Science.gov

Sample records for ethology

  1. Homology, Analogy, and Ethology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Colin G.

    1984-01-01

    Because the main criterion of structural homology (the principle of connections) does not exist for behavioral homology, the utility of the ethological concept of homology has been questioned. The confidence with which behavioral homologies can be claimed varies inversely with taxonomic distance. Thus, conjectures about long-range phylogenetic…

  2. Ethology and animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Osterhoff, D R

    1981-12-01

    Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

  3. Human Ethology, Education, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenhouse, David

    1977-01-01

    The author examines three phenomena--the inconclusiveness about the nature of intelligence and how to deal with it, the supplanting of learning theory by behavior modification, and the rise of human technology--and argues that a confluence of ethological theory applied in the human context may provide a coherent theoretical picture of…

  4. ISAE- The International Society for Applied Ethology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) was created in 1966 as the Society for Veterinary Ethology, with a primary membership of U.K.-based veterinarians. It quickly expanded to encompass researchers and clinicians working in all areas of applied animal behavior and all over the world....

  5. [Ethological approaches concerning forensic animal welfare].

    PubMed

    Zeeb, K

    1996-11-01

    Two cases of jurisdiction lay open the practicability of ethological approaches as to answer forensical questions of animal welfare. Two concepts were presented: The concept of satisfaction of requirements and a new concept for the assessment of feelings. PMID:9081822

  6. Ethological Approach to Delayed Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gerald J.

    1975-01-01

    The ethological approach to language acquisition (which focuses on the nature of the child's interaction with the environment) is described, and implications for the language development of mentally retarded and autistic children are discussed. (CL)

  7. The overlapping territories of psychiatry and ethology.

    PubMed

    Kramer, D A; McKinney, W T

    1979-01-01

    There have been numerous attempts since 1965 to stimulate more utilization of ethological methods and concepts in psychiatry. This literature is reviewed and an attempt is made to identify the factors which have inhibited an enhancement of this interaction to date. Most of the previous articles on this subject have appeared in edited collections, rather than in more widely circulated psychiatric or medical journals. Some of the articles focus on ethological theory, others on ethological research findings, and several on clinical analogies between animal and human situations. Regarding the specific way in which to integrate ethological thought into psychiatry, most frequently a phylogenetic approach is emphasized, however a few authors stress methodological considerations. In this paper, it is argued that artifactual differences have been the primary impediment to more interaction between these two rather similar fields. Scientific language difficulties, educational differences, and personal factors are described in this regard. Also, the real differences in approach and methodology, relative interest in normal vs. abnormal behavior, the degree of willingness to accept a phylogenetic approach, and the breadth of behavior being studied by the two fields are described. Examples of current areas of applicability of ethology to psychiatry are given: the attachment systems, early infantile autism, methodology, social psychiatry, and psychiatric education. Of these, the area where the most utilized is that of the occurred and in which the findings of ethology have been the most utilized is that of the attachment systems. Clinically applicable studies based upon the premise that attachment systems exist as understood ethologically are reviewed. These include study of extra physical contact between mothers and infants at birth, the prediction of child abuse and neglect utilizing observations from the immediate postpartum period, the treatment of failure to thrive by

  8. An Introduction to Ethological Approaches With Abnormal Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Robert H.; Zabel, Mary Kay

    The paper presents an overview of an ethological approach to the study of abnormal human behavior and a review of research using ethological approaches (with an emphasis on autism research). Ethology is defined as the study of behavior as it occurs in its natural habitat. The four types of questions ethologists ask about behavior, such as what is…

  9. The ethological analysis of imitation.

    PubMed

    Miklósi, A

    1999-08-01

    Theorists and experimental researchers have long debated whether animals are able to imitate. A variety of definitions of imitation have been proposed to describe this complex form of social learning. Experimental research on imitation has often been hampered by either a too loose 'anthropomorphic' approach or by too narrow 'behaviourist' definitions. At present neither associative nor cognitive theories are able to offer an exhaustive explanation of imitation in animals. An ethological approach to imitation offers a different perspective. By integrating questions on function, mechanism, development and evolution one can identify possible directions for future research. At present, however, we are still far from developing a comprehensive theory of imitation. A functional approach to imitation shows that, despite some evidence for imitative learning in food processing in apes, such learning has not been shown to be involved in the social transmission of either tool-use skills or communicative signals. Recently developed procedures offer possible ways of clarifying the role of imitation in tool use and visual communication. The role of imitation in explorative play in apes is also investigated and the available data suggest that copying during play might represent a behavioural homologue of human imitation. It is proposed that the ability to copy the behaviour of a companion is under a strong genetic influence in many social species. Many important factors have not been examined experimentally, e.g. the effect of the demonstrator, the influence of attention and memory and the ability to generalize. The potential importance of reinforcement raises the possibility that copying abilities serving divergent functions might be partly under the control of different mechanisms. PMID:10466254

  10. An Experiment in Teaching Human Ethology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, S. A.

    1977-01-01

    Students of ethology are often confused about the validity of arguments based on comparisons of animal and human behavior. The problem can be dealt with purely theoretically or through observational or experimental studies of human behavior. Some results of using these two methods are described and discussed. (Author/MA)

  11. Ethological Perspectives on Preschool Social Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strayer, F. F.; And Others

    This collection of papers represents an extension of analytic approaches and concepts from animal social ethology to the study of activities among stable groups of young children. A major emphasis of this research was on the description of organizational patterns in social behavior observed during periods of free play. The papers are: (1) "An…

  12. Virtual ethology of aquatic animal heterogeneous behaviours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, ChenKim; Tan, KianLam

    2016-08-01

    In the virtual world, the simulation of flocking behaviour has been actively investigated since the 1980 through the boid models. However, ethology is a niche study of animal behaviour from the biological perspective that is rarely instil in the interest of the younger learners nowadays. The keystone of the research is to be able to disseminate the study of animal behaviours through the boid model with the aid of technology. Through the simulation, complex movement of animal behaviours are reproduced based on the extension of basic behaviours of boid algorithm. The techniques here are to (i) Analyse a high-level behavioural framework of motion in the animal behaviours and (ii) Evolves particles to other animal representations to portray more real-time examples of steering behaviours. Although the generality of the results is limited by the number of case study, it also supports the hypothesis that interactive simulation system of virtual ethology can aid the improvement of animal studies.

  13. The Development of Early Social Interaction--An Ethological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omark, Donald R.; Edelman, Murray S.

    The ethological approach may become an important methodology in the developmental studies of children. The ethological approach takes into consideration the total world of the child, social and cognitive, when the child's development in that world is analyzed. Information can be obtained both from studies of other primates (for example, the study…

  14. Affect induction through musical sounds: an ethological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Huron, David

    2015-01-01

    How does music induce or evoke feeling states in listeners? A number of mechanisms have been proposed for how sounds induce emotions, including innate auditory responses, learned associations and mirror neuron processes. Inspired by ethology, it is suggested that the ethological concepts of signals, cues and indices offer additional analytic tools for better understanding induced affect. It is proposed that ethological concepts help explain why music is able to induce only certain emotions, why some induced emotions are similar to the displayed emotion (whereas other induced emotions differ considerably from the displayed emotion), why listeners often report feeling mixed emotions and why only some musical expressions evoke similar responses across cultures. PMID:25646521

  15. Affect induction through musical sounds: an ethological perspective.

    PubMed

    Huron, David

    2015-03-19

    How does music induce or evoke feeling states in listeners? A number of mechanisms have been proposed for how sounds induce emotions, including innate auditory responses, learned associations and mirror neuron processes. Inspired by ethology, it is suggested that the ethological concepts of signals, cues and indices offer additional analytic tools for better understanding induced affect. It is proposed that ethological concepts help explain why music is able to induce only certain emotions, why some induced emotions are similar to the displayed emotion (whereas other induced emotions differ considerably from the displayed emotion), why listeners often report feeling mixed emotions and why only some musical expressions evoke similar responses across cultures. PMID:25646521

