intervention, and disease pre-emption. Such efforts necessarily require the enrollment of individuals who are at risk of psychosis but have not yet developed a psychotic illness into research and treatment protocols. This work is becoming increasingly internationalized, which warrants special consideration of cultural differences in conceptualization of mental illness and international differences in health care practices and rights regarding research participation. The process of identifying and requesting informed consent from individuals at elevated risk for psychosis requires thoughtful communication about illness risk and often involves the participation of family members. Empirical studies of risk reasoning and decisional capacity in young people and individuals with psychosis suggest that most individuals who are at-risk for psychosis can adequately provide informed consent; however ongoing improvements to tools and procedures are important to ensure that this work proceeds with maximal consideration of relevant ethical issues. This review provides a discussion of these issues in the context of international research efforts. PMID:25403748

  18. [Terms of informed consent for users of dental clinics in Brazil: legal and ethical issues].

    PubMed

    Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho; Sales-Peres, Arsênio; Eleutério, Adriana Silveira de Lima; de Oliveira, José Luiz Góes; Gigliotti, Mariana Pracucio

    2011-01-01

    The consent of patient before the beginning of any procedure has to be a respected condition, without any exception. It is necessary the patients to be aware of their health status, their specific needs, the intention of each treatment, the alternatives plans (including no treatment), to know their prognostic, risks, consequences, limitations, and to be aware of their responsibilities and those of your dentist, resulting in the success of the treatment. The Informed Consent (TCLE) aims to fortify and to clarify the position of the patient, being established the rights and duties of both parts - patient and professional. The integral knowledge of the treatment will minimize the anxiety of the patient and treatment complications, and promote greater quality of dental services and improve the satisfaction of both dentist and patient. However, there are few articles in Brazil about this, but there are some ethics problems involving dental clinics regarding this document of information for the patient. Therefore, the aim of this work is to carry through a critical revision on the subject demonstrating the importance of the TCLE in the Brazilian dental clinics. PMID:21503427

  19. Why Would Information and Communications Technology Contribute to Development at All? An Ethical Inquiry into the Possibilities of ICT in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanki, Jari

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at the ethical implications of the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in bringing about development in developing societies. Any proposed means to enhance development has costs as well as benefits. Hence, the evaluation of a given means to development should always be a matter of "applied ethics". When ICT is…

  20. Ethics of Clear Health Communication: applying the CLean Look approach to Communicate Biobanking Information for Cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Koskan, Alexis; Arevalo, Mariana; Gwede, Clement K.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa A.; Luque, John S.; Wells, Kristen J.; Meade, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer innovations, such as biobanking technologies, are continuously evolving to improve our understanding and knowledge about cancer prevention and treatment modalities. However, the public receives little communication about biobanking and is often unaware about this innovation until asked to donate biospecimens. It is the researchers’ ethical duty to provide clear communications about biobanking and biospecimen research. Such information allows the public to understand biobanking processes and facilitates informed decision making about biospecimen donation. The aims of this paper are 1) to examine the importance of clear communication as an ethical imperative when conveying information about cancer innovations and 2) to illustrate the use of an organizing framework, the CLEAN (Culture, Literacy, Education, Assessment, and Networking) Look approach for creating educational priming materials about the topic of biobanking. PMID:23124500

  1. Ethics in Librarianship: A Management Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Mont, Rosemary Ruhig

    1991-01-01

    Presents a management model of ethical decision making in librarianship. Highlights include a definition of ethics; ethical concerns in information professions; the concept of social responsibility; ethical dimensions of decision making, including access to information and hiring decisions; ethical considerations for managers; and strategies for…

  2. Earthquake ethics through scientific knowledge, historical memory and societal awareness: the experience of direct internet information.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rubeis, Valerio; Sbarra, Paola; Sebaste, Beppe; Tosi, Patrizia

    2013-04-01

    The experience of collection of data on earthquake effects and diffusion of information to people, carried on through the site "haisentitoilterremoto.it" (didyoufeelit) managed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), has evidenced a constantly growing interest by Italian citizens. Started in 2007, the site has collected more than 520,000 compiled intensity questionnaires, producing intensity maps of almost 6,000 earthquakes. One of the most peculiar feature of this experience is constituted by a bi-directional information exchange. Every person can record observed effects of the earthquake and, at the same time, look at the generated maps. Seismologists, on the other side, can find each earthquake described in real time through its effects on the whole territory. In this way people, giving punctual information, receive global information from the community, mediated and interpreted by seismological knowledge. The relationship amongst seismologists, mass media and civil society is, thus, deep and rich. The presence of almost 20,000 permanent subscribers distributed on the whole Italian territory, alerted in case of earthquake, has reinforced the participation: the subscriber is constantly informed by the seismologists, through e-mail, about events occurred in his-her area, even if with very small magnitude. The "alert" service provides the possibility to remember that earthquakes are a phenomenon continuously present, on the other hand it shows that high magnitude events are very rare. This kind of information is helpful as it is fully complementary to that one given by media. We analyze the effects of our activity on society and mass media. The knowledge of seismic phenomena is present in each person, having roots on fear, idea of death and destruction, often with the deep belief of very rare occurrence. This position feeds refusal and repression. When a strong earthquake occurs, surprise immediately changes into shock and desperation. A

  3. Ethical Decision Making: Basic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Loretta J.; Hendricks, C. Bret

    2008-01-01

    Among counselors, ethical dilemmas occur often. Although ethical dilemmas are challenging, they can be solved by implementing a code of ethics and/or an ethical decision-making model. Using case studies, the authors illustrate how counselors can make informed, accurate decisions that are made to protect the welfare of the client. It also helps…

  4. Collaboration, Automation, and Information Management at Hanford High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Aurah, Mirwaise Y.; Roberts, Mark A.

    2013-12-12

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), operator of High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Tank Farms at the Hanford Site, is taking an over 20-year leap in technology, replacing systems that were monitored with clipboards and obsolete computer systems, as well as solving major operations and maintenance hurdles in the area of process automation and information management. While WRPS is fully compliant with procedures and regulations, the current systems are not integrated and do not share data efficiently, hampering how information is obtained and managed.

  5. Waste management facilities cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.; Burton, D.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains cost information on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Complex waste streams that will be addressed by DOE in the programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) project. It describes the results of the task commissioned by DOE to develop cost information for transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste. It contains transportation costs for most types of DOE waste streams: low-level waste (LLW), mixed low-level waste (MLLW), alpha LLW and alpha MLLW, Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) LLW and DOE equivalent waste, transuranic (TRU) waste, spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and hazardous waste. Unit rates for transportation of contact-handled (<200 mrem/hr contact dose) and remote-handled (>200 mrem/hr contact dose) radioactive waste are estimated. Land transportation of radioactive and hazardous waste is subject to regulations promulgated by DOE, the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and state and local agencies. The cost estimates in this report assume compliance with applicable regulations.

  6. Information Strategy of Nuclear Training Center Ljubljana in the Area of Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Jeneie, I.

    2008-07-01

    Slovenia has plans to build a repository for low- and medium-radioactive waste by 2013, the location in the very neighborhood of nuclear power plant is almost chosen, but the final approval hasn't been granted yet. The main obstacle is public opinion. Public information activities are therefore vitally important. One of the most important players in this area in Slovenia is Nuclear Training Center in Ljubljana. Though its main task is training of nuclear professionals, it has a significant role in dissemination of knowledge about radioactivity and nuclear technology also among general public. Public information is focused on youngsters. Almost one half of every generation of schoolchildren in Slovenia visits the Information center yearly and in May 2007, we have celebrated the 100,000. visitor since its opening. Live lectures, exhibition, publications and laboratory demonstrations are offered. To measure the opinion of youngsters about nuclear power and get a feed-back for our activities about 1000 youngsters are polled every year since 1993 using the same basic set of questions. The paper describes the information strategy, types of lectures and information materials, permanent exhibition with the most important exhibits. Furthermore, the results of yearly polls of our visitors and comparison with relevant Euro-barometer polls are presented. (authors)

  7. Emergency communication and information issues in terrorist events involving radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Becker, Steven M

    2004-01-01

    With the threat posed by terrorism involving radioactive materials now high on the nation's agenda, local, state, and federal agencies are moving to enhance preparedness and response capabilities. Crucial to these efforts is the development of effective risk communication strategies. This article reports findings from an ongoing study of risk communication issues in nuclear/radiological terrorism situations. It is part of a larger CDC-funded effort that aims to better understand communication challenges associated with weapons of mass destruction terrorism incidents. Presented here are formative research findings from 16 focus groups (n = 163) in which a multi-part, hypothetical radioactive materials terrorism situation was discussed. Twelve of the focus groups were carried out with members of the general public (drawn from a variety of ethnic backgrounds and geographic locations), and four groups were composed of first responders, hospital emergency department personnel, and public health professionals. One aim of the focus groups was to elicit detailed information on people's knowledge, views, perceptions, reactions, and concerns related to a nuclear/radiological terrorism event, and to better understand people's specific information needs and preferred information sources. A second aim was to pretest draft informational materials prepared by CDC and NIOSH. Key findings for the public and professional groups are presented, and the implications of the research for developing messages in radiological/nuclear terrorism situations are explored. PMID:15588058

  8. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities. PMID:24894063

  9. Visual Form, Ethics, and a Typology of Purpose: Teaching Effective Information Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenquist, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Stallworth Williams introduces concepts of visual rhetoric and ethics for a classroom exercise in the analysis and revision of a sales letter. This article revisits Stallworth Williams's proposed teaching strategies, suggesting that not only do students need to be instructed in elements of visual design, but they must also be taught to link those…

  10. Ethical Use of Information Technologies in Education: Important Issues for America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivin, Jay P.; Bialo, Ellen R.

    In response to the rapid growth of computer crime and such illegitimate practices as piracy and fraud, the National Institute of Justice and the Office for Educational Research and Improvement have formed a partnership to promote school programs on the ethical uses of new technologies. This report, the first of the partnership, is designed to…

  11. Ethics in the Information Age: After Rules and Locks, What Do We Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Sally

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 computer "worm" resulted in some needed attention to computer security. Academic computing has the goal of integrating computing into the fabric of teaching, learning, and research, and must be relatively open. Ways to raise awareness of ethical and social issues are described. (MLW)

  12. Rapid Ethical Assessment on Informed Consent Content and Procedure in Hintalo-Wajirat, Northern Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abay, Serebe; Addissie, Adamu; Davey, Gail; Farsides, Bobbie; Addissie, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Informed consent is a key component of bio-medical research involving human participants. However, obtaining informed consent is challenging in low literacy and resource limited settings. Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) can be used to contextualize and simplify consent information within a given study community. The current study aimed to explore the effects of social, cultural, and religious factors during informed consent process on a proposed HPV-serotype prevalence study. Methodology A qualitative community-based REA was conducted in Adigudom and Mynebri Kebeles, Northern Ethiopia, from July to August 2013. Data were collected by a multi-disciplinary team using open ended questions concerning informed consent components in relation to the parent study. The team conducted one-to-one In-Depth Interviews (IDI) and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with key informants and community members to collect data based on the themes of the study. Tape recorded data were transcribed in Tigrigna and then translated into English. Data were categorized and thematically analyzed using open coding and content analysis based on pre-defined themes. Results The REA study revealed a number of socio-cultural issues relevant to the proposed study. Low community awareness about health research, participant rights and cervical cancer were documented. Giving a vaginal sample for testing was considered to be highly embarrassing, whereas giving a blood sample made participants worry that they might be given a result without the possibility of treatment. Verbal consent was preferred to written consent for the proposed study. Conclusion This rapid ethical assessment disclosed important socio-cultural issues which might act as barriers to informed decision making. The findings were important for contextual modification of the Information Sheet, and to guide the best consent process for the proposed study. Both are likely to have enabled participants to understand the informed consent

  13. For your interest? The ethical acceptability of using non-invasive prenatal testing to test 'purely for information'.

    PubMed

    Deans, Zuzana; Clarke, Angus J; Newson, Ainsley J

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is an emerging form of prenatal genetic testing that provides information about the genetic constitution of a foetus without the risk of pregnancy loss as a direct result of the test procedure. As with other prenatal tests, information from NIPT can help to make a decision about termination of pregnancy, plan contingencies for birth or prepare parents to raise a child with a genetic condition. NIPT can also be used by women and couples to test purely 'for information'. Here, no particular action is envisaged following the test; it is motivated entirely by an interest in the result. The fact that NIPT can be performed without posing a risk to the pregnancy could give rise to an increase in such requests. In this paper, we examine the ethical aspects of using NIPT 'purely for information', including the competing interests of the prospective parents and the future child, and the acceptability of testing for 'frivolous' reasons. Drawing on several clinical scenarios, we claim that arguments about testing children for genetic conditions are relevant to this debate. In addition, we raise ethical concerns over the potential for objectification of the child. We conclude that, in most cases, using NIPT to test for adult-onset conditions, carrier status or non-serious traits presenting in childhood would be unacceptable. PMID:25521970

  14. Eer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Orwant, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

  15. Conducting Ethical Business Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaszczynski, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Defines ethical research and associated terms: codes of ethics, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and data treatment. Addresses issues in the dissemination of research results, such as plagiarism and authorship. (SK)

  16. An Information Building on Radioactivity and Nuclear Energy for the French CEA Cadarache Research Center - 13492

    SciTech Connect

    Brunel, Guy; Denis, Dominique; Boulet, Alain

    2013-07-01

    The CEA Cadarache research center is one of the 10 research centers of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Distributed throughout various research platforms, it focuses on nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, new energy technologies (hydrogen, solar, biomass) and fundamental research in the field of vegetal biology. It is the most important technological research and development centers for energy in Europe. Considering the sensitive nature of nuclear activities, the questions surrounding the issue of radioactive waste, the nuclear energy and the social, economic and environmental concerns for present and future generations, the French Government asked nuclear actors to open communication and to give all the information asked by the Local Information Commission (CLI) and the public [1]. In this context, the CEA Cadarache has decided to better show and explain its expertise and experience in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear power plant design, and to make it available to stakeholders and to the public. CEA Cadarache receives each year more than 9000 visitors. To complete technical visits of the research facilities and laboratories, a scientific cultural center has been built in 2011 to inform the public on CEA Cadarache research activities and to facilitate the acceptance of nuclear energy in a way suited to the level of knowledge of the visitors. A modern interactive exhibition of 150 m{sup 2} allows visitors to find out more about energy, CEA Cadarache research programs, radioactive waste management and radiological impact on the research center activities. It also offers an auditorium for group discussions and for school groups to discover science through enjoyment. This communication center has received several thousand visitors since its opening on October 2011; the initial results of this experience are now available. It's possible to explain the design of this exhibition, to give some statistics on the number of the visitors

  17. The Double Helix: Applying an Ethic of Care to the Duty to Warn Genetic Relatives of Genetic Information.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Meaghann

    2016-03-01

    Genetic testing reveals information about a patient's health status and predictions about the patient's future wellness, while also potentially disclosing health information relevant to other family members. With the increasing availability and affordability of genetic testing and the integration of genetics into mainstream medicine, the importance of clarifying the scope of confidentiality and the rules regarding disclosure of genetic findings to genetic relatives is prime. The United Nations International Declaration on Human Genetic Data urges an appreciation for principles of equality, justice, solidarity and responsibility in the context of genetic testing, including a commitment to honoring the privacy and security of the person tested. Considering this global mandate and recent professional statements in the context of a legal amendment to patient privacy policies in Australia, a fresh scrutiny of the legal history of a physician's duty to warn is warranted. This article inquiries whether there may be anything ethically or socially amiss with a potential future recommendation for health professionals or patients to universally disclose particular cancer predisposition genetic diagnosis to genetic family members. While much of the discussion remains applicable to all genetic diagnosis, the article focuses on the practice of disclosure within the context of BRCA1/2 diagnosis. An 'ethic of care' interpretation of legal tradition and current practice will serve to reconcile law and medical policy on the issue of physician disclosure of genetic results to family members without patient consent. PMID:26194147

  18. [Information retrieval on ethical problems by online consultation of bioethics bibliographic data bases].

    PubMed

    Pizzarelli, S

    1998-01-01

    In an age when the ever-expanding limits of sciences are requiring an adjustment of moral principles and values, the Bioethics file is an essential tool for those who are in need of updated guidelines on bioethical issues. This database--produced by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics (KIE) in collaboration with the National Library of Medicine (NLM)--is distributed online by different hosts and is also available in print version and on CD-ROM. Structure and contents of the online version of the Bioethics file searchable through MEDLARS are described in details. PMID:9810756

  19. Health and Big Data: An Ethical Framework for Health Information Collection by Corporate Wellness Programs.

    PubMed

    Ajunwa, Ifeoma; Crawford, Kate; Ford, Joel S

    2016-09-01

    This essay details the resurgence of wellness program as employed by large corporations with the aim of reducing healthcare costs. The essay narrows in on a discussion of how Big Data collection practices are being utilized in wellness programs and the potential negative impact on the worker in regards to privacy and employment discrimination. The essay offers an ethical framework to be adopted by wellness program vendors in order to conduct wellness programs that would achieve cost-saving goals without undue burdens on the worker. The essay also offers some innovative approaches to wellness that may well better serve the goals of healthcare cost reduction. PMID:27587451

  20. Creating Caring and Ethical Communities in Rural, Small Schools. Rural, Small Schools Network Information Exchange: Number 18, Spring 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast & Islands, Andover, MA.

    This packet includes reprints of articles concerning the development of a caring and ethical rural school community. The four sections of the packet overview theories and rationale for developing a caring classroom, successful programs in ethical schools and classrooms, leadership and decision making for building a caring and ethical school…

  1. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Glenn W.; Schulz, William E.; McMahon, Sylvia-Anne

    This booklet expresses the ethical principles and values of the Canadian Counseling Association and serves as a guide to the professional conduct of all its members. It also informs the public served by the association of the standards of ethical conduct for which members are to be responsible and accountable. This guide reflects the values of…

  2. Do the Right Thing: Ethical Decision-Making in Professional & Business Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Lorraine M.

    1993-01-01

    Explains how to recognize ethical dilemmas and reviews steps in making ethical decisions: information gathering, ethical codes, values and beliefs, critical reflection, peer consultation, and intuition. (SK)

  3. Ensuring ethical behavior in organizations

    SciTech Connect

    Milter, R.G.

    1994-12-31

    This paper examines both the industrial-age and the information-age organization`s attempts to ensure ethical behavior. Organizational responses to deal with this task include establishing written codes, appointing ethics officers, developing ethics committees, training, and impacting educational systems.

  4. Ethics and Childbirth Educators: Do Your Values Cause You Ethical Distress?

    PubMed Central

    Ondeck, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics for Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators outlines the ethical principles and standards that are derived from childbirth education's core values to assure quality and ethical practice. This article presents a summary of the history of ethics and medical ethics that informs a value-oriented decision-making process in childbirth education. The role of evidence in ethics is explored from the childbirth educator's viewpoint, and scenarios are used to reflect on situations that are examples of ethical distress. The conclusion is that the practice of ethics and ethical decision making includes regular reflection. PMID:19436591

  5. [A proposal for the prevention of ethical problems related to drug promotion: a national network for drug information].

    PubMed

    Civaner, Murat

    2008-01-01

    The promotional activities of pharmaceutical companies are becoming an increasingly hot topic among healthcare workers and the general public. There are many studies in the literature claiming that drug promotion may lead to ethical problems, irrational use of medication, and increased costs, as well as negative effects on the patient-physician relationship and the medical profession. When considering that healthcare workers generally acquire their knowledge from the pharmaceutical industry, the problems mentioned, which are indeed of paramount importance, and the need for effective and sustainable interventions are clearly revealed. Many kinds of interventions have been recommended by various authorities and studies in order to prevent the kinds of problems mentioned above, including training healthcare workers, publishing professional codes to serve as guidelines about which professional values should be protected and how to cope with different situations in relationship to the pharmaceutical industry, or applying the business ethics codes of the pharmaceutical companies. Studies that assessed the effectiveness of different interventions, however, revealed that educating healthcare workers about marketing methods and state regulations are the only effective interventions. In this article, after defining the problem, a proposed national network for drug information is to decrease the negative effects of drug promotion and to promote the rational choice of medicines is described. According to the World Health Organization, rational use of medicine is the most effective, safe, applicable/suitable, and, lastly, the most cost effective option. A national network that will gather drug information by compiling evidence-based knowledge and taking rational use of medicine measures into account should be established. It should transmit information to all healthcare workers in a fast, equal, up to date, easily accessible, and free way. The network should also support

  6. Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prentice, Ann E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses professional ethics in librarianship as system of values and rules that govern way in which librarians view and practice their profession. Background, definition of terms (ethics, professional), development of codes of ethics, history of American Library Association Code of Ethics and 1981 statement, and role of education are covered.…

  7. "I Now Have a Visual Image in My Mind and It Is Something I Will Never Forget": An Analysis of an Arts-Informed Approach to Health Professions Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; Bidinosti, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of an arts informed approach to ethics education in a health professions education context. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' reported learning experiences as a result of engagement with an arts-informed project in a health professions' ethics course. A hermeneutic phenomenological methodological…

  8. Ethical aspects of informed consent for the collection, preservation and use of cells and tissues in biological banks for research purposes.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the current and proposed requirements for informed consent for research with biological samples. The establishment of biobanks and the capabilities of collecting, storing, and using cells and tissues for research purposes have noticeably grown. With new abilities come new challenges to ethical questions of consent, specifically concerning genetic information, and unanticipated usage. This paper summarizes these issues in the context of levels of informed consent, subject risk, individual vs. societal benefits, anonymity, legal consensus. PMID:23115828

  9. Psychiatric Residents' Needs for Education about Informed Consent, Principles of Ethics and Professionalism, and Caring for Vulnerable Populations: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Shaili; Lapid, Maria I.; Dunn, Laura B.; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychiatric residents' perceived needs for education in informed consent, principles of ethics and professionalism, and treating vulnerable populations. Method: A written survey was distributed to psychiatric residents (N = 249) at seven U.S. residency programs in 2005. The survey contained 149 questions in 10…

  10. Do information, price, or morals influence ethical consumption? A natural field experiment and customer survey on the purchase of Fair Trade coffee.

    PubMed

    Andorfer, Veronika A; Liebe, Ulf

    2015-07-01

    We address ethical consumption using a natural field experiment on the actual purchase of Fair Trade (FT) coffee in three supermarkets in Germany. Based on a quasi-experimental before-and-after design the effects of three different treatments - information, 20% price reduction, and a moral appeal - are analyzed. Sales data cover actual ethical purchase behavior and avoid problems of social desirability. But they offer only limited insights into the motivations of individual consumers. We therefore complemented the field experiment with a customer survey that allows us to contrast observed (ethical) buying behavior with self-reported FT consumption. Results from the experiment suggest that only the price reduction had the expected positive and statistically significant effect on FT consumption. PMID:26004466

  11. Legal and Ethical Aspects of Informed Consent: A Nursing Research Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Virginia R.; Oddi, Lorys F.

    1986-01-01

    Issues related to the doctrine of informed consent for research on human subjects are discussed as they concern the conduct of nursing research. They include the subject's capacity to consent, disclosure of information, and freedom to decide. (MSE)

  12. Report of the Ethics Committee, 2015.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The Report of the Ethics Committee, 2015, provides information on activities of the Ethics Committee and Ethics Office during that year. In 2015, the Ethics Office and Committee continued their work of adjudication, ethics education, and ethics consultations. The Ethics Committee adopted minor changes to its "Rules and Procedures" to increase the efficiency of the adjudication process. These changes were approved by the APA Board of Directors to become effective on March 1, 2016. The Independent Review Report by David H. Hoffman was released in July. The ethics office director also departed in July, and an interim ethics director was appointed. The process for establishing a Commission on Ethics Processes was also begun. The Commission has the charge of evaluating and recommending changes to the American Psychological Association's current ethics program. Data for adjudication processing in 2015 as well as comparisons to the previous 4 years are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504575

  13. Bioethics Principles, Informed Consent, and Ethical Care for Special Populations: Curricular Needs Expressed by Men and Women Physicians-in-Training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; M.A., Cynthia; Geppert; Warner, Teddy D.; Green Hammond, Katherine A.; Lamberton, Leandrea Prosen

    2006-01-01

    Objective Physicians-in-training today are learning in an ethical environment that is unprecedented in its complexity. There is a call for new approaches in preparing medical students and residents for the ethical and professional issues they will encounter. The perspectives of physicians-in-training at different levels regarding the level of curricular attention needed for emerging bioethics concepts, practical informed consent considerations, and the care of special populations are unknown. Method The authors performed a hypothesis-driven, confidential survey study to assess perceived needs and preferences among medical students and residents related to medical ethics education at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. Results A total of 336 physicians-in-training volunteered (62% response rate). Overall, strong interest was expressed for increased curricular attention to the domains of bioethics principles, informed consent, and care of special populations. Women students expressed greater interest generally. For certain domains, clinical students expressed relatively less curricular need and psychiatry and primary care residents expressed relatively greater curricular need. Two of the four hypotheses were supported, a third received partial support, and a fourth was not supported by the findings. Discussion To be valuable and effective, new ethics curricular approaches must be responsive to the current complex ethical environment and attentive to the preferences of medical students and residents of both genders, at different stages of training, with different patient care responsibilities. This hypothesis-driven study provides guidance for the inclusion of novel and important ethics domains in training curricula across medical school and diverse residency programs. PMID:16145189

  14. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753

  15. Genalogical approaches to ethical implications of informational assimilative integrated discovery systems (AIDS) in business

    SciTech Connect

    Pharhizgar, K.D.; Lunce, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    Development of knowledge-based technological acquisition techniques and customers` information profiles are known as assimilative integrated discovery systems (AIDS) in modern organizations. These systems have access through processing to both deep and broad domains of information in modern societies. Through these systems organizations and individuals can predict future trend probabilities and events concerning their customers. AIDSs are new techniques which produce new information which informants can use without the help of the knowledge sources because of the existence of highly sophisticated computerized networks. This paper has analyzed the danger and side effects of misuse of information through the illegal, unethical and immoral access to the data-base in an integrated and assimilative information system as described above. Cognivistic mapping, pragmatistic informational design gathering, and holistic classifiable and distributive techniques are potentially abusive systems whose outputs can be easily misused by businesses when researching the firm`s customers.

  16. [Human genetics and ethics].

    PubMed

    Zergollern, L

    1990-01-01

    Many new problems and dilemmas have occurred in the practice of medical geneticists with the development of human genetics and its subdisciplines--molecular genetics, ethic genetics and juridical genetics. Devoid of the possibility to get adequate education, genetic informer or better to say, counsellor, although a scientist and a professional who has already formed his ethic attitudes, often finds himself in a dilemma when he has to decide whether a procedure made possible by progress of science is ethical or not. Thus, due to different attitudes, same decision is ethical for some, while for the others it is not. Ethic committees are groups of moral and good people trying to find an objective approach to certain genetic and ethic problems. There are more and more ethically unanswered questions in modern human genetics, and particularly in medical genetics. Medical geneticist-ethicist still encounters numerous problems in his work. These are, for example, experiments with human gametes and embryos, possibilities of hybridization of human gametes with animal gametes, in vitro fertilization, detection of heterozygotes and homozygotes for monogene diseases. early detection of chromosomopathies, substitute mothers, homo and hetero insemination, transplantation of fetal and cadeveric organs, uncontrolled consumption of alcohol and drugs, environmental pollution, etc. It is almost impossible to create a single attitude which shall be shared by all those engaged in human health protection. Therefore, it is best to have a neutral eugenetic attitude which allows free ethical choice of each individual, in any case, for the well-being of man. PMID:2366624

  17. Ethical Considerations in Assessing the Competency of Older Adults: A Provision of Informed Consent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orel, Nancy A.

    1998-01-01

    Obtaining informed consent for older adults can be problematic if there is a question of the person's competency. This article discusses the current literature and research concerning competency as it relates to an elderly person's ability to provide informed consent. Criteria and instruments that are utilized to determine competency are…

  18. Ethics and Information Management: How Vulnerable Is Your Campus to Computer Crime?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atcherson, Esther

    1993-01-01

    To minimize breaches of computer security, colleges and universities should (1) establish and disseminate policies and procedures regarding computer security; (2) inform users about what constitutes a criminal act; (3) take measures to protect all information in the organization, beginning with a campus security review; and (4) schedule regular…

  19. Technology as a Threat to Privacy: Ethical Challenges and Guidelines for the Information Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britz, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    Assesses the impact of technology on privacy. Discusses electronic monitoring of people in the workplace; interception and reading of e-mail messages; merging of databases which contain personal information; rise in the number of hackers; and the development of software that makes the decoding of digital information virtually impossible. Presents…

  20. Ethical considerations for informed consent in infertility research: The use of electronic health records

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Gordon, Janna R.; Su, H. Irene; Plosker, Shayne; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of electronic health records (EHRs) in healthcare provides rich opportunities for biomedical research. Using EHRs, massive quantities of patient data can be extracted for research without the need to recruit patients, schedule study visits, or rely on self-reporting. However, this innovation poses significant concerns about patient privacy and confidentiality of data. Patients receiving infertility treatment may be particularly vulnerable to data breaches, as their EHRs often include sensitive health information about themselves, their partner, and their offspring. Helping patients with infertility to make informed decisions about sharing data is crucial, yet little is known about best practices for obtaining informed consent to use EHR data for research. This commentary reviews possible options for obtaining informed consent for EHR use among patients seeking fertility services. In addition, this commentary summarizes the limited research available on patient preferences for informed consent practices. PMID:27066591

  1. Ethical Impotence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical impotence occurs when one wants to act ethically but feels powerless to do anything about the perceived unethical behavior. One may feel that one's actions will have no impact or that those actions actually will have harmful consequences to oneself and/or others. Ethical impotence can be understood in terms of an eight-step model of…

  2. Medical Ethics

    MedlinePlus

    ... have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should a patient receive nutrition? What about advance directives and resuscitation orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...

