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Sample records for ethnically diverse older

  1. Ethnically Diverse Older Adults' Beliefs about Staying Mentally Sharp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Daniela B.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Wu, Bei; Liu, Rui; Price, Anna E.; Tseng, Winston; Corwin, Sara J.; Ivey, Susan L.; Hunter, Rebecca; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined diverse older adults' (n = 396, ages 50+) views about how to stay mentally sharp. We conducted 42 focus groups in four languages at nine United States locations using a standardized discussion guide and methods. The groups represented African Americans, American Indians, Chinese Americans, Latinos, Whites other than Latinos,…

  2. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance among Ethnically Diverse Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Amanda Alders

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…

  3. Factors Affecting Willingness to Use Hospice in Racially/Ethnically Diverse Older Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Ko, Jung Eun; Chiriboga, David A

    2016-09-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities tend to underutilize hospice services. Guided by Andersen behavioral health model, the purpose of this study was to explore the predictors of the willingness to use hospice services in racially/ethnically diverse older men and women. Data were drawn from the Survey of Older Floridians: 504 non-Hispanic whites, 360 African Americans, 328 Cuban Americans, and 241 non-Cuban Hispanics. In each group, logistic regression models of the willingness to use hospice were estimated. A greater likelihood of willingness was observed among younger non-Hispanic whites and among African Americans with fewer functional disabilities. In non-Cuban Hispanics, English proficiency increased the willingness by 3.1 times. Findings of the study identified group-specific factors contributing to the willingness to use hospice services and hold implications for tailored intervention programs. PMID:26071499

  4. Health policy and ethnic diversity in older Americans. Dissonance or harmony?

    PubMed Central

    Wray, L A

    1992-01-01

    The rapid growth and diversity of the older population have long-term implications for health care policies in the United States. Current policies designed for a homogeneous population are increasingly obsolete. To ameliorate obstacles that handicap many ethnic minority elders and to provide equal access to adequate and acceptable health care, several factors need to be considered. Enhanced data collection and analytic techniques are needed. The effects of race or ethnicity must be separated from other biologic, environmental, socioeconomic, cultural, and temporal factors on health status and behavior. Health care professionals and organizations serving minority elders must continue to expand their advocacy efforts to articulate the findings and their concerns to policymakers. Policymakers must understand and acknowledge the implications of an increasingly diverse society and determine what will constitute adequate, accessible, and acceptable health care within continuing fiscal constrains. Program planning, implementation, and evaluation methods must be revised to meet future health care needs effectively and efficiently. PMID:1413784

  5. Primary and Specialty Medical Care Among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  6. Primary and Specialty Medical Care among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes.…

  7. A characterization of pain in racially and ethnically diverse older adults: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Robert; Park, Juyoung

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a critical review of the influence of interracial and ethnic variation on pain prevalence, intensity, interference/function/disability, and treatment in older adults. A search of scientific databases published from 1900 to 2011, using key words associated with pain, geriatrics, and race/ethnicity, identified 180 articles, of which 27 empirical studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the retained articles, 17 reported that race/ethnicity was a statistically significant factor at p < .05. Minority older adults reported a higher prevalence of pain and higher pain intensity, and variable responses regarding function/disability compared with responses by non-Hispanic White older adults. Minority older adults were less likely to receive prescription pharmacologic treatments and surgery, and they were more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine treatments. There are interracial/ethnic differences in pain assessment and treatment interventions among older adults. PMID:24717736

  8. Trauma, stress, health, and mental health issues among ethnically diverse older adult prisoners.

    PubMed

    Haugebrook, Sabrina; Zgoba, Kristen M; Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Brown, Derek

    2010-07-01

    The United States' older adult prison population is growing rapidly. This study identifies and describes important psychosocial characteristics, particularly trauma, life-event stressors, health, mental health, and substance abuse, among older adults in prison. Data were collected using case record reviews of 114 prisoners aged 55 or older in the New Jersey Department of Corrections. Findings revealed that the study participants are a diverse group with varied psychosocial issues and needs, including trauma and stress histories, substance use, and health and mental health issues. Most had childhood or adult trauma, such as physical or sexual abuse. Family problems were common in childhood and adulthood. Understanding the problems and needs of older adult prisoners may help improve practice, promote advocacy, and prompt research that can enhance the quality of life of this population. PMID:20472867

  9. Use of adult day care service centers in an ethnically diverse sample of older adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ellen L; Friedemann, Marie-Luise; Mauro, Ana C

    2014-03-01

    Our nation is aging and unprepared to meet the needs of community-dwelling seniors and their caregivers. This study explored the perceived need for and use of adult day care services (ADS) in a low-income population. A random sample of 537 patient-caregiver dyads were recruited in home care agencies, and separate in-home surveys were conducted. Patients and caregivers were primarily women and 50.2% were of Hispanic origin. Although half (n = 267/537, 49.7%) of the caregivers had a perceived need for using ADS, only 19.1% of these caregivers used these services, mostly in the context of severe patient cognitive impairment. There were no racial or ethnic differences among ADS users and nonusers. The overall low use of ADS in a growing ethnically diverse senior population with a perceived need for services warrants further investigation and action as states seek to decrease nursing home placement and find solutions for our looming caregiving crisis. PMID:24652954

  10. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  11. The Association of Health and Functional Status with Private and Public Religious Practice among Rural, Ethnically Diverse, Older Adults with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Golden, Shannon L.; Snively, Beverly M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This analysis describes the association of health and functional status with private and public religious practice among ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) rural older adults with diabetes. Methods: Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional, stratified, random sample survey of 701…

  12. Primary and Specialty Medical Care Among Ethnically Diverse, Older Rural Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: The ELDER Diabetes Study

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Skelly, Anne H.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose Residents in rural communities in the United States, especially ethnic minority group members, have limited access to primary and specialty health care that is critical for diabetes management. This study examines primary and specialty medical care utilization among a rural, ethnically diverse, older adult population with diabetes. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional face-to-face survey of randomly selected African American (n = 220), Native American (n = 181), and white (n = 297) Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years old with diabetes in 2 rural counties in central North Carolina. Participants were asked about utilization of a primary care doctor and of specialists (nutritionist, diabetes specialist, eye doctor, bladder specialist, kidney specialist, heart specialist, foot specialist) in the past year. Findings Virtually all respondents (99.0%) reported having a primary care doctor and seeing that doctor in the past year. About 42% reported seeing a doctor for diabetes-related care. On average, participants reported seeing 2 specialists in the past year, and 54% reported seeing >1 specialist. Few reported seeing a diabetes specialist (5.7%), nutritionist (10.9%), or kidney specialist (17.5%). African Americans were more likely than others to report seeing a foot specialist (P<.01), while men were more likely than women to have seen a bladder specialist (P =.02), kidney specialist (P =.001), and heart specialist (P =.004), after adjusting for potential confounders. Predictors of the number of specialists seen include gender, education, poverty status, diabetes medication use, and self-rated health. Conclusions These data indicate low utilization of specialty diabetes care providers across ethnic groups and reflect the importance of primary care providers in diabetes care in rural areas. PMID:16092292

  13. Communicating with older ethnic minority patients.

    PubMed

    Likupe, Gloria

    2014-06-10

    In a time of increasing cultural diversity, it is essential that healthcare professionals respond by providing culturally competent care. Healthcare professionals must recognise the diverse needs of people from ethnic minority communities to ensure that they receive equal standards of care. This is particularly pertinent when providing care for older ethnic minority patients who may not be fluent in English. This article focuses on the need to communicate effectively with this group of patients to meet their health and social care needs, with the ultimate aim of improving patient outcomes. PMID:24894254

  14. Quality of life impacts on 16-year survival of an older ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gurland, Barry; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Maurer, Mathew S.; Reid, M. Carrington

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine the prediction of mortality, over 16 years, by the domains and domain elements underlying generic measures of quality of life (QoL). Methods The method used was an analysis of mortality in an older (65 + years) representative sample (N = 2130) of a multicultural community in North Manhattan. Five conventional QoL domains were measured by in-home, rater-administered, and computer-assisted questionnaire: depressed mood, pain, self-perceived health, and function and social relationships. Results Some domain scales that qualitatively express distress, such as depressed mood and widespread pain, significantly predicted lower mortality (were protective) and felt isolation trended in that direction, whereas domains indicating quantitative limitations such as impairment of functioning in daily tasks, stair climbing, as well as social disengagements and lack of support network significantly predicted higher mortality. Domain elements also mattered; contrary to their domain predictions, increased mortality was predicted by the domain elements of somatic symptoms of depression. Self-perceived poor health reflected the predictive (higher mortality) direction of the limitations cluster. Conclusions The internal complexity of QoL is underscored by differential impacts of domains and elements on mortality. Clinical implications include setting distress domains as important clinical goals, whereas strengthening limiting domains could result in lengthening life and secondarily relieving distress. The relative weighting of these goals could be derived from patient preferences and clinical efficacy. Fundamental implications lie in the interaction between the person’s qualitative evaluations of choices and the quantitative building of desired choices for a better QoL. PMID:24167085

  15. The impact of social resources on depressive symptoms in racially and ethnically diverse older adults: variations by groups with differing health risks.

    PubMed

    Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Lee, Beom S; Ko, Jung Eun; Chiriboga, David A

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to develop an empirical typology of physical health risks in racially and ethnically diverse older adults and (2) to examine whether the impact of social resources on depressive symptoms differs across the identified health risk groups (low, moderate, and high risks). The data source was the Survey of Older Floridians, a statewide survey of older adults aged 65 and older (n = 1,432). Latent profile analysis with multiple indicators of physical health (chronic conditions, functional disability, and self-rated health) was used to identify three health risk groups (low, moderate, and high risks). The direct and interactive effects of the health risk group membership and social resources (social support and religious service attendance) on depressive symptoms were found. Of particular interest was that the positive impact of social support was most pronounced in the moderate health risk group. PMID:25650996

  16. Cultural Diversity Among Older Adults: Addressing Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of the older adult population is increasing, and health professionals need to learn new knowledge and skills to improve the adherence of older ethnic clients to their health recommendations. Much of the existing research literature on diversity in gerontology concludes that ethnic older adults are at a health disadvantage. Few if any…

  17. Can mHealth Improve Risk Assessment in Underserved Populations? Acceptability of a Breast Health Questionnaire App in Ethnically Diverse, Older, Low-Income Women

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Carolina; O’Donoghue, Cristina; Kaplan, Celia P.; Luce, Judith; Ozanne, Elissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of mobile health (mHealth) tools has expanded rapidly but little research has been done on its acceptability by low-income, diverse, older patient populations. Objective To assess the attitudes of a diverse group of underserved women on the acceptability and usability of mHealth tools in a clinical setting using a breast health questionnaire application (app) at a public hospital mammography clinic. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a breast-imaging center of an urban safety net institution from July-August 2012. Interviews included pre- and post-questions. Women completed the Athena breast health questionnaire app on an iPad and were asked about their experience and ways to improve the tool. Results Fifteen women age 45–79 years from diverse ethnic and educational backgrounds were interviewed. The majority of women, 11 of 15, preferred the Athena app over a paper version and all the women thought the app was easy to use. Two Spanish-speaking Latinas preferred paper; and two women, with limited mobile phone use, did not have a preference. Many women indicated that it would be necessary to have staff available for instruction and assistance if the app were to be implemented. Conclusions mHealth tools are an acceptable, if not preferred, method of collecting health information for diverse, older, low-income women. Further studies are required to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of data collection using mHealth tools in underserved populations. mHealth tools should be explored as a novel way to engage diverse populations to improve clinical care and bridge gaps in health disparities. PMID:25705576

  18. Not Quite Color Blind: Ethnic and Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Older People among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Laditka, James N.; Houck, Margaret M.; Olatosi, Bankole A.

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward older people can influence how they are treated and their cognitive and physical health. The populations of the United States and many other countries have become more ethnically diverse, and are aging. Yet little research examines how ethnic diversity affects attitudes toward older people. Our study addresses this research gap.…

  19. Time-location patterns of a diverse population of older adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    PubMed

    Spalt, Elizabeth W; Curl, Cynthia L; Allen, Ryan W; Cohen, Martin; Adar, Sara D; Stukovsky, Karen H; Avol, Ed; Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Nunn, Cathy; Mancera-Cuevas, Karen; Kaufman, Joel D

    2016-06-01

    The primary aim of this analysis was to present and describe questionnaire data characterizing time-location patterns of an older, multiethnic population from six American cities. We evaluated the consistency of results from repeated administration of this questionnaire and between this questionnaire and other questionnaires collected from participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air). Participants reported spending most of their time inside their homes (average: 121 h/week or 72%). More than 50% of the participants reported spending no time in several of the location options, including at home outdoors, at work/volunteer/school locations indoors or outdoors, or in "other" locations outdoors. We observed consistency between self-reported time-location patterns from repeated administration of the time-location questionnaire and compared with other survey instruments. Comparisons with national cohorts demonstrated the differences in time-location patterns in the MESA Air cohort due to differences in demographics, but the data showed similar trends in patterns by age, gender, season, and employment status. This study was the first to explicitly examine the time-location patterns in an older, multiethnic population and the first to add data on Chinese participants. These data can be used to inform future epidemiological research of MESA Air and other studies that include diverse populations. PMID:25921083

  20. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Sheen S.; Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L.; Zajac, Edward J.; Stark, David

    2014-01-01

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others’ decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313

  1. Ethnic diversity deflates price bubbles.

    PubMed

    Levine, Sheen S; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Bernard, Mark; Bartelt, Valerie L; Zajac, Edward J; Stark, David

    2014-12-30

    Markets are central to modern society, so their failures can be devastating. Here, we examine a prominent failure: price bubbles. Bubbles emerge when traders err collectively in pricing, causing misfit between market prices and the true values of assets. The causes of such collective errors remain elusive. We propose that bubbles are affected by ethnic homogeneity in the market and can be thwarted by diversity. In homogenous markets, traders place undue confidence in the decisions of others. Less likely to scrutinize others' decisions, traders are more likely to accept prices that deviate from true values. To test this, we constructed experimental markets in Southeast Asia and North America, where participants traded stocks to earn money. We randomly assigned participants to ethnically homogeneous or diverse markets. We find a marked difference: Across markets and locations, market prices fit true values 58% better in diverse markets. The effect is similar across sites, despite sizeable differences in culture and ethnic composition. Specifically, in homogenous markets, overpricing is higher as traders are more likely to accept speculative prices. Their pricing errors are more correlated than in diverse markets. In addition, when bubbles burst, homogenous markets crash more severely. The findings suggest that price bubbles arise not only from individual errors or financial conditions, but also from the social context of decision making. The evidence may inform public discussion on ethnic diversity: it may be beneficial not only for providing variety in perspectives and skills, but also because diversity facilitates friction that enhances deliberation and upends conformity. PMID:25404313

  2. Psychometric Properties of Reverse-Scored Items on the CES-D in a Sample of Ethnically Diverse Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Mike; Wilcox, Rand; Chou, Chih-Ping; Chang, Megan; Yang, Frances; Blanchard, Jeanine; Marterella, Abbey; Kuo, Ann; Clark, Florence

    2011-01-01

    Reverse-scored items on assessment scales increase cognitive processing demands and may therefore lead to measurement problems for older adult respondents. In this study, the objective was to examine possible psychometric inadequacies of reverse-scored items on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) when used to assess…

  3. Ethnic Diversity: Challenging the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.; Silver, Rosalind, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" explores the influence of mass media on the perceptions about cultural pluralism and ethnic diversity in society. The essays present various interpretations of that influence and the implications for the society. Articles include: (1) "Promoting Pluralism" (Joseph Giordano; Irving M. Levine); (2) "Does TV Shape…

  4. Alcohol use, socioeconomic deprivation and ethnicity in older people

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Rahul; Schofield, Peter; Ashworth, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study explores the relationship between alcohol consumption, health, ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. Participants 27 991 people aged 65 and over from an inner-city population, using a primary care database. Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures Primary outcome measures were alcohol use and misuse (>21 units per week for men and >14 for units per week women). Results Older people of black and minority ethnic (BME) origin from four distinct ethnic groups comprised 29% of the sample. A total of 9248 older drinkers were identified, of whom 1980 (21.4%) drank above safe limits. Compared with older drinkers, older unsafe drinkers contained a higher proportion of males, white and Irish ethnic groups and a lower proportion of Caribbean, African and Asian groups. For older drinkers, the strongest independent predictors of higher alcohol consumption were younger age, male gender and Irish ethnicity. Independent predictors of lower alcohol consumption were Asian, black Caribbean and black African ethnicity. Socioeconomic deprivation and comorbidity were not significant predictors of alcohol consumption in older drinkers. For older unsafe drinkers, the strongest predictor variables were younger age, male gender and Irish ethnicity; comorbidity was not a significant predictor. Lower socioeconomic deprivation was a significant predictor of unsafe consumption whereas African, Caribbean and Asian ethnicity were not. Conclusions Although under-reporting in high-alcohol consumption groups and poor health in older people who have stopped or controlled their drinking may have limited the interpretation of our results, we suggest that closer attention is paid to ‘young older’ male drinkers, as well as to older drinkers born outside the UK and those with lower levels of socioeconomic deprivation who are drinking above safe limits. PMID:26303334

  5. Advancing the Science of Recruitment and Retention of Ethnically Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoles, Anna M.; Chadiha, Letha A.

    2011-01-01

    We highlight several critical challenges that must be addressed to accelerate the advancement of the science on recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse older adults into health research. These include the relative lack of attention by researchers to methodological issues related to recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse…

  6. A Pilot Psychometric Study on the Validation of the Older Women’s Non-Medical Stress Scale (OWN-MSS) on an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Luciana; Prilutsky, Roxanne R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Older women often experience various types of stressors, including the death of a spouse and associated financial stress (often with a lack of social support), emotional stress due to factors such as caregiving and being single, and the challenges of the aging process. These circumstances could produce or aggravate anxious symptomatology that can in turn compound the negative effects of aging. A brief scale of perceived stress that is not confounded with health status and covers multiple culturally relevant potential stressors is needed for quick use in busy medical settings. Aim To assess the reliability and the validity of an original stress scale designed to measure perceptions of stress beyond health status in a non-clinical convenience sample of community-dwelling older women. Method In this cross-sectional pilot investigation, via conducting item-total correlations and correlational tests of validity, we studied the psychometric properties of our measure using data from volunteer older subjects (mainly low-income and from non-Caucasian backgrounds). The domains covered by the nine items of the tool were selected based on a literature review of common stressors experienced by older adults, especially by older women. Data were collected face-to-face using a demographic list, a well-established depression measure, a brief posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screener, and our 9-item stress tool. Primary outcomes: reliability and validity of the scale of older women’s non-medical stress. Secondary outcomes: demographic characteristics of the sample and correlations between stress items. Results Based on our sample of older women (N=40, mean age 71 years), good internal consistency between the items of the stress scale was found (Cronbach’s a=.66). The findings of the data analyses also revealed that our psychometric tool has good convergent validity with the PTSD screener (r=.53). Moreover, in contrast with most other stress tools, it has strong

  7. Ethnic Differences in Nonverbal Pain Behaviors Observed in Older Adults with Dementia.

    PubMed

    Ford, Brianne; Snow, A Lynn; Herr, Keela; Tripp-Reimer, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Research supports using nonverbal pain behaviors to identify pain in persons with dementia. It is unknown whether variations exist among ethnic groups in the expression of nonverbal pain behaviors in this special population. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine ethnic differences in the presentation and intensity of nonverbal pain behaviors among African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic older adults with dementia when screened for pain by certified nursing assistants. Six certified nursing assistants were trained to review and score 28 video recordings of subjects with dementia for nonverbal pain behaviors using the Non-Communicative Patient's Pain Assessment Instrument. Chi-square was used to examine differences among ethnic groups with regard to the display of nonverbal pain behaviors, and ANOVA was used to evaluate differences in the intensity of overall pain across ethnic groups. Of the 168 assessments, pain words (28%), pain noises (29.8%), and pain faces (28%) were observed most often as indicators of pain. Rubbing, bracing, and restlessness were rarely noted. Chi-square analysis revealed ethnic differences in the expression of pain words (χ(2) = 19.167, p < .001). No significant differences were noted across ethnic groups with regards to overall pain intensity. These findings are the first to examine ethnic differences in nonverbal pain behaviors for older adults with dementia. However, future work should examine assessment tendencies of providers in a larger, more diverse sample. PMID:25962546

  8. Ethnic Variation in Oral Health and Social Integration among Older Rural Adults

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Chen, Haiying; Savoca, Margaret R.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines the associations of oral health with social integration among ethnically diverse (African American, American Indian, white) rural older adults. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 635 randomly selected community-dwelling adults aged 60+. Measures include self-rated oral health, number of teeth, number of oral health problems, social engagement, and social network size. Minority elders have poorer oral health than do white older adults. Most rural elders have substantial social engagement and social networks. Better oral health (greater number of teeth) is directly associated with social engagement, while the relationship of oral health to social network size is complex. The association of oral health with social engagement does not differ by ethnicity. Poorer oral health is associated with less social integration among African American, American Indian and white elders. More research on the ways oral health affects the lives of older adults is warranted. PMID:23788829

  9. Moving Stories: Evaluation of a BSW Oral History Project with Older Adults with Diverse Immigration Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maschi, Tina; MacMillan, Thalia; Pardasani, Manoj; Lee, Ji Seon; Moreno, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate an experiential learning project with BSW students to see if their perceptions of older adults have changed. The project consisted of an oral history project and presentation that matched BSW students with older adults from diverse ethnic backgrounds to gather their immigration narratives. The study used a…

  10. Recruiting Ethnically Diverse Participants into Qualitative Health Research: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renert, Hagar; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Arthur, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The inclusion of ethnically diverse populations in health research is crucial for addressing ethnic disparities in health status and care. Despite this need, non-dominant ethnic groups continue to be under-represented in health studies. The reasons may be at least partly due to the difficulties inherent in recruiting such groups for research. In…

  11. Moving beyond Racial and Ethnic Diversity at HBCUs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John Michael, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter emphasizes the importance of going beyond racial and ethnic diversity at HBCUs to include other forms of diversity such as socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and international status.

  12. Ethnic identity, thin-ideal internalization, and eating pathology in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S

    2014-09-01

    Although much research suggests that ethnic identity is positively correlated with psychological health for ethnic minority women, research examining ethnic identity's relationships to thin-ideal internalization, weight concerns, and eating concerns is sparse. Consequently, this study examined these relationships in European American, African American, Latina, and Asian American college women (N=816). As expected, univariate analyses of variance indicated that European American women scored lowest on ethnic identity and highest on eating and weight concerns, whereas African American women scored lowest on thin-ideal internalization. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethnic identity was negatively associated with eating and weight concerns, while body mass index and thin-ideal internalization were positively associated. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between thin-ideal internalization and eating concerns such that the relationship was stronger for participants with lower ethnic identity. These results suggest ethnic identity may be a direct or interactive protective factor against eating concerns in ethnically diverse college women. PMID:25079012

  13. Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education. ASHE Reader Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes, Ed.; Garcia, Mildred, Ed.; Nora, Amaury, Ed.; Rendon, Laura I., Ed.

    This text is a resource on racial and ethnic diversity for faculty and students in higher education. It is organized in sections related to the history of racial and ethnic diversity in higher education, curriculum and teaching, students, faculty, administration, leadership and governance, and research issues. The chapters are: (1) "History of…

  14. Expanding Coverage of Diversity beyond Ethnicity and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Matias

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Diversity News Program, which trains University of Washington journalism students to produce stories on higher education from a diversity perspective. Finds most diversity journalism was centered on race and ethnicity, thus overlooking other issues; background information about diversity themes was provided in the majority of…

  15. Intragroup Contact and Anxiety Among Ethnic Minority Adolescents: Considering Ethnic Identity and School Diversity Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tiffany; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Everyday interactions with same-racial/ethnic others may confer positive benefits for adolescents, but the meaning of these interactions are likely influenced by individual differences and larger structural contexts. This study examined the situation-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and anxiety symptoms among a diverse sample of 306 racial/ethnic minority adolescents (Mage = 14 years; 66 % female), based on (1) individual differences in ethnic identity centrality and (2) developmental histories of transitions in diversity between elementary, middle, and high school. The results indicated that at the level of the situation, when adolescents interacted with more same-ethnic others, they reported fewer anxiety symptoms. Further, for adolescents who had experienced a transition in school diversity, the positive benefits of contact with same-ethnic others was only conferred for those who felt that their ethnicity was very important to them. The importance of examining individual differences within larger developmental histories to understand the everyday experiences of ethnic minority adolescents are discussed. PMID:24951944

  16. Ethnic diversity and employment growth in English cities.

    PubMed

    Lee, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are many reasons why cities with diverse populations may grow faster. Ethnic diversity might attract human capital, tourists or firms, increase productivity through diverse approaches to problem-solving or ethnic minority entrepreneurship. Yet there are also reasons to believe that diversity could be harmful, by leading to sub-optimal provision of public goods or reducing trust or social capital. Or it may be irrelevant, being merely a proxy for class. A number of studies have shown both positive and negative relationships between diversity and growth, using a range of different measures for "diversity." This paper asks two questions: have more diverse English cities grown faster? And does measurement matter: is it important to have a multinational population or an ethnically diverse one? To answer these questions, in this paper a range of models are estimated for employment growth for 53 English cities between 1981 and 2001. The evidence suggests that cities with a high proportion of their populations born abroad in 1981 grew faster in the subsequent 10 years. Neither diversity by country of birth nor ethnic diversity is significant in the period 1991-2001. However, when variables accounting for both are included together, it appears that cities with a large number of migrants saw higher employment growth in the 1990s, but that ethnically diverse cities were less successful. The results presented here suggest that considerable attention needs to be paid to the variable used to indicate "diversity" in these studies and that the impact of diversity varies according to nature of the groups any indicator for "diversity" is representing. PMID:21275201

  17. Racially and ethnically diverse schools and adolescent romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Strully, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to "work around" opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships or work around constraints from other groups' preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  18. Racially and Ethnically Diverse Schools and Adolescent Romantic Relationships*

    PubMed Central

    Strully, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to “work around” opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships and/or work around constraints from other groups’ preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school. PMID:25848670

  19. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Diversity in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA. Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    This report provides an overview of activities to increase racial/ethnic and gender diversity in nursing and nursing education. Data are from a survey on gender diversity completed by 193 nursing education administrators in the 16 Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states and the District of Columbia and a survey about the racial/ethnic…

  20. Attracting and Recruiting an Ethnically Diverse Teaching Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Gloria; Engelhardt, Jon M.

    1991-01-01

    Presents information from a Texas conference which examined the problems of creating an ethnically diverse teaching force. Recommendations for recruiting culturally diverse students into teaching are provided, focusing on the role of public school educators, university personnel, state legislators, education agency personnel, educational…

  1. Correlates of Prosocial Behaviors of Students in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivak, Asha Leah; White, Samantha Simmons; Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between ethnicity-related context variables and the prosocial behavior of early adolescents in ethnically/racially diverse schools. Specifically, youths' perceptions of greater representation of same-ethnic peers at school, school support for ethnic diversity, and engagement in and valuing cross-ethnic contact…

  2. Can we create ethnically diverse skeletal collection from donated bodies?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding bone health is least invasively and most effectively done through studying skeletal remains that reflect the living populations who will benefit from the knowledge produced through research. Donated body collections that accurately represent modern populations are needed for osteological insights to be applied to clinical practices. However, even though the US is growing increasingly diverse, donated body collections still suffer from a lack of ethnic diversity. Most individuals who donate their whole-bodies after death are European-American. Reasons for a lack of ethnic diversity stem from past injustices and present religious norms. Increasing body donation among minorities in the US and abroad may be difficult. PMID:25775919

  3. Teaching in Ethnically Diverse Schools: Teachers' Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeman, Yvonne

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on research on secondary-school teachers and dilemmas they encounter in their work in multi-ethnic schools in the Netherlands. The results of a recent study based on interviews are compared with a survey conducted in 1996. This showed that in a changing societal context, that can be characterized by mounting selection and…

  4. Learning and Diversity: The Ethnic Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longstreet, Wilma S.

    1978-01-01

    Teachers may want to observe and record differences among students that appear to be ethnically derived--that is, developed prior to the age of ten or twelve, and separate from individual personality traits. Action research is recommended to relate these characteristics to the appropriate learning style for each child. (CTM)

  5. Body checking and avoidance in ethnically diverse female college students.

    PubMed

    White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S

    2013-09-01

    Although body checking and avoidance behaviors are common in women with eating disorders, minimal research has examined the nature or correlates of these behaviors in ethnically diverse female college students without eating disorders. Self-identified European American (n=268), Asian American (n=163), Latina (n=146), and African American (n=73) women completed self-report measures of body checking and avoidance, thin-ideal internalization, eating pathology, and clinical impairment. Results indicated that European and Asian American women reported significantly more body checking and avoidance than African American and Latina women. Generally, correlates of body checking and avoidance were consistent across ethnic groups: Regression analyses indicated that type of ethnicity predicted body checking and avoidance; and ethnicity, body checking, and body avoidance predicted eating pathology and clinical impairment. These associations suggest that body checking and avoidance are not benign behaviors in diverse nonclinical women. PMID:23684944

  6. Panethnicity, Ethnic Diversity and Residential Segregation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ann H.; White, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns while simultaneously evaluating the ‘panethnic hypothesis’, that is, the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Our results do show a panethnic effect – greater residential proximity is evident within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area, but this association clearly depends on immigration. While findings generally show a lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups, particularly for blacks, whites and Latinos and less for Asians, ethno-national groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context. PMID:20503650

  7. School ethnic diversity and White students' civic attitudes in England.

    PubMed

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2015-01-01

    The current paper focuses on White British students in lower secondary education and investigates the effect of school ethnic diversity on their levels of trust and inclusive attitudes towards immigrants. Use is made of panel data of the Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study (CELS) to explore these relationships. Ethnic diversity is measured with the proportion of students in a grade identifying with a minority. In agreement with contact theory, the paper initially finds a positive relation between diversity and inclusive attitudes on immigrants. However, this link disappears once controls for social background, gender and prior levels of the outcome are included in the model. This indicates that students with particular pre-enrolment characteristics have self-selected in diverse schools and that inclusive attitudes have stabilized before secondary education. Diversity further appears to have a negative impact on trust, irrespective of the number of controls added to the model. PMID:25432606

  8. Attributions of Mental Illness: An Ethnically Diverse Community Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bignall, Whitney J Raglin; Jacquez, Farrah; Vaughn, Lisa M

    2015-07-01

    Although the prevalence of mental illness is similar across ethnic groups, a large disparity exists in the utilization of services. Mental health attributions, causal beliefs regarding the etiology of mental illness, may contribute to this disparity. To understand mental health attributions across diverse ethnic backgrounds, we conducted focus groups with African American (n = 8; 24 %), Asian American (n = 6; 18 %), Latino/Hispanic (n = 9; 26 %), and White (n = 11; 32 %) participants. We solicited attributions about 19 mental health disorders, each representing major sub-categories of the DSM-IV. Using a grounded theory approach, participant responses were categorized into 12 themes: Biological, Normalization, Personal Characteristic, Personal Choice, Just World, Spiritual, Family, Social Other, Environment, Trauma, Stress, and Diagnosis. Results indicate that ethnic minorities are more likely than Whites to mention spirituality and normalization causes. Understanding ethnic minority mental health attributions is critical to promote treatment-seeking behaviors and inform culturally responsive community-based mental health services. PMID:25536943

  9. Promoting Racial and Ethnic Diversity among Canadian Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiuk, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This study examines racial and ethnic diversity among Canadian academic librarians and discusses the findings of a nationwide survey. The survey posed questions related to equity plans and programs as well as recruitment practices for academic librarians from equity-seeking groups with a focus on Aboriginal and visible/racial minority librarians.…

  10. Well-Being in the Context of Workplace Ethnic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enchautegui-de-Jesus, Noemi; Hughes, Diane; Johnston, Kristen E.; Oh, Hyun Joo

    2006-01-01

    This research examined the relation between the effects of workplace diversity (defined as the proportion of coworkers of same ethnicity as the respondent) and psychosomatic complaints, psychological well-being, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction. A sample of 648 African American and Latino workers was surveyed in Chicago and New York City. A…

  11. Exploring Group Activity Therapy with Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…

  12. Ethnic Diversity, National Unity and Multicultural Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review ethnic diversity, national unity and multicultural education in China with graduate students in a multicultural education course and pose some questions for discussion. China is a rapidly developing multiethnic country facing several challenges, including pollution, growing income inequality and low political…

  13. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

  14. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health risk behaviors (hazardous drinking and engaging in sexual behavior to regulate negative affect) in a diverse sample of 1,620 college women. Depression and anxiety were examined as mediators of the relationship between sexual assault and health risk behaviors. There was evidence of moderated mediation, such that for European American women, but not for ethnic minority women, both forms of psychological distress were significant mediators of the sexual assault/hazardous drinking relationship. In contrast, among all ethnic groups, the relationship between sexual assault and both forms of psychological distress was mediated by the use of sexual behavior as an affect regulation strategy. Results support a need to evaluate the assault experiences of ethnically diverse women, as well as the impact of the assault on their postassault experiences including health risk behaviors and psychological adjustment. Additionally, results suggest that practitioners should carefully assess health risk behaviors among victims of sexual assault and be aware that there may be differences in the risk factors and motives for these behaviors among women of various ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24223467

  15. Ethnic diversity in the nurse workforce: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Otto, Laureen A; Gurney, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    In the 2000-2003 New York State Nurses Association Strategic Plan, the Board of Directors called for an assessment of the progress made toward achieving an ethnically diverse nursing workforce as reflected in the literature. In this paper the authors have responded to that request and offer a snapshot of progress as well as standstills in the journey toward diversity. Although the literature has tended to focus on cultural competency of the healthcare worker, and includes numerous calls for action to diversify the nurse workforce, very little scholarly work has been conducted that rigorously evaluates such diversification activities. The purpose of this literature review is to explore existing scholarly work in ethnic diversity at three levels: in the general workforce, the healthcare workforce, and the nursing workforce. The authors explored the literature as it addresses two aspects: academic and career factors influencing diversity; and recruitment, retention, and other strategies employed to diversify the workforce. By exploring the existing research, gaps can be identified in order to either direct further research, or target funding to recruitment strategies to effectively enhance a more ethnically diverse nurse workforce. PMID:17665538

  16. Seed exchange networks, ethnicity, and sorghum diversity

    PubMed Central

    Labeyrie, Vanesse; Thomas, Mathieu; Muthamia, Zachary K.; Leclerc, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies investigating the relationship between crop genetic diversity and human cultural diversity patterns showed that seed exchanges are embedded in farmers’ social organization. However, our understanding of the social processes involved remains limited. We investigated how farmers’ membership in three major social groups interacts in shaping sorghum seed exchange networks in a cultural contact zone on Mount Kenya. Farmers are members of residence groups at the local scale and of dialect groups clustered within larger ethnolinguistic units at a wider scale. The Chuka and Tharaka, who are allied in the same ethnolinguistic unit, coexist with the Mbeere dialect group in the study area. We assessed farmers’ homophily, propensity to exchange seeds with members of the same group, using exponential random graph models. We showed that homophily is significant within both residence and ethnolinguistic groups. At these two levels, homophily is driven by the kinship system, particularly by the combination of patrilocal residence and ethnolinguistic endogamy, because most seeds are exchanged among relatives. Indeed, residential homophily in seed exchanges results from local interactions between women and their in-law family, whereas at a higher level, ethnolinguistic homophily is driven by marriage endogamy. Seed exchanges and marriage ties are interrelated, and both are limited between the Mbeere and the other groups, although frequent between the Chuka and Tharaka. The impact of these social homophily processes on crop diversity is discussed. PMID:26699480

  17. Seed exchange networks, ethnicity, and sorghum diversity.

    PubMed

    Labeyrie, Vanesse; Thomas, Mathieu; Muthamia, Zachary K; Leclerc, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies investigating the relationship between crop genetic diversity and human cultural diversity patterns showed that seed exchanges are embedded in farmers' social organization. However, our understanding of the social processes involved remains limited. We investigated how farmers' membership in three major social groups interacts in shaping sorghum seed exchange networks in a cultural contact zone on Mount Kenya. Farmers are members of residence groups at the local scale and of dialect groups clustered within larger ethnolinguistic units at a wider scale. The Chuka and Tharaka, who are allied in the same ethnolinguistic unit, coexist with the Mbeere dialect group in the study area. We assessed farmers' homophily, propensity to exchange seeds with members of the same group, using exponential random graph models. We showed that homophily is significant within both residence and ethnolinguistic groups. At these two levels, homophily is driven by the kinship system, particularly by the combination of patrilocal residence and ethnolinguistic endogamy, because most seeds are exchanged among relatives. Indeed, residential homophily in seed exchanges results from local interactions between women and their in-law family, whereas at a higher level, ethnolinguistic homophily is driven by marriage endogamy. Seed exchanges and marriage ties are interrelated, and both are limited between the Mbeere and the other groups, although frequent between the Chuka and Tharaka. The impact of these social homophily processes on crop diversity is discussed. PMID:26699480

  18. Immigration, ethnicity, and accessibility to culturally diverse family physicians.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu

    2007-09-01

    The study concerns ethnicity, spatial equity, and healthcare access in the context of diversity and integration. The paper first explores how Chinese immigrants in the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area choose between ethnic Chinese family physicians and other family physicians, based on a probability survey. It then applies and modifies gravity-type accessibility measures, of which a special type is the so-called floating catchment area (FCA) method, to evaluate three types of geographical accessibility in family physician utilization. The study suggests a certain degree of spatial inequality among Chinese immigrants in accessing culturally sensitive care. The paper yields important methodological and policy implications. PMID:17174590

  19. Older and Wiser: Adult Learning and Ethnic Minority Elders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadzie, Stella

    1993-01-01

    The British "Older and Wiser" project demonstrated the need for educational opportunities for older adults from minority groups. The double barriers of ageism and racism faced by these adults must be addressed. (SK)

  20. At which geographic scale does ethnic diversity affect intra-neighborhood social capital?

    PubMed

    Sluiter, Roderick; Tolsma, Jochem; Scheepers, Peer

    2015-11-01

    The claim that ethnic diversity within the living environment would hamper bonding and bridging social capital has been studied extensively, producing highly inconsistent findings. We studied whether ethnic diversity effects depend on the geographic scale at which ethnic diversity is measured. We examined ethnic diversity effects on intra- and inter-ethnic contacts in the neighborhood, respectively on opposition to ethnic in- and out-group neighbors. Hypotheses were derived from Blau's meeting opportunities thesis and contact theory, ethnic competition theory, and constrict theory. Using information about 2545 Dutch respondents with their locality defined as egohoods and administrative units, we found that ethnic diversity effects vary with the geographic scale. Ethnic diversity of smaller localities is positively associated with bridging social capital. At larger scales, the findings are mixed: ethnic diversity is positively related to inter-ethnic contacts and opposition to out-group neighbors. Ethnic diversity of smaller localities is negatively related to bonding social capital. In contrast to often-made claims that diversity within the local context would matter most, estimates of diversity effects are not always stronger when diversity measures are aggregated to smaller geographic areas. PMID:26463536

  1. Derivation of Ethnically Diverse Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Chang, Eun Ah; Tomov, Martin L; Suhr, Steven T; Luo, Jiesi; Olmsted, Zachary T; Paluh, Janet L; Cibelli, Jose

    2015-01-01

    The human genome with all its ethnic variations contributes to differences in human development, aging, disease, repair, and response to medical treatments and is an exciting area of research and clinical study. The availability of well-characterized ethnically diverse stem cell lines is limited and has not kept pace with other advances in stem cell research. Here we derived xenofree ethnically diverse-human induced pluripotent stem cell (ED-iPSC) lines from fibroblasts obtained from individuals of African American, Hispanic-Latino, Asian, and Caucasian ethnic origin and have characterized the lines under a uniform platform for comparative analysis. Derived ED-iPSC lines are low passage number and evaluated in vivo by teratoma formation and in vitro by high throughput microarray analysis of EB formation and early differentiation for tri-lineage commitment to endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm. These new xenofree ED-iPSC lines represent a well-characterized valuable resource with potential for use in future research in drug discovery or clinical investigations. PMID:26482195

  2. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523

  3. Ethnic Differences in Discharge Destination Among Older Patients With Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pei-Fen J.; Ostir, Glenn V.; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Granger, Carl V.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the association between ethnicity and discharge destination in older patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design A retrospective analysis. Setting Nationally representative sample of older patients from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation in 2002 and 2003. Participants Patients (N=9240) aged 65 years or older who received inpatient rehabilitation services for TBI. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Discharge destination (home, assisted living facility, institution) and ethnicity (white, black, Hispanic). Results Multinomial logit models showed that older Hispanics (odds ratio [OR] = 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.66 –3.02) and older blacks (OR=2; 95% CI, 1.55–2.59) with TBI were significantly more likely to be discharged home than older whites with TBI, after adjusting for relevant risk factors. Older blacks were also 78% less likely (OR = .22; 95% CI, .08–.60) to be discharged to an assisted living facility than whites after adjusting for relevant risk factors. Conclusions Our findings indicate that older minority patients with TBI were significantly more likely to be discharged home than white patients with TBI. Studies are needed to investigate underlying factors associated with this ethnic difference. PMID:18226645

  4. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    PubMed

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  5. Social capital in ethnic communities and mental health: a study of older Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A; Yoon, Hyunwoo; An, Sok; Kim, Miyong T

    2015-06-01

    This study examined how social capital in ethnic communities (e.g., social cohesion, community support, community participation, and negative interaction) influences depressive symptoms of older Korean immigrants. Using survey data from 209 participants in Central Texas (M(age)  = 69.6, SD = 7.50), hierarchical regression models of depressive symptoms were examined with the following sets of predictors: (1) demographics, (2) physical health, (3) sociocultural factors, and (4) ethnic community factors. After controlling for the multiple sets of individual-level variables previously known to be important predictors of mental health, ethnic community factors made a substantial contribution. Higher levels of depressive symptoms were observed among individuals who received lower levels of community support (β = -0.14, p < 0.05), had limited participation in ethnic community events and activities (β = -0.15, p < 0.05), and reported more frequent negative interactions with ethnic community members (β = 0.12, p < 0.05). Findings highlight the importance of social capital in ethnic communities and hold implications for improving older ethnic immigrants' mental well-being. PMID:25662848

  6. Contextual determinants of US nursing home racial/ethnic diversity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jullet A; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Lapane, Kate L; Laberge, Alex

    2014-03-01

    We hypothesized that for-profit/chain affiliated nursing homes, those in states with higher Medicaid reimbursement, and those in more competitive markets would have greater resident racial/ethnic diversity than nursing homes not meeting these criteria. Using 2004 Online Survey, Certification and Reporting data, Minimum Data Set, Lewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional Research data, and the Area Resource File, we included U.S. Medicare/Medicaid certified nursing homes (N = 8950) located in 310 Metropolitan Statistical Areas. The dependent variable quantified facility-level multiracial diversity. Ordinary least squares regression showed support for the hypothesized relationships: for-profit/chain affiliated nursing homes were more diverse than nursing homes in all other ownership/chain member categories, while higher Medicaid per-diem rates, greater residential diversity, and stronger market competition were also positively associated with nursing home racial/ethnic composition. Results suggest there is room for policy changes to achieve equitable access to all levels of nursing home services for minority elders. PMID:24581072

  7. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  8. Synergy between Molecular and Contextual Views of Coping among Four Ethnic Groups of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; McPherson-Salandy, Renee; Milano, Kate

    2010-01-01

    The coping styles of four ethnic groups of older adults in response to negative life events were analyzed in a population-based study of 1118 residents of Brooklyn, New York. Using a molecular approach, data regarding the context of events and the corresponding coping responses was obtained. Open-ended semi-structured interviews allowed…

  9. Diversity Summit 2008: challenges in the recruitment and retention of ethnic minorities in neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Desiree; Razani, Jill; Suarez, Paola; Lafosse, Jose M; Manly, Jennifer; Attix, Deborah K

    2010-11-01

    The 2008 Diversity Summit recognized the many advantages of increasing the number of neuropsychologists from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The Summit addressed the aspiration of creating a more ethnically diverse body of neuropsychologists by increasing the recruitment of ethnic minority students to neuropsychology training programs. Challenges to successful recruitment and retention of ethnic minority students were discussion points at the Summit. This paper summarizes and expands these points and also suggests solutions to these challenges with the aim of stimulating innovative approaches to increasing the representation of ethnic minorities in neuropsychology. PMID:21108149

  10. Skills Development for a Diverse Older Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran; Burke, Gerald; Selby Smith, Chris

    2008-01-01

    In the context of aging populations, governments in Australia and in other Western nations fear that slower growth in the numbers of people of working age (15-64 years) will have a dampening effect on economic growth. They are thus considering how to encourage older workers to remain in the workforce beyond the point at which many currently…

  11. Roots of the Future: An Education Pack for Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter

    This pack challenges ignorance about racial diversity in England by encouraging activities that shed light on the recent past and the society in which young people in Britain live. The exercises in this book invite young people to explore ethnic and cultural diversity in Britain. They are designed to show that ethnic diversity is good and…

  12. Loneliness of Older Immigrant Groups in Canada: Effects of Ethnic-Cultural Background.

    PubMed

    De Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Van der Pas, Suzan; Keating, Norah

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant groups are significantly lonelier than older adults born in Canada. Immigrants with similar language and culture are not lonelier; while those from countries that differ in native language/culture are significantly higher on loneliness. Multivariate analyses showed the importance of cultural background, of composition of the network of relatives and friends, and of local participation and feelings of belonging to the Canadian society in explaining loneliness of older immigrants. PMID:25982532

  13. Who intermarries in Britain? Explaining ethnic diversity in intermarriage patterns.

    PubMed

    Muttarak, Raya; Heath, Anthony

    2010-06-01

    This paper investigates trends, patterns and determinants of intermarriage (and partnership) comparing patterns among men and women and among different ethnic groups in Britain. We distinguish between endogamous (co-ethnic), majority/minority and minority/minority marriages. Hypotheses are derived from the theoretical literatures on assimilation, segmented assimilation and opportunity structures. The empirical analysis is based on the 1988-2006 General Household Surveys (N = 115,494). Consistent with assimilation theory we find that, for all ethnic minority groups, the propensity to intermarry is higher in the second generation than in the first. Consistent with ideas drawn from segmented assimilation theory, we also find that substantial differences in propensity to form majority/minority marriages persist after controls for individual characteristics such as age, educational level, generation and length of residence in Britain, with men and women of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi background having higher propensities to form endogamous partnerships. However, we also find that opportunity structures affect intermarriage propensities for all groups alike, with individuals in more diverse residential areas (as measured by the ratio of majority to minority residents in the area) having higher likelihood to form majority/minority partnerships. We conclude then that, beginning from very different starting points, all groups, both minority and the majority groups exhibit common patterns of generational change and response to opportunity structures. Even the groups that are believed to have the strongest community structures and the strongest norms supporting endogamy appear to be experiencing increasing exogamy in the second generation and in more diverse residential settings. This suggests that a weak rather than a strong version of segmented assimilation provides the best account of British patterns. PMID:20579055

  14. Utility of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition, with Ethnically Diverse Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; Finch, Maria HernÁndez; Mcintosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Finch, W. Holmes

    2014-01-01

    Current research on the use of revisions of intelligence measures with ethnically diverse populations and younger children is limited. The present study investigated the utility of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5), with an ethnically diverse preschool sample. African American and Caucasian preschoolers, matched on age,…

  15. Social Network Characteristics and College Adjustment among Racially and Ethnically Diverse First-Year Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Stryker, Sonia

    1996-01-01

    Examined social network characteristics of 218 college freshmen. Subjects were of European American descent or of ethnically and racially diverse backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, Native American and Asian American). The study associated social adjustment with family support characteristics for the racially and ethnically diverse students…

  16. Differences in Universal-Diverse Orientation by Race-Ethnicity and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singley, Daniel B.; Sedlacek, William E.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the roles of race-ethnicity and gender in university student orientation toward diversity. Differences in orientation toward diversity were found between men and women as well as among racial-ethnic groups (Asian/Asian American, African American, Latino, Anglo-American). Anglo-American students' scores were significantly…

  17. Ethnic Disparities in Glycemic Control Among Rural Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore, Lindsay K.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2006-01-01

    Glycemic control is a predictor of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about how well older adults in rural communities, with limited access to self-care resources and specialty care practitioners, control their diabetes. Even less is known about whether minority, older, rural adults are at increased risk for poor glycemic control. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected older (≥65 years) adults with type 2 diabetes in rural North Carolina. Participants (N=693) were men and women from three ethnic groups: African American, Native American, and White. Capillary blood samples were collected for HbA1C analysis. HbA1C levels (<7%, 7%–<8%, and ≥8%) were compared across ethnic and gender groups. Two multiple logistic regression models (model 1: personal characteristics; model 2: personal and health characteristics) were used to evaluate potential predictors of HbA1C ≥7%. Overall, 36.4% had HbA1C ≥7%. Native Americans and African-American men had the highest proportion at levels of poor glycemic control (≥7%), and African-American women and White men had the lowest. In bivariate analysis, ethnicity, living arrangements, use of medications for diabetes, having a diabetes-related healthcare visit in the past year, and duration of diabetes were significantly associated with glycemic control. In multivariate analysis (model 1), being Native American, having low income without Medicaid, and being married were associated with poor glycemic control. Adding health characteristics (model 2), longer diabetes duration and diabetes medication therapy were significant predictors. These data indicate that older ethnic minorities in rural communities are at increased risk for diabetes complications and need diabetes management strategies to improve glycemic control. PMID:16259490

  18. Health Promotion and Health Behaviors of Diverse Ethnic/Racial Women Cosmetologists: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Thelusma, Naomi; Ralston, Penny

    2016-01-01

    Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists’ involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices. PMID:27199580

  19. Sociocultural and identity predictors of body dissatisfaction in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Rakhkovskaya, Liya M; Warren, Cortney S

    2016-03-01

    Emerging research suggests that ethnic identity and American identity are associated with mental health in ethnic minorities and European Americans, respectively. Furthermore, although ethnic identity is associated with diminished body dissatisfaction in minority women, the relationship between American identity and body dissatisfaction is unexplored in all ethnic groups. Accordingly, this study examined the relationships among ethnic identity, American identity, thin-ideal internalization, pressures for thinness, and body dissatisfaction in 1018 ethnically diverse college women. Ethnic identity negatively predicted body dissatisfaction for African Americans, and attenuated the relationship between pressures for thinness and body dissatisfaction for African Americans and Asian Americans, but not European Americans or Latina Americans. Results for American identity were inconclusive. Findings suggest that ethnic identity may be a protective factor against eating pathology for Asian American and African American women. PMID:26609942

  20. Health information seeking behaviors of ethnically diverse adolescents.

    PubMed

    Okoniewski, Anastasia E; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F H

    2014-08-01

    Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas' information seeking behavior framework to, examine the participants'' report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas' framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322

  1. Health Information Seeking Behaviors of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Okoniewski, Anastasia E.; Lee, Young Ji; Rodriguez, Martha; Schnall, Rebecca; Low, Alexander F. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research on health information has primarily focused on the needs of adults or parents of children with chronic illnesses or consumers. There is limited research on the health information needs of adolescents and in particular those from underserved communities. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to understand the health information needs of healthy, urban adolescents, and how they met those needs. Focus group methodology was used to gather information from a sample of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Data was analyzed using Kriekelas’ Information Seeking Behavior framework to, examine the participants” report of their immediate and deferred health information needs. Our sample of adolescents used several different sources to satisfy their health information needs depending on acuity and severity, which was congruent with Kriekelas’ framework. Understanding how adolescents use technology to meet their health information needs, and in what order of preference, will be critical for the development of technology that adolescents find useful and has the potential to decrease health disparities. PMID:23512322

  2. Dating violence and substance use among ethnically diverse adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jeff R; Freeman, Daniel H

    2011-03-01

    Teen dating violence is a serious public health concern with numerous and long-lasting consequences. Although alcohol and drug use have been associated with dating violence, little is known about the role of specific substances, especially the use of club drugs and the nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Thus, the authors examined the association between dating violence victimization and the use of a variety of licit and illicit substances among 1,565 ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged high school students in southeast Texas. Past year dating violence victimization was reported by 14.1% of boys and 11.3% of girls. Compared to their nonabused counterparts, youth who experienced dating violence were more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, binge drink alcohol, sniff glue to get high, use marijuana, use ecstasy, use Vicodin, and use Xanax. However, with the exception of alcohol and cigarettes, all substances were reduced to nonsignificance in multivariate analyses. No differences were found in the rate of dating violence between African American, White, and Hispanic adolescents. PMID:20587475

  3. Social isolation, support, and capital and nutritional risk in an older sample: ethnic and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Locher, Julie L; Ritchie, Christine S; Roth, David L; Baker, Patricia Sawyer; Bodner, Eric V; Allman, Richard M

    2005-02-01

    This study examines the relationships that exist between social isolation, support, and capital and nutritional risk in older black and white women and men. The paper reports on 1000 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 and older enrolled in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging, a longitudinal observational study of mobility among older black and white participants in the USA. Black women were at greatest nutritional risk; and black women and men were the groups most likely to be socially isolated and to possess the least amounts of social support and social capital. For all ethnic-gender groups, greater restriction in independent life-space (an indicator of social isolation) was associated with increased nutritional risk. For black women and white men, not having adequate transportation (also an indicator of social isolation) was associated with increased nutritional risk. Additionally, for black and white women and white men, lower income was associated with increased nutritional risk. For white women only, the perception of a low level of social support was associated with increased nutritional risk. For black men, not being married (an indicator of social support) and not attending religious services regularly, restricting activities for fear of being attacked, and perceived discrimination (indicators of social capital) were associated with increased nutritional risk. Black females had the greatest risk of poor nutritional health, however more indicators of social isolation, support, and capital were associated with nutritional risk for black men. Additionally, the indicators of social support and capital adversely affecting nutritional risk for black men differed from those associated with nutritional risk in other ethnic-gender groups. This research has implications for nutritional policies directed towards older adults. PMID:15571893

  4. Ethnic Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Attitude toward School: Adaptive Perspectives in Diverse Settings

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the 2010–2011 academic year suggests that the relationship between ethnic identity and attitude toward school is a complex interaction among individual characteristics of ethnicity/race, ethnic identity, gender, and ecological context. Quantitative results reveal that White female and Hispanic and African American male students exhibit strong ethnic identity that correlates positively with school attitude; however, qualitative results indicate very different paths in getting to those outcomes. Hispanic students appear to benefit from a strong ethnic identity that assists with positive relationships at school, while African American male students utilize parental cultural socialization as a protective function in school. The results emphasize the implications of positive school climates for all students. PMID:25866457

  5. A Review of Ethnicity, Culture, and Acculturation Among Asian Caregivers of Older Adults (2000-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Miyawaki, Christina E.