  16. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Dinosaur Fossils, Morphology, Ethology, and Energetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zipko, Stephen J.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary minicourse on dinosaur fossils, morphology, ethology, and energetics. Suggests and provides examples of hands-on activities for junior high school- through college-level students. (DS)

  17. Qualitative Research Methods in Special Education: Ethnography, Microethnography, and Ethology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Carola; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Three qualitative research methodologies (ethnography, microethnography, and ethology) are contrasted according to their disciplinary origins, methods for data collection and analysis, and use of audiovisual technology. Studies that exemplify the special education applications of these methodologies are summarized. (Author)

  18. Labels, cognomes, and cyclic computation: an ethological perspective

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    For the past two decades, it has widely been assumed by linguists that there is a single computational operation, Merge, which is unique to language, distinguishing it from other cognitive domains. The intention of this paper is to progress the discussion of language evolution in two ways: (i) survey what the ethological record reveals about the uniqueness of the human computational system, and (ii) explore how syntactic theories account for what ethology may determine to be human-specific. It is shown that the operation Label, not Merge, constitutes the evolutionary novelty which distinguishes human language from non-human computational systems; a proposal lending weight to a Weak Continuity Hypothesis and leading to the formation of what is termed Computational Ethology. Some directions for future ethological research are suggested. PMID:26089809

  19. Labels, cognomes, and cyclic computation: an ethological perspective.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Elliot

    2015-01-01

    For the past two decades, it has widely been assumed by linguists that there is a single computational operation, Merge, which is unique to language, distinguishing it from other cognitive domains. The intention of this paper is to progress the discussion of language evolution in two ways: (i) survey what the ethological record reveals about the uniqueness of the human computational system, and (ii) explore how syntactic theories account for what ethology may determine to be human-specific. It is shown that the operation Label, not Merge, constitutes the evolutionary novelty which distinguishes human language from non-human computational systems; a proposal lending weight to a Weak Continuity Hypothesis and leading to the formation of what is termed Computational Ethology. Some directions for future ethological research are suggested. PMID:26089809

  20. Ethology and the origins of behavioral endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The neurosciences embrace many disciplines, some long established, others of more recent origin. Behavioral endocrinology has only recently been fully acknowledged as a branch of neuroscience, distinctive for the determination of some of its exponents to remain integrative in the face of the many pressures towards reductionism that so dominate modern biology. One of its most characteristic features is a commitment to research at the whole-animal level on the physiological basis of complex behaviors, with a particular but by no means exclusive focus on reproductive behavior in all its aspects. The search for rigorously defined principles of behavioral organization that apply across species and the hormonal and neural mechanisms that sustain them underlies much of the research. Their aims are much like those put forth in the classical ethology of Lorenz and Tinbergen, one of the roots from which behavioral endocrinology has sprung. But there are others that can be traced back a century or more. Antecedents can be found in the work of such pioneers as Jakob von Uexküll, Jacques Loeb, Herbert Spencer Jennings, and particularly Charles Otis Whitman who launched a tradition that culminated in the classical contributions of Robert Hinde and Daniel Lehrman. William C. Young was another pioneer. His studies revolutionized thinking about the physiological mechanisms by which hormones influence behavior. An earlier potent influence was Karl Lashley who helped to shape the career of Frank Ambrose Beach who, more than anyone, has played a leading role in launching this new field. PMID:15777816

  1. A New Curriculum for Ethology and Student Skills in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bram J.; Dijkstra, Maurits J.; Bloem, Alex

    1997-01-01

    Describes the new national biology curriculum in the Netherlands, including a modern branch of biology called ethology. Topics covered include General Objectives, Lessons on Ethology and Student Skills, Role of Ethological Theory in Lessons, Emphasis on Human Behavior, Student Skills to be Developed, and items to be included in lessons such as…

  2. Modes and origins of mechanical and ethological isolation in angiosperms.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, V

    1994-01-01

    Mechanical and ethological isolation between species is widespread in angiosperms with specialized animal-pollinated flowers, being recorded in 29 species groups belonging to 27 genera and 16 families. Mechanical isolation occurs in two forms. (i) The common type, designated the Salvia type, operates when two or more species of flowers are adapted for different groups of pollinators with different body sizes and shapes. (ii) In the Pedicularis type two flower species have the same species of pollinator but pick up pollen from different parts of the pollinator's body. Four forms of ethological isolation are recognized. (i) In the Aquilegia type, which is widespread, ethological isolation is a side effect of mechanical isolation. (ii) The flower-constancy type, as the name suggests, is based on flower-constant foraging behavior. (iii) In the Ophrys type, floral scents attract male bees or wasps and play a role in their mating behavior; different species of flowers, often orchids, have different scents and attract different sets of hymenopteran species. (iv) The monotropy type occurs in plants pollinated by hymenopterans with species-specific or group-specific flower preferences for nutritive purposes (monotropic and oligotropic bees and fig wasps). Three modes of origin of floral isolation are confirmed by evidence: (i) mechanical and ethological isolation arising as a by-product of allopatric speciation, (ii) ethological isolation developing by selection for reproductive isolation per se, and (iii) mechanical isolation arising as a by-product of character displacement. Mode of origin i accounts for the Salvia and Aquilegia types of isolation in nine known species groups and for the Ophrys type in one group. Mode of origin ii accounts for the flower-constancy type of ethological isolation in two species groups. Mode of origin iii explains mechanical isolation in two groups. Sympatric origin of floral isolation by hybrid speciation and by flower constancy has been

  3. Annotated Bibliography on Ethology in Education. Ecological Theory of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kevin; Frey, Susan

    This annotated bibliography focuses on the ethological study of child development and the educational process. Topics covered include: (1) evolution; (2) dominance hierarchies and social organization; (3) agonistic, affiliative, and epistemic behaviors; (4) nonverbal communication; (5) play; (6) biological constraints on learning; and (7) relevant…

  4. Mundane Knowledge Management and Microlevel Organizational Learning: An Ethological Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    Discusses knowledge management in the context of articulation work, that is routine interactions in groups of local practice. Explores the concepts of mundane knowledge management and organizational ethology in a case study of a project to promote virtual enterprise formation based on online cooperative work. (Contains 50 references.) (Author/LRW)

  5. Ethological concepts enhance the translational value of animal models.

    PubMed

    Peters, Suzanne M; Pothuizen, Helen H J; Spruijt, Berry M

    2015-07-15

    The translational value of animal models is an issue of ongoing discussion. We argue that 'Refinement' of animal experiments is needed and this can be achieved by exploiting an ethological approach when setting up and conducting experiments. Ethology aims to assess the functional meaning of behavioral changes, due to experimental manipulation or treatment, in animal models. Although the use of ethological concepts is particularly important for studies involving the measurement of animal behavior (as is the case for most studies on neuro-psychiatric conditions), it will also substantially benefit other disciplines, such as those investigating the immune system or inflammatory response. Using an ethological approach also involves using more optimal testing conditions are employed that have a biological relevance to the animal. Moreover, using a more biological relevant analysis of the data will help to clarify the functional meaning of the modeled readout (e.g. whether it is psychopathological or adaptive in nature). We advocate for instance that more behavioral studies should use animals in group-housed conditions, including the recording of their ultrasonic vocalizations, because (1) social behavior is an essential feature of animal models for human 'social' psychopathologies, such as autism and schizophrenia, and (2) social conditions are indispensable conditions for appropriate behavioral studies in social species, such as the rat. Only when taking these elements into account, the validity of animal experiments and, thus, the translation value of animal models can be enhanced. PMID:25823814