  3. Ethics in systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Nabet, Cathy; Maret, Delphine; Hamel, Olivier

    2010-12-01

    Since its introduction by the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki, the place held by ethics in biomedical research has been continuously increasing in importance. The past 30 years have also seen exponential growth in the number of biomedical articles published. A systematic review of the literature is the scientific way of synthesising a plethora of information, by exhaustively searching out and objectively analysing the studies dealing with a given issue. However, the question of ethics in systematic reviews is rarely touched upon. This could lead to some drawbacks, as systematic reviews may contain studies with ethical insufficiencies, may be a possible way to publish unethical research and may also be prone to conflict of interest. Finally, informed consent given for an original study is not necessarily still valid at the systematic review level. There is no doubt that routine ethical assessment in systematic reviews would help to improve the ethical and methodological quality of studies in general. However, ethical issues change so much with time and location, and are so broad in scope and in context that it appears illusory to search for a universal, internationally accepted standard for ethical assessment in systematic reviews. Some simple suggestions could nevertheless be drawn from the present reflection and are discussed in the paper. PMID:20952493

  4. Ethics: A Course of Study for Educational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Ralph B.

    This monograph provides readings in ethical thought and professional ethics in educational administration, supplemented by case studies illustrating ethical problems administrators face. Comments on the field of ethics and the importance of administrative ethics introduce the booklet, along with background information about the booklet and…

  5. Developing an Ethical Compass for Worlds of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Doug

    1998-01-01

    Examines information technology ethics, ethical codes, privacy, property, appropriate use, and what students need to understand about rights and responsibilities; outlines activities that teach ethical behaviors; and lists "The Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics" developed by the Computer Ethics Institute, "Mankato (Minnesota) Schools' Acceptable…

  6. The Ethics of Breast Surgery.

    PubMed

    Throckmorton, Alyssa; VanderWalde, Lindi; Brackett, Craig; Dominici, Laura; Eisenhauer, Thomas; Johnson, Nathalie; Kong, Amanda; Ludwig, Kandice; O'Neill, Jennifer; Pugliese, Matthew; Teller, Paige; Sarantou, Terry

    2015-10-01

    Breast surgery has evolved as a subspecialty of general surgery and requires a working knowledge of benign and malignant diseases, surgical techniques, shared decision-making with patients, collaboration with a multi-disciplinary team, and a basic foundation in surgical ethics. Ethics is defined as the practice of analyzing, evaluating, and promoting best conduct based upon available standards. As new information is obtained or as cultural values change, best conduct may be re-defined. In 2014, the Ethics Committee of the ASBrS acknowledged numerous ethical issues, specific to the practice of breast surgery. This independent review of ethical concerns was created by the Ethics Committee to provide a resource for ASBrS members as well as other surgeons who perform breast surgery. In this review, the professional, clinical, research and technology considerations that breast surgeons face are reviewed with guidelines for ethical physician behavior. PMID:26219240

  7. Identifying the Ethical Challenges Encountered by Information Technology Professionals Working within the Nevada Casino Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essig, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A thematic analysis qualitative study was used to identify the unethical challenges encountered by Information Technology (IT) professionals working within the Nevada casino industry. Fourteen current and former IT leaders working or who worked in the Nevada casino industry were interviewed. Using thematic analysis, nine themes regarding ethical…

  8. Ethics of complementary medicine: practical issues

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    Complementary medicine is popular, yet ethical issues are rarely discussed. Misleading information, informed consent, publishing, and confidentiality are discussed in the light of medical ethics. The message that emerges is that, in complementary medicine, ethical issues are neglected and violated on a daily basis. PMID:19567001

  9. On the Ethics of Selective Omission and/or Inclusion of Relevant Information in School Drug Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fors, Stuart W.

    1980-01-01

    Basic ethical issues need to be clarified with regard to drug education curriculum development. Personal autonomy and human dignity should be the preeminent values adhered to when drug education curricula are planned and presented. (Author)

  10. The intersection of relational autonomy and narrative ethics for the patient unwilling to disclose genetic diagnosis information.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The rare case of the patient unwilling to disclose genetic data to his or her family provides an opportunity to expand the atomistic conception of the autonomous individual in medical decision-making. Medical practitioners naturally avoid violating patient autonomy and privacy. However, unwilling disclosure can damage the health of people other than the patient. In this situation, professionals must weigh the principle of autonomy against the nature of relationships, duties, and confidentialities between patient, professional, and family. The paradigm case studied is that of a patient with a potentially dangerous heart condition, Long QT Syndrome 3. Patients with Long QT 3 are at high risk for dying of ventricular tachycardia during rest, especially from ages 40-60. Once familial genetic testing was completed, the proband's mother, who was positive for the mutation, chose not to inform her estranged sister of the diagnosis.This paper examines the ethical duties of the physician to inform a patient's extended family of a serious genetic diagnosis, with a focus on the emotional and psychological effects of genetic testing. The need to adapt the process of violating confidentiality around considerations for the patient's emotional state and narrative will be addressed. This approach considers the patient's narrative, standpoint, and relationships as a way to develop a support plan and will present a guideline for cases where the probability of significant harm to others supersedes the patient's preference of non-disclosure as well as the physician's respect of confidentiality. The paper seeks to expand the conversation on genetic testing and autonomy beyond principles by considering all parties involved and emphasizes the use of the varied resources available to medical practitioners, especially to provide the best help possible without overburdening physicians with duties. PMID:26085443

  11. INFX GUIDE: DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY BILATERAL AGREEMENTS FOR COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT (INFX: INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION EXCHANGE)

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, K. M.; Lakey, L. T.; Leigh, I. W.; Jeffs, A. G.

    1985-07-01

    As the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have increased the magnitude and scope of their cooperative activities with other nations in the nuclear fuel cycle and waste management field, a need has developed for ready sources of information concerning foreign waste management programs, DOE technology exchange policies, bilateral fuel cycle and waste management agreements and plans and activities to implement those agreements. The INFX (International InLormation E~change) Guide is one of a series of documents that have been prepared to provide that information. The INFX Guide has been compiled under the charter of PNL's International Support Office (IPSO) to maintain for DOE a center to collect, organize, evaluate and disseminate information on foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. Because the information in this document is constantly subject to change, the document is assembled in loose-leaf form to accommodate frequent updates.

  12. Ethics in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues. PMID:17218662

  13. Ethics in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, J; Perlis, C; Bartolozzi, A R

    2000-09-01

    Sports medicine physicians are not exempt from the ethical challenges of medical practice merely because their patients are robust and healthy. In fact, precisely because the patients with sports injuries are so healthy the moral issues remain subtle. Many ethical issues in sports medicine come about because the traditional relationship between doctor and patient is altered or absent. In the current review, several routine topics in biomedical ethics, including doctor and patient confidentiality, informed consent, the care of minors, medical advertising and use of innovative treatments, will be studied from the sports medicine perspective. Hypothetical case histories will be presented, along with an analysis of the underlying ethical issues. The goal of this analysis is not to offer answers to these moral questions, but to increase awareness and promote contemplation of the correct course of action. PMID:10986974

  14. eHealth, Participatory Medicine, and Ethical Care: A Focus Group Study of Patients’ and Health Care Providers’ Use of Health-Related Internet Information

    PubMed Central

    Leese, Jenny; Adam, Paul; McDonald, Michael; Li, Linda C; Kerr, Sheila; Backman, Catherine L

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid explosion in online digital health resources is seen as transformational, accelerating the shift from traditionally passive patients to patients as partners and altering the patient–health care professional (HCP) relationship. Patients with chronic conditions are increasingly engaged, enabled, and empowered to be partners in their care and encouraged to take responsibility for managing their conditions with HCP support. Objective In this paper, we focus on patients’ and HCPs’ use of health-related Internet information and how it influences the patient-HCP relationship. In particular, we examine the challenges emerging in medical encounters as roles and relationships shift and apply a conceptual framework of relational ethics to examine explicit and nuanced ethical dimensions emerging in patient-HCP interactions as both parties make increased use of health-related Internet information. Methods We purposively sampled patients and HCPs in British Columbia, Canada, to participate in focus groups. To be eligible, patients self-reported a diagnosis of arthritis and at least one other chronic health condition; HCPs reported a caseload with >25% of patients with arthritis and multimorbidity. We used a semistructured, but flexible, discussion guide. All discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Elements of grounded theory guided our constant comparison thematic analytic approach. Analysis was iterative. A relational ethics conceptual lens was applied to the data. Results We recruited 32 participants (18 patients, 14 HCPs). They attended seven focus groups: four with patients and three with rehabilitation professionals and physicians. Predominant themes to emerge were how use of health-related Internet information fostered (1) changing roles, (2) patient-HCP partnerships, and (3) tensions and burdens for patients and HCPs. Conclusions Relational aspects such as mutual trust, uncertainty, and vulnerability are illuminated in patient

  15. Ethical and Psychosocial Considerations in Informing HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children That They Were Exposed to HIV and Antiretroviral Medications In Utero.

    PubMed

    Klitzman, Robert; Mellins, Claude A; Philbin, Morgan M; Abrams, Elaine J; Remien, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    We build on what is known about the potential long-term health effects of perinatal antiretroviral medication exposure to examine ethical and psychosocial issues associated with disclosure by applying lessons from other health conditions, theories of child and adolescent development and rights, and the relevant literature and legal contexts. We present 2 cases to highlight potential issues; apply a bioethical framework that includes principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice; and explore other factors, including the current uncertainty about these exposures' possible long-term health risks. This ethical framework can help clinicians and researchers consider and balance relevant concerns in deciding whether to inform offspring of HIV and related exposures. PMID:27310353

  16. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 1: Ethical Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huey, Wayne C.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 1 (8 articles) from a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Standards for School Counselors: Test Your Knowledge" (Wayne C. Huey)…

  17. The Development of a Contextual Information Framework Model as a Potential IAEA Strategy to Maintain Radioactive Waste Knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Upshall, I.R.; McCarthy, G.J.

    2007-07-01

    A contextual framework comprises 'entities' that exhibit one or more definable relationships with a particular 'event'. People, organisations, concepts, ideas, places, natural phenomena, events themselves, cultural artefacts including records, books, works of art can all be conceptualised as entities. If these entities are registered in an information management system where the relationships between them can be defined and systematically managed then it is possible to create a contextual information framework that represents a particular view of what occurs in real life. The careful identifying and mapping of the relationships between these entities and the selected event can lead rapidly to the creation of an information network that closely reflects the human approach to knowledge acquisition and application. The 'event' referred to in this paper is the safe management of radioactive waste. It is widely accepted that society will expect that knowledge about the waste will be maintained for many decades, if not centuries. Delivering on this expectation will demand the application of management approaches that are both innovative and sustainable. Effective inter-generational transfer of information using many 'conventional' techniques will be highly dependent on societal stability - something that cannot be guaranteed over such long periods of time. Consequently, alternative approaches should be explored and, where appropriate, implemented to give reasonable assurance that future generations of waste custodians will not be unduly burdened by the need to recreate information about the waste long after its disposal. In actual fact, the contextual information framework model is not 'new technology' but simply a means for rationalising and representing the way humans naturally tend to use information in the pursuit of knowledge enhancement. By making use of multiple information entities and their relationships, it is often possible to convert otherwise impossibly

  18. Ethical issues in transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Elhence, Priti

    2006-01-01

    The practice of transfusion medicine involves a number of ethical issues because blood comes from human beings and is a precious resource with a limited shelf life. In 1980 the International Society of Blood Transfusion endorsed its first formal code of ethics, which was adopted by the World Health Organisation and the League of Red Crescent Societies. A revised code of ethics for donation and transfusion was endorsed in 2000. Blood donation as a gift, donor confidentiality, donor notification and donor consent, consent for transfusion, the right to refuse blood transfusion, the right to be informed if harmed, and ethical principles for establishments, are discussed in the international and Indian contexts. PMID:17223681

  19. Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2004-01-01

    All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

  20. Iconoclastic ethics.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1984-12-01

    Arguments are advanced, on a pragmatic basis, for preferring a 'situational' approach to medical ethical problems, rather than an approach based on any one of the dogmatic formulations on offer. The consequences of such a preference are exemplified in relation to confidentiality; and in relation to the ethical dilemmas which surround the beginning and the end of terrestrial human life. PMID:6520850

  1. Ethical Considerations in Technology Transfer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Examines ethical considerations involved in the transfer of appropriate information technology to less developed countries. Approaches to technology are considered; two philosophical frameworks for studying ethical considerations are discussed, i.e., the Kantian approach and the utilitarian perspective by John Stuart Mill; and integration of the…

  2. A New Model for Teaching Ethical Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    One can scarcely open the newspaper without finding examples of smart, well-educated people who have behaved in ethically challenged ways. What is frightening about ethical lapses is not that they happen to the ethically outrageous but that they can sneak up on just about everyone. An informal classroom "experiment" recently performed by this…

  3. Ethical Considerations in Prenatal Sex Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Leslie Doty

    2005-01-01

    Developments in assisted reproductive technologies have made it possible for couples to select the sex of a child prenatally. This article used the NASW Code of Ethics and information from the Ethics Committee of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine to consider ethical dilemmas related to social justice (for example, reinforcement of…

  4. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  5. Ethical Issues in Professional Counseling, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Frederic, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Volume of 4 and 5 contain lessons that provide expert information on a variety of ethical issues in professional counseling. The lessons included in these volumes may be applied toward continuing education credits. Lessons in volume 4 are: (1) "Ethics in Substance Abuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Ethical Dilemmas in Multicultural…

  6. NRC`s proposed rulemaking on the documentation and reporting of low-level radioactive waste shipment manifest information

    SciTech Connect

    Lahs, W.R.; Haisfield, M.F.

    1991-12-31

    Since the 1982 promulgation of regulations for the land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), requirements have been in place to control transfers of LLW intended for disposal at licensed land disposal facilities. These requirements established a manifest tracking system and defined processes to control transfers of LLW intended for disposal at a land disposal facility. Because the regulations did not specify the format for the LLW shipment manifests, it was not unexpected that the two operators of the three currently operating disposal sites should each have developed their own manifest forms. The forms have many similarities and the collected information, in many cases, is identical; however, these manifests incorporate unique operator preferences and also reflect the needs of the Agreement State regulatory authority in the States where the disposal sites are located. Since Agreement State regulations must be compatible with, but need not always be identical to, those of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the possibility of a proliferation of different manifest forms containing variations in collected information could be envisioned. If these manifests were also to serve a shipping paper purpose, effective integration of the Department of Transportations` (DOT) requirements would also have to be addressed. This wide diversity in uses of manifest information by Federal and State regulatory authorities, other State or Compact entities, and disposal site operators, suggested a single consolidated approach to develop a uniform manifest format with a baseline information content and to define recordkeeping requirements. The NRC, in 1989, had embarked on a rulemaking activity to establish a base set of manifest information needs for regulatory purposes. In response to requests from State and Regional Compact organizations who are attempting to design, develop and operate LLW disposal facilities, and with the general support of Agreement State regulatory

  7. Informed Consent and Clinical Research Involving Children and Adolescents: Implications of the Revised APA Ethics Code and HIPAA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Celia B.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, 2 new sets of rules and regulations affecting the conduct of clinical research involving children and adolescents went into effect: the revised American Psychological Association's (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA, 2002; effective June 1, 2003) and the Privacy Rule (45 CFR Part 160 and A and E of Part…

  8. The Effect of Formal Policies and Informal Social Learning on Perceptions of Corporate Ethics: Actions Speak Louder than Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronzon, Shirit

    2002-01-01

    Discusses unethical business conduct and corporate crime, focusing on workers who bend rules to achieve satisfactory performance and organizational goals. Describes research that investigated how two cues in an organizational setting, one legal (codes of conduct) and one social (company responses to ethical transgressions), affect how individuals…

  9. When Is It Ethical to Inform Administrators about Student Risk-Taking Behaviors? Perceptions of School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Michael S.; Sullivan, Jeremy R.; Growcock, David

    2012-01-01

    School counselors from across the United States responded to a survey asking when they should break confidentiality and report student risk-taking behaviors to school administrators. Generally, counselors believed it to be more ethical to break confidentiality when the behaviors were directly observed (as opposed to reported by students) and when…

  10. Global ethics and principlism.

    PubMed

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together. PMID:22073817

  11. Incorporating Ethics and Social Responsibility in IS Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Albert L.; Lang, Michael; Yates, Dave; Kruck, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of ethics and social responsibility in information systems (IS) education. The many public scandals of corporate misconduct have increased the need for more emphasis to be placed on ethics and ethical issues in IS education. The authors describe how the inclusion of ethics and social responsibility in the IS…

  12. Towards Ethical Decision-Making in Counselling Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Maggie; Cook, Peter; Hunt, Kathy; Alred, Geof; Robson, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Explores the process of ethical decision-making in counseling research and examines to what extent decision-making is based on intuitive thinking. Reviews and considers several models of ethical problem solving. Argues that ethical decisions are reached through intuition, informed by ethical principles, codes of practice, and reference to the laws…

  13. Rethinking research ethics.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Rosamond

    2010-10-01

    Contemporary research ethics policies started with reflection on the atrocities perpetrated upon concentration camp inmates by Nazi doctors. Apparently, as a consequence of that experience, the policies that now guide human subject research focus on the protection of human subjects by making informed consent the centerpiece of regulatory attention. I take the choice of context for policy design, the initial prioritization of informed consent, and several associated conceptual missteps, to have set research ethics off in the wrong direction. The aim of this paper is to sort out these confusions and their implications and to offer instead a straightforward framework for considering the ethical conduct of human subject research. In the course of this discussion I clarify different senses of autonomy that have been confounded and present more intelligible justifications for informed consent. I also take issue with several of the now accepted dogmas that govern research ethics. These include: the primacy of informed consent, the protection of the vulnerable, the substitution of beneficence for research's social purpose, and the introduction of an untenable distinction between innovation and research. PMID:20945264

  14. Ethical Orientations for Understanding Business Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Phillip V.; Speck, Henry E., III

    1990-01-01

    Argues that history provides the necessary framework in which both to discuss and to seek answers to the three necessary and sequential questions about business ethics: (1) What is ethics and what does it mean to be ethical? (2) Why be ethical?; and (3) How can one be ethical? (SG)

  15. Using Geographic Information Systems to Determine Site Suitability for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Facility.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Charles A; Matthews, Kennith; Pulsipher, Allan; Wang, Wei-Hsung

    2016-02-01

    Radioactive waste is an inevitable product of using radioactive material in education and research activities, medical applications, energy generation, and weapons production. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) makes up a majority of the radioactive waste produced in the United States. In 2010, over two million cubic feet of LLW were shipped to disposal sites. Despite efforts from several states and compacts as well as from private industry, the options for proper disposal of LLW remain limited. New methods for quickly identifying potential storage locations could alleviate current challenges and eventually provide additional sites and allow for adequate regional disposal of LLW. Furthermore, these methods need to be designed so that they are easily communicated to the public. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) based method was developed to determine suitability of potential LLW disposal (or storage) sites. Criteria and other parameters of suitability were based on the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) requirements as well as supporting literature and reports. The resultant method was used to assess areas suitable for further evaluation as prospective disposal sites in Louisiana. Criteria were derived from the 10 minimum requirements in 10 CFR Part 61.50, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 0902, and studies at existing disposal sites. A suitability formula was developed permitting the use of weighting factors and normalization of all criteria. Data were compiled into GIS data sets and analyzed on a cell grid of approximately 14,000 cells (covering 181,300 square kilometers) using the suitability formula. Requirements were analyzed for each cell using multiple criteria/sub-criteria as well as surrogates for unavailable datasets. Additional criteria were also added when appropriate. The method designed in this project proved to be sufficient for initial screening tests in determining the most suitable areas for prospective disposal (or storage

  16. The ethics of limiting informed debate: censorship of select medical publications in the interest of organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several articles in the scholarly literature on medical ethics proclaim the need for "responsible scholarship" in the debate over the proper criteria for death, in which "responsible scholarship" is defined in terms of support for current neurological criteria for death. In a recent article, James M. DuBois is concerned that academic critiques of current death criteria create unnecessary doubt about the moral acceptability of organ donation, which may affect the public's willingness to donate. Thus he calls for a closing of the debate on current death criteria and for journal editors to publish only critiques that "substantially engage and advance the debate." We argue that such positions as DuBois' are a threat to responsible scholarship in medical ethics, especially scholarship that opposes popular stances, because it erodes academic freedom and the necessity of debate on an issue that is literally a matter of life and death, no matter what side a person defends. PMID:24225389

  17. Risk Communication and Engineering Ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Kohji

    This paper aims to discuss the relation between risk communication and engineering ethics. While public safety has been regarded as the paramount issue in engineering ethics, the importance of risk communication in assuring public safety has been overlooked. As for the problems with risk information, the literature of engineering ethics has discussed them in mainly terms of informed consent. However, the concept of informed consent is not applicable to engineering, for it presupposes a face-to-face relationship between the sender and the receiver of risk information. In this paper I would like to argue that the concept of risk communication should be introduced into engineering ethics, and I also wish to characterize the features of a form of risk communication suitable for engineering.

  18. A mixed-methods study on perceptions towards use of Rapid Ethical Assessment to improve informed consent processes for health research in a low-income setting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid Ethical Assessment (REA) is a form of rapid ethnographic assessment conducted at the beginning of research project to guide the consent process with the objective of reconciling universal ethical guidance with specific research contexts. The current study is conducted to assess the perceived relevance of introducing REA as a mainstream tool in Ethiopia. Methods Mixed methods research using a sequential explanatory approach was conducted from July to September 2012, including 241 cross-sectional, self-administered and 19 qualitative, in-depth interviews among health researchers and regulators including ethics committee members in Ethiopian health research institutions and universities. Results In their evaluation of the consent process, only 40.2% thought that the consent process and information given were adequately understood by study participants; 84.6% claimed they were not satisfied with the current consent process and 85.5% thought the best interests of study participants were not adequately considered. Commonly mentioned consent-related problems included lack of clarity (48.1%), inadequate information (34%), language barriers (28.2%), cultural differences (27.4%), undue expectations (26.6%) and power imbalances (20.7%). About 95.4% believed that consent should be contextualized to the study setting and 39.4% thought REA would be an appropriate approach to improve the perceived problems. Qualitative findings helped to further explore the gaps identified in the quantitative findings and to map-out concerns related to the current research consent process in Ethiopia. Suggestions included, conducting REA during the pre-test (pilot) phase of studies when applicable. The need for clear guidance for researchers on issues such as when and how to apply the REA tools was stressed. Conclusion The study findings clearly indicated that there are perceived to be correctable gaps in the consent process of medical research in Ethiopia. REA is considered

  19. Ethical issues in immunisation.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David; Kilham, Henry; Leask, Julie; Tobin, Bernadette

    2009-01-29

    Discussions about current and future immunisation programmes raise novel questions about familiar ethical issues. Two sets of ethical issues dominate these discussions. The first is the issue of compulsory immunisation: what should be done about parents who fail to immunise their children? The second is: given competing demands on health care budgets, how should principles of justice in access and distribution inform vaccination programmes? This paper considers these two issues in the light of traditional ethical principles. With respect to the first, we argue that compulsion is justified only in cases in which we know with practical certainty that parental failure to immunise puts their own child or other children at high risk of severe illness. We also argue that the state should compensate those who suffer vaccine-related injury. With respect to the second, we claim that allocating resources according to health care need requires establishing priorities between public health programmes such as immunisation and other treatment programmes. PMID:19026706

  20. Ethical intensive care research: development of an ethics handbook.

    PubMed

    Rischbieth, A; Blythe, D

    2005-12-01

    Conduct of research involving humans in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting is complex and challenging. The vulnerable nature of critically ill patients raises issues of patient safety, and informed consent is difficult. With an increasing global interest in human research ethics, broadened government mandates have targeted improvements in research participant protection and research governance. A parallel rise in health consumerism and advocacy for privacy and protection of personal health information requires a clear understanding of the research participant role and importance of risk disclosure. In addition, the potential for conflicts of interest in a climate of increasingly competitive research funding, requires caution and transparency in related financial and contractual arrangements. The Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials Group (ANZICS CTG) fosters collaborative ICU research activity. We have developed An Ethics Handbook for Researchers (EH) for the ANZICS CTG for intended use by researchers in Australian and New Zealand ICUs. The purpose of the EH is to act as a practical advisory guide/supplement; to add clarification regarding ethical issues specific to intensive care research, to assist in the expedition of ethics committee research submission and to summarise available useful resources. This article introduces a précis of key issues from the EH including specific ethical difficulties pertaining to ICU research, a summary of the process by which ethics committee decisions in Australia and New Zealand are informed, and the use of ethical checklists to assist researchers. PMID:16539587

  1. Using Atmospheric Dispersion Theory to Inform the Design of a Short-lived Radioactive Particle Release Experiment.

    PubMed

    Rishel, Jeremy P; Keillor, Martin E; Arrigo, Leah M; Baciak, James E; Detwiler, Rebecca S; Kernan, Warnick J; Kirkham, Randy R; Milbrath, Brian D; Seifert, Allen; Seifert, Carolyn E; Smart, John E

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric dispersion theory can be used to predict ground deposition of particulates downwind of a radionuclide release. This paper uses standard formulations found in Gaussian plume models to inform the design of an experimental release of short-lived radioactive particles into the atmosphere. Specifically, a source depletion algorithm is used to determine the optimum particle size and release height that maximizes the near-field deposition while minimizing both the required source activity and the fraction of activity lost to long-distance transport. The purpose of the release is to provide a realistic deposition pattern that might be observed downwind of a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. The deposition field will be used, in part, to study several techniques of gamma radiation survey and spectrometry that could be used by an On-Site Inspection team investigating such an event. PMID:27023039

  2. Ethics in Distance Education: Developing Ethical Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gearhart, Deb

    2001-01-01

    Examines the changing world of education through distance education and discusses the need for ethics in distance education. Explains how to ethically develop policy for distance education, including Internet ethics, good practices guidelines, and involving faculty. (LRW)

  3. Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, António

    2012-01-01

    The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity

  4. ETHICS IN GERIATRIC MEDICINE RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    İlgili, Önder; Arda, Berna; Munir, Kerim

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the research process in geriatrics from the ethical point of view. The elderly population is increasing rapidly, but there is no parallel in the amount of research concerning this demographic. On the other hand, in the light of research ethics, this group mainly represents vulnerable people and requires more sensitivity. Taking into account all these features, fundamental principles in research ethics are first considered: the soundness of the scientific project, qualifications of the investigators, ethics committee approval, informed consent, confidentiality and privacy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice are evaluated. Special ethical issues in geriatric research such as ageism and research inclusion, paucity of research involving elderly people, vulnerability of elderly subjects, and cognitive impairments are discussed separately. PMID:25489272

  5. Geochemical information for sites contaminated with low-level radioactive wastes. III. Weldon Spring Storage Site

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1985-02-01

    The Weldon Spring Storage Site (WSSS), which includes both the chemical site and the quarry, became radioactively contaminated as the result of wastes that were being stored from operations to recover uranium from pitchblende ores in the 1940s and 1950s. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering various remedial action options for the WSSS. This report describes the results of geochemical investigations carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support these activities and to help quantify various remedial action options. Soil and groundwater samples were characterized, and uranium and radium sorption ratios were measured in site soil/groundwater systems by batch contact methodology. Soil samples from various locations around the raffinate pits were found to contain major amounts of silica, along with illite as the primary clay constituent. Particle sizes of the five soil samples were variable (50% distribution point ranging from 12 to 81 ..mu..m); the surface areas varied from 13 to 62 m/sup 2//g. Elemental analysis of the samples showed them to be typical of sandy clay and silty clay soils. Groundwater samples included solution from Pit 3 and well water from Well D. Anion analyses showed significant concentrations of sulfate and nitrate (>350 and >7000 mg/L, respectively) in the solution from Pit 3. These anions were also present in the well water, but in lower concentrations. Uranium sorption ratios for four of the soil samples contacted with the solution from Pit 3 were moderate to high (approx. 300 to approx. 1000 mL/g). The fifth sample had a ratio of only 12 mL/g. Radium sorption ratios for the five samples were moderate to high (approx. 600 to approx. 1000 mL/g). These values indicate that soil at the WSSS may show favorable retardation of uranium and radium in the groundwater. 13 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  6. Ethical issues in psychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, L

    2006-01-01

    The marketing of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the psychopharmacological industry presents a serious moral problem for the corporate model of medicine. In this paper I examine ethical issues relating to the efficacy and safety of these drugs. Pharmaceutical companies have a moral obligation to disclose all information in their possession bearing on the true risks and benefits of their drugs. Only then can patients make fully informed decisions about their treatment. PMID:16816041

  7. Psychiatry's contribution to medical ethics education.

    PubMed

    Sider, R C; Clements, C

    1982-04-01

    Two recent trends in medical education, the growth of interest in biomedical ethics and the examination of psychiatry's status in medicine, have important implications for psychiatry. Educators are needed to bring a clinical perspective to bear on ethics instruction, yet psychiatrists risk missing this opportunity. Psychiatrists are uniquely suited to contribute because of their expertise in three areas: an understanding of the affective, nonrational components in ethical thought and behavior, a developmental perspective regarding personal morality, and an appreciation of the rootedness of ethics in the social ethos. Problems with contemporary ethical models of informed consent illustrate the value of psychiatry's contribution. PMID:7065297

  8. Consenting futures: professional views on social, clinical and ethical aspects of information feedback to embryo donors in human embryonic stem cell research

    PubMed Central

    Ehrich, Kathryn; Williams, Clare; Farsides, Bobbie

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports from an ongoing multidisciplinary, ethnographic study that is exploring the views, values and practices (the ethical frameworks) drawn on by professional staff in assisted conception units and stem cell laboratories in relation to embryo donation for research purposes, particularly human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research, in the UK. We focus here on the connection between possible incidental findings and the circumstances in which embryos are donated for hESC research, and report some of the uncertainties and dilemmas of our staff participants. We explore the views of our study participants in relation to two themes: (1) rights to information and anticipating how donors might be informed about future research findings and (2) occupational work goals and trust. PMID:21666741

  9. Sources from a Somerset Village: A Model for Informal Learning about Radiation and Radioactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve; Watts, Mike

    1997-01-01

    Research on conceptual change emphasizes the importance of factors in the cognitive domain. This research argues that models of conceptual change learning should also encompass issues of affect, conation, and self-esteem. The use of these expressions is explained via four case studies on members of a rural village concerning informal learning…

  10. Radioactive Waste Management Information for 1992 and record-to-date

    SciTech Connect

    Litteer, D.L.; Randall, V.C.; Sims, A.M.; Taylor, K.A.