    2015-01-01

    This review identified domains of care experiences among studies of Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese caregivers in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2012. Using a narrative approach, 46 peer-reviewed journal articles were found through electronic databases and references. Considering caregivers’ assimilation to host countries, attention was given to their culture, socioeconomic resources, immigrant status, filial responsibility, generation, and acculturation. Three primary domains were identified across subgroups. The caregivers’ experiences domain was a strong sense of filial responsibility and its varied effects on caregiving experience; in the cultural values domain, reciprocity, and familism. In the acculturation domain, caregivers’ generations influenced their experiences. Because our society is rapidly changing demographically and culturally, studies of older adults and their caregivers that are not only inclusive of all racial/ethnic groups but also sensitive to specific racial/ethnic and cultural subgroup differences are necessary to inform policy and practice. PMID:26229736

  6. Is it racism? Skepticism and resistance towards ethnic minority care workers among older care recipients.

    PubMed

    Jönson, Håkan

    2007-01-01

    The study investigates the occurrence and character of skepticism and resistance towards ethnic minority care workers among older care recipients in a municipality in Sweden. Twelve representatives of caregiver organizations were interviewed about their experience of this phenomenon. Three additional interviews were conducted with ethnic minority care workers. Representatives described the problem as rare and mostly occurring as language difficulties or as a temporary problem characterized as a fear of the unknown among some care recipients. They tended to apply a pragmatic or pathologizing approach when talking about causes of and solutions to the problem. These approaches enabled care providers to comply with "potential racism" without challenging an official ideology of anti-racism. In contrast, staff of foreign descent described the problem as more frequent and severe, particularly for short-term employees who experience many first-time encounters with care recipients. PMID:17953063

  7. Managing Transition and Student Support Services for Ethnically Diverse College Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Sunday O.

    2006-01-01

    For many ethnically diverse students with learning disabilities, participation in postsecondary education is necessary. However, to achieve this goal, a comprehensive transition planning is essential. As a consequence, postsecondary personnel must collaborate with others to ensure nondiscriminatory but sensible treatment of ethnically diverse…

  8. Psychometric Properties of Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) Scores with Australian Adolescents from Diverse Ethnocultural Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; McEvoy, Peter; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the reliability and factor structure of scores on a 12-item version of Phinney's multigroup ethnic identity measure with an Australian sample from diverse cultural backgrounds. Participants were 485 students aged between 10 and 15 years. The results generally supported the reliability of the ethnic identity scale…

  9. Interracial Friendship and Structural Diversity: Trends for Greek, Religious, and Ethnic Student Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Kim, Young K.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how peer interactions in college organizations (Greek, ethnic, and religious) affect interracial friendships, including whether peer interaction in student organizations mediates the relationship between structural diversity and interracial friendship. Involvement in ethnic student organizations was non-significant;…

  10. Enhancing Campus Climates for Racial/Ethnic Diversity: Educational Policy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Sylvia; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Clayton-Pedersen, Alma R.; Allen, Walter R.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes research findings on campus racial climate according to a four-dimensional model: (1) an institutions' historical legacy of inclusion/exclusion of various racial/ethnic groups; (2) structural diversity, or numerical representations of various racial/ethnic groups; (3) psychological climate (perceptions, attitudes among groups); and (4)…

  11. Ethnic Identity, Gender, and Adolescent Attitude toward School: Adaptive Perspectives in Diverse Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin M.; Frey, Christopher J.; Gerard, Jean M.; Collet, Bruce; Bartimole, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between adolescent ethnic identity and attitudes toward school and school climate are investigated in a small, multiracial/multiethnic city in the Great Lakes region with ethnically diverse adolescents taught by primarily White teachers. The mixed methods investigation of 986 eighth through eleventh grade students during the…

  12. Leading Multi-Ethnic Schools: Adjustments in Concepts and Practices for Engaging with Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Saeeda

    2008-01-01

    The student population across world is increasingly reflective of diverse cultures, religions and ethnicities. This rich diversity may become a challenge for educational leaders, teachers, and policy-makers in the absence of an understanding of diverse sources of knowledge people draw on for directing their beliefs and daily practices. This paper…

  13. Marketing Your Camp to Diverse Populations: Tips To Reach Ethnic Markets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicodemus, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    Cultural differences enhance the wonder of camp. Tips for reaching diverse populations include emphasizing multicultural programming in promotional materials, distributing flyers in diverse neighborhoods, having diverse staff, advertising on radio stations popular with ethnic communities, offering scholarships, advertising through national ethnic…

  14. A State-Level Review of Diversity Initiatives in Congregate Meal Programs Established Under the Older Americans Act.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kristen E; Cahill, Sean

    2015-10-01

    The Older Americans Act (OAA) congregate meal program (CMP) targets those most at risk for nutritional deficiencies, social isolation, and institutionalization. Social minorities (racial, ethnic, cultural, and sexual minorities) are at high risk for all three. This study explores state-level diversity initiatives to welcome these social minorities in CMPs. A national survey was distributed to each State Unit on Aging, all but three states participated. The majority of states (64.6%) target CMPs to a specific racial, ethnic, or cultural minority; five states target sexual minorities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender [LGBT]). Negative binomial regression results find state minority population percentage is a significant predictor of the number of diversity initiatives at CMPs. States with LGBT CMPs reported the highest levels of racial/ethnic/cultural diversity initiatives and high levels of statewide LGBT protective policies. Recommendations are suggested that build upon the diversification success of states to further the mission of OAA in reaching high-risk older adults. PMID:25651589

  15. Cultural Mistrust, Ethnic Identity, Racial Identity, and Self-Esteem among Ethnically Diverse Black University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Rosemary E.; Taylor, Janice D.; Gerard, Phyllis A.

    2001-01-01

    Examines cultural mistrust, ethnic identity, racial identity, and self-esteem among Black university students (N=160). African American students' scores were statistically different from those of African and West Indian/Caribbean students on cultural mistrust, racial identity, and ethnic identity measures. There were no statistically significant…

  16. Interpretation time in an ethnically diverse pediatric orthopedic clinic.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon; Sobralske, Mary; Raney, Ellen; Carino, Brian

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to determine whether there were differences in clinical encounter time between patients who speak English and those who require an interpretation service in an ethnically diverse pediatric clinic. Design/methodology/approach - Encounter time with patients requiring interpretation was compared to encounter time with patients who spoke English. The sample consisted of 310 encounters at a pediatric orthopedic clinic where patients spoke over 18 primary languages. Data were analyzed using ANOVA to compare four types of encounters. Findings - Approximately 12 percent (n=38) required interpretation and encounters requiring interpretation took 30 percent (nine minutes) longer than those that did not, p < 0.01(25 vs 16 minutes). Furthermore, this difference was mainly among new patients: Approximately, 53 percent increase in time for new patient encounters requiring interpretation (36 vs 23 minutes) while only 25 percent increase in encounter time for established patients (20 vs 16 minutes) was detected. Research limitations/implications - Preventing problems due to language barriers requires time for interpretation which places demands on staff resources and presents clinical challenges. However, long-term benefits of quality health care outweigh the costs associated with interpretation service. Originality/value - To the knowledge, this is the first study to investigate actual encounter time differences in a pediatric clinical setting. The authors found that clinical encounters requiring interpretation took approximately nine minutes longer in general and four minutes longer for established patients. These findings could give much needed information for hospital administrators to allocate appropriate amounts of time and resources to care for those who need interpretation services. However, they also indicate a broader concern of the reduction of clinical encounter time for overall health care system in the country that might need

  17. Managing Legitimacy in the Educational Quasi-Market: A Study of Ethnically Diverse, Inclusive Schools in Flanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mampaey, Jelle; Zanoni, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine how ethnically diverse, inclusive schools manage their legitimacy in an educational quasi-market. These schools are often threatened with a loss of legitimacy as ethnic majority parents perceive an ethnically diverse student population and radical pedagogical practices as signs of lower quality education. However,…

  18. The Culture Care Meaning of Comfort for Ethnically Diverse Pre-Licensure Baccalaureate Nursing Students in the Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, Lynne K.

    2010-01-01

    The nursing profession is calling for enhanced diversity within the ranks of registered nurses to meet the health care needs of an increasingly diverse society. Nursing education is faced with the challenge of retaining ethnically diverse nursing students. Students who are ethnically diverse face unique challenges in addition to the universal…

  19. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development. PMID:26142190

  20. Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Hearing Health Care Among Older Americans

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, Carrie L.; Marrone, Nicole; Szanton, Sarah L.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Lin, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hearing impairment is highly prevalent, but little is known about hearing health care among older minority adults. Method We analyzed nationally representative, cross-sectional data from 1,544 older adults ≥70 years with audiometry and hearing care data from the 2005-2006 and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys. Results After adjusting for age and speech frequency pure tone average, Blacks (odds ratio [OR] = 1.68, vs. Whites) and those with greater education (OR = 1.63, ≥college vs. older adults and those with greater socioeconomic status were more likely to report regular hearing aid use (all ps < .05). Based on a multivariate analysis, Blacks were not more likely than Whites to use hearing aids despite being more likely to have had recent hearing testing. Discussion Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities exist in hearing health care and represent critical areas for research and intervention. PMID:25953816

  1. Ethnic and gender variations in the associations between family cohesion, family conflict, and depression in older Asian and Latino adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Mijung; Unützer, Jürgen; Grembowski, David

    2014-12-01

    To examine the associations between family conflict, family cohesion and late-life depression in Latino and Asian populations and test if these associations vary by race/ethnicity and gender. We used a subsample of older adults from the National Latino Asian American Study (N = 395). All analyses were weighted and adjusted for individual and clinical characteristics. Greater family cohesion was associated with decrease in risk for depression in Latino and Asian older adult populations (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.84). These associations varied by gender, with men being more sensitive to family cohesion and family conflict than women. Asian older adults were more sensitive to family conflict, whereas Latino older adults were more sensitive to family cohesion. The quality of family relationships is strongly associated with late-life depression. Further research is needed to better understand the complex interplay between social support, ethnicity, and gender in latelife depression outcomes. PMID:24129849

  2. Exploring the Educational Benefits of Attending an Ethnically Diverse Magnet High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Jill

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather teacher and student perceptions of the educational benefits that emerge from providing diverse learning environments for students attending an inter-district magnet school. Research Questions were (1) In what ways do teachers and students report that the magnet school offers an ethnically diverse learning…

  3. Ethnic and Gender Diversity, Process and Performance in Groups of Business Students in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umans, Timurs; Collin, Sven-Olof; Tagesson, Torbjorn

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the complex interrelation between ethnic and gender diversity, process and performance among groups of business students. The article is based on an empirical survey of business students working on a complex assignment in groups of two to five in a small Swedish university. The results indicate that gender diversity leads…

  4. Paradoxical Attitudes among a College of Education Faculty towards Ethnic Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Malinda Hendricks

    This study investigated conflicting attitudes toward diversity among college of education faculty at one metropolitan, southwestern university, focusing on their personal attitudes toward ethnic diversity. The study looked at whether they could simultaneously hold progressive and traditional values, egalitarian and individualistic attitudes. This…

  5. Strategies for research recruitment and retention of older adults of racial and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham J; Simpson, Gaynell; Friend, Mary Louanne

    2015-05-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.4 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Strategies for Research Recruitment and Retention of Older Adults of Racial and Ethnic Minorities" found on pages 14-23, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until April 30, 2018. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVE 1. Identify strategies and barriers for the recruitment and retention of older adults of

  6. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  7. Family Ethnicity: Strength in Diversity. Sage Focus Editions, Volume 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.

    Extensive information is provided about the various cultural elements, including attitudes toward education and work, that different family groups have drawn on in order to exist in the United States today. The family ethnicities of five distinct cultures (Native American, African American, Mexican American and Spanish origin, Muslim American, and…

  8. Responding to Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Francis

    2011-01-01

    In today's society professionals working with children want to provide what is best for all children. This requires them to be culturally responsive in their approach to children and their families. Part of being culturally responsive is to be knowledgeable and sensitive to issues of race and ethnicity. However, this is difficult to do, because…

  9. The Social Studies, Ethnic Diversity, and Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes goals to reform the school curriculum advocated by recent ethnic revival movements of Western societies and the factors that have prevented significant reform. A strategy is proposed that conceptualizes a teacher as a cultural mediator and an agent of change, and a social studies curriculum that promotes social criticism and civic…

  10. Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p < 0.001). In fully adjusted models, heterogeneity was attenuated (p = 0.05) with BMI among all US-born ethnic groups significantly higher than BMI for immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups. PMID:25192818

  11. Sources of Response Bias in Older Ethnic Minorities: A Case of Korean American Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miyong T.; Ko, Jisook; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Kim, Kim B.; Jang, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate potential sources of response bias in empirical research involving older ethnic minorities and to identify prudent strategies to reduce those biases, using Korean American elderly (KAE) as an example. Data were obtained from three independent studies of KAE (N=1,297; age ≥60) in three states (Florida, New York, and Maryland) from 2000 to 2008. Two common measures, Pearlin’s Mastery Scale and the CES-D scale, were selected for a series of psychometric tests based on classical measurement theory. Survey items were analyzed in depth, using psychometric properties generated from both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis as well as correlational analysis. Two types of potential sources of bias were identified as the most significant contributors to increases in error variances for these psychological instruments. Error variances were most prominent when (1) items were not presented in a manner that was culturally or contextually congruent with respect to the target population and/or (2) the response anchors for items were mixed (e.g., positive vs. negative). The systemic patterns and magnitudes of the biases were also cross-validated for the three studies. The results demonstrate sources and impacts of measurement biases in studies of older ethnic minorities. The identified response biases highlight the need for re-evaluation of current measurement practices, which are based on traditional recommendations that response anchors should be mixed or that the original wording of instruments should be rigidly followed. Specifically, systematic guidelines for accommodating cultural and contextual backgrounds into instrument design are warranted. PMID:26049971

  12. Sources of Response Bias in Older Ethnic Minorities: A Case of Korean American Elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miyong T; Lee, Ju-Young; Ko, Jisook; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Kim, Kim B; Jang, Yuri

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate potential sources of response bias in empirical research involving older ethnic minorities and to identify prudent strategies to reduce those biases, using Korean American elderly (KAE) as an example. Data were obtained from three independent studies of KAE (N = 1,297; age ≥60) in three states (Florida, New York, and Maryland) from 2000 to 2008. Two common measures, Pearlin's Mastery Scale and the CES-D scale, were selected for a series of psychometric tests based on classical measurement theory. Survey items were analyzed in depth, using psychometric properties generated from both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis as well as correlational analysis. Two types of potential sources of bias were identified as the most significant contributors to increases in error variances for these psychological instruments. Error variances were most prominent when (1) items were not presented in a manner that was culturally or contextually congruent with respect to the target population and/or (2) the response anchors for items were mixed (e.g., positive vs. negative). The systemic patterns and magnitudes of the biases were also cross-validated for the three studies. The results demonstrate sources and impacts of measurement biases in studies of older ethnic minorities. The identified response biases highlight the need for re-evaluation of current measurement practices, which are based on traditional recommendations that response anchors should be mixed or that the original wording of instruments should be rigidly followed. Specifically, systematic guidelines for accommodating cultural and contextual backgrounds into instrument design are warranted. PMID:26049971

  13. Expanding our borders: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology's special issue on immigration.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Nadine; Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Zárate, Michael A

    2013-07-01

    Introduces the current special issue of the journal, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. This special issue focuses on the topic of immigration and highlights the important within group differences often overlooked when immigrants are conceptualized as a homogeneous group. The articles in this journal consider a variety of microsystems, such as educational settings, ethnic and gay communities, and communities with anti-immigration laws. PMID:23875848

  14. Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults after Divorce and Remarriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H.; Rothrauff, Tanja C.

    2006-01-01

    We examined beliefs about intergenerational responsibilities to assist older kin with a national sample of 362 Latinos, 492 African Americans, 121 Asian Americans, and 2,122 White European Americans using multiple-segment factorial vignettes. More similarities than differences existed between ethnic groups, but Asian Americans and African…

  15. Physical appearance comparisons in ethnically diverse college women.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Lauren M; Thibodaux, Lia K; Krenik, Daniel; Arnold, Elysse; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Research demonstrates ethnic differences in rates of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Appearance comparison frequency is related to these outcomes, however, research has not examined possible ethnic differences in levels of appearance comparisons nor their relation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. The current study examined the frequency of appearance comparisons and the strength of the relationships between appearance comparisons, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Measures of appearance comparison, appearance evaluation, and disordered eating were administered to 895 college women. Compared with White and Hispanic women, Black women reported fewer appearance comparisons, more positive appearance evaluation, and lower levels of disordered eating. Associations between examined variables were generally weaker among Black women. Results suggest that the reduced frequency and impact of appearance comparisons may contribute to more positive appearance evaluation and reduced levels of disordered eating among Black women. PMID:26453998

  16. Individual differences in preferences for matched-ethnic mentors among high-achieving ethnically diverse adolescents in STEM.

    PubMed

    Syed, Moin; Goza, Barbara K; Chemers, Martin M; Zurbriggen, Eileen L

    2012-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined (a) adolescents' contact with mentors who share their background in relation to the importance they place on having such mentors, and (b) the associations of these perceptions with self-efficacy, identity, and commitment to a science career. Participants were 265 ethnically diverse adolescents (M age = 15.82) attending a 4-week science education program. Cluster analyses indicated that at Time 1, underrepresented ethnic minorities were more often in the cluster defined by feelings of importance of having a matched-background mentor but not having much contact. Perceptions of contact increased over time for these students and were associated with increased feelings of identity as a science student. The results suggest the need for attending to individual differences in students' preferences for matched-background mentors. PMID:22506789

  17. The Link between Classroom Ethnic Diversity and Civic Attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany. Research Briefing No. 75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread belief in educational circles that ethnically mixed schools contribute to inter-ethnic tolerance and community cohesion by making sustained inter-ethnic contact possible. This research explores the relation between classroom ethno-racial diversity and civic attitudes in England, Sweden and Germany using data from the…

  18. Can competing diversity indices inform us about why ethnic diversity erodes social cohesion? A test of five diversity indices in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Merlin

    2013-05-01

    An ever-growing number of studies investigates the relation between ethnic diversity and social cohesion, but these studies have produced mixed results. In cross-national research, some scholars have recently started to investigate more refined and informative indices of ethnic diversity than the commonly used Hirschman-Herfindahl Index. These refined indices allow to test competing theoretical explanations of why ethnic diversity is associated with declines in social cohesion. This study assesses the applicability of this approach for sub-national analyses. Generally, the results confirm a negative association between social cohesion and ethnic diversity. However, the competing indices are empirically indistinguishable and thus insufficient to test different theories against one another. Follow-up simulations suggest the general conclusion that the competing indices are meaningful operationalizations only if a sample includes: (1) contextual units with small and contextual units with large minority shares, as well as (2) contextual units with diverse and contextual units with polarized ethnic compositions. The results are thus instructive to all researchers who wish to apply different diversity indices and thereby test competing theories. PMID:23521993

  19. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans

    PubMed Central

    MIYAWAKI, CHRISTINA E.

    2015-01-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57–85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  20. Examining the Relationships among Classroom Goal Structure, Achievement Goal Orientation, Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning for Ethnically Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, David; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill; Shores, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the learning strategies used by ethnically diverse learners and to investigate the relationships among the constructs of classroom goal structure, achievement goal orientation, motivation and self-regulated learning in an ethnically diverse population of fourth and fifth grade learners (n = 396). Goal…

  1. Influence of Ethnic-Related Diversity Experiences on Intercultural Sensitivity of Students at a Public University in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamam, Ezhar; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the influence of ethnic-related diversity experiences on intercultural sensitivity among Malaysian students at a multiethnic, multicultural and multilingual Malaysian public university. Results reveal a significant differential level of ethnic-related diversity experiences (but not at the level of intercultural…

  2. "Most girls want to be skinny": body (dis)satisfaction among ethnically diverse women.

    PubMed

    Cheney, Ann M

    2011-10-01

    In this article, I present the findings from an ethnographic study of 18 women college students living in the northeastern United States. I examine how ethnically diverse women dealt with the messages of the dominant White society's obsession with thinness, and whether it affected their perceptions of an ideal body image. From the analysis of the interviews, I identified and extracted several themes related to ethnicity, aesthetic body ideals, body dissatisfaction, and disturbed eating. Grounded in the women's narratives, I found that ethnically diverse women coming of age in American society experience anxieties and emotional stress as they related to others in their daily lives. Their stories shed light on how the body is a vehicle for social mobility and is used by women from marginalized identities to strategically negotiate social inequalities embedded in daily social relationships and interactions that more privileged women do not encounter. PMID:21148325

  3. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  4. Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Nobles, Jenna

    2009-11-01

    What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question for Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence-as embodied in local ethnicity-based laws and customs known as 'adat'-relate to actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviour, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that traditional marriage norms can persist even when a society is in the process of rapid socio-economic development. PMID:19851937

  5. Neither bridging nor bonding: A test of socialization effects by ethnically diverse voluntary associations on participants' inter-ethnic tolerance, inter-ethnic trust and intra-ethnic belonging.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The distinction between bridging and bonding associations is a cornerstone of social capital research. Nevertheless, this study is the first to provide a direct test of the socialization mechanism that supposedly causes ethnically mixed (bridging) associations to generate interethnic tolerance and trust, and homogenous (bonding) associations to cement self-affirming identities. This multilevel analysis of the Citizenship, Involvement & Democracy (CID) 1999/2000 survey data on Mannheim (Germany), Enschede (the Netherlands), and Aberdeen (Scotland) covers 3166 active participants in 645 associations. The CID includes objective, exogenous measures of each association's composition and aim. Socialization and self-selection effects are pulled apart through interactions with detailed measures of associational involvement. The results display no evidence for (diverse and homogenous) associations as socializing agents. Although inter-ethnic tolerance is higher in ethnically diverse associations, this should be attributed to self-selection effects. PMID:26680288

  6. Defining Diversity: Ethnic Differences in Black Students' Perceptions of Racial Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Kimberly A.; Cunningham, Emil L.; George Mwangi, Chrystal A.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study addresses the potential range of perspectives within the Black student community, focusing specifically on differences by ethnicity and nativity. Narratives were collected from 43 Black students (15 native, 28 immigrants) enrolled at a predominantly White research institution, analyzing their perspectives on diversity and…

  7. Caribbean Families: Diversity among Ethnic Groups. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Brown, Janet, Ed.

    Little is known about the development and function of families in major Caribbean communities, an area composed of diverse ethnic and political groups, the majority of whom live on the edge of poverty. This edited book provides an interdisciplinary examination of Caribbean families, each chapter detailing studies dealing with family structures and…

  8. Preferences towards Sex Education and Information from an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, L.; Testa, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports sex education preferences from an ethnically diverse sample of 3007 15-18 year olds. Findings are presented on preferred topics, where and from whom young people would like to receive this information. Preferences were centred around learning more about sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in particular,…

  9. Project Spring II: Identifying Rural Disadvantaged and Ethnically Diverse Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicker, Howard H.; Aamidor, Shirley E.

    This manual was developed as part of a project to identify and serve the needs of gifted and talented economically disadvantaged students (grades 3-8) from ethnically diverse populations. Section 1 presents a leader's manual for a workshop designed to help teachers understand that many gifted students are not being identified for program…

  10. Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education: Summary of a Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Surmounting the Barriers: Ethnic Diversity in Engineering Education" is the summary of a workshop held in September 2013 to take a fresh look at the impediments to greater diversification in engineering education. The workshop brought together educators in engineering from two- and four-year colleges and staff members from the three…

  11. Efforts in Increasing Racial and Ethnic Diversity in the Field of Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie

    2015-01-01

    There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy, with a particular need to increase the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in educational programs. In a sample of 16 art therapy program directors, strategies and barriers to recruitment were identified through an anonymous online survey. The results of the survey…

  12. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2008. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino,…

  13. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2010. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education". The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…

  14. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2011. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education." The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino,…

  15. Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education, 2009. Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the participation of minority groups at public colleges and universities is a longstanding goal of the Board of Governors for Higher Education, as first outlined in its 1983 "Strategic Plan to Ensure Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Connecticut Public Higher Education". The minority groups defined by the plan are: Hispanic/Latino, African…

  16. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Management of Peer Relationships in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mounts, Nina S.

    2004-01-01

    Relations between adolescents' reports of parental management of peer relationships (consulting, mediating, and autonomy granting in regard to peer relationships) and positive friendship quality, friendship conflict, delinquent activity, and drug use were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of 322 7th and 8th graders. Regression analyses…

  17. Social Beliefs as Determinants of Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among Ethnically Diverse University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Ben C. H.; Kwantes, Catherine T.; Towson, Shelagh; Nanson, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the role of pancultural social beliefs, as measured by the Social Axioms Survey (SAS), in predicting attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help in an ethnically diverse sample of Canadian university students (N = 400). The result of a hierarchical regression showed that the collective contribution of the…

  18. Subjective Well-Being in Urban, Ethnically Diverse Adolescents the Role of Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Vacek, Kimberly; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura; Gomez, Kenia; Jorgenson, Katherine; Luginbuhl, Paula; Moallem, Isabel; Steele, John C.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines stressors, general stress levels, coping strategies, and subjective well-being in a sample of 144 ethnically diverse, urban adolescents (mean age of 13). The most frequently reported stressors include the death of a family member, feeling socially isolated, family financial problems, injury of a family member, and parents…

  19. Beta cell function and BMI in ethnically diverse children with newly diagnosed autoimmune type 1 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to examine the relationship between BMI and beta-cell function at diagnosis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a large group of ethnically diverse children. Cross-sectional analysis of 524 children (60.8% White, 19.5% Hispanic, 14.5% African-American, 5.2% other n...

  20. The association between acanthosis nigricans and dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth grade students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and to quantify its association with dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth-grade students. Data were collected in 2003 from a cross-sectional study of students from 12 middle schools in three US stat...

  1. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Schools: The Case of English Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerin-Lajoie, Diane

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, schools located in English Canada have experienced important demographic changes in their student population. This article examines the racial, ethnic, linguistic, and cultural diversity in these schools, through the discourses of those who spend the most time with the students: teachers and principals. Here, the concept of…

  2. Classroom Dimensions Predict Early Peer Interaction when Children Are Diverse in Ethnicity, Race, and Home Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Guerra, Alison Wishard; Fuligni, Allison; Zucker, Eleanor; Lee, Linda; Obregon, Nora B.; Spivak, Asha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model for predicting preschool-age children's behaviors with peers from dimensions of the classroom and teacher-child relationship quality when the children were from diverse race, ethnic, and home language backgrounds. Eight hundred children, (M=age 63 months, SD=8.1 months), part of the National Evaluation…

  3. The Value of Telephone Support Groups among Ethnically Diverse Caregivers of Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Adam L.; Arguelles, Soledad; Rubert, Mark; Eisdorfer, Carl; Czaja, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Dementia caregiving is a rapidly growing public health problem. Logistical problems prevent many caregivers from utilizing available interventions. This article provides a demonstration of the usefulness of technology for conducting telephone-based support groups in ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. Design and Methods: Participants…

  4. Nursing Faculty Roles in Teaching Racially and Ethnically Diverse Nursing Students in a Registered Nurse Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Kenya V.

    2009-01-01

    Racial and ethnic health care disparities continue to plague the United States, placing a tremendous personal and societal burden on individuals. A culturally diverse nursing work force can help eliminate these disparities and improve the quality of health care that is delivered. However, the nursing profession does not reflect the nation's…

  5. Direct and interactive links between cross-ethnic friendships and peer rejection, internalizing symptoms, and academic engagement among ethnically diverse children.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R

    2015-04-01

    The present study examined direct and interactive links between friendships and social, academic, and psychological adjustment problems (i.e., peer rejection as nominated by same-ethnic and cross-ethnic peers, teacher-reported academic engagement, and teacher-reported internalizing symptoms) among school-age children in multiethnic schools (n = 509, age: 9-10). The data, which included 2 time points with a 6-month interval, were drawn from a relatively large-sized, short-term longitudinal study. Results showed that cross-ethnic friendships (not same-ethnic friendships) were associated with greater academic engagement concurrently and predated decreased peer rejection and internalizing symptoms longitudinally, even after controlling for the availability of same-ethnic peers and classroom diversity. Furthermore, cross-ethnic friendships (not same-ethnic friendships) moderated the link between relational victimization and increased peer rejection and greater internalizing symptoms, such that this link was evidenced for children with fewer cross-ethnic friendships. However, the moderation effect was contingent upon the type of outcome variables and the ethnicity of the child. For example, the buffering effect against the negative contribution of relational victimization to internalizing symptoms was found particularly for African American children. The findings are discussed based on theories of normative development, ethnic socialization, and intergroup relations. PMID:25486496

  6. Multiple Voices for Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Bridgie Alexis, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This publication is designed to address new paradigms such as research, policies, and daily school practices which tend to reduce or perpetuate inequities in educational opportunities for culturally and linguistically diverse individuals with disabilities and/or gifts and talents. This particular issue includes articles that discuss referrals of…

  7. Predictors of Condom Use Self-Efficacy in an Ethnically Diverse University Sample

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    A multitude of factors influence condom use self-efficacy, including age, gender, ethnicity, condom use attitudes and barriers, sexual experience, and partner characteristics. The current study integrated past research by evaluating these factors in a large, ethnically diverse university sample of women and men (N = 665). The role of gender on condom use and sexuality variables was assessed across ethnic groups. Hierarchical linear regressions were then calculated to explain levels of condom use self-efficacy using the hypothesized sexual predictors in nonvirgin, sexually active, and recent condom use subsamples. Predictors explained 18–45% of variance in condom use self-efficacy. Findings suggest that a few key variables accounted for the majority of variance in condom use self-efficacy: condom use attitudes, condom use barriers, satisfaction with sexual communication, anticipated number of sexual partners, one-time sexual encounters, and ethnic identity. Significant gender differences emerged in condom use self-efficacy, condom use attitudes, and condom use behaviors. Ethnic differences were found in range of sexual experience and sexual partner characteristics. It is recommended that future studies examining sexual risk behavior incorporate the diverse sexual factors that affect condom use self-efficacy. PMID:16804746

  8. Cervical cancer screening among ethnically diverse black women: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices.

    PubMed

    Brown, Diane R; Wilson, Rula M; Boothe, Makini A S; Harris, Caroline E S

    2011-08-01

    This is a descriptive study of cervical cancer screening knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices among ethnically diverse black women. We conducted 6 focus groups with Haitian, African, English-speaking Caribbean, and African American women recruited from a federally qualified health center. Overall, there was limited knowledge and confusion across ethnic groups about cervical cancer and its risk factors, the Pap test, and the human papilloma virus (HPV) and its association with cervical cancer. At the same time, there were distinct differences between ethnic groups in knowledge, practices, and cultural beliefs about cervical cancer. African women knew the least among all the groups, while African American participants had the greatest knowledge of HPV. However, their knowledge was still limited. Patient-doctor relationship was the single most important facilitator for cervical cancer screening. Barriers to cervical cancer screening included cost, busy work schedule, fear of the unknown, lack of insurance or being unemployed, and fear of disclosing immigration status. Interventions with ethnically diverse black women would benefit from recognizing cultural barriers and misconceptions that vary by ethnic group. Culturally based strategies suggested by the focus groups include the use of existing social networks, the use of indigenous community-based health workers, and the inclusion of women of all ages in cervical cancer education because of the roles they have in extended families. PMID:22046849

  9. Ethnic Diversity in Materials Science and Engineering. A report on the workshop on ethnic diversity in materials science and engineering.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Justin

    2014-06-30

    The immediate goal of the workshop was to elevate and identify issues and challenges that have impeded participation of diverse individuals in MSE. The longerterm goals are to continue forward by gathering and disseminating data, launching and tracking initiatives to mitigate the impediments, and increase the number of diverse individuals pursuing degrees and careers in MSE. The larger goal, however, is to create over time an ever-increasing number of role models in science fields who will, in turn, draw others in to contribute to the workforce of the future.

  10. Knowledge and acceptability of the HPV vaccine among ethnically diverse black women.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rula; Brown, Diane R; Boothe, Makini A S; Harris, Caroline E S

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine HPV vaccine knowledge and acceptability among ethnically diverse Black women. Forty-four women were interviewed in 6 focus groups (2 African American, 2 English-speaking Caribbean, 1 Haitian, and 1 African). Thematic content analysis was used to generate common concepts and themes and to compare findings across groups. There was varied but limited knowledge and confusion across ethnic groups about the HPV infection and vaccine. African and Haitian women had the least knowledge. Overall, women were generally receptive toward the HPV vaccine for girls but unclear about the need to vaccinate boys. Concerns about the HPV vaccine were mainly related to side effects/safety and vaccinating children at a young age. Healthcare provider's recommendation of the vaccination was important for decision making. Educational interventions with Black women about HPV vaccination should recognize cultural beliefs that vary by ethnic group. PMID:23197180

  11. Theory-Guided Selection of Discrimination Measures for Racial/Ethnic Health Disparities Research among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, Angela D.; Clay, Olivio J.; Ford, Chandra L.; Stewart, Anita L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Discrimination may contribute to health disparities among older adults. Existing measures of perceived discrimination have provided important insights but may have limitations when used in studies of older adults. This paper illustrates the process of assessing the appropriateness of existing measures for theory-based research on perceived discrimination and health. Methods First we describe three theoretical frameworks that are relevant to the study of perceived discrimination and health – stress-process models, life course models, and the Public Health Critical Race praxis. We then review four widely-used measures of discrimination, comparing their content and describing how well they address key aspects of each theory, and discussing potential areas of modification. Discussion Using theory to guide measure selection can help improve understanding of how perceived discrimination may contribute to racial/ethnic health disparities among older adults. PMID:22451527

  12. Cultural Adaptation for Ethnic Diversity: A Review of Obesity Interventions for Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity disproportionately affects U.S. ethnic minority preschool children, placing them at risk for obesity related co-morbidities and premature death. Effective culturally appropriate interventions are needed to improve health behaviors and reduce obesity in young high-risk minority children, while their behaviors are still developing. All known obesity intervention studies (e.g., diet and physical activity) since 2000 targeting U.S. ethnic minority preschool children were reviewed. Five electronic databases and eight published literature reviews were used to identify the studies. Intervention studies without identified ethnic minority participants were excluded. Ten obesity interventions studies met the review criteria. Published cultural adaptation guidelines were used to develop a mechanism to analyze, score, and rank the intervention adaptations. Cultural adaptations varied widely in rigor, depth, and breadth. Results indicated a relative absence of appropriately adapted obesity interventions for ethnic minority groups, suggesting a need for more rigorous cultural adaptation guidelines when designing obesity interventions for diverse ethnicities. Culturally appropriate adaptations appeared to enhance intervention relevance, effectiveness, and feasibility. The purpose of this literature review was to evaluate 1) the type and extent of cultural adaptations strategies applied to the interventions, and 2) how these adaptations related to the study outcomes. PMID:24159268

  13. Trauma, Socioeconomic Resources, and Self-rated Health in an Ethnically Diverse Adult Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Klest, Bridget; Freyd, Jennifer J.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate ethnic group differences in the association between trauma exposure and health status among an ethnically diverse sample originating in Hawai‘i. Design Across a ten-year period (1998–2008), participants (N = 833) completed five waves of questionnaire assessments. Trauma exposure was measured retrospectively at the most recent assessment (wave 5), socioeconomic resources (educational attainment and employment status) were measured at wave 1, and self-rated health was measured at each of the five waves. Results Results indicated that greater exposure to trauma was associated with poorer self-rated health, as were lower educational attainment and lower work status. In addition there was ethnic group variation in health ratings, as well as in how strongly trauma exposure predicted health status. Specifically, within Filipino American and Native Hawaiian ethnic groups, there was a stronger negative association between trauma exposure and self-rated health. Conclusion These results suggest complex interrelations among trauma, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and physical health. Further understanding these relations may have implications for medical and behavioral interventions in vulnerable populations. PMID:22732011

  14. The relation between polyculturalism and intergroup attitudes among racially and ethnically diverse adults.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R

    2012-01-01

    Research on intergroup ideologies (colorblindness, multiculturalism) has increased our understanding of intergroup attitudes. This article reports empirical tests of the relation between a newly studied ideology, polyculturalism (ideology focusing on interactions and connections among racial/ethnic groups), and intergroup attitudes. Across four studies (with racially/ethnically diverse U.S. undergraduates, and Black and White American adults), greater endorsement of polyculturalism was related to greater equality beliefs; appreciation for and comfort with diversity; willingness for intergroup contact; and endorsement of liberal immigration and affirmative action policies. Polyculturalism explained unique variance after controlling for colorblindness, multiculturalism, assimilation ideology, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism. Implications and future directions of studying polyculturalism are discussed. PMID:22250894

  15. Cultural/interpersonal values and smoking in an ethnically diverse sample of Southern California adolescents.

    PubMed

    Unger, Jennifer B; Shakib, Sohaila; Gallaher, Peggy; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Mouttapa, Michele; Palmer, Paula H; Johnson, C Anderson

    2006-01-01

    In ethnically diverse school contexts, values from multiple cultures might influence adolescents' attitudes and behaviors. This study developed scales to assess cultural values among Southern California 6'-grade adolescents (N=2281) and evaluated the associations between values and smoking. The scales assessed values salient in many Hispanic and Asian cultures: Respect for Adults (e.g., filial piety, respeto), Interpersonal Harmony (e.g., saving face, simpatia), and Differentiated Gender Roles (e.g., machismo). In cross-sectional and one-year longitudinal models, Respect for Adults and Interpersonal Harmony were associated with a lower risk of lifetime smoking. The associations were significant even after controlling for demographic characteristics, friends' smoking, and parents' smoking, indicating that values influence adolescents' behavior over and above the effects of modeling and peer influence. Increased understanding of adolescents' values could inform the creation of smoking prevention programs for ethnically diverse adolescents. PMID:16696546

  16. Racial/ethnic diversity management and cultural competency: the case of Pennsylvania hospitals.

    PubMed

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Dreachslin, Janice L; Dansky, Kathryn H; De Souza, Gita; Gatto, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Major demographic trends are changing the face of America's labor pool, and healthcare managers increasingly face a scarcer and more diverse workforce. As a result, healthcare organizations (HCOs) must develop policies and practices aimed at recruiting, retaining, and managing a diverse workforce and must meet the demands of a more diverse patient population by providing culturally appropriate care and improving access to care for racial/ethnic minorities. Ultimately, the goal of managing diversity is to enhance workforce and customer satisfaction, to improve communication among members of the workforce, and to further improve organizational performance. Research on diversity management practices in HCOs is scarce, providing few guidelines for practitioners. This study attempted to close that gap. Results show that hospitals in Pennsylvania have been relatively inactive with employing diversity management practices, and equal employment requirements are the main driver of diversity management policy. The number and scope of diversity management practices used were not influenced by organizational or market characteristics. The results suggest that hospitals need to adopt diversity management practices for their workforces and need to pay particular attention to marketing and service planning activities that meet the needs of a diverse patient population. PMID:11933599

  17. Serving Children in Biracial/Bi-Ethnic Families: A Supplementary Diversity Curriculum for the Training of Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Child Care Health Program, Oakland.

    Because of increasing numbers of children from biracial/bi-ethnic families attending childcare programs and increasing awareness of cultural diversity, and in recognition of the connection between a child's success and his or her racial/ethnic self-esteem, this curriculum is intended to help childcare providers integrate activities and materials…

  18. Self-Regulated Learning Study Strategies and Academic Performance in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry: An Investigation Examining Ethnically Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Enrique J.; Nandagopal, Kiruthiga; Shavelson, Richard J.; Szu, Evan; Penn, John

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to identify ethnically diverse students' study strategies in organic chemistry and their relationships to course outcomes. Study diaries, concept maps, and problem sets were used to assess study outcomes. Findings show that students engage in four commonly used reviewing-type strategies, regardless of ethnic group…

  19. Recruitment and retention of ethnically diverse long-term family caregivers for research.

    PubMed

    Amador, Tristen K; Travis, Shirley S; McAuley, William J; Bernard, Marie; McCutcheon, Megan

    2006-01-01

    The inclusion of ethnically diverse long-term care family caregivers is significant in research, particularly in social work research because of the importance placed on diverse populations. However, the inclusion of diverse populations poses a set of unique recruitment and retention challenges for researchers. This process can be particularly complicated when multiple long-term care recruitment partners are utilized and when the project involves a multi-phase data collection plan with different minority recruitment needs for each phase. In our work we learned that: (a) research teams should plan for gender and ethnic differences in the ways that family caregivers think about and approach research involvement, (b) socioeconomic disadvantages and ethnic differences have both independent and interactive effects on research participation, (c) physical and emotional "costs," as well as financial costs, of caregiver participation should be given more attention in informed consent procedures, and (d) agency collaboration for minority recruitment and retention requires continuous nurturing and sustained effort by all members of the research team. PMID:17062527

  20. Attitudes about Aging Well among a Diverse Group of Older Americans: Implications for Promoting Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Tseng, Winston; Wu, Bei; Beard, Renee L.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine perceptions about aging well in the context of cognitive health among a large and diverse group of older adults. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups were conducted with older adults living in the community ( N = 396; White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic). Participant descriptions …

  1. Tainted visions: the effect of visionary leader behaviors and leader categorization tendencies on the financial performance of ethnically diverse teams.