  6. Ethological research in clinical psychiatry: the study of nonverbal behavior during interviews.

    PubMed

    Troisi, A

    1999-11-01

    Ethology is relevant to clinical psychiatry for two different reasons. First, ethology may contribute significantly to the development of more accurate and valid methods for measuring the behavior of persons with mental disorders. Second, ethology, as the evolutionary study of behavior, may provide psychiatry with a theoretical framework for integrating a functional perspective into the definition and clinical assessment of mental disorders. This article describes an ethological method for studying the nonverbal behavior of persons with mental disorders during clinical interviews and reviews the results derived from the application of this method in studies of patients who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia or depression. These findings and others that are emerging from current ethological research in psychiatry indicate that the ethological approach is not limited simply to a mere translation into quantitative and objective data of what clinicians already know on the basis of their judgment or the use of rating scales. Rather, it produces new insights on controversial aspects of psychiatric disorders. Although the impact of ethology on clinical psychiatry is still limited, recent developments in the fields of ethological and Darwinian psychiatry can revitalize the interest of clinical psychiatrists for ethology. PMID:10580305

  7. The Quantitative Ethology of the Zebra Finch: A Study in Comparative Psychometrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A quantitative ethogram was developed for the zebra finch, using one-zero focal animal sampling on an ethologically comprehensive checklist of 52 behavioral items, and it was assessed for interobserver reliability and construct validity. Applying the quantitative methods of psychometrics allows verification of ethological theory and testing of…

  8. Ethological, psychological and legal aspects of animal sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hvozdík, Anton; Bugarský, Andrej; Kottferová, Jana; Vargová, Milada; Ondrasovicová, Ol'ga; Ondrasovic, Miloslav; Sasáková, Nad'a

    2006-09-01

    This report presents an analysis of sexual abuse of five three-month old calves that died as a result of injury. A subsequent police investigation concluded that the animals had been sexually abused by an individual affected with zoophilia. The calves received injuries in the anogenital region resulting in fatal internal bleeding. The wounds appeared to have been caused by inserting and manipulating an unknown object into the vaginas of the animals. Post-mortem examination showed rupture of both the rectum and vagina in each calf with massive haemorrhage into the abdominal and thoracic cavities. From the psychiatric and animal welfare viewpoints animal sexual abuse is linked to clinical veterinary ethology. Ethical and legal aspects of animal welfare are evaluated with particular regard to the cases described. PMID:16019241

  9. Intersection of effort and risk: ethological and neurobiological perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mike A.; Thomé, Alexander; Cowen, Stephen L.

    2013-01-01

    The physical effort required to seek out and extract a resource is an important consideration for a foraging animal. A second consideration is the variability or risk associated with resource delivery. An intriguing observation from ethological studies is that animals shift their preference from stable to variable food sources under conditions of increased physical effort or falling energetic reserves. Although theoretical models for this effect exist, no exploration into its biological basis has been pursued. Recent advances in understanding the neural basis of effort- and risk-guided decision making suggest that opportunities exist for determining how effort influences risk preference. In this review, we describe the intersection between the neural systems involved in effort- and risk-guided decision making and outline two mechanisms by which effort-induced changes in dopamine release may increase the preference for variable rewards. PMID:24223535

  10. The prehistory of handedness: archaeological data and comparative ethology.

    PubMed

    Uomini, Natalie T

    2009-10-01

    Homo sapiens sapiens displays a species wide lateralised hand preference, with 85% of individuals in all populations being right-handed for most manual actions. In contrast, no other great ape species shows such strong and consistent population level biases, indicating that extremes of both direction and strength of manual laterality (i.e., species-wide right-handedness) may have emerged after divergence from the last common ancestor. To reconstruct the hand use patterns of early hominins, laterality is assessed in prehistoric artefacts. Group right side biases are well established from the Neanderthals onward, while patchy evidence from older fossils and artefacts indicates a preponderance of right-handed individuals. Individual hand preferences and group level biases can occur in chimpanzees and other apes for skilled tool use and food processing. Comparing these findings with human ethological data on spontaneous hand use reveals that the great ape clade (including humans) probably has a common effect at the individual level, such that a person can vary from ambidextrous to completely lateralised depending on the action. However, there is currently no theoretical model to explain this result. The degree of task complexity and bimanual complementarity have been proposed as factors affecting lateralisation strength. When primatology meets palaeoanthropology, the evidence suggests species-level right-handedness may have emerged through the social transmission of increasingly complex, bimanually differentiated, tool using activities. PMID:19758680

  11. Using a Newton Personal Data Assistant To Assess Student Participation in Biology Laboratories--A Technique Borrowed from Ethology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Connie P.; French, Donald P.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of ethological observation methods in a study of student behavior for use in student or course assessment. Describes how a convenient, highly portable recording system designed for ethological observation can be used in educational settings. (Contains 12 references.) (ASK)

  12. Visual behaviours of neurologically impaired children with cerebral visual impairment: an ethological study

    PubMed Central

    Porro, G; Dekker, E; Van Nieuwenhuizen, O; Wittebol-Post, D; Schilder, M; Schenk-Rootlieb, A; Treffers, W

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Visual functions of neurologically impaired children with permanent cerebral visual impairment (CVI) can be difficult to determine. This study investigated the behavioural profile of CVI children by means of ethological observations in order to gain a better understanding of their visual functions.
METHODS—Video registrations of nine subjects who were unable to undergo more orthodox methods of visual function testing were observed and analysed by an ethologist.
RESULTS—A series of behaviours (direct signs) and supportive or confirming behavioural elements (indirect signs) indicating some visual perception in the children were found.
CONCLUSION—Detailed ethological observations of visual behaviour were shown to be useful for analysing visual functions of children with permanent CVI.

 Keywords: cerebral visual impairment; visual function; visual behaviour; ethological analysis PMID:9924323

  13. Applying ethological and health indicators to practical animal welfare assessment.

    PubMed

    Wemelsfelder, F; Mullan, S

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing effort worldwide to develop objective indicators for animal welfare assessment, which provide information on an animal's quality of life, are scientifically trustworthy, and can readily be used in practice by professionals. Animals are sentient beings capable of positive and negative emotion, and so these indicators should be sensitive not only to their physical health, but also to their experience of the conditions in which they live. This paper provides an outline of ethological research aimed at developing practical welfare assessment protocols. The first section focuses on the development and validation of welfare indicators generally, in terms of their relevance to animal well-being, their interobserver reliability, and the confidence with which the prevalence of described features can be estimated. Challenges in this work include accounting for the ways in which welfare measures may fluctuate over time, and identifying measures suited to monitoring positive welfare states. The second section focuses more specifically on qualitative welfare indicators, which assess the 'whole animal' and describe the expressive qualities of its demeanour (e.g. anxious, content). Such indicators must be validated in the same way as other health and behaviour indicators, with the added challenge of finding appropriate methods of measurement. The potential contribution of qualitative indicators, however, is to disclose an emotional richness in animals that helps to interpret information provided by other indicators, thus enhancing the validity of welfare assessment protocols. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the importance of integrating such different perspectives, showing that new knowledge of animals and new ways of relating to animals are both needed for the successful development of practical welfare assessment tools. PMID:25000783

  14. Implications for adult roles from differential styles of mother-infant bonding: an ethological study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C K; Gilbert, M D; Herdt, G H

    1979-01-01

    Ethological observations of maternal and infant behaviors of nine vervet monkey pairs (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) showed the effects of differential styles of early maternal responsiveness on later infant competence. Those infants receiving the least amount of maternal responsiveness and the most time-off the mother in the first 3 months of development were more socially competent at 6 months of age. The results are discussed within current ethological "attachment" theories. The detachment or separation process of mother-infant interaction is considered as important a factor during infant development as the primary maternal bond. PMID:105083