    1993-07-01

    This document provides detailed data and graphics on air borne and liquid effluent releases, fuel oil and coal consumption, water usage, and hazardous and mixed waste generated for calendar year 1992. This report summarizes industrial waste data records compiled since 1971 for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Nonradiological Waste Management Information System.

  11. Ethics in Science.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Om P

    2015-09-01

    Ethics are a set of moral principles and values a civilized society follows. Doing science with principles of ethics is the bedrock of scientific activity. The society trusts that the results and the projected outcome of any scientific activity is based on an honest and conscientious attempt by the scientific community. However, during the last few decades, there has been an explosion of knowledge and the advent of digital age. We can access the publications of competitors with just a "click". The evaluation parameters have evolved a lot and are based on impact factors, h-index and citations. There is a general feeling that the scientific community is under a lot of pressure for fulfilling the criteria for upward growth and even retention of the positions held. The noble profession of scientific research and academics has been marred by the temptation to falsify and fabricate data, plagiarism and other unethical practices. Broadly speaking, the breach of ethics involves: plagiarism, falsification of data, redundant (duplicate) publication, drawing far-fetched conclusions without hard data, for early publicity, gift authorship (receiving as well as giving), not giving sufficient attention and consideration to scholars and post-docs as per the norms, self promotion at the cost of team-members, treating colleagues (overall all juniors) in a feudal way and Machiavellianism (cunningness and duplicity in general conduct and push to positions of power and pelf). Misconduct in Indian academics and science is also under a lot of focus. It is important and urgent that science, engineering, and health departments and institutions in our country have in place systems for education and training in pursuit of science with ethics by sound and professional courses in Responsible Conduct of Research. All research and academic institution must have the Office of Ethics for information, guidelines, training and professional oversight of conduct of research with the ethos and ethics

  12. Scientific Ethics in Chemical Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1996-10-01

    Scientific ethics is a subset of professional ethics, the special rules of conduct adhered to by people engaged in those pursuits called professions. It is distinct from, but consistent with, both ordinary morality and moral theory. The codes of professional ethics derive from the two bargains that define a profession: the internal code of practice and the external bargain between the profession and society. While the informal code of professional conduct is well understood by working scientists, it is rarely explicitly included in the chemistry curriculum. Instead, we have relied on informal methods to teach students scientific ethics, a strategy that is haphazard at best. In this paper I argue that scientific ethics can and must be taught as part of the chemistry curriculum and that this is the best done through the case-study method. Many decisions made by working scientists have both a technical and an ethical component. Students need to learn how to make good decisions in professional ethics. The alternative is, at best, sloppy science and, at worst, scientific misconduct.

  13. Beyond Informed Consent: Ethical Considerations in the Design and Implementation of Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Haire, Bridget; Harrison, Abigail; Fatusi, Olawunmi; Brown, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Interest in addressing the ethical issues related to adolescents’ engagement in research, especially sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) research is increasing in view of the need to design and implement research that address peculiar SRHR needs of adolescents. These needs include issues of sexually transmitted infections, HIV, AIDS, adverse pregnancy outcomes, community, family and relationship violence and mental health. Unfortunately, adolescents’ voluntary participation in research has been limited due to their perceived potential to be coerced into participation, and concerns that they may not fully comprehend the issues related to research risks. As such, many of the regulations for engaging research participants have been defined by age rather than due consideration of psychological development. This paper examines the various potential ethical issues that may impact on decision making when adolescents are engaged in research. These include the need to minimise therapeutic misconception, considerations for recruitment and retention, types and amounts for reimbursement, and engagement of communities of adolescents on advisory boards of studies that involve their population. The potential challenges associated with recruitment of adolescents in early child marriages were also highlighted. PMID:26050384

  14. 76 FR 37353 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Business Ethics Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contractor Business Ethics Compliance Program and Disclosure... requirement concerning contractor business ethics compliance program and disclosure requirements. Public... Information Collection 9000- 0164, Contractor Business Ethics Compliance Program and Disclosure...

  15. Ethical Issues in Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kavarana, Minoo N.; Sade, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    While ethical behavior has always been part of cardiac surgical practice, ethical deliberation has only recently become an important component of cardiac surgical practice. Issues such as informed consent, conflict of interest, and professional self-regulation, among many others, have increasingly attracted the attention of cardiac surgeons. This review covers several broad topics of interest to cardiac surgeons and cardiologists, and treats several other topics more briefly. There is much uncertainty about what the future holds for cardiac surgical practice, research, and culture, and we discuss the background of ethical issues to serve as a platform for envisioning what is to come. PMID:22642634

  16. Ethics fundamentals.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession. PMID:22263371

  17. Ethics Requirement Score: new tool for evaluating ethics in publications

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Lígia Gabrielle; Fonseca, Ana Carolina da Costa e; Bica, Claudia Giuliano

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze ethical standards considered by health-related scientific journals, and to prepare the Ethics Requirement Score, a bibliometric index to be applied to scientific healthcare journals in order to evaluate criteria for ethics in scientific publication. Methods Journals related to healthcare selected by the Journal of Citation Reports™ 2010 database were considered as experimental units. Parameters related to publication ethics were analyzed for each journal. These parameters were acquired by analyzing the author’s guidelines or instructions in each journal website. The parameters considered were approval by an Internal Review Board, Declaration of Helsinki or Resolution 196/96, recommendations on plagiarism, need for application of Informed Consent Forms with the volunteers, declaration of confidentiality of patients, record in the database for clinical trials (if applicable), conflict of interest disclosure, and funding sources statement. Each item was analyzed considering their presence or absence. Result The foreign journals had a significantly higher Impact Factor than the Brazilian journals, however, no significant results were observed in relation to the Ethics Requirement Score. There was no correlation between the Ethics Requirement Score and the Impact Factor. Conclusion Although the Impact Factor of foreigner journals was considerably higher than that of the Brazilian publications, the results showed that the Impact Factor has no correlation with the proposed score. This allows us to state that the ethical requirements for publication in biomedical journals are not related to the comprehensiveness or scope of the journal. PMID:25628189

  18. [Ethics and health policies].

    PubMed

    De los Santos-Briones, Saúl; Cruz-Lavadores, Dulce María

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this essay is highlight the need to establish an ethical frame of reference to formulate public health interventions. Politics and public health programs are viewed as an interaction between people where their own beliefs, moral values and expectations come together. One of the main reasons for the failure of public health interventions is that often they do not focus on the impact they will have in people's belief system and moral values. Aside from economic and epidemiological considerations, public health interventions must take into account essential human principles as self-determination, autonomy, justice, beneficence and non maleficence, social inclusion, equity, co-responsibility, citizenship, pluralism, solidarity, the right to information, privacy, confidentiality and fair treatment among others. International experiences in the establishment of ethical principles that regulate the medical profession constitute a good starting point to show that is possible to achieve a consensus for an ethical frame of reference to formulate public health policies; furthermore the accomplishment of this ethical framework will make public health more humane and dignified PMID:16025995

  19. Sports medicine and ethics.

    PubMed

    Testoni, Daniela; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K; McKinney, Ross E

    2013-01-01

    Physicians working in the world of competitive sports face unique ethical challenges, many of which center around conflicts of interest. Team-employed physicians have obligations to act in the club's best interest while caring for the individual athlete. As such, they must balance issues like protecting versus sharing health information, as well as issues regarding autonomous informed consent versus paternalistic decision making in determining whether an athlete may compete safely. Moreover, the physician has to deal with an athlete's decisions about performance enhancement and return to play, pursuit of which may not be in the athlete's long-term best interests but may benefit the athlete and team in the short term. These difficult tasks are complicated by the lack of evidence-based standards in a field influenced by the lure of financial gains for multiple parties involved. In this article, we review ethical issues in sports medicine with specific attention paid to American professional football. PMID:24024796

  20. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe…

  1. Measuring Quality in Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Bliss, Sally E; Oppenlander, Jane; Dahlke, Jacob M; Meyer, Gordon J; Williford, Eva M; Macauley, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    For all of the emphasis on quality improvement-as well as the acknowledged overlap between assessment of the quality of healthcare services and clinical ethics-the quality of clinical ethics consultation has received scant attention, especially in terms of empirical measurement. Recognizing this need, the second edition of Core Competencies for Health Care Ethics Consultation1 identified four domains of ethics quality: (1) ethicality, (2) stakeholders' satisfaction, (3) resolution of the presenting conflict/dilemma, and (4) education that translates into knowledge. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to directly measure all of these domains. Here we describe the quality improvement process undertaken at a tertiary care academic medical center, as well as the tools developed to measure the quality of ethics consultation, which include post-consultation satisfaction surveys and weekly case conferences. The information gained through these tools helps to improve not only the process of ethics consultation, but also the measurement and assurance of quality. PMID:27333066

  2. Medical ethics committees in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Blasszauer, B

    1991-01-01

    Hungarian medical ethics committees were established at the end of the 1950s. They came into being on the Communist Party's initiative. They could hardly be called "interdisciplinary" since their membership was made up of high-ranking physicians and a few head nurses. Their main task was to counter the practice of "tipping." Medical ethics and "tipping" were practically synonymous. These committees did not confront or try to resolve ethical problems concerning such issues as patient rights, informed consent, refusal of treatment, human experimentation, abortion, etc. These committees - whether it is believable or not - belonged to the Physicians Health Workers Trade Union. They were under the guidance and supervision of this social organization. The public was excluded from their meetings, and the committees' duty was to follow the health laws which were supposed to have given excellent ethical guidance. Even in a textbook on medical ethics used at one of the medical universities, written by a psychiatrist, the health laws were presented and explained back and forth. Of the 88 pages only 23 dealt with morals in general and the Hippocratic tradition. The Hungarian National Health Service as well as its medical ethics committees are similar in many respects to the Soviet and Eastern European countries' health care system and ethics committees. Since radical changes have taken place in these so-called "former" communist countries, it can only be hoped that these committees will eventually develop into groups who will deal directly with the moral questions or medicine and health care. PMID:10115138

  3. [The biologization of ethics].

    PubMed

    Moreno Lax, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Three ethics exist as a condition of possibility of any possible ethics, following a material and biological foundation. This content argument (not logical-formal) supposes a refutation of the naturalistic fallacy that the analytical philosophy attributes to Hume, in three areas of the ethical human experience: body, society and nature. These are: the ethics of the species [J. Habermas], the ethics of liberation [E. Dussel] and the ethics of the responsibility [H. Jonas]. This material argument is a philosophical foundation to considering for three types of applied ethics: medical bioethics, development ethics and environmental ethics. PMID:20405971

  4. Warren K. Sinclair keynote address: contemporary issues in risk-informed decision making on the disposition of radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Garrick, B John

    2006-11-01

    A consistent and transparent risk-informed approach to managing nuclear waste is plagued with different regulators, different rules and regulations for different waste types, different compliance requirements, and indecisions about probabilistic vs. deterministic models. Low-activity waste management is particularly void of a path forward with respect to being risk-informed. Risk assessment is not referenced in the statutes on low-activity waste even though both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) have policies to apply consistent risk management approaches to all of their programs. The U.S. NRC has developed guidance on the preparation of probabilistic performance assessments for low-activity waste facilities, but there have been no serious takers and a lack of initiative on the part of licensees. Thus, little to no experience exists on risk-informing low-activity waste. The missed opportunities include establishing a risk basis that would allow for simpler, safer, and much less costly alternatives for low-activity waste disposal while enabling society to have the full benefit of radiation technologies. There is hope that congressional action or regulatory rule making will address some of these issues with the result being the adoption of a more general and unified approach to risk-informed regulation of all types of waste. Just as much of the initiative for risk-informed nuclear power came from industry, it must also be the case for nuclear waste. A start would be the adoption of a basic framework of risk assessment in waste management applicable to all types of waste--radioactive and nonradioactive. The "set of triplets" risk assessment framework that is applicable to any kind of risk is an established alternative. It is believed that such a framework with the support of a regulatory structure made compatible through appropriate rulemaking or congressional action, and the experience of the probabilistic

  5. Shared decision-making: is it time to obtain informed consent before radiologic examinations utilizing ionizing radiation? Legal and ethical implications.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Leonard

    2014-03-01

    Concerns about the possibility of developing cancer due to diagnostic imaging examinations utilizing ionizing radiation exposure are increasing. Research studies of survivors of atomic bomb explosions, nuclear reactor accidents, and other unanticipated exposures to similar radiation have led to varying conclusions regarding the stochastic effects of radiation exposure. That high doses of ionizing radiation cause cancer in humans is generally accepted, but the question of whether diagnostic levels of radiation cause cancer continues to be hotly debated. It cannot be denied that overexposure to ionizing radiation beyond a certain threshold, which has not been exactly determined, does generate cancer. This causes a dilemma: what should patients be informed about the possibility that a CT or similar examination might cause cancer later in life? At present, there is no consensus in the radiology community as to whether informed consent must be obtained from a patient before the patient undergoes a CT or similar examination. The author analyzes whether there is a legal duty mandating radiologists to obtain such informed consent but also, irrespective of the law, whether there an ethical duty that compels radiologists to inform patients of potential adverse effects of ionizing radiation. Over the past decade, there has been a noticeable shift from a benevolent, paternalistic approach to medical care to an autonomy-based, shared-decision-making approach, whereby patient and physician work as partners in determining what is medically best for the patient. Radiologists should discuss the benefits and hazards of imaging with their patients. PMID:24589398

  6. Some Basics about Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of ethics focuses on the role of human performance technology professionals in helping corporate ethicists. Highlights include definitions of ethics, morals, values, and business ethics; ethics in academia and in business; and application of the knowledge of ethics to decision-making. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)

  7. The Ethic of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  8. How ethical is your clinical trial?

    PubMed Central

    Miller, L; Folayan, M; Allman, D; Nkala, B; Kasirye, L M; Mingote, L R; Calazans, G; Mburu, R; Ntombela, F; Ditmore, M

    2010-01-01

    Is Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval and a rigorous informed consent process enough? It is our view that this is no longer the case. Conventional research ethics emphasise the importance of weighing the risks and benefits for prospective participants as one of the key determinants of deeming a clinical trial ethical. We support the notion that ethical obligations of research should include considerations not only at the individual level, but also at the community level (1,2). PMID:20561091

  9. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  10. Collection Development and Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates the ethical dilemmas of library collection development through three specific examples related to scholarly communication, including the ongoing effort by publishers to use licensing contracts to abolish interlibrary loans for information in electronic format. Considers information needs of clients versus optimizing public access to…

  11. Ethical issues in HIV.

    PubMed

    Dhai, Amaboo; Noble, Ray

    2005-04-01

    The number of people with HIV/AIDS continues to increase globally. Women, who represent the subgroup with the fastest rate of increase, are usually informed of their serostatus by the obstetrician/gynaecologist. As treatment of infected women raises a number of ethical issues, an understanding of the theoretical background for ethical decision making is requisite to ensure these problems are resolved within a morally appropriate framework. Vigorous debate has arisen from the tensions between the competing goals of HIV testing, third party disclosure, management of the critically ill HIV-infected woman, infertility management in the background of HIV/AIDS, and gender-based violence as cause or result of acquiring HIV infection. Women may be differently empowered economically, socially and culturally. What may be a satisfactory solution in the context of the USA and Europe may be far from ideal in that of the developing world. PMID:15778114

  12. Research Ethics Consultation: Ethical and Professional Practice Challenges and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Richard R.; Taylor, Holly A.; Brinich, Margaret A.; Boyle, Mary M.; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include: assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical Translational Science Award (CTSA) Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: 1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, 2) managing sensitive information, and 3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942

  13. Research ethics consultation: ethical and professional practice challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Richard R; Taylor, Holly A; Brinich, Margaret A; Boyle, Mary M; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical and Translational Science Award Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: (1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, (2) managing sensitive information, and (3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942

  14. Geochemical information for the West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility for low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, F.G.; Kelmers, A.D.

    1984-06-01

    Geochemical support activities for the Central Waste Disposal Facility (CWDF) project included characterization of site materials, as well as measurement of radionuclide sorption and desorption isotherms and apparent concentration limit values under site-relevant laboratory test conditions. The radionuclide sorption and solubility information is needed as input data for the pathways analysis calculations to model expected radioactivity releases from emplaced waste to the accessible environment under various release scenarios. Batch contact methodology was used to construct sorption and desorption isotherms for a number of radionuclides likely to be present in waste to be disposed of at the site. The sorption rates for uranium and europium were rapid (> 99.8% of the total radionuclide present was adsorbed in approx. 30 min). With a constant-pH isotherm technique, uranium, strontium, cesium, and curium exhibited maximum Rs values of 4800 to > 30,000 L/kg throughout the pH range 5 to 7. Sorption ratios were generally lower at higher or lower pH levels. Retardation factors for uranium, strontium, and cesium, explored by column chromatographic tests, were consistent with the high sorption ratios measured in batch tests for these radionuclides. The addition of as little as 0.01 M organic reagent capable of forming strong soluble complexes with metals (e.g., ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or citric acid) was found to reduce the sorption ratio for uranium by as much as two orders of magnitude. Substitution of an actual low-level waste site trench water for groundwater in these tests was found to give a similar reduction in the sorption ratio.

  15. Toward a just policy on healthcare rationing. Ethical principles must inform the debate concerning the distribution of services.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, P B

    1994-04-01

    Perceptions of inequity and excess have given rise to a debate over whether policymakers should consider some form of rationing as a means of achieving a more just healthcare system. Three factors will be critical in determining whether the policies ultimately developed will be just and equitable. First, participants must grasp relevant facts involving the current distribution of healthcare services in the United States. Second, the debate must be based on a clear understanding of who has ultimate responsibility for making decisions regarding healthcare rationing. Finally, those committed to implementing a just approach to the issue must ensure that ethical principles relevant to policy-making are clear to everyone and affect the debate's outcome. The controversy over whether to ration healthcare services obscures the fact that healthcare is, in reality if not in policy, rationed now. A key advantage of promoting formal public policy decisions about the provision and limitation of healthcare services is that it shifts responsibility for these decisions from providers to society. Applying four classic bioethical principles to the question of rationing can also help ensure implementation of an appropriate public policy on healthcare rationing. For the debate on rationing to be meaningful, it must be conducted in a way that respects and promotes participants' autonomy. Policymakers should also observe the principle of nonmaleficence, which dictates that their policies not harm those they affect. A proper rationing policy should also fulfill the criterion of beneficence (i.e., actively promote the good of others). Last, such a policy should conform to the principle of justice by being fair and impartial. PMID:10132880

  16. A tale of two fields: public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Klugman, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, public health and bioethics have been courting each other, trying to figure out a way to inform and assist one another. Ethics in public health began in epidemiology and public health in ethics began in health law. Attempts have been made to create both an ethics of and in public health. Although many edited volumes and even model curriculums have been created for the teaching of public health ethics, most efforts are mired in medical ethics and do not take the unique population perspective of public health. Several challenges to the development and teaching of public health ethics remain, including the issue of ethics being a required public health competency and the questions: what should be in a public health ethics curriculum, where will instructors be trained and how will such faculty be paid? A true public health ethics will help professionals address issues of values, critical thinking and decision making. PMID:19205316

  17. Principles of ethics: in managing a critical care unit.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dan R

    2007-02-01

    Managing a critical care unit can present many challenges for those whose roles have been only as clinicians. The administrative position presents many new ethical issues that challenge both traditional medical and nursing ethics. The use of the basic ethical principles in these administrative issues may be less familiar. Ethical principles that guide the practice of professionals and their new position are explored and their use described in both positions. Traditional ethical issues include: utilitarianism, natural law, autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, paternalism, justice, duty, rationing, informed consent, and withdrawing treatment. Conflicts in ethical issues are a natural consequence of the dual role of the professional. PMID:17242602

  18. Ethical stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this review is to consider the ethics of stockmanship, particularly from the perspective of the nature and extent of the duties of stockpeople to their farm animals. It will consider what science tells us about the impact of stockmanship on the animal, particularly the welfare of the farm animal. The effects of human-animal interactions on the stockperson will also be considered, since these interactions affect the work performance and job satisfaction of the stockperson and thus indirectly affect animal welfare. Animal ethics is broader than animal welfare and includes economic as well as philosophical, social, cultural and religious aspects. This paper is predicated on the view that farm animals can suffer, and that animal suffering is a key consideration in our moral obligations to animals. Housing and husbandry practices affect farm animal welfare and thus farmers and stockpeople have a responsibility to provide, at minimum, community-acceptable animal housing and husbandry standards for their animals. The farmer's or stockperson's attitudes and behaviour can directly affect the animal's welfare and thus they also have a responsibility to provide specific standards of stockmanship for these animals. However, research suggests that the behaviour of some stockpeople is not as correct as it might be. Such situations exemplify the inevitably unequal human - domestic animal relationship, and this inequality should be considered in analysing the boundary between right and wrong behaviour of humans. Thus ethical discussion, using science and other considerations and involving stockpeople, livestock industries, government and the general public, should be used to establish and assure acceptable stockperson competencies across the livestock industries. Training programs targeting the key attitudes and behaviour of stockpeople presently offer the livestock industries good opportunities to improve human-animal interactions. PMID:17470069

  19. A National Survey of U.S. Internists’ Experiences with Ethical Dilemmas and Ethics Consultation

    PubMed Central

    DuVal, Gordon; Clarridge, Brian; Gensler, Gary; Danis, Marion

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify the ethical dilemmas that internists encounter, the strategies they use to address them, and the usefulness of ethics consultation. DESIGN National telephone survey. SETTING Doctors’ offices. PARTICIPANTS General internists, oncologists, and critical care/pulmonologists (N = 344, 64% response rate). MEASUREMENTS Types of ethical dilemmas recently encountered and likelihood of requesting ethics consultation; satisfaction with resolution of ethical dilemmas with and without ethics consultation. RESULTS Internists most commonly reported dilemmas regarding end-of-life decision making, patient autonomy, justice, and conflict resolution. General internists, oncologists, and critical care specialists reported participating in an average of 1.4, 1.3, and 4.1 consultations in the preceding 2 years, respectively (P < .0001). Physicians with the least ethics training had the least access to and participated in the fewest ethics consultations; 19% reported consultation was unavailable at their predominant practice site. Dilemmas about end-of-life decisions and patient autonomy were often referred for consultation, while dilemmas about justice, such as lack of insurance or limited resources, were rarely referred. While most physicians thought consultations yielded information that would be useful in dealing with future ethical dilemmas (72%), some hesitated to seek ethics consultation because they believed it was too time consuming (29%), might make the situation worse (15%), or that consultants were unqualified (11%). CONCLUSIONS While most internists recall recent ethical dilemmas in their practices, those with the least preparation and experience have the least access to ethics consultation. Health care organizations should emphasize ethics educational activities to prepare physicians for handling ethical dilemmas on their own and should improve the accessibility and responsiveness of ethics consultation when needed. PMID:15009780

  20. Combining Chemical Information Literacy, Communication Skills, Career Preparation, Ethics, and Peer Review in a Team-Taught Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Mary Lou Baker; Seybold, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    The widely acknowledged need to include chemical information competencies and communication skills in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum can be accommodated in a variety of ways. We describe a team-taught, semester-length course at Wright State University which combines chemical information literacy, written and oral communication skills,…

  1. Origins of Academic Dishonesty: Ethical Orientations and Personality Factors Associated with Attitudes about Cheating with Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etter, Stephanie; Cramer, Jackie J.; Finn, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Growing perceptions that students exploit information technology to evade academic assignments prompted surveys of student attitudes about unethical uses of information technology (e.g., cutting and pasting excerpts from Web sites without attribution) at two institutions. Students at a private church-affiliated college rated cheating behaviors as…

  2. Two concepts of empirical ethics.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2009-05-01

    The turn to empirical ethics answers two calls. The first is for a richer account of morality than that afforded by bioethical principlism, which is cast as excessively abstract and thin on the facts. The second is for the facts in question to be those of human experience and not some other, unworldly realm. Empirical ethics therefore promises a richer naturalistic ethics, but in fulfilling the second call it often fails to heed the metaethical requirements related to the first. Empirical ethics risks losing the normative edge which necessarily characterizes the ethical, by failing to account for the nature and the logic of moral norms. I sketch a naturalistic theory, teleological expressivism (TE), which negotiates the naturalistic fallacy by providing a more satisfactory means of taking into account facts and research data with ethical implications. The examples of informed consent and the euthanasia debate are used to illustrate the superiority of this approach, and the problems consequent on including the facts in the wrong kind of way. PMID:19338521

  3. Resources to Support Ethical Practice in Evaluation: An Interview with the Director of the National Center for Research and Professional Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Where do evaluators find resources on ethics and ethical practice? This article highlights a relatively new online resource, a centerpiece project of the National Center for Professional and Research Ethics (NCPRE), which brings together information on best practices in ethics in research, academia, and business in an online portal and center. It…

  4. Debating Diversity: Ethics and Controversial Public Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Courses: Ethics, Organizational Communication, Political Communication. Objectives: After completing this unit activity, students should be able to (1) apply multiple ethical perspectives to real-world diversity issues in a debate format, and (2) explain the role of informational and social category diversity in current controversies.

  5. An Ethically Ambitious Higher Education Data Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    The new data sciences of education bring substantial legal, political, and ethical questions about the management of information about learners. This piece provides a synoptic view of recent scholarly discussion in this domain and calls for a proactive approach to the ethics of learning research.

  6. The Journal of College Admission Ethics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Elaina C., Ed.; Raynor, Joyce, Ed.

    This book is the first significant body of literature on ethics in college admission published by the National Association for College Admission Counseling. The series is a select compilation of articles on ethics published in the Journal of College Admission in 1998 and 1999. The book is a source of information for the beginning and experienced…

  7. Evaluation Team Dynamics: Intragroup Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urias, David

    2009-01-01

    Ethical challenges associated with the relationships among members of an evaluative team/organization receive less attention. Examples of the kinds of ethical dilemmas that could occur within an evaluation team include an individual taking undeserved credit, transferring blame, making false promises, withholding information, breaching…

  8. Ethical Issues in Accounting: A Teaching Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Theodore Roosevelt said, "To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society." With this quote in mind, this paper describes three ethical issues in the discipline area of accounting. The format of the paper is to first provide background information on the ethical question or scenario then to provide a…

  9. The Teaching of Life-Line Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridger, James A.

    1977-01-01

    Outlines techniques used in teaching a course in "life-line" ethics, in which the events of conception, birth and death are related to ethical issues of abortion, suicide, euthanasia, etc. Several modes of actively involving students are described. Lists seven reference for information on bioethical issues. (CS)

  10. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  11. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  12. Ethics, Ricoeur And Philosophy: Ethical Teacher Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Baumann, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This work is about the ethics of education, and about philosophy as a discipline that can help us to help children look at ethics afresh. The study and practice of ethics is about morals and uncertainties and, as such, poses problems for the research community. The philosopher Ricoeur challenges research as only one way to find meaning in the…

  13. Ethical breakdowns.

    PubMed

    Bazerman, Max H; Tenbrunsel, Ann E

    2011-04-01

    Companies are spending a great deal of time and money to install codes of ethics, ethics training, compliance programs, and in-house watchdogs. If these efforts worked, the money would be well spent. But unethical behavior appears to be on the rise. The authors observe that even the best-intentioned executives may be unaware of their own or their employees' unethical behavior. Drawing from extensive research on cognitive biases, they offer five reasons for this blindness and suggest what to do about them. Ill-conceived goals may actually encourage negative behavior. Brainstorm unintended consequences when devising your targets. Motivated blindness makes us overlook unethical behavior when remaining ignorant would benefit us. Root out conflicts of interest. Indirect blindness softens our assessment of unethical behavior when it's carried out by third parties. Take ownership of the implications when you outsource work. The slippery slope mutes our awareness when unethical behavior develops gradually. Be alert for even trivial infractions and investigate them immediately. Overvaluing outcomes may lead us to give a pass to unethical behavior. Examine good outcomes to ensure they're not driven by unethical tactics. PMID:21510519

  14. The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Clinton H.; Alder, G. Stoney

    2014-01-01

    The authors examine the effects of shared information and group discussion on ethical judgment when no structure is imposed on the discussion to encourage ethical considerations. Discussants were asked to identify arguments for and against a variety of business behaviors with ethical implications. A group moderator solicited and recorded arguments…

  15. In Quest of Virtue: Liberal Education and the Ethics Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, William A.

    1991-01-01

    The crisis of ethics in business and the professions cannot be addressed by inserting ethics into college curricula. The article suggests the only true pathway to ethics education is through a liberal education which permeates the complex interaction between head and heart and creates informed awareness of right and wrong. (SM)

  16. Character-Based Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Jasper

    1996-01-01

    In the ethical arena, our society offers the choice of an ethics of emotion versus an ethics of rules, inadequate choices when compared to ethics based in strong moral character. Moral education and character development are basic elements of adventure and experiential education, and practitioners achieve excellence in practice only when they…

  17. Setting Ethical Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Judith; Perry, David

    1992-01-01

    School systems are advised to take a lesson from corporations who have created a code of ethical conduct for their employees and have implemented ethics training programs. Outlines steps to create a code of ethical conduct and cites five examples of corporations' ethical codes on the topic of nepotism. (MLF)

  18. [Ethics in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters." PMID:24290007

  19. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  20. A Multipurpose Interactive Videodisc with Ethical, Legal, Medical, Educational and Research Implications: The Informed Patient Decision-Making Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Harold C.; Henderson, Joseph V.; Beck, J. Robert; Mulley, Albert G.; Barry, Michael J.; Fowler, Floyd J.; Wennberg, Coralea N.; Wennberg, John E.