    PubMed

    Greer, Lindred L; Homan, Astrid C; De Hoogh, Annebel H B; Den Hartog, Deanne N

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of ethnic diversity, findings regarding its effects on team performance remain contradictory. We suggest that past inconsistencies can be reconciled by examining the joint impact of leader behavior and leader categorization tendencies in ethnically diverse teams. We propose that leaders who exhibit high levels of visionary leader behavior and also have the tendency to categorize their team members into in- and out-groups will facilitate a negative effect of ethnic diversity on team communication and financial performance, whereas leaders who exhibit visionary behaviors but do not tend to categorize will lead ethnically diverse teams to positive outcomes. We find support for these ideas in a study of 100 retail outlets. PMID:21942407

  2. HIV Awareness and Knowledge among Viewers of a Documentary Film about HIV among Racial- or Ethnic-Minority Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ebor, Megan; Murray, Ashley; Gaul, Zaneta; Sutton, Madeline

    2015-08-01

    A documentary film on HIV was developed based on social cognitive theory and entertainment educational methods in an effort to increase awareness and encourage protective behavior change related to HIV among older adults. The documentary includes perspectives from racial- or ethnic-minority older adults who are living with HIV and those of health care providers, and was screened in several venues. Authors of this article conducted thematic content analysis of anonymous, written, open-ended responses from 341 film viewers (clinicians and laypeople) who described what they learned about HIV after viewing the film. Four key themes emerged from the analysis: (1) increased awareness about the epidemiology of HIV among older, minority groups and about sexuality among older people; (2) improved general HIV knowledge, including risk reduction strategies and details about HIV testing; (3) awareness of lack of sexual health education among health care providers, and that a call to action is needed; and (4) awareness that HIV reinfection can occur in certain circumstances with people who are already infected. Findings suggest that an educational documentary can be used to effectively increase awareness and knowledge about the impact of HIV among minority older adults, and may also encourage HIV prevention action steps by providers. PMID:26285361

  3. Mental Health and Suicidality Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Sexual Minority Youths

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, Wendy B.; Meyer, Ilan; Aranda, Frances; Russell, Stephen; Hughes, Tonda; Birkett, Michelle; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationships among sexual minority status, sex, and mental health and suicidality, in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of adolescents. Methods. Using pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys within 14 jurisdictions, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine 6 mental health outcomes across 6 racial/ethnic groups, intersecting with sexual minority status and sex. Based on an omnibus measure of sexual minority status, there were 6245 sexual minority adolescents in the current study. The total sample was n = 72 691. Results. Compared with heterosexual peers, sexual minorities reported higher odds of feeling sad; suicidal ideation, planning and attempts; suicide attempt treated by a doctor or nurse, and self-harm. Among sexual minorities, compared with White youths, Asian and Black youths had lower odds of many outcomes, whereas American Native/Pacific Islander, Latino, and Multiracial youths had higher odds. Conclusions. Although in general, sexual minority youths were at heightened risk for suicidal outcomes, risk varied based on sex and on race/ethnicity. More research is needed to better understand the manner in which sex and race/ethnicity intersect among sexual minorities to influence risk and protective factors, and ultimately, mental health outcomes. PMID:24825217

  4. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ashley; Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice; Lawson, Shari; Polk, Sarah; Levine, David; Bennett, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%), Hispanic (31%), and White (25%) women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23). There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy. PMID:27298738

  5. Trans-ethnic genome-wide association studies: advantages and challenges of mapping in diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun R; Keating, Brendan J

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are the method most often used by geneticists to interrogate the human genome, and they provide a cost-effective way to identify the genetic variants underpinning complex traits and diseases. Most initial GWASs have focused on genetically homogeneous cohorts from European populations given the limited availability of ethnic minority samples and so as to limit population stratification effects. Transethnic studies have been invaluable in explaining the heritability of common quantitative traits, such as height, and in examining the genetic architecture of complex diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. They provide an opportunity for large-scale signal replication in independent populations and for cross-population meta-analyses to boost statistical power. In addition, transethnic GWASs enable prioritization of candidate genes, fine-mapping of functional variants, and potentially identification of SNPs associated with disease risk in admixed populations, by taking advantage of natural differences in genomic linkage disequilibrium across ethnically diverse populations. Recent efforts to assess the biological function of variants identified by GWAS have highlighted the need for large-scale replication, meta-analyses and fine-mapping across worldwide populations of ethnically diverse genetic ancestries. Here, we review recent advances and new approaches that are important to consider when performing, designing or interpreting transethnic GWASs, and we highlight existing challenges, such as the limited ability to handle heterogeneity in linkage disequilibrium across populations and limitations in dissecting complex architectures, such as those found in recently admixed populations. PMID:25473427

  6. Diverse Family Structures and the Care of Older Persons.

    PubMed

    Roberto, Karen A; Blieszner, Rosemary

    2015-09-01

    Demographic and social trends lead to a variety of micro-level and internal structural contexts that influence caregiving in families with older members. The results of macro-level changes have received little focused attention in the aging literature, where much of the caregiving research has addressed issues within the context of traditional family structure. Yet the conventional nuclear family model is increasingly uncommon as new, pluralistic models of family life are emerging in contemporary society. The majority of elder care is provided by relatives, albeit with varying patterns of involvement and responsibility across family structures. Both conventional and pluralistic families face challenges in meeting the care needs of their oldest members, leaving some older adults at risk of having unmet needs. Additional research on family risk and resilience related to the care of older relatives is warranted, particularly with respect to pluralistic models of family life. PMID:26300190

  7. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Christina H.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.

  8. Crossing cultural borders into science teaching: Early life experiences, racial and ethnic identities, and beliefs about diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Brenda R.; Glasson, George E.

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how early life experiences and racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers influenced both their beliefs about diversity in science classrooms and science teaching pedagogy. Case studies of three preservice teachers from diverse racial and ethnic background are presented: Asian American, African American, and Rural Appalachian. Using Bank's ethnicity typology, findings suggest that racial and ethnic identity, developed in early life experiences of preservice teachers, provided clarity on the rigidity of their beliefs about diversity and how they view science teaching. By learning about the border crossing experiences of preservice teachers in relation to their beliefs about diversity as related to racial and ethnic identities, the researchers hoped to provide insight on preparing preservice teachers for the challenges of working in diverse classrooms.

  9. Genome-Wide Association Studies of HIV-1 Host Control in Ethnically Diverse Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zejun; Liu, Yang; Xu, Heng; Tang, Kun; Wu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Zhengjie; Xu, Junjie; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Shang, Hong; Zhao, Guoping; Kong, Xiangyin

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several genetic loci associated with HIV-1 outcome following infection (e.g., HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. To systematically investigate the inherited predisposition to modulate HIV-1 infection in Chinese populations, we performed GWASs in three ethnically diverse HIV-infected patients groups (i.e., HAN, YUN, and XIN, N = 538). The reported loci at 6p21.33 was validated in HAN (e.g., rs9264942, P = 0.0018). An independent association signal (rs2442719, P = 7.85 × 10−7, HAN group) in the same region was observed. Imputation results suggest that haplotype HLA-B*13:02/C*06:02, which can partially account for the GWAS signal, is associated with lower viral load in Han Chinese. Moreover, several novel loci were identified using GWAS approach including the top association signals at 6q13 (KCNQ5, rs947612, P = 2.15 × 10−6), 6p24.1 (PHACTR1, rs202072, P = 3.8 × 10−6), and 11q12.3 (SCGB1D4, rs11231017, P = 7.39 × 10−7) in HAN, YUN, and XIN groups, respectively. Our findings imply shared or specific mechanisms for host control of HIV-1 in ethnically diverse Chinese populations, which may shed new light on individualized HIV/AIDS therapy in China. PMID:26039976

  10. Strategies and issues for managing menopause-related symptoms in diverse populations: ethnic and racial diversity.

    PubMed

    Rice, Valerie Montgomery

    2005-12-19

    Menopause is a naturally occurring "equal opportunity" event that every woman who lives beyond the age of approximately 52 years will experience. During the next 20 years, approximately 3.5 million African American women, 2 million Latinas, and 1 million Asian American women will enter the menopause. How a woman approaches the menopausal transition depends on a number of factors, from educational level to socioeconomic status; health-related factors, including stress; and marital status. Increasingly, the roles of race and ethnicity, as they relate to menopausal symptoms, are being explored. Understanding similarities and differences among women of color in perceptions, attitudes, and expectations surrounding the menopause can help provide culturally appropriate care and promote lifestyles that may decrease symptoms and increase quality of life. For example, minority women are usually the gatekeepers for healthcare for themselves and their families and have a highly developed social support network, often including extended family, a church community, and involvement in sororal or social organizations. In the future, research on menopausal symptoms among women of different racial/ethnic groups should focus on exploring in greater detail the effect of dietary factors and body mass index, additional evaluation of pituitary sensitivity, and use of complementary and alternative medicines in symptom management, with a better understanding of the risks and benefits of such therapies. PMID:16414340

  11. Ethnic diversity, trust, and the mediating role of positive and negative interethnic contact: a priming experiment.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Ruud; Veit, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    This study not only shows that the empirically well-established negative relationship between residential diversity and trust in neighbors holds for the case of Germany, but goes beyond existing research by providing experimental evidence on the causal nature of the diversity effect. Respondents exposed to experimental stimuli that made salient the ethnic or religious heterogeneity of their neighborhoods display significantly lower levels of trust in their neighbors than do respondents in the control group. Further, we explore the role of interethnic contact in mediating the relationship between diversity and trust in a degree of detail unmatched by earlier studies. We consider not only positive forms of interethnic contact such as friendships, but also neutral and negative encounters between people of native and immigrant origin. We find that interethnic contacts mediate negative diversity effects on trust in different ways for both groups. For natives, distant encounters and negative experiences with immigrants in diverse contexts reduce trust, whereas for people of immigrant origin trust in neighbors suffers from the relatively small number of native acquaintances in diverse neighborhoods. PMID:24913947

  12. Lessons from the field: Using photovoice with an ethnically diverse population in a HOPE VI evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Christine A

    2010-01-01

    An interdisciplinary research team evaluated a public housing revitalization project in northwest Washington State to assess the effects of relocation on residents and provide recommendations on assets in the new community. Researchers used photovoice as one method to gather data, asking participants to take photographs of their neighborhood and discuss the images with interviewers. This article addresses the challenges of using photovoice in a community that included immigrants from Cambodia, Vietnam, and Russia. The practical, ethical, and social challenges of using photovoice in ethnically diverse populations and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:20736755

  13. How should ethnic diversity be represented in medical curricula? A plea for systematic training in cultural competence

    PubMed Central

    Knipper, Michael; Seeleman, Conny; Essink-Bot, Marie-Luise

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic diversity has become a common reality in European societies, including those of Germany and the Netherlands. Given that ethnic minority groups and immigrants are known to be especially vulnerable to inequalities in health, access to services and quality of care, the need for cultural competency training in medical education is widely acknowledged. This paper presents four key issues in providing medical students and physicians with the knowledge, attitudes and skills to adapt medical care to ethnically diverse populations. It then describes two educational programmes delivered by the University of Amsterdam (UvA Academic Medical Centre, the Netherlands) and Giessen University Medical School (Germany), respectively, to illustrate that translating theoretical educational objectives into educational practice can lead to different teaching programmes depending on specific local conditions. In the conclusions, emphasis is placed on the need for systematic approaches that do not limit their focus to patients and groups of specific ethnic or migration backgrounds. Issues of culture, communication and research in relation to ethnically diverse populations are magnifications of general problems in medicine and healthcare. Explicit attention to ethnic diversity thus offers a view through a ‘magnifying glass’ of subjects of much broader importance and can be a means for improving health care in general. PMID:21818195

  14. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy. PMID:24269508

  15. Professional Uncertainty and Disempowerment Responding to Ethnic Diversity in Health Care: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Joe; Beavan, Jackie; Faull, Christina; Dodson, Lynne; Gill, Paramjit; Beighton, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Background While ethnic disparities in health and health care are increasing, evidence on how to enhance quality of care and reduce inequalities remains limited. Despite growth in the scope and application of guidelines on “cultural competence,” remarkably little is known about how practising health professionals experience and perceive their work with patients from diverse ethnic communities. Using cancer care as a clinical context, we aimed to explore this with a range of health professionals to inform interventions to enhance quality of care. Methods and Findings We conducted a qualitative study involving 18 focus groups with a purposeful sample of 106 health professionals of differing disciplines, in primary and secondary care settings, working with patient populations of varying ethnic diversity in the Midlands of the UK. Data were analysed by constant comparison and we undertook processes for validation of analysis. We found that, as they sought to offer appropriate care, health professionals wrestled with considerable uncertainty and apprehension in responding to the needs of patients of ethnicities different from their own. They emphasised their perceived ignorance about cultural difference and were anxious about being culturally inappropriate, causing affront, or appearing discriminatory or racist. Professionals' ability to think and act flexibly or creatively faltered. Although trying to do their best, professionals' uncertainty was disempowering, creating a disabling hesitancy and inertia in their practice. Most professionals sought and applied a knowledge-based cultural expertise approach to patients, though some identified the risk of engendering stereotypical expectations of patients. Professionals' uncertainty and disempowerment had the potential to perpetuate each other, to the detriment of patient care. Conclusions This study suggests potential mechanisms by which health professionals may inadvertently contribute to ethnic disparities in health

  16. Body Ideals and Body Dissatisfaction Among a Community Sample of Ethnically Diverse Adolescents on Kauai, Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Niide, Tiffany K.; Davis, James; Tse, Alice M.; Derauf, Chris; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Yates, Alayne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Body dissatisfaction (BD), a risk factor for eating disorders, is occurring at younger ages and among a wide range of socioeconomic and cultural groups. Objective To describe body ideals and prevalence of body satisfaction among an ethnically diverse population of male and female students in Hawaii. Methods An anonymous cross-sectional survey including biographical information and the figure drawing screen was distributed to 7th through 12th grade students. Results Of the 1330 completed surveys, 19% of students were significantly dissatisfied with their bodies. Males were at greater risk than females for total BD (25.8% vs. 13.3%; p<0.001) and for BD in the direction of wanting to be larger (11.3% vs. 2.3%; p<0.001). Males and females were at similar risk for BD in the direction of wanting to be thinner (14.6% vs. 11.6%; p=0.11). Prevalence of BD in the direction of wanting to be thinner was significantly different (p<0.05) among ethnic groups. There were no significant differences in BD based on grade level or SES. Conclusions BD exists among nearly 1 out of 5 adolescents, with differing patterns for males and females, and with certain ethnic groups being at higher risk. Implications Studies to understand risk and protective factors by sex and among different ethnic groups may help generate tailored prevention strategies. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the bidirectional BD seen in males and potential outcomes.

  17. Socioeconomic status and neuropsychological functioning: Associations in an ethnically diverse HIV+ cohort

    PubMed Central

    Arentoft, Alyssa; Byrd, Desiree; Monzones, Jennifer; Coulehan, Kelly; Fuentes, Armando; Rosario, Ana; Miranda, Caitlin; Morgello, Susan; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is limited research examining the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and neuropsychological functioning, particularly in racial/ethnic minority and HIV+ populations. However, there are complex associations between poverty, education, HIV disease, race/ethnicity, and health outcomes in the US. Method We explored these relationships among an ethnically diverse sample of 134 HIV+ adults using a standardized SES measure (i.e., the Hollingshead scale), a comprehensive NP test battery, and a functional evaluation (i.e., Patient’s Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory and Modified Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale). Results Bivariate analyses showed that adult SES was significantly, positively correlated with neuropsychological performance on specific tests within the domains of verbal fluency, attention/concentration, learning, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, and childhood SES was significantly linked to measures of verbal fluency, processing speed, and executive functioning. In a series of linear regressions, controlling for SES significantly attenuated group differences in NP test scores between racial/ethnic minority individuals and non-Hispanic white individuals. Finally, SES scores significantly differed across HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) diagnoses. In a binary logistic regression, SES was the only independent predictor of HAND diagnosis. Conclusions HIV+ individuals with lower SES may be more vulnerable to HIV-associated neuropsychological sequelae due to prominent health disparities, although the degree to which this is influenced by factors such as test bias remains unclear. Overall, our results suggest that SES is significantly linked to neuropsychological test performance in HIV+ individuals, and is an important factor to consider in clinical practice. PMID:25871409

  18. Ethnic Disparities Persist in Depression Diagnosis and Treatment Among Older Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office 301-443-4536 NIMHpress@nih.gov More Science News about Depression Older Adults Contact the Press ... the Field News from the Field NIMH-Funded Science on EurekAlert Lack of Sleep Increases a Child's ...

  19. Chronic Illness Self-care and the Family Lives of Older Adults: A Synthetic Review Across Four Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Gallant, Mary P.; Spitze, Glenna; Grove, Joshua G.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the literature on family and social ties among older ethnic minority men and women with the literature on chronic illness self-care among elders in these groups, in order to increase understanding of social influences on self-care behavior, raise questions for future research, and inform culturally appropriate interventions to maximize the health-promoting potential of social relationships. The paper presents demographic and chronic illness prevalence information, and then summarizes literature about patterns of chronic illness self-care behaviors for older African-Americans, Latinos, Asian-Americans, and American Indians in the U.S. For each group, the sociological literature about residential, cultural, and socioeconomic patterns, family lives, and other social ties is then reviewed, and the self-care literature that has accounted for these patterns is discussed. Finally, six themes are outlined and related questions are identified to further illuminate the social context of older adults’ chronic illness self-care. PMID:20177963

  20. The Association between Acanthosis Nigricans and Dysglycemia in an Ethnically Diverse Group of Eighth Grade Students

    PubMed Central

    Rafalson, Lisa; Pham, Trang H.; Willi, Steven M.; Marcus, Marsha; Jessup, Ann; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and to quantify its association with dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth grade students. Data were collected in 2003 from a cross-sectional study of students from 12 middle schools in three U.S. states. Sex, race/ethnicity and pubertal status were self-reported. Anthropometric measures were recorded. Trained staff identified the presence and severity of AN by inspection of the back of the neck. Fasting and 2hr blood samples were analyzed for impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and high-risk glycated hemoglobin (A1C), respectively defined as ≥100 mg/dl, ≥140 mg/dl, and ≥ 5.7-6.4%. Overall, 25.0%, 58.2%, and 16.8% were Black, Hispanic and White, respectively. AN was present among 406 /1438 (28.2%) of students: 39% among Black, 30% among Hispanic, and 5.4% among White. IGT and highArisk A1C were present among 2.1%, and 12.4%, respectively. In multivariate logistic modeling after adjusting for gender, family history of diabetes, BMI percentile and pubertal staging, the presence (vs. absence) of AN was associated with a 59% increased likelihood of highArisk A1C: (P = 0.04), twice the likelihood of IGT (P=0.06), and 47% greater likelihood of IGT/IFG combined (P<0.0001). Adjustment for insulin attenuated the ORs by 25-70%. In a racially/ethnically diverse sample of U.S. adolescents, AN was common, occurring in 28% of the sample. AN was associated with a 50-100% increased likelihood of dysglycemia even after consideration of established diabetes risk factors. PMID:23592686

  1. Ancient founder mutation is responsible for Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome among diverse ethnicities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS) was described just over 50 years ago by Olga Imerslund and Ralph Gräsbeck and colleagues. IGS is caused by specific malabsorption of cobalamin (Cbl) due to bi-allelic mutations in either the cubilin gene (CUBN) or the human amnionless homolog (AMN). Mutations in the two genes are commonly seen in founder populations or in societies with a high degree of consanguineous marriages. One particular mutation in AMN, c.208-2A>G, causing an out-of-frame loss of exon 4 in the mRNA, is responsible for some 15% of IGS cases globally. We present evidence that this founder mutation causes a substantial percentage of cases among diverse ethnicities and that the mutation is as old as human civilization. Methods Partial genotyping indicated a founder event but its presence in diverse peoples of Arabic, Turkish, Jewish, and Hispanic ancestry suggested that the mutation might be recurrent. We therefore studied the flanking sequence spanning 3.5 Mb to elucidate the origin of the haplotype and estimate the age of the mutation using a Bayesian inference method based on observed linkage disequilibrium. Results The mutation's distribution, the size of the shared haplotype, and estimates of growth rate and carrier frequency indicated that the mutation was a single prehistoric event. Dating back to the ancient Middle East around 11,600 BC, the mutation predates the advent of writing, farming, and the monotheistic religions of the region. Conclusions This mutation causes over 50% of the IGS cases among Arabic, Turkish, and Sephardic Jewish families, making it a primary target for genetic screening among diverse IGS cases originating from the Middle East. Thus, rare founder mutations may cause a substantial number of cases, even among diverse ethnicities not usually thought to be related. PMID:22078000

  2. Measurement Invariance of Cognitive Abilities Across Ethnicity, Gender, and Time Among Older Americans

    PubMed Central

    McArdle, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this research was to test the invariance of the cognitive variables in the Health and Retirement Study/Asset Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old studies (HRS/AHEAD) across ethnicity, gender, and time. Method. Analyses were conducted using a selected subsample of the HRS/AHEAD data set. The cognitive performance tests measuring episodic memory and mental status were used, and invariance of a two-factor structure was tested using confirmatory factor analyses and multilevel modeling for longitudinal data. Results. Results provided some support for “strict” factorial invariance of the episodic memory and mental status measures across ethnicity and gender. Further support of weak (“metric”) measurement invariance was found across time. Discussion. Results of the research further our understanding of invariance of the HRS/AHEAD cognitive ability measures. Further implications are discussed. PMID:24170715

  3. Long-term Results of an Obesity Program in an Ethnically Diverse Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Nowicka, Paulina; Shaw, Melissa; Yu, Sunkyung; Dziura, James; Chavent, Georgia; O'Malley, Grace; Serrecchia, John B.; Tamborlane, William V.; Caprio, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if beneficial effects of a weight-management program could be sustained for up to 24 months in a randomized trial in an ethnically diverse obese population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: There were 209 obese children (BMI > 95th percentile), ages 8 to 16 of mixed ethnic backgrounds randomly assigned to the intensive lifestyle intervention or clinic control group. The control group received counseling every 6 months, and the intervention group received a family-based program, which included exercise, nutrition, and behavior modification. Lifestyle intervention sessions occurred twice weekly for the first 6 months, then twice monthly for the second 6 months; for the last 12 months there was no active intervention. There were 174 children who completed the 12 months of the randomized trial. Follow-up data were available for 76 of these children at 24 months. There were no statistical differences in dropout rates among ethnic groups or in any other aspects. RESULTS: Treatment effect was sustained at 24 months in the intervention versus control group for BMI z score (−0.16 [95% confidence interval: −0.23 to −0.09]), BMI (−2.8 kg/m2 [95% confidence interval: −4.0–1.6 kg/m2]), percent body fat (−4.2% [95% confidence interval: −6.4% to −2.0%]), total body fat mass (−5.8 kg [95% confidence interval: −9.1 kg to −2.6 kg]), total cholesterol (−13.0 mg/dL [95% confidence interval: −21.7 mg/dL to −4.2 mg/dL]), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−10.4 mg/dL [95% confidence interval: −18.3 mg/dL to −2.4 mg/dL]), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (−2.05 [95% confidence interval: −2.48 to −1.75]). CONCLUSIONS: This study, unprecedented because of the high degree of obesity and ethnically diverse backgrounds of children, reveals that benefits of an intensive lifestyle program can be sustained 12 months after completing the active intervention phase. PMID:21300674

  4. Promoting the Mental Well-Being of Older People from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in United Kingdom Rural Areas: Findings from an Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthorpe, Jill; Moriarty, Jo; Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Sharif, Nadira

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from 81 interviews with practitioners in social care and housing with care services in the United Kingdom, this paper explores practice issues in rural areas when supporting the mental health and well-being of older people from Black and minority ethnic groups. The paper begins with a review of the literature which provides evidence that…

  5. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Eileen; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The…

  6. Health and Life Satisfaction of Ethnic Minority Older Adults in Mainland China: Effects of Financial Strain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yawen; Aranda, Maria P.; Chi, Iris

    2007-01-01

    China has achieved indisputable economic growth in the past decades but, with it, unbalanced development across region and socio-economic groups. Little is known about how this impacts the lives of minority older adults who tend to live in remote inland areas. This study is the first attempt to examine and compare the relationships between…

  7. Gender, Genocide, and Ethnicity: The Legacies of Older Armenian American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoogian, Margaret M.; Walker, Alexis J.; Richards, Leslie N.

    2007-01-01

    Women use legacies to help family members articulate family identity, learn family history, and provide succeeding generations with information about family culture. Using feminist standpoint theory and the life-course perspective, this qualitative study examined the intergenerational transmissions that 30 older Armenian American mothers received…

  8. Social isolation, support, and capital and nutritional risk in an older sample: ethnic and gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Locher, Julie L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; Baker, Patricia Sawyer; Bodner, Eric V.; Allman, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationships that exist between social isolation, support, and capital and nutritional risk in older black and white women and men. The paper reports on 1000 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 and older enrolled in the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Study of Aging, a longitudinal observational study of mobility among older black and white participants in the USA. Black women were at greatest nutritional risk; and black women and men were the groups most likely to be socially isolated and to possess the least amounts of social support and social capital. For all ethnic–gender groups, greater restriction in independent life–space (an indicator of social isolation) was associated with increased nutritional risk. For black women and white men, not having adequate transportation (also an indicator of social isolation) was associated with increased nutritional risk. Additionally, for black and white women and white men, lower income was associated with increased nutritional risk. For white women only, the perception of a low level of social support was associated with increased nutritional risk. For black men, not being married (an indicator of social support) and not attending religious services regularly, restricting activities for fear of being attacked, and perceived discrimination (indicators of social capital) were associated with increased nutritional risk. Black females had the greatest risk of poor nutritional health, however more indicators of social isolation, support, and capital were associated with nutritional risk for black men. Additionally, the indicators of social support and capital adversely affecting nutritional risk for black men differed from those associated with nutritional risk in other ethnic–gender groups. This research has implications for nutritional policies directed towards older adults. PMID:15571893

  9. Trajectories of ethnic-racial discrimination among ethnically diverse early adolescents: associations with psychological and social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25345480

  10. Family Check-Up Effects Across Diverse Ethnic Groups: Reducing Early-Adolescence Antisocial Behavior by Reducing Family Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Zerr, Argero A.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Multicultural responsiveness and adaptation have been a recent area of emphasis in prevention and intervention science. The changing demographics of the United States demand the development of intervention strategies that are acceptable and effective for diverse cultural and ethnic groups. The Family Check-Up (FCU) was developed to be an intervention framework that is flexible and adaptive to diverse cultural groups (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007). We empirically evaluated the extent to which the intervention is effective for improving youth adjustment and parent–child interactions for diverse cultural groups. Method A sample of 1,193 families was drawn from 2 large-scale randomized prevention trials conducted in diverse urban middle schools. We formulated 3 groups on the basis of youth self-identification of ethnicity (European American, African American, Hispanic) and examined group differences in the hypothesized mediating effect of family conflict (FC) on later antisocial behavior (ASB). Results Path analysis revealed that youths in the intervention condition reported significantly less ASB over a 2-year period (Grades 6 through 8). Moreover, youth-reported reductions in FC at 12 months were an intervening effect. Ethnicity did not moderate this relationship. Conclusions Consistent with one of the primary tenets of coercion theory, participation in the FCU acts on ASB through FC across diverse ethnic groups, lending support to the multicultural competence of the model. Limitations of this study are discussed, along with areas for future research. PMID:24731120

  11. Family check-up effects across diverse ethnic groups: reducing early-adolescence antisocial behavior by reducing family conflict.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin D; Knoble, Naomi B; Zerr, Argero A; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Multicultural responsiveness and adaptation have been a recent area of emphasis in prevention and intervention science. The changing demographics of the United States demand the development of intervention strategies that are acceptable and effective for diverse cultural and ethnic groups. The Family Check-Up (FCU) was developed to be an intervention framework that is flexible and adaptive to diverse cultural groups (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007 ). We empirically evaluated the extent to which the intervention is effective for improving youth adjustment and parent-child interactions for diverse cultural groups. A sample of 1,193 families was drawn from 2 large-scale randomized prevention trials conducted in diverse urban middle schools. We formulated 3 groups on the basis of youth self-identification of ethnicity (European American, African American, Hispanic) and examined group differences in the hypothesized mediating effect of family conflict (FC) on later antisocial behavior (ASB). Path analysis revealed that youths in the intervention condition reported significantly less ASB over a 2-year period (Grades 6-8). Moreover, youth-reported reductions in FC at 12 months were an intervening effect. Ethnicity did not moderate this relationship. Consistent with one of the primary tenets of coercion theory, participation in the FCU acts on ASB through FC across diverse ethnic groups, lending support to the multicultural competence of the model. Limitations of this study are discussed, along with areas for future research. PMID:24731120

  12. Differential host susceptibility and bacterial virulence factors driving Klebsiella liver abscess in an ethnically diverse population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, I. Russel; Molton, James S.; Wyres, Kelly L.; Gorrie, Claire; Wong, Jocelyn; Hoh, Chu Han; Teo, Jeanette; Kalimuddin, Shirin; Lye, David C.; Archuleta, Sophia; Holt, Kathryn E.; Gan, Yunn-Hwen

    2016-01-01

    Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging cause of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess. First described in Asia, it is now increasingly recognized in Western countries, commonly afflicting those with Asian descent. This raises the question of genetic predisposition versus geospecific strain acquisition. We leveraged on the Antibiotics for Klebsiella Liver Abscess Syndrome Study (A-KLASS) clinical trial ongoing in ethnically diverse Singapore, to prospectively examine the profiles of 70 patients together with their isolates’ genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. The majority of isolates belonged to capsule type K1, a genetically homogenous group corresponding to sequence-type 23. The remaining K2, K5, K16, K28, K57 and K63 isolates as well as two novel cps isolates were genetically heterogeneous. K1 isolates carried higher frequencies of virulence-associated genes including rmpA (regulator of mucoid phenotype A), kfu (Klebsiella ferric uptake transporter), iuc (aerobactin), iro (salmochelin) and irp (yersiniabactin) than non-K1 isolates. The Chinese in our patient cohort, mostly non-diabetic, had higher prevalence of K1 infection than the predominantly diabetic non-Chinese (Malays, Indian and Caucasian). This differential susceptibility to different capsule types among the various ethnic groups suggests patterns of transmission (e.g. environmental source, familial transmission) and/or genetic predisposition unique to each race despite being in the same geographical location. PMID:27406977

  13. Differential host susceptibility and bacterial virulence factors driving Klebsiella liver abscess in an ethnically diverse population.

    PubMed

    Lee, I Russel; Molton, James S; Wyres, Kelly L; Gorrie, Claire; Wong, Jocelyn; Hoh, Chu Han; Teo, Jeanette; Kalimuddin, Shirin; Lye, David C; Archuleta, Sophia; Holt, Kathryn E; Gan, Yunn-Hwen

    2016-01-01

    Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging cause of community-acquired pyogenic liver abscess. First described in Asia, it is now increasingly recognized in Western countries, commonly afflicting those with Asian descent. This raises the question of genetic predisposition versus geospecific strain acquisition. We leveraged on the Antibiotics for Klebsiella Liver Abscess Syndrome Study (A-KLASS) clinical trial ongoing in ethnically diverse Singapore, to prospectively examine the profiles of 70 patients together with their isolates' genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. The majority of isolates belonged to capsule type K1, a genetically homogenous group corresponding to sequence-type 23. The remaining K2, K5, K16, K28, K57 and K63 isolates as well as two novel cps isolates were genetically heterogeneous. K1 isolates carried higher frequencies of virulence-associated genes including rmpA (regulator of mucoid phenotype A), kfu (Klebsiella ferric uptake transporter), iuc (aerobactin), iro (salmochelin) and irp (yersiniabactin) than non-K1 isolates. The Chinese in our patient cohort, mostly non-diabetic, had higher prevalence of K1 infection than the predominantly diabetic non-Chinese (Malays, Indian and Caucasian). This differential susceptibility to different capsule types among the various ethnic groups suggests patterns of transmission (e.g. environmental source, familial transmission) and/or genetic predisposition unique to each race despite being in the same geographical location. PMID:27406977

  14. Understanding Differences in College Persistence: A Longitudinal Examination of Financial Circumstances, Family Obligations, and Discrimination in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Virginia; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic and generation differences in motivation and achievement have been well-established. However, less work has examined the role of social factors on educational outcomes among individuals from diverse backgrounds. With a longitudinal sample of 408 Latino, Asian, and European-American students, we examine family, discrimination, and financial factors in 12th grade and two years later as predictors of persistence four years after high school, and as mediators of ethnic and generation differences in persistence. Results indicate that family obligations, discrimination, and financial burdens are associated with reduced rates of persistence, while high school GPA, SES, and financial aid are associated with higher rates of persistence. Ethnic differences in persistence are related to high school GPA and SES, as well as financial circumstances. Reducing ethnic disparities in college persistence should thus involve attention not only to academic factors, but also to family circumstances that may cause college attendance to be a hardship. PMID:25897194

  15. Haplotype analysis of the 185delAG BRCA1 mutation in ethnically diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Laitman, Yael; Feng, Bing-Jian; Zamir, Itay M; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Duncan, Paul; Port, Danielle; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Evans, Gareth; Latif, Ayse; Newman, William G; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Zidan, Jamal; Shimon-Paluch, Shani; Goldgar, David; Friedman, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    The 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation is encountered primarily in Jewish Ashkenazi and Iraqi individuals, and sporadically in non-Jews. Previous studies estimated that this is a founder mutation in Jewish mutation carriers that arose before the dispersion of Jews in the Diaspora ∼2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to assess the haplotype in ethnically diverse 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation carriers, and to estimate the age at which the mutation arose. Ethnically diverse Jewish and non-Jewish 185delAG*BRCA1 mutation carriers and their relatives were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers and three SNPs spanning 12.5 MB, encompassing the BRCA1 gene locus. Estimation of mutation age was based on a subset of 11 markers spanning a region of ∼5 MB, using a previously developed algorithm applying the maximum likelihood method. Overall, 188 participants (154 carriers and 34 noncarriers) from 115 families were included: Ashkenazi, Iraq, Kuchin-Indians, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Bulgaria, non-Jewish English, non-Jewish Malaysian, and Hispanics. Haplotype analysis indicated that the 185delAG mutation arose 750–1500 years ago. In Ashkenazim, it is a founder mutation that arose 61 generations ago, and with a small group of founder mutations was introduced into the Hispanic population (conversos) ∼650 years ago, and into the Iraqi–Jewish community ∼450 years ago. The 185delAG mutation in the non-Jewish populations in Malaysia and the UK arose at least twice independently. We conclude that the 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation resides on a common haplotype among Ashkenazi Jews, and arose about 61 generations ago and arose independently at least twice in non-Jews. PMID:22763381

  16. Haplotype analysis of the 185delAG BRCA1 mutation in ethnically diverse populations.

    PubMed

    Laitman, Yael; Feng, Bing-Jian; Zamir, Itay M; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Duncan, Paul; Port, Danielle; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Evans, Gareth; Latif, Ayse; Newman, William G; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Zidan, Jamal; Shimon-Paluch, Shani; Goldgar, David; Friedman, Eitan

    2013-02-01

    The 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation is encountered primarily in Jewish Ashkenazi and Iraqi individuals, and sporadically in non-Jews. Previous studies estimated that this is a founder mutation in Jewish mutation carriers that arose before the dispersion of Jews in the Diaspora ~2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to assess the haplotype in ethnically diverse 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation carriers, and to estimate the age at which the mutation arose. Ethnically diverse Jewish and non-Jewish 185delAG*BRCA1 mutation carriers and their relatives were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers and three SNPs spanning 12.5 MB, encompassing the BRCA1 gene locus. Estimation of mutation age was based on a subset of 11 markers spanning a region of ~5 MB, using a previously developed algorithm applying the maximum likelihood method. Overall, 188 participants (154 carriers and 34 noncarriers) from 115 families were included: Ashkenazi, Iraq, Kuchin-Indians, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Bulgaria, non-Jewish English, non-Jewish Malaysian, and Hispanics. Haplotype analysis indicated that the 185delAG mutation arose 750-1500 years ago. In Ashkenazim, it is a founder mutation that arose 61 generations ago, and with a small group of founder mutations was introduced into the Hispanic population (conversos) ~650 years ago, and into the Iraqi-Jewish community ~450 years ago. The 185delAG mutation in the non-Jewish populations in Malaysia and the UK arose at least twice independently. We conclude that the 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation resides on a common haplotype among Ashkenazi Jews, and arose about 61 generations ago and arose independently at least twice in non-Jews. PMID:22763381

  17. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene diversity in the Tibetan ethnic minority group of China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-feng; Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Deng, Ya-jun; Yang, Guang; Wu, Qing-ju; Xu, Peng; Qin, Hai-xia; Fan, Shuan-liang; Huang, Ping; Deng, Li-bin; Lucas, Rudolf; Wang, Zhen-Yuan

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene polymorphisms in the Tibetan ethnic minority of China. To that purpose, we have studied KIR gene frequencies and genotype diversities of 16 KIR genes and three pseudogenes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5A, 2DL5B, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4*001/002, 2DS4*003-007, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1, 2DP1, 3DP1*001/002/004, and 3DP1*003) in a population sample of 102 unrelated healthy individuals of the Tibetan population living in Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Tibetans mainly live in "the roof of the world," the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China and surrounding areas stretching from central Asia in the North and West to Myanmar and mainland China in the East, and India, Nepal, and Bhutan to the south. KIR gene frequencies and statistical parameters of Tibetan ethnic minority were calculated. Fifteen KIR genes were observed in the 102 tested Tibetan individuals with different frequencies. The allelic frequencies of the 15 KIR genes ranged from 0.06 to 0.86. In addition, KIR 2DL1, 2DL4, 3DL2, and 3DL3 were found to be present in every individual. Variable gene content, together with allelic polymorphisms, can result in individualized human KIR genotypes and haplotypes, with the A haplotypes being predominantly observed. The results of tested linkage disequilibrium (LD) among KIR genes demonstrated that KIR genes present a wide range of linkage disequilibrium. Moreover, a comparison of the population data of our study with previously published population data of other ethnic groups or areas was performed. The differences of allelic frequency distribution in KIR2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 3DL1, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 3DS1, and 2DP1 were statistically significant among different populations using the statistical method of the standard χ(2) test. In conclusion, the results of the present study can be valuable for enriching the Chinese ethnical gene information resources of the KIR gene pool and for

  18. Building a Connected Classroom: Teachers' Narratives about Managing the Cultural Diversity of Ethnic Minority Students in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-Tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2013-01-01

    Many Hong Kong schools are concerned about their growing numbers of ethnic minority students. When these students are enrolled in Hong Kong secondary schools, how their cultural diversity is catered for becomes critical. This article examines how teachers narrate the cultural diversity of ethnic minority students, who come from Pakistan, India,…

  19. Nursing students identify fears regarding working with diverse critically ill patients: development of guidelines for caring for diverse critically ill older adults.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students need to gain more exposure to communicating, assessing, and planning appropriate care and evaluating outcomes of care with diverse critically ill geriatric patients. This project developed teaching strategies that facilitated additional opportunities for gaining these valuable learning experiences for students. Nurse educators can use the Guidelines for Caring for Diverse Critically Ill Older Adults, the case study and simulation examples, and topical outline to assist them in teaching critical care students and nurses about diverse critically ill older adults. PMID:23933642

  20. Barriers in participant recruitment of diverse ethnicities in the state of Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High rejection rates of subject recruitments for research studies have been reported in immigrants in many countries. However, the barriers in recruiting members of the expatriate population in Kuwait have not yet been investigated. This study was therefore designed to identify barriers in recruiting expatriates for research studies in the state of Kuwait. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on expatriate subject’s aged 18 years and older living in Kuwait. Difference between groups of continuous independent variables was analyzed using the t-test. Different categories such as ethnicity and gender were compared using the chi-square test. Results 3460 (85.1%) participants were recruited and 617 (14.2%) refused to participate in the study while 2530 (38%) calls were unreachable from the total of 6607 calls placed. Younger subjects (mean age 41.1 years) were more hesitant to be part of the study compared to older participants. The rejections among South Asians was (41.8%), Arabs (32.6%), Southeast Asians (18.9%) while the others (6.6%) category was least to refuse among all the nationalities. Gender was not significantly associated with refusal. Conclusion There is an acute lack of appropriate recording of the problems faced while recruiting the participants. The findings suggest important messages for the decision makers in the area of expatriate recruitments, to understand the challenge and design new strategies to overcome the problem of recruitment in the state of Kuwait for research studies. PMID:24257144

  1. A National View of Promising Programs and Practices for Culturally, Linguistically, and Ethnically Diverse Gifted and Talented Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Christine J.; Reis, Sally M.; Sullivan, Erin E.

    2008-01-01

    The low representation of culturally, linguistically, and ethnically diverse (CLED) and high-poverty students in gifted and talented programs has long been an area of concern. This qualitative study investigated methods to increase successful participation of CLED students in gifted programs across the nation. Twenty-five programs were selected…

  2. Ethnic Diversity and Latino/a College Access: A Comparison of Mexican American and Puerto Rican Beginning College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Anne-Marie; Crisp, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that there are differences among the diverse Latino/a ethnic groups in their K-12 educational experiences, but little is known about variations in their postsecondary experiences. Drawing on a conceptual framework informed by the theory of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, this research examined Mexican American and…

  3. Creating Culturally Responsive Environments: Ethnic Minority Teachers' Constructs of Cultural Diversity in Hong Kong Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hue, Ming-tak; Kennedy, Kerry John

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing Hong Kong schools is the growing cultural diversity of the student population that is a result of the growing number of ethnic minority students in the schools. This study uses semi-structured interviews with 12 American, Canadian, Indian, Nepalese and Pakistani teachers working in three secondary schools in the public…

  4. Evaluating the Influence of Response to Intervention (Levels 2-3) with Racially, Culturally, Ethnically, Linguistically Diverse (RCELD) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Reina

    2011-01-01

    The purpose for this study was to determine the influence on achievement and classification rate into special education of racially, culturally, ethnically, linguistically diverse students following the use of a district-designed response to intervention (RtI) structure by examining local processes that may contribute to student achievement and…

  5. Parenting across Cultural Contexts in the USA: Assessing Parenting Behaviour in an Ethnically and Socioeconomically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Robert; Toolis, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the factorial validity of the Parent Behavior Inventory (PBI), a brief measure of parenting behaviour, in a diverse sample of mothers and compared differences in parenting as a function of ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on data generated by mothers of young…

  6. White Undergraduate Social Justice Advocates: Experiences That Influence Continued Participation in Racially and Ethnically Diverse Campus Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jesse S.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how the experiences of four white, undergraduate, self-identified social justice advocates influenced their on campus participation in racially and ethnically diverse settings. Acknowledging the existence and persistence of white privilege, ontological expansiveness, and epistemological ignorance, the research was grounded in…

  7. Sexual Health Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young People in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Testa, Adrienne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To provide evidence about the sexual health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of an ethnically diverse sample of young people from Secondary/High schools in London. Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. The sample consisted of students in school Years 11 to 13 (aged 15-18 years), present in school on the day of…

  8. NCWWI Traineeships: A National Cross-Site Evaluation of Child Welfare Stipend Programs for Ethnically Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leake, Robin; de Guzman, Anna; Rienks, Shauna; Archer, Gretchen; Potter, Cathryn

    2015-01-01

    The task of recruiting and retaining ethnically diverse, qualified, and committed social workers in child welfare is challenging. Federal funding supporting BSW and MSW education has been a catalyst for university-agency partnerships across the country. An important goal of these partnerships is to prepare social work students with the knowledge,…

  9. Understanding Differences in College Persistence: A Longitudinal Examination of Financial Circumstances, Family Obligations, and Discrimination in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkow, Melissa R.; Huynh, Virginia; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic and generational differences in motivation and achievement have been well-established. However, minimal research has examined the role of social factors on educational outcomes among individuals from diverse backgrounds. With a longitudinal sample of 408 Latino, Asian, and European-American students, we examine family, discrimination, and…

  10. Promoting Teacher Development in a Racially/Ethnically, Socioeconomically, Linguistically and Academically Diverse School: A US Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd-Blake, Marie; Hundley, Eddie

    2012-01-01

    This article provides analysis of a site-based professional development model that is grounded in teacher best practices. Developed by the administration and teacher leaders of a racially/ethnically, socioeconomically, linguistically and academically diverse school in the USA, the teacher-centered coaching model described is an example of an…

  11. Positionings of Racial, Ethnic, and Linguistic Minority Students in High School Biology Class: Implications for Science Education in Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Minjung

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, I analyze ethnographic data from a year-long study of two Advanced Placement (AP) Biology classes that enrolled students with diverse racial, ethnic, and linguistic backgrounds. Specifically, I consider participation, positioning, and learning of newcomer Korean students in the focal classes. Building on the notion of figured…

  12. Eighth-Grade Students' Perceptions of School Climate Based on School Diversity, Ethnicity, Educational Category, Socioeconomic Status, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to investigate if there were differences in students' school climate perceptions based on the independent variables, which were measured on a nominal scale and included school diversity (highly, moderately, minimally), ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White, Other), educational category (general education, special…

  13. Religious Diversity, Inter-Ethnic Relations and the Catholic School: Introducing the "Responsive" Approach to Single Faith Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Damian

    2009-01-01

    The article offers a case study of the ways in which a Catholic primary school located in the centre of a large South-Asian community in Leicester, UK, responded to the religious and ethnic diversity of its surroundings. The school, Our Saviour's, engaged in shared activities with a neighbouring school which had a majority intake of Hindu, Muslim…

  14. "Do You Trust Him?" Children's Trust Beliefs and Developmental Trajectories of Aggressive Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Averdijk, Margit; Ribeaud, Denis; Rotenberg, Ken J.; Eisner, Manuel P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the role of trust beliefs (i.e., trustworthiness, trustfulness) on aggression trajectories in a four-wave longitudinal study using an ethnically diverse sample of 8- to 11-year-old children (N = 1,028), as well as the risk profiles of low trust beliefs and low socioeconomic status on aggression trajectories. At Time 1 to…

  15. Workshop on Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hassan. B. Ali

    2008-02-13

    The purpose of the Workshop 'Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry' was to promote the development of a cadre of academic leaders who create, implement and promote programs and strategies for increasing the number of racial and ethnic minorities to equitable proportions on the faculties of departments throughout the academic chemistry community. An important objective of the workshop was to assist in creating an informed and committed community of chemistry leaders who will create, implement and promote programs and strategies to advance racial and ethnic equity in both the faculty and the student body with the goal of increasing the number of U.S. citizen underrepresented minorities (URM) participating in academic chemistry at all levels, with particular focus on the pipeline to chemistry faculty. This objective was met by (1) presentations of detailed data describing current levels of racial and ethnic minorities on the faculties of chemistry departments; (2) frank discussion of the obstacles to and benefits of racial/ethnic diversity in the chemistry professoriate; (3) summary of possible effective interventions and actions; and (4) promotion of the dissemination and adoption of initiatives designed to achieve racial/ethnic equity. Federal programs over the past thirty years have been instrumental in delivering to our universities URM students intending to major in the physical sciences such as chemistry. However, the near absence of URM faculty means that there is also an absence of URM as role models for aspiring students. For example, citing 2003 as a representative year, some statistics reveal the severity of the pipeline shrinkage for U. S. citizen URM starting from chemistry B.S. degrees awarded to the appointment to chemistry faculty. Compared to the URM population of approximately 30% for that year, 67% of the B.S. degrees in chemistry were awarded to white citizens and 17% were awarded to URM

  16. Diversity at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Sandra R.

    2000-01-01

    Diversity in the workplace goes beyond racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. It extends to those with disabilities of all types and older workers. Students must be able to acknowledge and appreciate peoples' differences and educators must integrate diversity into the classroom. (JOW)

  17. In Search of Cultural Diversity: Recent Literature in Cross-Cultural and Ethnic Minority Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Maramba, Gloria Gia

    2001-01-01

    Identifies where most work on cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology is being published and the authors. Very little overlap was found between literature in cross-cultural and ethnic minority psychology. Top scholars in cross-cultural psychology are men of European ancestry, while in ethnic minority psychology, scholars are ethnic…

  18. Views of hospice and palliative care among younger and older sexually diverse women.

    PubMed

    June, Andrea; Segal, Daniel L; Klebe, Kelli; Watts, Linda K

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore end-of-life health care attitudes among younger and older sexually diverse women. Self-identified lesbian and heterosexual older women as well as lesbian and heterosexual middle-aged women were recruited. Results indicated that lesbian women held significantly more positive beliefs about hospice services and the role of alternative medicines in health care. No differences among sexual orientation were found for comfort discussing pain management but heterosexual women reported a significantly greater desire for life-sustaining treatments in the event of an incurable disease and severe life-limiting conditions (eg, feeding tube, life support, no brain response). Additionally, as expected, older women in this study held more positive beliefs about hospice and more comfort discussing pain management than middle-aged women. PMID:22144659

  19. The Savvy Caregiver Program: impact of an evidence-based intervention on the well-being of ethnically diverse caregivers.