  15. Defensive burying in rodents: ethology, neurobiology and psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Sietse F; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2003-02-28

    Defensive burying refers to the typical rodent behavior of displacing bedding material with vigorous treading-like movements of their forepaws and shoveling movements of their heads directed towards a variety of noxious stimuli that pose a near and immediate threat, such as a wall-mounted electrified shock-prod. Since its introduction 25 years ago by Pinel and Treit [J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 92 (1978) 708], defensive (shock-prod) burying has been the focus of a considerable amount of research effort delineating the methodology/ethology, psychopharmacology and neurobiology of this robust and species-specific active avoidance or coping response. The present review gives a summary of this research with special reference to the behavioral (face and construct) and pharmacological (predictive) validity of the shock-prod burying test as an animal model for human anxiety. Emphasis is also placed on some recent modifications of the paradigm that may increase its utility and reliability as to individual differences in expressed emotional coping responses and sensitivity to pharmacological treatments. Overall, the behavioral and physiological responses displayed in the shock-prod paradigm are expressions of normal and functionally adaptive coping patterns and the extremes of either active (i.e., burying) or passive (i.e., freezing) forms of responding in this test cannot simply be regarded as inappropriate, maladaptive or pathological. For this reason, the shock-prod paradigm is not an animal model for anxiety disorder or for any other psychiatric disease, but instead possesses a high degree of face and construct validity for normal and functionally adaptive human fear and anxious apprehension. However, the apparent good pharmacological validation (predictive validity) of this test reinforces the view that normal and pathological anxiety involves, at least partly, common neurobiological substrates. Therefore, this paradigm is not only suitable for screening potential

  16. Using the Method of Ethology To Study Australian Preschool Children's Play and Social Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolfe, Sharne A.; Crossley, Stella A.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluated the ethological approach in studying children's interactions and play in an Australian preschool. Factor analysis yielded a gender-linked factor loading on looking and playing house, a physical activity factor, and a sociability factor. Findings suggest that though time consuming and labor-intensive, this approach can provide unique…

  17. The Use of Ethological Principles in Teaching Parent-Child Relations to Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Neal R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The problem of teaching the concepts of parenting to 8-12 year old students was approached through the use of ethology, a science which is both familiar and appealing to them. The course conveyed the concepts of parenting to children at a much earlier age than had been done before. (Author/NQ)

  18. Tethered versus loose sows: ethological observations and measures of productivity. I. Ethological observations during pregnancy and farrowing.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, K; Hansen, L L

    1984-01-01

    Ethological parameters were recorded from sows housed in the same room and allocated to four experimental groups: sows that were tethered during pregnancy as well as from one week before farrowing to 8 weeks after; sows that were tethered during pregnancy but were loose during farrowing and lactation; sows that were loose during pregnancy in social groups of 2-5 animals and tethered during farrowing and lactation, and sows that were loose during pregnancy as in group 3 and also loose during farrowing and lactation. By using a timelapse-film technique it was found that pregnant sows in all groups had a similar diurnal rhythm with peaks around feeding times. The animals lay down for 20 h or more per day, and their activity was reduced due to tethering during the pregnancy period itself and due to preceding periods of tethering during farrowing and lactation. With increasing environmental temperature the loose sows increased the time spent lying on the side at the expense of lying on the belly. The tethered sows, however, showed no such change, but contrary to the loose sows they increased their activity. Observations around feeding time revealed that the tethered sows showed more aggression and fewer non aggressive social elements than the loose sows. Additionally their eating time was longer. Rubbing the neck was less and lying unquietly more frequent in tethered sows. Finally tethering during pregnancy reduced exploration directed towards straw and floor and increased stereotyped bar-biting and chain-nippling. With increasing temperature rubbing behaviour and drinking increased in tethered but not in loose sows. Timelapse-videorecording during the last 48 h prior to- and until the end of farrowing revealed that sows in all groups, no matter whether they were loose or tethered, showed a characteristical increase in nestbuilding activity until about 12-6 h before first piglet was born. Tethering in any period (pregnancy and/or farrowing-lactation) resulted in an

  19. Art as behaviour--an ethological approach to visual and verbal art, music and architecture.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Christa; Schiefenhövel, Wulf; Lehmann, Christian; Forster, Johanna; Apfelauer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the fine arts, architecture, music and literature have increasingly been examined from the vantage point of human ethology and evolutionary psychology. In 2011 the authors formed the research group 'Ethology of the Arts' concentrating on the evolution and biology of perception and behaviour. These novel approaches aim at a better understanding of the various facets represented by the arts by taking into focus possible phylogenetic adaptations, which have shaped the artistic capacities of our ancestors. Rather than culture specificity, which is stressed e.g. by cultural anthropology and numerous other disciplines, universal human tendencies to perceive, feel, think and behave are postulated. Artistic expressive behaviour is understood as an integral part of the human condition, whether expressed in ritual, visual, verbal or musical art. The Ethology of the Arts-group's research focuses on visual and verbal art, music and built environment/architecture and is designed to contribute to the incipient interdisciplinarity in the field of evolutionary art research. PMID:24818435

  20. Utility of ethological analysis to overcome locomotor confounds in elevated maze models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S M; Wadsworth, G; Fletcher, A; Dourish, C T

    1998-01-01

    The elevated plus-maze is a commonly used model to identify putative anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs. However, the validity of elevated plus-maze and other recently developed variants such as the elevated zero-maze has recently been questioned on the grounds that both the reference anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide and the psychostimulant d-amphetamine increase open arm exploration and stimulate locomotor activity. These findings suggest that measures of "anxiety" in the elevated maze cannot be adequately dissociated from simple changes in locomotor activity, which may confound the interpretation of results obtained using these models. A variety of approaches to assess drug effects on locomotor activity in the elevated maze have been suggested, including the use of total and closed arm entries, as well as supplementary tests such as exploration of the holeboard apparatus. However, all these approaches utilise the measurement of exploration in a novel environment, and as such, could potentially be influenced by either changes in anxiety or locomotor activity. Recently, it has been shown that ethological measures of "risk assessment", such as stretched-attend postures and head-dipping, are sensitive indicators of drug-effects in the elevated maze. The present study assessed the utility of ethological analysis in dissociating locomotor activity from "anxiety" by comparing the effects of d-amphetamine to those of chlordiazepoxide in the rat elevated zero-maze. The results showed that both chlordiazepoxide and d-amphetamine increase the amount of time spent in the open arms and reduce "risk assessment" without increasing line crossing or rearing. These results confirm that under certain test conditions, psychostimulants are capable of producing "false-positives" in elevated maze models, and that both traditional methods and the ethological measures used in this study fail to unequivocally dissociate drug effects on anxiety from effects on locomotor activity. Further

  1. A Cognitive Ethology Study of First- and Third-Person Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Joseph D.; Chapman, Craig S.; Amm, Marvin; Bischof, Walter F.; Smilek, Dan; Kingstone, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cognitive ethology approach, which seeks to link cognitions and behaviours as they operate in everyday life with those studied in controlled lab-based investigations. Our test bed was the understanding of first-person and third-person perspectives, which in lab-based investigations have been defined in a diverse and multi-faceted manner. We hypothesized that because these lab-based investigations seek to connect with how first- and third-person perspective operates in everyday life, then either some of the divergent lab-based definitions are missing their mark or the everyday conceptualization of first- and third-person perspective is multi-faceted. Our investigation revealed the latter. By applying a cognitive ethology approach we were able to determine that a) peoples’ everyday understanding of perspective is diverse yet reliable, and b) a lab-based investigation that applies these diverse understandings in a controlled setting can accurately predict how people will perform. These findings provide a ‘proof of concept’ for the cognitive ethology approach. Moreover, the present data demonstrate that previous lab-based studies, that often had very different understandings of first- and third-person perspective, were each in and of themselves valid. That is, each is capturing part of a broader understanding of perspective in everyday life. Our results also revealed a novel social factor not included in traditional conceptualizations of first-person third-perspective, that of eye gaze, i.e., eye contact is equated strongly with first-person perspective and the lack of eye-contact with third-person perspective. PMID:24671136