    1989-01-01

    An interactive videodisc (using a single screen Macintosh II, HyperCard driven, Level III, CAV interactive videodisc) has been designed, produced, and pretested to permit patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), facing a choice of surgery or watchful waiting, to take an active role in decision-making. The Informed Patient Decision-Making Procedure (IPDP) educates the patient about the benefits and harms of two treatment choices: prostatectomy and watchful waiting for BPH, by presenting patient-specific data derived from an analysis of medical outcomes. and video testimonials from patients with good and unfortunate outcomes of the therapeutic options. The IPDP standardizes the information provided to the patients, provides informed consent, gathers follow-up outcomes research data, and permits automated assessment of patient preferences and utilities. In this demonstration, the development of the IPDP is discussed, the videodisc program is presented, and lessons learned in creating medical videodiscs are shared.

  1. Ethical challenges in the care of persons with hepatitis C infection: a pilot study to enhance informed consent with veterans.

    PubMed

    Geppert, Cynthia M A; Dettmer, Elizabeth; Jakiche, Antonie

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric and addictive disorders are often considered contraindications to hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. In this pilot study, the ability of 30 veterans to provide informed consent for combined antiviral HCV therapy was examined with a mental health assessment protocol specifically geared to evaluate capacity in this area. The results showed that subjects lacked essential knowledge regarding the course of the disease and the nature of antiviral treatment despite receiving prior counseling. Informed consent assessments of candidates for HCV treatment may identify deficits that are responsive to intervention, thereby allowing patients with comorbid psychiatric and addictive disorders to receive effective HCV treatment. PMID:16145183

  2. 77 FR 73669 - Response to Comments Received for the “The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Menlo Report. HSARPA CSD published this report in the Federal Register in December 2011 (76 FR 81517... Principles Guiding Information and Communication Technology Research'' (``The Menlo Report'') for the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Science and Technology, Cyber Security Division (CSD),...

  3. Ethics Committee or Community? Examining the identity of Czech Ethics Committees in the period of transition.

    PubMed

    Simek, Jiri; Zamykalova, Lenka; Mesanyova, Marie

    2010-09-01

    Reflecting on a three year long exploratory research of ethics committees in the Czech Republic authors discuss the current role and identity of research ethics committees. The research of Czech ethics committees focused on both self-presentation and self-understanding of ECs members, and how other stakeholders (representatives of the pharmaceutical industry) view them. The exploratory research was based on formal and informal communication with the members of the ethics committees. Members of the research team took part at six regular voluntary meetings of the ethics committees' members, organised by the Forum of Czech Ethics Committees, and at three summer schools of medical ethics. There were realised twenty-five semi-structured interviews as well as six focus group sessions and a participant observation of several regular meetings of three ethics committees. On the grounds of experience from the interviews a simple questionnaire survey was realised among the members of the ethics committees. The ethics committees comprise a community of members working voluntarily, without claims to remuneration or prestige; the unifying goal is protection of subjects of research. The principal working methods are dialogue and agreement. The members of the ethics committees thus, among other things, create an informal community, which can be to a certain extent seen as a Kantian ethical community in a weak sense. The phenomenon of ethics committees can also be described by terms of an epistemic community and a community of practice. These concepts, which are borrowed from other authors and areas, are used as a way how to think of ECs role and identity a bit differently and are meant as a contribution to the current international debate on the topic. PMID:20675735

  4. Ethics in Clinical Research: The Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sanmukhani, J.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the ‘Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects’ in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

  5. Ethics in clinical research: the Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanmukhani, J; Tripathi, C B

    2011-03-01

    Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the 'Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects' in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

  6. Ethics Committees in the Rural Midwest: Exploring the Impact of HIPAA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Having, Karen M.; Hale, Dena; Lautar, Charla J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Confidentiality of personal health information is an ethical principle and a legislated mandate; however, the impact of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) on ethics committees ethics committees is limited. Purpose: This study investigates the prevalence, activity, and composition of ethics committees located…

  7. In a Dimension of Height: Ethics in the Education of Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Aparna Mishra

    2006-01-01

    Ethics penetrates every aspect of Western education. Many of its dominant narratives-- education as salvation, as progress, as panacea, and as liberation, for example--are infused with the ethical. Educators are compelled by ethical callings; in fact, education as the call of the ethical informs the singular and collective identities of educators.…

  8. Half a Tithe for Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    Two ethical concerns about the Human Genome Project, which aims to sequence all the DNA of a human cell, are discussed: (1) use of germ-line gene therapy to treat perceived hereditary defects or enhance supposed genetic attributes, and (2) personal privacy and potential discrimination arising from possession of individual genetic information. (MSE)

  9. Computer Literacy: Teaching Computer Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutner, Joanne

    1986-01-01

    Suggests learning activities for teaching computer ethics in three areas: (1) equal access; (2) computer crime; and (3) privacy. Topics include computer time, advertising, class enrollments, copyright law, sabotage ("worms"), the Privacy Act of 1974 and the Freedom of Information Act of 1966. (JM)

  10. The Ethics of Aesthetic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, SR

    2010-01-01

    Advances in plastic and reconstructive surgery have revolutionized the management of patients suffering from disfiguring congenital abnormalities, burns and skin cancers. The demand for aesthetic surgery has increased in recent years, as our culture has become more concerned with image and appearance. Several ethical considerations such as patient's right for informed counseling, beneficience and maleficience need to be given careful consideration. PMID:20606994

  11. Crime, Abuse, and Hacker Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Deborah G.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses computer ethics and the use of computer networks. Topics addressed include computer hackers; software piracy; computer viruses and worms; intentional and unintentional abuse; intellectual property rights versus freedom of thought; the role of information in a democratic society; individual privacy; legislation; social attitudes; and the…

  12. Private Ethics and Civic Virtue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Lee C.

    The paper delineates areas to investigate when seeking information about political ethics in western society. The main purpose of the paper is to call attention to the relationship of civic virtue to communal politics. Specifically, five questions are posed and answered which deal with various aspects of civic virtue and its relationship to…

  13. Ethical issues in prenatal testing.

    PubMed

    Burgess, M M

    1994-04-01

    Many ethical concerns raised by prenatal testing are based on the use and effects of genetic information in nonclinical contexts. Correct or incorrect beliefs about social uses of genetic information may limit the voluntariness of informed consent to prenatal testing. A qualitative study of persons predictively tested for Huntington's disease illustrates how the social context, in this case the family history of being at risk, affects the interpretation of the genetic information and alters relationships. This constitutes a risk of genetic testing. Prenatal testing also requires ethical analysis based on careful understanding of how social attitudes and nonclinical uses affect voluntariness and potential harm and benefits of testing. Investigators conducting research on prenatal tests share the responsibility to evaluate social attitudes toward at-risk persons, nonclinical uses of genetic information, and the social benefits and harm of such uses. PMID:8070072

  14. Ethical issues in neuroprosthetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glannon, Walter

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Neuroprosthetics are artificial devices or systems designed to generate, restore or modulate a range of neurally mediated functions. These include sensorimotor, visual, auditory, cognitive affective and volitional functions that have been impaired or lost from congenital anomalies, traumatic brain injury, infection, amputation or neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, deep brain stimulation, brain-computer interfaces, brain-to-brain interfaces and hippocampal prosthetics can bypass, replace or compensate for dysfunctional neural circuits, brain injury and limb loss. They can enable people with these conditions to gain or regain varying degrees of control of thought and behavior. These direct and indirect interventions in the brain raise general ethical questions about weighing the potential benefit of altering neural circuits against the potential harm from neurophysiological and psychological sequelae. Other ethical questions are more specific to the therapeutic goals of particular neuroprosthetics and the conditions for which they are indicated. These include informed consent, agency, autonomy (free will) and identity. Approach. This review is an analysis and discussion of these questions. It also includes consideration of social justice issues such as how to establish and implement fair selection criteria in providing access to neuroprosthetic research and balancing technological innovation with patients’ best interests. Main results. Neuroprosthetics can restore or improve motor and mental functions in bypassing areas of injury or modulating dysregulation in neural circuits. As enabling devices that integrate with these circuits, neuroprosthetics can restore varying degrees of autonomous agency for people affected by neurological and psychiatric disorders. They can also re-establish the connectedness and continuity of the psychological properties they had before injury or disease onset and thereby

  15. Competition and Sensemaking in Ethical Situations

    PubMed Central

    Caughron, Jay J.; Antes, Alison L.; Stenmark, Cheryl K.; Thiel, Chaise E.; Wang, Xiaoqian; Mumford, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-organizational competition was examined in relation to ethicality. The effect of a competitor being an in-group versus and out-group member, competitor offering uncorroborated or corroborated information, and the impact of the competitor expressing selfish, pro-group, or pro-organizational level goals were examined. Findings suggest that the way competition is presented has an important influence on how well individuals are able to make sense of an ethically ambiguous situation and render an ethical decision. A main effect for information sharing was found, such that when a competitor offers uncorroborated information participants made less ethical decisions and used pro-ethical reasoning strategies less often. An additional main effect was found suggesting that participants made more ethical decisions when working with an in-group competitor rather than an out-group competitor. Complex interactive effects were also found and discussed suggesting that pro-ethical reasoning strategies may be used less often depending on information corroboration, the competitor’s relative group membership status, and the motives expressed by the competitor. PMID:26778850

  16. Ethics in Rehabilitation Education and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvo, Donna R.; Parker, Randall M.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews ethical issues that rehabilitation educators may face in meeting their everyday teaching and research responsibilities. Issues presented include dual relationships; selection of students; measurement of student competence; supervision of students; confidentiality concerning student information; faculty competence; multicultural issues; and…

  17. Keeping it Ethically Real.

    PubMed

    Ho, Dien

    2016-08-01

    Many clinical ethicists have argued that ethics expertise is impossible. Their skeptical argument usually rests on the assumptions that to be an ethics expert is to know the correct moral conclusions, which can only be arrived at by having the correct ethical theories. In this paper, I argue that this skeptical argument is unsound. To wit, ordinary ethical deliberations do not require the appeal to ethical or meta-ethical theories. Instead, by agreeing to resolve moral differences by appealing to reasons, the participants agree to the Default Principle-a substantive rule that tells us how to adjudicate an ethical disagreement. The Default Principle also entails a commitment to arguments by parity, and together these two methodological approaches allow us to make genuine moral progress without assuming any deep ethical principles. Ethical expertise, in one sense, is thus the ability and knowledge to deploy the Default Principle and arguments by parity. PMID:27256847

  18. Understanding radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  19. Narrative ethics for narrative care.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Clive

    2015-08-01

    Narrative permeates health care--from patients' stories taken as medical histories to the development of health policy. The narrative approach to health care has involved the move from narratives in health care as objects of study to the lens through which health care is studied and, more recently, to narrative as a form of care. In this paper, I argue that narrative care requires a move in the field of ethics--from a position where narratives are used to inform ethical decision making to one in which narrative is the form and process of ethical decision making. In other words, I argue for a narrative ethics for narrative care. The argument is relatively straightforward. If, as I argue, humans are narrative beings who make sense of themselves, others, and the world in and through narrative, we need to see our actions as both narratively based and narratively contextual and thus understanding the nature, form, and content of the narratives of which we are a part, and the process of narrativity, provides an intersubjective basis for ethical action. PMID:26162740

  20. Ethics education for dermatology residents.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Lionel; Long, Thomas P

    2009-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada both require the teaching and demonstration of general competencies, which include professionalism and ethics as a condition of training program accreditation and specialty certification, respectively. Residents in dermatology and other specialties perceive their training in ethics is inadequate in numerous areas. Residents and specialists in dermatology encounter numerous ethical and professional issues throughout their workday. A dermatoethics curriculum was developed at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University in 2001 to address the need for training in bioethics and professionalism. The subject matter of the curriculum and didactic methods are reviewed. Guidelines for effective teaching of ethics and professionalism to dermatology residents are presented. It is important to make the teaching sessions relevant to the residents' day-to-day work experiences and personal needs. Honesty and openness on the part of faculty and trainees is important. Although informality fosters such exchanges, the sessions should be a learning experience. Resources outside the residency program should be used as necessary. Evaluation of ethics and professionalism in trainees is addressed. PMID:19539170

  1. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 5: Ethical Issues in Group Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethics Comes of Age: Introduction to the Special Issue" (Jeffrey A. Kottler)…

  2. The ethical challenges of animal research.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Gluck, John P

    2015-10-01

    In 1966, Henry K. Beecher published an article entitled "Ethics and Clinical Research" in the New England Journal of Medicine, which cited examples of ethically problematic human research. His influential paper drew attention to common moral problems such as inadequate attention to informed consent, risks, and efforts to provide ethical justification. Beecher's paper provoked significant advancements in human research policies and practices. In this paper, we use an approach modeled after Beecher's 1966 paper to show that moral problems with animal research are similar to the problems Beecher described for human research. We describe cases that illustrate ethical deficiencies in the conduct of animal research, including inattention to the issue of consent or assent, incomplete surveys of the harms caused by specific protocols, inequitable burdens on research subjects in the absence of benefits to them, and insufficient efforts to provide ethical justification. We provide a set of recommendations to begin to address these deficits. PMID:26364775

  3. Who regulates ethics in the virtual world?

    PubMed

    Sharma, Seemu; Lomash, Hitashi; Bawa, Seema

    2015-02-01

    This paper attempts to give an insight into emerging ethical issues due to the increased usage of the Internet in our lives. We discuss three main theoretical approaches relating to the ethics involved in the information technology (IT) era: first, the use of IT as a tool; second, the use of social constructivist methods; and third, the approach of phenomenologists. Certain aspects of ethics and IT have been discussed based on a phenomenological approach and moral development. Further, ethical issues related to social networking sites are discussed. A plausible way to make the virtual world ethically responsive is collective responsibility which proposes that society has the power to influence but not control behavior in the virtual world. PMID:24469471

  4. Sports Medicine and Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Testoni, Daniela; Hornik, Christoph P.; Smith, P. Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K.; McKinney, Ross E.

    2014-01-01

    Physicians working in the world of competitive sports face unique ethical challenges, many of which center around conflicts of interest. Team-employed physicians have obligations to act in the club’s best interest while caring for the individual athlete. As such, they must balance issues like protecting versus sharing health information, as well as issues regarding autonomous informed consent versus paternalistic decision-making in determining whether an athlete may compete safely. Moreover, the physician has to deal with an athlete’s decisions about performance enhancement and return to play, pursuit of which may not be in the athlete’s long-term best interests but may benefit the athlete and team in the short term. These difficult tasks are complicated by the lack of evidence-based standards in a field influenced by the lure of financial gains for multiple parties involved. In this article, we review ethical issues in sports medicine with specific attention paid to American professional football. PMID:24024796

  5. Qualitative analysis of healthcare professionals' viewpoints on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Brian S; Shank, Gary; Carlson, Jestin N; Venkat, Arvind

    2015-03-01

    Ethics consultation is a commonly applied mechanism to address clinical ethical dilemmas. However, there is little information on the viewpoints of health care providers towards the relevance of ethics committees and appropriate application of ethics consultation in clinical practice. We sought to use qualitative methodology to evaluate free-text responses to a case-based survey to identify thematically the views of health care professionals towards the role of ethics committees in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas. Using an iterative and reflexive model we identified themes that health care providers support a role for ethics committees and hospitals in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas, that the role should be one of mediation, rather than prescription, but that ultimately legal exposure was dispositive compared to ethical theory. The identified theme of legal fears suggests that the mediation role of ethics committees is viewed by health care professionals primarily as a practical means to avoid more worrisome medico-legal conflict. PMID:25475170

  6. Ethical Issues Related to Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Patricia L.; Schuh, John H.

    1995-01-01

    Offers a framework for thinking about ethical principles through the use of codes of ethics. Examines the ethical issues of restructuring and discusses specific ethical dilemmas. Specifically outlines ethics related to resources allocation and management, and details critical points in restructuring. Argues that ethical guidelines help shape…

  7. Medical internet ethics: a field in evolution.

    PubMed

    Dyer, K A; Thompson, C D

    2001-01-01

    As in any new field, the merger of medicine, e-commerce and the Internet raises many questions pertaining to ethical conduct. Key issues include defining the essence of the patient-provider relationship, establishing guidelines and training for practicing online medicine and therapy, setting standards for ethical online research, determining guidelines for providing quality healthcare information and requiring ethical conduct for medical and health websites. Physicians who follow their professional code of ethics are obligated not to exploit the relationship they have with patients, nor allow anyone else working with them to do so. Physicians and therapists are obligated to serve those who place trust in them for treatment, whether in face-to-face or online Internet encounters with patients or clients. This ethical responsibility to patients and clients is often in direct conflict with the business model of generating profits. Healthcare professionals involved in Medical Internet Ethics need to define the scope of competent medical and healthcare on the Internet. The emerging ethical issues facing medicine on the Internet, the current state of medical ethics on the Internet and questions for future directions of study in this evolving field are reviewed in this paper. PMID:11604935

  8. Persuasion as Ethical Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, I.

    1985-01-01

    States that teachers should help students understand in practical terms how to recognize good ethical persuasion and to understand when even distinguished, honest, and moral writers might need to resort to "unfair ethical persuasion." (EL)

  9. Technical Note: Ethical Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, J.

    Ethical economics is inspirational, expanding our vision beyond the narrow self-interest of the theoretical economic man. Ethical economics sees more value in space settlement than conventional economic calculations that can inappropriately discount the value of the future.

  10. Institutionalizing Ethics in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumback, Gary B.

    1992-01-01

    Ways to institutionalize ethics in government agencies include demonstrating moral leadership, making it a job qualification, training, establishing and enforcing a code, and including ethics in personnel management and performance appraisal. (SK)

  11. Ethics for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  12. [Toward a practical ethic].

    PubMed

    Vanbelle, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way. PMID:18506970

  13. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  14. Giftedness and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    What is, or should be, the role of ethics in giftedness? In this article, I consider why ethical behavior is much harder to come by than one would expect. Ethical behavior requires completion of a series of eight steps to action, the failure of any one of which may result in a person, even one who is ethically well trained, to act in a manner that…

  15. A call for responsibility in ethical issues for IS professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiter, C.W.

    1994-12-31

    In recent years there has been increased interest in the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of persons in the business world. Public abhorrence of questionable behavior of politicians, the savings and loan scandal and insider trading violations are just a few examples of many problems in business and professional life. A 1992 study by the Josephson Institute of Ethics involving 9,000 young people and adults revealed alarmingly low ethical characteristics in American institutions. Ferrell and Fraedrick have concluded that {open_quotes}business ethics is one of the most important concerns in today`s business world.{close_quote} A few professional organizations have tried to comprehend the ethical values, beliefs and behavior of their constituents. Vittrell has studied the frequency of ethical behavior for management information specialists. Martin and Peterson have examined the ethical issues of insider trading. Fimbel and Burstein have investigated the ethical values of technology professionals. Thornburg made use of a survey concerning the ethical beliefs and practices of human resources professionals. On a preliminary basis, these studies indicate the various ethical issues and uncertainties which are problematic for members of the various professions. Most business people are ethical segregationists, that is they tend to segregate their ethical values into one type of behavior for business and another type of behavior away from business. Managers accused of unethical behavior respond with, III am not that type of person. I am active in my church, in community affairs, a good family man, and so on.

  16. Ethical Considerations in the Use of DNA for the Diagnosis of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Barlow-Stewartand, Kristine; Burnett, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    Scientific advances in genetics have recently provided new information and enabled new interventions that are challenging existing ethical conventions. ISO 15189:20031 obliges the laboratory to consider its ethical responsibilities and the AACB (through membership of the IFCC) has taken a leading role in the discussion of evolving new ethical frameworks. This paper discusses the ethical implication of many of these recent advances in genetics and highlights some of the still unresolved ethical issues. PMID:16886047

  17. A Framework for Understanding and Applying Ethical Principles in Network and Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenneally, Erin; Bailey, Michael; Maughan, Douglas

    Current information and communications technology poses a variety of ethical challenges for researchers. In this paper, we present an intellectual framework for understanding and applying ethical principles in networking and security research rooted in the guidance suggested by an ongoing Department of Homeland Security working group on ethics. By providing this prototype ethical impact assessment, we seek to encourage community feedback on the working group's nascent efforts and spur researchers to concretely evaluate the ethical impact of their work.

  18. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    PubMed

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008. PMID:19235389

  19. The "Ethics" Expertise in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2016-08-01

    The nature, possibility, and implications of ethics expertise (or moral expertise) in general and of bioethics expertise in particular has been the focus of extensive debate for over thirty years. What is ethics expertise and what does it enable experts to do? Knowing what ethics expertise is can help answer another important question: What, if anything, makes a claim of expertise legitimate? In other words, how does someone earn the appellation "ethics expert?" There remains deep disagreement on whether ethics expertise is possible, and if so, what constitutes such expertise and what it entails and legitimates. Discussion of bioethics expertise has become particularly important given the growing presence of bioethicists in the clinical setting as well as efforts to professionalize bioethics through codes of ethics and certification (or quasi-certification) efforts. Unlike in the law or in engineering, where there may be a body of knowledge that professional organizations or others have articulated as important for education and training of experts, ethics expertise admits of no such body of knowledge or required experience. Nor is there an entity seen as having the authority to articulate the necessary scope of knowledge. Questions about whether there is such a body of knowledge for particular areas within bioethics have emerged and played a central role in professionalization efforts in recent years, especially in the area of clinical ethics. PMID:27261069

  20. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  1. Ethical Issues in Teaching about Research Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Keith B.; Lidstone, John G.

    2000-01-01

    Describes experiences teaching ethical issues in the conduct of research over several semesters using a simulation of research into obedience by S. Milgram in the early 1960s. Describes students' reactions to the simulation at emotional and intellectual levels and discusses the ethical dilemma these reactions have created for teachers…

  2. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  3. Ethics in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, H. O.

    The definition and role of ethics in higher education in agriculture are discussed. The ethical dimensions of recent events in agricultural education and agricultural science are discussed, including the ethics implicit in federal regulations and court decisions, changes in the backgrounds, experiences and values of students choosing agriculture,…

  4. Ethics and Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Elena S.

    1997-01-01

    While revised ethical codes provide helpful guidelines, reference archivists face many ethical questions raised by rapidly evolving technology, changing expectations, and inconsistent privacy laws that have no clear answers. Discusses issues related to reference searching, codification of ethics, cultural property and the responsibility of…

  5. Ethics in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, E. Lander

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

  6. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  7. Professional Ethics in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin

    Major problems and issues of ethics in elementary, secondary, and higher education are examined. The function and present status of professional ethics are considered, along with specific codes of ethics, including those of the National Education Association, American Association of University Professors, and the American Association of School…

  8. Making Ethics Come Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueeney, Edward

    2006-01-01

    Making ethics relevant to students in a business communications course continues to be a challenge. Classroom practitioners have long noted the difficulties in surmounting the contradictions students sense in business ethics instruction. Furthermore, students often perceive ethics to be largely irrelevant to the skills necessary for success in…

  9. Ethics across the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matchett, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    All colleges teach ethics across their undergraduate curricula, yet relatively few institutions do so deliberately. That is, few colleges make explicit attempts to coordinate or integrate the various ethical lessons their students might be learning. This does not mean that most colleges are bad for students' ethical development; research shows…

  10. Ethics in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugnet, Chris, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Representatives of five library integrated system vendors express their views on ethics and the marketplace, emphasizing the need for ethical behavior by librarians, consultants, and vendors. Four sidebars are included: one on the need for customer data rights standards; others containing the codes of ethics of three professional consultants'…

  11. Ethical Issues in Gerocounseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallaro, Marion L.; Ramsey, Marylou

    1988-01-01

    Combines areas of counseling older adults and maintaining sound ethical practices in professional counseling by enumerating some ethical dilemmas encountered in gerocounseling, examining the American Association for Counseling and Development Ethical Standards (1981), and suggesting options for handling conflicts that may arise. (Author/NB)

  12. The Evolution of Ethics.

    PubMed

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Ethical issues and dilemmas span from conception to the grave. The interconnectedness of advocacy, ethics, and end of life/death with dignity are woven into this issue of the Professional Case Management journal. Case management is a critical member of the team when these discussions arise. And knowledge of the issues, along with legal, ethical, and professional codes, is highlighted. PMID:27231955

  13. Ethics and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, James; French, Peter; Cranston-Gingras, Ann

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of ethics in special education focuses on four challenges: (1) examination of special education's history within an ethical framework; (2) articulation of character morality as well as choice morality in special education ethical dilemmas; (3) examination of special education in a liberal democracy; and (4) development of an ethical…

  14. Ethics-R-Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Stanley L.

    2000-01-01

    Outlines this issue of "Social Work," which addresses ethical issues relevant to the profession, including how to prepare students for the complex task of ethical decision-making; attitudes about sexual contact with clients; legal concerns regarding sexual harassment and confidentiality; the nature of ethics violations; approaches to new and…

  15. Designing an Ethics Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prager, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes a required ethics course designed for juniors and seniors at a small Connecticut boarding school. Students explore the ethics of care and justice, examine ethical assumptions behind the school's disciplinary system, consider a series of dilemmas, and discuss complex topics such as abortion, euthanasia, and racism. A sidebar outlines…

  16. Ethics and the Space Explorer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendell, W.

    2002-01-01

    Ethics is not a word often encountered at meetings of space activists or in work groups planning a space future. Yet, the planning of space exploration ought to have ethical dimensions because space workers are not disconnected from the remainder of society in either their professional disciplines, in their institutions, or in the subject matter they choose to study. As a scientist, I have been trained in the schema of research. Although the scientific method is noted for its system of self -correction in the form of peer review, sharing of information, and repeatability of new findings, the enterprise of universal knowledge still depends heavily on an ethical system rooted in honesty in the reporting of findings and in the processing of data. As a government employee, I receive annual "ethical training". However, the training consists almost entirely of reminders to obey various laws governing the activities and the external relationships of government employees. For 20 years l have been involved in discussions of possible futures for human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit. Many scenarios ranging from lunar landing to Martian settlement have been discussed without any mention of possible ethical issues. l remember hearing Apollo astronaut Harrison Schmitt once remark that space exploration was attractive because technology can be employed in its purest form in the conquest of space. His point was that the challenge was Man against Nature, a struggle in which the consequences or side effects of technology was not an issue. To paraphrase, in space you do not need an environmental impact study. I wish to analyze this proposition with regard to contexts in which people initiate, or plan to initiate, activities in space. Depending on the situation, space can be viewed as a laboratory, as a frontier, as a resource, as an environment, or as a location to conduct business. All of these associations and contexts also are found in our everyday activities on Earth

  17. [Ethics and occupational physicians: ethics and mission required for occupational physicians].

    PubMed

    Fujino, Akihiro

    2013-10-01

    The ethics of occupational physicians are considered from the following three viewpoints: (1) their legal standing and ethics in job execution; (2) ethics in research in occupational medicine; and (3) ethics in the 21st century and fundamental issues. We discuss: in (1), the contract types of occupational physicians and their independency and neutrality, the protection of health information and privacy, and the use of authority and the security measures; in (2), ethical standards of medical research in Japanese and international organizations, the significance and role of ethics committees, and issues characteristic of occupational health research; and in (3), occupational physicians and politic ethics, the practical abilities and ethics necessary for occupational physicians, and the practice and philosophy of occupational medicine as an art. These considerations suggest that occupational physicians, who have a special status based on the governmental policy of the occupational physician system, should develop an ethical consciousness at the core of their duties and perform their mission with responsibility to employees and employers, all of whom are Japanese citizens. Finally, we propose that the ultimate mission of occupational physicians is "to practice occupational medicine as a branch of the humanities." PMID:24107330

  18. 'I now have a visual image in my mind and it is something I will never forget': an analysis of an arts-informed approach to health professions ethics education.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; Bidinosti, Susan

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports on a study of an arts informed approach to ethics education in a health professions education context. The purpose of this study was to investigate students' reported learning experiences as a result of engagement with an arts-informed project in a health professions' ethics course. A hermeneutic phenomenological methodological approach was adopted for the study. The data were collected over 5 years, and involved analysis of 234 occupational therapy students' written reflections on learning. Phenomenological methods were used. Five key themes were identified with respect to students' reported learning including: becoming aware of values, (re) discovering creativity, coming to value reflection in professional life, deepening self-awareness, and developing capacities to imagine future practices. There appear to be a number of unique ways in which arts-informed approaches can contribute to health professions education including: activating imaginative engagement, fostering interpretive capacity, inspiring transformative understandings, offering new ways of knowing, deepening reflection, and heightening consciousness, while also enriching the inner life of practitioners. Innovative approaches are being used to introduce arts-informed practices in health professions curricula programs. The findings point to the promise of arts-informed approaches for advancing health sciences education. PMID:26245943

  19. Resisting the seduction of "ethics creep": using Foucault to surface complexity and contradiction in research ethics review.