    PubMed

    Kally, Zina; Cote, Sarah D; Gonzalez, Jorge; Villarruel, Monica; Cherry, Debra L; Howland, Susan; Higgins, Melinda; Connolly, Lora; Hepburn, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the impact of the Savvy Caregiver Program (SCP) on English-speaking caregivers of Hispanic, Black/African American, and Asian/Pacific Islander descent. Caregivers completed a questionnaire prior to study enrollment, at 6 and 12 months postenrollment. Caregivers in all 3 ethnic groups showed more caregiver competence, reduced depression, greater tolerance for care recipients' memory problems, better management of their overall situation, and improved perception of that situation 6 months and 12 months post-enrollment. The study demonstrates that in the sample studied the SCP was as effective in helping ethnically diverse caregivers as it has shown to be with Caucasian caregivers. PMID:24820315

  20. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Group of South African School Children

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Joanne; Meiring, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    .05). Additionally, Black children had the highest proportion of overweight participants (30%), and Indian children the most number of underweight children (13%). Regardless of ethnicity, children who spent more than 4 hours per day in front of a screen were approximately twice as likely to be overweight (OR, 1.96 [95%CI: 1.06-3.64, p = 0.03]). Regardless of race, inactivity levels are related to body mass. Ethnic and gender disparities exist in physical activity and sedentary activity levels and this may echo a mix of biological and cultural reasons. Key points Regardless of race, inactivity levels are related to body mass. In an ethnically diverse urban group of South African school children, there exists an age related decline in physical activity and increase in time spent in front of a screen. Ethnic and gender disparities exist in physical activity and sedentary activity levels and this may echo a mix of biological and cultural reasons. PMID:24790492

  1. Measurement of Perceived and Technical Quality of Care for Depression in Racially and Ethnically Diverse Groups.

    PubMed

    Leff, H Stephen; Chow, Clifton; Wieman, Dow A; Ostrow, Laysha; Cortés, Dharma E; Harris, Treniece

    2016-08-01

    Measurement of patient satisfaction is now considered essential for providing patient centered care and is an important tool for addressing health care disparities. However, little is known about how ethnically and racially diverse (ERD) groups differ in how they perceive quality, and widely used instruments for measuring perceived quality give little attention to cultural elements of care. This study examined the relationship between the culturally determined beliefs and expectations of four ERD groups (African Americans, Latinos, Portuguese-speakers, and Haitians, total N = 160) and the technical quality of treatment for depression provided in four "culturally-specific" primary care clinics. Using data from the Experiences of Care and Health Outcomes survey, chart reviews and focus groups, the study addressed a set of questions related to the psychometric properties of perceived care measures and the technical quality of care. The groups differed in preferred cultural elements except all preferred inclusion of religion. They did not differ in overall perceived quality. Technical quality was higher for Portuguese and Haitians than for African Americans and Latinos. Implications of group differences for measuring quality are discussed. PMID:26748509

  2. Epidemiology of mixed martial arts and youth violence in an ethnically diverse sample.

    PubMed

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Umemoto, Karen N; Nguyen, Toan Gia; Chang, Janice Y; Bautista, Randy Paul M

    2012-01-01

    Mixed martial arts' (MMAs) growing international popularity has rekindled the discussion on the advantages (e.g., exercise) and disadvantages (e.g., possible injury) of contact sports. This study was the first of its kind to examine the psychosocial aspects of MMA and youth violence using an epidemiologic approach with an Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) adolescent sample (N = 881). The results were consistent with the increased popularity of MMA with 52% (adolescent males = 73%, adolescent females = 39%) enjoying watching MMA and 24% (adolescent males = 39%, adolescent females = 13%) practicing professional fight moves with friends. Although statistically significant ethnic differences were found for the two MMA items on a bivariate level, these findings were not statistically significant when considering other variables in the model. The bivariate results revealed a cluster of risk-protective factors. Regarding the multiple regression findings, although enjoying watching MMA remained associated with positive attitudes toward violence and practicing fight moves remained associated with negative out-group orientation, the MMA items were not associated with unique variances of youth violence perpetration and victimization. Implications included the need for further research that includes other diverse samples, more comprehensive and objective MMA and violence measures, and observational and intervention longitudinal studies. PMID:22455184

  3. Consensus Recommendations for Advancing Breast Cancer: Risk Identification and Screening in Ethnically Diverse Younger Women

    PubMed Central

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Summers, Thomas A; Eberhardt, John; Cerussi, Albert; Grundfest, Warren; Peterson, Charles M.; Brazaitis, Michael; Krupinski, Elizabeth; Freeman, Harold

    2011-01-01

    A need exists for a breast cancer risk identification paradigm that utilizes relevant demographic, clinical, and other readily obtainable patient-specific data in order to provide individualized cancer risk assessment, direct screening efforts, and detect breast cancer at an early disease stage in historically underserved populations, such as younger women (under age 40) and minority populations, who represent a disproportionate number of military beneficiaries. Recognizing this unique need for military beneficiaries, a consensus panel was convened by the USA TATRC to review available evidence for individualized breast cancer risk assessment and screening in young (< 40), ethnically diverse women with an overall goal of improving care for military beneficiaries. In the process of review and discussion, it was determined to publish our findings as the panel believes that our recommendations have the potential to reduce health disparities in risk assessment, health promotion, disease prevention, and early cancer detection within and in other underserved populations outside of the military. This paper aims to provide clinicians with an overview of the clinical factors, evidence and recommendations that are being used to advance risk assessment and screening for breast cancer in the military. PMID:21509152

  4. Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage  = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed. PMID:23889017

  5. An HIV Prevention Intervention for Ethnically Diverse Men in Substance Abuse Treatment: Pilot Study Findings

    PubMed Central

    Burlew, A. Kathleen; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Beadnell, Blair; Wright, Lynette; Wilson, Jerika

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We determined the acceptability, participants' receptivity, and effectiveness of a culturally adapted version of Real Men Are Safe (REMAS-CA), an HIV prevention intervention for men in substance abuse treatment. Methods. In 2010 and 2011, we compared participants who attended at least 1 (of 5) REMAS-CA session (n = 66) with participants in the original REMAS study (n = 136). Participants completed an assessment battery at baseline and at 3-month follow-up with measures of substance abuse, HIV risk behaviors, perceived condom barriers, and demographics. We conducted postintervention focus groups at each clinic. Results. Minority REMAS-CA participants were more likely to have attended 3 or more sessions (87.0%), meeting our definition of intervention completion, than were minority participants in the REMAS study (75.1%; odds ratio = 2.1). For REMAS-CA participants with casual partners (n = 25), the number of unprotected sexual occasions in the past 90 days declined (6.2 vs 1.6). Among minority men in the REMAS study (n = 36), the number of unprotected sexual occasions with casual partners changed little (9.4 vs 8.4; relative risk = 4.56). Conclusions. REMAS-CA was effective across ethnic groups, a benefit for HIV risk reduction programs that serve a diverse clientele. PMID:23488494

  6. Construct Validation of Physical Activity Surveys in Culturally Diverse Older Adults: A Comparison of Four Commonly Used Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…

  7. Cultural Diversity and Views on Alzheimer’s Disease in Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Harris, Lynn Fields

    2012-01-01

    Cultural constructs prevalent in older African Americans may influence their risk perceptions and knowledge of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To examine this issue, we administered 3 sociocultural scales, the Alzheimer’s Disease Knowledge Scale, and a Risk Perception questionnaire to 271 older African Americans who were recruited from a large community senior center and local churches. Higher Present Time Orientation was significantly related to perceptions of having little control over risks to health (p = .004), God’s Will in determining AD (p = .001), and lower AD knowledge (p < .0001), and marginally related to having little control over developing AD (p = .052). Religiosity was marginally related to having little control over risks to health (p = .055) and getting AD″ (p =.057). Post hoc inter-group comparisons found significant differences in the highest vs. lowest scoring Religiosity groups. There were no significant differences by Future Time Orientation. Most subjects (57.6%) were unaware that African Americans were at higher risk for AD than whites. These data indicate that cultural diversity within older African Americans may shape health perceptions and knowledge of AD. This diversity may contribute to disparities in the detection and treatment of AD in this high risk population. PMID:22828323

  8. Overview of Genetic-epidemiological Studies in Ethnically and Demographically Diverse Isolates of Dagestan, Northern Caucasus, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Bulayeva, Kazima B.

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess genetic diversity and genetic distances among isolated populations from Dagestan. Methods A cross-population genetic epidemiology design was applied in ethnically and demographically diverse isolates from Dagestan, some with more than 200 and some with less than 100 generations of demographical history since their founding. Results The analysis of genetic diversity showed that Dagestan ethnic populations are clearly close to European ethnic populations. The genetic data support the view of them as ancient, highly isolated populations 85%-97% the rate of the endogamy and inbreeding coefficient F = 0.010-0.015. Many Dagestan populations have very high prevalence of certain complex diseases such as cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, schizophrenia, mental retardation, and progressive muscular dystrophy. Lifetime morbid risk for schizophrenia in the isolates varied from 0 to 5%. Among the relatives, the number of men with chronic schizophrenia was at least twice as high as women. The average age of onset of schizophrenia was 21.2 years for offspring of consanguineous marriages and 17.4 years for offspring of non-consanguineous marriages (P = 0.033). Conclusion The results support the hypothesis that cross-population design provides unique opportunities for observing reliable ancestral haplotypes with disease predisposing loci, as well as population-specific linked loci. PMID:16912990

  9. A content analysis of physical science textbooks with regard to the nature of science and ethnic diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Kristine M.

    The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the

  10. Advancing Research on Racial–Ethnic Health Disparities: Improving Measurement Equivalence in Studies with Diverse Samples

    PubMed Central

    Landrine, Hope; Corral, Irma

    2014-01-01

    To conduct meaningful, epidemiologic research on racial–ethnic health disparities, racial–ethnic samples must be rendered equivalent on other social status and contextual variables via statistical controls of those extraneous factors. The racial–ethnic groups must also be equally familiar with and have similar responses to the methods and measures used to collect health data, must have equal opportunity to participate in the research, and must be equally representative of their respective populations. In the absence of such measurement equivalence, studies of racial–ethnic health disparities are confounded by a plethora of unmeasured, uncontrolled correlates of race–ethnicity. Those correlates render the samples, methods, and measures incomparable across racial–ethnic groups, and diminish the ability to attribute health differences discovered to race–ethnicity vs. to its correlates. This paper reviews the non-equivalent yet normative samples, methodologies and measures used in epidemiologic studies of racial–ethnic health disparities, and provides concrete suggestions for improving sample, method, and scalar measurement equivalence. PMID:25566524

  11. Push for Diversity in Traditional Departments Raises Questions about the Future of Ethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magner, Denise K.

    1991-01-01

    Roughly 20 years after Black studies and other ethnic studies fields evolved from campus protest, new questions are arising about the role of separate ethnic studies departments in face of the movement toward multiculturalism in the college curriculum. Very real economic realities underlie the academic and social concerns. (MSE)

  12. Mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity among four ethnic groups in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Bruce A; Wilson, Jamie Lee; Kirbah, Salwa; Sidney, Sheree S; Rosenberger, Joshua; Bassie, Larry; Alie, Joe A D; McLean, David C; Garvey, W Timothy; Ely, Bert

    2005-09-01

    Although there are numerous ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, the Mende and Temne together account for approximately 60% of the total population. To see if genetic differences could be observed among ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, the nucleotide sequence of the hypervariable 1 (HV1) region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was determined from samples of the two major ethnic groups, the Mende (n=59) and Temne (n=121), and of two minor ethnic groups, the Loko (n=29) and Limba (n=67). Among these 276 HV1 sequences, 164 individual haplotypes were observed. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that the distribution of these haplotypes within the Limba sample was significantly different from that of the other ethnic groups. No significant genetic variation was seen between the Mende, Temne, and Loko. These results indicate that distinguishing genetic differences can be observed among ethnic groups residing in historically close proximity to one another. Furthermore, we observed some mitochondrial DNA haplotypes that are common among the Sierra Leone ethnic groups but that have not been observed in other published studies of West African ethnic groups. Therefore, we may have evidence for mtDNA lineages that are unique to this region of West Africa. PMID:15761855

  13. Learning Environment, Interaction, Sense of Belonging and Study Success in Ethnically Diverse Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeuwisse, Marieke; Severiens, Sabine E.; Born, Marise Ph.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate a model for describing the relationships between the extent to which learning environments are activating and students' interaction with teachers and peers, sense of belonging, and study success. It was tested whether this model holds true for both ethnic minority students and ethnic majority students.…

  14. Comparing Two Questionnaires for Eliciting CAM Use in a Multi-Ethnic US Population of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Ip, Edward H.; Saldana, Santiago; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The NAFKAM International CAM Questionnaire (I-CAM-Q) was designed to facilitate cross-study comparisons of CAM usage. This research presents the first empirical study of the I-CAM-Q’s performance. Materials and Methods Data were collected in two studies in a multi-ethnic (African American, American Indian, and white) population of older adults in the US. In 2010, 564 adults 60+ years were recruited. The I-CAM-Q was interviewer-administered. Data were compared to those collected in 2002 from a random sample of 701 Medicare recipients 65+ years. The 2002 survey included an extensive inventory of specific CAM therapies derived from local ethnographic research. Comparisons of the responses for 14 CAM modalities common to the two studies used logistic regression adjusted for demographics. Results There were no significant differences between the 2002 and 2010 surveys in the proportions reporting 10 modalities, including use of chiropractors, homeopaths, acupuncturists, herbalists, spiritual healers, vitamins, minerals, homeopathic remedies, Qigong, visualization, and prayer for health. Significantly less use of physicians and more use of relaxation techniques were reported in 2010. Herb use and garlic, as a specific herb, were reported significantly less in 2010. Conclusions Overall, the I-CAM-Q obtained results similar to those produced by a population-specific questionnaire. Those differences observed appear to reflect differences in the studies’ inclusion criteria or secular trends in CAM. This study supports the intention of the I-CAM-Q to substitute for local and regional surveys in order to allow cross-study comparisons of CAM use. Further tests, preferably through contemporaneous data collection are needed in other populations. PMID:22792131

  15. Vitamin D status of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the greater Toronto area

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physiological and lifestyle factors put older adults at an increased risk of vitamin D insufficiency and resulting negative health outcomes. Here we explore the vitamin D status in a sample of community dwelling older adults of diverse ancestry living in the Greater Toronto area (GTA). Methods Two hundred and twenty-four (224) adults over 60 years of age were recruited from the Square One Older Adult Centre, in Mississauga, Ontario. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured from dried blood spot cards. Dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamin D were assessed via questionnaires. Skin pigmentation was assessed quantitatively by measuring melanin levels using a reflectometer. Results The mean 25(OH)D concentration in the total sample was 82.4 nmol/L. There were no statistically significant differences in serum 25(OH)D concentrations, supplemental or dietary vitamin D intakes between the three major ancestral groups (East Asians, Europeans and South Asians). Females had significantly higher 25(OH)D concentrations than males (84.5 nmol/L vs. 72.2 nmol/L, p = 0.012). The proportion of participants with 25(OH)D concentrations below 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L were 12.1%, and 38.8%, respectively. The mean daily supplemental intake of vitamin D was 917 IU/day. Vitamin D intake from supplements was the major factor determining 25(OH)D concentrations (p < 0.001). Conclusions Mean concentration of 25(OH)D in a sample of older adults of diverse ancestry living in the GTA exceeded 80 nmol/L, and there were no significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. These results sharply contrast with our recent study focused on young adults of diverse ancestry living in the same geographic area, in which we found substantially lower 25(OH)D concentrations (mean 39.5 nmol/L), low supplemental vitamin D intake (114 IU/day), and significant differences in 25(OH)D levels between ancestral groups. High daily intake

  16. A content analysis of physical science textbooks with regard to the nature of science and ethnic diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Kristine M.

    The goal of science education is the preparation of scientifically literate students (Abd-El-Khalick & Lederman, 2000, & American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 1990). In order to instruct students in the nature of science with its history, development, methods and applications, science teachers use textbooks as the primary organizer for the curriculum (Chippetta, Ganesh, Lee, & Phillips, 2006). Science textbooks are the dominant instructional tool that exerts great influence on instructional content and its delivery (Wang, 1998). Science and science literacy requires acquiring knowledge about the natural world and understanding its application in society, or, in other words, the nature of science. An understanding of the nature of science is an important part of science literacy (Abd-El-Khalik & Lederman, 2000, & AAAS, 1990). The nature of science has four basic themes or dimensions: science as a body of knowledge, science as a way of thinking, science as a way of investigating, and science with its interaction with technology and society (Chippetta & Koballa, 2006). Textbooks must relay and incorporate these themes to promote science literacy. The results from this content analysis provide further insights into science textbooks and their content with regard to the inclusion of the nature of science and ethnic diversity. Science textbooks usually downplay human influences (Clough & Olson, 2004) whether as part of the nature of science with its historical development or its interaction with societies of diverse cultures. Minority students are underperforming in science and science is divided on ethnic, linguistic, and gender identity (Brown, 2005). Greater representations of diversity in curriculum materials enable minority students to identify with science (Nines, 2000). Textbooks, with their influence on curriculum and presentation, must include links for science and students of diverse cultures. What is the balance of the four aspects of the

  17. The Role of Important Non-Parental Adults (VIPs) in the Lives of Older Adolescents: A Comparison of Three Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has consistently documented the importance of VIPs (mentors or important non-parental adults) in the lives of adolescents. Little is known, however, about whether VIPs play the same important roles across ethnic groups and whether VIPs remain influential when adolescents are older and involved in romantic relationships. The present study compared VIPs of 355 Hispanic, Asian, and European American older adolescents (age range = 17–19 years; M = 18.7 years; 62% female). Results indicated that, despite ethnic differences in their social capital, VIPs’ psychological characteristics (e.g., warmth and acceptance, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were similar. VIPs were perceived to have more positive psychological profiles than parents and peers, and in some cases, romantic partners. Moreover, with a few exceptions, the associations between VIP characteristics and adolescent adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and problem behavior) were largely similar across ethnic groups. Finally, VIPs made unique contributions to adolescents’ self-esteem and problem behaviors even after the effects of romantic partners were considered. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20446024

  18. Multiple Mediational Model of Outness, Social Support, Mental Health, and Wellness Behavior in Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Bisexual, and Queer Women

    PubMed Central

    Tabaac, Ariella R.; Trujillo, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: A growing body of research has begun to examine wellness behaviors in sexual minority women. While a number of constructs have been associated with wellness behaviors in this population, including outness, social support, and mental health, no research has attempted to forge the specific and unique connections among them. The aim of the current study was to construct a theoretical chain among these variables leading to wellness behaviors among an ethnically diverse sample of sexual minority women. Methods: A sample of 150 ethnically diverse, cisgender women identifying as lesbian, bisexual, queer, or an “other” non-heterosexual sexual orientation completed a web-administered national survey. Scales assessed participants' outness, social support, mental health, and wellness behaviors. Results: In a series of simultaneous, multiple regressions, outness to one's family was positively associated with wellness behavior and social support; social support from one's family and friends was positively associated with mental health; and depression was negatively associated with wellness behaviors. Two multiple mediational models generally suggested a cascading influence of outness to one's family on wellness behaviors through social support from one's family and depression. Conclusion: The study is one of the first to find potentially cascading links among personal, social, and mental health variables with health behaviors in a sample of diverse lesbian, bisexual, and queer (LBQ) women. It thereby illuminates a number of potential targets for health promotion interventions in this population. PMID:26788673

  19. A constructivist perspective on clinical social work practice with ethnically diverse clients.

    PubMed

    Greene, G J; Jensen, C; Harper Jones, D

    1996-03-01

    A person's reality and definition of self are socially constructed; ethnicity is integrally involved in this process. Clinical work is successful if the client constructs a self with a sense of positive self-esteem and empowerment. The profession views social workers' use of self as important in successful clinical work, especially with clients ethnically different from themselves. This article provides a framework adapted from a constructivist perspective for the clinician's skillful use of self in therapeutic discourse. The framework consists of five stances the clinician can use in transcending the discomfort he or she may experience in a cross-cultural clinical situation. Use of these stances facilitates clients' ethnic validation, which is essential to positive therapeutic outcomes. This article uses case examples to illustrate the use of the framework. PMID:8851357

  20. Is Social Network Diversity Associated with Tooth Loss among Older Japanese Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Katsunori; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Saito, Masashige; Ito, Kanade; Suzuki, Kayo; Osaka, Ken; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to examine social network diversity as a potential determinant of oral health, considering size and contact frequency of the social network and oral health behaviors. Methods Our cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study. Data from 19,756 community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years or older were analyzed. We inquired about diversity of friendships based on seven types of friends. Ordered logistic regression models were developed to determine the association between the diversity of social networks and number of teeth (categorized as ≥20, 10–19, 1–9, and 0). Results Of the participants, 54.1% were women (mean age, 73.9 years; standard deviation, 6.2). The proportion of respondents with ≥20 teeth was 34.1%. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status (income, education, and occupation), marital status, health status (diabetes and mental health), and size and contact frequency of the social network, an increase in the diversity of social networks was significantly associated with having more teeth (odds ratio = 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.11). Even adjusted for oral health behaviors (smoking, curative/preventive dental care access, use of dental floss/fluoride toothpaste), significant association was still observed (odds ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08)). Conclusion Social connectedness among people from diverse backgrounds may increase information channels and promote the diffusion of oral health behaviors and prevent tooth loss. PMID:27459102

  1. Assessment of a healthy corner store program (FIT Store) in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Hyun Jung; Jung, Yumi; Thompson, Tracy; Alaimo, Katherine; Risley, John; Mayfield, Kellie

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a community-based and social marketing healthy corner store program (FIT store) to improve the affordability and availability of healthy foods in low-income, urban, and ethnically diverse neighborhoods in Michigan. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores data were analyzed for the FIT (N = 4) stores. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among the FIT store customers before (N = 401) and after (N = 318) the intervention. Three FIT stores improved their total Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores availability score from before to after the intervention. A significantly higher level of FIT awareness and monthly bean and nut consumption was reported in the postintervention. PMID:24297010

  2. Factors Associated with Increased Risk for Lethal Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships among Ethnically Diverse Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; O’Brien, Sharon; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria B.; Bertrand, Desiree; Sutton, Lorna W.; Hart-Hyndman, Greta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with increased risk for lethal violence among ethnically diverse Black women in Baltimore, Maryland (MD) and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women with abuse experiences (n=456) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the risk for lethal violence among abused women. Factors independently related to increased risk of lethal violence included fear of abusive partners, PTSD symptoms, and use of legal resources. These factors must be considered in assessing safety needs of Black women in abusive relationships. PMID:25429191

  3. Measuring the need for medical care in an ethnically diverse population.

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, D H; Vranizan, K; Schillinger, D; Stewart, A L; Bindman, A B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine measures of need for health care and their relationship to utilization of health services in different racial and ethnic groups in California. DATA SOURCE: Telephone interviews obtained by random-digit dialing and conducted between April 1993 and July 1993 in California, with 7,264 adults (ages 18-64): 601 African Americans, 246 Asians, 917 Latinos interviewed in English; 1,045 Latinos interviewed in Spanish; and 4,437 non-Latino whites. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from a stratified, probability telephone sample. DATA COLLECTION: Interviews collected self-reported indicators of need for health care: self-rated health, activity limitation, major chronic conditions, need for ongoing treatment, bed days, and prescription medication. The outcome was self-reported number of physician visits in the previous three months. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Compared to whites, one or more of the other ethnic groups varied significantly (p < .05) on each of the six need-for-care measures after adjustment for health insurance, age, sex, and income. Latinos interviewed in Spanish reported lower percentages and means on five of the need measures but the highest percentage with fair or poor health (32 percent versus 7 percent in whites). Models regressing each need measure on the number of outpatient visits found significant interactions of ethnic group with need compared to whites. After adjustment for insurance and demographics, the estimated mean number of visits in those with the indicator of need was consistently lower in Latinos interviewed in Spanish, but the differences among the other ethnic groups varied depending on the measure used. CONCLUSION: No single valid estimate of the relationship between need for health care and outpatient visits was found for any of the six indicators across ethnic groups. Applying need adjustment to the use of health care services without regard for ethnic variability may lead to biased conclusions about

  4. Cooking up diversity. Impact of a multicomponent, multicultural, experiential intervention on food and cooking behaviors among elementary-school students from low-income ethnically diverse families.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Gruneisen, Kristin; Gray, Katharine

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a pilot intervention promoting ethnic produce through classroom food demonstrations, tastings and home cooking activities among ethnically diverse elementary-school children ages 5-8 years old and their family members in Northern California. A total of 604 intervention students from four schools participated in classroom food demonstrations and tasting activities using seven food recipes. The control group included 600 students from two additional schools. Each recipe featured one vegetable from Latino, Hmong, or mainstream American cultures. Intervention students also received food kits containing ingredients to take home for each recipe. Mixed methods of quantitative student and parent pre-post surveys, parent feedback surveys, and qualitative focus groups were used to evaluate the intervention. Generalized estimating equations were used for survey data analysis. Qualitative data from parent focus groups were analyzed based on the principles of grounded theory. Both quantitative and qualitative results revealed that intervention students increased familiarity, preferences, and consumption of the featured vegetables and significantly increased their involvement in food preparation at home. Qualitative results showed that children were actively involved in food preparation at home. In addition, the intervention helped parents increase their appreciation for new foods and recipes. The results suggest that promoting locally grown ethnic produce to children is effective in increasing their consumption of a variety of vegetables and their involvement in food preparation at home. PMID:24845782

  5. The Relationship between Ethnic Diversity and Classroom Disruption in the Context of Migration Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veerman, Gert-Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between ethnic school composition and classroom disruption in secondary education in the context of migration policies. We measured classroom disruption using students' reports from 3533 schools in 20 countries provided by cross-national PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 data. We…

  6. Welcome to the Celtic Tiger? Teacher Responses to Immigration and Increasing Ethnic Diversity in Irish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Dympna

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research in the area of ethnicity and schooling is conducted in countries with a long tradition of immigration. The rapidity of social change in Ireland at a time of unprecedented economic growth is such that many schools, while still "mainly white", are grappling with the particular challenges that are posed by new patterns of…

  7. Stereotype Threat and School Belonging in Adolescents from Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Mallett, Robyn K.; Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we extend research on stereotype threat to adolescents and to school belonging. Stereotype threat refers to the impact of societal stereotypes on individual performance. Participants included adolescents from marginalized racial/ethnic minority groups including African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos and nonmarginalized…

  8. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  9. The Athletic Experiences of Ethnically Diverse Girls. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 131.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Jeanne

    This digest discusses how race and ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and area of residence, whether urban, suburban, or rural, impact girls' sports experiences. The social context of girls' lives shapes their sports choices and opportunities, with financial restraints often restricting African American girls' opportunities. When access to sports is…

  10. Dietary Behaviors of a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Sample of Overweight and Obese Californians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorkin, Dara H.; Billimek, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To examine racial/ethnic differences in the dietary behaviors of overweight or obese adults using the 2007 California Health Interview Survey. Method: Data were obtained from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based sample of noninstitutionalized adults in California. The sample included 26,721 adults aged 18…

  11. Family Life and Racial and Ethnic Diversity: An Assessment of Communitarianism, Liberalism, and Conservatism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sjoberg, Gideon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the debates among communitarians, liberals, and conservatives regarding contemporary family issues and critically evaluates these perspectives. Current orientations inadequately address the impact of large-scale bureaucratic organizations on family life and do not confront problems relating to ethnic and racial discrimination. Education…

  12. Multiple Social Identities and Adjustment in Young Adults from Ethnically Diverse Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    A person-centered approach was used to determine how identification across multiple social domains (ethnic, American, family, religious) was associated with distinct identity clusters. Utilizing data from 222 young adults from European, Filipino, Latin, and Asian American backgrounds, four clusters were found (Many Social Identities, Blended/Low…

  13. Race, Color, and Ethnicity: Diverse, Unequal, and Uneven Categories of the U.S. Census.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Ella P.; Nandy, Bikash

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistent and shifting ways in which the U.S. Census treats race, color, and ethnicity. Suggests that long-term conceptual frameworks be developed so that the next census will not produce uneven categories based on unequal assumptions. (EVL)

  14. Effects of Appearance-Related Testing on Ethnically Diverse Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Johnson, Kim K. P.

    2007-01-01

    The primary research question in this study was whether adolescents' experiences of and responses to teasing were related to the content of a tease and to particular ethnicity. Caucasian (n = 27) and African American adolescents (n = 22) between 12 to 17 years of age were asked to write about an experience of being teased regarding an aspect of…

  15. 6-n-Propylthiouracil sensitivity and obesity status among ethnically diverse children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective was to examine the relationship of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity to BMI while statistically controlling for demographic characteristics in two age groups of children: 9-10 years and 17-18 years (n 1551). Cross-sectional design with a multi-ethnic (White, African-American, Hispani...

  16. Delivering "Virtual Ethnicity" Drama: A Pedagogical Design for Bridging Digital and Diversity Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, E. Vincent

    2015-01-01

    This study examines an original dramaturgical method for creating virtual world experience called virtual world drama. The instructional focus is improving students' aptitude for analyzing ethnic identity by instilling both conceptual and multicultural competency. An exploratory research method is used, relying on observation (disguised and…

  17. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse than heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this…

  18. Beyond Johnny Appleseed: Learning English as a New Language through Ethnically Diverse Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giambo, Debra; Gonzales, Maria Elizabeth; Szecsi, Tunde; Thirumurthy, Vidya

    2006-01-01

    The linguistic, cultural, and ethnic mixture in many countries, including the United States, is changing rapidly and varies significantly from such old standbys as "Johnny Appleseed" or "Dick and Jane." Learning to communicate effectively in a new language involves gaining familiarity with the present-day culture of the country in which one…

  19. Awareness of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Japanese Junior High Schools' English Language Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Mieko

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how cultural attitudes about race and ethnicity are taught in the English language textbooks as a part of Japan's school curriculum. A content analysis of Japanese junior high school textbooks on English as a foreign language published from 1987 to 2002 was conducted. Four hypotheses were investigated relating to 1) the…

  20. The right insula contributes to memory awareness in cognitively diverse older adults.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Stephanie; Brickman, Adam M; Griffith, Erica; Habeck, Christian; Cines, Sarah; Farrell, Meagan; Shaked, Danielle; Huey, Edward D; Briner, Tamara; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-08-01

    Unawareness of memory loss is a challenging characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other age-related neurodegenerative conditions at their earliest stages, adversely affecting important outcomes such as patient decision making and safety. The basis of this metacognitive disturbance has been elusive; however it is almost certainly determined in part by compromise to brain regions critical for self-assessment. The subjectivity of traditional measurements of self-awareness in dementia has likely limited the rigor with which its neuroanatomic correlates can be established. Here we objectively measure memory awareness (metamemory) using a Feeling of Knowing (FOK) task in a group of cognitively diverse older adults, including 14 with mild AD and 20 cognitively healthy older adults. Performance on the metamemory task was examined in relation to the structural integrity of 14 bilateral neuroanatomic regions hypothesized to support self-awareness. Less accurate metamemory was associated only with reduced right insular volume (r=.41, p=.019). Implications of the current findings for models of metacognitive aging are discussed, with attention to the role of the insula in the conscious detection of errors. PMID:26049091

  1. The right insula contributes to memory awareness in cognitively diverse older adults

    PubMed Central

    Cosentino, Stephanie; Brickman, Adam M.; Griffith, Erica; Habeck, Christian; Cines, Sarah; Farrell, Meagan; Shaked, Danielle; Huey, Edward D.; Briner, Tamara; Stern, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    Unawareness of memory loss is a challenging characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other age-related neurodegenerative conditions at their earliest stages, adversely affecting important outcomes such as patient decision making and safety. The basis of this metacognitive disturbance has been elusive; however it is almost certainly determined in part by compromise to brain regions critical for self-assessment. The subjectivity of traditional measurements of self-awareness in dementia has likely limited the rigor with which its neuroanatomic correlates can be established. Here we objectively measure memory awareness (metamemory) using a Feeling of Knowing (FOK) task in a group of cognitively diverse older adults, including 14 with mild AD and 20 cognitively healthy older adults. Performance on the metamemory task was examined in relation to the structural integrity of 14 bilateral neuroanatomic regions hypothesized to support self-awareness. Less accurate metamemory was associated only with reduced right insular volume (r = .41, p = .019). Implications of the current findings for models of metacognitive aging are discussed, with attention to the role of the insula in the conscious detection of errors. PMID:26049091

  2. The Home Environment and Family Asthma Management Among Ethnically Diverse Urban Youth with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Amy F.; Kopel, Sheryl J.; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Seifer, Ronald; Esteban, Cynthia; Coutinho, Maria Teresa; Klein, Robert; Fritz, Gregory K.; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    While the pediatric psychology literature underscores the importance of illness related aspects of the home environment for optimal family asthma management, little is known about the contribution of more global aspects of the home environment (e.g., family routines/schedule, quality of stimulation provided to child) to asthma management in ethnic minority and urban families. The goals of this study were to: 1) explore ethnic/racial group differences in global and specific dimensions of home environment quality among Latino, non-Latino white (NLW), and African American urban children with asthma; and 2) examine associations between the quality and quantity of support and stimulation within the home environment, as measured by the HOME Inventory, and family asthma management in this sample. Urban, low-income children (N=131) between the ages of 6 and 13 with asthma and a primary caregiver participated in a multi-modal assessment including an in home observation and semi structured interviews to assess aspects of home environment quality and family asthma management practices. While controlling for poverty, no ethnic group differences were found in the global home environment; however, there were significant differences in specific dimensions (e.g. Family Participation in Developmentally Stimulating Experiences, and Aspects of the Physical Environment) of home environment quality. Across the whole sample, home environment quality predicted family asthma management. When examining this association for specific ethnic groups, this finding did not hold for the Latino subsample. The results highlight the need to consider ethnic group differences in non-illness specific aspects of the home environment when addressing families’ asthma management strategies. PMID:23795627

  3. Anal Cancer Screening: Barriers and Facilitators Among Ethnically Diverse Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Peter A.; Roberts, Kathleen J.; Masongsong, Emmanuel; Wiley, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge and beliefs about anal cancer screening among gay and other men who have sex with men remains unclear, despite data that suggests significant risk for intra-anal HPV-related cancers. Nevertheless, community-based screening activities may be most effective when stake-holder perspectives are addressed. We conducted four focus groups among 16 male and 3 female health care advocates experienced in working with diverse gay and other men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. Barriers to anal cancer screening included lack of awareness, stigma, psychological and physical discomfort, the anus as hidden/private, primary concern with HIV, and men's lack of healthcare seeking. Facilitators were community screening sites, novel strategies such as home testing, health care system changes and targeted educational campaigns, which may increase anal cancer awareness and screening among ethnically diverse men who have sex with men. PMID:21165164

  4. Health reform holds both risks and rewards for safety-net providers and racially and ethnically diverse patients.

    PubMed

    Andrulis, Dennis P; Siddiqui, Nadia J

    2011-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act of 2010 creates both opportunities and risks for safety-net providers in caring for low-income, diverse patients. New funding for health centers; support for coordinated, patient-centered care; and expansion of the primary care workforce are some of the opportunities that potentially strengthen the safety net. However, declining payments to safety-net hospitals, existing financial hardships, and shifts in the health care marketplace may intensify competition, thwart the ability to innovate, and endanger the financial viability of safety-net providers. Support of state and local governments, as well as philanthropies, will be crucial to helping safety-net providers transition to the new health care environment and to preventing the unintended erosion of the safety net for racially and ethnically diverse populations. PMID:21976323

  5. Reading Ability as an Estimator of Premorbid Intelligence: Does It Remain Stable Among Ethnically Diverse HIV+ Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J. Pat; Fellows, Robert P.; Rivera-Mindt, Monica; Morgello, Susan; Byrd, Desiree A.

    2015-01-01

    The Wide Range Achievement Test, 3rd edition, Reading-Recognition subtest (WRAT-3 RR) is an established measure of premorbid ability. Furthermore, its long-term reliability is not well documented, particularly in diverse populations with CNS-relevant disease. Objective: We examined test-retest reliability of the WRAT-3 RR over time in an HIV+ sample of predominantly racial/ethnic minority adults. Method: Participants (N = 88) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, including the WRAT-3 RR, on at least two separate study visits. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed using scores from baseline and follow-up assessments to determine the test-retest reliability of the WRAT-3 RR across racial/ethnic groups and changes in medical (immunological) and clinical (neurocognitive) factors. Additionally, Fisher’s Z tests were used to determine the significance of the differences between ICCs. Results: The average test-retest interval was 58.7 months (SD=36.4). The overall WRAT-3 RR test-retest reliability was high (r = .97, p < .001), and remained robust across all demographic, medical, and clinical variables (all r’s > .92). Intraclass correlation coefficients did not differ significantly between the subgroups tested (all Fisher’s Z p’s > .05). Conclusions: Overall, this study supports the appropriateness of word-reading tests, such as the WRAT-3 RR, for use as stable premorbid IQ estimates among ethnically diverse groups. Moreover, this study supports the reliability of this measure in the context of change in health and neurocognitive status, and in lengthy inter-test intervals. These findings offer strong rationale for reading as a “hold” test, even in the presence of a chronic, variable disease such as HIV. PMID:26689235

  6. Haplotype diversity of 16 Y-chromosomal STRs in three main ethnic populations (Malays, Chinese and Indians) in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuet Meng; Perumal, Revathi; Keat, Phoon Yoong; Kuehn, Daniel L C

    2007-03-22

    We have analyzed 16 Y-STR loci (DYS456, DYS389I, DYS390, DYS389II, DYS458, DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS393, DYS391, DYS439, DYS635 or Y-GATA C4, DYS392, Y-GATA H4, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS448) from the non-recombining region of the human Y-chromosome in 980 male individuals from three main ethnic populations in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese, Indian) using the AmpFlSTR((R)) Y-filertrade mark (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). The observed 17-loci haplotypes and the individual allele frequencies for each locus were estimated, whilst the locus diversity, haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity were calculated in the three ethnic populations. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that 88.7% of the haplotypic variation is found within population and 11.3% is between populations (fixation index F(ST)=0.113, p=0.000). This study has revealed Y-chromosomes with null alleles at several Y-loci, namely DYS458, DYS392, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS439, DYS448 and Y-GATA H4; and several occurrences of duplications at the highly polymorphic DYS385 loci. Some of these deleted loci were in regions of the Y(q) arm that have been implicated in the occurrence of male infertility. PMID:16457976

  7. Social support mediates the association of health literacy and depression among racially/ethnically diverse smokers with low socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Diana W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Adams, Claire E.; Cao, Yumei; Li, Yisheng; Waters, Andrew J.; Wetter, David W.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of U.S. adults have health literacy (HL) difficulties, and lack the ability to effectively obtain, process, and understand health information. Poor HL is associated with depression, yet mechanisms of this relation are unclear. This study examined whether social support mediated the relation between HL and depressive symptoms in 200 low-socioeconomic status (SES), racially/ethnically diverse smokers enrolled in cessation treatment. Mediation analyses were conducted using bootstrapping and controlling for SES and nicotine dependence. In simple mediation models, social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List [ISEL] total, subscales [Appraisal, Belonging, Tangible]) mediated the effect of HL on depression, such that lower HL was associated with lower perceived support, which predicted higher depressive symptoms (ps<.05). A multiple mediation model, with ISEL subscales entered simultaneously as mediators, was significant (p<.05) but only the Belonging subscale demonstrating independent significance (p<.05). Thus, social support may be a critical factor underlying the HL-depression relationship in low-SES, racially/ethnically diverse smokers. PMID:25391450

  8. A Call for Diversity: The Need to Recruit and Retain Ethnic Minority Students in Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awais, Yasmine J.; Yali, Ann Marie

    2013-01-01

    There is a clear need for greater diversity in the field of art therapy with particular attention to increasing the representation of students of color in art therapy training programs. However, little to no data exists on how art therapy programs are actively recruiting for diversity. Diversity in the classroom can offer novel perspectives on…

  9. Unreached and Unreasonable: Curriculum Standards and Children's Understanding of Ethnic Diversity in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Carla Lee; Sears, Alan; Donaldson, Shanell

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, Canadian schools have developed new policies and practices in their approaches to both diversity policy and curriculum development. Public schools once intended to homogenize a diverse population have been transformed to institutions designed to foster tolerance and respect for diversity. Curricula previously organized around…

  10. Diversity of [beta]-globin mutations in Israeli ethnic groups reflects recent historic events

    SciTech Connect

    Filon, D.; Oron, V.; Krichevski, S.; Shaag, A.; Goldfarb, A.; Aker, M.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.; Rund, D.; Oppenheim, A. )

    1994-05-01

    The authors characterized nearly 500 [beta]-thalassemia genes from the Israeli population representing a variety of ethnic subgroups. They found 28 different mutations in the [beta]-globin gene, including three mutations ([beta][sup S], [beta][sup C], and [beta][sup O-Arab]) causing hemoglobinopathies. Marked genetic heterogeneity was observed in both the Arab (20 mutations) and Jewish (17 mutations) populations. On the other hand, two ethnic isolates - Druze and Samaritans - had a single mutation each. Fifteen of the [beta]-thalassemia alleles are Mediterranean in type, 5 originated in Kurdistan, 2 are of Indian origin, and 2 sporadic alleles came from Europe. Only one mutant allele-nonsense codon 37-appears to be indigenous to Israel. While human habitation in Israel dates back to early prehistory, the present-day spectrum of [beta]-globin mutations can be largely explained by migration events that occurred in the past millennium. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Contributors to Patients' Ratings of Quality of Care Among Ethnically Diverse Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sarah E; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen; Billimek, John; Greenfield, Sheldon; Kaplan, Sherrie H; Sorkin, Dara H

    2016-04-01

    We examined racial/ethnic differences in patients' ratings of components of interpersonal quality [participatory decision making (PDM) style, being treated as an equal partner, and feelings of trust], and evaluated the association between each of these components and patients' ratings of overall healthcare quality among non-Hispanic white (NHW), Vietnamese American, and Mexican American patients with type 2 diabetes. The findings indicated that although all three components were significantly associated with ratings of overall healthcare quality, the significant interactions between race/ethnicity and both PDM style (β = -0.09, p < 0.01) and equal partner (β = -0.06, p < 0.05) for the Vietnamese American patients suggested that the relationship between these components and patients' ratings of healthcare quality were less strong among Vietnamese American patients than among the NHW patients. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in the components of interpersonal quality that are associated with patients' ratings of overall healthcare quality is an important step for improving patients' experiences of their own care. PMID:25740551

  12. Diversity Matters: New Directions for Institutional Research on Undergraduate Racial/Ethnic and Economic Diversity. SERU Project and Consortium Research Paper. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.8.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Gregg

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the new directions in institutional research on undergraduate racial/ethnic and socioeconomic diversity at the University of California, Berkeley. The use of SERU/UCUES and other web-based census surveys has made possible more detailed and extensive analysis of student diversity. Included is research on an expanded number of…

  13. Dietary patterns and diet quality among diverse older adults: The University of Alabama at Birmingham study of aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To characterize dietary patterns among a diverse sample of older adults (= 65 years). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Five counties in west central Alabama. Participants: Community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries (N=416; 76.8 ± 5.2 years, 56% female, 39% African American) in the Univer...

  14. Knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about hearing loss and hearing protection among racial/ethnically diverse young adults.

    PubMed

    Crandell, Carl; Mills, Terry L; Gauthier, Ricardo

    2004-02-01

    Over 11 million individuals exhibit some degree of permanent noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Despite such data, there remains a paucity of empirical evidence on the knowledge of noise exposure and hearing protection devices (HPDs) for young adults, particularly those of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. This lack of research is unfortunate, as prior research suggests that the incidence of NIHL can be reduced through educational programs, such as hearing conservation programs (HCPs). Moreover, research also indicates that such educational programs are more beneficial when developed for specific age and/or ethnic/racial groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to determine the knowledge base of 200 college-aged young adults aged 18-29, concerning the auditory mechanism, NIHL, and the use of HPDs. The second aim of this study was to identify race and ethnicity differences or similarities in knowledge of these areas among African-American and caucasian young adults. Overall, in many instances, a majority of the young adults in our study demonstrated a high degree of knowledge concerning factors associated with exposure to excessive noise and the risk of hearing loss. Yet, the results also revealed significant racial/ethnic differences in knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about the use of HPDs. Recent estimates suggest that more than 11 million individuals in the United States exhibit some degree of NIHL. Moreover, 40 million individuals work in environments that contain potentially harmful noise levels, and over 50 million Americans routinely use firearms--a common cause of noise-induced hearing impairment. A specific hallmark manifestation of NIHL is a permanent decrease in hearing sensitivity from 3,000-6,000 Hz, with a characteristic notch at 4,000 Hz. Additional effects of exposure to high noise levels include physiological changes in heart rate and blood pressure, decrease in work productivity, and an interference with communication that results

  15. Knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about hearing loss and hearing protection among racial/ethnically diverse young adults.

    PubMed Central

    Crandell, Carl; Mills, Terry L.; Gauthier, Ricardo

    2004-01-01

    Over 11 million individuals exhibit some degree of permanent noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). Despite such data, there remains a paucity of empirical evidence on the knowledge of noise exposure and hearing protection devices (HPDs) for young adults, particularly those of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. This lack of research is unfortunate, as prior research suggests that the incidence of NIHL can be reduced through educational programs, such as hearing conservation programs (HCPs). Moreover, research also indicates that such educational programs are more beneficial when developed for specific age and/or ethnic/racial groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to determine the knowledge base of 200 college-aged young adults aged 18-29, concerning the auditory mechanism, NIHL, and the use of HPDs. The second aim of this study was to identify race and ethnicity differences or similarities in knowledge of these areas among African-American and caucasian young adults. Overall, in many instances, a majority of the young adults in our study demonstrated a high degree of knowledge concerning factors associated with exposure to excessive noise and the risk of hearing loss. Yet, the results also revealed significant racial/ethnic differences in knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes about the use of HPDs. Recent estimates suggest that more than 11 million individuals in the United States exhibit some degree of NIHL. Moreover, 40 million individuals work in environments that contain potentially harmful noise levels, and over 50 million Americans routinely use firearms--a common cause of noise-induced hearing impairment. A specific hallmark manifestation of NIHL is a permanent decrease in hearing sensitivity from 3,000-6,000 Hz, with a characteristic notch at 4,000 Hz. Additional effects of exposure to high noise levels include physiological changes in heart rate and blood pressure, decrease in work productivity, and an interference with communication that results

  16. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  17. Hate Crimes on Campus: Racial/Ethnic Diversity and Campus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotzer, Rebecca L.; Hossellman, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Colleges and universities across the US have prioritized minority enrollments in their recruitment strategies, but theories offer to possible outcomes of increasing diversity on campus--increased racial harmony or increased racial tension. This study examines the impact of racial diversity on the reported number of hate crimes that occur on…

  18. Introduction to the Science of Recruitment and Retention among Ethnically Diverse Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye

    2011-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of research participants is evolving with the changing demographics of the American population, in particular its growing diversity. The cultural-historical background and sociopolitical conditions of each diverse group poses unique challenges in developing successful recruitment and retention methods and strategies. This…

  19. Childhood Abuse and Mental Health Indicators among Ethnically Diverse Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults

    PubMed Central

    Balsam, Kimberly F.; Lehavot, Keren; Beadnell, Blair; Circo, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Objective Prior research has established that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people experience higher rates of childhood abuse compared to heterosexuals. However, there has been little research on the mental health impact of these experiences, or how race/ethnicity might influence prevalence and mental health impact of childhood abuse in this population. The study’s objective was to examine the relationships between race/ethnicity and childhood abuse and their effect on mental health indicators in a national sample of LGB adults. Method Participants were recruited via the internet using snowball and targeted sampling methods. 669 LGB adults, 21% of whom were people of color, participated in an online survey. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, and the Perceived Stress Scale Short-Form. Results Latina/o and Asian American participants reported the highest levels of physical abuse (p < .01), and Latina/o and African American participants reported the highest levels of sexual abuse (p < .01). Childhood emotional abuse was the strongest predictor of current psychopathology symptoms for all participants (ps < .01). Relative to White participants, emotional abuse showed a stronger relationship with current PTSD and anxiety symptoms for African American participants (ps < .01), and physical abuse showed a stronger relationship with current PTSD and anxiety symptoms for Latina/o participants (ps < .05). Conclusions Findings suggest that race/ethnicity may be an important factor when examining childhood abuse and mental health correlates among LGB populations. PMID:20658803

  20. The Royan Public Umbilical Cord Blood Bank: Does It Cover All Ethnic Groups in Iran Based on HLA Diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. Methods From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. Results The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 107-107 × 107. The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Conclusions Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future. PMID:24847189

  1. Predictors of the timing of initiation of antenatal care in an ethnically diverse urban cohort in the UK

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the UK, women are recommended to engage with maternity services and establish a plan of care prior to the 12th completed week of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for late initiation of antenatal care within an ethnically diverse cohort in East London. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected electronic patient record data from Newham University Hospital NHS Trust (NUHT). All women who attended their antenatal booking appointment within NUHT between 1st January 2008 and 24th January 2011 were included in this study. The main outcome measure was late antenatal booking, defined as attendance at the antenatal booking appointment after 12 weeks (+6 days) gestation. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression with robust standard errors. Results Late initiation of antenatal care was independently associated with non-British (White) ethnicity, inability to speak English, and non-UK maternal birthplace in the multivariable model. However, among those women who both spoke English and were born in the UK, the only ethnic group at increased risk of late booking were women who identified as African/Caribbean (aOR: 1.40: 95% CI: 1.11, 1.76) relative to British (White). Other predictors identified include maternal age younger than 20 years (aOR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.13-1.54), high parity (aOR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.77-2.46) and living in temporary accommodation (aOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.35-2.16). Conclusions Socio-cultural factors in addition to poor English ability or assimilation may play an important role in determining early initiation of antenatal care. Future research should focus on effective interventions to encourage and enable these minority groups to engage with the maternity services. PMID:23642084

  2. Predictors of calcium intake at dinner meals of ethnically diverse mother-child dyads from families with limited incomes.