  2. Towards an Ethological Animal Model of Depression? A Study on Horses

    PubMed Central

    Fureix, Carole; Jego, Patrick; Henry, Séverine; Lansade, Léa; Hausberger, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent reviews question current animal models of depression and emphasise the need for ethological models of mood disorders based on animals living under natural conditions. Domestic horses encounter chronic stress, including potential stress at work, which can induce behavioural disorders (e.g. “apathy”). Our pioneering study evaluated the potential of domestic horses in their usual environment to become an ethological model of depression by testing this models’ face validity (i.e. behavioural similarity with descriptions of human depressive states). Methodology/Principal Findings We observed the spontaneous behaviour of 59 working horses in their home environment, focusing on immobility bouts of apparent unresponsiveness when horses displayed an atypical posture (termed withdrawn hereafter), evaluated their responsiveness to their environment and their anxiety levels, and analysed cortisol levels. Twenty-four percent of the horses presented the withdrawn posture, also characterized by gaze, head and ears fixity, a profile that suggests a spontaneous expression of “behavioural despair”. When compared with control “non-withdrawn” horses from the same stable, withdrawn horses appeared more indifferent to environmental stimuli in their home environment but reacted more emotionally in more challenging situations. They exhibited lower plasma cortisol levels. Withdrawn horses all belonged to the same breed and females were over-represented. Conclusions/Significance Horse might be a useful potential candidate for an animal model of depression. Face validity of this model appeared good, and potential genetic input and high prevalence of these disorders in females add to the convergence. At a time when current animal models of depression are questioned and the need for novel models is expressed, this study suggests that novel models and biomarkers could emerge from ethological approaches in home environments. PMID:22761752

  3. From classic ethology to modern neuroethology: overcoming the three biases in social behavior research.

    PubMed

    Zilkha, Noga; Sofer, Yizhak; Beny, Yamit; Kimchi, Tali

    2016-06-01

    A typical current study investigating the neurobiology of animal behavior is likely restricted to male subjects, of standard inbred mouse strains, tested in simple behavioral assays under laboratory conditions. This approach enables the use of advanced molecular tools, alongside standardization and reproducibility, and has led to tremendous discoveries. However, the cost is a loss of genetic and phenotypic diversity and a divergence from ethologically-relevant behaviors. Here we review the pros and cons in behavioral neuroscience studies of the new era, focusing on reproductive behaviors in rodents. Recent advances in molecular technology and behavioral phenotyping in semi-natural conditions, together with an awareness of the critical need to study both sexes, may provide new insights into the neural mechanisms underlying social behaviors. PMID:27179302

  4. Tactile communication, cooperation, and performance: an ethological study of the NBA.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Michael W; Huang, Cassey; Keltner, Dacher

    2010-10-01

    Tactile communication, or physical touch, promotes cooperation between people, communicates distinct emotions, soothes in times of stress, and is used to make inferences of warmth and trust. Based on this conceptual analysis, we predicted that in group competition, physical touch would predict increases in both individual and group performance. In an ethological study, we coded the touch behavior of players from the National Basketball Association (NBA) during the 2008-2009 regular season. Consistent with hypotheses, early season touch predicted greater performance for individuals as well as teams later in the season. Additional analyses confirmed that touch predicted improved performance even after accounting for player status, preseason expectations, and early season performance. Moreover, coded cooperative behaviors between teammates explained the association between touch and team performance. Discussion focused on the contributions touch makes to cooperative groups and the potential implications for other group settings. PMID:21038960

  5. A biological basis for the Oedipus complex: an evolutionary and ethological approach.

    PubMed

    Jonas, A D; Jonas, D F

    1975-06-01

    The authors propose that the Oedipus complex has a strong biological basis that is evident in observations of human prehistoric and nonhuman primate behavior. The groundwork for the oedipal phase is the peaking of human infantile sexuality at age five or six-a vestige of an earlier biological timetable. Other contributing factors include the high level of helplessness of human infants, the resulting high attachment needs, and the prolongation of development phases. Unsuccessful resolution of the oedipal phase may result when the mother's dominant status is lowered. The authors suggest that an understanding of the relationship between sex and rank and an wareness of ethological findings can broaden psychodynamic formulations and enrich the psychoanalytic therapy of sexual problems. PMID:804819

  6. Eyebrow movements and vocal pitch height: evidence consistent with an ethological signal.

    PubMed

    Huron, David; Shanahan, Daniel

    2013-05-01

    When asked to sing a high pitch, people produce a facial expression that is judged more friendly compared with singing a low pitch [Huron et al. (2009). Empirical Musicology Rev. 4(3), 93-100]. This effect was observed even when judges viewed only the face above the tip of the nose, and implies a relationship between pitch height and eyebrow height. In the current study, we examine the reverse relationship. Thirty-one participants were asked to read aloud standard texts while holding their eyebrows in a raised, neutral, or lowered position. Average F0 was found to correlate positively with eyebrow position, with higher vocal pitch associated with higher eyebrow placement. However, manipulating eyebrow placement produces a considerably smaller effect (on pitch) compared with the effect of manipulating pitch (on eyebrows). Results are discussed from the perspective of ethological signals [Lorenz (1939). Zool. Anz. 12, 69-102]. PMID:23654399

  7. Ethological Evaluation of the Effects of Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Beyond the Social Interaction Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Henriques-Alves, Aron M.; Queiroz, Claudio M.

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress. PMID:26869895

  8. Ethological Evaluation of the Effects of Social Defeat Stress in Mice: Beyond the Social Interaction Ratio.

    PubMed

    Henriques-Alves, Aron M; Queiroz, Claudio M

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, repeated exposure to unavoidable aggression followed by sustained sensory treat can lead to prolonged social aversion. The chronic social defeat stress model explores that phenomenon and it has been used as an animal model for human depression. However, some authors have questioned whether confounding effects may arise as the model also boosts anxiety-related behaviors. Despite its wide acceptance, most studies extract limited information from the behavior of the defeated animal. Often, the normalized occupancy around the social stimulus, the interaction zone, is taken as an index of depression. We hypothesized that this parameter is insufficient to fully characterize the behavioral consequences of this form of stress. Using an ethological approach, we showed that repeated social defeat delayed the expression of social investigation in long (10 min) sessions of social interaction. Also, the incidence of defensive behaviors, including stretched-attend posture and high speed retreats, was significantly higher in defeated mice in comparison to controls. Interestingly, a subpopulation of defeated mice showed recurrent and non-habituating stretched-attend posture and persistent flights during the entire session. Two indexes were created based on defensive behaviors to show that only recurrent flights correlates with sucrose intake. Together, the present study corroborates the idea that this model of social stress can precipitate a myriad of behaviors not readily disentangled. We propose that long sessions (>150 s) and detailed ethological evaluation during social interaction tests are necessary to provide enough information to correctly classify defeated animals in terms of resilience and susceptibility to social defeat stress. PMID:26869895

  9. The Mars-500 crew in daily life activities: An ethological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafforin, Carole