    PubMed

    Guta, Adrian; Nixon, Stephanie A; Wilson, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we examine "ethics creep", a concept developed by Haggerty (2004) to account for the increasing bureaucratization of research ethics boards and institutional review boards (REB/IRBs) and the expanding reach of ethics review. We start with an overview of the recent surge of academic interest in ethics creep and similar arguments about the prohibitive effect of ethics review. We then introduce elements of Michel Foucault's theoretical framework which are used to inform our analysis of empirical data drawn from a multi-phase study exploring the accessibility of community-engaged research within existing ethics review structures in Canada. First, we present how ethics creep emerged both explicitly and implicitly in our data. We then present data that demonstrate how REB/IRBs are experiencing their own form of regulation. Finally, we present data that situate ethics review alongside other trends affecting the academy. Our results show that ethics review is growing in some ways while simultaneously being constrained in others. Drawing on Foucauldian theory we reframe ethics creep as a repressive hypothesis which belies the complexity of the phenomenon it purports to explain. Our discussion complicates ethics creep by proposing an understanding of REB/IRBs that locates them at the intersection of various neoliberal discourses about the role of science, ethics, and knowledge production. PMID:23063216

  20. Surgical innovation: the ethical agenda

    PubMed Central

    Broekman, Marike L.; Carrière, Michelle E.; Bredenoord, Annelien L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present article was to systematically review the ethics of surgical innovation and introduce the components of the learning health care system to guide future research and debate on surgical innovation. Although the call for evidence-based practice in surgery is increasingly high on the agenda, most surgeons feel that the format of the randomized controlled trial is not suitable for surgery. Innovation in surgery has aspects of, but should be distinguished from both research and clinical care and raises its own ethical challenges. To answer the question “What are the main ethical aspects of surgical innovation?”, we systematically searched PubMed and Embase. Papers expressing an opinion, point of view, or position were included, that is, normative ethical papers. We included 59 studies discussing ethical aspects of surgical innovation. These studies discussed 4 major themes: oversight, informed consent, learning curve, and vulnerable patient groups. Although all papers addressed the ethical challenges raised by surgical innovation, surgeons hold no uniform view of surgical innovation, and there is no agreement on the distinction between innovation and research. Even though most agree to some sort of oversight, they offer different alternatives ranging from the formation of new surgical innovation committees to establishing national registries. Most agree that informed consent is necessary for innovative procedures and that surgeons should be adequately trained to assure their competence to tackle the learning curve problem. All papers agree that in case of vulnerable patients, alternatives must be found for the informed consent procedure. We suggest that the concept of the learning health care system might provide guidance for thinking about surgical innovation. The underlying rationale of the learning health care system is to improve the quality of health care by embedding research within clinical care. Two aspects of a learning health

  1. Implementation of Information Management System for Radiation Safety of Personnel at the Russian Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management 'SevRAO' - 13131

    SciTech Connect

    Chizhov, K.; Simakov, A.; Seregin, V.; Kudrin, I.; Shandala, N.; Tsovyanov, A.; Kryuchkov, V.; Krasnoschekov, A.; Kosnikov, A.; Kemsky, I.

    2013-07-01

    The report is an overview of the information-analytical system designed to assure radiation safety of workers. The system was implemented in the Northwest Radioactive Waste Management Center 'SevRAO' (which is a branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise RosRAO'). The center is located in the Northwest Russia. In respect to 'SevRAO', the Federal Medical-Biological Agency is the regulatory body, which deals with issues of radiation control. The main document to regulate radiation control is 'Reference levels of radiation factors in radioactive wastes management center'. This document contains about 250 parameters. We have developed a software tool to simplify control of these parameters. The software includes: input interface, the database, dose calculating module and analytical block. Input interface is used to enter radiation environment data. Dose calculating module calculates the dose on the route. Analytical block optimizes and analyzes radiation situation maps. Much attention is paid to the GUI and graphical representation of results. The operator can enter the route at the industrial site or watch the fluctuations of the dose rate field on the map. Most of the results are presented in a visual form. Here we present some analytical tasks, such as comparison of the dose rate in some point with control levels at this point, to be solved for the purpose of radiation safety control. The program helps to identify points making the largest contribution to the collective dose of the personnel. The tool can automatically calculate the route with the lowest dose, compare and choose the best route. The program uses several options to visualize the radiation environment at the industrial site. This system will be useful for radiation monitoring services during the operation, planning of works and development of scenarios. The paper presents some applications of this system on real data over three years - from March 2009 to

  2. Ethical issues in couple and family research.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Gayla; Chien, Deborah; Duman, Sarah E; Fauchier, Angèle; Gordis, Elana B; Oliver, Pamella H; Ramos, Michelle C; Vickerman, Katrina A

    2005-03-01

    Federal regulations, ethical standards, and state laws governing ethics do not adequately address important issues in couple and family research. Including multiple family members, particularly dependent minors, in research requires the special application of fundamental ethical issues, such as confidentiality, privacy, and informed consent. The sensitive, commingled nature of couple and family information necessitates clear policies about data ownership and disclosure. Researchers need to have respect for the family as a unit and to evaluate benefits versus harms for the family as well as for individuals. This article highlights areas of potential concern and ambiguity related to abuse reporting and Certificates of Confidentiality and also addresses ethical issues with observational data, intervention studies, longitudinal designs, and computer-assisted research. PMID:15796661

  3. Computer ethics and teritary level education in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, E.Y.W.; Davison, R.M.; Wade, P.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper seeks to highlight some ethical issues relating to the increasing proliferation of Information Technology into our everyday lives. The authors explain their understanding of computer ethics, and give some reasons why the study of computer ethics is becoming increasingly pertinent. The paper looks at some of the problems that arise in attempting to develop appropriate ethical concepts in a constantly changing environment, and explores some of the ethical dilemmas arising from the increasing use of computers. Some initial research undertaken to explore the ideas and understanding of tertiary level students in Hong Kong on a number of ethical issues of interest is described, and our findings discussed. We hope that presenting this paper and eliciting subsequent discussion will enable us to draw up more comprehensive guidelines for the teaching of computer related ethics to tertiary level students, as well as reveal some directions for future research.

  4. Ethical Expert Systems

    PubMed Central

    Victoroff, Michael S.

    1985-01-01

    The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

  5. Clinical ethics and happiness.

    PubMed

    Devettere, R J

    1993-02-01

    Most contemporary accounts of clinical ethics do not explain why clinicians should be ethical. Those few that do attempt an explanation usually claim that clinicians should be ethical because ethical behavior provides an important good for the patient--better care. Both these approaches ignore the customary traditional reason for being ethical, namely, the good of the moral agent. This good was commonly called 'happiness'. The following article shows how the personal happiness of the moral agent provided a major reason for being ethical in the ancient philosophical and biblical traditions and how it continues to play a role in the more modern rights-based, Kantian and utilitarian theories. This history suggests that the personal happiness of the clinician, rightly understood, is a legitimate and important goal of clinical ethics. PMID:8433049

  6. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2015. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:27620100

  7. Radioactive Wastes.

    PubMed

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2015-10-01

    Papers reviewed herein present a general overview of radioactive waste activities around the world in 2014. These include safety assessments, decommission and decontamination of nuclear facilities, fusion facilities, transportation and management solutions for the final disposal of low and high level radioactive wastes (LLW and HLW), interim storage and final disposal options for spent fuel (SF), and tritiated wastes, with a focus on environmental impacts due to the mobility of radionuclides in water, soil and ecosystem alongwith other progress made in the management of radioactive wastes. PMID:26420096

  8. Ethics and Family Practice: Some Modern Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Earl V.

    1990-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas in family practice have increased in frequency and complexity as both the potential benefit and the potential harm of medical treatments have increased. All physicians must be aware of moral issues relating to medicine. Family physicians commonly face ethical problems concerning the patient with diminished autonomy; the right to refuse treatment; allocation of resources; informed consent; surrogate consent (for children, for the incompetent, and for those with diminished autonomy); and the appropriate level of aggressiveness in treatment. PMID:11651132

  9. Virtue vs utility: Alternative foundations for computer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Artz, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Ethical decisions within the field of computers and information systems are made at two levels by two distinctly different groups of people. At the level of general principles, ethical issues are debated by academics and industry representatives in an attempt to decide what is proper behavior on issues such as hacking, privacy, and copying software. At another level, that of particular situations, individuals make ethical decisions regarding what is good and proper for them in their particular situation. They may use the general rules provided by the experts or they may decide that these rules do not apply in their particular situation. Currently, the literature on computer ethics provides some opinions regarding the general rules, and some guidance for developing further general rules. What is missing is guidance for individuals making ethical decisions in particular situations. For the past two hundred years, ethics has been dominated by conduct based ethical theories such as utilitarianism which attempt to describe how people must be behave in order to be moral individuals. Recently, weaknesses in conduct based approaches such as utilitarianism have led moral philosophers to reexamine character based ethical theories such as virtue ethics which dates back to the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. This paper will compare utilitarianism and virtue ethics with respect to the foundations they provide for computer ethics. It will be argued that the very nature of computer ethics and the need to provide guidance to individuals making particular moral decisions points to the ethics of virtue as a superior philosophical foundation for computer ethics. The paper will conclude with the implications of this position for researchers, teachers and writers within the field of computer ethics.

  10. Ethics and Responsibilities of Advising College Student Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopenhaver, Lillian Lodge; Click, J. William

    Offered as a concise source of information and thought on the role, ethics, and responsibilities of the college student publication adviser, this publication discusses the major points of relevant codes of ethics and adds information about contemporary journalistic practices. The first section discusses the adviser as journalist and deals with the…

  11. Ethical Grand Rounds: Teaching Ethics at the Point of Care.

    PubMed

    Airth-Kindree, Norah M M; Kirkhorn, Lee-Ellen C

    2016-01-01

    We offer an educational innovation called Ethical Grand Rounds (EGR) as a teaching strategy to enhance ethical decision-making. Nursing students participate in EGR-flexible ethical laboratories, where they take stands on ethical dilemmas, arguing for--or against--an ethical principle. This process provides the opportunity to move past normative ethics, that is, an ideal ethical stance in accord with ethical conduct codes, to applied ethics, what professional nurses would do in actual clinical practice, given the constraints that exist in contemporary care settings. EGR serves as a vehicle to translate "what ought to be" into "what is." PMID:27164779

  12. Self-Neglect: Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Day, Mary Rose; Leahy-Warren, Patricia; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect is a significant international public health issue. Estimates suggest that there may be over one million cases per year in the United States. Aging populations will put more people at risk of self-neglect. This chapter presents background literature, self-neglect definitions and policy context, risk factors, and a brief overview of research on perspectives of self-neglect from both clients and community health and social care professionals. A case study is presented from the perspective of an individual and is used to explore ethical issues therein. A person-centered assessment within a multidisciplinary team approach is required for building a therapeutic relationship with clients. Capacity is a central issue in the management of responses to self-neglect. Ethical considerations of importance for community health and social care professionals include beneficence and nonmaleficence, autonomy and capacity, and respect for people's rights and dignity. A model of ethical justification is presented to explain dilemmas, challenges, and actions. Competence of professionals, multidisciplinary team working, informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, and best interest are also critical considerations. Effective decision making by an interdisciplinary team of professionals needs to be person-centered and give due consideration to the best interest of self-neglecting clients. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an in-depth discussion and examination of ethical issues and challenges relating to self-neglecting clients. PMID:26673378

  13. Ethical issues in gastroenterology research.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Gregory L

    2015-03-01

    Ethical issues have become increasingly important in gastroenterology research. This is for several reasons, including (i) an understanding of how conflicts of interest might affect research, (ii) the influence of the drug and device industries on research, (iii) ghostwriting (taking credit for something you did not write), (iv) the occurrence of ethically inappropriate research and scientific misconduct, and (v) respect for the rights of research subjects. These include the rights (i) to give informed consent to participate after understanding the purposes, risks, and benefits of the research; (ii) to ask questions; and (iii) to withdraw from participation at any time. Notions of doing good (beneficence), avoiding harm (non-maleficence), confidentiality, and, most important, the primacy of the welfare of the patient or research subject can be traced to antiquity. In the modern era, the Nuremburg Code (1947), the Declaration of Helsinki (1964), the Belmont report (1979), and other events and reports have led to the refinement of ethical practices in both clinical and research domains, have reinforced those long observed principles, and have given rise to the newer principles of autonomy and justice. The ethical conduct of research not only promotes good research but also is in the best interests of research subjects, investigators, sponsors, patients, and the public. PMID:25827797

  14. Ethical issues in exercise psychology.

    PubMed

    Pauline, Jeffrey S; Pauline, Gina A; Johnson, Scott R; Gamble, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    Exercise psychology encompasses the disciplines of psychiatry, clinical and counseling psychology, health promotion, and the movement sciences. This emerging field involves diverse mental health issues, theories, and general information related to physical activity and exercise. Numerous research investigations across the past 20 years have shown both physical and psychological benefits from physical activity and exercise. Exercise psychology offers many opportunities for growth while positively influencing the mental and physical health of individuals, communities, and society. However, the exercise psychology literature has not addressed ethical issues or dilemmas faced by mental health professionals providing exercise psychology services. This initial discussion of ethical issues in exercise psychology is an important step in continuing to move the field forward. Specifically, this article will address the emergence of exercise psychology and current health behaviors and offer an overview of ethics and ethical issues, education/training and professional competency, cultural and ethnic diversity, multiple-role relationships and conflicts of interest, dependency issues, confidentiality and recording keeping, and advertisement and self-promotion. PMID:17036424

  15. Empirical ethics and its alleged meta-ethical fallacies.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob; Gordijn, Bert

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyses the concept of empirical ethics as well as three meta-ethical fallacies that empirical ethics is said to face: the is-ought problem, the naturalistic fallacy and violation of the fact-value distinction. Moreover, it answers the question of whether empirical ethics (necessarily) commits these three basic meta-ethical fallacies. PMID:19338520

  16. Radioactivity Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onega, Ronald J.

    1969-01-01

    Three problems in radioactive buildup and decay are presented and solved. Matrix algebra is used to solve the second problem. The third problem deals with flux depression and is solved by the use of differential equations. (LC)

  17. Simulated Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  18. Concentrating Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  19. Xenografting: ethical issues.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the ethical issues raised by xenotransplantation under four headings: interfering with nature; effects on the recipient; effects on other humans; and effects on donor animals. The first two issues raise no insuperable problems: charges of unnaturalness are misguided, and the risks that xenotransplantation carries for the recipient are a matter for properly informed consent. The other two issues raise more serious problems, however, and it is argued that if we take seriously the risk of transferring new infectious agents from animal to human populations and the interests of donor animals, then a moratorium on xenotransplantation is called for. The paper finds that the recent Nuffield Council and Department of Health reports on xenotransplantation are insufficiently cautious in the conclusions that they draw from these considerations. PMID:9549678

  20. The hacker ethic

    SciTech Connect

    Granger, S.

    1994-12-31

    The hacker ethic can be a peculiar concept to those unfamiliar with hacking and what really is. In fact, the entire definition of hacking is somewhat obscure. Hacking originated as a challenge between programmers. Programmers at MIT are known for coining the term. Individuals would hack at code meaning that they would work at programming problems until they could maniuplate their computers into doing exactly what they wanted. The MIT hackers began with simple programs and moved on to fidding with UNIX machines, especially those on the Arpanet. Hackers started freely distributing their code to their friends and eventually to their friends across the network. This gave rise to a notion that software should be free. Eventually this was taken to the extreme information and network access should also be free.

  1. Research ethics application: a guide for the novice researcher.

    PubMed

    Greaney, Anna-Marie; Sheehy, Agnes; Heffernan, Catrina; Murphy, Joan; Mhaolrúnaigh, Siobhán Ni; Heffernan, Elizabeth; Brown, Gary

    The aim of this paper is to assist the novice researcher in the research ethics application process. The novice researcher in this context refers to any researcher negotiating a research ethics application for the first time. This may be a student or a more experienced registered nurse engaged in research activity. The paper applies ethical principles to the varied elements of a research ethics application form to explain the theoretical basis of the application criteria. The impetus for this paper arose following an internal audit of the decisions made by the research ethics committee of the nursing department at the Institute of Technology in Tralee, Ireland. The audit revealed the common reasons why full approval was not granted following initial review. This information prompted the development of a paper which would assist novice researchers in avoiding common errors and omissions in the research ethics application process. Despite the specific requirements of individual research ethics committees in different jurisdictions, the fundamental elements of research ethics approval remain unchanged. While the paper has local origins, its relevance holds a wider appeal. The paper takes a structured approach using the three ethical principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, as outlined by the Belmont Report (1979) to provide a framework for discussion. Despite the advent of other frequently used frameworks for research ethics, the principles of the Belmont report remain constant as guidance for good practice in the research ethics context. PMID:22240519

  2. Ethics Instruction in Undergraduate Astronomy and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilachowski, Catherine A.; van Zee, L.; Bacher, A. D.; Durisen, R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Instruction in research ethics is now included as part of the formal undergraduate curriculum in astronomy and physics at Indiana University. Traditionally, students learn research ethics through informal mentoring by research advisors. However, a more formal approach is encouraged by funding agencies, professional societies, and common sense. Following the booklet, "On Being a Scientist: Responsible Conduct in Research" (1995, National Academy Press), our ethics program is built around a "case study" approach using scenarios involving real life situations that students are likely to encounter as undergraduates or beginning graduate students. Students discuss possible resolutions of the ethical questions involved. Discussion topics include reporting data, data rights, credit for ideas, and professional behavior. Scenarios for graduate students involve ethical concerns more appropriate for their career stage, including conflicts of interest, authorship, and collaboration. The answers are not clear-cut, and students must grapple with shades of gray to help them define what the limits of ethical behavior are. The scenarios are available on the Web at www.astro.indiana.edu/education/ethics.html

  3. Modeling Medical Ethics through Intelligent Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, José; Miranda, Miguel; Abelha, António; Neves, José; Neves, João

    The amount of research using health information has increased dramatically over the last past years. Indeed, a significative number of healthcare institutions have extensive Electronic Health Records (EHR), collected over several years for clinical and teaching purposes, but are uncertain as to the proper circumstances in which to use them to improve the delivery of care to the ones in need. Research Ethics Boards in Portugal and elsewhere in the world are grappling with these issues, but lack clear guidance regarding their role in the creation of and access to EHRs. However, we feel we have an effective way to handle Medical Ethics if we look to the problem under a structured and more rational way. Indeed, we felt that physicians were not aware of the relevance of the subject in their pre-clinical years, but their interest increase when they were exposed to patients. On the other hand, once EHRs are stored in machines, we also felt that we had to find a way to ensure that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. Therefore, in this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics and the need for machines that represent ethical principles explicitly. It is also shown how a machine may abstract an ethical principle from a logical representation of ethical judgments and use that principle to guide its own behavior.

  4. If Ethics Committees were Designed for Ethnography.

    PubMed

    Tolich, Martin; Fitzgerald, Maureen H

    2006-06-01

    WHERE DID THE ETHICS REVIEW PROCESS go wrong for qualitative research, and how can we make it right, or at least better? This paper begins with an excerpt from an ethnography of attempting to attend an ethics review-related workshop, which exemplifies that the ethics-review process is based on epistemological assumptions aligned with positivistic research, and does not fit the qualitative research process. We suggest that a new format for ethics review, based on assumptions associated with qualitative research and ethnography, might be a better fit. In this model the researcher becomes the expert and the committee the learner or ethnographer. In this process the ethics review process is guided by four core open-ended questions that facilitate a fuller and richer exchange of information. The second part of this paper presents strategies that may lessen the risks associated with the unknown or emergent aspects of qualitative research. These strategies include a dual consent process and the co-opting of journal editors or thesis review boards to review ethical considerations prior to publication or sign off, and a renewed focus of ethics training. PMID:19385879

  5. Law, ethics and research ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Beyleveld, Deryck

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the view of the operational management of the UK Research Ethics Committee (REC) system that RECs may not reject applications on purely legal grounds. Two arguments are offered for this view: the first rests on the contention that being lawful and being ethical are not the same thing; the second is that RECs lack expertise and authority to base their decisions on legal considerations. However, whatever the philosophical standing of the first argument, it is contrary to published guidance, the basis of RECs' official authority, unethical, and politically imprudent to permit RECs not to consider conformity with the law to be at least a necessary condition for REC approval. In any event, RECs can obtain competent and authoritative advice on the law (though the Department of Health has been remiss in this regard), and they do not exceed their authority by applying the law, because this is within their ethical remit. When current guidance to RECs about advising researchers on whether or not breaches of confidence are permissible in the public interest is linked to the view of the REC management that the role of RECs is to facilitate research (albeit ethical research), this raises serious doubts about the integrity of the system of ethical review currently in place, which is illustrated by a recent "agreement" of the Chairmen of the MRECs not to consider the Data Protection Act 1998 in their ethical review. PMID:12017445

  6. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  7. Ethics manual: fifth edition.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Lois; Leffler, Cathy

    2005-04-01

    Medicine, law, and social values are not static. Reexamining the ethical tenets of medical practice and their application in new circumstances is a necessary exercise. The fifth edition of the College's Ethics Manual covers emerging issues in medical ethics and revisits old ones. It reflects on many of the ethical tensions faced by internists and their patients and attempts to shed light on how existing principles extend to emerging concerns. In addition, by reiterating ethical principles that have provided guidance in resolving past ethical problems, the Manual may help physicians avert future problems. The Manual is not a substitute for the experience and integrity of individual physicians, but it may serve as a reminder of the shared obligations and duties of the medical profession. PMID:15809467

  8. Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a Publisher's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Chris; Wager, Elizabeth; Bowman, Alyson; Fiack, Suzan; Scott-Lichter, Diane; Robinson, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    These Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics describe Blackwell Publishing's position on the major ethical principles of academic publishing and review factors that may foster ethical behavior or create problems. The aims are to encourage discussion, to initiate changes where they are needed, and to provide practical guidance, in the form of Best Practice statements, to inform these changes. Blackwell Publishing recommends that editors adapt and adopt the suggestions outlined to best fit the needs of their own particular publishing environment. PMID:17229169

  9. In search of an ethic of medical librarianship.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, H

    1978-01-01

    Why is the literature on the ethics of librarianship so sparse? Some of the codes of ethics proposed or officially adopted during this century are examined, with an informal commentary on the reasons why they seem to have aroused so little sustained interest and discussion. Attention is directed particularly to library--user relationships and to some of the unique ethical situations in medical libraries. PMID:678701

  10. Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics: a publisher's perspective.

    PubMed

    Graf, Chris; Wager, Elizabeth; Bowman, Alyson; Fiack, Suzan; Scott-Lichter, Diane; Robinson, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    These Best Practice Guidelines on Publication Ethics describe Blackwell Publishing's position on the major ethical principles of academic publishing and review factors that may foster ethical behavior or create problems. The aims are to encourage discussion, to initiate changes where they are needed, and to provide practical guidance, in the form of Best Practice statements, to inform these changes. Blackwell Publishing recommends that editors adapt and adopt the suggestions outlined to best fit the needs of their own particular publishing environment. PMID:17206953

  11. Genetic testing and counseling: selected ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Erlen, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    As science and technology in genetics continue to expand, complex ethical questions arise that require difficult decisions for all concerned. Rather than having ready-made answers, there may be only more challenging questions for patients, families, and healthcare professionals. These complicated questions may have no straightforward, correct answers, thus creating an ethical quandary. This article discusses some selected ethical issues that occur when patients are considering undergoing genetic testing and counseling, including respecting autonomy and the patient's right to decide, establishing patient-healthcare provider trust, and disclosing private information to others. Several strategies are presented that nurses can use as they assist patients and their families who are facing these challenging ethical dilemmas. PMID:17130767

  12. Towards improving the ethics of ecological research.

    PubMed

    Crozier, G K D; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I

    2015-06-01

    We argue that the ecological research community should develop a plan for improving the ethical consistency and moral robustness of the field. We propose a particular ethics strategy--specifically, an ongoing process of collective ethical reflection that the community of ecological researchers, with the cooperation of applied ethicists and philosophers of biology, can use to address the needs we identify. We suggest a particular set of conceptual (in the form of six core values--freedom, fairness, well being, replacement, reduction, and refinement) and analytic (in the forms of decision theoretic software, 1000Minds) tools that, we argue, collectively have the resources to provide an empirically grounded and conceptually complete foundation for an ethics strategy for ecological research. We illustrate our argument with information gathered from a survey of ecologists conducted at the 2013 meeting of the Canadian Society of Ecology and Evolution. PMID:24903671

  13. The ethics of qualitative nursing research.

    PubMed

    Robley, L R

    1995-01-01

    Nurse researchers conducting qualitative studies need to be acutely aware of the unique ways ethics, both nursing and research ethics, affect all phases of the qualitative research process. Decisions about what to study, which persons will be asked to participate, what methodology will be used, how to achieve truly informed consent, when to terminate or interrupt interviews, when to probe deeply, when therapy or nursing care supersedes research, and what and how case studies should be documented in the published results are all matters for ethical deliberation. This article seeks to examine some of the less obvious, yet very important, ethical concerns that nurses face throughout the research process and build a common core of values that can lead to meaningful process and socially responsible research results. PMID:7844283

  14. Ethical codes for attorneys: a brief introduction.

    PubMed

    Zarkowski, P

    1997-01-01

    Ethical standards for lawyers are contained in the Model Rules of Professional Conduct (which lays out both "shall/shall not" rules and "may" suggestions in nine broad areas) and the Model Code of Professional Responsibility (which covers essentially the same topic areas but offers more detailed commentary). Topics included in the Rules are the client-lawyer relationship, the attorney's role as an advocate and counselor, law firms and associations, public service, transactions with individuals other than clients and information about legal services including advertising, firm names, and letterhead. The American Dental Association's Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct is organized around the five ethical principles of patient autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity. There are substantial similarities in intent between the ethical standards of dentists and lawyers; there are also differences. PMID:9270220

  15. Personalized medicine: ethics for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Sharrer, G Terry

    2012-01-01

    Modern ethical codes in medicine were developed following World War II to provide respect for persons, beneficence, and justice in clinical research. Clinical trial medicine involves greater scrutiny than most research activities. In every instance, clinical trials have institutional review boards to ensure the medical procedure under study complies with regulatory requirements, privacy, informed consent, good practices, safety monitoring, adverse events reporting, and is free of conflicting interests. Mandatory training in medical ethics for all clinical staff is becoming more common, and at some institutions, knowledgeable patient advocates play a watchdog role. In personalized medicine, each patient becomes a clinical trial of one, based on the uniqueness of the person's illness and the relatively tailored treatment. These features imply a shared responsibility between the patient and the researchers because uncertainty exists over the outcome for each individual patient. This chapter introduces ethical considerations using case studies, with historical context, and describes general ethical guidelines for initiating a clinical trial. PMID:22081337

  16. Ethical issues in neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Chen, Xin-Xin; Wang, Xin-Ling

    2016-07-01

    On one hand, advances in neonatal care and rescue technology allow for the healthy survival or prolonged survival time of critically ill newborns who, in the past, would have been non-viable. On the other hand, many of the surviving critically ill infants have serious long-term disabilities. If an infant eventually cannot survive or is likely to suffer severe disability after surviving, ethical issues in the treatment process are inevitable, and this problem arises not only in developed countries but is also becoming increasingly prominent in developing countries. In addition, ethical concerns cannot be avoided in medical research. This review article introduces basic ethical guidelines that should be followed in clinical practice, including respecting the autonomy of the parents, giving priority to the best interests of the infant, the principle of doing no harm, and consent and the right to be informed. Furthermore, the major ethical concerns in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in China are briefly introduced. PMID:26382713

  17. Ethical considerations of therapeutic hypnosis and children.

    PubMed

    Etzrodt, Christine M

    2013-04-01

    Historically, therapeutic hypnosis has been met with skepticism within some fields, although acceptance has expanded in recent decades. Development and application of ethical standards and principles has contributed to increased acceptance of hypnosis with children. The Ethics Code of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2002) and the Code of Conduct of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH, 2000) serve as guides to ethical considerations when treating children. From a developmental and practical perspective, children have limited decision-making capacities, therefore special attention should be paid to their rights and welfare. Important ethical considerations relevant to children and hypnosis have emerged, including competence, supervision, informed consent, confidentiality, and boundaries. Considerations are reviewed from a normal and abnormal child development perspective. PMID:23724571

  18. Ethical issues in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Sterodimas, Aris; Radwanski, Henrique N; Pitanguy, Ivo

    2011-04-01

    Plastic, reconstructive, and cosmetic surgery refers to a variety of operations performed in order to repair or restore body parts to look normal or to enhance a certain structure or anatomy that is already normal. Several ethical considerations such as a patient's right for autonomy, informed consent, beneficence, and nonmalfeasance need to be given careful consideration. The principal objective of the medical profession is to render services to humanity with full respect for human dignity. Plastic surgeons should merit the confidence of patients entrusted to their care, rendering to each a full measure of service and devotion. They require an extensive amount of education and training. The increases in demand for aesthetic plastic surgery and the advocacy of practice in the media have raised concerns about the circumstances under which cosmetic surgery is ethical and permissible. Innovative research, and new technologies derived from such research, almost always raises ethical and policy concerns. Medical ethics regulate what is, and what is not, correct in promoting plastic surgery to the public. It is essential to create an educated and informed public about the ethical issues in the plastic and reconstructive surgery field. Plastic surgeons need to carefully evaluate the degree of deformity, physical and emotional maturity, and desired outcome of patients who request plastic surgery procedures. Science is a powerful force for change in modern society and plastic surgeons have a responsibility to shepherd that change with thoughtful advocacy and careful ethical scrutiny of their own behavior. PMID:21336881

  19. Ethics of community psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Adshead, G

    1999-09-01

    Psychiatric care in the community gives rise to ethical dilemmas which resemble those associated with predominantly institutional care. However, there are also dilemmas specifically associated with community care, many of which are conceptual as well as practical. Papers addressing both conceptual and practical ethical dilemmas are reviewed including some papers which deal with the ethical issues associated with violence in the community by the mentally ill. PMID:15719521

  20. [Population, ethics and equity].