    PubMed

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Nicklas, Theresa A; Franklin, Frank; Liu, Yan

    2009-10-01

    Diets adequate in calcium and other key nutrients early in life are critical for optimal growth. This study's objective was to determine associations between beverage and dairy food intakes of mothers and their young children and food/beverage contributions to calcium at dinner meals from ethnically diverse families with limited incomes. This was a secondary analysis of dietary data on mother-child dyads from a cross-sectional study. The sample was 465 children (4.4+/-0.6 years) and their mothers, 41% African American, 34% Hispanic, and 21% white. Dietary and anthropometric data were collected in 52 Head Start centers in Alabama and Texas during 1 year starting fall 2004. Associations between mother-child intakes were examined by race/ethnicity using correlations. Calcium intake from dinners was predicted (stepwise regression) from four beverage categories-milk, sweetened beverages, 100% fruit juices, and non-energy-containing beverages plus water-and from cheese and dairy desserts. Overall, the mother's dinnertime intake of milk did not predict that of her child. Mother-child intakes of cheese, dairy desserts, and sweetened beverages correlated more strongly than did milk. All the beverages and dairy groups demonstrated moderate correlations for dyads with those for cheese (r=0.56), dairy desserts (r=0.39), fruit juice (r=0.36), and sweetened beverages (r=0.31) higher than that for milk overall (r=0.29, P<0.01). Milk and cheese predicted the most variance in calcium intake for both mothers and children overall (R(2)=0.82), and for all race-ethnic groups, except African-American children, where the contribution from cheese predominated. Food and nutrition professionals should encourage replacing sweet beverages at dinner with low-fat milk or calcium-fortified beverages to improve the nutrient density of meals. PMID:19782174

  3. Proteomic Profiling of Serum-Derived Exosomes from Ethnically Diverse Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Turay, David; Khan, Salma; Osterman, Carlos J. Diaz; Curtis, Matthew P.; Khaira, Balreet; Neidigh, Jonathan W.; Mirshahidi, Saied; Casiano, Carlos A.; Wall, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most frequently diagnosed male malignancy in Western countries and the second most common cause of male cancer death in the United States. The relatively elevated PCa incidence and mortality among African American men makes this cancer type a challenging health disparity disease. To increase the chance for successful trea tment, earlier detection and prediction of tumor aggress iveness will be important and need to be resolved. This study demonstrates that small membrane-bound vesicles shed from the tumor called exosomes contain ethnically and tumor-specific biomarkers, and could be exploited for their diagnostic and therapeutic potential. PMID:26536157

  4. Association of Genetic Ancestry with Breast Cancer in Ethnically Diverse Women from Chicago

    PubMed Central

    Al-Alem, Umaima; Rauscher, Garth; Shah, Ebony; Batai, Ken; Mahmoud, Abeer; Beisner, Erin; Silva, Abigail; Peterson, Caryn; Kittles, Rick

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Non-Hispanic (nH) Black and Hispanic women are disproportionately affected by early onset disease, later stage, and with more aggressive, higher grade and ER/PR negative breast cancers. The purpose of this analysis was to examine whether genetic ancestry could account for these variation in breast cancer characteristics, once data were stratified by self-reported race/ethnicity and adjusted for potential confounding by social and behavioral factors. Methods We used a panel of 100 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate individual genetic ancestry in 656 women from the “Breast Cancer Care in Chicago” study, a multi-ethnic cohort of breast cancer patients to examine the association between individual genetic ancestry and breast cancer characteristics. In addition we examined the association of individual AIMs and breast cancer to identify genes/regions that may potentially play a role in breast cancer disease disparities. Results As expected, nH Black and Hispanic patients were more likely than nH White patients to be diagnosed at later stages, with higher grade, and with ER/PR negative tumors. Higher European genetic ancestry was protective against later stage at diagnosis (OR 0.7 95%CI: 0.54–0.92) among Hispanic patients, and higher grade (OR 0.73, 95%CI: 0.56–0.95) among nH Black patients. After adjustment for multiple social and behavioral risk factors, the association with later stage remained, while the association with grade was not significant. We also found that the AIM SNP rs10954631 on chromosome 7 was associated with later stage (p = 0.02) and higher grade (p = 0.012) in nH Whites and later stage (p = 0.03) in nH Blacks. Conclusion Non-European genetic ancestry was associated with later stage at diagnosis in ethnic minorities. The relation between genetic ancestry and stage at diagnosis may be due to genetic factors and/or unmeasured environmental factors that are overrepresented within certain racial/ethnic groups

  5. The relationship between quality of life, binge-eating disorder, and obesity status in an ethnically diverse sample.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marisol; Warren, Cortney S

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between obesity status, binge-eating disorder (BED), and quality of life (QOL) in a large, ethnically diverse community sample of adult men and women. Using data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys (N = 20,013), individuals were categorized into four groups: nonobese with BED (n = 142), nonobese without BED (n = 14,301), obese with BED (n = 136), and obese without BED (n = 4,863). Results indicated obese individuals with BED consistently reported the poorest QOL. Findings suggested that obesity status was more strongly related to physical health-related QOL variables (e.g., number of physical conditions, mobility impairment) whereas diagnostic status was more predictive of mental health and social functioning QOL variables (e.g., cognitive impairment, social interaction impairment, time out of role). The degree to which lifetime BED diagnosis was associated with impairment in social interaction differed across ethnic groups. For black individuals, the number of physical health conditions was associated with BED presence moreso than weight status. PMID:21512512

  6. Effects of Gender Discrimination and Reported Stress on Drug Use among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung -Hee

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Gender discrimination has been associated with worse health outcomes for U.S. women. Using the stress and coping process framework, we examined whether lifetime gender discrimination was associated with maladaptive coping behaviors: lifetime and recent hard drug use. We also considered if reported stress from gender discrimination mediated this relationship and if this process differed across racial/ethnic groups. Methods We used data from a racially/ethnically diverse convenience sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in Northern California (11% African American,17% Latina, 10% Asian and 62% Caucasian). To test our hypotheses, we conducted logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Main Findings Gender discrimination was positively associated with both lifetime and recent hard drug use. We did not find support for the mediation hypothesis, as stress was not significantly associated with either lifetime or recent hard drug use. There was evidence of some race moderation for the Latina sample. Among these respondents, gender discrimination was associated with higher odds of lifetime drug use, while stress was associated with lower odds. Conclusions These results suggest that experiences of gender discrimination may still activate negative coping strategies involving drug use, regardless of the stress they cause. For Latina respondents, more research is needed to better understand the stress and coping process related to gender discrimination. PMID:20457409

  7. PROP taster status not related to reported cruciferous vegetable intake among ethnically diverse children

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice C; Watson, Kathleen B; Jago, Russell; Islam, Noemi; Beltran, Alicia; Martin, Shelby J; Nguyen, Nga; Tepper, Beverly J

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity to the taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) (a bitter tasting chemical related to the phenylthiocarbamide found in cruciferous vegetables) has been related to dietary intake or preferences of cruciferous vegetables among adults and young children, but not middle aged children or adolescents. We hypothesized that PROP taste sensitivity is related to lower reported dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables, primarily among younger children (i.e. a moderating effect of child age). This study examined the relationship of PROP sensitivity to reported dietary intake across three days in two age groups of youth (9–10 years and 17–18 year), while statistically controlling for physical activity, social desirability and reporting bias. Cross sectional design was employed with a multi-ethnic (White, African American, Hispanic, and Other) sample of 843 males and females. Children were recruited from and data were collected in local elementary and high schools that had at least 30% ethnic minority enrollment. Children providing nonplausible reports of dietary intake were deleted from the analyses. BMI was calculated and expressed in z-scores. Energy intake and physical activity were measured by three telephone conducted 24-hour dietary recalls with the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR) and 5 days of Actigraph activity monitor. The primary analyses included 347 students. PROP sensitivity was not related to intake of cruciferous vegetables. Intakes of the cruciferous vegetables were low, which may explain the lack of relationship. PMID:21925344

  8. An anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population with ethnic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Mazloumi, Adel; Kazemi, Zeinab

    2015-05-01

    This study constructed an anthropometric data bank for the Iranian working population. In total, thirty-seven body dimensions were measured among 3720 Iranian workers with different ethnicities (3000 male and 720 female; aged 20-60 years). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences for most of body dimensions among the ethnical groups. Moreover, the authors compared Iranian anthropometric characteristics with those of four Asian populations: Taiwanese, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean. Overall, 16 body dimensions for the five Asian populations were selected and compared. Accordingly, different morphological characteristics of these five populations were observed. The Iranian population showed wide shoulders and hips and long legs; the Chinese population showed narrow hips and shoulders and a short height relative to the other populations. The Korean sample recorded moderate body size comparing the other populations. The Taiwanese had large hands, relatively wide shoulders and short upper limbs. These differences in population dimensions should be taken into consideration for product and process design when expanding regional markets. PMID:25683535

  9. Transtheoretical Model Constructs for Physical Activity Behavior are Invariant across Time among Ethnically Diverse Adults in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Claudio R; Motl, Robert W; Horwath, Caroline; Dishman, Rod K

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity (PA) research applying the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to examine group differences and/or change over time requires preliminary evidence of factorial validity and invariance. The current study examined the factorial validity and longitudinal invariance of TTM constructs recently revised for PA. Method Participants from an ethnically diverse sample in Hawaii (N=700) completed questionnaires capturing each TTM construct. Results Factorial validity was confirmed for each construct using confirmatory factor analysis with full-information maximum likelihood. Longitudinal invariance was evidenced across a shorter (3-month) and longer (6-month) time period via nested model comparisons. Conclusions The questionnaires for each validated TTM construct are provided, and can now be generalized across similar subgroups and time points. Further validation of the provided measures is suggested in additional populations and across extended time points. PMID:22778669

  10. Feeling the beat: the meaning of rap music for ethnically diverse Midwestern college students--a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek K; Creswell, John; Caldwell, Leon

    2007-01-01

    Despite its national and international appeal, rap is considered one of the most controversial of music genres. Given the political charge it generates, rap music has spawned research across the social and health sciences. The majority of the research has investigated its impact on African Americans. Further, the research has tended to focus on negative aspects of the music; there has been a dearth of in-depth qualitative studies that explore how rap impacts the listener. Our phenomenological study explores that impact on ethnically diverse college students. Results indicate a profound psychological and educational effect and the discussion goes on to highlight the potential and innovative ways rap music can be utilized with adolescents in fields such as education, risk reduction programs, and counseling psychology. PMID:17849940

  11. FLT1 Genetic Variation Predisposes to Neovascular AMD in Ethnically Diverse Populations and Alters Systemic FLT1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Leah A.; Morrison, Margaux A.; Ahn, Jeeyun; Woo, Se Joon; Sato, Hajime; Robinson, Rosann; Morgan, Denise J.; Zacharaki, Fani; Simeonova, Marina; Uehara, Hironori; Chakravarthy, Usha; Hogg, Ruth E.; Ambati, Balamurali K.; Kotoula, Maria; Baehr, Wolfgang; Haider, Neena B.; Silvestri, Giuliana; Miller, Joan W.; Tsironi, Evangelia E.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Kim, Ivana K.; Park, Kyu Hyung; DeAngelis, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Current understanding of the genetic risk factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is not sufficiently predictive of the clinical course. The VEGF pathway is a key therapeutic target for treatment of neovascular AMD; however, risk attributable to genetic variation within pathway genes is unclear. We sought to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with AMD within the VEGF pathway. Methods. Using a tagSNP, direct sequencing and meta-analysis approach within four ethnically diverse cohorts, we identified genetic risk present in FLT1, though not within other VEGF pathway genes KDR, VEGFA, or VASH1. We used ChIP and ELISA in functional analysis. Results. The FLT1 SNPs rs9943922, rs9508034, rs2281827, rs7324510, and rs9513115 were significantly associated with increased risk of neovascular AMD. Each association was more significant after meta-analysis than in any one of the four cohorts. All associations were novel, within noncoding regions of FLT1 that do not tag for coding variants in linkage disequilibrium. Analysis of soluble FLT1 demonstrated higher expression in unaffected individuals homozygous for the FLT1 risk alleles rs9943922 (P = 0.0086) and rs7324510 (P = 0.0057). In silico analysis suggests that these variants change predicted splice sites and RNA secondary structure, and have been identified in other neovascular pathologies. These data were supported further by murine chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrating that FLT1 is a target of Nr2e3, a nuclear receptor gene implicated in regulating an AMD pathway. Conclusions. Although exact variant functions are not known, these data demonstrate relevancy across ethnically diverse genetic backgrounds within our study and, therefore, hold potential for global efficacy. PMID:24812550

  12. Handwashing among schoolchildren in an ethnically diverse population in northern rural Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Hoat, Luu Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    Background Handwashing with soap (HWWS) is a simple and effective measure to prevent transmission of fecal–oral disease and other infectious diseases in school-age children. To promote the behavior, we need to understand their HWWS compliance. The aim of this article is to describe handwashing behavior and HWWS compliance and to identify associated factors among schoolchildren in the multiethnic rural area of northern Vietnam. Methods The study was conducted in six primary and secondary schools and in the homes of four ethnic villages in northern Vietnam. Quantitative methods included face-to-face interviews with, and demonstration of handwashing protocol to, 319 schoolchildren in first, fourth, and seventh grades. Qualitative methods included structured observations at six schools and 20 homes comprising 24 children. The dependent variable was the self-reported HWWS behavior (yes/no). The independent variables included grade, school type, gender, ethnicity group, owning home latrine, and household assets. Logistic regression modelling was performed to examine associations between HWWS behavior and demographic factors. Results Among the 319 schoolchildren interviewed, 66% reported HWWS. Through the demonstration protocol, only 10 out of 319 schoolchildren, performed HWWS satisfactorily. The percentage of students who washed their hands at recommended times (30–60 sec) was 58%. This proportion increased by grade (from 34% among grade 1 to 67% among grade 7; p<0.05). Correlates of self-reported HWWS were more common in higher grades [grade 4 vs. grade 1: odds ratio (OR)=4.14 (2.00–8.56), grade 7 vs. grade 1: OR=7.76 (3.67–16.4)] and less common in ethnic minority groups [Xa Phó vs. Kinh-Tay: OR=0.28 (0.11–0.70)]. All 20 homes of schoolchildren visited had soap and water but none of the six schools had soap for handwashing. Conclusions This article describes poor compliance of schoolchildren with HWWS in a multiethnic population in Vietnam. Education on

  13. Differences by race/ethnicity in older adults' beliefs about the relative importance of dietary supplements vs prescription medications: results from the SURE Study.

    PubMed

    Albright, Cheryl L; Schembre, Susan M; Steffen, Alana D; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Yonemori, Kim M; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2012-08-01

    Dietary supplement use is widespread among adults across races/ethnicities, yet reasons for use can vary across these groups. The Supplement Reporting (SURE) study quantified dietary supplement use and reasons for taking supplements in a multiethnic sample of adults who took at least one supplement. This study explored sociodemographic differences, including by race/ethnicity, associated with specific reasons/motivations for taking dietary supplements, including perceived importance of taking supplements relative to prescription medications. The study time period was March 2005 to August 2006. Participants (n=397) were older adults (ages 52 to 88 years) recruited from the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles, CA, with equal representation of males and females from six ethnic groups (ie, white, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, African American, US-born Latino, and foreign-born Latino). Subgroups of participants were compared by χ(2) tests and logistic regression. The most common reasons for taking supplements were to maintain a healthy life, because they were recommended by a health professional, and to prevent a disease/medical problem. A majority (76%) of participants reported that their dietary supplements were as important as prescription medications, with foreign-born Latinos and Japanese Americans being most likely to state this belief. The relative importance of supplements was not associated with excessive use, but 27% of participants exceeded the upper limit for a nutrient. It is crucial for health professionals to better understand why individuals take supplements and the importance that they attach to their use. This information could lead to better monitoring and education efforts to prevent overuse of supplements and possible interactions with medications. PMID:22818730

  14. Evaluation of a service intervention to improve awareness and uptake of bowel cancer screening in ethnically-diverse areas

    PubMed Central

    Shankleman, J; Massat, N J; Khagram, L; Ariyanayagam, S; Garner, A; Khatoon, S; Rainbow, S; Rangrez, S; Colorado, Z; Hu, W; Parmar, D; Duffy, S W

    2014-01-01

    Background: Uptake of bowel cancer screening is lowest in London, in populations of lower socio-economic status, and in particular ethnic or religious groups. Methods: We report on the evaluation of two interventions to improve uptake in an area including populations of low socio-economic status and considerable ethnic diversity. The interventions were face-to-face health promotion on bowel cancer screening at invitees' general practice and health promotion delivered by telephone only. Nine large general practices in East London were chosen at random to offer face-to-face health promotion, and nine other large practices to offer telephone health promotion, with 24 practices of similar size as comparators. Data at practice level were analysed by Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon tests and grouped-logistic regression. Results: There were 2034 invitees in the telephone intervention practices, 1852 in the face-to-face intervention practices and 5227 in the comparison practices. Median gFOBt kit uptake in the target population (aged 59–70) was 46.7% in the telephone practices, 43.8% in the face-to-face practices and 39.1% in the comparison practices. Significant improvements in the odds of uptake were observed following telephone intervention in both males (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.20–1.61, P<0.001) and females (OR=1.49, 95% CI=1.29–1.73, P<0.001), while the face-to-face intervention mainly impacted uptake in males (OR=1.23, 95% CI=1.10–1.36), P<0.001) but did not lead to a significant increase in females (OR=1.12, 95% CI=0.96–1.29, P=0.2). Conclusions: Personally delivered health promotion improved uptake of bowel cancer screening in areas of low socio-economic status and high ethnic diversity. The intervention by telephone appears to be the most effective method. PMID:24983374

  15. Workplace Discrimination Is Associated With Alcohol Abuse Among Ethnically Diverse Hospital Staff.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. PMID:27034406

  16. The use of denial in an ethnically diverse British cancer population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Roy, R; Symonds, R P; Kumar, D M; Ibrahim, K; Mitchell, A; Fallowfield, L

    2005-01-01

    A total of 82 Asian and 117 randomly selected white Caucasian patients at the Leicestershire Cancer Centre were assessed using measures of coping and adaption to cancer. On the Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale, Asian patients were more fatalistic (P<0.0001) and had more significant hopeless/helpless scores (P=0.007). The two ethnic groups answered the three questions thought to assess denial differently. Caucasians were more likely not to dwell on their illness (73 vs 55.5%, P<0.0001) and agree with the statement ‘I have difficulty believing this is happening to me' (73 vs 60.5%, P<0.0001). However, Asian patients were more likely to agree with the statement ‘I don't really believe I have cancer' (48.2 vs 31.3%, P=0.019). Within both groups there was an association with denial and anxious preoccupation (P<0.001). On the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, there was no difference in anxiety scores between either sexes or between the Asian and Caucasian groups. However, Asian patients were more depressed (P=0.001). Although denial was significantly related to the presence of both depression (P<0.0001) and anxiety (P=0.001) in the entire patient population, there were different predictors of denial in each subgroup. On multiple regression analysis depression was linked with denial in Caucasians, whereas Fighting Spirit (minus helplessness/hopelessness) was linked with denial in Asian patients. There are definite differences in coping styles in British cancer patients according to ethnicity. While significant numbers in both groups employ denial in some form, Caucasian patients appear to adapt to the psychological pressures of cancer more successfully than Asian patients at a particular point in time. Further work is required to elucidate longitudinal relationships between denial and adaption to cancer. PMID:15812548

  17. An Analysis of Stereotype Threat in African American Engineering Students at Predominantly White, Ethnically Diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).…

  18. School Readiness Gains Made by Ethnically Diverse Children in Poverty Attending Center-Based Childcare and Public School Pre-Kindergarten Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsler, Adam; Tran, Henry; Hartman, Suzanne C.; Madigan, Amy L.; Manfra, Louis; Bleiker, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Although intensive early childhood interventions and high quality preschool programs have been shown to foster children's school readiness, little is known about the school readiness gains made by ethnically and linguistically diverse children in poverty receiving subsidies to attend center-based childcare or those in public school…

  19. Developing Programmes to Promote Ethnic Diversity in Early Childhood: Lessons from Northern Ireland. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, Number 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This working paper focuses on some of the issues and challenges faced in developing early childhood programmes to promote racial and ethnic diversity in societies characterised by deep divisions and/or conflict. The central argument of the paper is that the development, delivery and evaluation of such programmes need to be informed by three core…

  20. Factors Related to Ethnically and Culturally Diverse Students' Motivation and Perceived Cognitive Learning Outcomes in an Online Instructional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe-Whyte, Ann-Marie Simone

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature of communication experienced by ethnically diverse students who participated in an online distance education course. A quantitative survey research design was used to gather data from students enrolled in an online distance education course. The research examined whether the independent variables, (a) instructional…

  1. Math Achievement and Self-Efficacy of Linguistically and Ethnically Diverse High School Students: Their Relationships with English Reading and Native Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The under-preparation in math at the high school and college levels, as well as the low participation of ethnically and linguistically diverse individuals in STEM fields are concerning because their preparation for work in these areas is essential for the U.S. to remain competitive in the innovative knowledge economy. While there is now a…

  2. Reconsidering Racial and Ethnic Diversity: A Case Study of Two Historically Black Colleges and Universities' Preparation for the 21st Century and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherstone, William H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent demographic forecasts demonstrate the United States is rapidly becoming more racially and ethnically diverse. By the year 2050, demographers maintain the nation will advance to a "majority minority" state where non-Hispanic Whites will fall below 50%. For that reason, colleges and universities are reevaluating their mission and making…

  3. Hate crimes on campus: racial/ethnic diversity and campus safety.

    PubMed

    Stotzer, Rebecca L; Hossellman, Emily

    2012-03-01

    Colleges and universities across the US have prioritized minority enrollments in their recruitment strategies, but theories offer to possible outcomes of increasing diversity on campus-increased racial harmony or increased racial tension. This study examines the impact of racial diversity on the reported number of hate crimes that occur on campus. Findings suggest that those schools that are most successful in recruiting the hardest to recruit minorities (Black and Latino students) report fewer hate crimes on campus. Implications for campus climate and racial dynamics on campus, as well as future research, are discussed. PMID:22007114

  4. Favorite foods of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the United States. Influences of ethnicity, gender, and education.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongbin; Buys, David R; Judd, Suzanne E; Gower, Barbara A; Locher, Julie L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine food preferences of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the Southeastern United States and the extent to which food preferences vary according to ethnicity, gender, and educational level. 270 older adults who were receiving home health services were interviewed in their home and were queried regarding their favorite foods. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Chi-square analysis or one-way analyses of variance was used, where appropriate, in bivariate analyses, and logistic regression models were used in multivariate analyses. A total of 1,857 favorite foods were reported (mean per person=6.88). The top ten favorite foods reported included: (1) chicken (of any kind), (2) collard greens, (3) cornbread, (4) green or string beans, (5) fish (fried catfish is implied), (6) turnip greens, (7) potatoes, (8) apples, (9) tomatoes, fried chicken, and eggs tied, and (10) steak and ice cream tied. African Americans and those with lower levels of education were more likely to report traditional Southern foods among their favorite foods and had a more limited repertoire of favorite foods. Findings have implications for understanding health disparities that may be associated with diet and development of culturally-appropriate nutrition interventions. PMID:23262296

  5. Favorite Foods of Older Adults Living in the Black Belt Region of the United States: Influences of Ethnicity, Gender, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yongbin; Buys, David R.; Judd, Suzanne E.; Gower, Barbara A.; Locher, Julie L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine food preferences of older adults living in the Black Belt Region of the Southeastern United States and the extent to which food preferences vary according to ethnicity, gender, and educational level. 270 older adults who were receiving home health services were interviewed in their home and were queried regarding their favorite foods. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample. Chi-square analysis or one-way analyses of variance was used, where appropriate, in bivariate analyses, and logistic regression models were used in multivariate analyses. A total of 1,857 favorite foods were reported (mean per person = 6.88). The top ten favorite foods reported included: 1) chicken (of any kind), 2) collard greens, 3) cornbread, 4) green or string beans, 5) fish (fried catfish is implied), 6) turnip greens, 7) potatoes, 8) apples, 9) tomatoes, fried chicken, and eggs tied, and 10) steak and ice cream tied. African Americans and those with lower levels of education were more likely to report traditional Southern foods among their favorite foods and had a more limited repertoire of favorite foods. Findings have implications for understanding health disparities that may be associated with diet and development of culturally-appropriate nutrition interventions. PMID:23262296

  6. Gender Labels and Gender Identity as Predictors of Drug Use among Ethnically Diverse Middle School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulis, Stephen; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Hecht, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the roles of gender labels and gender identity in predicting drug use among diverse, urban middle school students, examining nurturant femininity, confident masculinity, and dominant masculinity. Overall, gender labels and gender identity were important predictors of drug use. Gender labels were more salient in explaining differences…

  7. Included in Communication: Learning Climates That Cultivate Racial and Ethnic Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Judith S., Ed.

    This collection of essays is designed for the faculty member and others who care about the retention and success of students of color in gateway courses in Communications. The book examines assumptions about diversity and teaching and learning, and provides strategies for enacting learning environments that are more inclusive and conducive to the…

  8. Included in Sociology: Learning Climates That Cultivate Racial and Ethnic Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Jeffrey, Ed.; Berheide, Catherine White, Ed.; Rome, Dennis, Ed.

    This collection of essays is designed for the faculty member and others who care about the retention and success of students of color in gateway courses in Sociology. The book examines assumptions about diversity and teaching and learning and provides strategies for enacting learning environments that are more inclusive and conducive to the…

  9. Included in English Studies: Learning Climates That Cultivate Racial and Ethnic Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Shelli B., Ed.; Villanueva, Victor, Ed.

    This collection of essays is designed for the faculty member and others who care about the retention and success of students of color in gateway courses in English. The book examines assumptions about diversity and teaching and learning, and provides strategies for enacting learning environments that are more inclusive and conducive to the success…

  10. Using the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding Method (BISG) to Create a Working Classification of Race and Ethnicity in a Diverse Managed Care Population: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Adjaye-Gbewonyo, Dzifa; Bednarczyk, Robert A; Davis, Robert L; Omer, Saad B

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo validate classification of race/ethnicity based on the Bayesian Improved Surname Geocoding method (BISG) and assess variations in validity by gender and age. Data Sources/Study SettingSecondary data on members of Kaiser Permanente Georgia, an integrated managed care organization, through 2010. Study DesignFor 191,494 members with self-reported race/ethnicity, probabilities for belonging to each of six race/ethnicity categories predicted from the BISG algorithm were used to assign individuals to a race/ethnicity category over a range of cutoffs greater than a probability of 0.50. Overall as well as gender-and age-stratified sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated and used to identify optimal cutoffs for race/ethnicity assignment. Principal FindingsThe overall cutoffs for assignment that optimized sensitivity and specificity ranged from 0.50 to 0.57 for the four main racial/ethnic categories (White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic). Corresponding sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV ranged from 64.4 to 81.4 percent, 80.8 to 99.7 percent, 75.0 to 91.6 percent, and 79.4 to 98.0 percent, respectively. Accuracy of assignment was better among males and individuals of 65 years or older. ConclusionsBISG may be useful for classifying race/ethnicity of health plan members when needed for health care studies. PMID:23855558

  11. Deciphering diversity in populations of various linguistic and ethnic affiliations of different geographical regions of India: analysis based on 15 microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, V K; Ashma, Richa; Gaikwad, Sonali; Sarkar, B N; Trivedi, R

    2004-04-01

    The extent of genetic polymorphism at fifteen autosomal microsatellite markers in 54 ethnically, linguistically and geographically diverse human populations of India was studied to decipher intrapopulation diversity. The parameters used to quantify intrapopulation diversity were average allele diversity, average heterozygosity, allele range (base pairs), and number of alleles. Multilocus genotype frequencies calculated for selected populations were utilized for testing conformity with the assumption of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The exact test values, after Bonferroni correction, showed significant deviation amongst Gowda (vWA, Penta E); Dhangar, Satnami and Gounder (D8S1179); Hmar (FGA); Kuki and Balti (vWA) groups. Relatively low number of alleles and allelic diversity (base-pairs size) had been observed in populations of central India as compared with southern and northern regions of the country. The communities of Indo-Caucasoid ethnic origin and Indo-European linguistic family (Kshatriya of Uttar Pradesh) showed highest allelic diversity, as well as rare alleles, not reported in any other Indian populations. Analysis based on average heterozygosity was also found to be lowest among the populations of central India (0.729) and highest among the populations from north (0.777) and west (0.784) regions of the country, having Indo-Caucasoid ethnic origin and Austro-Asiatic linguistic affiliation. The maximum power of discrimination (85%-89%) had been observed at loci FGA, Penta E, D18S51 and D21S11, suggested high intrapopulation diversity in India. Genetic diversity revealed by STR markers was consistent with the known demographic histories of populations. Thus, the present study clearly demonstrated that the intrapopulation diversity is not only present at the national level, but also within smaller geographical regions of the country. This is the first attempt to understand the extent of diversity within populations of India at such a large scale at genomic

  12. Perceptions of healthy eating and physical activity in an ethnically diverse sample of young children and their parents: the DEAL prevention of obesity study

    PubMed Central

    Rawlins, E; Baker, G; Maynard, M; Harding, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnicity is a consistent correlate of obesity; however, little is known about the perceptions and beliefs that may influence engagement with obesity prevention programmes among ethnic minority children. Barriers to (and facilitators of) healthy lifestyles were examined in the qualitative arm of the London (UK) DiEt and Active Living (DEAL) study. Methods Children aged 8–13 years and their parents, from diverse ethnic groups, were recruited through schools and through places of worship. Thirteen focus group sessions were held with 70 children (n = 39 girls) and eight focus groups and five interviews with 43 parents (n = 34 mothers). Results Across ethnic groups, dislike of school meals, lack of knowledge of physical activity guidelines for children and negativity towards physical education at school among girls, potentially hindered healthy living. Issues relating to families' wider neighbourhoods (e.g. fast food outlets; lack of safety) illustrated child and parental concerns that environments could thwart intentions for healthy eating and activity. By contrast, there was general awareness of key dietary messages and an emphasis on dietary variety and balance. For ethnic minorities, places of worship were key focal points for social support. Discourse around the retention of traditional practices, family roles and responsibilities, and religion highlighted both potential facilitators (e.g. the importance of family meals) and barriers (reliance on convenience stores for traditional foods). Socio-economic circumstances intersected with key themes, within and between ethnic groups. Conclusions Several barriers to (and facilitators of) healthy lifestyles were common across ethnic groups. Diversity of cultural frameworks not only were more nuanced, but also shaped lifestyles for minority children. PMID:22827466

  13. United by Faith? Race/Ethnicity, Congregational Diversity, and Explanations of Racial Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Ryon J.; Perry, Samuel L.; Dougherty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which the racial composition of a congregation moderates explanations for Black/White inequality among White, Black, and Hispanic congregants. Using nationally representative data from General Social Surveys and National Congregations Studies, we find that religiously affiliated Blacks and Hispanics tend to hold different racial attitudes than religiously affiliated Whites, but these differences largely disappear inside multiracial congregations. Importantly, we find that attending a multiracial congregation is unassociated with Whites’ explanations for racial inequality, and Blacks who attend multiracial congregations are actually less likely to affirm structural explanations for Black/White inequality than Blacks in nonmultiracial congregations or Whites in multiracial congregations. We find little evidence that multiracial congregations promote progressive racial views among attendees of any race or ethnicity. Rather, our findings suggest that multiracial congregations (1) leave dominant White racial frames unchallenged, potentially influencing minority attendees to embrace such frames and/or (2) attract racial minorities who are more likely to embrace those frames in the first place.

  14. Intimate Partner Violence, Depression, PTSD and Use of Mental Health Resources among Ethnically Diverse Black Women

    PubMed Central

    SABRI, BUSHRA; BOLYARD, RICHELLE; MCFADGION, AKOSOA L.; STOCKMAN, JAMILA K.; LUCEA, MARGUERITE B.; CALLWOOD, GLORIA B.; COVERSTON, CATHERINE R.; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined exposure to violence and risk for lethality in intimate partner relationships as factors related to co-occurring MH problems and use of mental health (MH) resources among women of African descent. Methods Black women with intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences (n=431) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in the US and the US Virgin Islands. Results Severity of IPV was significantly associated with co-occurring MH problems, but was not associated with the use of MH resources among African American women. Risk for lethality and co-occurring problems were also not significantly related to the use of resources. African Caribbean women with severe physical abuse experiences were significantly less likely to use resources. In contrast, severity of physical abuse was positively associated with the use of resources among Black women with mixed ethnicity. Conclusions Severe IPV experiences are risk factors for co-occurring MH problems, which in turn, increases the need for MH services. However, Black women may not seek help for MH problems. Thus, social work practitioners in health care settings must thoroughly assess women for their IPV experiences and develop tailored treatment plans that address their abuse histories and MH needs. PMID:23581838

  15. Y-chromosome diversity in the Kalmyks at the ethnical and tribal levels.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Khoyt, Sanj; Woźniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Zakharov, Ilya

    2013-12-01

    The Mongolic-speaking Kalmyks currently inhabiting the steppes of the Volga region have Central Asian ancestry and are organized into the tribal groups. The genetic relationships among these tribes and their origin have remained obscure. We analyzed 17 short tandem repeat and 44 binary polymorphisms of Y-chromosome in 426 individuals mainly from three major tribes of the Kalmyks (the Torguuds, Dörwöds and Khoshuuds). Among these tribes, the Dörwöds and Torguuds, as well as the Kalmyks collectively as an ethnic group, showed relatively close genetic affinities to each other and to the Mongols and Altaian Kazakhs, whereas the Khoshuuds were clearly separated from all of them, gathering with the Manchu, Tibetans or Evenks (depending on the algorithm used to calculate genetic distances). The genetic results also indicate that paternal gene flow from East Europeans to the Kalmyks is very little, despite their cohabitation in the North Caspian Steppe during the last 380 years. The occurrence of unique cluster of N1c-Tat haplotypes in the Khoshuuds, which dates to about 340 years and is likely to have East European ancestry, is considered as a result of interethnic contacts occurred soon after the appearance of the Kalmyk tribes in the Volga-Ural region. PMID:24132124

  16. Social ecological determinants of youth violence among ethnically diverse Asian and Pacific Islander students.

    PubMed

    Goebert, Deborah; Chang, Janice Y; Chung-Do, Jane; Else, 'Iwalani R N; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Helm, Susana; Kinkade, Katie; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the relative fit of risk/protective and social ecological models of youth violence among predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander students. Data from a 2007 survey of two multi-ethnic high schools in Hawai'i were used. The survey assessed interpersonal youth violence, suicidality and risk and protective factors. Two models of youth violence (risk/protective and social ecological) were tested using structural equation modeling. We found good fits for the risk/protective model (χ(2) = 369.42, df = 77, P < .0001; CFI = .580; RMSEA = .066) and the ecological model (χ(2) = 1763.65, df = 292, P < .0001; CFI = .636; RMSEA = .076). The risk/protective model showed the importance of coping skills. However, the ecological model allowed examination of the interconnectivity among factors. Peer exposure to violence had no direct influence on individuals and peer influence was fully mediated by school climate. Furthermore, family factors directly contributed to peer exposure, community, and individual risk/protection. These findings have significant implications for intervention and prevention efforts and for the promotion of positive, competent, and healthy youth development. While few family and school-based programs have been developed and evaluated for adolescents, they have the greatest potential for success. PMID:21132358

  17. Clinical Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Israel: Impact of Ethnic and Social Diversities

    PubMed Central

    Shalabe, Haitham; Terkel-Dawer, Ruth; Akawi, Ashraf; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increased global prevalence and recognition of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), it is still scarcely reported in the Arab world. Though Israel has a higher prevalence of ASD, a previous national survey of patients diagnosed between 1972 and 2004, demonstrated that 98% of them were of Jewish ancestry. The disproportional low number of Arab children with ASD in Israel is unclear but may reflect lower awareness and cultural bias. In the present study we collected clinical and demographic characteristics of 200 children with ASD from Arab and Jewish sectors in Israel that were evaluated in two child development centers. We compared the incidence and the medical comorbidity of autism between these two ethnics groups. The medical and psychiatric comorbidity profile in these children was similar to the worldwide published studies. In the present study the prevalence of autism in the Arab sector in Israel was similar to that of the Jewish sector. The Arab patients presented with more severe autistic manifestations and higher incidence of mental retardation, familial members with autism, and consanguinity (P < 0.05), while in the Jewish sector milder forms (such as Asperger syndrome and PDD-NOS) were more frequent. This discrepancy might be explained by both genetic and cultural factors. PMID:25984535

  18. Perceptions and Beliefs about the Role of Physical Activity and Nutrition on Brain Health in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Sara; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Mathews, Anna E.; Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Sahyoun, Nadine; Robare, Joseph F.; Liu, Rui

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine older adults' perceptions of the link between physical activity (PA) and nutrition to the maintenance of cognitive health. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 396 ethnically diverse (White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic) community-dwelling older adults. FGs…

  19. Physical Activity among Rural Older Adults with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Snively, Beverly M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This analysis describes physical activity levels and factors associated with physical activity in an ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) sample of rural older adults with diabetes. Method: Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 701 community-dwelling…

  20. Moving Beyond the "add and Stir" Approach to Increasing Diversity in the Sciences: Design and Implementation of AN Undergraduate Course Entitled Ethnic Minorities in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Dantoin, Angela C.; Ritch, Donna

    In an effort to create a more culturally inclusive undergraduate science curriculum, a course entitled "Ethnic Minorities in Science" was designed and implemented. The course has the following learning objectives: 1). to understand the history and culture of science in the U.S., in order to recognize what has led to the current under representation of specific ethnic groups in the sciences; 2). to appreciate the often undervalued or overlooked contributions of minority scientists and physicians; 3). to gain a perspective on the disparities in the quality of health care available to various ethnic groups in the U.S.; and 4). to identify ways to initiate change and improve the climate for minorities in the fields of science and medicine. Course readings, pedagogical methods, and the impact of the course on students' awareness of diversity issues in science are discussed.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in two ethnic groups in southeastern Kenya: perspectives from the northeastern periphery of the Bantu expansion

    PubMed Central

    Batai, Ken; Babrowski, Kara B.; Arroyo, Juan Pablo; Kusimba, Chapurukha M.; Williams, Sloan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Bantu languages are widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Genetic research supports linguists and historians who argue that migration played an important role in the spread of this language family, but the genetic data also indicates a more complex process involving substantial gene flow with resident populations. In order to understand the Bantu expansion process in east Africa, mtDNA hypervariable region I variation in 352 individuals from the Taita and Mijikenda ethnic groups was analyzed, and we evaluated the interactions that took place between the Bantu- and non-Bantu-speaking populations in east Africa. The Taita and Mijikenda are Bantu-speaking agropastoralists from southeastern Kenya, at least some of whose ancestors probably migrated into the area as part of Bantu migrations that began around 3,000 BCE. Our analyses indicate that they show some distinctive differences that reflect their unique cultural histories. The Taita are genetically more diverse than the Mijikenda with larger estimates of genetic diversity. The Taita cluster with other east African groups, having high frequencies of haplogroups from that region, while the Mijikenda have high frequencies of central African haplogroups and cluster more closely with central African Bantu-speaking groups. The non-Bantu speakers who lived in southeastern Kenya before Bantu speaking groups arrived were at least partially incorporated into what are now Bantu-speaking Taita groups. In contrast, gene flow from non-Bantu speakers into the Mijikenda was more limited. These results suggest a more complex demographic history where the nature of Bantu and non-Bantu interactions varied throughout the area. PMID:23382080

  2. Race/Ethnicity and Primary Language: Health Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Diverse, Low-Income Population

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Alison Tytell; Ko, Linda K.; Janz, Nancy; Gupta, Shivani; Inadomi, John

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important cause of cancer death in adults in the U.S.; screening is effective but underutilized, particularly among minorities. The purpose of this paper was to explore whether health belief model (HBM) constructs pertaining to CRC screening differ by race/ethnicity and primary language. Data were from the baseline surveys of 933 participants (93.5%) in a randomized trial promoting CRC screening in San Francisco. Composite scores for each construct were created from multiple items, dichotomized for analysis, and analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Most participants were Asian (29.7%) or Hispanic (34.3%), and many were non-English speakers. Non-English speaking Hispanics (p<.001) and English-speaking Asians (p=.002) reported lower perceived susceptibility than non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). Non-English speaking Hispanics reported more and non-English speaking Asians fewer perceived barriers (psychological and structural) than NHW. Understanding how different populations think about CRC screening may be critical in promoting screening in diverse populations. PMID:26320917

  3. Are social relationships a healthy influence on obesogenic behaviors among racially/ethnically diverse and socio-economically disadvantaged residents?

    PubMed Central

    Tamers, Sara L.; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Allen, Jennifer; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald; Sorensen, Glorian

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between social support and ties (family, friend, neighbors) individually and jointly with diet and physical activity among an ethnically-diverse, low-income population. Methods The Health in Common study (2005–2009) was designed to examine risk factors among individuals residing in low-income housing in the Boston, MA area. Cross-sectional surveys (n = 828) were administered in residents’ homes. Linear/logistic multivariable analyses were employed with clustering of individuals within housing sites controlled as a random effect. Results In multivariable analyses, total social support was significantly associated with higher red meat consumption per day (p = 0.029). Having more friends was significantly associated with more daily fruit and vegetable intake (p = 0.007) and higher levels of daily vigorous physical activity (p = 0.011). Those who reported having a greater number of family ties also reported higher daily consumption of sugary drinks (p = 0.013) and fast food (p = 0.011). More neighbor social ties was associated with more fast food per day (p = 0.024). Conclusions Social relationships can have both positive and negative associations with health behaviors. Understanding these relationships could help to inform the design of interventions that promote healthy behavior change among vulnerable populations. PMID:23200880

  4. Traumatic Life Events and Psychopathology in a High Risk, Ethnically Diverse Sample of Young Children: A Person-Centered Approach.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Melissa J; Sulik, Michael J; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the association between traumatic experiences and psychopathology in early childhood have primarily focused on specific types of events (e.g., sexual abuse) or aggregated different types of events without differentiating among them. We extend this body of work by investigating patterns of traumatic event exposure in a high-risk, ethnically diverse sample of children ages 3-6 (N = 211; 51 % female) and relating these different patterns to parents' reports of child externalizing, internalizing, and post-traumatic stress symptomatology. Using latent class analysis, which divides a heterogeneous population into homogenous subpopulations, we identified three patterns of traumatic events based on parents' responses to an interview-based assessment of trauma exposure in young children: (1) severe exposure, characterized by a combination of family violence and victimization; (2) witnessing family violence without victimization; and (3) moderate exposure, characterized by an absence of family violence but a moderate probability of other events. The severe exposure class exhibited elevated internalizing and post-traumatic stress symptoms relative to the witness to violence and moderate exposure classes, controlling for average number of traumatic events. Results highlight the need for differentiation between profiles of traumatic life event exposure and the potential for person-centered methods to complement the cumulative risk perspective. PMID:26354023

  5. Sexual Health Screening Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Young Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Siconolfi, Daniel E.; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N.; Moeller, Robert W.; Storholm, Erik D.; Barton, Staci C.; Solomon, Todd M.; Jones, Donovan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Screening for sexually transmitted infections is a crucial element of improving health and reducing disparities, and young men who have sex with men (YMSM) face high rates of both STIs and HIV. We examined sexual health screening among a diverse sample of adolescent YMSM living in New York City. Methods Between 2009 – 2011, cross-sectional data were collected from 590 YMSM in New York City. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health and healthcare related factors and two main outcomes: having sought a recent sexual health screening (past 6 months) and having a rectal sexual health screening (lifetime). Results Overall, 46% reported a sexual health screening in the prior 6 months, but only 16% reported ever having a rectal screening for STIs. Rates were higher among ethnic minority YMSM and men who accessed care at clinics. Multivariable results indicated that gay community affiliation, recent unprotected anal sex, and number of lifetime male partners were also associated with seeking a recent screening. Conclusions Though half of the sample reported recent general screening, rates of lifetime rectal screening are low. Efforts to increase screening may focus on improving provider knowledge and guideline adherence, and educating and encouraging YMSM to access sexual health check-ups. PMID:23298989

  6. Maternal report of young children's eating styles. Validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in three ethnically diverse Australian samples.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Liu, Wei-Hong; Mehta, Rati Jani; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea; Battistutta, Diana

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) in three ethnically and culturally diverse samples of mothers in Australia. Confirmatory factor analysis utilising structural equation modelling examined whether the established 8-factor model of the CEBQ was supported in our three populations: (i) a community sample of first-time mothers allocated to the control group of the NOURISH trial (mean child age=24months [SD=1]; N=244); (ii) a sample of immigrant Indian mothers of children aged 1-5years (mean age=34months [SD=14]; N=203), and (iii) a sample of immigrant Chinese mothers of children aged 1-4years (mean age=36months [SD=14]; N=216). The original 8-factor model provided an acceptable fit to the data in the NOURISH sample with minor post hoc re-specifications (two error covariances on Satiety Responsiveness and an item-factor covariance to account for a cross-loading of an item (Fussiness) on Satiety Responsiveness). The re-specified model showed reasonable fit in both the Indian and Chinese samples. Cronbach's α estimates ranged from .73 to .91 in the Australian sample and .61-.88 in the immigrant samples. This study supports the appropriateness of the CEBQ in the multicultural Australian context. PMID:23333562

  7. Primary care for urban adolescent girls from ethnically diverse populations: foregone care and access to confidential care.