    2013-10-01

    A Mars mission is a new challenge for scientific investigators in the space field. What would be the behavioral profile of an interplanetary crew with long-duration social isolation and spatial restriction? The current study addresses this question with the first ethological data from the Mars-500 experiment. It took place in Moscow, Russia from June 3, 2010 to November 4, 2011. It was designed to simulate the living and working conditions of an isolated and confined crew over 250 days for reaching Mars, 30 days for Mars orbiting with Mars landing and 240 days for returning to Earth. The Mars-500 crew was composed of three Russians, two Europeans and one Chinese. The Mars-500 facilities comprised four hermetically sealed, interconnected modules and a Martian surface module. We applied the ethological method based on observation, description and quantification of the individual and inter-individual behaviors in terms of personal actions, visual interactions, object interactions, body interactions, facial expressions and collateral acts. These events were scored on the Observer XT® software, from video recordings made every two weeks at breakfast time inside the habitat module. We found the following results: a diminishing collective time from the first phase corresponding to the 250-day trip to Mars to the second phase corresponding to the 240-day return to Earth; 35-day cycles then 70-day cycles of high duration of personal actions within these phases; periodic oscillations of duration of inter-personal actions; decreasing then increasing occurrences of facial expressions with temporal points of decrements, around day 159 and day 355, after 6 months and one year of simulation; increasing occurrences of collateral acts over the full 520-day journey. We discuss the findings with regard to a Mars mission scenario. Time has a major impact on the behavioral profile, as shown by indicators of physical and psychological states of fatigue, stress, well being and good

  10. Novel ethological endophenotypes in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mo, Christina; Renoir, Thibault; Hannan, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder with a characteristic triad of cognitive, affective and motor symptoms. Transgenic HD mice show excellent construct and face validity for many of these symptoms, however the decline in some facets of every day activity in humans is difficult to model. One approach is the assessment of species-relevant behaviors. Here we described three ethologically appropriate tests in the mouse-olfactory sensitivity, nest-building and sexually-motivated vocalizations. In R6/1 HD mice, olfactory and nest-building tests were sensitive to early dysfunctions induced by the HD mutation. Male vocalization testing revealed a late-stage sexual disinterest in R6/1 HD mice compared to WT littermates. We show that essential, species-relevant functions are disrupted by the HD mutation. The development of integrative behavioral assays which more closely model 'activities of daily living' (ADL) will facilitate the testing of novel therapeutic interventions in animal models as well as their clinical translation. PMID:24747660

  11. [Ultrasonographic expressions of the fetal face may reflect fetal mood--mimicry is part of fetal ethology].

    PubMed

    Jakobovits, Akos

    2006-03-20

    The author studied foetal faces and changes in features in the coronal plane during routine prenatal ultrasound scans. Based on known behaviour of children and adults, deductions can be made about foetal mood alterations. During the four years of the study the author noted five main facial expression changes that might be reflections of foetal mood. Foetal expressions and fine lineaments may indicate adequate maturity of the central nervous system as well as satisfactory oxygen supply. Ethologically, facial mimicry is an inherited behavioural pattern. PMID:16634456

  12. Facial expression of fear in the context of human ethology: Recognition advantage in the perception of male faces.

    PubMed

    Trnka, Radek; Tavel, Peter; Tavel, Peter; Hasto, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Facial expression is one of the core issues in the ethological approach to the study of human behaviour. This study discusses sex-specific aspects of the recognition of the facial expression of fear using results from our previously published experimental study. We conducted an experiment in which 201 participants judged seven different facial expressions: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise (Trnka et al. 2007). Participants were able to recognize the facial expression of fear significantly better on a male face than on a female face. Females also recognized fear generally better than males. The present study provides a new interpretation of this sex difference in the recognition of fear. We interpret these results within the paradigm of human ethology, taking into account the adaptive function of the facial expression of fear. We argue that better detection of fear might be crucial for females under a situation of serious danger in groups of early hominids. The crucial role of females in nurturing and protecting offspring was fundamental for the reproductive potential of the group. A clear decoding of this alarm signal might thus have enabled the timely preparation of females for escape or defence to protect their health for successful reproduction. Further, it is likely that males played the role of guardians of social groups and that they were responsible for effective warnings of the group under situations of serious danger. This may explain why the facial expression of fear is better recognizable on the male face than on the female face. PMID:26071575

  13. Understanding the neurophysiological basis of auditory abilities for social communication: A perspective on the value of ethological paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Bennur, Sharath; Tsunada, Joji; Cohen, Yale E.; Liu, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic communication between animals requires them to detect, discriminate, and categorize conspecific or heterospecific vocalizations in their natural environment. Laboratory studies of the auditory-processing abilities that facilitate these tasks have typically employed a broad range of acoustic stimuli, ranging from natural sounds like vocalizations to “artificial” sounds like pure tones and noise bursts. However, even when using vocalizations, laboratory studies often test abilities like categorization in relatively artificial contexts. Consequently, it is not clear whether neural and behavioral correlates of these tasks (1) reflect extensive operant training, which drives plastic changes in auditory pathways, or (2) the innate capacity of the animal and its auditory system. Here, we review a number of recent studies, which suggest that adopting more ethological paradigms utilizing natural communication contexts are scientifically important for elucidating how the auditory system normally processes and learns communication sounds. Additionally, since learning the meaning of communication sounds generally involves social interactions that engage neuromodulatory systems differently than laboratory-based conditioning paradigms, we argue that scientists need to pursue more ethological approaches to more fully inform our understanding of how the auditory system is engaged during acoustic communication. PMID:23994815

  14. Morphological features of larvae of Drusus plicatus Radovanović (Insecta, Trichoptera) from the Republic of Macedonia with molecular, ecological, ethological, and distributional notes

    PubMed Central

    Kučinić, Mladen; Previšić, Ana; Mihoci, Iva; Krpač, Vladimir; Živić, Ivana; Stojanović, Katarina; Vojvoda, Ana Mrnjavčić; Katušić, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A description of the larva of Drusus plicatus Radovanović is given for the first time. The most important diagnostic characters enabling separation from larvae of the other Drusinae from the southeast Europe are listed. Molecular, ecological, and ethological features and distribution patterns of the species are given. Additionally, information on the sympatric caddisfly species of the three springs where larvae and adults of Drusus plicatus were found and presented. PMID:27408591

  15. Chemical identification and ethological function of soldier-specific secretion in Japanese subterranean termite Reticulitermes speratus (Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tuan T; Kanaori, Kenji; Hojo, Masaru K; Kawada, Tatsuro; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Akino, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    We identified the soldier-specific compounds in the Japanese subterranean termite, Reticulitermes speratus, to clarify their ethological roles. Silica gel column chromatography separated one major soldier-specific compound in the hexane fraction accounting for 70-80% of the total amount of the fraction, while cuticular hydrocarbons constituted the rest. We identified the compound as β-selinene by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Comparative GC analyses of the major exocrine glands detected the compound in the soldier's frontal gland. Both soldiers and workers made aggregation to the hexane fraction, as well as to the crushed heads and head extract of the soldiers. They did not aggregate to cuticular hydrocarbons, making it likely that β-selinene was the aggregation pheromone in this species. The opportunistic predator of this termite, Lasius japonicus, was also attracted to the compounds. The ant workers, therefore, would use the termite aggregation pheromone as a kairomone for hunting them. PMID:21897019