    PubMed

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293335

  1. Ethical considerations in orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, J D; Rhodes, R; Springfield, D S

    2000-01-01

    Because our actions as physicians have far-reaching consequences, and because society allows us to do things to others that no one else is free to do, physicians' professional activities fall under the domain of ethical evaluation. We are charged with the obligation to use specialized scientific knowledge, to work in concert with others, and to act for the good of our patients. In fact, acting for the good of our patients is the central tenet of ethical medical behavior. What constitutes the good of the patient, however, is not always clear. In general, we act to limit disease, restore function, alleviate suffering, and prolong life. We understand fully, however, that these goals may conflict with one another. Judgment about what is right for a particular patient leads us to another crucial consideration of ethical behavior, namely, respect for patient autonomy. We recognize that individuals have the right to control their own destiny. Patients have a right, therefore, to make choices about their medical care. As physicians, we must respect those rights. As such, certain ethical behavior is expected of us. We must be honest with our patients. We must provide them with accurate information on which to base their decisions. We must convey to them information about their diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, even when it is unpleasant to do so. We must be open about our expertise and level of training for a particular procedure. We must respect their privacy and their right to withhold information even from family and friends. In short, we must respect their choices, even if we may disagree with those choices. To truly respect patient autonomy is to understand that, ultimately, the final decision lies with the patient. PMID:10829220

  2. Teaching GeoEthics Across the Geoscience Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogk, D. W.; Geissman, J. W.; Kieffer, S. W.; Reidy, M.; Taylor, S.; Vallero, D. A.; Bruckner, M. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Ethics education is an increasingly important component of the pre-professional training of geoscientists. Funding agencies (NSF) require training of graduate students in the responsible conduct of research, employers are increasingly expecting their workers to have basic training in ethics, and the public demands that scientists abide by the highest standards of ethical conduct. Yet, few faculty have the requisite training to effectively teach about ethics in their classes, or even informally in mentoring their research students. To address this need, an NSF-funded workshop was convened to explore how ethics education can be incorporated into the geoscience curriculum. Workshop goals included: examining where and how geoethics topics can be taught from introductory courses for non-majors to modules embedded in "core" geoscience majors courses or dedicated courses in geoethics; sharing best pedagogic practices for "what works" in ethics education; developing a geoethics curriculum framework; creating a collection of online instructional resources, case studies, and related materials; applying lessons learned about ethics education from sister disciplines (biology, engineering, philosophy); and considering ways that geoethics instruction can contribute to public scientific literacy. Four major themes were explored in detail: (1) GeoEthics and self: examining the internal attributes of a geoscientist that establish the ethical values required to successfully prepare for and contribute to a career in the geosciences; (2) GeoEthics and the geoscience profession: identifying ethical standards expected of geoscientists if they are to contribute responsibly to the community of practice; (3) GeoEthics and society: exploring geoscientists' responsibilities to effectively and responsibly communicate the results of geoscience research to inform society about issues ranging from geohazards to natural resource utilization in order to protect public health, safety, and economic

  3. Respecting and Breaking Confidences: Conceptual, Ethical and Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Nurses need to understand what information is confidential and what constitutes breach of confidentiality. Ethical issues involved in informed consent and grounds for breaking confidentiality should be addressed in nursing-education curriculum. (SK)

  4. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  5. Professional Ethics: Caught and Taught.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickols, Sharon Y.; Belliston, Lisa M.

    2001-01-01

    Compares codes of professional ethics of several professional associations in light of rapidly changing technology. Explores the relation between academic honesty and ethical practice and provides a summary of approaches to teaching ethics. (Contains 34 references.) (JOW)

  6. Professional ethics and esthetic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Nash, D A

    1988-09-01

    Esthetic dentistry has assumed an integral position in the provision of oral health care for society. Esthetics is a branch of philosophy dealing with beauty. Beauty is both enjoyable (subjective and cosmetic), and admirable (objective and definable). Ethics is a branch of philosophy dealing with morality. Morality relates humans to one another in a responsible way using rationality. Dentists assume unique moral duties in presenting themselves to society as being uniquely qualified to care for their oral health. Three principles of ethics relate directly to professional duties in esthetic dentistry: beneficence, autonomy, and justice. These principles have moral force in committing dentists to gain informed consent and to execute therapy in keeping with professional standards of care. Practical application of issues deriving from esthetics and ethics suggests that dentists must be sensitive to esthetics in their diagnosis and treatment planning and that a structured, formal consultation with a patient must be conducted to educate the patient regarding the goals of treatment, alternative therapies, prognosis, and costs. Only through such an effort can dentists gain informed consent. The goal of esthetic dentistry is the achievement of admirable (objective) and enjoyable (subjective) beauty, which is possible only through patient participation in decision making and excellence in technical performance. PMID:3183255

  7. RADIOACTIVE BATTERY

    DOEpatents

    Birden, J.H.; Jordan, K.C.

    1959-11-17

    A radioactive battery which includes a capsule containing the active material and a thermopile associated therewith is presented. The capsule is both a shield to stop the radiations and thereby make the battery safe to use, and an energy conventer. The intense radioactive decay taking place inside is converted to useful heat at the capsule surface. The heat is conducted to the hot thermojunctions of a thermopile. The cold junctions of the thermopile are thermally insulated from the heat source, so that a temperature difference occurs between the hot and cold junctions, causing an electrical current of a constant magnitude to flow.

  8. Ethical problems in psychopharmacological research.

    PubMed

    Gentili, C; Ferrari, G

    1979-01-01

    1. Scientific research poses considerable ethical problems which in human psychopharmacological studies are frequently faced by singling out consent as the only reliable source of human respect, although it is never free, spontaneous, or informed. 2. On the other hand, various ethical problems present in the "life" of a new substance in the case of industry and preclinical, clinical and mass experiments, are left behind. 3. Thus there arise justified protests which go so far as disowning science and technology. To criticize science and technology is of no use: incorrect use of them must be prevented. 4. Such a guarantee can only come from an international control committee, capable of coping with a multinational power such as industry, supported by peripheral elective committees, which grant the citizens a direct participation in the administration of health. PMID:400986

  9. Mandatory neurotechnological treatment: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Focquaert, Farah

    2014-02-01

    What if neurofeedback or other types of neurotechnological treatment, by itself or in combination with behavioral treatment, could achieve a successful "rewiring" of the psychopath's brain? Imagine that such treatments exist and that they provide a better long-term risk-minimizing strategy compared to imprisonment. Would it be ethical to offer such treatments as a condition of probation, parole, or (early) prison release? In this paper, I argue that it can be ethical to offer effective, non-invasive neurotechnological treatments to offenders as a condition of probation, parole, or (early) prison release provided that: (1) the status quo is in no way cruel, inhuman, degrading, or in some other way wrong, (2) the treatment option is in no way cruel, inhuman, degrading, or in some other way wrong, (3) the treatment is in the best interests of the offender, and (4) the offender gives his/her informed consent. PMID:24407528

  10. Systems ethics and the history of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Clements, C D

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the current conclusions in medical ethics which have followed the 1969-1970 Medical Ethics Discontinuity, a break that challenged the Hippocratic way of thinking about ethics. The resulting dislocations in quality of care and the medical value system are discussed, and an alternative medical ethics is offered: Systems Ethics. A methodology for a Systems Ethics analysis of cases is presented and illustrated by the case of a physician-assisted suicide. The advantages, both theoretical and clinical, of a Systems Ethics approach to medicine, which is an expansion of the Hippocratic tradition in medical ethics, are developed. Using Systems Ethics, it is possible to avoid the dangers of legalism, bureaucratic ethics, utilitarian cost cutting, and "political correctness" in medical ethics. PMID:1475330

  11. [Bioethics in medical institutions--new custom or help? The example of clinical ethics consultation at a University Medical Center].

    PubMed

    Richter, G

    2014-08-01

    Although ethics committees are well established in the medical sciences for human clinical trials, animal research and scientific integrity, the development of clinical ethics in German hospitals started much later during the first decade of the twenty-first century. Clinical ethics consultation should be pragmatic and problem-centered and can be defined as an ethically qualified and informed conflict management within a given legal framework to deal with and resolve value-driven, normative problems in the care of patients. Clinical ethics consultations enable shared clinical decision-making of all parties (e.g. clinicians, patients, family and surrogates) involved in a particular patient's care. The clinical ethicist does not act as an ethics expert by making independent recommendations or decisions; therefore, the focus is different from other medical consultants. Ethics consultation was first established by healthcare ethics committees (HEC) or clinical ethics consultation (CEC) groups which were called in to respond to an ethically problematic situation. To avoid ethical dilemmas or crises and to act preventively with regard to ethical issues in individual patients, an ethics liaison service is an additional option to ethics case consultations which take place on a regular basis by scheduled ethics rounds during the normal ward rounds. The presence of the ethicist offers some unique advantages: it allows early recognition of even minor ethical problems and accommodates the dynamics of ethical and clinical goal-setting in the course of patient care. Most importantly, regular and non-authoritative participation of the ethicist in normal ward rounds allows continuous ethical education of the staff within the everyday clinical routine. By facilitating clinical ethical decision-making, the ethicist seeks to empower physicians and medical staff to deal appropriately with ethical problems by themselves. Because of this proactive approach, the ethics liaison service

  12. Exploring perceptions and experiences of Bolivian health researchers with research ethics.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sarah; Aalborg, Annette; Basagoitia, Armando; Cortes, Jacqueline; Lanza, Oscar; Schwind, Jessica S

    2015-04-01

    In Bolivia, there is increasing interest in incorporating research ethics into study procedures, but there have been inconsistent application of research ethics practices. Minimal data exist regarding the experiences of researchers concerning the ethical conduct of research. A cross-sectional study was administered to Bolivian health leaders with research experience (n = 82) to document their knowledge, perceptions, and experiences of research ethics committees and infrastructure support for research ethics. Results showed that 16% of respondents reported not using ethical guidelines to conduct their research and 66% indicated their institutions did not consistently require ethics approval for research. Barriers and facilitators to incorporate research ethics into practice were outlined. These findings will help inform a comprehensive rights-based research ethics education program in Bolivia. PMID:25784714

  13. Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

  14. Ethics and the professional practice of psychologists: the role of virtues and principles.

    PubMed

    Jordan, A E; Meara, N M

    1990-04-01

    We evaluate the potential relevance of virtue ethics to the training and practice of professional psychologists, and we contrast them with principle ethics. Typically, principles are used to facilitate the selection of socially and historically acceptable answers to the question "What shall I do?" when confronted by ethical dilemmas. Virtue ethics, however, generally focus on the question "Who shall I be?" Strengths and weaknesses of each approach are presented. The impact of each is discussed with respect to informed consent and the therapeutic construct "genuineness." We conclude that virtue ethics are an essential component of responsible ethical training and practice. PMID:16047427

  15. Ethics in disaster management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkash, S.

    2012-04-01

    Ethics are basically a minimum level of moral values in a society that one must follow to do justice for honest practices in any profession. Geoscientists have significant roles to play, more particularly in the field of geohazards, to appraise the society about the possibilities of natural hazards like landslides, avalanches, floods, volcanoes, earthquake etc. They can not only assess these hazards but also can estimate the potential consequences if these hazards occur in a given place and a given time. However, sometimes it has been found that the credibility of geoscientist among the society and the governance is lost due to some unethical practices for a short term gain or due to improper understanding of the geological phenomena. Some of the hazards that cannot be predicted with the existing capabilities have been forecasted by some geoscientists to draw social/media's attention, thereby bringing the reputation of the profession down. One must be fair enough to accept the limitations of our profession in informing about natural hazards which are yet not fully well understood by the professionals in this field. More specifically the predictions related to earthquakes have drawn the attention of the society as well as media in the developing world where common people have different perceptions. Most often the popular myths take over the scientific facts among the public and lead to rumours about natural hazards. The paper attempts to cite some cases of rumours about natural disasters, particularly earthquakes and response of the society, media and governance. It emphasizes the role of geoscientists as the ethical responsibility to inform the public about the factual situations on the geohazards, to avert the panic caused by rumours from non-specialists or hyper-active pseudo experts. The paper points out the recent rumours about lake outburst, flash-floods and volcanic activities after a moderate earthquake (M6.8, 18 September 2011) in the Sikkim State, India

  16. Ethics is an essential dimension of first-trimester risk assessment for trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2008-04-01

    We identify the clinical implications of the ethics of informed consent for risk assessment for trisomy 21. Based on the ethics of informed consent, we argue that routinely offering first-trimester risk assessment in centers qualified to provide it is ethically obligatory. We describe how pregnant women can be expected to respond to this offer. We then argue that routinely withholding the results of first-trimester risk assessment is ethically unjustified. The ethics of informed consent is an essential dimension of first-trimester risk assessment for trisomy 21. PMID:18450138

  17. The art of the chart note in clinical ethics consultation and bioethics mediation: conveying information that can be understood and evaluated.

    PubMed

    Dubler, Nancy Neveloff

    2013-01-01

    Unlike bioethics mediators who are employed by healthcare organizations as outside consultants, mediators who are embedded in an institution must be authorized to chronicle a clinical ethics consultation (CEC) or a mediation in a patient's medical chart. This is an important privilege, as the chart is a legal document. In this article I discuss this important part of a bioethics mediator's tool kit in my presentation of a case illustrating how bioethics mediation may proceed, and what this approach using both bioethics and mediation may add. PMID:23923814

  18. Radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Hickox, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    This paper provides a review of literature published in 1995 on the subject of radioactive wastes. Topics covered include: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; decontamination and decommissioning; remedial actions and treatment; and environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides. 155 refs.

  19. Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  1. Ethics and Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucciarelli, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    In the US, Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) recommends the study of ethics so that students acquire "an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility". For the most part, teaching of the subject relies upon the use of scenarios--both hypothetical and "real"--and open discussion framed by the codes. These…

  2. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.

    The American Sociological Association's code of ethics for sociologists is presented. For sociological research and practice, 10 requirements for ethical behavior are identified, including: maintaining objectivity and integrity; fully reporting findings and research methods, without omission of significant data; reporting fully all sources of…

  3. Cultivating an Ethical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starratt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Often the school is left as an institution seemingly ethically neutral, leaving untouched questions about whether the school itself is a site of injustice toward both educators and children. Springing from his well-known "Building an Ethical School", Robert J. Starratt now looks more closely at the educational leader's responsibility to ensure…

  4. Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  5. Ethics in Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…

  6. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of College Unions-International, Bloomington, IN.

    The code of ethics for the college union and student activities professional is presented by the Association of College Unions-International. The preamble identifies the objectives of the college union as providing campus community centers and social programs that enhance the quality of life for members of the academic community. Ethics for…

  7. Teaching Ethics: Telling Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Ann

    1995-01-01

    In order to develop moral literacy, nursing students should be exposed to both rules- and justice-based ethics and to a feminist care perspective. They can learn to analyze and understand ethical dilemmas and to tell their own stories in order to identify the influences on their decision making. (SK)

  8. Ethical Proactive Threat Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aycock, John; Sullins, John

    Through a provocative examination of the positive effects of computer security research on regular users, we argue that traditional security research is insufficient. Instead, we turn to a largely untapped alternative, proactive threat research, a fruitful research area but an ethical minefield. We discuss practices for ethical research and dissemination of proactive research.

  9. The Ethical Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

  10. Sociobiology, Dogma, and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berghe, Pierre L.

    1977-01-01

    Describes ways in which sociobiology can throw some light on the study of ethics, including recognition of the fact that human behavior, culture, and ethics do not exist in a biological vacuum. Topics discussed are sociobiology as ideology, culture and genes, and enlightened self interest. For journal availability, see SO 505 653. (Author/DB)

  11. Ethics for Industrial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosentrater, Kurt A.; Balamuralikrishna, Radha

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes aim at one specific, as well as basic, need in teamwork and interdisciplinary projects--ethics and its implications for professional practice. A preliminary study suggests that students majoring in industrial technology degree programs may not have adequate opportunity to formally study and engage in ethical aspects of technology…

  12. Ethics and the Nonprofit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Toni; Hudspeth, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The American nonprofit sector is large, effective and influential, but with influence comes responsibility. Ethical lapses, whether real or perceived, can draw the attention of regulators and the public, leading to financial and reputational damage that can impair an organization's ability to carry out its mission. Written ethics and compliance…

  13. Ethics by Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirk, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Research from the Schools of Integrity project identified openness, honesty, relationship-building, and constant rigorous reflection as key elements in schools that successfully balance academic rigor with ethical development. To translate these findings into the public school setting, the Institute for Global Ethics spoke to six secondary school…

  14. Ethics in Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence

    2014-01-01

    There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…

  15. Principles of Biomedical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498

  16. [Ethical dilemmas in health].

    PubMed

    Boléo-Tomé, J

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to speak of ethic dilemmas in a society that has relativism as the oficial philosophical and political doctrine, i.e., stable values and behavior references, are denied, both in health care and in any other area of human knowledge. In the field of medical sciences it is even pretended to pass from the observational methodology to a field of manipulation and manipulability. It is the very Ethic that is presented as a dilemma. In these conditions one needs to know the lines of thought that are defended, to replace and make disappear the stable ethic references: ecletism, historicism, scientificism, pragmatism, and nihilism itself, that lead to the 'new ethic paradigm', that has created by itself a pseudo-spirituality. The truth is we are adrift in the 'Ethic of Convenience' which changes according to the majorities. In this setting the way to go is to rediscover the abandoned ethic values: only with an objective ethic, with sound references and foundations, it is possible to re-establish and perfect the patient-physician relationship, for a better social health. And this begins with the ethic problem of human life. PMID:20350468

  17. Educating for Ethical Conduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Robert P.

    1997-01-01

    Programs that teach scientific ethics must maintain vigilance against scientific misconduct; prepare scientists to deal with ethical ambiguity; and stress the importance of consultation and consensus, adherence to accepted standards of evidence, and commitment to due process using procedures established in advance. (Author/MSE)

  18. Ethical? Toward Whom?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Nonrational processes in ethical decision making" by M. D. Rogerson et al (see record 2011-19198-001). Among the many insightful points made by Rogerson, Gottlieb, Handelsman, Knapp, and Younggren (October 2011) regarding nonrational processes in ethical decision making, one deserves further explication: Many of…

  19. Modular Approach for Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyne, Mudasser F.

    2010-01-01

    It is hard to define a single set of ethics that will cover an entire computer users community. In this paper, the issue is addressed in reference to code of ethics implemented by various professionals, institutes and organizations. The paper presents a higher level model using hierarchical approach. The code developed using this approach could be…

  20. Ethical issues involving the internet

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, T.J.; Kallman, E.A.; Lelewer, D.

    1994-12-31

    During the 90`s, the {open_quotes}Information Superhighway{close_quotes} has received widespread publicity. Many campuses have participated in this drive to an information based society by becoming participating nodes on the Internet. As an information provider, the Internet has the potential to change the college experience in many ways, both good and bad. It also poses a number of problems for college students in areas such as privacy, access, and honesty. It provides professors with a dynamic information storage and retrieval tool that offers the opportunity to modernize both curriculum experiences and pedagogical approaches. On some campuses, Internet access and capability has become so important that course modules and whole courses are being built. The panelists will each discuss a different issue involved with making the Internet more integral to the collegiate environment. The first panelist will consider risks and threats that an institution of higher learning must consider as it approaches Internet use will be presented. The steps an institution took to build policies and deal with {open_quotes}inevitable incidents{close_quotes} that will occur as the Internet is opened to full use by both students and faculty. The second panelist will present four computer ethics Each module uses the abundance and dynamism of Internet information to provide challenging {open_quotes}Ethics in the Computer Workplace{close_quotes} experiences that could not easily be done by traditional means. The third panelist will discuss a course module that explores both the positive and negative potential of the Internet. The costs and ease of Internet access, as well as normally available Internet tools, are also presented. This module has been used in a course called {open_quotes}Ethical and Social Issues in Computer Science{close_quotes} and will be used in a general-education course to be offered beginning in 1994-95.

  1. Mental health research, ethics and multiculturalism.

    PubMed

    Bailes, Marion J; Minas, I Harry; Klimidis, Steven

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine ethical issues relevant to conducting mental health research with refugees and immigrant communities that have cultural orientations and social organisation that are substantially different to those of the broader Australian community, and we relate these issues to NH&MRC Guidelines. We describe the development and conduct of a mental health research project carried out recently in Melbourne with the Somali community, focusing on ethical principles involved, and relating these to the NH&MRC National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans, and the NH&MRC document Values and Ethics: Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research. The experience of conducting mental health research with the Somali community highlights the fact that the principles of inclusion and benefit enunciated in the NH&MRC document Values and Ethics are particularly pertinent when conducting research with refugees and immigrant communities that are culturally distant to those of the broader Australian community. These principles inform issues of research design and consent, as well as guiding respectful engagement with the participating community and communication of the research findings. PMID:16832945

  2. Ethics in dermatology: toward a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    López-Martín, S; Galera-Martin, C; Guerra-Tapia, A

    2013-01-01

    Medical ethics have evolved over time, and ethical responsibilities have often been shared by priests, the governing classes, and physicians. The emergence of scientific medicine led to the separation of functions, yet physicians have nonetheless continued to enjoy an extraordinary degree of moral authority and great social privilege. From this starting point, professional medical ethics developed as a specific moral system based on special rights and duties (paternalism and medical confidentiality). Various historical events brought this longstanding situation to a point of crisis toward the middle of the 20th century, and for several decades since, medical ethics have been based on freedom of choice for the patient with regard to decisions about his or her own body and health. Recent developments have created a new, still poorly defined model that takes into consideration such matters as euthanasia, abortion, provision of information on the benefits and harm of treatments, the sharing of therapeutic decision-making with the patient and/or family members, the choice of public or private medical providers, therapeutic guidelines, and the extension of the scope of practice to include preventive measures and cosmetic procedures. What is needed now is a new ethical system for plural societies that harbor different religions, beliefs and lifestyles, but that is also rational, universal and subject to ongoing revision-a system always striving for scientific, technical and moral excellence. Such an ethical system would have to be taught in medical schools, as it would need to bear fruit beyond mere good intentions. PMID:22944290

  3. A Study of Reactions to Ethical Dilemmas in Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacks, Don W.; Wright, Donald K.

    In order to justify ethical instruction for media students, 109 university students in basic communication courses were asked to confront a moral-ethical problem, specifically, the request for information that a sponsoring company or organization wished suppressed. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: working for a public…

  4. Ethical Issues in Providing Library Services to Distance Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Gill; Johnson, Kay

    2007-01-01

    The authors, library practitioners from either side of the Atlantic Ocean, embarked on a dialogue about the ethical challenges encountered in providing library services to distance learners. Unable to find an existing, appropriate ethical framework for their discussion, they agreed to devise their own, informed by relevant professional codes and…

  5. Ethical Dimensions of Diagnosing: Considerations for Clinical Mental Health Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hoffman, Rachel M.; Eriksen, Karen

    2010-01-01

    There are numerous ethical considerations inherent within the process of assigning a "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) diagnosis. In this article, general ethics considerations such as informed consent and confidentiality, accuracy of diagnosis, and…

  6. Solving Ethical Dilemmas with Children: Empowering Classroom Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Michelann

    2010-01-01

    This article identifies and discusses ethical dilemmas inherent when undertaking research with children or other vulnerable populations: power relations, risks and benefits, and informed consent and confidentiality (Maguire, 2005). Ethical dilemmas often arise when researchers attempt to merge the interests of their research and the interests of…

  7. Ethical & Legal Issues in School Counseling. Chapter 6: Special Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, James P., Jr.; And Others

    This document contains chapter 6 (5 articles) of a collection of 35 articles primarily from American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) publications on the most important legal and ethical topics about which all school counselors need to be informed. "Ethical Issues Involved With the Use of Computer-Assisted Counseling, Testing, and…

  8. Enhancing Ethical Decision Making in Sexuality and AIDS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, C. Everett; Piercy, Fred P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates providing sexuality and AIDS education in a way that helps adolescents explore the ethical meaning of sexual behavior. Presents principles for Rest's model of moral development, which describes four internal processes that produce moral behavior, as one example of an ethical framework that could inform sexuality and AIDS education…

  9. Librarianship Needs a New Code of Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finks, Lee W.

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of professional ethics focuses on a study by Johan Bekker that recommends a new code of ethics for librarians. Topics discussed include confidential information, extraoccupational activities, continuing education, research, occupational development, membership in occupational associations, and peer group role. A sidebar presents…

  10. Ethical issues in the ethnography of cyberspace.

    PubMed

    Hakken, D

    2000-01-01

    The project of developing an anticipatory anthropology of the future reveals unique ethical opportunities. For example, the increased importance of performance means there is a substantial potential for a substantive "resocialing" of work in organizations, just as the decline of Modernism opens space for collective, situated ethics as opposed to individualized categorical imperatives. An anthropology of the future should address the question of the future of ethics in general. The very possibility of human agency, of informed individual moral action, is brought into question in new ways. The profound flexibility of the computer as a medium carries with it the dangers of hyper-abstraction, while the consolidation of capital reproduction on a global level increases the scope for apparently permanent mystification. Also important are the new ethical challenges raised for those engaged in knowledge "production" or science broadly conceived. These include the necessary effort to acknowledge fully the role of non-human agency, and the potentially profound possibilities in a transformation in the character of knowledge, a correlate, at least in part, of the commodification of knowledge associated with distance learning. These challenges accompany the more overt threats of transgenic entities and ecological degradation. How can one be an ethical intellectual or academic under these circumstances, let alone teach others to be? There are also some specific challenges facing anthropology in particular. Some derive from the increasing "privatization" of ethnography, both in its growing popularity in modes of social reproduction more directly implicated in the reproduction of capital and in the declining academic support for anthropology. In a very specific sense, anthropology has grounded its ethics on an appreciation of and support for the reproduction of "really existing" culture. This ethical compass is not available to the ethnographer who studies the future. How do we

  11. Ethical Awareness and Ethical Orientation of Turkish Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gökçe, Asiye Toker

    2013-01-01

    This study inquires ethical evaluation of teachers, investigating their moral reasoning to ethical decision making, in Turkey. Specifically three hypotheses were tested: Overall ethical awareness of teachers is high; Teachers will identify reasons for ethical evaluation related to philosophical values such as justice, deontology, utilitarianism,…

  12. Economic Ethics and Industrial Policy: The Analysis of Ethical Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnal, Juliette

    2008-01-01

    Beyond the presupposed cleavage between economics and ethics, the institutional dimension of economic ethics needs to be emphasized. The firm can use a large scope of instruments in order to formalize economic ethics. The asset of ethical standards is that they represent a specific way of coordination. They engender positive effects such as the…

  13. Introductory Course in Biomedical Ethics in the Obstetrics-Gynecology Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Thomas E.

    1988-01-01

    Information used in a brief lecture that introduces a biomedical ethics curriculum in an obstetrics and gynecology residency is described. Major components include theories of philosophic ethics (formalist and consequentialist) and principles of biomedical ethics (honesty, contract-keeping, nonmaleficence, justice, autonomy, beneficence,…

  14. Reasons Preventing Teachers from Acting within the Framework of Ethical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dag, Nilgün; Arslantas, Halis Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at putting forth the reasons preventing teachers from acting ethically, acting within the framework of ethical principles and having an ethical tendency. This study featuring a qualitative research model taking as a basis the case study approach followed a path of selecting people that can be a rich source of information for…

  15. On IS Students' Intentions to Use Theories of Ethics in Resolving Moral Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartiainen, Tero; Siponen, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    It is widely agreed that ethics teaching should have an important role in Information Systems (IS) teaching. Yet, there are no studies exploring how students apply theories of ethics in their decision-making. This is unfortunate, because teaching ethics is of little practical use if the students do not utilise the acquired knowledge in practice.…

  16. Clinical guides to preventing ethical conflicts between pregnant women and their physicians.

    PubMed

    Chervenak, F A; McCullough, L B

    1990-02-01

    We provide a justification for preventive ethics in obstetric practice. Four clinical guides to resolving ethical conflicts between pregnant women and their physicians can be identified: (1) informed consent as an ongoing dialogue between the pregnant woman and her physician, (2) negotiation as a clinical strategy, (3) respectful persuasion as a clinical strategy, and (4) the proper use of ethics committees. PMID:2309810

  17. Ethical Guidelines for Counselors when Working with Clients with Terminal Illness Requesting Physician Aid in Dying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Layla J.; Piazza, Nick J.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, the American Counseling Association (ACA) introduced a new ethical standard for counselors working with clients with terminal illness who are considering hastened death options. The authors' purpose is to inform counselors of the Death With Dignity Act and explore relevant ethical guidelines in the "ACA Code of Ethics" (ACA, 2005).