    PubMed

    McKee, Diane; Fletcher, Jason

    2006-11-01

    Adolescent girls face unique challenges in health care utilization, which can result in unmet needs. We sought to describe settings of usual care and primary care use, and to identify predictors of foregone care and experience of confidential care in a primarily racial/ethnic minority low-income sample. We conducted an anonymous computer-assisted self-administered survey of 9th-12th grade girls (n=819) in three Bronx public high schools, the majority of whom were Hispanic (69.8%) and Black (21.4%). Most (80%) reported having a usual source of care. Of these, 77.2% had a regular doctor. Those least likely to have a usual source of care were non-U.S. born girls (73.1% vs. 83.1%) and less acculturated girls. Predictors of foregone care in the last year include being sexually active, poor family social support, and low self esteem. Predictors of access to confidential care at last visit were age, self-efficacy for confidential care, having a regular doctor, setting of care, and having had a recent physical exam. Many urban adolescent girls, especially non-U.S. born girls, lack a usual source of care and regular health care provider. Continued attention to reducing both financial and non-financial barriers to care is required to ensure access to and quality of care for diverse populations. PMID:17242529

  8. Patterns and Predictors of Health Behaviors Among Racially/ Ethnically Diverse Residents of Low-Income Housing Developments

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Amy E.; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne M.; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Walker, Renee; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine behavioral patterns and sociodemographic predictors of diet, inactivity and tobacco use among a diverse sample of residents from low-income housing developments. Design Cross-sectional survey study. Households and residents were randomly selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. Setting Twenty low-income housing developments in the Boston metropolitan area. Participants 828 residents completed the survey (response rate=49.3%). Forty-one percent of participants were Hispanic and 38% were non-Hispanic Black. Measures Outcomes measured were diet, inactivity, and tobacco use. Predictors measured were age, race/ethnicity, gender, education, country born, language spoken, and financial hardship. Analysis Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of three health behaviors with sociodemographic factors. Results Age, gender, language spoken, and financial hardship showed significant relationships with all three behaviors. For example, those who reported less financial hardship (OR=1.75) were more likely to eat healthier. Residents who spoke no English, or at least one language in addition to English, were significantly more likely to report healthier eating (OR=2.78 and 3.30 respectively) than those who spoke English only. Men were significantly more likely to report less healthy eating (OR=0.65) than women. Similar trends emerged for inactivity and tobacco use. Conclusion Effective health promotion interventions in low-income housing developments that leverage protective factors while addressing risk factors have the potential to reduce income-related health disparities in these concentrated resource-deprived neighborhoods. PMID:24359221

  9. Housing concerns of vulnerable older Canadians.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Lori E; LeBlanc, Kristal

    2010-09-01

    Preparing for the future housing needs of older adults is imperative in countries with an aging population, but little is known about these issues among vulnerable older adults. This study used a qualitative approach to identify key housing concerns in this group. A total of 84 vulnerable older adults including Aboriginal elders, those with various disabilities, and ethnic minorities participated in 10 focus groups. The Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation's (CMHC's) standards of core housing need provided a framework for data analysis, along with the identification of additional key housing themes across and within groups of vulnerable older adults. The results provide insight into preferred housing characteristics, regardless of housing form. Additionally, the results provide insight into how to support vulnerable older adults who choose to remain in their homes and communities and how to help ensure that appropriate housing is developed that meets the needs of this diverse population. PMID:20712917

  10. Crossing Cultural Borders into Science Teaching: Early Life Experiences, Racial and Ethnic Identities, and Beliefs about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Brenda R.; Glasson, George E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to explore the development of belief systems as related to racial and ethnic identities of preservice teachers as they crossed cultural borders into science teaching. Data were collected throughout a yearlong teacher preparation program to learn how early life experiences and racial and ethnic identities…

  11. Part II: Multisystemic Therapy--Addressing Racial Disparity and Its Effectiveness with Families from Diverse Racial and Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in health and mental health care delivered to racial and ethnic minorities became a focus of national policy following reports of the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002) and the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001). The Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001) reported racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and quality of…

  12. Effects of Teacher Diversity and Student-Teacher Racial/Ethnic Matching in Elementary Schools on Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Neena

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the implications of student-teacher racial/ethnic matching on two educational outcomes. The fourth chapter investigates whether assignment to same-race teachers affects students' math and reading achievement growth in early elementary grades and whether the overall racial/ethnic composition of the teaching workforce…

  13. Becoming Old as a "Pharmaceutical Person": Negotiation of Health and Medicines among Ethnoculturally Diverse Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantyne, Peri J.; Mirza, Raza M.; Austin, Zubin; Boon, Heather S.; Fisher, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    Because medication prescribing and use have become a normative aspect of health care for older adults, we seek to understand how individuals navigate prescribed-medication use within the context of aging. We reasoned that, for those who are ambulatory, medication use is likely influenced by ethnocultural meanings of health and experiences with…

  14. Using focus groups to develop a heart disease prevention program for ethnically diverse, low-income women.

    PubMed

    Gettleman, L; Winkleby, M A

    2000-12-01

    Although low-income women have higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than higher-income women, health promotion and disease prevention are often low priorities due to financial, family, and health care constraints. In addition, most low-income women live in environments that tend to support and even promote high risk CVD behaviors. Low-income African-American, Hispanic, and White women constitute one of the largest groups at high risk for CVD but few heart disease prevention programs have effectively reached them. The purpose of this project was to use feedback from focus groups to generate ideas about how to best structure and implement future CVD intervention programs tailored to low-income populations. Seven focus groups were conducted with 51 low-income African-American, Hispanic, and White women from two urban and two agricultural communities in California. The women in the study shared many common experiences and barriers to healthy lifestyles, despite their ethnic diversity. Results of the focus groups showed that women preferred heart disease prevention programs that would address multiple CVD risk factors, emphasize staying healthy for themselves, teach specific skills about how to adopt heart-healthy behaviors, and offer them choices in effecting behavioral change. For health information, they preferred visual formats to written formats. They also expressed a desire to develop knowledge to help them separate health "myths" from health "facts" in order to reduce their misconceptions about CVD. Finally, they stressed that health care policies and programs need to address social and financial barriers that impede the adoption of heart-healthy behaviors. PMID:11071226

  15. Child, family, and childcare predictors of delayed school entry and kindergarten retention among linguistically and ethnically diverse children.

    PubMed

    Winsler, Adam; Hutchison, Lindsey A; De Feyter, Jessica J; Manfra, Louis; Bleiker, Charles; Hartman, Suzanne C; Levitt, Jerome

    2012-09-01

    Concern about kindergarten retention is on the rise within the current climate of high-stakes testing and escalating kindergarten expectations. Kindergarten retention has been linked in previous research to various risk factors such as poverty, low maternal education, single parent status, minority status, English language learner (ELL) status, and male gender. However, these factors are also associated with poor school readiness and low kindergarten performance--the very reasons children are retained in the 1st place. This study teases apart unique and combined predictors of delayed entry into kindergarten and kindergarten retention with a large (n = 13,191) ethnically diverse, at-risk sample of children. Delayed kindergarten entry was rare for this sample but more likely among boys, native English speakers, those with poorer school readiness, less maternal education, and greater resources, and those who attended childcare rather than public school prekindergarten (pre-K) at age 4 years. Boys were more likely to be retained in kindergarten, but only because of their poorer school readiness. After strong effects for age 4 school readiness were controlled, only poverty, ELL status, and preschool program attendance predicted retention. ELL students were less likely to be retained than were native speakers, and those who attended public school pre-K programs were less likely to be retained, compared with those in childcare at age 4 years. After controlling for children's actual performance in kindergarten their 1st time, Caucasian children and children with lower language and social skills at age 4 years were more likely to repeat kindergarten. PMID:22288368

  16. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN NEIGHBORHOOD AVAILABILITY AND INDIVIDUAL CONSUMPTION OF DARK-GREEN AND ORANGE VEGETABLES AMONG ETHNICALLY DIVERSE ADULTS IN DETROIT

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Betty T.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Wilson, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Diets rich in dark-green and orange vegetables have been associated with a reduction in chronic diseases. However, most Americans do not consume the number of daily servings recommended by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. An increasing number of studies suggest that changes to the neighborhood food environment may be critical to achieving population-wide improvements in eating. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between observed neighborhood availability and individual consumption of dark-green and orange vegetables among low- to moderate-income and ethnically diverse adults in Detroit. This study used a cross-sectional design that drew upon a 2002–2003 community survey and 2002 in-person audit of food stores. A total of 919 adults (mean age 46.3 years, 52.2% female) including African Americans (56.7 %), Latinos (22.2%), and whites (18.7%) residing in three Detroit communities participated in the survey. Two-level weighted, hierarchical linear regression was used to analyze the data. On average, survey respondents ate 0.61 daily servings of dark-green and orange vegetables. Residents of neighborhoods with no stores carrying five or more varieties of dark-green and orange vegetables were associated with an average of 0.17 fewer daily servings of these foods compared with residents of neighborhoods with two stores carrying five or more varieties of dark-green and orange vegetables (P=0.047). These findings suggest that living in a neighborhood with multiple opportunities to purchase dark-green and orange vegetables may make an important contribution toward meeting recommended intakes. PMID:21272702

  17. Factors Associated with Recurrent Suicidal Ideation among Racially and Ethnically Diverse College Students with a History of Suicide Attempt: The Role of Mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Chesin, Megan S; Jeglic, Elizabeth L

    2016-01-01

    Although one-third of enrolled U.S. undergraduate college students are non-White, little is known about risk factors for suicidal behavior among racial and ethnic minority students. Thus, we set out to determine psychosocial factors associated with recurrent suicidal ideation among racially and ethnically diverse college students with a history of suicide attempt. From 2012-2013, 1,734 racially and ethnically diverse college students completed an on-line survey of suicidal behavior and associated factors. Depression, hopelessness, rejection sensitivity, and mindfulness, as well as past-year discrimination, ethnic identification, and acculturative stress were measured using well-validated self-report instruments. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was used to assess current suicidal ideation. A subsample of 118 college students who self-reported a past suicide attempt were selected for the current analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to test associations between risk factors and the presence of suicidal ideation, and linear regression analysis was used to test factors associated with suicidal ideation severity among those who reported current suicidal ideation. Depression was significantly related to both the presence and severity of current suicidal ideation. Mindfulness, and in particular awareness of present moment experience, was also inversely associated with ideation severity. We found depression and mindlessness were associated with suicidal ideation severity among a sample of diverse college students at high risk for suicidal behavior due to a past suicide attempt. Factors unique to the minority experience, such as acculturative stress, were not associated with current suicidal ideation. Implications for suicide prevention are discussed. PMID:26212484

  18. The Use of Television in the Development of Career Awareness for an Ethnically Diverse Elementary School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Philip T. K.

    1982-01-01

    Explores the pattern of ethnic attitude formation toward careers among young children and how television influences these attitudes. Also discusses other influencers of children's attitudes: parents, teachers, and peers. (CT)

  19. Urinary Incontinence: Its Assessment and Relationship to Depression among Community-Dwelling Multiethnic Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Luciana; Bloom, David William; Ainsworth, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Urinary Incontinence (UI) affects many older adults. Some of its deleterious consequences include stress, major depression, diminished quality of life, sexual dysfunction, and familial discord. Of the various mental health problems identified in the literature as being comorbid with UI, the most notable one continues to be depression. Despite a wealth of research contributions on this topic, the available literature is underrepresentative of ethnic minority older women. Culture has been shown to have a significant impact on a woman's perception of her own UI symptoms; this demonstrates the necessity for the recruitment of ethnically and culturally diverse samples when studying UI. In the present study, we determined the prevalence of UI among 140 community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older women (28.2%), discovered that our new UI screener is reliable, and did not find the UI-depression link to be significant. The clinical and research implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:24982981

  20. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women

    PubMed Central

    Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747

  1. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    PubMed

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747

  2. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking for breast and cervical cancer symptoms: a qualitative study with an ethnically diverse sample in London

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Laura A V; McGregor, Lesley M; Nazroo, James Y; Wardle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Earlier diagnosis of cancer has become a policy priority. There is evidence that minority ethnic groups are more likely to delay help-seeking for cancer symptoms, but few studies have explored reasons for delay in these groups. The present study explored facilitators and barriers to help-seeking for breast and cervical cancer in an ethnically diverse sample of women. Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 54 healthy women from a range of ethnic backgrounds; Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, Black British, Black other, White British and White other. Framework analysis was used to identify themes. Results Appraising a symptom as possibly due to cancer was an important facilitator of help-seeking, although for some the prospect of a cancer diagnosis was a deterrent. Women believed that earlier diagnosis improved the chance of survival, and this facilitated prompt help-seeking. A sympathetic GP facilitated help-seeking, and an unsympathetic GP was a deterrent. Some ethnic minority women described the use of alternative medicine and prayer as a first-line strategy that might delay help-seeking. Language barriers, racism and a tendency to ‘soldier on’ were also mentioned by these women. Conclusions Models of delay in presentation for early cancer symptoms are likely to transfer across different ethnic groups. Encouraging open discussion about cancer among minority communities could help raise awareness about the importance of early detection and promote help-seeking as a priority response to a possible cancer symptom. © 2013 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24352798

  3. Older women, breast cancer, and social support

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Ellen G.; Aviv, Caryn; Ewing, Cheryl; Au, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    Introduction One in ten women over the age of 65 will develop breast cancer. Despite this high incidence of breast cancer among older women, social support for them is often inadequate. This paper describes a qualitative study of the impact of a breast cancer diagnosis on older women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and their subsequent need for social support. Methods Forty-seven older African American, Asian American, Caucasian and Latina women between the ages of 65 to 83 participated in a larger study examining the impact of breast cancer on women from racially/ethnically diverse populations and the meaning and nature of social support. The women completed an in-depth qualitative interview on the psychosocial impact of breast cancer and the meaning and nature of social support. Results and Conclusion The results indicate that there are variations in reactions to a breast cancer diagnosis among older women, and that these reactions impact their experiences with seeking social support at diagnosis and during treatment. Respondents were concerned about their aging bodies, potential dependency on others, and loss of autonomy. At the same time, the severity of cancer treatment and existing co-morbidities often meant they needed to learn to receive support, and to reach out if they had no support. The implications of these findings underscore the older cancer patient’s need to strengthen her supportive networks at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and post-treatment. PMID:20967554

  4. Significance of Overvaluation of Shape and Weight in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Obese Patients with Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2012-01-01

    Undue influence of shape or weight on self-evaluation — referred to as overvaluation — is a core feature across eating disorders, but is not a diagnostic requirement for binge-eating disorder (BED). This study examined overvaluation of shape/weight in ethnically diverse obese patients with BED seeking treatment in primary care. Participants were a consecutive series of 142 (105 female and 37 male) participants with BED; 43% were Caucasian, 37% were African-American, 13% were Hispanic-American, and 7% were of “other” ethnicity. Participants categorized with overvaluation (N=97; 68%) versus without clinical overvaluation (N=45; 32%) did not differ significantly in ethnicity/race, age, gender, body mass index, or binge-eating frequency. The overvaluation group had significantly greater levels of eating-disorder psychopathology, poorer psychological functioning (higher depression, lower self-esteem), and greater anxiety disorder co-morbidity than the group who did not overvalue their shape/weight. The greater eating-disorder and psychological disturbance levels in the overvaluation group relative to the non-overvaluation group persisted after controlling for psychiatric co-morbidity. Our findings, based on an ethnically diverse series of patients seeking treatment in general primary-care settings, are consistent with findings from specialist clinics and suggest that overvaluation does not simply reflect concerns commensurate with being obese or with frequency of binge-eating, but is strongly associated with heightened eating-related psychopathology and psychological distress. Overvaluation of shape/weight warrants consideration as a diagnostic specifier for BED as it provides important information about severity. PMID:22449893

  5. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations in Medical Research: Perceptions and Experiences of Older Italians, Their Families, Ethics Administrators and Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Woodward-Kron, Robyn; Hughson, Jo-anne; Parker, Anna; Bresin, Agnese; Hajek, John; Knoch, Ute; Phan, Tuong Dien; Story, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-participation of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) patients in medical research remains a problem in migrant and refugee destination countries such as Australia. The aims of this study were to explore i) CALD persons’ perceptions and experiences of the medical system and medical research, in this case, older Italian Australians; and ii) the views of research professionals on CALD patient participation in medical research. Design and Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Melbourne, Australia, in 2015 utilising in-depth interviews and focus groups with four stakeholder groups: older Italian Australians (n=21); adult children of older Italian Australians (n=10); hospital Human Research Ethics Committee administrators (n=4); and clinical researchers (n=4). The data were analysed for content and thematic analysis. Results Themes for the CALD and family group were getting by in medical interactions; receptivity to medical research: testing the waters; and, receptivity to technology for support: passive versus active. Themes for the researcher and HREC groups about CALD patient participation in research were: exclusion; cultural factors; and e-consent. Conclusions Our findings from four stakeholder perspectives and experiences confirm that there were considerable cultural, linguistic, and resourcing barriers hindering the participation of older Italian-Australians in medical research. Furthermore, our findings showed that in this study setting there were few enabling strategies in place to address these barriers despite the national ethics guidelines for equitable participation in research. The findings informed the creation of a multimedia tool whose purpose is to address and improve representation of CALD groups in clinical research. Significance for public health Many people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds remain excluded from medical research such as clinical trials due to a range of language and

  6. Cognitive Preferences and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.; O'Donnell, Teresa Flores

    This document reports on a study into the relationships between cognitive preferences, achievement, and ethnicity of first year algebra students. The sample consisted of 175 students from two high schools in the Denver (Colorado) metropolitan area. The two schools were chosen because of the diversity of ethnic groups in the student populations.…

  7. For Better or Worse: Friendship Choices and Peer Victimization Among Ethnically Diverse Youth in the First Year of Middle School.

    PubMed

    Echols, Leslie; Graham, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    As children approach early adolescence, the risk of peer victimization often increases. Many children experience some form of peer victimization during this time, but children who experience chronic victimization may be particularly vulnerable to adjustment difficulties. Thus, identifying risk and protective factors associated with chronic victimization continues to be an important area of research. This study examined the effect of change in the victimization of friends on change in children's own victimization, taking into account the ethnic group representation of children in their classes. Over 3000 6th grade students (52 % female; M = 11.33 years) were drawn from 19 middle schools varying in ethnic composition. Friendships were distinguished by type-reciprocal, desired, and undesired-and a novel methodology for measuring ethnic group representation at the individual level was employed. Multilevel modeling indicated that change in friends' victimization from fall to spring of 6th grade had a differential impact on children's own victimization by friendship type and that the benefits and consequences of change in friends' victimization were especially pronounced for children in the numerical ethnic majority. The findings underscore the role of friendship choices in peer victimization, even if those choices are not reciprocated, and highlight the unique social risks associated with being in the numerical ethnic majority. PMID:27272516

  8. An analysis of stereotype threat in African American engineering students at predominantly White, ethnically diverse, and historically Black colleges and universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, David M.

    The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments

  9. "It Just Consumes Your Life": Quality of Life for Informal Caregivers of Diverse Older Adults With Late-Life Disability.

    PubMed

    Thai, Julie N; Barnhart, Caroline E; Cagle, John; Smith, Alexander K

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the quality of life (QoL) for informal caregivers of disabled older adults aged 65+ with diverse backgrounds. Forty-two caregivers were interviewed in English and Cantonese about their caregiving experiences, their recollections of QoL over time, and the factors influencing their appraisals. Overall, 52% of caregivers experienced a decline in QoL. Factors associated with decreased QoL were less time for self, competing financial demands, and the physical and emotional impact of the patient's illness. Factors associated with no change in QoL were minimal caregiving responsibilities, a sense of filial duty, and QoL being consistently poor over time. Factors associated with improved QoL were perceived rewards in caregiving, receiving institutional help, and increased experience. Chinese caregivers were more likely to cite filial duty as their motivator for continued caregiving than were Caucasian caregivers. In conclusion, informal caregivers take on a huge burden in enabling older adults to age in the community. These caregivers need more support in maintaining their QoL. PMID:25948041

  10. Community-based PTSD treatment for ethnically diverse women who experienced intimate partner violence: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ursula A; Pich, Kourou

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) Determine the feasibility of a community-based intervention for Latinas with PTSD who experienced IPV; (2) Explore the intervention effectiveness in reducing PTSD and improving quality of life, social support and self-efficacy. This was a feasibility study, using intervention pre-test/post-test qualitative and quantitative data. The experience of living through and surviving IPV was far more important than ethnicity in cultural identity. Significant reductions in PTSD and MDD and increased self-efficacy were sustained 6-months post-intervention. Culturally relevant mental health IPV interventions can be feasible and appropriate across ethnic groups. PMID:25426746

  11. Narrative and Ethnic Identity Exploration: A Longitudinal Account of Emerging Adults' Ethnicity-Related Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this longitudinal study was to investigate further the link between ethnic identity processes and content through an examination of emerging adults' narratives of ethnicity-related experiences. Seventy ethnically diverse college students completed an ethnic identity exploration index and told an ethnicity-related narrative on 2…

  12. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  13. weCARE: A Social Media-Based Intervention Designed to Increase HIV Care Linkage, Retention, and Health Outcomes for Racially and Ethnically Diverse Young MSM.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amanda E; Mann, Lilli; Song, Eunyoung; Alonzo, Jorge; Schafer, Katherine; Arellano, Elías; Garcia, Jesus M; Rhodes, Scott D

    2016-06-01

    Estimates suggest that only about 30% of all individuals living with HIV in the U.S. have achieved viral suppression. Men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly racial/ethnic minority young MSM, are at increased risk for HIV infection and may have even lower viral suppression rates. HIV testing rates among MSM are low, and when tested, racial/ethnic minority young MSM have disproportionately lower rates of retention in care and viral suppression compared to other subgroups. This article describes the design and development of weCare, our social media-based intervention to improve care linkage and retention and health outcomes among racially and ethnically diverse MSM, ages 13-34, living with HIV that will be implemented and evaluated beginning in late 2016. The intervention harnesses established social media that MSM between these ages commonly use, including Facebook, text messaging, and established GPS-based mobile applications (apps). We are using community-based participatory research (CBPR) to enhance the quality and validity of weCare, equitably involving community members, organization representatives, healthcare providers, clinic staff, and academic researchers. PMID:27244190

  14. Write Your Ticket to College: A Genre-Based College Admission Essay Workshop for Ethnically Diverse, Underserved Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Jessica Singer; DeCosta-Smith, Meredith; Valdespino, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a writing workshop that took place with 41 low-income, multi-ethnic 12th-grade students who received instruction on specific genre features for writing college admission essays. As a result, students improved the quality of their college admission essays and demonstrated greater confidence with this writing task. This…

  15. The Role of Depression and Dissociation in the Relationship between Childhood Trauma and Bulimic Symptoms among Ethnically Diverse Female Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerke, Clarice K.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Kliewer, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The goals of this study were to examine the role of dissociation and depression as possible mediators of the relationship between several forms of childhood trauma and bulimic symptomatology and to explore potential ethnic differences in these relationships. Method: Four hundred seventeen female undergraduates participated in this…

  16. Special Issue: Ethnic and Racial Administrative Diversity--Understanding Work Life Realities and Experiences in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jerlando F. L.; O'Callaghan, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    This monograph provides policymakers, administrators, faculty, researchers, and governing board members with information about diversifying the administrative ranks of colleges and universities in terms of race or ethnicity. It focuses primarily on relevant literature on administrators of color in higher and post-secondary education, with an…

  17. Dealing with Cultural Diversity: The Endorsement of Societal Models among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brug, Peary; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2007-01-01

    The present research was conducted among ethnic minority and majority youth in the Netherlands, examining the endorsement of four models for dealing with multiculturalism: mosaic, melting pot, assimilation, and segregation. Results showed that, compared to the majority group, minorities were more in favor of the mosaic model and less in favor of…

  18. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  19. One Step Closer: Understanding the Complex Relationship between Weight and Self-Esteem in Ethnically Diverse Preadolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Hahn-Smith, Anne; Smith, Jane Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Empirical support for the association between childhood overweight and low self-esteem is equivocal. The present study investigated how weight, ethnicity, body esteem, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating attitudes/behaviors contribute to global and dimensional self-esteem in a non-clinical sample of Hispanic- and Anglo-American grade 3-6…

  20. Dynamics of Mothers' Goals for Children in Ethnically Diverse Populations across the First Three Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Godfrey, Erin B.; Hunter, Cristina J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Parents' socialization goals are important for cultural transmission across generations, but whether such goals vary by ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds and change over children's first years of life remains unexamined. In Study 1, African-American, Dominican immigrant, and Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 300) reported on the qualities deemed…

  1. Predictors of calcium intake at dinner meals of ethnically diverse mother-child dyads from families with limited income

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diets adequate in calcium and other key nutrients early in life are critical for optimal growth. This study’s objective was to determine associations between beverage and dairy food intakes of mothers and their children, and food/beverage contributions to calcium at dinner meals from ethnically dive...

  2. Childhood Anxiety in a Diverse Primary Care Population: Parent-Child Reports, Ethnicity and SCARED Factor Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Frances J.; Berg, Eric A.; Heiden, Lynda A.; Kinnamon, Carolyn J.; Ohlson, Lirio A.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Bernal, M. Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore in a multiethnic primary care population the impact of child gender and of race/ethnicity on parent and child reports of school-age anxiety and on the factor structure of the Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Method: A consecutive sample of 515 children (8 to less than 13 years) and their…

  3. Comparing measures of racial/ethnic discrimination, coping, and associations with health-related outcomes in a diverse sample.

    PubMed

    Benjamins, Maureen R

    2013-10-01

    Discrimination is detrimental to health behaviors and outcomes, but little is known about which measures of discrimination are most strongly related to health, if relationships with health outcomes vary by race/ethnicity, and if coping responses moderate these associations. To explore these issues, the current study assessed race/ethnic differences in five measures of race/ethnic discrimination, as well as emotional and behavioral coping responses, within a population-based sample of Whites, African Americans, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans (n = 1,699). Stratified adjusted logistic regression models were run to examine associations between the discrimination measures and mental, physical, and health behavior outcomes and to test the role of coping. Overall, 86 % of the sample reported discrimination. Puerto Ricans were more likely than Mexicans and Whites to report most types of discrimination but less likely than Blacks. Discrimination was most strongly related to depression and was less consistently (or not) associated with physical health and health behaviors. Differences by measure of discrimination and respondent race/ethnicity were apparent. No support was found to suggest that coping responses moderate the association between discrimination and health. More work is needed to understand the health effects of this widespread social problem. In addition, interventions attempting to reduce health disparities need to take into account the influence of discrimination. PMID:23430374

  4. Language, Ethnicity, and the Mediation of Allegations of Racism: Negotiating Diversity and Sameness in Multilingual School Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creese, Angela

    2003-01-01

    Examines the construction of two bilingual English as an additional language teachers' positionings during a 2-day student staged protest against a perceived racist incident in a London secondary school. Examines how these bilingual teachers' ethnicity and language resources in Turkish and English are employed by the school to reproduce a…

  5. A meta-analysis of the hepatitis C virus distribution in diverse racial/ethnic drug injector groups

    PubMed Central

    Lelutiu-Weinberger, Corina; Pouget, Enrique R.; Des Jarlais, Don D.C.; Cooper, Hannah L.; Scheinmann, Roberta; Stern, Rebecca; Strauss, Shiela M.; Hagan, Holly

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mostly transmitted through blood-to-blood contact during injection drug use via shared contaminated syringes/needles or injection paraphernalia. This paper used meta-analytic methods to assess whether HCV prevalence and incidence varied across different racial/ethnic groups of injection drug users (IDUs) sampled internationally. The 29 prevalence and 11 incidence studies identified as part of the HCV Synthesis Project were categorized into subgroups based on similar racial/ethnic comparisons. The effect estimate used was the odds or risk ratio comparing HCV prevalence or incidence rates in racial/ethnic minority groups versus those of majority status. For prevalence studies, the clearest disparity in HCV status was observed in the Canadian and Australian Aboriginal versus White comparison, followed by the US non-White versus White categories. Overall, Hispanic IDUs had greater HCV prevalence, and HCV prevalence in African-Americans was not significantly greater than that of Whites in the US. Aboriginal groups showed higher HCV seroconversion rates when compared to others, and African-Americans had lower seroconversion rates compared to other IDUs in the US. The findings suggest that certain minority groups have elevated HCV rates in comparison to other IDUs, which may be a consequence of stigma, discrimination, different risk behaviors or decreased access to health care, services and preventive education. Future research should seek to explicitly explore and explain racial/ethnic variations in HCV prevalence and incidence, and define the groups more precisely to allow for more accurate detection of possible racial/ethnic differences in HCV rates. PMID:19062148

  6. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior predict dietary intention and future dieting in an ethnically diverse sample of overweight and obese veterans attending medical clinics?

    PubMed

    Lash, Denise N; Smith, Jane Ellen; Rinehart, Jenny K

    2016-04-01

    Obesity has become a world-wide epidemic; in the United States (U.S.) approximately two-thirds of adults are classified as overweight or obese. Military veterans' numbers are even higher, with 77% of retired or discharged U.S. veterans falling in these weight categories. One of the most common methods of changing one's weight is through dieting, yet little is known regarding the factors that facilitate successful dieting behavior. The current investigation tested the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) ability to predict dietary intention and future dieting in a sample of 84 overweight and obese patients attending medical clinics at a Veterans Affairs Hospital in the southwestern part of the U.S. Participants primarily were male (92%) and ethnic/racial minorities (58%). Perceived need and anticipated regret were added to the standard TPB model. While the TPB predicted dietary intention, it did not significantly account for improved dietary behaviors. Anticipated regret significantly enhanced the basic TPB's ability to predict intention to diet, while perceived need did not. These findings highlight the difficulty in predicting sustained change in a complex behavior such as dieting to lose weight. The need for more work with older, overweight/obese medical patients attending veterans' facilities is stressed, as is the need for such work with male patients and ethnic minorities in particular. PMID:26792774

  7. Race/Ethnicity, Primary Language, and Income Are Not Demographic Drivers of Mortality in Breast Cancer Patients at a Diverse Safety Net Academic Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Divya A.; Chudasama, Rani; Agarwal, Ankit; Rand, Alexandar; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Ngo, Taylor; Hirsch, Ariel E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the impact of patient demographics on mortality in breast cancer patients receiving care at a safety net academic medical center. Patients and Methods. 1128 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer at our institution between August 2004 and October 2011. Patient demographics were determined as follows: race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, age at diagnosis, marital status, income (determined by zip code), and AJCC tumor stage. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to mortality at the end of follow-up in March 2012. Results. There was no significant difference in mortality by race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance type, or income in the multivariate adjusted model. An increased mortality was observed in patients who were single (OR = 2.36, CI = 1.28–4.37, p = 0.006), age > 70 years (OR = 3.88, CI = 1.13–11.48, p = 0.014), and AJCC stage IV (OR = 171.81, CI = 59.99–492.06, p < 0.0001). Conclusions. In this retrospective study, breast cancer patients who were single, presented at a later stage, or were older had increased incidence of mortality. Unlike other large-scale studies, non-White race, non-English primary language, low income, or Medicaid insurance did not result in worse outcomes. PMID:26605089

  8. Beyond Money and Survival: The Meaning of Paid Work among Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altschuler, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the meaning and experiences of paid work for older women. Taped, in-person interviews were conducted with 53 ethnically and economically diverse women, 55 to 84 years old. The interview guide contained open-ended questions regarding the meaning of work, reasons for working, and the centrality of work to personal identity.…

  9. Endogenous Estradiol Is Associated with Verbal Memory in Nondemented Older Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Molly E.; Lipton, Richard B.; Santoro, Nanette; McConnell, Daniel S.; Derby, Carol A.; Katz, Mindy J.; Baigi, Khosrow; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between endogenous hormones and cognitive function in nondemented, ethnically-diverse community-dwelling older men enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study (EAS). All eligible participants (185 men, mean age = 81 years) received neuropsychological assessment (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), Logical…

  10. Relational Autonomy in Assisted Living: A Focus on Diverse Care Settings for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Molly M.; Ball, Mary M.; Whittington, Frank J.; Hollingsworth, Carole

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with Western cultural values, the traditional liberal theory of autonomy, which places emphasis on self-determination, liberty of choice, and freedom from interference by others, has been a leading principle in health care discourse for several decades. In context to aging, chronic illness, disability, and long-term care, increasingly there has been a call for a relational conception of autonomy that acknowledges issues of dependency, interdependence, and care relationships. Although autonomy is a core philosophy of assisted living (AL) and a growing number of studies focus on this issue, theory development in this area is lagging and little research has considered race, class, or cultural differences, despite the growing diversity of AL. We present a conceptual model of autonomy in AL based on over a decade of research conducted in diverse facility settings. This relational model provides an important conceptual lens for understanding the dynamic linkages between varieties of factors at multiple levels of social structure that shape residents' ability to maintain a sense of autonomy in this often socially challenging care environment. Social and institutional change, which is ongoing, as well as the multiple and ever-changing cultural contexts within which residents are embedded, are important factors that shape residents' experiences over time and impact resident-facility fit and residents' ability to age in place. PMID:22707852

  11. Relational Autonomy in Assisted Living: A Focus on Diverse Care Settings for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Molly M; Ball, Mary M; Whittington, Frank J; Hollingsworth, Carole

    2012-04-01

    Consistent with Western cultural values, the traditional liberal theory of autonomy, which places emphasis on self-determination, liberty of choice, and freedom from interference by others, has been a leading principle in health care discourse for several decades. In context to aging, chronic illness, disability, and long-term care, increasingly there has been a call for a relational conception of autonomy that acknowledges issues of dependency, interdependence, and care relationships. Although autonomy is a core philosophy of assisted living (AL) and a growing number of studies focus on this issue, theory development in this area is lagging and little research has considered race, class, or cultural differences, despite the growing diversity of AL. We present a conceptual model of autonomy in AL based on over a decade of research conducted in diverse facility settings. This relational model provides an important conceptual lens for understanding the dynamic linkages between varieties of factors at multiple levels of social structure that shape residents' ability to maintain a sense of autonomy in this often socially challenging care environment. Social and institutional change, which is ongoing, as well as the multiple and ever-changing cultural contexts within which residents are embedded, are important factors that shape residents' experiences over time and impact resident-facility fit and residents' ability to age in place. PMID:22707852

  12. Ethnic Identity in Context: Variations in Ethnic Exploration and Belonging within Parent, Same-Ethnic Peer, and Different-Ethnic Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Within an ethnically diverse sample of young adults (n = 223, 26% Latin American, 14% Asian American, 32% Filipino American, 28% European American), average levels of ethnic identity was found to vary significantly across different relational contexts. Regardless of ethnicity, young adults reported highest levels of ethnic exploration and ethnic…

  13. A Coral Reef as an Analogical Model to Promote Collaborative Learning on Cultural & Ethnic Diversity in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Robert W.; Gonzalez, Edward L. F.

    2008-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is integral to everyday living. The diversity associated with a coral reef provides a familiar model for initiating discussions focusing on cultural diversity and gender of past and present scientists with non-western science endeavors. These concepts are strengthened through the use of scientific biographical and historical…

  14. Ethnic Notions & Healthy Paranoias

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Colette Marie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To report the firsthand perspectives of older Black women within healthcare encounters that impact the trajectories of health seeking behavior; to examine their perceptions, expectations, and beliefs about the role of cultural difference within predominantly White (US) health care settings; and to explore how sharing personal experiences (theirs and others’) as a fund of knowledge influences ethnic notions. This research is aimed at the development of community resource partnerships and effective healthcare service delivery with intervention and promotion efforts targeting older Black women. Design Ethnographic data collected over a twenty-four month period (2003 – 2005) from fifty older Black women in Tucson, Arizona is discussed on three levels: (1) expectations and beliefs, (2) the use of ethnic notions in the form of healthy paranoias as part of individual and communal health advocacy, and (3) perceptions of interethnic communication within healthcare settings, including feeling uncared for by healthcare providers and support staff. Results Disparities in older Black women's health and well-being are often constructed and filtered through "non-clinical" influences, such as cultural differences, individual experiences, and beliefs about "race" or "being" a Black female. Conclusions Unfamiliarity with ethnic notions may cause misinterpretations and misunderstandings and may influence interactions between older Black women and healthcare providers. PMID:20694867

  15. Increased yield of actionable mutations using multi-gene panels to assess hereditary cancer susceptibility in an ethnically diverse clinical cohort.

    PubMed

    Ricker, Charité; Culver, Julie O; Lowstuter, Katrina; Sturgeon, Duveen; Sturgeon, Julia D; Chanock, Christopher R; Gauderman, William J; McDonnell, Kevin J; Idos, Gregory E; Gruber, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to assess multi-gene panel testing in an ethnically diverse clinical cancer genetics practice. We conducted a retrospective study of individuals with a personal or family history of cancer undergoing clinically indicated multi-gene panel tests of 6-110 genes, from six commercial laboratories. The 475 patients in the study included 228 Hispanics (47.6%), 166 non-Hispanic Whites (35.4%), 55 Asians (11.6%), 19 Blacks (4.0%), and seven others (1.5%). Panel testing found that 15.6% (74/475) of patients carried deleterious mutations for a total of 79 mutations identified. This included 7.4% (35/475) of patients who had a mutation identified that would not have been tested with a gene-by-gene approach. The identification of a panel-added mutation impacted clinical management for most of cases (69%, 24/35), and genetic testing was recommended for the first degree relatives of nearly all of them (91%, 32/35). Variants of uncertain significance (VUSs) were identified in a higher proportion of tests performed in ethnic minorities. Multi-gene panel testing increases the yield of mutations detected and adds to the capability of providing individualized cancer risk assessment. VUSs represent an interpretive challenge due to less data available outside of White, non-Hispanic populations. Further studies are necessary to expand understanding of the implementation and utilization of panels across broad clinical settings and patient populations. PMID:26908360

  16. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of asthma in ethnically diverse North American populations.

    PubMed

    Torgerson, Dara G; Ampleford, Elizabeth J; Chiu, Grace Y; Gauderman, W James; Gignoux, Christopher R; Graves, Penelope E; Himes, Blanca E; Levin, Albert M; Mathias, Rasika A; Hancock, Dana B; Baurley, James W; Eng, Celeste; Stern, Debra A; Celedón, Juan C; Rafaels, Nicholas; Capurso, Daniel; Conti, David V; Roth, Lindsey A; Soto-Quiros, Manuel; Togias, Alkis; Li, Xingnan; Myers, Rachel A; Romieu, Isabelle; Van Den Berg, David J; Hu, Donglei; Hansel, Nadia N; Hernandez, Ryan D; Israel, Elliott; Salam, Muhammad T; Galanter, Joshua; Avila, Pedro C; Avila, Lydiana; Rodriquez-Santana, Jose R; Chapela, Rocio; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Diette, Gregory B; Adkinson, N Franklin; Abel, Rebekah A; Ross, Kevin D; Shi, Min; Faruque, Mezbah U; Dunston, Georgia M; Watson, Harold R; Mantese, Vito J; Ezurum, Serpil C; Liang, Liming; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ford, Jean G; Huntsman, Scott; Chung, Kian Fan; Vora, Hita; Li, Xia; Calhoun, William J; Castro, Mario; Sienra-Monge, Juan J; del Rio-Navarro, Blanca; Deichmann, Klaus A; Heinzmann, Andrea; Wenzel, Sally E; Busse, William W; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F; Beaty, Terri H; Bleecker, Eugene R; Raby, Benjamin A; Meyers, Deborah A; London, Stephanie J; Gilliland, Frank D; Burchard, Esteban G; Martinez, Fernando D; Weiss, Scott T; Williams, L Keoki; Barnes, Kathleen C; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L

    2011-09-01

    Asthma is a common disease with a complex risk architecture including both genetic and environmental factors. We performed a meta-analysis of North American genome-wide association studies of asthma in 5,416 individuals with asthma (cases) including individuals of European American, African American or African Caribbean, and Latino ancestry, with replication in an additional 12,649 individuals from the same ethnic groups. We identified five susceptibility loci. Four were at previously reported loci on 17q21, near IL1RL1, TSLP and IL33, but we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that these loci are associated with asthma risk in three ethnic groups. In addition, we identified a new asthma susceptibility locus at PYHIN1, with the association being specific to individuals of African descent (P = 3.9 × 10(-9)). These results suggest that some asthma susceptibility loci are robust to differences in ancestry when sufficiently large samples sizes are investigated, and that ancestry-specific associations also contribute to the complex genetic architecture of asthma. PMID:21804549

  17. Race, ethnicity, and the physician assistant profession.

    PubMed

    LeLacheur, Susan; Barnett, Jacqueline; Straker, Howard

    2015-10-01

    The physician assistant (PA) profession has long had a focus on providing primary healthcare to all. In order to best serve an increasingly diverse population, we examine the racial and ethnic diversity trends experienced in PA education and the PA profession, in the context of national demographics, and the racial and ethnic diversity of other health professions. We also offer recommendations to improve the racial and ethnic diversity of the PA profession. PMID:26406176

  18. Assessing the prevalence of autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, and psychiatric comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort of female fibromyalgia patients: does the time from hysterectomy provide a clue?

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Larry; Hadi, Joseph; Amber, Kyle T; Weiner, Michelle; La Riche, Christopher L; Ference, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Background This retrospective chart review investigated differences in the prevalence of medical comorbidity between women with fibromyalgia (FM) (n=219) and a control group women with chronic pain (CP) without FM (n=116). The specific aims were to compare the prevalence of autoimmune, psychiatric, endocrine, gynecologic pathology, the relationship between timing of gynecologic surgery, and pain onset. We additionally sought to compare the number of comorbidities in an ethnically diverse cohort. Methods This was a retrospective chart review of patients seen in FM or CP clinics at an academic medical center in 2009–2010. Results Logistic regression modeling found that gynecologic, endocrine, and autoimmune diagnoses were independently associated with a diagnosis of FM. Detailed analyses showed that thyroid disease (P<0.01) and gynecologic surgery (P<0.05) were significantly more common in FM. Women with FM were more likely to have multiple autoimmune, endocrine, gynecologic, or psychiatric pathologies. A relationship was observed between the timing of gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM, with more surgeries observed in the years just prior to pain onset or in the year after pain onset. A similar pattern was not found in the control group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that autoimmune, endocrine, and gynecologic pathologies occur more commonly in women with FM than in those with CP, which is consistent with findings in less ethnically diverse samples. Moreover, a relationship was found between timing of pain onset and gynecologic surgery. A larger prospective study of the relationship between gynecologic surgery and pain onset in FM is warranted. PMID:26316807

  19. The Mental Health Impact of Computer and Internet Training on a Multi-ethnic Sample of Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results of a Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Laganá, Luciana; García, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We preliminarily explored the effects of computer and internet training in older age and attempted to address the diversity gap in the ethnogeriatric literature, given that, in our study’s sample, only one-third of the participants self-identified as White. The aim of this investigation was to compare two groups - the control and the experimental conditions - regarding theme 1) computer attitudes and related self-efficacy, and theme 2) self-esteem and depressive symptomatology. Methods: Sixty non-institutionalized residents of Los Angeles County (mean age ± SD: 69.12 ± 10.37 years; age range: 51-92) were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n=30) or the waitlist/control group (n=30). The experimental group was involved in 6 weeks of one-on-one computer and internet training for one 2-hour session per week. The same training was administered to the control participants after their post-test. Outcome measures included the four variables, organized into the two aforementioned themes. Results: There were no significant between-group differences in either post-test computer attitudes or self-esteem. However, findings revealed that the experimental group reported greater computer self-efficacy, compared to the waitlist/control group, at post-test/follow-up [F(1,56)=28.89, p=0.001, η2=0.01]. Additionally, at the end of the computer and internet training, there was a substantial and statistically significant decrease in depression scores among those in the experimental group when compared to the waitlist/control group [F(1,55)=9.06, p<0.004, η2=0.02]. Conclusions: There were significant improvements in favour of the experimental group in computer self-efficacy and, of noteworthy clinical relevance, in depression, as evidenced by a decreased percentage of significantly depressed experimental subjects from 36.7% at baseline to 16.7% at the end of our intervention. PMID:24151452

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasmosis among antenatal women in London: a re-examination of risk in an ethnically diverse population

    PubMed Central

    Flatt, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary infection with Toxoplasma gondii in pregnancy can result in miscarriage, hydrocephalus, cerebral calcification and chorioretinitis in the newborn. The objective of our study was to evaluate seroprevalence of and analyse risk factors for toxoplasmosis in antenatal women from 2006 to 2008 in an ethnically diverse population of Central London to re-examine the need for a screening policy. Methods: We performed serum IgG estimations to T. gondii using a commercial kit, and analysed risk factors for acquisition using a questionnaire. Results: Seroprevalence for T. gondii was 17.32% in 2610 samples tested. In all, 67.7% were of UK origin (seroprevalence: 11.9%) and were significantly non-immune to T. gondii (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.31–0.47; P < 0.0001). Risk factors for seroprevalence included African/Afro-Caribbean (OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.83–3.88; P < 0.001; seroprevalence: 31.5%), Middle eastern (OR: 3.12, 95% CI: 1.62–5.99; P ≤ 0.001; seroprevalence: 34.8%) and mixed (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.16–2.63; P = 0.007; seroprevalence: 23.3%) ethnic groups; eating undercooked meat (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.29–2.08; P ≤ 0.001; seroprevalence: 20.2%) and drinking unpasteurised milk (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.01–1.88; P = 0.05; seroprevalence: 23.1%). There was no association with pet cats or eating unpasteurised cheeses and antibody responses. Conclusion: Low national prevalence of toxoplasma seroconversion and congenital disease would likely not justify screening in the UK. Individual risk assessment is recommended in ethnically diverse urban areas where populations with relatively high seroprevalence and parasite-associated risk factors exist together with an indigenous population with low prevalence. One universal screening policy based on the indigenous prevalence and risk factors may not be suitable for all. PMID:22696530

  1. Proportional differences in emergency room adult patients with PTSD, mood disorders, and anxiety for a large ethnically diverse geographic sample.

    PubMed

    Onoye, Jane; Helm, Susana; Koyanagi, Chad; Fukuda, Michael; Hishinuma, Earl; Takeshita, Junji; Ona, Celia

    2013-05-01

    Underserved populations often utilize the emergency room in place of primary care, particularly for short term behavioral health services. This study examined emergency department (ED) utilization rates for rurality, insurance, sex, and ethnicity in a large sample of adult patients in Hawai'i hospitals from 2000-2010 with a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), mood disorder, or other anxiety disorder. Findings showed a higher rate of use by rural and suburban residents with a diagnosis of PTSD or other anxiety than by urban residents. Utilization of EDs by African Americans and Other Pacific Islanders with PTSD was proportionally higher than for those with mood disorders or other anxiety disorders. Military ED visits were also proportionally higher for individuals with PTSD than for those with mood or other anxiety disorders. Limited economic resources and increasingly costly mental health disorders such as PTSD highlight the importance of better understanding the needs for behavioral health services for underserved populations. PMID:23728057

  2. Associations of vitamin D intake with 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and racially/ethnically diverse US children.

    PubMed

    Au, Lauren E; Rogers, Gail T; Harris, Susan S; Dwyer, Johanna T; Jacques, Paul F; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2013-11-01

    Overweight children and minorities are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. Little information exists on whether overweight children and minorities who do not meet dietary vitamin D recommendations are at risk for low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) status. Vitamin D intake from foods and dietary supplements was estimated in 3,310 children/adolescents who were examined as part of the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Weight status was dichotomized into healthy weight or overweight/obese. Parent-reported race/ethnicity was categorized as non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Mexican American, or other. Adjusted logistic regression was used to determine whether children who did not achieve the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) were at increased risk for inadequate 25OHD. Nearly 75% of children failed to meet the EAR. Overall, not meeting the EAR was associated with inadequate 25OHD (odds ratio=2.5; 95% CI 1.4 to 4.5). However, this association differed by weight status (P=0.02) and race/ethnicity (P=0.02). Overweight/obese children who failed to meet the EAR were five times more likely to be at risk for inadequate 25OHD than overweight/obese children who met it (95% CI 2.0 to 12.7; P<0.001). Non-Hispanic blacks with intakes below the EAR were nearly four times more likely to be at risk for inadequate 25OHD than those who met the EAR (95% CI 1.5 to 9.7; P<0.01). The majority of US children failed to meet current vitamin D recommendations. Overweight/obese and non-Hispanic black children were especially likely to be at risk for inadequate 25OHD when not consuming the EAR. PMID:23916971

  3. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among a racially/ethnically diverse group of U.S. eighth-grade adolescents and associations with fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study, was to report the prevalence of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-defined metabolic syndrome and its components among a cross-sectional sample of racially/ethnically diverse eighth grade youths and examine the association between the presence of the syndrome and ...

  4. The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education. A Briefing before the United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, D.C., July 28, 2006. Briefing Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Commission on Civil Rights, 2006

    2006-01-01

    On July 28, 2006, a panel of experts briefed members of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights on the putative benefits of racial and ethnic diversity in elementary and secondary education. Four experts presented written statements to the Commissioners that assessed the social science literature on this issue. They also addressed whether or not…

  5. Language Shift in the United States and Foreign-Born Older Mexican Heritage Individuals: Co-ethnic Context for Language Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Siordia, Carlos; Díaz, María E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigate individual-level language shift in a population of Mexican origin Latinos/as aged 65 and up. By using data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly, we investigate their English language use as the dependent variable in a hierarchical linear model. The microlevel independent continuous variable is their level of contact with “Anglos”; the macrolevel continuous independent variable is the percentage of Mexicans in tract of residence. After accounting for their generational status, other microlevel social and health covariates, and tract-level attributes, we found a direct relationship between contact with Anglos and a “shift” toward more English language use, where as co-ethnic concentration increases, the influence of contact with Anglos decreases. We frame this article with a discussion on language shifting, and explain how co-ethnic concentration may provide the resources for engaging in a language resistance. PMID:25104874

  6. Adolescent Diversity in Ethnic, Economic, and Cultural Contexts. Advances in Adolescent Development: An Annual Book Series, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montemayor, Raymond, Ed.; Adams, Gerald R., Ed; Gullotta, Thomas P., Ed.