  16. Operant avoidance learning in crayfish, Orconectes rusticus: Computational ethology and the development of an automated learning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Bhimani, Rohan; Huber, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Research in crustaceans offers a valuable perspective for studying the neural implementation of conserved behavioral phenomena, including motivation, escape, aggression, and drug-sensitive reward. The present work adds to this literature by demonstrating that crayfish successfully learn to respond to spatially contingent cues. An integrated video-tracking system automatically delivered a mild electric shock when a test animal entered or remained on a substrate paired with punishment. Following a few instances of shock delivery, crayfish quickly learned to avoid these areas. Comparable changes in substrate preference were not exhibited by yoked controls, but locomotion differed significantly from both pre-conditioning levels and from those of their masters receiving shock in a contingent fashion. The results of this work provide valuable insights into the principles governing avoidance learning in an invertebrate system and provide a behavioral template for exploring the neural changes during associative learning. Serving as a case study, this project introduces a new computer framework for the automated control of learning paradigms. Based on routines contained within the JavaGrinders library (free download at iEthology.com), it integrates real-time video tracking with robotic interfaces, and provides a suitable framework for implementing automated learning paradigms. PMID:26542703

  17. The ethology of empathy: a taxonomy of real-world targets of need and their effect on observers.

    PubMed

    Preston, Stephanie D; Hofelich, Alicia J; Stansfield, R Brent

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is inherently interpersonal, but the majority of research has only examined observers. Targets of need have been largely held constant through hypothetical and fictionalized depictions of sympathetic distress and need. In the real world, people's response to life stressors varies widely-from stoicism to resilience to complete breakdown-variations that should profoundly influence the prosocial exchange. The current study examined naturally-varying affect in real hospital patients with serious chronic or terminal illness during videotaped interviews about quality of life. Participants viewed each video while psychophysiological data were recorded and then rated each patient's and their own emotion. Patients displayed three major emotion factors (disturbed, softhearted, and amused) that were used to classify them into five basic types (distraught, resilient, sanguine, reticent, wistful). These types elicited four major emotions in observers [personal distress (PD), empathic concern (EC), horror, pleasure], two of which were never discovered previously with fictionalized targets. Across studies and measures, distraught targets usually received the greatest aid, but approximately as many observers preferred the positive and likeable resilient patients or the quietly sad wistful targets, with multiple observers even giving their greatest aid to sanguine or reticent targets who did not display distress or need. Trait empathy motivated aid toward more emotive targets while perspective taking (PT) motivated aid for those who did not overtly display distress. A second study replicated key results without even providing the content of patients' speech. Through an ecological examination of real need we discovered variation and commonality in the emotional response to need that interacts strongly with the preferences of observers. Social interactions need to be studied in ethological contexts that retain the complex interplay between senders and receivers. PMID:23986680

  18. Aquatic animals, cognitive ethology, and ethics: questions about sentience and other troubling issues that lurk in turbid water.

    PubMed

    Bekoff, Marc

    2007-05-01

    In this general, strongly pro-animal, and somewhat utopian and personal essay, I argue that we owe aquatic animals respect and moral consideration just as we owe respect and moral consideration to all other animal beings, regardless of the taxonomic group to which they belong. In many ways it is more difficult to convince some people of our ethical obligations to numerous aquatic animals because we do not identify or empathize with them as we do with animals with whom we are more familiar or to whom we are more closely related, including those species (usually terrestrial) to whom we refer as charismatic megafauna. Many of my examples come from animals that are more well studied but they can be used as models for aquatic animals. I follow Darwinian notions of evolutionary continuity to argue that if we feel pain, then so too do many other animals, including those that live in aquatic environs. Recent scientific data ('science sense') show clearly that many aquatic organisms, much to some people's surprise, likely suffer at our hands and feel their own sorts of pain. Throughout I discuss how cognitive ethology (the study of animal minds) is the unifying science for understanding the subjective, emotional, empathic, and moral lives of animals because it is essential to know what animals do, think, and feel as they go about their daily routines. Lastly, I argue that when we are uncertain if we are inflicting pain due to our incessant, annoying, and frequently unnecessary intrusions into the lives of other animals as we go about 'redecorating nature' (removing animals or moving them from place to place), we should err on the side of the animals and stop engaging in activities that cause pain and suffering. PMID:17578248

  19. The ethology of empathy: a taxonomy of real-world targets of need and their effect on observers

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Stephanie D.; Hofelich, Alicia J.; Stansfield, R. Brent

    2013-01-01

    Empathy is inherently interpersonal, but the majority of research has only examined observers. Targets of need have been largely held constant through hypothetical and fictionalized depictions of sympathetic distress and need. In the real world, people's response to life stressors varies widely—from stoicism to resilience to complete breakdown—variations that should profoundly influence the prosocial exchange. The current study examined naturally-varying affect in real hospital patients with serious chronic or terminal illness during videotaped interviews about quality of life. Participants viewed each video while psychophysiological data were recorded and then rated each patient's and their own emotion. Patients displayed three major emotion factors (disturbed, softhearted, and amused) that were used to classify them into five basic types (distraught, resilient, sanguine, reticent, wistful). These types elicited four major emotions in observers [personal distress (PD), empathic concern (EC), horror, pleasure], two of which were never discovered previously with fictionalized targets. Across studies and measures, distraught targets usually received the greatest aid, but approximately as many observers preferred the positive and likeable resilient patients or the quietly sad wistful targets, with multiple observers even giving their greatest aid to sanguine or reticent targets who did not display distress or need. Trait empathy motivated aid toward more emotive targets while perspective taking (PT) motivated aid for those who did not overtly display distress. A second study replicated key results without even providing the content of patients' speech. Through an ecological examination of real need we discovered variation and commonality in the emotional response to need that interacts strongly with the preferences of observers. Social interactions need to be studied in ethological contexts that retain the complex interplay between senders and receivers. PMID

  20. Ethological analysis of a polar team in the French Antarctic station Dumont d'Urville as simulation of space teams for future interplanetary missions.

    PubMed

    Tafforin, Carole

    2004-07-01

    This new ethological study focuses on the co-adaptation of the crew's spatial behavior to social isolation in a polar base thus simulating long-term living and working of a space team. The method consisted in drawing the subjects' position (n=13) on an observation map at the midday and evening meals at the Dumont d'Urville French station in Antarctica, daily during the summer campaigns and weekly during the winter-over of the TA46 mission. Quantitative data are presented in geocentric (positions), allocentric (distances) and egocentric (orientations) analyses with an emphasis on three adaptative periods (first 3 months, intermediary 2 months and last 3 months of isolation). Results show a large space occupancy during the first week after arrival and the last week before departure from the polar base, and a team-members' grouping during the winter-over. On the over-all time, the inter-individual distances increase. The social orientations are higher at the beginning than at the end of the mission. Discussion underlies the pertinent use of such ethological indicators collected from polar stations as predictors of well-being and optimal-working of the future orbital and planetary stations users. PMID:15786592

  1. Ethology and Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biology and Human Affairs, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reviews four texts and compilations of papers in an effort to assess the relevance of animal behavior studies to anthropology and sociology. Concludes that where a basic element of behavior occurs widely throughout the animal kingdom, especially in the higher mammals and primates, we may expect to find a manifestation in man." Limitations of the…

  2. Ethological comparison of the effects of a bovine alpha s1-casein tryptic hydrolysate and diazepam on the behaviour of rats in two models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Violle, Nicolas; Messaoudi, Michaël; Lefranc-Millot, Catherine; Desor, Didier; Nejdi, Amine; Demagny, Benoit; Schroeder, Henri

    2006-07-01

    A bovine alpha s1-casein tryptic hydrolysate was previously demonstrated to display an anxiolytic-like activity in the conditioned defensive burying and in the elevated plus-maze models when i.p. injected. The present study assessed the anxiolytic-like effects of this tryptic hydrolysate after an oral administration in rats faced to the same behavioural situations using diazepam as a reference. In a first experiment, the behavioural effects of the hydrolysate in the conditioned defensive burying test were investigated at doses ranging 5-50 mg/kg. The results showed that the minimal dose required to elicit an anxiolytic-like activity is 15 mg/kg. In a second experiment, the alpha s1-casein tryptic hydrolysate (15 mg/kg, p.o.) was demonstrated to display an anxiolytic-like activity similar to diazepam (3 mg/kg, p.o.) in the conditioned defensive burying test and the elevated plus-maze. However, the ethological analysis of behaviour indicated that this hydrolysate has a different activity compared to diazepam. While diazepam induced a disinhibition state in rats, possibly related to the risk-taking behaviour observed after a benzodiazepine ingestion in humans, the tryptic hydrolysate did not display such a side effect. These results suggest that the mechanism of action of the bovine alpha s1-casein tryptic hydrolysate may differ from that of diazepam. PMID:16899284

  3. Effect of differently structured and processed feedstuffs on diverse parameters of ethology and digestibility of growing rabbits and their influence on morphological structures in small intestine.