  18. Four Roles of Ethical Theory in Clinical Ethics Consultation.

    PubMed

    Magelssen, Morten; Pedersen, Reidar; Førde, Reidun

    2016-09-01

    When clinical ethics committee members discuss a complex ethical dilemma, what use do they have for normative ethical theories? Members without training in ethical theory may still contribute to a pointed and nuanced analysis. Nonetheless, the knowledge and use of ethical theories can play four important roles: aiding in the initial awareness and identification of the moral challenges, assisting in the analysis and argumentation, contributing to a sound process and dialogue, and inspiring an attitude of reflexivity. These four roles of ethical theory in clinical ethics consultation are described and their significance highlighted, while an example case is used as an illustration throughout. PMID:27471935

  19. Addressing Ethics and Technology in Business: Preparing Today's Students for the Ethical Challenges Presented by Technology in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rochelle

    2008-01-01

    The ethical development of information systems is but one of those sensitive scenarios associated with computer technology that has a tremendous impact on individuals and social life. The significance of these issues of concern cannot be overstated. However, since computer ethics is meant to be everybody's responsibility, the result can often be…

  20. Ethical dilemmas in clerkship rotations.

    PubMed

    Myers, Michael F; Herb, Alice

    2013-11-01

    A sound clinical education should include the opportunity for medical students to engage in a spirited and informed discussion with faculty about the ethical challenges they will undoubtedly face. Unfortunately, in many medical schools today this goal is thwarted by many factors, including denial that a problem exists, relentless system overload, unprofessional behavior, breakdown in communication, and inertia. What is worse is that this problem is not new, and the fallout is not insignificant. Another potential contributing factor is burnout, which is well documented in a high percentage of medical students, residents, and faculty, and two of its most serious consequences are patient dissatisfaction and medical error.The authors draw on hundreds of student reflections on ethical dilemmas submitted during classroom exercises to examine persistent themes. They posit that classroom and didactic teaching is not enough to enable students to face ethical dilemmas. The authors call for a major culture change in medical education: "buy in" from top administration, especially the dean (and associate/assistant deans), chairs of all departments, and clerkship and residency training directors; the appointing of an ombudsperson and/or ethicist to oversee and resolve issues as they arise; instructional workshops and materials to enhance and impart skills for all teachers; remediation or retiring of errant faculty; and ongoing research and dialogue between and among medical centers about novel solutions. PMID:24072128

  1. The analysis and resolution of ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Macauley, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps no other field of medicine illustrates the ethical dilemmas occasioned by the explosion of technology more than neurology. Many dilemmas which at first appear to be ethical, however, are actually biotechnical, informational, or interpersonal in nature. For those which are, indeed, ethical, a review of existing information and acquisition of additional data can often serve to identify the proper response. When the optimal course of action remains unclear, the comprehensive, structured approach described in this chapter is both philosophically rigorous and clinically relevant. It takes into account a variety of critical considerations - including rights, duties, consequences, virtues, and similar cases - while utilizing both inductive and deductive methods. The end result is the "least bad" of available options, or, at the very least, a practical response which preserves future options and avoids crucial mistakes. PMID:24182364

  2. Law and ethics in conflict over confidentiality?

    PubMed

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2000-09-01

    Ethical principles that require the preservation of patients' confidential information are reinforced by principles found in several areas of law, such as law on contracts, negligence, defamation and fiduciary duty. However, laws sometimes compel disclosures of medical confidences, and more often may justify or excuse disclosures. Legally contentious issues concern patients' confidences regarding possible unlawful conduct, such as pregnancy termination, and the risk of spread of HIV and other infections. This article reviews the various legal bases of the duty of confidentiality, and legal challenges to the ethical obligation of non-disclosure. It addresses the justifications and limits of exchange of patients' health information among healthcare professionals and trainees, and considers legally recognized limits of confidential duties, and the scope of legitimate disclosure. An underlying theme is how to determine whether physicians are ethically justified in employing the discretion the law sometimes affords them to breach patients' expectations of confidentiality. PMID:10967176

  3. Medicine, Ethics, and the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Sally

    1980-01-01

    Medical ethical problems involving the elderly elucidate the relation between broader social views of aging and ethical principles basic to medicine. Three clinical situations are described and alternative principles of medical ethics are discussed as a basis for resolution of ethical problems in the health care of the elderly. (Author)

  4. Teaching the Ethics of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Carol K.; Harris, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Points out the challenges of educating students about bioethics and the limited training of many biologists on ethics. Discusses the basic principles of ethics and ethical decision making as applied to biology. Explains the models of ethical decision making that are often difficult for students to determine where to begin analyzing. (Contains 28…

  5. Humankind Takes up Environmental Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huiying, Xu

    2004-01-01

    Environmental ethics examines the relationship between human beings and nature from the moral perspective. It is also a kind of ethics arising from a concern with an earth which is on the verge of losing balance. Environmental ethics originated at the end of the 1940s. Since the 1970s, great progress has been made in environmental ethics. This…

  6. Research Ethics: Reforming Postgraduate Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vallance, Roger J.

    2005-01-01

    Research ethics is not only a matter of doing no harm, or even abiding by the guidelines of the Ethics Review Board of the institution. While these matters are important and legal requirements, there is much more at stake in discussions of research ethics. Research ethics establish the foundation upon which research rests. Taking the social…

  7. Strategies for Teaching Internet Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Martha H.

    2002-01-01

    Ten strategies for teaching Internet ethics are as follows: establish acceptable use policy; communicate ethical codes; model behaviors and values; encourage discussion of ethical issues; reinforce ethical conduct; monitor student behavior; secure systems and software; discourage surfing without supervision; monitor e-mail and websites; and…

  8. Ethics: Personal and Professional Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hira, Tahira K.

    1996-01-01

    Ethics are often taught in higher education. but research shows that family environment and early childhood are most influential in developing ethical behavior. The importance of ethics to work and family life suggests that ethical training should not be limited to vocational/business courses and it should start early. (SK)

  9. Ethics in Physical Activity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

  10. Ethics in exercise science research.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2002-01-01

    Ethical evaluation is a vital but sometimes neglected component of research policy in the exercise sciences. This article reviews some issues in human research, with particular reference to studies undertaken by the exercise scientist. The typical composition and functions of the research review committee are examined in the context of individual and institutional ethical norms. In multicentre trials, there are often problems in coordinating ethical approval between institutions. On-going monitoring of research may have value in the detection of fraud. A reduction in the secrecy of committee proceedings would allow a closer auditing of the research review process. Authors need to give more thought to developing appropriate research questions. Scarce resources may be wasted because of inappropriate study design or an inadequate statistical analysis of the results. The costs of any proposed investigation must be weighed carefully against possible benefits. Confidentiality is particularly important when collecting data at the worksite or over the internet. Informed consent should be based on a full disclosure of risks; the participant should be competent to understand the nature and magnitude of these risks, and undue pressure to participate in an experiment must be avoided. The opposition to placebo trials expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki requires careful consideration of the use of control groups, since regular exercise is known to benefit health. If research is conducted in under-developed societies, the standards of treatment of the participants should match those expected in developed societies. The publication of findings must be fair and well balanced; examples of fraud and misconduct continue to be reported. Some journals apparently still publish papers, even if they have not received an initial institutional review. Editors should restore meaning to the word 'author', avoid the bias to a publication of 'positive' results, limit the impact of

  11. Quality Management, Certification and Rating of Health Information on the Net with MedCERTAIN: Using a medPICS/RDF/XML metadata structure for implementing eHealth ethics and creating trust globally

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, Gunther; Yihune, Gabriel; Lampe, Kristian; Cross, Phil; Brickley, Dan

    2000-01-01

    MedCERTAIN (MedPICS Certification and Rating of Trustworthy Health Information on the Net, http://www.medcertain.org/) is a recently launched international project funded under the European Union's (EU) "Action Plan for safer use of the Internet". It provides a technical infrastructure and a conceptual basis for an international system of "quality seals", ratings and self-labelling of Internet health information, with the final aim to establish a global "trustmark" for networked health information. Digital "quality seals" are evaluative metadata (using standards such as PICS=Platform for Internet Content Selection, now being replaced by RDF/XML) assigned by trusted third-party raters. The project also enables and encourages self-labelling with descriptive metainformation by web authors. Together these measures will help consumers as well as professionals to identify high-quality information on the Internet. MedCERTAIN establishes a fully functional demonstrator for a self- and third-party rating system enabling consumers and professionals to filter harmful health information and to positively identify and select high quality information. We aim to provide a trustmark system which allows citizens to place greater confidence in networked information, to encourage health information providers to follow best practices guidelines such as the Washington eHealth Code of Ethics, to provide effective feedback and law enforcement channels to handle user complaints, and to stimulate medical societies to develop standard for patient information. The project further proposes and identifies standards for interoperability of rating and description services (such as libraries or national health portals) and fosters a worldwide collaboration to guide consumers to high-quality information on the web.

  12. Quality management, certification and rating of health information on the Net with MedCERTAIN: using a medPICS/RDF/XML metadata structure for implementing eHealth ethics and creating trust globally.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, G; Yihune, G; Lampe, K; Cross, P; Brickley, D

    2000-01-01

    MedCERTAIN (MedPICS Certification and Rating of Trustworthy Health Information on the Net, http://www.medcertain.org/) is a recently launched international project funded under the European Union's (EU) "Action Plan for safer use of the Internet". It provides a technical infrastructure and a conceptual basis for an international system of "quality seals", ratings and self-labelling of Internet health information, with the final aim to establish a global "trustmark" for networked health information. Digital "quality seals" are evaluative metadata (using standards such as PICS=Platform for Internet Content Selection, now being replaced by RDF/XML) assigned by trusted third-party raters. The project also enables and encourages self-labelling with descriptive metainformation by web authors. Together these measures will help consumers as well as professionals to identify high-quality information on the Internet. MedCERTAIN establishes a fully functional demonstrator for a self- and third-party rating system enabling consumers and professionals to filter harmful health information and to positively identify and select high quality information. We aim to provide a trustmark system which allows citizens to place greater confidence in networked information, to encourage health information providers to follow best practices guidelines such as the Washington eHealth Code of Ethics, to provide effective feedback and law enforcement channels to handle user complaints, and to stimulate medical societies to develop standard for patient information. The project further proposes and identifies standards for interoperability of rating and description services (such as libraries or national health portals) and fosters a worldwide collaboration to guide consumers to high-quality information on the web. PMID:11720933

  13. Dharma and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Sridevi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the numerous policies, regulations and laws aimed at promoting and ensuring ethical practice in healthcare, ethical misconduct remains rampant. Perhaps something more is needed to encourage a genuine and sustained moral attitude and behaviour. To a casual reader, the regulations on ethics read merely as a list of do's and don'ts and their philosophical foundation is not clear. In actuality, morality is often grounded in philosophy. Traditionally, religious and theistic philosophies drove moral behaviour. However, this is changing due to the current trend of secularism. Hindu philosophies are among the oldest philosophies that are still thriving, and this article explores these philosophies and compares and contrasts them with some of the contemporary ethical theories to assess if they can add value to the field of medical ethics. The main theme of the article is dharma or righteous conduct, the concepts related to it and how these can have a bearing on the development of an ethical attitude and the practice of medical ethics. PMID:24152344

  14. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this "knowing" or "being better at judging" is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts. PMID:27256848

  15. Gain-of-Function Research: Ethical Analysis.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Gain-of-function (GOF) research involves experimentation that aims or is expected to (and/or, perhaps, actually does) increase the transmissibility and/or virulence of pathogens. Such research, when conducted by responsible scientists, usually aims to improve understanding of disease causing agents, their interaction with human hosts, and/or their potential to cause pandemics. The ultimate objective of such research is to better inform public health and preparedness efforts and/or development of medical countermeasures. Despite these important potential benefits, GOF research (GOFR) can pose risks regarding biosecurity and biosafety. In 2014 the administration of US President Barack Obama called for a "pause" on funding (and relevant research with existing US Government funding) of GOF experiments involving influenza, SARS, and MERS viruses in particular. With announcement of this pause, the US Government launched a "deliberative process" regarding risks and benefits of GOFR to inform future funding decisions-and the US National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) was tasked with making recommendations to the US Government on this matter. As part of this deliberative process the National Institutes of Health commissioned this Ethical Analysis White Paper, requesting that it provide (1) review and summary of ethical literature on GOFR, (2) identification and analysis of existing ethical and decision-making frameworks relevant to (i) the evaluation of risks and benefits of GOFR, (ii) decision-making about the conduct of GOF studies, and (iii) the development of US policy regarding GOFR (especially with respect to funding of GOFR), and (3) development of an ethical and decision-making framework that may be considered by NSABB when analyzing information provided by GOFR risk-benefit assessment, and when crafting its final recommendations (especially regarding policy decisions about funding of GOFR in particular). The ethical and decision-making framework

  16. Ethics and education.

    PubMed

    Birkelund, R

    2000-11-01

    In the debate concerning the education of nurses that is currently taking place in Denmark, two widely differing views are apparent regarding the best way of training nurses such that the ethical aspect of their work is adequately considered. The first of these is based on the premise that practical care is fundamental to and justified by theories on nursing, care and ethics, which is why the theoretical part of nurse education deserves a higher priority. The second view is based on the premise that social care cannot be taught by means of theories, but can be learnt only through practice. The master-apprentice principle of ancient Greece is stressed in connection with this as being a viable alternative to the theoretical model of education. These two very different views can be traced back to Plato's and Aristotle's ideas on ethics and teaching respectively; indeed, those engaged in the debate make specific reference to these philosophers. In Denmark, a third fundamental viewpoint exists, known as 'ontological ethics'. Phenomenologist KE Løgstrup is one of the best-known representatives of this view. Basing the line of argument on Løgstrup's ethics and the view of education associated with this, this article questions the relevance of ancient Greek thought to today's world by illustrating a number of problems that are connected with the theoretical model of nurse education and with the master-apprentice principle. Løgstrup associates ethics with the aesthetic principle that 'the useless is the most useful' in human life and with the view we also see in Kierkegaard's and NFS Grundtvig's writings that ethics can be imparted only by indirect means. Løgstrup bases his understanding of ethics on the Judaeo-Christian concept of Genesis and the view that human beings were created with an ethical potential that is best nourished by aesthetic impressions. PMID:11221389

  17. Ethical issues and the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Layman, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    Ethical issues related to electronic health records (EHRs) confront health personnel. Electronic health records create conflict among several ethical principals. Electronic health records may represent beneficence because they are alleged to increase access to health care, improve the quality of care and health, and decrease costs. Research, however, has not consistently demonstrated access for disadvantaged persons, the accuracy of EHRs, their positive effects on productivity, nor decreased costs. Should beneficence be universally acknowledged, conflicts exist with other ethical principles. Autonomy is jeopardized when patients' health data are shared or linked without the patients' knowledge. Fidelity is breached by the exposure of thousands of patients' health data through mistakes or theft. Lack of confidence in the security of health data may induce patients to conceal sensitive information. As a consequence, their treatment may be compromised. Justice is breached when persons, because of their socioeconomic class or age, do not have equal access to health information resources and public health services. Health personnel, leaders, and policy makers should discuss the ethical implications of EHRs before the occurrence of conflicts among the ethical principles. Recommendations to guide health personnel, leaders, and policy makers are provided. PMID:18475119

  18. Health physics ethics.

    PubMed

    Evdokimoff, Victor

    2004-02-01

    Ethics is defined in the New World Dictionary as ". . . moral principles governing appropriate conduct for an individual or group." The Health Physics Membership Directory contains 2 references for professional conduct for health physicists. The first is for members of the Health Physics Society. The second is for Certified Health Physicists. They are similar: A health physicist must always maintain the highest ethical standards whether beginning a career or having practiced for decades. A review of some key principles by example will hopefully demonstrate how to avoid ethical dilemmas for health physicists. PMID:14744062

  19. Relative Values: Perspectives on a Neuroimaging Technology From Above and Within the Ethical Landscape.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Gabrielle; Cribb, Alan; Owens, John; Williams, Clare

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we contribute to "sociology in bioethics" and help clarify the range of ways sociological work can contribute to ethics scholarship. We do this using a case study of an innovative neurotechnology, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and its use to attempt to diagnose and communicate with severely brain-injured patients. We compare empirical data from interviews with relatives of patients who have a severe brain injury with perspectives from mainstream bioethics scholars. We use the notion of an "ethical landscape" as an analogy for the different ethical positions subjects can take-whereby a person's position relative to the landscape makes a difference to the way they experience and interact with it. We show that, in comparison to studying abstract ethics "from above" the ethical landscape, which involves universal generalizations and global judgements, studying ethics empirically "from the ground," within the ethical landscape foregrounds a more plural and differentiated picture. We argue it is important not to treat empirical ethics as secondary to abstract ethics, to treat on-the-ground perspectives as useful only insofar as they can inform ethics from above. Rather, empirical perspectives can illuminate the plural vantage points in ethical judgments, highlight the "lived" nature of ethical reasoning, and point to all ethical vantage points as being significant. This is of epistemic importance to normative ethics, since researchers who pay attention to the various positions in and trajectories through the ethical landscape are unlikely to think about ethics in terms of abstract agency-as can happen with top-down ethics-or to elide agency with the agency of policymakers. Moreover, empirical perspectives may have transformative implications for people on the ground, especially where focus on the potential harms and benefits they face brings their experiences and interests to the forefront of ethical and policy discussion. PMID:27334528

  20. Table of radioactive elements

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    As has been the custom in the past, the Commission publishes a table of relative atomic masses and halflives of selected radionuclides. The information contained in this table will enable the user to calculate the atomic weight for radioactive materials with a variety of isotopic compositions. The atomic masses have been taken from the 1984 Atomic Mass Table. Some of the halflives have already been documented.

  1. Genomics and equal opportunity ethics.

    PubMed

    Cappelen, A W; Norheim, O F; Tungodden, B

    2008-05-01

    Genomics provides information on genetic susceptibility to diseases and new possibilities for interventions which can fundamentally alter the design of fair health policies. The aim of this paper is to explore implications of genomics from the perspective of equal opportunity ethics. The ideal of equal opportunity requires that individuals are held responsible for some, but not all, factors that affect their health. Informational problems, however, often make it difficult to implement the ideal of equal opportunity in the context of healthcare. In this paper, examples are considered of how new genetic information may affect the way individual responsibility for choice is assigned. It is also argued that genomics may result in relocation of the responsibility cut by providing both new information and new technology. Finally, how genomics may affect healthcare policies and the market for health insurance is discussed. PMID:18448717

  2. A patient-centered care ethics analysis model for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew R; Ells, Carolyn

    2013-09-01

    There exists a paucity of ethics resources tailored to rehabilitation. To help fill this ethics resource gap, the authors developed an ethics analysis model specifically for use in rehabilitation care. The Patient-Centered Care Ethics Analysis Model for Rehabilitation is a process model to guide careful moral reasoning for particularly complex or challenging matters in rehabilitation. The Patient-Centered Care Ethics Analysis Model for Rehabilitation was developed over several iterations, with feedback at different stages from rehabilitation professionals and bioethics experts. Development of the model was explicitly informed by the theoretical grounding of patient-centered care and the context of rehabilitation, including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Being patient centered, the model encourages (1) shared control of consultations, decisions about interventions, and management of the health problems with the patient and (2) understanding the patient as a whole person who has individual preferences situated within social contexts. Although the major process headings of the Patient-Centered Care Ethics Analysis Model for Rehabilitation resemble typical ethical decision-making and problem-solving models, the probes under those headings direct attention to considerations relevant to rehabilitation care. The Patient-Centered Care Ethics Analysis Model for Rehabilitation is a suitable tool for rehabilitation professionals to use (in real time, for retrospective review, and for training purposes) to help arrive at ethical outcomes. PMID:23636083

  3. Personalized medicine and ethics.

    PubMed

    Josko, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    An entire series could be dedicated to the topic of ethics in personalized medicine. Due to the advancements in NGS and genetic testing, personalized medicine is no longer something that will occur in the future, the reality is upon us now. Sequencing an individual's genome can have a substantial impact on the patient's treatment and overall quality of life. However, this can open "Pandora's box" especially if an individual does not want to know the information obtained. In addition, will insurance companies require genetic testing in order to pay for a targeted treatment? If the patient refuses to have the genetic testing, will they have to pay for their treatment out of pocket? In the human interest story presented, the researcher and his team discovered over activity of the FTL3 protein through RNA sequencing which resulted in rapid proliferation of his leukemic cells. He identified a drug marketed for advanced kidney cancer which was a FTL3 inhibitor. However, his insurance company refused to pay for the drug because it was not a known treatment for his condition of ALL. He incurred numerous out of pocket expenses in order to go into remission. Was it unethical for the insurance company to not pay for a treatment that ultimately worked but was not marketed or FDA cleared for his type of leukemia? There are so many questions and concerns when personalized medicine is implemented. Only time will tell the effects next generation sequencing and its role in personalized medicine will have in the future. PMID:25219077

  4. The main indicators for Iranian hospital ethical accreditation

    PubMed Central

    ENJOO, SEYED ALI; AMINI, MITRA; TABEI, SEYED ZIAADIN; MAHBUDI, ALI; KAVOSI, ZAHRA; SABER, MAHBOOBEH

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The application of organizational ethics in hospitals is one of the novel ways to improve medical ethics. Nowadays achieving efficient and sufficient ethical hospital indicators seems to be inevitable. In this connection, the present study aims to determine the best indicators in hospital accreditation. Methods 69 indicators in 11 fields to evaluate hospital ethics were achieved through a five-step qualitative and quantitative study including literature review, expert focus group, Likert scale survey, 3 rounded Delphi, and content validity measurement. Expert focus group meeting was conducted, employing Nominal Group Technique (NGT). After running NGT, a three rounded Delphi and parallel to Delphi and a Likert scale survey were performed to obtain objective indicators for each domain. The experts were all healthcare professionals who were also medical ethics researchers, teachers, or PhD students. Content validity measurements were computed, using the viewpoints of two different expert groups, some ethicists, and some health care professionals (n=46). Results After conducting NGT, Delphi, Likert survey, 11 main domains were listed including:  Informed consent, Medical confidentiality, Physician-patient economic relations, Ethics consultation policy in the hospital, Ethical charter of hospital, Breaking bad medical news protocol, Respect for the patients’ rights, Clinical ethics committee, Spiritual and palliative care unit programs in the hospitals, Healthcare professionals’ communication skills, and Equitable access to the healthcare. Also 71 objective indicators for these 11 domains were listed in 11 tables with 5 to 8 indicators per table. Content Validity Ratio (CVR) measurements were done and 69 indicators were highlighted. Conclusion The domains listed in this study seem to be the most important ones for evaluating hospital ethics programs and services. Healthcare organizations’ accreditation and ranking are crucial for the improvement of

  5. Ethics and health promotion practice: exploring attitudes and practices in Western Australian health organisations.

    PubMed

    Reilly, T; Crawford, G; Lobo, R; Leavy, J; Jancey, J

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Evidence-informed practice underpinned by ethics is fundamental to developing the science of health promotion. Knowledge and application of ethical principles are competencies required for health promotion practice. However, these competencies are often inconsistently understood and applied. This research explored attitudes, practices, enablers and barriers related to ethics in practice in Western Australian health organisations. Methods Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 health promotion practitioners, purposefully selected to provide a cross-section of government and non-government organisations. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and then themed. Results The majority of participants reported consideration of ethics in their practice; however, only half reported seeking Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) approval for projects in the past 12 months. Enablers identified as supporting ethics in practice and disseminating findings included: support preparing ethics applications; resources and training about ethical practice; ability to access HRECs for ethics approval; and a supportive organisational culture. Barriers included: limited time; insufficient resourcing and capacity; ethics approval not seen as part of core business; and concerns about academic writing. Conclusion The majority of participants were aware of the importance of ethics in practice and the dissemination of findings. However, participants reported barriers to engaging in formal ethics processes and to publishing findings. So what? Alignment of evidence-informed and ethics-based practice is critical. Resources and information about ethics may be required to support practice and encourage dissemination of findings, including in the peer-reviewed literature. Investigating the role of community-based ethics boards may be valuable to bridging the ethics-evidence gap. PMID:27041127

  6. The Ethics of Medical Volunteerism.

    PubMed

    Stone, Geren S; Olson, Kristian R

    2016-03-01

    Responding to disparities in health, thousands of health care providers volunteer annually for short-term medical service trips (MSTs) to serve communities in need as a result of environmental, geographic, historical, or sociopolitical factors. Although well intentioned, short-term MSTs have the potential to benefit and harm those involved, including participants and communities being served. The contexts, resource and time limitations, and language and cultural barriers present ethical challenges. There have been increasing requests for standardized global guidelines, transparency, and open review of MSTs and their outcomes. Principles of mission, partnership, preparation, reflection, support, sustainability, and evaluation inform and equip those engaging in medical volunteerism. PMID:26900110

  7. Heritage ethics: Toward a thicker account of nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Marsha D

    2016-02-01

    The key to understanding the moral identity of modern nursing and the distinctiveness of nursing ethics resides in a deeper examination of the extensive nursing ethics literature and history from the late 1800s to the mid 1960s, that is, prior to the "bioethics revolution". There is a distinctive nursing ethics, but one that falls outside both biomedical and bioethics and is larger than either. Were, there a greater corpus of research on nursing's heritage ethics it would decidedly recondition the entire argument about a distinctive nursing ethics. It would also provide a thicker account of nursing ethics than has been afforded thus far. Such research is dependent upon identifying, locating, accessing and, more importantly, sharing these resources. A number of important heritage ethics sources are identified so that researchers might better locate them. In addition, a bibliography of heritage ethics textbooks and a transcript of the earliest known journal article on nursing ethics in the US are provided. PMID:26602787

  8. Professional Ethics of Software Engineers: An Ethical Framework.

    PubMed

    Lurie, Yotam; Mark, Shlomo

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose an ethical framework for software engineers that connects software developers' ethical responsibilities directly to their professional standards. The implementation of such an ethical framework can overcome the traditional dichotomy between professional skills and ethical skills, which plagues the engineering professions, by proposing an approach to the fundamental tasks of the practitioner, i.e., software development, in which the professional standards are intrinsically connected to the ethical responsibilities. In so doing, the ethical framework improves the practitioner's professionalism and ethics. We call this approach Ethical-Driven Software Development (EDSD), as an approach to software development. EDSD manifests the advantages of an ethical framework as an alternative to the all too familiar approach in professional ethics that advocates "stand-alone codes of ethics". We believe that one outcome of this synergy between professional and ethical skills is simply better engineers. Moreover, since there are often different software solutions, which the engineer can provide to an issue at stake, the ethical framework provides a guiding principle, within the process of software development, that helps the engineer evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of different software solutions. It does not and cannot affect the end-product in and of-itself. However, it can and should, make the software engineer more conscious and aware of the ethical ramifications of certain engineering decisions within the process. PMID:26047575

  9. Coverage: An Ethical Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Brenda J.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses how a high school journalism advisor dealt with ethical issues (including source attribution) surrounding the publication of a story about violation of school board policies by representatives of a nationally recognized ring company. (RS)

  10. Course Syllabus: Engineering Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitcham, Carl

    1987-01-01

    Describes a course offered at Polytechnic University (New York) which is designed to provide an introduction to professional engineerig ethics as presented through the history of engineering, codes of conduct of professional societies, case studies and hypothetical situations. (TW)

  11. [Thinking ethics education].

    PubMed

    Combes, Stéphanie

    2015-12-01

    Ethics emerges in the interstices of deontology, in difficult situations generating internal conflicts for the caregiver, sources of anxiety and questioning. Ethics education has always played a major in nursing programs by initiating a reflection on human values. Faced with current uncertainties in the context of care, it is now based on the appropriation of a reflexive approach to the meaning of action. PMID:26675105

  12. Ethics of international collaboration.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Jharna; Dinoop, Kp; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Education and research together are vital components of academic institutions and globalization has improved health care education and research in numerous ways, one of which is multinational/transnational research/international collaboration. Usually academic institutions of high-income countries and institutions in low-income countries participate in collaboration. These collaborative research are guided by international ethics codes proposed by the international ethics committee to avoid stringent follow/unethical practices. PMID:25709946

  13. Brain resuscitation. Ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Omery, A; Caswell, D

    1989-03-01

    Brain resuscitation is the newest in a long line of treatment protocols that is designed to aid us in sustaining not just life, but quality life in the critical care setting. Like other, previously established protocols, it is not value free. Its implementation brings ethical considerations that must be addressed. If the issues are not addressed, there is the real danger that the resulting moral dilemmas will overwhelm the nurse. In brain resuscitation, there are at least three ethical issues that must be recognized. These are the role of resuscitation in the life process, allocation of scarce resources, and participation in research. To address these issues, nurses will have to be aware of the ethical principle and/or perspectives involved. For some of these issues, the solutions will have to come from nursing's national organizations, such as the American Association of Critical Care Nurses. Other solutions presented will require the nurse to come to an individual decision regarding the ethics of brain resuscitation. The journey to the conclusion of this discussion will end with disappointment for those who sought an algorhythm or decision tree with which to make definitive decisions in regard to ethical decisions about brain resuscitation. To have assumed that such an absolute discussion in regard to the ethical perspectives related to brain resuscitation is possible or even desirable would have been to deny the moral/ethical responsibilities of the nurse who practices in a critical care setting. While these ethical responsibilities can be overwhelmingly burdensome, they can also be opportunities. They can be positive opportunities for our health care colleagues, our patients, and ourselves. PMID:2803694

  14. Libraries and the Ethics of Censorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duthie, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of literature pertaining to the subject of censorship in modern libraries. It interrogates the literature in terms of the ethical debates informing much of the contemporary academic writing on this subject. A multi-pronged approach to the subject is adopted. The review includes evaluations of the relevant aspects of…

  15. Ethical Issues in School Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriya, Dafna

    2006-01-01

    School art therapists face numerous ethical dilemmas, from referrals to therapy, through privacy, safety and predictability in the art therapy room, to the need to balance cooperation with the educational staff and its expectations of shared information with loyalty to the patient. Breach of confidentiality also has legal implications. The…

  16. Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Ethical Issues and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paproski, D. L.; Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores issues and ethics of interdisciplinary care based upon discussion among five experienced mental health professionals. Presents their recommendations for effective interdisciplinary work including, ensuring clients give informed consent, maintaining confidentiality, and making sure paraprofessionals and families are involved. Reports that…

  17. 32 CFR 776.84 - Ethics investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... investigation. (f) The IO shall prepare a report which summarizes the evidence, to include information presented... U.S. Armed Force. (h) The Rules Counsel shall review all ethics investigations. If the report is... inquiry officer, for further or supplemental inquiry. If the report is complete, then: (1) If the...