    This book is designed to summarize, integrate, and evaluate current research on adolescent development. It contains the following chapters: (1) "Paths to Adulthood: Adolescent Diversity in Contemporary America" (Ramond Montemayor); (2) "Competence among Urban Adolescents in Poverty: Multiple Forms, Contexts, and Developmental Processes" (Hirokazu…

  7. Sexual Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Community College Students in Metropolitan New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMarzo, Jenine

    This study investigated the association among select socio-cultural variables and sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors with a diverse population of metropolitan New York community college students. The Sexual Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior Test survey instrument was administered to 338 students between the ages of 17 and 26 in their…

  8. Using Focus Groups To Develop a Heart Disease Prevention Program for Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettleman, Lynn; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2000-01-01

    Focus groups with diverse low-income women generated ideas about cardiovascular disease interventions. Women preferred programs that: addressed multiple risk factors; emphasized staying healthy for themselves; taught skills for adopting heart-healthy behaviors; and offered choices in effecting behavior change. Women stressed the need for health…

  9. Urban Culturally and Ethnically Diverse Doctoral Students and Their Perceptions of Doctoral Program Design Features and Procedures: An Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, Ann I.; Barbetta, Patricia; Cramer, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The mission for Urban SEALS (Special Education Academic Leaders), a federally funded doctoral preparation program, is to prepare doctoral-level special educators, including those who are culturally and/or linguistically diverse (CLD) to assume leadership roles in the education of urban students with disabilities who are CLD. This report provides…

  10. The Role of Psychosocial Variables in Understanding the Achievement and Retention of Transfer Students at an Ethnically Diverse Urban University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Jessica M.; Calvillo, Evelyn; Gonzalez, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    A study of 1,130 transfer students (757 female, 373 male; 479 Latino/Hispanic, 267 Asian or Asian American, 125 European American, 73 African American, 58 Middle Eastern, and 66 "other") at a 4-year public university indicates that psychosocial variables are important in relation to the success of students who are diverse by many factors. Cluster…

  11. Ethnic differences in initiation and timing of adjuvant endocrine therapy among older women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer enrolled in Medicare Part D

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xianglin L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there are racial/ethnic differences in initiation and timing of adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) after Medicare Part D drug coverage. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare-linked data to assess ethnic, socio-demographic, and tumor characteristic variations in the initiation of AET among patients ≥65 with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in 2007–2009 enrolled in Medicare Part D through 2010. Logistic regression models were performed to assess the association between race/ethnicity and the initiation of tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors (AIs), and overall AET (tamoxifen or AIs) within the first 12 months of diagnosis. Of the 12,198 women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, 74.8 % received AET within 12 months of diagnosis, of which 17.3 % received tamoxifen and 82.8 % received AIs. After controlling for all variables, only Asian women were found to have a greater odds of initiation of overall AET compared to non-Hispanic white women (odds ratio (OR): 1.28, 95 % CI: 1.03–1.58). Hispanic Mexicans and non-Hispanic black patients had a significantly lower odds of tamoxifen initiation (0.70, 0.54–0.91; 0.25, 0.10–0.62). For AI initiation, Hispanic Mexicans and Asians had a higher odds compared to non-Hispanic white women (2.06, 1.34–3.10; 1.33, 1.11–1.61). A suboptimal proportion of women (25.2 %) did not initiate AET within 12 months of diagnosis and therefore did not receive the full benefits of treatment to reduce the risk of breast cancer recurrence and mortality. Racial/ethnic differences in the initiation of tamoxifen and AIs have important implications that require further investigation. PMID:26786154

  12. Estimation of genetic effects on BMI during adolescence in an ethnically diverse cohort: The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    PubMed Central

    Graff, M; North, K E; Mohlke, K L; Lange, L A; Luo, J; Harris, K M; Young, K L; Richardson, A S; Lange, E M; Gordon-Larsen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The contribution of genetic variants to body mass index (BMI) during adolescence across multiethnic samples is largely unknown. We selected genetic loci associated with BMI or obesity in European-descent samples and examined them in a multiethnic adolescent sample. Design and Sample: In 5103 European American (EA), 1748 African American (AfA), 1304 Hispanic American (HA) and 439 Asian American (AsA) participants of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; ages 12–21 years, 47.5% male), we assessed the association between 41 established obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with BMI using additive genetic models, stratified by race/ethnicity, and in a pooled meta-analysis sample. We also compared the magnitude of effect for BMI–SNP associations in EA and AfA adolescents to comparable effect estimates from 11 861 EA and AfA adults in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (ages 45–64 years, 43.2% male). Results: Thirty-five of 41 BMI–SNP associations were directionally consistent with published studies in European populations, 18 achieved nominal significance (P<0.05; effect sizes from 0.19 to 0.71 kg m−2 increase in BMI per effect allele), while 4 (FTO, TMEM18, TFAP2B, MC4R) remained significant after Bonferroni correction (P<0.0015). Of 41 BMI–SNP associations in AfA, HA and AsA adolescents, nine, three and five, respectively, were directionally consistent and nominally significant. In the pooled meta-analysis, 36 of 41 effect estimates were directionally consistent and 21 of 36 were nominally significant. In EA adolescents, BMI effect estimates were larger (P<0.05) for variants near TMEM18, PTER and MC4R and smaller for variants near MTIF3 and NRXN3 compared with EA adults. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that obesity susceptibility loci may have a comparatively stronger role during adolescence than during adulthood, with variation across race/ethnic subpopulation. PMID:23168566

  13. Facilitating advance care planning with ethnically diverse groups of frail, low-income elders in the USA: perspectives of care managers on challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jung; Ko, Eunjeong; Kramer, Betty J

    2014-03-01

    This study examined care managers' perspectives on facilitating advance care planning (ACP) with ethnically diverse elders enrolled in a managed long-term care programme that coordinates medical and long-term care for frail, poor elders in the USA. Seven in-depth interviews and two focus groups were conducted with 24 lead supervisors and care managers of care management teams between July and August 2008; data were analysed with qualitative thematic analysis method. Participants identified four main sources of challenges: death and dying are taboo discussion topics; the dying process is beyond human control; family and others hold decision-making responsibility; and planning for death and dying is a foreign concept. Participants' recommendations to address these challenges were to develop trust with elders over time; cultivate cultural knowledge and sensitivity to respect value orientations; promote designating a healthcare proxy; recognise and educate families and community leaders as critical partners in ACP and provide practical support as needed throughout the illness experience. These findings suggest important practice implications for care managers working with increasingly diverse cultural groups of elders at the end of life. PMID:24495270

  14. Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder in Racially and Ethnically Diverse Obese Patients in Primary Care: Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Self-Help and Medication

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D.; Walsh, B. Timothy; McKenzie, Katherine C.; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to determine whether treatments with demonstrated efficacy for binge eating disorder (BED) in specialist treatment centers can be delivered effectively in primary care settings to racially/ethnically diverse obese patients with BED. This study compared the effectiveness of self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT) and an anti-obesity medication (sibutramine), alone and in combination, and it is only the second placebo-controlled trial of any medication for BED to evaluate longer-term effects after treatment discontinuation. Method 104 obese patients with BED (73% female, 55% non-white) were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments (balanced 2-by-2 factorial design): sibutramine (N=26), placebo (N=27), shCBT+sibutramine (N=26), or shCBT+placebo (N=25). Medications were administered in double-blind fashion. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (16 months after randomization). Results Mixed-models analyses revealed significant time and medication-by-time interaction effects for percent weight loss, with sibutramine but not placebo associated with significant change over time. Percent weight loss differed significantly between sibutramine and placebo by the third month of treatment and at post-treatment. After the medication was discontinued at post-treatment, weight re-gain occurred in sibutramine groups and percent weight loss no longer differed among the four treatments at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. For binge-eating, mixed-models revealed significant time and shCBT-by-time interaction effects: shCBT had significantly lower binge-eating frequency at 6-month follow-up but the treatments did not differ significantly at any other time point. Demographic factors did not significantly predict or moderate clinical outcomes. Discussion Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT and sibutramine did not show long-term effectiveness relative to

  15. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell mobilization in an ethnically diverse population

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Sumithira; Leitman, Susan F.; Tisdale, John F.; Hsieh, Matthew M.; Childs, Richard W.; Barrett, A. John; Fowler, Daniel H.; Bishop, Michael R.; Kang, Elizabeth M.; Malech, Harry L.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.; Khuu, Hanh M.; Wesley, Robert; Yau, Yu Y.

    2008-01-01

    A reliable estimate of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization response to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may identify donors at risk for poor mobilization and help optimize transplantation approaches. We studied 639 allogeneic PBSC collections performed in 412 white, 75 black, 116 Hispanic, and 36 Asian/Pacific adult donors who were prescribed G-CSF dosed at either 10 or 16 μg/kg per day for 5 days followed by large-volume leukapheresis (LVL). Additional LVL (mean, 11 L) to collect lymphocytes for donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and other therapies was performed before G-CSF administration in 299 of these donors. Day 5 preapheresis blood CD34+ cell counts after mobilization were significantly lower in whites compared with blacks, Hispanics, and Asian/Pacific donors (79 vs 104, 94, and 101 cells/μL, P < .001). In addition, donors who underwent lymphapheresis before mobilization had higher CD34+ cell counts than donors who did not (94 vs 79 cells/μL, P < .001). In multivariate analysis, higher post–G-CSF CD34+ cell counts were most strongly associated with the total amount of G-CSF received, followed by the pre–G-CSF platelet count, pre–G-CSF mononuclear count, and performance of prior LVL for DLI collection. Age, white ethnicity, and female gender were associated with significantly lower post–G-CSF CD34+ cell counts. PMID:18523146

  16. Beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Results of previous studies have shown that exercise training can improve cognitive functions in healthy older people. Some studies have demonstrated that long-term combination exercise training can facilitate memory function improvement better than either aerobic or strength exercise training alone. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term combination exercise training can improve diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people or not. We investigate the effects of four weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, short-term memory, working memory, attention, reading ability, and processing speed) of healthy older people. Methods A single-blinded intervention with two parallel groups (combination exercise training; waiting list control) is used. Testers are blind to the study hypothesis and the participants’ group membership. Through an advertisement in a local newspaper, 64 healthy older adults are recruited and then assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group must participate in the short-term combination exercise training (aerobic and strength exercise training) three days per week during the four weeks (12 workouts in total). The waiting list group does not participate in the combination exercise training. The primary outcome measure is the Stroop test score: a measure of executive function. Secondary outcome measures are assessments including the Verbal Fluency Task, Logical Memory, First and Second Names, Digit Span Forward, Digit span backward, Japanese Reading Test, Digit Cancellation Task, Digit Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search. We assess these outcome measures before and after the intervention. Discussion This report is the first of a study that investigates the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive

  17. Religion and spirituality as defined by older adults.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Harriet L; Thomas, Cecilia L; Williamson, Celia

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative study examined the intrinsic definitions of spirituality and religion across three different religious or ethnic groups of older adults--Jewish, African American Protestants and Caucasian Protestants. The study explores how older adults from these various backgrounds self-identify with the terms religion and spirituality. Because both African-Americans and Jewish older adults are underrepresented in the research on spirituality and religion, their inclusion lends insights to this topic and helps to anchor the findings in a cross-cultural context. Focus groups were employed to understand how these groups characterize their relationship to spirituality and religion. Social work professionals can utilize these findings to work more effectively with the diverse and complex issues of older adults. PMID:19043904

  18. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p < .001) and condomless anal sex (CAS) (AOR 2.70, p < .05) in the past 3 months. The only predictor of CAS with HIV-negative or unknown status partners was being under age 30 (AOR 3.38, p < .01). This study helped to inform online targeted recruitment techniques, access to technology and social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted. PMID:26179596

  19. Self-blood pressure monitoring in an urban, ethnically diverse population: A randomized clinical trial utilizing the electronic health record

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Stella S.; Tabaei, Bahman P.; Angell, Sonia Y.; Rapin, Anne; Buck, Michael D; Pagano, William G.; Maselli, Frank J.; Simmons, Alvaro; Chamany, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. While control rates have improved over time, racial/ethnic disparities in hypertension control persist. Self-blood pressure monitoring (SBPM), by itself, has been shown to be an effective tool in predominantly white populations, but less studied in minority, urban communities. These types of minimally intensive approaches are important to test in all populations, especially those experiencing related health disparities, for broad implementation with limited resources. Methods and Results The New York City Health Department in partnership with community clinic networks implemented a randomized clinical trial (n=900, 450 per arm) to investigate the effectiveness of SBPM in medically underserved, and largely black and Hispanic participants. Intervention participants received a home blood pressure (BP) monitor and training on use, while control participants received usual care. After 9 months, systolic BP decreased (intervention: 14.7 mm Hg, control: 14.1 mm Hg; p=0.70). Similar results were observed when incorporating longitudinal data and calculating a mean slope over time. Control was achieved in 38.9% of intervention and 39.1% of control participants at the end of follow-up; the time-to-event experience of achieving BP control in the intervention vs. control were not different from each other (logrank p-value=0.91). Conclusions SBPM was not shown to improve control over usual care in this largely minority, urban population. The patient population in this study, which included a high proportion of Hispanics and uninsured persons is understudied. Results indicate these groups may have additional meaningful barriers to achieving BP control beyond access to the monitor itself. PMID:25737487

  20. Effectiveness of Housing First with Intensive Case Management in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Homeless Adults with Mental Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Gozdzik, Agnes; Misir, Vachan; Skosireva, Anna; Connelly, Jo; Sarang, Aseefa; Whisler, Adam; Hwang, Stephen W.; O’Campo, Patricia; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    Housing First (HF) is being widely disseminated in efforts to end homelessness among homeless adults with psychiatric disabilities. This study evaluates the effectiveness of HF with Intensive Case Management (ICM) among ethnically diverse homeless adults in an urban setting. 378 participants were randomized to HF with ICM or treatment-as-usual (TAU) in Toronto (Canada), and followed for 24 months. Measures of effectiveness included housing stability, physical (EQ5D-VAS) and mental (CSI, GAIN-SS) health, social functioning (MCAS), quality of life (QoLI20), and health service use. Two-thirds of the sample (63%) was from racialized groups and half (50%) were born outside Canada. Over the 24 months of follow-up, HF participants spent a significantly greater percentage of time in stable residences compared to TAU participants (75.1% 95% CI 70.5 to 79.7 vs. 39.3% 95% CI 34.3 to 44.2, respectively). Similarly, community functioning (MCAS) improved significantly from baseline in HF compared to TAU participants (change in mean difference = +1.67 95% CI 0.04 to 3.30). There was a significant reduction in the number of days spent experiencing alcohol problems among the HF compared to TAU participants at 24 months (ratio of rate ratios = 0.47 95% CI 0.22 to 0.99) relative to baseline, a reduction of 53%. Although the number of emergency department visits and days in hospital over 24 months did not differ significantly between HF and TAU participants, fewer HF participants compared to TAU participants had 1 or more hospitalizations during this period (70.4% vs. 81.1%, respectively; P=0.044). Compared to non-racialized HF participants, racialized HF participants saw an increase in the amount of money spent on alcohol (change in mean difference = $112.90 95% CI 5.84 to 219.96) and a reduction in physical community integration (ratio of rate ratios = 0.67 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96) from baseline to 24 months. Secondary analyses found a significant reduction in the number of days

  1. Do High Risk Urban Youth also have Older Friends?

    PubMed Central

    Velazquez, Cayley E.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore how behavioral, intra-personal and socio-environmental factors were associated with the likelihood of having at least one older friend. Methods Participants included 3709 ethnically-diverse 8th grade students in the Project Northland Chicago intervention trial. Socio-demographic characteristics included gender, family composition, language spoken at home, race/ethnicity, and age. Behavioral factors included cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use, depressed feelings, willingness to wear alcohol-branded merchandise, and violent and delinquent behavior. Intrapersonal factors included low refusal self efficacy and outcome expectations and expectancies. Socio-environmental factors included alcohol offers and access, normative estimates and expectations, and peer alcohol use. Having an older friend was defined as having at least one friend aged 16 or older (students’ mean age=14.2). Logistic mixed-effects regression models were used and controlled for gender, race/ethnicity, treatment status, and age. Results Females and older eighth graders were significantly more likely to have at least one older friend. Students who scored higher on all of the behavioral, intra-personal and socio-environmental risk factors were significantly more likely to have at least one older friend. Significant gender interactions were found for several of the relationships. Conclusion Overall this study found multiple risk-related factors are associated with having older friends in eighth grade. Particularly important factors appear to be cigarette, marijuana and alcohol use, having friends who use alcohol, having increased alcohol offers, and being willing to wear or use alcohol-branded merchandise. PMID:21501805

  2. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services. PMID:23821904

  3. ACCEPTABILITY OF PrEP UPTAKE AMONG RACIALLY/ETHNICALLY DIVERSE YOUNG MEN WHO HAVE SEX WITH MEN: THE P18 STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael E.; Kapadia, Farzana; Barton, Staci C.; Eddy, Jessica A.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is considered an effective biomedical approach for HIV prevention. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This study examined attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP uptake among YMSM by conducting semistructured interviews with a sample (N = 100) of YMSM in New York City. Thematic analysis was employed to explore key issues related to attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP utilization. Findings suggest that self-perceived risk for HIV transmission, enjoying unprotected sex, and being in a romantic relationship were associated with PrEP uptake. The most prominent barriers to PrEP uptake included costs, adherence regimen, and access. In summary, these findings underscore the importance of addressing behavioral and structural factors in maximizing the effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, PrEP implementation programs ought to consider the role of social and structural challenges to PrEP uptake and adherence among YMSM. PMID:25915697

  4. Acceptability of PrEP Uptake Among Racially/Ethnically Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: The P18 Study.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Figueroa, Rafael E; Kapadia, Farzana; Barton, Staci C; Eddy, Jessica A; Halkitis, Perry N

    2015-04-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is considered an effective biomedical approach for HIV prevention. However, there is limited understanding of PrEP uptake among racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse young men who have sex with men (YMSM). This study examined attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP uptake among YMSM by conducting semistructured interviews with a sample (N = 100) of YMSM in New York City. Thematic analysis was employed to explore key issues related to attitudes and perceptions toward PrEP utilization. Findings suggest that self-perceived risk for HIV transmission, enjoying unprotected sex, and being in a romantic relationship were associated with PrEP uptake. The most prominent barriers to PrEP uptake included costs, adherence regimen, and access. In summary, these findings underscore the importance of addressing behavioral and structural factors in maximizing the effectiveness of PrEP. In addition, PrEP implementation programs ought to consider the role of social and structural challenges to PrEP uptake and adherence among YMSM. PMID:25915697

  5. Economic well-being and children's social adjustment: the role of family process in an ethnically diverse low-income sample.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rashmita S; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Huston, Aletha C; McLoyd, Vonnie C

    2002-01-01

    Using latent variable structural equation modeling, a family economic stress model that links economic well-being to child well-being in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 419 elementary school-age children was evaluated. The sample was 57% African American and 28% Hispanic, and most families were headed by single mothers. The results provided support for the position that family process is a critical mediator of the effects of economic hardship on children's social adjustment. Lower levels of economic well-being, and the corollary elevated perceptions of economic pressure indirectly affected parenting behavior through an adverse impact on parental psychological well-being. Distressed parents reported feeling less effective and capable in disciplinary interactions with their child and were observed to be less affectionate in parent-child interactions. In turn, less than optimal parenting predicted lower teacher ratings of children's positive social behavior and higher ratings of behavior problems. Multiple-group analyses revealed that the pathways by which economic hardship influences children's behavior appear to operate similarly for boys and girls, and for African American and Hispanic families. PMID:12038561

  6. Quasi-Experimental Study of Functional Family Therapy Effectiveness for Juvenile Justice Aftercare in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Darnell, Adam J.; Schuler, Megan S.

    2015-01-01

    Functional Family Therapy (FFT) is an intensive community-based treatment program designed to reduce youth behavior problems such as violence, drug use, and other delinquency. Although there is evidence of FFT efficacy and effectiveness with predominantly White samples, there is very little evidence with racial/ethnic minority samples. In light of the over-representation of African American and Latino youth in the juvenile justice system, this study examined the effectiveness of FFT and an adaptation of FFT to probation supervision, called Functional Family Probation (FFP), among a predominantly Latino and African American sample of youth returning home from court-ordered out-of-home placements (OHP). Propensity score weighting was used to compare the likelihood of subsequent OHPs among youth receiving standard probation (Comparison group), and youth receiving FFT (with standard probation), youth receiving FFP (instead of standard probation), and youth receiving FFT in combination with FFP. Results indicated that youth receiving FFT (both with standard probation and FFP), relative to Comparison youth receiving standard probation only, had significantly lower likelihood of OHP during the first two months following release, but this advantage disappeared in later months. Youth receiving only FFP also had lower likelihood of OHP than Comparison youth in the first two months, though not significantly. These findings provide encouraging evidence of positive effects of FFT, in combination with FFP or standard probation, among a diverse sample of juvenile justice system-involved youth. PMID:25767310

  7. Diversity in human hair growth, diameter, colour and shape. An in vivo study on young adults from 24 different ethnic groups observed in the five continents.

    PubMed

    Loussouarn, Geneviève; Lozano, Isabelle; Panhard, Ségolène; Collaudin, Catherine; El Rawadi, Charles; Genain, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    Based on previous findings, from a worldwide study, classified the shapes of human hair into 8 major types, from straight to highly curly. This clearly extended the usual classification of hair into African, Asian or Caucasian types. However, determinations of hair growth parameters and hair density were excluded from such studies. To measure and compare the hair growth profiles of young adults without alopecia living in the five continents. 2249 young adults (18-35 years, females and males) without alopecia, originating from 24 various human ethnic groups were included in the study. Total hair density, telogen percentage and growth rate on three different scalp areas were measured, using non-invasive validated techniques. Natural hair colour level, curliness and hair diameter were additionally recorded, when practically possible. Diversity in hair growth parameters among the entire cohort was a key finding, with differences linked to scalp area, gender and geographic origin. Statistical approaches depicted African hair as having lower density and a slower growth rate. Asian hair showed a thicker diameter, with faster growth. Caucasian hair showed a high total hair density. On the one hand, this inter-continental study of hair growth parameters provides initial valuable base-line data on hair in young adults without alopecia, and on the other hand, further extends our knowledge of this unique human appendage, with some mosaic features, observed worldwide. PMID:27019510

  8. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  9. The effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and self-esteem trajectories among diverse adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yip, Tiffany

    2015-02-01

    Ethnic/racial discrimination has persistent negative implications for both physical and mental health. The current study employs a risk and resilience framework to explore the joint effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep disturbance on psychosocial outcomes among adolescents. In a sample of 146 minority and White adolescents (70% female), changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem over 3 years are explored using growth curve models. Regardless of ethnic background, adolescents reporting high levels of ethnic/racial discrimination and poor sleep also reported a corresponding increase in depressive symptoms and lower levels of self-esteem over time. Adolescents reporting all other combinations of sleep quality and ethnic/racial discrimination reported more positive adjustment over time. The joint effects of sleep and ethnic/racial discrimination on adolescent psychosocial development are discussed. PMID:24682960

  10. The Effects of Ethnic/Racial Discrimination and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Esteem Trajectories Among Diverse Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic/racial discrimination has persistent negative implications for both physical and mental health. The current study employs a risk and resilience framework to explore the joint effects of ethnic/racial discrimination and sleep disturbance on psychosocial outcomes among adolescents. In a sample of 146 minority and White adolescents (70 % female), changes in depressive symptoms, anxiety, and self-esteem over 3 years are explored using growth curve models. Regardless of ethnic background, adolescents reporting high levels of ethnic/racial discrimination and poor sleep also reported a corresponding increase in depressive symptoms and lower levels of self-esteem over time. Adolescents reporting all other combinations of sleep quality and ethnic/racial discrimination reported more positive adjustment over time. The joint effects of sleep and ethnic/racial discrimination on adolescent psychosocial development are discussed. PMID:24682960

  11. The Cal-Bridge Program: Increasing the Gender and Ethnic Diversity of Astrophysics Students in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Rudolph, Alexander L.

    2016-06-01

    The mission of the Cal-Bridge program is to increase the number of underrepresented minority and women students completing a bachelor’s degree and entering a PhD program in astronomy, physics, or closely-related fields. The program has created a network of faculty at diverse higher education institutions, including 5 University of California (UC) campuses, 9 California State Universities (CSUs), and 10 community colleges in southern California, dedicated to this goal. Students selected for the program are know as “Cal-Bridge Scholars” and they are given a wide variety of support: (1) scholarships in their junior/senior years at CSU and their first year of graduate school at a UC, (2) intensive mentoring by a pair of CSU and UC faculty members, (3) tutoring, when needed, (4) professional development workshops, (5) exposure to research opportunities at various universities, and (6) membership in a growing cohort of like-minded students. We report on the structure of our program, lessons learned with our current 12 Cal-Bridge scholars, and the results of our first two years of operation. Funding for this program is provided by NSF-SSTEM Grant #1356133.

  12. Dietary antioxidant intake and its association with cognitive function in an ethnically diverse sample of US adults

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, M. A.; Fanelli Kuczmarski, M.; Kitner-Triolo, M. H.; Beydoun, H. A.; Kaufman, J. S.; Mason, M. A.; Evans, M. K.; Zonderman, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary antioxidants can inhibit reactions accompanying neurodegeneration, and thus prevent cognitive impairment. We describe associations of dietary antioxidants with cognitive function in a large biracial population, while testing moderation by sex, race and age and mediation by depressive symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,274 adults (541 men and 733 women) aged 30–64y at baseline (Mean±SD: 47.5±9.3) in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Lifespan Study (HANDLS), Baltimore city, MD. Cognitive performance in the domains of memory, language/verbal, attention, spatial, psychomotor speed, executive function, and global mental status were assessed. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scale was used to measure depressive symptoms. Dietary intake was assessed with two 24-hr recalls, estimating daily consumption of total carotenoids, vitamins A, C and E, per 1,000 kcal. Results Among key findings, one standard deviation (SD~2.02 mg/1,000kcal) higher vitamin E was associated with a higher score on verbal memory, immediate recall, (β=+0.64±0.19, p=0.001) and better language/verbal fluency performance (β=+0.53±0.16, p=0.001), particularly among the younger age group. Women with higher vitamin E intake (β=+0.68±0.21, p=0.001) had better performance on a psychomotor speed test. The vitamin E-verbal memory association was partially mediated by depressive symptoms (proportion mediated=13–16%). Conclusions In sum, future cohort studies and dietary interventions should focus on associations of dietary vitamin E with cognitive decline, specifically for domains of verbal memory, verbal fluency and psychomotor speed. PMID:25478706

  13. Qualitative focus group study investigating experiences of accessing and engaging with social care services: perspectives of carers from diverse ethnic groups caring for stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Nan; Holley, Jess; Ellmers, Theresa; Mein, Gill; Cloud, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informal carers, often family members, play a vital role in supporting stroke survivors with post-stroke disability. As populations age, numbers of carers overall and those from minority ethnic groups in particular, are rising. Carers from all ethnic groups, but especially those from black and minority ethnic groups frequently fail to access support services, making understanding their experiences important. The study therefore explored the experiences of carers of stroke survivors aged 45+ years from 5 ethnic groups in accessing and receiving social care services after hospital discharge. Design This qualitative study used 7 recorded focus groups with informal carers of stroke survivors. Data were analysed thematically focusing on similarities and differences between ethnic groups. Setting Carers were recruited from voluntary sector organisations supporting carers, stroke survivors and black and minority ethnic groups in the UK. Participants 41 carers from 5 ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, black African, black Caribbean, white British) participated in the focus groups. Results Several interconnected themes were identified including: the service gap between hospital discharge and home; carers as the best person to care and cultural aspects of caring and using services. Many themes were common to all the included ethnic groups but some related to specific groups. Conclusions Across ethnic groups there were many similarities in the experiences of people caring for stroke survivors with complex, long-term care needs. Accessing services demands effort and persistence on carers’ part. If carers believe services are unsatisfactory or that they, rather than formal services, should be providing support for stroke survivors, they are unlikely to persist in their efforts. Cultural and language differences add to the challenges black and minority ethnic group carers face. PMID:26826148

  14. Self-help for Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Ethnically and Racially Diverse Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective was to examine the effectiveness of a self-help treatment as a first line primary care intervention for binge eating disorder (BED) in obese patients. This study compared the effectiveness of a usual care plus self-help version of cognitive behavioral therapy (shCBT) to usual care (UC) only in ethnically/racially diverse obese patients with BED in primary care settings in an urban center. Method 48 obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to either shCBT (N=24) or UC (N=24) for four months. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment and at post-treatment. Results Binge-eating remission rates did not differ significantly between shCBT (25%) and UC (8.3%) at post-treatment. Mixed models of binge eating frequency determined using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) revealed significant decreases for both conditions but that shCBT and UC did not differ. Mixed models of binge eating frequency from repeated monthly EDE-questionnaire assessments revealed a significant treatment-by-time interaction indicating that shCBT had significant reductions whereas UC did not during the four-month treatments. Mixed models revealed no differences between groups on associated eating disorder psychopathology or depression. No weight loss was observed in either condition. Conclusions Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT did not show effectiveness relative to usual care for treating BED in obese patients in primary care. Thus, self-help CBT may not have utility as a front-line intervention for BED for obese patients in primary care and future studies should test guided-self-help methods for delivering CBT in primary care generalist settings. PMID:24189569

  15. To Share or Not to Share? A Survey of Biomedical Researchers in the U.S. Southwest, an Ethnically Diverse Region

    PubMed Central

    Oushy, Mai H.; Palacios, Rebecca; Holden, Alan E. C.; Ramirez, Amelie G.; Gallion, Kipling J.; O’Connell, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer health disparities research depends on access to biospecimens from diverse racial/ethnic populations. This multimethodological study, using mixed methods for quantitative and qualitative analysis of survey results, assessed barriers, concerns, and practices for sharing biospecimens/data among researchers working with biospecimens from minority populations in a 5 state region of the United States (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas). The ultimate goals of this research were to understand data sharing barriers among biomedical researchers; guide strategies to increase participation in biospecimen research; and strengthen collaborative opportunities among researchers. Methods and Population Email invitations to anonymous participants (n = 605 individuals identified by the NIH RePORT database), resulted in 112 responses. The survey assessed demographics, specimen collection data, and attitudes about virtual biorepositories. Respondents were primarily principal investigators at PhD granting institutions (91.1%) conducting basic (62.3%) research; most were non-Hispanic White (63.4%) and men (60.6%). The low response rate limited the statistical power of the analyses, further the number of respondents for each survey question was variable. Results Findings from this study identified barriers to biospecimen research, including lack of access to sufficient biospecimens, and limited availability of diverse tissue samples. Many of these barriers can be attributed to poor annotation of biospecimens, and researchers’ unwillingness to share existing collections. Addressing these barriers to accessing biospecimens is essential to combating cancer in general and cancer health disparities in particular. This study confirmed researchers’ willingness to participate in a virtual biorepository (n = 50 respondents agreed). However, researchers in this region listed clear specifications for establishing and using such a biorepository: specifications

  16. A Framework for Understanding Modifications to Measures for Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, Angela D; Goldberg, Jack; Shea, Judy A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Research on health disparities and determinants of health disparities among ethnic minorities and vulnerable older populations necessitates use of self-report measures. Most established instruments were developed on mainstream populations and may need adaptation for research with diverse populations. Although information is increasingly available on various problems using these measures in diverse groups, there is little guidance on how to modify the measures. We provide a framework of issues to consider when modifying measures for diverse populations. Methods We describe reasons for considering modifications, the types of information that can be used as a basis for making modifications, and the types of modifications researchers have made. We recommend testing modified measures to assure they are appropriate. Suggestions are made on reporting modifications in publications using the measures. Discussion The issues open a dialogue about what appropriate guidelines would be for researchers adapting measures in studies of ethnically diverse populations. PMID:22495768

  17. Clinically relevant weakness in diverse populations of older adults participating in the International Mobility in Aging Study.

    PubMed

    de Souza Barbosa, Juliana Fernandes; Zepeda, Mario Ulises Perez; Béland, François; Guralnik, Jack M; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to compare cut points for weakness proposed by Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project with cut points estimated with our own data; to assess the prevalence of clinically relevant handgrip strength (HGS) weakness according to published criteria across distinct populations of older adults; to estimate the ability of HGS weakness to identify slowness. This is a cross-sectional analysis of International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) involving 1935 community-dwelling older adults, between 65 and 74 years, who completed HGS and gait speed assessment. We used baseline data from Tirana (Albania), Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). Weakness was defined according to sex-specific HGS cut points associated with slowness proposed by FNIH Sarcopenia Project. Slowness was defined as gait speed <0.8 m/s. IMIAS cut points for clinical weakness had good agreement with those proposed by FNIH. Weakness prevalence across the research sites ranged from 1.1 % (Saint-Hyacinthe) to 19.2 % (Manizales) among men. Women from Manizales (13.5 %) and Natal (19.3 %) had higher prevalence of weakness than their counterparts. FNIH cut points had a strong association with slowness, for both sexes. The IMIAS population generated cut points which were close to those proposed by FNIH. There was large variability in prevalence of weakness across our research sites. The HGS cut points for weakness proposed by FNIH performed well in IMIAS populations, providing a useful tool for screening older adults at risk for functional problems. PMID:26867805

  18. A Narrative Approach to Ethnic Identity in Emerging Adulthood: Bringing Life to the Identity Status Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    This study used a narrative approach to understand how emerging adults experience ethnicity in their everyday lives and to link ethnic identity processes with the content of how ethnic identity is experienced. Participants were 191 ethnically diverse emerging adults who completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and provided a written…

  19. Impact of Ethnicity in Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wollenman, Casey S.; Chason, Rebecca; Reisch, Joan S.; Rockey, Don C.

    2014-01-01

    Goals To examine ethnicity's role in the etiology and outcome of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). Background UGIH is a serious condition with considerable associated morbidity and mortality. Study We analyzed 2196 patients admitted with acute UGIH between January 2006 and February 2012. Complete clinical data was gathered prospectively and entered into our GI Bleed Registry, which captures demographic and clinical variables. Results were analyzed using the Chi-square analyses and the analysis of variance techniques with Tukey multiple comparisons. Results Among 2196 patients, 620 (28%) were Black, 625 (29%) White, 881 (40%) Hispanic, and 70 (3%) were members of other ethnicities. Gastroduodenal ulcers (25%), esophageal varices (25%), and esophagitis (12%) were the most frequently identified causes of UGIH. Blacks experienced a high rate of gastroduodenal ulcers (199/620), while Hispanics most commonly had esophageal varices. In all ethnicities, the most common cause of bleeding in patients younger than 35 or older than 65 was gastroduodenal ulcer disease. However, among patients aged 35-64, there were differences in the etiology of UGIH. Blacks aged 50-64 frequently experienced gastroduodenal ulcers, while Hispanics aged 35-49 typically had esophageal varices. Rebleeding rates were significantly lower in Whites (5.8%) than in Hispanics (9.9%) or Blacks (8.7%) (p=0.02). Conclusions By examining a diverse population, we conclude that UGIH may follow trends. Hispanics were likely to have esophageal varices and higher rebleeding rates, while Blacks were likely to have ulcers and the highest mortality. Whites were equally likely to have ulcers or varices, but a lower rate of rebleeding. PMID:24275716

  20. Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

  1. "Isn't that a Dude?": Using Images to Teach Gender and Ethnic Diversity in the U.S. History Classroom--Pocahontas: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padurano, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    A few days into the new school year, the author's female students invariably beg, plead, and cajole her in the hopes of watching Disney's "Pocahontas" in class. Toddlers when the film was released in 1995, doubtless they have seen it already dozens of times; more importantly, the author cringes at the ethnic and gender stereotypes sometimes…

  2. An Examination of the Impact of Minority Status Stress and Impostor Feelings on the Mental Health of Diverse Ethnic Minority College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; McClain, Shannon; Enciso, Alicia; Martinez, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in minority status stress, impostor feelings, and mental health in a sample of 240 ethnic minority college students. African Americans reported higher minority status stress than Asian Americans and Latino/a Americans, whereas Asian Americans reported higher impostor feelings. Minority status stress and impostor…

  3. Planning for Diversity: Education in Multi-Ethnic and Multicultural Societies. International Institute for Educational Planning Policy Forum (17th, Paris, France, June 19-20, 2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernes, Gudmund

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) organized its annual Policy Forum to discuss the impact of increasingly multi-ethnic and multicultural societies on education in general and the implications for educational planning in particular. The proceedings of this Policy Forum are presented in this volume. Part I,…

  4. Differential focal and nonfocal prospective memory accuracy in a demographically diverse group of nondemented community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Chi, Susan Y; Rabin, Laura A; Aronov, Avner; Fogel, Joshua; Kapoor, Ashu; Wang, Cuiling

    2014-11-01

    Although prospective memory (PM) is compromised in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), it is unclear which specific cognitive processes underlie these PM difficulties. We investigated older adults' performance on a computerized event-based focal versus nonfocal PM task that made varying demands on the amount of attentional control required to support intention retrieval. Participants were nondemented individuals (mean age=81.8 years; female=66.1%) enrolled in a community-based longitudinal study, including those with amnestic MCI (aMCI), nonamnestic MCI (naMCI), subjective cognitive decline (SCD), and healthy controls (HC). Participants included in the primary analysis (n=189) completed the PM task and recalled and/or recognized both focal and nonfocal PM cues presented in the task. Participants and their informants also completed a questionnaire assessing everyday PM failures. Relative to HC, those with aMCI and naMCI were significantly impaired in focal PM accuracy (p<.05). In a follow-up analysis that included 13 additional participants who successfully recalled and/or recognized at least one of the two PM cues, the naMCI group showed deficits in nonfocal PM accuracy (p<.05). There was a significant negative correlation between informant reports of PM difficulties and nonfocal PM accuracy (p<.01). PM failures in aMCI may be primarily related to impairment of spontaneous retrieval processes associated with the medial temporal lobe system, while PM failures in naMCI potentially indicate additional deficits in executive control functions and prefrontal systems. The observed focal versus nonfocal PM performance profiles in aMCI and naMCI may constitute specific behavioral markers of PM decline that result from compromise of separate neurocognitive systems. PMID:25401793

  5. A Novel Website to Prepare Diverse Older Adults for Decision Making and Advance Care Planning: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sudore, Rebecca L.; Knight, Sara J.; McMahan, Ryan D.; Feuz, Mariko; Farrell, David; Miao, Yinghui; Barnes, Deborah E.

    2014-01-01

    Context We have reconceptualized advance care planning (ACP) as a multi-step process focused on preparing patients with skills needed for communication and in-the-moment decision making. Objectives To operationalize this paradigm, we created an easy-to-use ACP website (prepareforyourcare.org) based on a theoretical framework of behavior change and pilot-tested its efficacy to engage older adults in ACP. Methods At baseline and one week after viewing the PREPARE website, we assessed behavior change in ACP using a validated survey that includes Process Measures (knowledge, contemplation, self-efficacy, and readiness, 5-point Likert scales) and Action Measures (yes/no whether an ACP behavior was completed). We also assigned participants into behavior change stages (i.e., precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance) and determined the percentage of participants who moved from precontemplation at baseline to higher stages at one week. We also assessed PREPARE ease-of-use (10-point scale, 10 being the easiest). Changes were assessed with paired t-tests and McNemar’s tests. Results Participants’ mean age was 68.4 years (SD 6.6) and 65% were non-white. Process Measures average Likert scores increased from 3.1 (0.9) to 3.7 (0.7), P <0.001. Action Measures did not change significantly. However, precontemplation significantly decreased for most actions, (e.g., talking to doctor about desired medical care, 61% to 35%, P<0.003), with a mean decrease of 21% (range, 16%-33%). PREPARE was rated a 9 out of 10 (±1.9) for ease-of-use. Conclusion A new, patient-centered ACP website that focuses on preparing patients for communication and decision making significantly improves engagement in the process of ACP and behavior change. A clinical trial of PREPARE is currently underway. PMID:23972574

  6. Ethnic Hairdressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Flora B.

    The practical aspects of ethnic hairdressing for the beginning student in the field of Cosmetology are presented in this manual. Lessons and review questions are provided to give the student a knowledge of the problems encountered in dealing with the many different variations in hair, as well as to serve as a foundation for more complex material.…

  7. Race/ethnicity and measurement equivalence of the Everyday Discrimination Scale.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Sellbom, Martin; Ford, Katy-Lauren

    2014-09-01

    The present study examines the effect of race/ethnicity on measurement equivalence of the Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS; Williams, Yu, Jackson, & Anderson, 1997). Drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES; Alegría, Jackson, Kessler, & Takeuchi, 2008), adults aged 18 and older from four racial/ethnic groups were selected for analyses: 884 non-Hispanic Whites, 4,950 Blacks, 2,733 Hispanics/Latinos, and 2,089 Asians. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. After adjusting for age and gender, the underlying construct of the EDS was invariant across four racial/ethnic groups, with Item 7 ("People act as if they're better than you are") associated with lower intercepts for the Hispanic/Latino and Asian groups relative to the non-Hispanic White and Black groups. In terms of latent factor differences, Blacks tended to score higher on the latent construct compared to other racial/ethnic groups, whereas Asians tended to score lower on the latent construct compared to Whites and Hispanics/Latinos. Findings suggest that although the EDS in general assesses the underlying construct of perceived discrimination equivalently across diverse racial/ethnic groups, caution is needed when Item 7 is used among Hispanics/Latinos or Asians. Implications are discussed in cultural and methodological contexts. PMID:24708076

  8. Race/Ethnicity and Measurement Equivalence of the Everyday Discrimination Scale

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Giyeon; Sellbom, Martin; Ford, Katy-Lauren

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of race/ethnicity on measurement equivalence of the Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS). Drawn from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), adults aged 18 and older from four racial/ethnic groups were selected for analyses: 884 non-Hispanic Whites, 4,950 Blacks, 2,733 Hispanics/Latinos, and 2,089 Asians. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. After adjusting for age and gender, the underlying construct of the EDS was invariant across four racial/ethnic groups, with Item 7 (“People act as if they’re better than you are”) associated with lower intercepts for the Hispanic/Latino and Asian groups relative to the non-Hispanic White and Black groups. In terms of latent factor differences, Blacks tended to score higher on the latent construct compared to other racial/ethnic groups, whereas Asians tended to score lower on the latent construct compared to Whites and Hispanics/Latinos. Findings suggest that although the EDS in general assesses the underlying construct of perceived discrimination equivalently across diverse racial/ethnic groups, caution is needed when Item 7 is used among Hispanics/Latinos or Asians. Implications are discussed in cultural and methodological contexts. PMID:24708076

  9. Mind-body techniques, race-ethnicity, and depression among urban senior center participants.

    PubMed

    Morano, Carmen; Giunta, Nancy; Parikh, Nina S; Panuska, Skylar; Fahs, Miriam C; Gallo, William T

    2013-08-01

    As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, more of its members are turning to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). There are mixed findings regarding racial and ethnic differences in the use of CAM. This article explores racial and ethnic differences in use of a category of CAM known as mind-body techniques (MBT) among senior center participants with symptoms of depression. It also examines the relationship between use of MBT and depression severity. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a representative sample of senior center participants in New York City, from which a subsample of those with depressive symptoms was drawn. Racial and ethnic differences in MBT use were identified, as was a significant negative relationship between MBT use and depression severity. African American elders were more likely to have used MBT than other racial or ethnic groups. When controlling for race or ethnicity, health status, and barriers to medical care, predictors of depression severity included health status, experiencing barriers to medical care, and Hispanic identity. Findings suggest that being female or younger is associated with a higher likelihood of using CAM. Contrary to some prior research, education level was not associated with use of MBT. PMID:24437022

  10. Diverse Classrooms, Diverse Curriculum, Diverse Complications: Three Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungemah, Lori D.

    2015-01-01

    Racial, ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity continues to increase in classrooms. Many call for a more diverse curriculum, but curricular diversity brings its own challenges to both teachers and students. These three vignettes are drawn from my ethnographic data at Atlantic High School in Brooklyn, New York, where I worked for ten years as…

  11. Feelings of Gratitude Toward God Among Older Whites, Older African Americans, and Older Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Neal

    2011-01-01

    The first goal of this study is to see if social relationships in the church influence feelings of gratitude toward God. The second goal is to assess the impact of race and ethnicity on this relationship. The data support the following hypotheses: (1) older people who go to church more often tend to receive more spiritual support from fellow church members; (2) older adults who receive more spiritual support at church will derive a deeper understanding of themselves and others; (3) older people who develop greater insight into themselves and others will derive a greater sense of religious meaning in life; and (4) older adults who develop a deeper sense of religious meaning in life will feel more grateful to God. The results also indicate that the study model explains how feelings of gratitude toward God arise among older blacks and whites, but not older Mexican Americans. PMID:23543840

  12. Ethnic cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Victoria L

    2003-10-01

    Based both on actual differences in the hair and skin and on cultural desire, people of color do have special considerations for cosmetic products. As the experts in hair and skin, it is incumbent on dermatologists to understand the needs of a diverse patient base, to be knowledgeable about the products that patients need and desire, and to be aware of possible adverse effects related to product use or misuse. Further research is needed both to continue to understand the needs of the hair and skin of people of color and to understand the effects of products on ethnic hair and skin. PMID:14717415

  13. Crossing boundaries: nativity, ethnicity, and mate selection.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E; Batson, Christie D

    2012-05-01

    The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration has often focused on panethnic differences, and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican-, Mexican-, Chinese-, and Filipino-origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a lesser extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840

  14. Caregiving Practice Patterns of Asian, Hispanic, and Non-Hispanic White American Family Caregivers of Older Adults Across Generations.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2016-03-01

    This study is a cross-sectional investigation of caregiving practice patterns among Asian, Hispanic and non-Hispanic White American family caregivers of older adults across three immigrant generations. The 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) dataset was used, and 591 Asian, 989 Hispanic and 6537 non-Hispanic White American caregivers of older adults were selected. First, descriptive analyses of caregivers' characteristics, caregiving situations and practice patterns were examined by racial/ethnic groups and immigrant generations. Practice patterns measured were respite care use, hours and length of caregiving. Three hypotheses on caregiving patterns based on assimilation theory were tested and analyzed using logistic regression and generalized linear models by racial/ethnic groups and generations. Caregiving patterns of non-Hispanic White caregivers supported all three hypotheses regarding respite care use, caregiving hours and caregiving duration, showing less caregiving involvement in later generations. However, Asian and Hispanic counterparts showed mixed results. Third generation Asian and Hispanic caregivers used respite care the least and spent the most caregiving hours per week and had the longest caregiving duration compared to earlier generations. These caregiving patterns revealed underlying cultural values related to filial responsibility, even among later generations of caregivers of color. Findings suggest the importance of considering the cultural values of each racial/ethnic group regardless of generation when working with racially and ethnically diverse populations of family caregivers of older adults. PMID:26810575

  15. The Role of Ethnic Loyalty among Mexican Immigrant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salgado de Snyder, V. Nelly

    1987-01-01

    Ethnic loyalty in 140 Mexican women who immigrated to the United States at age 14 or older, and have lived there for an average of 7.5 years, was examined. Those remaining strongly attached to their traditional culture have a higher risk of psychological conflicts than those with lower ethnic loyalty scores. (JMM)

  16. Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Butte, Nancy F.; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2–12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is hypothesized to reduce BMI z-scores, compared to primary prevention alone. Methods: Our study aims are to: (1) implement and evaluate a primary obesity prevention program; (2) implement and evaluate efficacy of a 12-month family-centered secondary obesity prevention program embedded within primary prevention; and (3) quantify the incremental cost-effectiveness of the secondary prevention program. Baseline demographic and behavioral data for the primary prevention community areas are presented. Results: Baseline data from preschool centers, elementary schools, and clinics indicate that most demographic variables are similar between intervention and comparison communities. Most families are low income (≤$25,000) and Hispanic/Latino (73.3–83.8%). The majority of parents were born outside of the United States. Child obesity rates exceed national values, ranging from 19.0% in preschool to 35.2% in fifth-grade children. Most parents report that their children consume sugary beverages, have a television in the bedroom, and do not consume adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables. Conclusions: Interventions to address childhood obesity are warranted in low-income, ethnically diverse communities. Integrating primary and secondary approaches is anticipated to provide sufficient exposure that will lead to significant decreases in childhood obesity. PMID:25555188

  17. Psychometric Evaluation of the Revised Iowa Pain Thermometer (IPT-R) in a Sample of Diverse Cognitively Intact and Impaired Older Adults: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ware, Laurie Jowers; Herr, Keela A; Booker, Staja Star; Dotson, Kelley; Key, Jennifer; Poindexter, Norma; Pyles, Gia; Siler, Bobbie; Packard, Abbot

    2015-08-01

    Self-report pain assessment tools are commonly used in clinical settings to determine patients' pain intensity. The Iowa Pain Thermometer (IPT) is a tool that was developed for research, but also can be used in clinical settings. However, its utility in clinical settings is challenging because it uses a 13-point scale (0-12 scale) that does not align with common electronic pain scoring metrics. Therefore, this study evaluated the psychometric properties of an 11-point (0-10 scale) adaptation of the Iowa Pain Thermometer (IPT-R) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the IPT-R and to determine patient preference for a self-report pain assessment tool. A descriptive, correlational design was employed. The IPT-R was compared with the original IPT and a numeric rating scale (NRS). This study was conducted in the southeastern United States with 75 adults ranging in age from 65-95 years with varying levels of cognition. Participants were primarily representative of black and white backgrounds. Participants were asked to rate current pain, worst pain during the past week, and reassessment of current pain after 10-minute intervals using three scales (IPT-R, IPT, and NRS) presented in random order. Participants were asked to identify the tool preferred (the easiest to use and that best represented their pain intensity). Spearman-rank correlations were performed to determine convergent validity and test-retest reliability. Based on the results of this preliminary study, the IPT-R has good validity and reliability. The participants in this sample preferred the IPT-R over the original IPT (0-12 scale) and the traditional NRS (0-10 scale). Clinicians may consider using this tool with diverse older patients to assess pain intensity. PMID:26256217

  18. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Substance Use: Mediation by Individual, Family, and School Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina A.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Tucker, Joan S.; Zhou, Annie J.; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined racial/ethnic differences in alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among a diverse sample of approximately 5,500 seventh and eighth graders. We also evaluated the extent to which individual, family, and school factors mediated racial/ ethnic disparities in use. Method: Students (49% male) from 16 participating middle schools in southern California reported on lifetime and past-month substance use, individual factors (expectancies and resistance self-efficacy), family factors (familism, parental respect, and adult and older sibling use), and school factors (school-grade use and perceived peer use). We used generalized estimating equations to examine the odds of consumption for each racial/ethnic group adjusting for sex, grade, and family structure. Path analysis models tested mediation of racial/ethnic differences through individual, family, and school factors. Results: After adjusting for sex, grade, and family structure, Hispanics reported higher and Asians reported lower lifetime and past-month substance use, compared with non-Hispanic Caucasians. Rates of substance use did not differ between non-Hispanic African Americans and Caucasians. Several individual factors mediated the relationship between Hispanic ethnicity and substance use, including negative expectancies and resistance self-efficacy. Higher use among Hispanics was generally not explained by family or school factors. By contrast, several factors mediated the relationship between Asian race and lower alcohol use, including individual, family (parental respect, adult and older sibling use), and school (perceived peer use, school-grade use) factors. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of targeting specific individual, family, and school factors in tailored intervention efforts to reduce substance use among young minority adolescents. PMID:20731969

  19. Reclaiming the Weekend Ethnic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plocha, Edward F.

    1975-01-01

    The author, director of the Title IX Ethnic Studies Project at the National Center for Urban Ethnic Affairs in Washington, D.C., discussed the value of ethnic origins and how they tie into our religious and social fabric. (RK)

  20. Tissue-specificity and ethnic diversity in obesity-related risk of cancer may be explained by variability in insulin response and insulin signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Speakman, John R; Goran, Michael I

    2010-06-01

    Obesity is a predisposing risk factor for several chronic diseases. The link between obesity and cancer appears to be particularly complex. Notably only the risk for development of specific cancers appear to be affected. Moreover, the obesity-related risk of cancer is very different across ethnic groups. African-Americans appear particularly prone, whereas Hispanics appear to be relatively protected. Obesity is associated with increased levels of circulating insulin. These levels of elevated insulin may serve to promote proliferation of fat cells to accommodate the elevated nutrient flux. However, elevated levels of insulin may be a major mediating factor influencing cancer risk. This hypothesis alone cannot explain the complexity of the phenomenon. We suggest here that the different insulin responses to obesity of different ethnic groups may explain their different risk profiles. Moreover, we speculate that tissue-specific variations in the insulin signaling pathways may underlie their differential susceptibility to tumorigenesis in the face of elevated obesity. Elevated cancer risk may be an unwanted side effect of insulin responding to elevated nutrient flux in the obese which it serves to proliferate fat cells that provide a location for storage of ingested fat, which consequently prevents ectopic fat storage. Hence, while Hispanics may be protected from cancer risk in obesity because of their lower insulin response, they have an elevated risk of fatty liver disease. Reduction of insulin levels in obesity as a strategy to reduce cancer risk may pose additional problems unless it is combined also with interventions that aim to limit nutrient influx. PMID:20150900

  1. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological reactivity to ethnically matched and ethnically mismatched film clips.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicole A; Levenson, Robert W

    2006-11-01

    This study examined whether individuals from 4 major ethnic groups within the United States (African American, Chinese American, European American, and Mexican American) showed greater subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to emotional film clips (amusement, sadness, and disgust) with actors from their own ethnic group (ethnically matched) compared with actors from the other 3 ethnic groups (ethnically mismatched). Evidence showed greater responsivity to ethnically matched films for African Americans and European Americans, with the largest effect for African Americans. These findings were consistent across both sex and level of cultural identification. Findings of ethnic difference notwithstanding, there were many areas in which ethnic differences were not found (e.g., little or no evidence was found of greater response to ethnically matched films in Chinese-American or Mexican- American participants). These findings indicate that the emotional response system clearly reacts to stimuli of diverse ethnic content; however, the system is also amenable to subtle "tuning" that allows for incrementally enhanced responding to members of one's own ethnic or cultural group. PMID:17144754

  2. Visually Translating Educational Materials for Ethnic Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Carole B.

    Growing populations of older adults, ethnic minorities, and the low-literate create unique concerns for the design of visual information. Those for whom text presents a barrier will respond most to legibility, use of familiar formats and symbols, and simplification. Guidelines for those processes are needed, and this paper, in particular,…

  3. "It's Not Rocket Science--It's Much Harder": Racial & Ethnic Diversity in Public Service--Where Do We Go from Here? An AED Public Service Leadership Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesser, Phillip, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    For people concerned with the future of diversity in the United States, the month of June 2003 was a momentous watershed. Nearly four decades earlier, President Lyndon B. Johnson first advocated affirmative action as a means to "seek not just freedom, but opportunity." June 2003 also saw the 25th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court's ruling on…

  4. Governor's Conference on Ethnicity. A Conference To Explore the Impact of Pennsylvania's Cultural Diversity on Public Policy. (Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, June 8-9, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Shalom, Ed.

    This proceedings of a conference convened by the Governor of Pennsylvania explores the impact of Pennsylvania's cultural diversity upon public policy. The following five panel discussions were held: "Conservation of Cultural Heritage Resources: Values and Strategies"; "Culturally Sensitive Delivery of Health Care and Human Services"; "Inter-Ethnic…

  5. Integration or fragmentation? Racial diversity and the American future.

    PubMed

    Lichter, Daniel T

    2013-04-01

    Over the next generation or two, America's older, largely white population will increasingly be replaced by today's disproportionately poor minority children. All future growth will come from populations other than non-Hispanic whites as America moves toward a majority-minority society by 2043. This so-called Third Demographic Transition raises important implications about changing racial boundaries in the United States, that is, about the physical, economic, and sociocultural barriers that separate different racial and ethnic groups. America's racial transformation may place upward demographic pressure on future poverty and inequality as today's disproportionately poor and minority children grow into adult roles. Racial boundaries will be reshaped by the changing meaning of race and ethnicity, shifting patterns of racial segregation in neighborhoods and the workplace, newly integrating (or not) friendship networks, and changing rates of interracial marriage and childbearing. The empirical literature provides complicated lessons and offers few guarantees that growing racial diversity will lead to a corresponding breakdown in racial boundaries-that whites and minorities will increasingly share the same physical and social spaces or interact as coequals. How America's older population of elected officials and taxpayers responds today to America's increasingly diverse population will provide a window to the future, when today's children successfully transition (or not) into productive adult roles. Racial and ethnic inclusion will be reshaped by changing ethnoracial inequality, which highlights the need to invest in children-now. PMID:23440733

  6. Ethnic Peer Preferences among Asian American Adolescents in Emerging Immigrant Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Peterson, Jamie Lee; Thompson, Taylor L.

    2011-01-01

    Growing diversity and evidence that diverse friendships enhance psychosocial success highlight the importance of understanding adolescents' ethnic peer preferences. Using social identity and social contact frameworks, the ethnic preferences of 169 Asian American adolescents (60% female) were examined in relation to ethnic identity, perceived…

  7. Ethnic Differences among Friend Networks Later in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Hyunsook; Hebert, Corie

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to broaden the understanding of friend relationships in older adults and the differences in those friend relationships among various ethnic groups. Secondary data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) was analyzed to test the hypothesis that Caucasian older adults have stronger friend networks than older…

  8. Disparities in Quality of Park Play Spaces between Two Cities with Diverse Income and Race/Ethnicity Composition: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Gavin R; Yuen, Hon K; Rose, Emily J; Maher, Amy I; Gregory, Kristina C; Cotton, Megan E

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the differences in the quality of park play spaces between an affluent and a non-affluent community in a large US Southeastern metropolitan area. Two cities were purposefully selected to reflect differences in household income and race/ethnicity characteristics. Using the Playable Space Quality Assessment Tool (PSQAT), all parks (n = 11, with six in the affluent city, and five in the non-affluent city) in these two cities were evaluated. The data were analyzed across three aspects of environmental features of the PSQAT: Location, Play Value and Care and Maintenance between parks in the two cities. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated significant differences between parks in the two cities in all three aspects of the PSQAT with p-values ≤ 0.03 and effect sizes of > 0.65, suggesting that the affluent city had parks of a higher quality than the non-affluent city. Significant disparity in Play Value (p = 0.009) in parks between these two communities suggests that children and young people are likely to have different experiences of the play spaces in their locality and therefore may experience different physical and psychological health benefits. PMID:26184270

  9. Disparities in Quality of Park Play Spaces between Two Cities with Diverse Income and Race/Ethnicity Composition: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Gavin R.; Yuen, Hon K.; Rose, Emily J.; Maher, Amy I.; Gregory, Kristina C.; Cotton, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the quality of park play spaces between an affluent and a non-affluent community in a large US Southeastern metropolitan area. Two cities were purposefully selected to reflect differences in household income and race/ethnicity characteristics. Using the Playable Space Quality Assessment Tool (PSQAT), all parks (n = 11, with six in the affluent city, and five in the non-affluent city) in these two cities were evaluated. The data were analyzed across three aspects of environmental features of the PSQAT: Location, Play Value and Care and Maintenance between parks in the two cities. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated significant differences between parks in the two cities in all three aspects of the PSQAT with p-values ≤ 0.03 and effect sizes of > 0.65, suggesting that the affluent city had parks of a higher quality than the non-affluent city. Significant disparity in Play Value (p = 0.009) in parks between these two communities suggests that children and young people are likely to have different experiences of the play spaces in their locality and therefore may experience different physical and psychological health benefits. PMID:26184270

  10. Women’s responses to changes in U.S. preventive task force’s mammography screening guidelines: results of focus groups with ethnically diverse women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The 2009 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) changed mammography guidelines to recommend routine biennial screening starting at age 50. This study describes women’s awareness of, attitudes toward, and intention to comply with these new guidelines. Methods Women ages 40–50 years old were recruited from the Boston area to participate in focus groups (k = 8; n = 77). Groups were segmented by race/ethnicity (Caucasian = 39%; African American = 35%; Latina = 26%), audio-taped, and transcribed. Thematic content analysis was used. Results Participants were largely unaware of the revised guidelines and suspicious that it was a cost-savings measure by insurers and/or providers. Most did not intend to comply with the change, viewing screening as obligatory. Few felt prepared to participate in shared decision-making or advocate for their preferences with respect to screening. Conclusions Communication about the rationale for mammography guideline changes has left many women unconvinced about potential disadvantages or limitations of screening. Since further guideline changes are likely to occur with advances in technology and science, it is important to help women become informed consumers of health information and active participants in shared decision-making with providers. Additional research is needed to determine the impact of the USPSTF change on women’s screening behaviors and on breast cancer outcomes. PMID:24330527

  11. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves. PMID:26320444

  12. Healthy aging for older women.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Cochrane, Barbara B

    2004-03-01

    Healthy aging is a multifaceted phenomenon, incorporating biological and psychosocial developmental factors. The population of older women is diverse in health, function, social context, and age. Health promotion strategies, therefore, should be customized accordingly to optimize the health of the varied subgroups of older women, according to their health trajectory and personal preferences. Research and evaluation of approaches to promote health among these subgroups is an important next step in understanding and influencing the health of older women. PMID:15062732

  13. "I have to constantly prove to myself, to people, that I fit the bill": Perspectives on weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Allegra R; Austin, S Bryn; Krieger, Nancy; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Reisner, Sari L

    2016-09-01

    The impact of societal femininity ideals on disordered eating behaviors in non-transgender women has been well described, but scant research has explored these processes among transgender women. The present study explored weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women at high risk for HIV or living with HIV in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 21 participants (ages 18-31 years; mean annual income <$10,000; ethnic identity: Multiracial [n = 8], Black [n = 4], Latina [n = 4], White [n = 4], Asian [n = 1]). Interviews were transcribed and double-coded using a template organizing method, guided by ecosocial theory and a gender affirmation framework. Of 21 participants, 16 reported engaging in past-year disordered eating or weight and shape control behaviors, including binge eating, fasting, vomiting, and laxative use. Study participants described using a variety of strategies to address body image concerns in the context of gender-related and other discriminatory experiences, which shaped participants' access to social and material resources as well as stress and coping behaviors. Disordered weight and shape control behaviors were discussed in relation to four emergent themes: (1) gender socialization and the development of femininity ideals, (2) experiences of stigma and discrimination, (3) biological processes, and (4) multi-level sources of strength and resilience. This formative study provides insight into disordered eating and weight and shape control behaviors among at-risk transgender women, illuminating avenues for future research, treatment, and public health intervention. PMID:27518756

  14. The State of Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josey, E. J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines what is being done to implement cultural diversity in libraries. Topics addressed include affirmative action; defining cultural diversity, including the significance of ethnicity, race, and race relations in the workplace; problems in implementing cultural diversity; and examples of successful implementation programs. (Contains three…

  15. Managing Generational Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donovan, Eamonn

    2009-01-01

    Many school leaders have explored the issue of diversity when it comes to students, teachers and staff. Their focus typically has been on gender and ethnicity. However, generational diversity, an area of diversity that warrants serious consideration, has received less attention. Generational intelligence is important today for two reasons. First…

  16. Diversity in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Karen; Kalata, Emily A; Hingorani, Anil P

    2012-12-01

    A growing body of literature in vascular surgery demonstrates disparities in the type of health care that racial/ethnic minorities receive in the United States. Numerous recommendations, including those of the Institute of Medicine, have been set forth, which identify increasing the number of minority health professionals as a key strategy to eliminating health disparities. The purpose of this study is to compare the racial/ethnic distribution of the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) membership, the SVS leadership, vascular surgery trainees, and medical students. The results demonstrate that the racial/ethnic distribution of the SVS membership reflects a considerable lack of diversity with a paucity of diversity among the SVS leadership. An increasing rate of racial/ethnic diversity among vascular surgery trainees may indicate that the SVS will see an improvement in diversity in the future. PMID:23182481

  17. Ethnic Composition and Friendship Segregation: Differential Effects for Adolescent Natives and Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sanne; Van Tubergen, Frank; Maas, Ineke; McFarland, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    Ethnically diverse settings provide opportunities for interethnic friendship but can also increase the preference for same-ethnic friendship. Therefore, same-ethnic friendship preferences, or ethnic homophily, can work at cross-purposes with policy recommendations to diversify ethnic representation in social settings. In order to effectively overcome ethnic segregation, we need to identify those factors within diverse settings that exacerbate the tendency toward ethnic homophily. Using unique data and multiple network analyses, the authors examine 529 adolescent friendship networks in English, German, Dutch, and Swedish schools and find that the ethnic composition of school classes relates differently to immigrant and native homophily. Immigrant homophily disproportionately increases as immigrants see more same-ethnic peers, and friendship density among natives has no effect on this. By contrast, native homophily remains relatively low until natives see dense groups of immigrants. The authors' results suggest that theories of interethnic competition and contact opportunities apply differently to ethnic majority and minority groups. PMID:27017710

  18. Ethnic variability in dementia: results from Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ampil, Encarnita R; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Sodagar, Swati N; Chen, Christopher P L H; Auchus, Alexander P

    2005-01-01

    The diversity of Singapore's population affords a unique opportunity to study ethnic variability in the dementias. We sought to explore the effects of ethnicity on the frequency of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia in a large Singaporean sample. A total of 357 patients were studied: 190 with vascular dementia and 167 with Alzheimer disease. Vascular dementia was more common among Chinese and Malays, whereas Alzheimer disease was more common in Indians and Eurasians. Factors that may contribute to the observed ethnic variability in dementia etiologies include differential frequency of the ApoE-e4 allele, frequency of vascular risk factors, lifestyle choices, and cultural attitudes toward health care utilization. PMID:16327344

  19. Physical Activity Among Rural Older Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Snively, Beverly M.; Bell, Ronny A.; Smith, Shannon L.; Stafford, Jeanette M.; Wetmore-Arkader, Lindsay K.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose This analysis describes physical activity levels and factors associated with physical activity in an ethnically diverse (African American, Native American, white) sample of rural older adults with diabetes. Method Data were collected using a population-based, cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 701 community-dwelling elders with diabetes completed in 2 rural North Carolina counties. Outcome measures were as follows: first, physical activity in the past year, and second, days physically active in the prior week (0-7). Potential correlates included personal and health characteristics and were evaluated for statistical significance using logistic regression models. Findings About half (52.5%) of the participants stated that they had engaged in physical activity in the past year. Among those, 42.5% stated that they had no days with at least 30 minutes of continuous physical activity in the prior week, while 21.5% reported daily physical activity. Common activities were walking and housework. Correlates of physical activity in the past year and days active in the prior week included measures of physical health and mobility. Conclusions Physical activity in this ethnically diverse sample of rural elders with diabetes is limited. Effort must be invested to increase physical activity in these groups. PMID:16606429

  20. Life Experience and Demographic Influences on Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Paul W. H.; Melrose, Rebecca J.; Marquine, María J.; Johnson, Julene K.; Napoles, Anna; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Farias, Sarah; Reed, Bruce; Mungas, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the influence of a broad spectrum of life experiences on longitudinal cognitive trajectories in a demographically diverse sample of older adults. Method Participants were 333 educationally, ethnically, and cognitively diverse older adults enrolled in a longitudinal aging study. Mixed-effects regression was used to measure baseline status in episodic memory, executive functioning, and semantic memory and change in a global cognition factor defined by change in these three domain-specific measures. We examined effects of life experience variables (literacy, childhood socioeconomic status, morphometric measures of physical development, life course physical and recreational activity) on longitudinal cognitive trajectories, covarying for age, APOE genotype and demographics (education, ethnicity, language). Results Non-Latino whites had higher baseline cognition, but life experience variables attenuated ethnic differences in cognitive scores. Age, literacy, childhood socioeconomic status and physical activity significantly influenced baseline cognition. Age, APOE ε4 and decline in intellectually and socially stimulating recreational activity from mid to late life were independently associated with increased late life cognitive decline. Higher literacy and late life recreational activity were associated with less decline. Literacy had similar effects for English and Spanish readers/speakers. Bilingual English and Spanish speakers did not differ from English Speakers in cognitive performance. Conclusions Life experience variables, especially literacy level, were strongly related to baseline cognition and substantially attenuated effects of race/ethnicity and education. Cognitive change was best explained by age, APOE ε4, literacy, and current recreational activities. Literacy had robust associations with baseline cognition and cognitive change in both English and Spanish speakers. PMID:24933483

  1. Intraocular Pressure, Ethnicity, and Refractive Error

    PubMed Central

    Manny, Ruth E.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Cotter, Susan A.; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Mutti, Donald O.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Zadnik, Karla

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The ethnically-diverse Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study cohort provides a unique opportunity to explore associations among intraocular pressure (IOP), ethnicity, and refractive error while adjusting for potential confounding variables. Methods Mixed linear models were used to examine the effect of age, refractive error (cycloplegic autorefraction), ethnicity, sex, and measurement protocol on IOP (Tono-pen) in 3,777 children, aged 6-14 years at their first CLEERE visit (1995-2009). Children who became myopic during follow-up were used to examine the relationship between time since myopia onset and IOP. Clinically meaningful differences in IOP were preset at > 2 mm Hg. Results IOP differed among refractive error categories with higher IOP in children with low/moderate myopia than those with high hyperopia (differences < 1 mm Hg). There was a statistically significant relationship between age and IOP that depended on ethnicity (interaction p<0.0001) and measurement protocol (interaction p<0.0001). The relationship between sex and IOP depended on measurement protocol (interaction p=0.0004). For children who became myopic during follow-up, the adjusted mean IOP showed a significant decline for only Asian (p=0.024) and White children (p=0.004). As with other statistically significant results, these changes in mean adjusted IOPs from two years before to two years after myopia onset were < 2 mm Hg. Conclusions Small but significant differences in IOP by refractive error category were found in this ethnically diverse cohort of children. Relationships between IOP and age, ethnicity, sex, and measurement protocol were complicated by significant interactions between these parameters. Longitudinal analysis of children before and after myopia onset showed changes in IOP over time that varied by ethnicity. Higher IOPs before and at myopia onset were not present in all ethnic groups, with differences before and after

  2. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  3. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised: Measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Susan D.; Unger Hu, Kirsten A.; Mevi, Ashley A.; Hedderson, Monique M.; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one’s ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the “Gestational diabetes’ Effect on Moms” diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated two-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the two MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24188656

  4. Prenatal influences on sexual orientation: digit ratio (2D:4D) and number of older siblings.

    PubMed

    Kangassalo, Katariina; Pölkki, Mari; Rantala, Markus J

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal androgen levels are suggested to influence sexual orientation in both sexes. The 2D:4D digit ratio has been found to associate with sexual orientation, but published findings have often been contradictory, which may partly be due to the large ethnic diversity between and within studied populations. In men, number of older brothers has been found to correlate positively with homosexuality. This phenomenon has been explained with a maternal immune reaction, which is provoked only by male fetuses and which gets stronger after each pregnancy. Here we assessed the relationship of sexual orientation to 2D:4D ratios and number of older siblings in Finland, where the population is found to be genetically relatively homogeneous. As in many previous studies, heterosexual men had lower 2D:4D than non-heterosexual men, which supports the notion that non- heterosexual men experience higher androgen levels in utero than population norms. Contrary to previous reports, non-heterosexual women had higher 2D:4D than heterosexual women. Non-heterosexual men had more older brothers and older sisters than heterosexual men. The greater number of older sisters in non-heterosexual men indicates that there are other factors that contribute to the higher birth order of homosexual men than the maternal immunization. PMID:22947989

  5. Ethnic Identity and Subjective Well-Being of Bully Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…

  6. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity during the College Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine trajectories of change in ethnic identity during the college years and to explore group-level and individual-level variations. Participants were 175 diverse college students who completed indices of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, self-esteem, and domain-general identity resolution. Multilevel…

  7. Teaching about Ethnic Heritage: More than Costumes and Unusual Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Valerie Ooka

    1988-01-01

    Multicultural education, at least in elementary school, should represent a balance between our national identity as Americans and our diverse ethnic heritage, fostering respect for the contributions of different ethnic groups. A unit on the Underground Railroad and Black courage is included. (MT)

  8. Race and Ethnicity in Empirical Research: An 18-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Kimber L.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Wells, Eliza M.

    2009-01-01

    Extending previous research (E. A. Delgado-Romero, N. Galvan, P. Maschino, & M. Rowland, 2005) regarding race and ethnicity in counseling and counseling psychology, this article examined how race and ethnicity were reported and used in empirical studies published in diversity-focused journals from 1990 to 2007. The results are discussed and…

  9. Body Dissatisfaction and Physical Development among Ethnic Minority Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishina, Adrienne; Ammon, Natalie Y.; Bellmore, Amy D.; Graham, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the association between body dissatisfaction and adjustment, and the role physical development plays in this association, in an ethnically diverse sample of over 1100 urban, ninth grade boys and girls (M age = 14). More similarities than differences were found across ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Latino,…

  10. Diffusion of Technology: Frequency of Use for Younger and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Katherine E.; O’Brien, Marita A.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Charness, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objectives When we think of technology-savvy consumers, older adults are typically not the first persons that come to mind. The common misconception is that older adults do not want to use or cannot use technology. But for an increasing number of older adults, this is not true (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Older adults do use technologies similar to their younger counterparts, but perhaps at different usage rates. Previous research has identified that there may be subgroups of older adults, “Silver Surfers”, whose adoption patterns mimic younger adults (Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2003). Much of the previous research on age-related differences in technology usage has only investigated usage broadly -- from a “used” or “not used” standpoint. The present study investigated age-related differences in overall usage of technologies, as well as frequency of technology usage (i.e., never, occasional, or frequent). Methods The data were gathered through a questionnaire from younger adults (N=430) and older adults (N=251) in three geographically separate and ethnically diverse areas of the United States. Results We found that younger adults use a greater breadth of technologies than older adults. However, age-related differences in usage and the frequency of use depend on the technology domain. Conclusion This paper presents technology usage and frequency data to highlight age-related differences and similarities. The results provide insights into older and younger adults’ technology-use patterns, which in turn provide a basis for expectations about knowledge differences. Designers and trainers can benefit from understanding experience and knowledge differences. PMID:22685360

  11. Including Gender, Race, and Ethnicity in Psychology Content Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Robin M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the reasons for including diversity, specifically gender, race, and ethnicity, within content courses and discusses six primary challenges that tend to be associated with attempts to infuse diversity within psychology content courses. Provides recommendations addressing diversity in a process-oriented fashion that does not promote…

  12. Disparities by Race and Ethnicity in Cancer Survivor Stories Available on the Web

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Morgan, Jennifer C; Beatty, Kate E; Jasim, Sina A; Garibay, Lori; Tao, Donghua; Buskirk, Trent D; Jupka, Keri A

    2009-01-01

    Background The rapid growth of eHealth could have the unintended effect of deepening health disparities between population subgroups. Most concerns to date have focused on population differences in access to technology, but differences may also exist in the appropriateness of online health content for diverse populations. Objective This paper reports findings from the first descriptive study of online cancer survivor stories by race and ethnicity of the survivor. Methods Using the five highest-rated Internet search engines and a set of search terms that a layperson would use to find cancer survivor stories online, we identified 3738 distinct sites. Of these, 106 met study criteria and contained 7995 total stories, including 1670 with an accompanying photo or video image of the survivor. Characteristics of both websites and survivor stories were coded. Results All racial minority groups combined accounted for 9.8% of online cancer survivor stories, despite making up at least 16.3% of prevalent cancer cases. Also notably underrepresented were stories from people of Hispanic ethnicity (4.1%), men (35.7%), survivors of colon cancer (3.5%), and older adults. Conclusions Because racial/ethnic minority cancer survivors are underrepresented in survivor stories available online, it is unlikely that this eHealth resource in its current form will help eliminate the disproportionate burden of cancer experienced by these groups. PMID:19945948

  13. Gender, Ethnicity and Environmental Risk Perception Revisited: The Importance of Residential Location.

    PubMed

    Laws, M Barton; Yeh, Yating; Reisner, Ellin; Stone, Kevin; Wang, Tina; Brugge, Doug

    2015-10-01

    Studies in the U.S. have found that white men are less concerned about pollution than are women or people of other ethnicity. These studies have not assessed respondents' proximity to localized sources of pollution. Our objective was to assess lay perceptions of risk from air pollution in an ethnically diverse sample in which proximity to a major perceptible source of pollution is known. Cross sectional interview study of combined area probability and convenience sample of individuals 40 and older in the Boston area, selected according to proximity to high traffic controlled access highways. Of 697 respondents 46% were white, 37% Asian (mostly Chinese), 6.3% African-American, 6.3% Latino, and 7.6% other ethnicity. While white respondents, and particularly white men, were less concerned about air pollution than others, this effect disappeared when controlling for distance from the highway. White men were slightly less supportive than others of government policy to control pollution. The "white male" effect may in part be accounted for by the greater likelihood of minority respondents to live near perceptible localized sources of pollution. PMID:25822317

  14. Mexican American Children's Ethnic Identity, Understanding of Ethnic Prejudice, and Parental Ethnic Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintana, Stephen M.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews with 47 Mexican-American children in grades 2 and 6 and their parents revealed that parental ethnic socialization about ethnic discrimination was associated with children's development of ethnic knowledge. Children's understanding of ethnic prejudice was related to their ethnic knowledge but not their ethnic behaviors. Contains 24…

  15. Literacy of Older Adults in America. Adult Literacy Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent State Univ., OH. Ohio Literacy Resource Center.

    As part of the National Adult Literacy Survey (NALS) of 1992, the National Center for Education Statistics published a separate study that focuses on the literacy skills of older adults (aged 60 years and older) from a variety of perspectives, such as age, sex, amount of education, race or ethnic background, income, and geographic region. Some of…

  16. National Dissemination of Multiple Evidence-Based Disease Prevention Programs: Reach to Vulnerable Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Towne, Samuel D.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ahn, SangNam; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Kulinski, Kristie Patton; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Older adults, who are racial/ethnic minorities, report multiple chronic conditions, reside in medically underserved rural areas, or have low incomes carry a high burden of chronic illness but traditionally lack access to disease prevention programs. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP), A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader (AMOB/VLL), and EnhanceFitness (EF) are widely disseminated evidence-based programs (EBP), but the extent to which they are simultaneously delivered in communities to reach vulnerable populations has not been documented. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of three EBP disseminated within 27 states throughout the United States (US) (2006–2009) as part of the Administration on Aging (AoA) Evidence-Based Disease and Disability Prevention Initiative, which received co-funding from the Atlantic Philanthropies. This study measures the extent to which CDSMP, AMOB/VLL, and EF reached vulnerable older adults. It also examines characteristics of communities offering one of these programs relative to those simultaneously offering two or all three programs. Minority/ethnic participants represented 38% for CDSMP, 26% for AMOB/VLL, and 43% for EF. Rural participation was 18% for CDSMP, 17% for AMOB/VLL, and 25% for EF. Those with comorbidities included 63.2% for CDSMP, 58.7% for AMOB/VLL, and 63.6% for EF while approximately one-quarter of participants had incomes under $15,000 for all programs. Rural areas and health professional shortage areas (HPSA) tended to deliver fewer EBP relative to urban areas and non-HPSA. These EBP attract diverse older adult participants. Findings highlight the capability of communities to serve potentially vulnerable older adults by offering multiple EBP. Because each program addresses unique issues facing this older population, further research is needed to better understand how communities can introduce, embed, and sustain multiple EBP to ensure widespread access and utilization, especially to

  17. Older Drivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affects Driving Tips for Safe Driving Making Your Vehicle Safe Regulations Affecting Older Drivers When Driving Skills ... Like drivers of any age, they use their vehicles to go shopping, do errands, and visit the ...

  18. Teaching American Ethnic Geography. Pathways in Geography Series Title No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estaville, Lawrence E., Ed.; Rosen, Carol J., Ed.

    U.S. ethnic geography is an increasingly important focus of study due to cultural diversity and continued growth of the United States. Geographers are carefully studying the spatial aspects of present U.S. ethnic groups. This collection of essays addresses the important need for creating innovative approaches in teaching U.S. ethnic geography in…

  19. The Context of Ethnicity: Peer Victimization and Adjustment Problems in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Wendy L. G.; Hosan, Naheed E.

    2013-01-01

    The current study bridges research on peer relational and physical victimization with research on ethnic victimization and situates this research in the context of ethnic diversity. Specifically, the authors investigate how ethnic, relational, and physical victimization relate to concurrent levels of depression/anxiety and physical aggression and…

  20. Ethnic Differences in Elders' Home Remedy Use: Sociostructural Explanations

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Bell, Ronny A.; Lang, Wei; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Smith, Shannon L.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine if ethnic differences in elders' use of home remedies are explained by structured inequalities. Method: Dichotomous indicators of “food” and “other” home remedies were obtained from a randomly selected cohort of older adults with diabetes (N=701). Analyses evaluated if differences in availability of care, economic hardship, and health status explained ethnic differences in home remedy use. Results: Differences in residential location, discretionary money, and health partially explained greater home remedy use among Black and Native American elders relative to whites. Conclusions: Ethnic differences in elders' use of home remedies are not largely attributed to socially structured inequalities. PMID:16430319

  1. Racial/Ethnic disparities in depression and its theoretical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this review is to look at racial/ethnic disparities in the diagnosis of depression and its treatment and to explain the dynamics and causes of these racial/ethnic disparities in depression by looking at several theories, such as perceived racism, cultural competency, and other theories. Perceived racism is that the perceptions of an environmental stimulus as being racist affects the coping responses of ethnic/racial minorities, which alters psychological and physiological stress responses, and finally affects health outcomes negatively. A lower level of cultural competence can lead to health disparities. In addition, lower socioeconomic status and health care providers' beliefs and behaviors about patients' race/ethnicity and class can affect depressive symptoms as well as diagnosis and treatment. In order to reduce these racial/ethnic disparities in depression, diverse interventions should be developed to improve depression outcomes for ethnic minority populations based on these theoretical perspectives. PMID:23801269

  2. Ethnic differences in pain and pain management

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Claudia M; Edwards, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Considerable evidence demonstrates substantial ethnic disparities in the prevalence, treatment, progression and outcomes of pain-related conditions. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying these group differences is of crucial importance in reducing and eliminating disparities in the pain experience. Over recent years, accumulating evidence has identified a variety of processes, from neurophysiological factors to structural elements of the healthcare system, that may contribute to shaping individual differences in pain. For example, the experience of pain differentially activates stress-related physiological responses across various ethnic groups, members of different ethnic groups appear to use differing coping strategies in managing pain complaints, providers’ treatment decisions vary as a function of patient ethnicity and pharmacies in predominantly minority neighborhoods are far less likely to stock potent analgesics. These diverse factors, and others may all play a role in facilitating elevated levels of pain-related suffering among individuals from ethnic minority backgrounds. Here, we present a brief, nonexhaustive review of the recent literature and potential physiological and sociocultural mechanisms underlying these ethnic group disparities in pain outcomes. PMID:23687518

  3. How to Measure Diversity When You Must

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budescu, David V.; Budescu, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Racial/ethnic diversity has become an increasingly important variable in the social sciences. Research from multiple disciplines consistently demonstrates the tremendous impact of ethnic diversity on individuals and organizations. Investigators use a variety of measures, and their choices can affect the conclusions that can be drawn and limit the…

  4. Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

  5. The Everyday Implications of Ethnic-Racial Identity Processes: Exploring Variability in Ethnic-Racial Identity Salience Across Situations.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Sara; Wang, Yijie; Yip, Tiffany

    2016-07-01

    Given the social and developmental relevance of ethnicity-race during adolescence, it is important to understand the meaning of ethnic-racial identity in adolescents' everyday lives. The current study considered how individual differences in ethnic-racial identity exploration (i.e., the extent to which individuals have explored their ethnicity-race), and commitment (i.e., the extent which they have a clear sense of what it means to them) influenced variability versus stability in the awareness of ethnicity-race in a given situation (i.e., salience), and how this variability is related to mood in that situation. Within an ethnic/racially diverse sample of 395 adolescents (M age = 15; 63 % female; 12 % Black, 26 % Latino, 34 % Asian, 23 % White), results indicated that ethnic-racial identity exploration was unrelated to variability in salience, while commitment promoted stability in salience across situations. Further, among adolescents who were generally very aware of their ethnicity-race, increases in situational salience were related to decreased negative and anxious mood. Among adolescents who were generally not aware of their ethnicity-race, increases in situational salience were related to increased positive and decreased negative mood. Implications for understanding the developmental and everyday experiences of ethnic-racial identity are discussed. PMID:26662047

  6. Racial/ethnic variation in EBV-positive classical Hodgkin lymphoma in California populations.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Sally L; Gulley, Margaret L; Clarke, Christina A; Keegan, Theresa H; Chang, Ellen T; Shema, Sarah J; Craig, Fiona E; Digiuseppe, Joseph A; Dorfman, Ronald F; Mann, Risa B; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ambinder, Richard F

    2008-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in the tumor cells of some but not all Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients, and evidence indicates that EBV-positive and -negative HL are distinct entities. Racial/ethnic variation in EBV-positive HL in international comparisons suggests etiologic roles for environmental and genetic factors, but these studies used clinical series and evaluated EBV presence by differing protocols. Therefore, we evaluated EBV presence in the tumors of a large (n = 1,032), racially and sociodemographically diverse series of California incident classical HL cases with uniform pathology re-review and EBV detection methods. Tumor EBV-positivity was associated with Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) but not black race/ethnicity, irrespective of demographic and clinical factors. Complex race-specific associations were observed between EBV-positive HL and age, sex, histology, stage, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and birth place. In Hispanics, EBV-positive HL was associated not only with young and older age, male sex, and mixed cellularity histology, but also with foreign birth and lower SES in females, suggesting immune function responses to correlates of early childhood experience and later environmental exposures, respectively, as well as of pregnancy. For APIs, a lack of association with birth place may reflect the higher SES of API than Hispanic immigrants. In blacks, EBV-positive HL was associated with later-stage disease, consistent with racial/ethnic variation in certain cytokine polymorphisms. The racial/ethnic variation in our findings suggests that EBV-positive HL results from an intricate interplay of early- and later-life environmental, hormonal, and genetic factors leading to depressed immune function and poorly controlled EBV infection. PMID:18646185

  7. Relationship Power, Sexual Decision Making, and HIV Risk Among Midlife and Older Women.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, Joanne; Rhee, Siyon

    2015-01-01

    The number of midlife and older women with HIV/AIDS is high and increasing, especially among women of color. This article addresses these demographic realities by reporting on findings about self-esteem, relationship power, and HIV risk from a pilot study of midlife and older women. A purposive sample (N = 110) of ethnically, economically, and educationally diverse women 40 years and older from the Greater Los Angeles Area was surveyed to determine their levels of self-esteem, general relationship power, sexual decision-making power, safer sex behaviors, and HIV knowledge. Women with higher levels of self-esteem exercised greater power in their relationships with their partner. Women with higher levels of general relationship power and self-esteem tend to exercise greater power in sexual decision making, such as having sex and choosing sexual acts. Income and sexual decision-making power were statistically significant in predicting the use of condoms. Implications and recommendations for future HIV/AIDS research and intervention targeting midlife and older women are presented. PMID:25825850

  8. New Curricula for Multi-Ethnic Schools. Equal Opportunity Review, June 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passow, A. Harry

    This paper asserts that most of the urban and suburban schools are racially and ethnically isolated. Consequently, what are needed are curricula suited to a culturally diverse population which does not attend culturally and ethnically diverse schools. Thus, one issue requiring examination, it is stated, is the extent to which curricula are similar…

  9. Ethnic Dimensions of Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Femminella, Francis X.

    The relationship between ethnic heritage and citizenship is explored in this paper. The author develops his analysis in four chapters. Chapter I examines levels of identity through which all individuals progress as they mature. These include identification with oneself, one's family, the extended family and ethnic group, the nation, and the world…

  10. Teaching Ethnicity with Novels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David M.; Smith, Ruthena

    Knowledge about the social behavior and backgrounds of American ethnic groups is important for social service personnel, but members of the groups are not always available to teach or interact with students. As a way around this problem, a system has been developed for studying ethnic communities through novels featuring members of the chosen…

  11. Influenza vaccination coverage across ethnic groups in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Quach, Susan; Hamid, Jemila S.; Pereira, Jennifer A.; Heidebrecht, Christine L.; Deeks, Shelley L.; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Quan, Sherman D.; Brien, Stephanie; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The success of influenza vaccination campaigns may be suboptimal if subgroups of the population face unique barriers or have misconceptions about vaccination. We conducted a national study to estimate influenza vaccine coverage across 12 ethnic groups in Canada to assess the presence of ethnic disparities. Methods: We pooled responses to the Canadian Community Health Survey between 2003 and 2009 (n = 437 488). We estimated ethnicity-specific self-reported influenza vaccine coverage for the overall population, for people aged 65 years and older, and for people aged 12–64 years with and without chronic conditions. We used weighted logistic regression models to examine the association between ethnicity and influenza vaccination, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health status. Results: Influenza vaccination coverage ranged from 25% to 41% across ethnic groups. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health status for people aged 12 years and older, all ethnic groups were more likely to have received a vaccination against influenza than people who self-identified as white, with the exception of those who self-identified as black (odds ratio [OR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–1.15). Compared with white Canadians, Canadians of Filipino (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.67–2.40) and Southeast Asian (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.36–2.03) descent had the greatest likelihood of having received vaccination against influenza. Interpretation: Influenza vaccine coverage in Canada varies by ethnicity. Black and white Canadians have the lowest uptake of influenza vaccine of the ethnic groups represented in our study. Further research is needed to understand the facilitators, barriers and misconceptions relating to vaccination that exist across ethnic groups, and to identify promotional strategies that may improve uptake among black and white Canadians. PMID:22966054

  12. Ethnicity, Russification, and Excess Mortality in Kazakhstan*

    PubMed Central

    Sharygin, Ethan J.; Guillot, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Russians experience higher adult mortality than Central Asians despite higher socioeconomic status. This study exploits Kazakhstan’s relatively heterogeneous population and geographic diversity to study ethnic differences in cause-specific mortality. In multivariate regression, all-cause mortality rates for Russian men is 27% higher than for Kazakh men, and alcohol-related death rates among Russian men are 2.5 times higher (15% and 4.1 times higher for females, respectively). Significant mortality differentials exist by ethnicity for external causes and alcohol-related causes of death. Adult mortality among Kazakhs is higher than previously found among Kyrgyz and lower than among Russians. The results suggest that ethnic mortality differentials in Central Asia may be related to the degree of russification, which could be replicating documented patterns of alcohol consumption in non-Russian populations. PMID:26207118

  13. Fetal growth and the ethnic origins of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Skilton, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    Birthweight is known to differ by ethnicity, with South Asian, black African and Caribbean, and Hispanic ethnic groups having lower birthweight on average, when compared with people of white European ethnicity. Birthweight is the most frequently used proxy of fetal growth, and represents the net effect of a host of genetic, physiological and pathophysiological factors. These same ethnic groups that have lower average birthweight also tend to have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is not unreasonable to propose that the well-established inverse association between birthweight and risk of type 2 diabetes may at least partially contribute to these differences in prevalence of type 2 diabetes between ethnic groups. This hypothesis would rely on the mechanisms that drive the ethnic differences in birthweight aligning with those that modify the risk of type 2 diabetes. In this issue of Diabetologia (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-014-3474-7), Nightingale et al have furthered this field by determining whether ethnic differences in markers of cardio-metabolic risk are consistent with the differences in birthweight in an ethnically diverse cohort of children. The likely contribution of fetal growth to ethnic differences in risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is discussed, particularly in light of the magnitude of the birthweight differences, as are implications for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25567103

  14. Racial and Ethnic Differences: Sociocultural and Contextual Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.; Otsuki-Clutter, Michiko

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing focus on racial and ethnic diversity in studies of adolescence, this review highlights trends in this research over the past decade. Not only is the sheer number of studies incorporating diverse youth increasing, this research has penetrated many areas of the study of adolescence. Some of this research has attempted to…

  15. Polymorphic Admixture Typing in Human Ethnic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Michael; Stephens, J. Claiborne; Winkler, Cheryl; Lomb, Deborah A.; Ramsburg, Mark; Boaze, Raleigh; Stewart, Claudia; Charbonneau, Lauren; Goldman, David; Albaugh, Bernard J.; Goedert, James J.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Buchbinder, Susan; Weedon, Michael; Johnson, Patricia A.; Eichelberger, Mary; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    1994-01-01

    A panel of 257 RFLP loci was selected on the basis of high heterozygosity in Caucasian DNA surveys and equivalent spacing throughout the human genome. Probes from each locus were used in a Southern blot survey of allele frequency distribution for four human ethnic groups: Caucasian, African American, Asian (Chinese), and American Indian (Cheyenne). Nearly all RFLP loci were polymorphic in each group, albeit with a broad range of differing allele frequencies (δ). The distribution of frequency differences (δ values) was used for three purposes: (1) to provide estimates for genetic distance (differentiation) among these ethnic groups, (2) to revisit with a large data set the proportion of human genetic variation attributable to differentiation within ethnic groups, and (3) to identify loci with high δ values between recently admixed populations of use in mapping by admixture linkage disequilibrium (MALD). Although most markers display significant allele frequency differences between ethnic groups, the overall genetic distances between ethnic groups were small (.066–.098), and <10% of the measured overall molecular genetic diversity in these human samples can be attributed to “racial” differentiation. The median δ values for pairwise comparisons between groups fell between .15 and .20, permitting identification of highly informative RFLP loci for MALD disease association studies. PMID:7942857

  16. The National Survey of American Life: a study of racial, ethnic and cultural influences on mental disorders and mental health.

    PubMed

    Jackson, James S; Torres, Myriam; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Neighbors, Harold W; Nesse, Randolph M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Trierweiler, Steven J; Williams, David R

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) are to investigate the nature, severity, and impairment of mental disorders among national samples of the black and non-Hispanic white (n = 1,006) populations in the US. Special emphasis in the study is given to the nature of race and ethnicity within the black population by selecting and interviewing national samples of African-American (N = 3,570), and Afro-Caribbean (N = 1,623) immigrant and second and older generation populations. National multi-stage probability methods were used in generating the samples and race/ethnic matching of interviewers and respondents were used in the largely face-to-face interview, which lasted on average 2 hours and 20 minutes. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) IV World Mental Health Composite Interview (WHO-CIDI) was used to assess a wide range of serious mental disorders, potential risk and resilience factors, and help seeking and service use patterns. This paper provides an overview of the design of the NSAL, sample selection procedures, recruitment and training of the national interviewing team, and some of the special problems faced in interviewing ethnically and racially diverse national samples. Unique features of sample design, including special screening and listing procedures, interviewer training and supervision, and response rate outcomes are described. PMID:15719528

  17. Race, Context, and Privilege: White Adolescents' Explanations of Racial-ethnic Centrality

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Jennifer M.; Charmaraman, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-methods exploratory study examined the diverse content and situated context of White adolescents' racial-ethnic identities. The sample consisted of 781 9th–12th grade White adolescents from three New England schools, which varied in racial and economic make-up. Open-ended responses provided a range of thematic categories regarding the importance of race-ethnicity to the adolescents' identities, representing the diverse ideologies of White adolescents' explanations, ranging from colorblind claims to ethnic pride. This study also found significant relationships between racial-ethnic identity importance (centrality) and parents' education for White adolescents. These findings highlight the diversity of White adolescents' understanding of their racial-ethnic identities and the importance of context in shaping racial-ethnic centrality. PMID:19636713

  18. Diversity in Kansas Adult Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Dianne

    2007-01-01

    Kansas is not typically considered a state with a great deal of diversity. In the past few years, however, Kansas has become more ethnically diverse. Kansas adult education programs could serve as a bellwether for diversity across Kansas. This article discusses the diversity in Kansas adult education programs. The author stresses the need to…

  19. A Fever of Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Robert

    1972-01-01

    Reviews two new books that argue for the political implementation of cultural pluralism in the United States: Peter Schrag's The Decline of the Wasp," and Michael Novak's The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics." (Author/JM)

  20. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. PMID:26370652