  18. Ethical and Privacy Principles for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Abelardo; Siemens, George

    2014-01-01

    The massive adoption of technology in learning processes comes with an equally large capacity to track learners. Learning analytics aims at using the collected information to understand and improve the quality of a learning experience. The privacy and ethical issues that emerge in this context are tightly interconnected with other aspects such as…

  19. Privacy and Ethics in Undergraduate GIS Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, Peter; Burnett, Adam; Dolfi, Emmalee; Goldfarb, Ali; Baum, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The development of location-aware technologies, such as smartphones, raises serious questions regarding locational privacy and the ethical use of geographic data. The degree to which these concepts are taught in undergraduate geographic information science (GISci) courses is unknown. A survey of GISci educators shows that issues of privacy and…

  20. The Ethics of Qualitative Nursing Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robley, Lois R.

    1995-01-01

    Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research include the following: what to study, which participants, what methods, how to achieve informed consent, when to terminate interviews and when to probe, when treatment should supersede research, and what and how to document in case studies. (SK)

  1. Professional Ethics for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    2005-05-01

    There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

  2. How Do Healthcare Employees Rate the Ethics of Their Organization? An Analysis Based on VA IntegratedEthics@ Staff Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jennifer H; Foglia, Mary Beth; Kwong, Katherine; Pearlman, Robert; Fox, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare organizations with an ethical culture experience higher levels of employee productivity, less staff turnover, better levels of patient safety, resource and cost savings, and higher levels of patient satisfaction. Employees' perceptions of the ethics of their organization are considered a good indicator of the ethics culture. How employees rate the ethics of their organization is not well understood. Previous research has identified a number of attributes that are salient to employees' perceptions in this area. However, little is known about how employees synthesize their perceptions of these attributes to rate the ethics of their organization. Without this knowledge, managers have little specific information to act on to improve practices that would in turn improve employees' perceptions of their organization's ethics. For this study, we used data from Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) 2014 IntegratedEthics@ Staff Survey administered to Veterans Health Administration (VHA) staff. We used multivariate regression analyses to investigate how VHA employees weigh their perceptions of eight attributes of an ethical organization to inform an overall rating of the ethics of their organization. We found that employee perceptions of fairness, clarity of expectations, accountability, and leadership's prioritization of ethics had the strongest associations with the overall rating. In addition, employees disproportionately weighed their positive perceptions in determining their overall rating. Therefore, a strategy to improve employees' perceptions of these attributes could potentially have the greatest marginal return on investment with respect to improving employees' perceptions of the ethics of an organization. PMID:26554261

  3. Observations on ethical problems and terminal care.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D S

    1992-01-01

    Progress in medical diagnosis and therapy has raised new problems with far-reaching ethical implications. Medicine must remain a profession and not become a business. Textbooks must address ethical problems in the context of health care decisions and not restrict themselves to pathophysiology and practical therapeutics alone. The relative roles of the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice must be balanced and appropriately applied to individual situations in biomedical ethics. When therapy becomes futile and the suffering of the patient does not justify any anticipated benefit, the patient (and/or patient surrogate) may request withholding or even withdrawing life-prolonging interventions. In the persistent vegetative state, even nutritional support by an unnatural (tube) route may ethically be denied at the patient's (or surrogate's) informed decision. New areas of ethical evaluation have been raised by the desire of some individuals to prolongation of their lives at high expense to the society such that other individuals are denied services because of limitation of available resources. There has been a long-standing conflict of interest between the acceptance by physicians and/or medical institutions of money or gifts from pharmaceutical companies whose drugs they prescribe, stock, or sell. This practice increases the cost of the drugs and is, in effect, a "sick tax," which is morally wrong. PMID:1519374

  4. Assisted reproduction: Ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Londra, Laura; Wallach, Edward; Zhao, Yulian

    2014-10-01

    Since inception, the use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has been accompanied by ethical, legal, and societal controversies. Guidelines have been developed to address many of these concerns; however, the rapid evolution of ART requires their frequent re-evaluation. We review the literature on ethical and legal aspects of ART, highlighting some of the most visible and challenging topics. Of specific interest are: reporting of ART procedures and outcomes; accessibility to ART procedures; issues related to fertility preservation, preimplantation genetic testing, gamete and embryo donation, and reproductive outcomes after embryo transfer. Improvements in ART reporting are needed nationally and worldwide. Reporting should include outcomes that enable patients to make informed decisions. Improving access to ART and optimizing long-term reproductive outcomes, while taking into account the legal and ethical consequences, are challenges that need to be addressed by the entire community of individuals involved in ART with the assistance of bioethicists, legal counselors, and members of society in general. PMID:25131898

  5. The nature and ethics of natural experiments.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angus; Sim, Julius

    2015-10-01

    Natural experiments are an important methodology often used to answer research questions that would, otherwise, be impossible to address, or employed because of ethical concerns about the use of randomisation to interventions that carry known risks. The UK Medical Research Council (MRC) recently produced an extremely useful document discussing the nature and significance of natural experiments within medical and public health research. In this paper, however, we suggest that the MRC document's definition of the term 'natural experiment' is insufficiently precise. In response, we offer a taxonomy of different types of natural experiments and related methods, and explore the ethical implications of these different types. We argue that while the ethical issues that may arise within natural experiments in relation to risks of harm or informed consent may differ from those within the randomised controlled trial, they are not thereby less pressing. The implications of the argument are explored and recommendations made for those involved in research governance. PMID:26187285

  6. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    PubMed

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. PMID:27534590

  7. Fetal therapy, ethics and public policies.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J C

    1992-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of ethical problems in the first generation of experimental fetal therapy and the prevailing approaches to them. The problems include: review of risks/benefits, case selection, informed consent, twin pregnancies, and refusal of proven fetal therapy. The article further discusses ethical and public policy issues in the lack of U.S. federal support for fetal diagnosis, fetal therapy, and human embryo research. An argument is made for such support, beginning with experimental gene therapy in the fetus. Ethical principles are identified that support an obligation to learn to relieve and treat such human suffering at the earliest time. Contradictions of these principles are also identified in terms of research not now supported. PMID:1503651

  8. Ethical evaluation of displays that adapt to affect.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Carson; Picard, Rosalind

    2004-12-01

    We are developing new kinds of sensors and algorithms that can sense and begin to interpret information related to affect. Starting from the standpoint of value-sensitive design, which considers values such as calmness, autonomy, and informed consent, displays that adapt to affect can be ethically evaluated. The question of how adaptive technologies act on these values is of critical importance to the affective computing group. We are seeking to better understand ethical implications for designers through empirical experiments. PMID:15687800

  9. Ethical evaluation of research proposals by ethics panels advising the European Commission.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2004-06-01

    Ethical principles with regard to animal experimentation are referred to in European Union (EU) legislation and other official documents. Therefore, applications for funding of research under the EU's research programme may undergo an ethical review that is carried out by so-called ethics panels, consisting of experts chosen by the European Commission. The work of these panels differs substantially from that of other ethical committees, as they exist on the institutional, local, regional or national level. Their main purpose is not to decide whether a proposed research can be regarded legal, and therefore should be endorsed or licensed; instead, it is to help the Commission in prioritising its funding. The panels may examine other ethical aspects than those of animal experimentation or animal welfare alone, such as the use of human volunteers. This is reflected by the composition of the panels. Their decisions are normally based on consensus. Even though these decisions may refer to EU legislation, the criteria applied are not restricted to those provided by this legislation. Nevertheless, the various aspects of the Commission's ethical evaluation system (e.g. formal and practical basic conditions, information content of applications, type of decisions taken, lacking of any quality control) offers opportunities for improvement. PMID:23581113

  10. The object of environmental ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petulla, Joseph M.

    1989-05-01

    Since the term “environmental ethics” began to be used a generation ago, it has covered many different kinds of environmental notions, problems, ethical systems, and forms of behavior. A variety of cases are presented and examined under two terms, environmental ethics and ecological morality, in an effort to illustrate different kinds of ethical objectives. In order to understand the connections between various strands of environmental ethics, personal and social values and subcultural norms of environmental ethics are examined under Christopher Stone's concept of moral pluralism. G. J. Warnock's notion of the “general object” of morality is proposed to integrate the variegated purposes of environmental ethics.

  11. Knowledge of medical ethics among Nigerian medical doctors

    PubMed Central

    Fadare, Joseph O.; Desalu, Olufemi O.; Jemilohun, Abiodun C.; Babatunde, Oluwole A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The knowledge of medical ethics is essential for health care practitioners worldwide. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of medical doctors in a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria in the area of medical ethics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving 250 medical doctors of different levels was carried out. The questionnaire, apart from the bio-data, also sought information on undergraduate and postgraduate training in medical ethics, knowledge about the principles of biomedical ethics and the ethical dilemmas encountered in daily medical practice. Results: One hundred and ninety (190) respondents returned the filled questionnaire representing a response rate of 76%. One hundred and fifty-two respondents (80%) have had some sort of medical ethics education during their undergraduate level in the medical education. The median duration of formal training or exposure to medical ethics education was 3.00 hours (range: 0-15). One hundred and twenty-nine respondents have read at least once the code of medical ethics of the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria while 127 (66.8%) have some general knowledge of the principles of biomedical ethics. The breakdown of the identified ethical dilemmas shows that discharge against medical advice was the most identified by the respondents (69.3%) followed by religious/cultural issues (56.6%) while confidentiality was recognized by 53.4%. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical ethics by Nigerian medical doctors is grossly inadequate. There is an urgent need for enhancement of the teaching of the discipline at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels in Nigeria. PMID:23661883

  12. Islam and the four principles of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Yassar

    2014-07-01

    The principles underpinning Islam's ethical framework applied to routine clinical scenarios remain insufficiently understood by many clinicians, thereby unfortunately permitting the delivery of culturally insensitive healthcare.This paper summarises the foundations of the Islamic ethical theory, elucidating the principles and methodology employed by the Muslim jurist in deriving rulings in the field of medical ethics. The four-principles approach, as espoused by Beauchamp and Childress, is also interpreted through the prism of Islamic ethical theory. Each of the four principles (beneficence, nonmaleficence,justice and autonomy) is investigated in turn, looking in particular at the extent to which each is rooted in the Islamic paradigm. This will provide an important insight into Islamic medical ethics, enabling the clinician to have a better informed discussion with the Muslim patient. It will also allow for a higher degree of concordance in consultations and consequently optimise culturally sensitive healthcare delivery. PMID:23975951

  13. Ethical issues in the management of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M Sara

    2014-06-01

    The focus of this article is on clinical ethics issues in the thyroid disease context. Clinical ethics is a subspecialty of bioethics that deals with bedside ethical dilemmas that specifically involve the provider-patient relationship. Such issues include consent and capacity; weighing therapeutic benefits against risks and side-effects; innovative therapies; end of life care; unintended versus intentional harms to patients or patient populations; and healthcare access. This article will review core ethical principles for practice, as well as the moral and legal requirements of informed consent. It will then discuss the range of unique and universal ethical issues and considerations that present in the management of autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid cancer. PMID:24891177

  14. Analysis of medical confidentiality from the islamic ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Tavaokkoli, Saeid Nazari; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Confidentiality is one of the old rules of the medical profession. While emphasizing the necessity of confidentiality in religious teachings, disclosure of other's secrets to commit sin deserves punishment hereafter known. Today, progress in medical science and invention of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as the extent of information and disclosure of the secrets of the patients, have provided more than ever. After explaining the concepts and principles of confidentiality in medical ethics, the Islamic-oriented Virtue Ethics, in a comparative review, share the differences in these two sets of ethical review and explain the issue of confidentiality. In professional medical ethics, only the behaviors of health staff are evaluated and moral evaluation of the features cannot be evaluated, but in Islamic ethics, the moral evaluation of the features that are sensual, confidentiality is more stable, without any external supervision will maintain its efficiency. PMID:24272333

  15. Ethical dimension of circle Integrative Community Therapy on qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Renata Miranda Dos; Cerencovich, Elisangela; Araújo, Laura Filomena Santos de; Bellato, Roseney; Maruyama, Sonia Ayako Tao

    2014-12-01

    This study discusses ethical issues in research involving human beings and seeks to understand the relationship between qualitative research and the ethical care guidelines for Integrative Community Therapy (ICT) circles based on Resolution 466/12 of the National Health Council of the Ministry of Health of Brazil. This is documentary research, which analyzed Resolution 466/12 and ICT circles seeking to make a connection between the ethical guidelines contained in both. The analysis of the corpus was directed toward the construction of the following results: the person's perception, cultural diversity and community. It also brings in consideration of the influence of the ethical dimension of the ICT circles on qualitative research. We conclude that ICT circles are innovative in the sense of the diversity of participants and respect for cultural and social differences. Thus, ICT circles promote acquisition of quality information for social research as well as compliance with the ethical guidelines outlined in Resolution No. 466/12. PMID:25830749

  16. Ethical issues in surgical innovation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Megan E; Siegler, Mark; Angelos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Innovation is responsible for most advances in the field of surgery. Innovative approaches to solving clinical problems have significantly decreased morbidity and mortality for many surgical procedures, and have led to improved patient outcomes. While innovation is motivated by the surgeon's expectation that the new approach will be beneficial to patients, not all innovations are successful or result in improved patient care. The ethical dilemma of surgical innovation lies in the uncertainty of whether a particular innovation will prove to be a "good thing." This uncertainty creates challenges for surgeons, patients, and the healthcare system. By its very nature, innovation introduces a potential risk to patient safety, a risk that may not be fully known, and it simultaneously fosters an optimism bias. These factors increase the complexity of informed consent and shared decision making for the surgeon and the patient. Innovative procedures and their associated technology raise issues of cost and resource distribution in the contemporary, financially conscious, healthcare environment. Surgeons and institutions must identify and address conflicts of interest created by the development and application of an innovation, always preserving the best interest of the patient above the academic or financial rewards of success. Potential strategies to address the challenges inherent in surgical innovation include collecting and reporting objective outcomes data, enhancing the informed consent process, and adhering to the principles of disclosure and professionalism. As surgeons, we must encourage creativity and innovation while maintaining our ethical awareness and responsibility to patients. PMID:24728580

  17. Scepticism about the virtue ethics approach to nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Holland, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    Nursing ethics centres on how nurses ought to respond to the moral situations that arise in their professional contexts. Nursing ethicists invoke normative approaches from moral philosophy. Specifically, it is increasingly common for nursing ethicists to apply virtue ethics to moral problems encountered by nurses. The point of this article is to argue for scepticism about this approach. First, the research question is motivated by showing that requirements on nurses such as to be kind, do not suffice to establish virtue ethics in nursing because normative rivals (such as utilitarians) can say as much; and the teleology distinctive of virtue ethics does not transpose to a professional context, such as nursing. Next, scepticism is argued for by responding to various attempts to secure a role for virtue ethics in nursing. The upshot is that virtue ethics is best left where it belongs - in personal moral life, not professional ethics - and nursing ethics is best done by taking other approaches. PMID:20536764

  18. Public titles of clinical trials should have ethics review.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Carla; Reveiz, Ludovic; Tisdale, John F

    2015-09-01

    A key aspect to guarantee that research with human subjects is ethical is being overlooked. Ethics review committees invest great effort examining the informed consent documents of research protocols to ensure that potential participants can provide consent validly and are not deluded into thinking that the experimental intervention they may sign up for is already known to be therapeutic. However, these efforts to avoid what is called the "therapeutic misconception" might be in vain if the title with which the studies are being introduced to the potential participants escapes ethics review. Research participants might be deceived by clinical trials entitled "novel therapy" when the point of the trial is precisely to find out whether the intervention at stake is therapeutic or not. Providing potential research participants with such misleading information hampers their ability to make informed decisions. The well-established scrutiny that ethics review committees exercise with regard to consent forms is limited if the registration of clinical trials, for which a public title is chosen, constitutes a process that is independent from the ethics review. In this article, we examine this problem, assess recent measures to integrate clinical trial registration with ethics review processes, and provide specific recommendations to solve the problem and ultimately enhance the accountability, transparency, and ethics of research with human subjects. PMID:26279403

  19. Ethics teaching in European veterinary schools: a qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M

    2014-12-13

    Veterinary ethics is recognised as a relevant topic in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. However, there appears to be no widely agreed view on which contents are best suited for veterinary ethics teaching and there is limited information on the teaching approaches adopted by veterinary schools. This paper provides an inside perspective on the diversity of veterinary ethics teaching topics, based on an in-depth analysis of three European veterinary schools: Copenhagen, Lisbon and Nottingham. The case study approach integrated information from the analysis of syllabi contents and interviews with educators (curricular year 2010-2011). These results show that the curriculum of veterinary ethics is multidimensional and can combine a wide range of scientific, regulatory, professional and philosophical subjects, some of which may not be explicitly set out in the course descriptors. A conceptual model for veterinary ethics teaching is proposed comprising prominent topics included within four overarching concepts: animal welfare science, laws/regulations, professionalism, and theories/concepts. It is intended that this work should inform future curriculum development of veterinary ethics in European schools and assist ethical deliberation in veterinary practice. PMID:25185106

  20. Business Ethics 101 for the biotech industry.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Biotechnology companies face ethical challenges of two distinct types: bioethical challenges faced on account of the nature of work in the life sciences, and corporate ethical challenges on account of their nature as commercial entities. The latter set of challenges has received almost no attention at all in the academic literature or media. This paper begins to remedy that lacuna, examining ethical issues that arise specifically on account of the status of biotech companies as commercial entities. The focus here is on three representative issues: product safety, corporate social responsibility, and corporate governance. It is argued that each of these issues poses particular ethical challenges for companies in the biotech sector. In the area of product safety, it is noted that biotech companies face particular challenges in determining what counts as a "safe" product, given the contentious nature of what might count as a "harm" in the biotech field. In the area of corporate social responsibility, the adoption of a "stakeholder approach" and an attempt to manage the social consequences of products pose special challenges for biotech companies. This is due to the enormous range of groups and individuals claiming to have a stake in the doings of such companies, and the trenchant controversies over just what the social consequences of various biotechnologies might be. In the area of corporate governance, biotech companies need to seek out and follow best practices regarding the ways in which information, authority, and influence flow between a company's shareholders, managers, and Board of Directors, if they are to avoid duplicating the ethical and financial scandal that brought down ImClone. An important meta-issue, here--one that renders each of these corporate ethical challenges more vexing--is the difficulty of finding the appropriate benchmarks for ethical corporate behavior in a field as controversial, and as rapidly evolving, as biotechnology. Three

  1. Ethics in biomaterials research.

    PubMed

    Kashi, Ajay; Saha, Subrata

    2009-01-01

    There have been rapid advances in biomaterials research in the past few decades, which have influenced almost all areas of medicine and dentistry. Many ethical concerns related to the use of biomaterials fabricated from artificial substances including metals, polymers, and ceramics have been raised in the past. Most of these include safety and potential harmful effects on the human body. The development of biomaterials that incorporate biological materials such as cells with more traditional, non-biological materials will likely mean that new ethical questions will arise. With significant advances in molecular and cell biology and nanotechnology, the need for safe and effective therapies will also create unique ethical situations in the future. The use of animals in biomedical research has generated opposition from animal rights groups, which has created new challenges to scientists and researchers that warrant further actions. Responsible research by biomaterial scientists in the future will necessitate the incorporation of many new rules and regulations to the existing code of ethics. These will be necessary if new-age materials from emerging areas of science and technology are going to be morally and ethically acceptable to the scientific community and to society. PMID:20402627

  2. Ethical consciousness in bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Satris, S

    1997-01-01

    The role of ordinary language in expressing personal views and attitudes is a familiar one. Ordinary language can express attitudes, social demands or expectations, and moral judgments. In all these cases ordinary language has what I call practical import. Even the use of ordinary language to provide characterizations of people and interpretations of social situations can express attitudes and can imply moral judgments. Practical import is to be contrasted with theoretical import, which is mainly focused on facts and beliefs about facts. In some ways a scientific and professional education threatens to eliminate the connections between language and personal attitudes and between language and moral judgments, especially insofar as science aspires to be "detached" and morally neutral. Scientific ways of thinking and speaking tend to overlook the practical import of language and to concentrate on theoretical import alone. Professional codes of ethics and principles of ethical conduct can be helpful in counteracting this. But the general statements of codes, if they are not to degenerate into empty tautologies and pious truisms, must be understood in terms of particular cases. Finally, a brief look at some recent contributions of linguistics shows again the importance of attention to particulars. Ethical consciousness, having begun to arise even before professional education, is fostered among professionals through the use of professional codes of ethics, especially when these are understood in terms of paradigms and specific cases rather than merely general principles. The code requires professionals to use their powers of ethical judgment, not to surrender them. PMID:9315430

  3. The role of the chief ethics officer in a physician's office.

    PubMed

    Guten, Gary N; Kohn, Harvey S; Zoltan, Donald J; Black, Brian B; Coran, David L; Schneider, John A; Pauers, William

    2004-04-01

    The unique role of the chief ethics officer in a sports medicine office is described and guided by the four principles of ethics, as well as the principles and codes of ethics of the American Medical Association, the International Sports Medicine Federation, and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. The chief ethics officer should understand and be conversant with these principles and these codes of medical ethics, and transmit this information in order to further patient goals, physician goals, and employee goals. PMID:15183570

  4. MOMENTS OF UNCERTAINTY: ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND EMERGING CONTAMINANTS

    PubMed Central

    Cordner, Alissa; Brown, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Science on emerging environmental health threats involves numerous ethical concerns related to scientific uncertainty about conducting, interpreting, communicating, and acting upon research findings, but the connections between ethical decision making and scientific uncertainty are under-studied in sociology. Under conditions of scientific uncertainty, researcher conduct is not fully prescribed by formal ethical codes of conduct, increasing the importance of ethical reflection by researchers, conflicts over research conduct, and reliance on informal ethical standards. This paper draws on in-depth interviews with scientists, regulators, activists, industry representatives, and fire safety experts to explore ethical considerations of moments of uncertainty using a case study of flame retardants, chemicals widely used in consumer products with potential negative health and environmental impacts. We focus on the uncertainty that arises in measuring people’s exposure to these chemicals through testing of their personal environments or bodies. We identify four sources of ethical concerns relevant to scientific uncertainty: 1) choosing research questions or methods, 2) interpreting scientific results, 3) communicating results to multiple publics, and 4) applying results for policy-making. This research offers lessons about professional conduct under conditions of uncertainty, ethical research practice, democratization of scientific knowledge, and science’s impact on policy. PMID:24249964

  5. Ethical boundary-work in the infertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy; Jacoby, Ann; Gabbay, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Infertility practice and reproductive technologies are generally seen as 'controversial' areas of scientific inquiry that raise many complex ethical issues. This paper presents a qualitative study that considered how clinicians constructed the role of the 'ethical' in their everyday practice. We use the concept of ethical boundary-work to develop a theory of 'settled' and 'controversial' morality to illuminate how infertility clinicians drew boundaries between different conceptions of the role ethics played in their practice. An attention to areas of settled morality, usually rendered invisible by their very nature, enables us to see how clinicians manage the 'ethical' in their practice. We argue that by creating a space of 'no-ethics' in their practice--part of a settled morality that does not require articulation--the informants re-appropriate an area of their practice from 'outside' influences and control. Bringing these elements to light can help 'outsiders' to challenge and question these distinctions and therefore bring additional perspectives to debates over morality in the infertility clinic. Illuminating the everyday ethical concerns of infertility clinicians can help direct ethical thinking towards these practical concerns, as well as to more abstract debates. PMID:21226735

  6. Ethics and dentistry: I. The meaning of ethics.

    PubMed

    Gelbier, S; Wright, D; Bishop, M

    2001-11-01

    This short series of two papers will examine the relationship between ethics and dentistry. The first paper explores the meaning of ethics; the second will provide a catalogue of primary sources for dental practitioners who wish to read further in order to gain a core of knowledge about dental ethics. PMID:11806191

  7. ASCA Ethical Standards and the Relevance of Eastern Ethical Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Amy L.; Houser, Rick A.

    2009-01-01

    As schools become increasingly diverse through immigration and growth of minority groups, it is important that school counselors incorporate culturally sensitive ethical decision-making in their practice. The use of Western ethical theories in the application of professional codes of ethics provides a specific perspective in ethical…

  8. The Most Exciting Thing: Researcher Ethics and Personal Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    This autoethnographic chapter explores the thoughts, feelings, desires, and ethical struggles of the author when he rode along with a patrol officer and saw a dead body. Drawing on communication ethics, the author problematizes his ethics, faith, identity, and personal desires. He learns it is important for researchers to consider their personal…

  9. Work Ethic Characteristics: Perceived Work Ethics of Supervisors and Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Gregory C.; Hill, Roger B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the work ethics of supervisors with that of the employees they manage. The study investigated the occupational work ethics of both workers and their supervisors in a variety of businesses and industries to determine if there was a significant difference in the work ethics of these two groups as measured by…

  10. (The Ethics of) Teaching Science and Ethics: A Collaborative Proposal.

    PubMed

    Kabasenche, William P

    2014-12-01

    I offer a normative argument for a collaborative approach to teaching ethical issues in the sciences. Teaching science ethics requires expertise in at least two knowledge domains-the relevant science(s) and philosophical ethics. Accomplishing the aims of ethics education, while ensuring that science ethics discussions remain grounded in the best empirical science, can generally best be done through collaboration between a scientist and an ethicist. Ethics as a discipline is in danger of being misrepresented or distorted if presented by someone who lacks appropriate disciplinary training and experience. While there are exceptions, I take philosophy to be the most appropriate disciplinary domain in which to gain training in ethics teaching. Science students, who must be prepared to engage with many science ethics issues, are poorly served if their education includes a misrepresentation of ethics or specific issues. Students are less well prepared to engage specific issues in science ethics if they lack an appreciation of the resources the discipline of ethics provides. My collaborative proposal looks at a variety of ways scientists and ethicists might collaborate in the classroom to foster good science ethics education. PMID:25574263

  11. Ethical Becoming: Adult Ethical Development in Christian Congregations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Chellman, Davin J.

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of adult ethical development in Christian congregations. Using an empirical hermeneutic phenomenological methodology, this study examined how five pastors understand and encourage ethical development, developing an in-depth analysis and interpretation of their perceptions of the phenomenon of adult ethical development. Two primary…

  12. Creating a controlled vocabulary for the ethics of human research: towards a biomedical ethics ontology.

    PubMed

    Koepsell, David; Arp, Robert; Fostel, Jennifer; Smith, Barry

    2009-03-01

    ONTOLOGIES DESCRIBE REALITY IN SPECIFIC domains in ways that can bridge various disciplines and languages. They allow easier access and integration of information that is collected by different groups. Ontologies are currently used in the biomedical sciences, geography, and law. A Biomedical Ethics Ontology (BMEO) would benefit members of ethics committees who deal with protocols and consent forms spanning numerous fields of inquiry. There already exists the Ontology for Biomedical Investigations (OBI); the proposed BMEO would interoperate with OBI, creating a powerful information tool. We define a domain ontology and begin to construct a BMEO, focused on the process of evaluating human research protocols. Finally, we show how our BMEO can have practical applications for ethics committees. This paper describes ongoing research and a strategy for its broader continuation and cooperation. PMID:19374479

  13. Stimulating ethical awareness during training.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Henry

    2007-09-01

    This paper argues for a preventative approach to ethical violations through developing and maintaining ethical awareness in training and in the group life of each society. Rather than teaching ethics as a theoretical subject, a method is proposed that encourages direct personal confrontation with ethical dilemmas through the consideration of key examples, in the Talmudic manner. This develops ethical 'muscles' and allows candidates to explore the dilemmas of what Primo Levi called the 'grey zone' where the boundaries between good and bad are unclear. Several illustrations of such ethical dilemmas are described, as used in workshops that the author has run in several societies and developing groups. In this way, ethical awareness becomes part of the group life of the society so that analysts become an ethical resource for each other. PMID:17718757

  14. Teaching Business Ethics through Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Jon M.; Goldsby, Michael G.; Gerde, Virginia W.

    1997-01-01

    Business students need a vocabulary of ethics consistent with the ideology of capitalism. An approach using business-related classic literature (such as "Babbitt") is a way to develop vocabulary and explore ethical issues. (SK)

  15. Is Your (Ethical) Slippage Showing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rein, Lowell G.

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the causes of ethical slippage which damages creditability and invites increased governmental regulation. Suggests 15 concrete steps that can be taken to rectify the situation. Includes an ethics test. (JOW)

  16. Business Ethics and Your Organisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, John

    1990-01-01

    Good ethics are good business. Top management should be committed to a code of ethics based on a true participative process. The organization should be willing to commit resources for training to ensure proper implementation of the code. (SK)

  17. Solo doctors and ethical isolation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R J

    2009-11-01

    This paper uses the case of solo doctors to explore whether working in relative isolation from one's peers may be detrimental to ethical decision-making. Drawing upon the relevance of communication and interaction for ethical decision-making in the ethical theories of Habermas, Mead and Gadamer, it is argued that doctors benefit from ethical discussion with their peers and that solo practice may make this more difficult. The paper identifies a paucity of empirical research related to solo practice and ethics but draws upon more general medical ethics research and a study that identified ethical isolation among community pharmacists to support the theoretical claims made. The paper concludes by using the literary analogy of Soderberg's Doctor Glas to illustrate the issues raised and how ethical decision-making in relative isolation may be problematical. PMID:19880707

  18. Professional Ethics, Day by Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roworth, Wendy Wassyng

    2002-01-01

    The chair of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) Committee on Professional Ethics explores faculty obligations to students, institutions, and colleagues. Discusses AAUP's guiding ethical principles and new areas of concern. (EV)

  19. Ethical issues and addiction.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Binta; Scheiner, Melissa; Campbell, Deborah

    2010-04-01

    The epidemic of substance abuse continues to pose a significant challenge to clinicians nationwide. Although there is a tendency to simply associate drug abuse with poverty, the problem affects every social stratum gender and race; and pregnant women are no exception. Caring for pregnant, substance-using women and their infants presents complex legal and ethical issues. Debate is ongoing about whether criminal penalties should be imposed on women based solely on their use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy. Furthermore, controversies persist about the rights and wishes of pregnant women versus the interests of their fetuses. For health professionals, conflict arises when the pregnant woman chooses behaviors that have the potential to harm the developing fetus. The ethical dilemma arises from competing autonomy-based and beneficence-based obligations to the maternal-fetal dyad. This chapter explores the ethics-based conflicts in the delivery of health care to drug abusing pregnant women. PMID:20407974

  20. Ethics in neurodevelopmental disability.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Bell, Emily; Shevell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, like autism spectrum disorders and cerebral palsy are a common health problem in children. Given the impact of these conditions on children, families, and healthcare and social systems, the care of developmentally challenged children raises questions related to values and ethical principles. We review the common features of neurodevelopmental disorders that help understand the associated ethical questions. We focus on three major areas where ethical questions arise for clinicians and those involved in making decisions for or caring for these children: (1) the principles of decision-making and autonomy as they relate to developmental disability; (2) the issues related to quality of life that have long intersected with developmental disability; and (3) the use of unproven therapies and diagnostics that are particularly controversial given the extent that neurodevelopmental disabilities impact children and their families, yet active treatments options are limited. PMID:24182383