    PubMed

    Lang, Caroline; Hinchliffe, David; Brendle, Julia; Weirichl, Carmen; Hoy, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different feedstuffs on parameters of digestion and ethology in growing rabbits (duration and number of feed intake, needed masticatory movements, pH value in stomach and small intestine, dry matter content of stomach chyme, level of destruction of cell structures in small intestine) was analysed. 384 five weeks old rabbits were fed with one of three feedstuffs: pellets (mean fibre length = 3 mm), fibre blocks (mean fibre length = 40 mm) and hay-oat-beat-ration (length of hay fibre ≥ 70 mm). The masticatory movements and duration for uptake 0.1 g of feedstuffs were measured in a special observation box. Rabbits in group cages were observed by 24 h video recording and duration and numbers of feed intakes were documented. After 8 weeks rabbits were slaughtered and pH values measured in stomach chyme (and dry matter content) and small intestine. Samples of them were taken and histologically examined (total length of villi and crypts, width of villi and degree of destruction determined by scores from 0 [= no destruction] to 3 [= severe destruction of villi]). Pellets lead to a faster feed intake with a lower number of masticatory movements. This equates a minor feeding time per feed intake and a higher amount of feedstuff in a shorter time. The dry matter content in stomach chyme increases and pH value was significantly higher there, but lower in duodenum. They also showed a significantly higher degree of destruction of villi, a shorter length and a larger width of villi than others. PMID:27169154

  4. Sociometric and ethological approach to the assessment of individual and group behavior in extra long-term isolation during simulated interplanetary mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gushin, Vadim; Tafforin, Carole; Kuznetsova, Polina; Vinokhodova, Alla; Chekalina, Angelina

    Several factors, such as hazard to life, reduced social communications, isolation, high workload, monotony, etc., can cause deconditioning of individual status and group dynamics in long-term spaceflight. New approaches to the assessment of group behavior are being developed in order to create necessary counter-measures and to keep optimal psychological climate in the crew. Psychological methods combined with ethological approach to dynamic monitoring of the isolated crew had been tested and validated in Mars-500 experiment. The experiment (duration of 520 days) was designed to simulate the living and working conditions of a piloted mission to Mars. The Mars-500 crew was composed of three Russians, two Europeans and one Chinese. We used psychological tests: sociometric questionnaire to assess group status (popularity) of the crewmembers (monthly), color choice test to assess the level of frustration and anxiety (twice a month). We performed observations from video recordings of group discussions (monthly) and during breakfast time (twice a month). The video analysis was supplied with a software based-solution: The Observer XT®. The results showed that occurrence of collateral acts may indicate psychological stress and fatigue in crewmembers under isolation and that facial expressions may indicate less anxiety. The data of psychological tests allowed to define two subgroups in the crew. The first one consisted of the subjects with high group status and lower level of frustration (not anxious), the second one consisted of less popular subjects, having respectively higher anxiety level. The video analysis showed two times more manifestations of facial expressions and interpersonal communications for the first subgroup. We also identified the subgroups on the basis of their verbal expressions in Russian and in English. Video observation of individual and group behavior, combined with other psychological tests gives opportunity to emphasize more objectively the signs

  5. Human Ethology: Personal Space Reiterated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barash, David P.

    1973-01-01

    A study of human personal space and flight distance in terms of the responses of college students to intrusions upon their presumed personal space. Investigates the elicitation of aggressive or defensive behavior. (LK)

  6. An Experimental Fish Ethology Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ronald L., Jr.; Novak, John A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a series of four experiments designed for small group involvement (each requiring 6 days) emphasizing students' scientific methodology. Topics include: feeding behavior; light/temperature effects on reproduction; effect of density on feeding; and altered male/female ratios on male behavior. Each experiment includes introduction, material…

  7. Human Ethology: Exchanging Cheetahs for Chevrolets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barash, David P.

    1977-01-01

    A study of the frequency of looking both ways before crossing a street revealed that both males and females tend to look both ways more often when accompanied by juveniles than when alone, and that when males and females are together, males look both ways more often than do females. (Author/MA)

  8. Play and Development From an Ethological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Brian

    1978-01-01

    A review of play in nonhuman animals indicates that play increases with phylogenetic status, is important for mature social development in more advanced species, reflects intentional activity, and is essential for the development of tool-using strategies. (Author)

  9. Darwin's Legacy to Comparative Psychology and Ethology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burghardt, Gordon M.

    2009-01-01

    Charles Darwin made numerous seminal contributions to the study of animal behavior over his long career. This essay places these contributions in the context of Darwin's life, showing his long-standing interest in psychological and behavioral issues encompassing all species, including humans. Ten areas are highlighted: natural history;…

  10. MARKING INSECTS FOR STUDYING ECOLOGY AND ETHOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different kinds of markers can be used for studying insect ecology and behavior, and each have special strengths, weaknesses, and applications. Various kinds of markers are described, including visual tags (e.g., paint, wires, dyes, pollen, and spores), rubidium, radiotracers, rare earth elements, ...

  11. Simultaneous determination of three alkaloids, four ginsenosides and limonin in the plasma of normal and headache rats after oral administration of Wu-Zhu-Yu decoction by a novel ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method: application to a comparative pharmacokinetics and ethological study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huarong; Li, Qing; Yin, Yidi; Lv, Chunxiao; Sun, Wanyang; He, Bosai; Liu, Ran; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2013-04-01

    A novel, sensitive and reliable ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of eight main active ingredients (evodiamine, rutaecarpine, dehydroevodiamine, limonin, ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, Re and Rg1) in rat plasma after oral administration of Wu-Zhu-Yu (WZY) decoction, which is a celebrated and widely used Traditional Chinese Medicine formula for the treatment of headache. The analytes and internal standard (IS) were separated on a SHIM-PACK XR-ODS II column, and the detection was performed on a UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source. The lower limits of quantification were 1.5, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.2 ng ml(-1) for evodiamine, rutaecarpine, dehydroevodiamine, limonin, gensenoside Rb1, Rd, Re and Rg1, respectively. Linearity, accuracy, precision and absolute recoveries of the eight analytes were all within satisfaction. The IS-normalized matrix factor was adopted for assessing the matrix effect and accompanied with a satisfactory result. The validated method has been successfully applied to compare pharmacokinetic profiles of the eight active ingredients in rat plasma between normal and headache rats after administration. Exact pharmaceutical effect of WZY decoction on headache was demonstrated by the ethological response of headache rats induced by nitric oxide donor after administration. The results indicated that the absorption of evodiamine, rutaecarpine, gensenoside Rb1, Re and Rg1 in headache group were significantly higher than those in normal group with similar concentration-time curves while no significant differences existed in limonin and ginsenoside Rd between the two groups. PMID:23584945

  12. Philosophical, Psychological, and Ethological Approaches to the Search for Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, S.

    2010-04-01

    How we define intelligence determines how we will look for it, as well as what explanatory approaches we will accept. This paper discusses the gaps between disciplines that study intelligence, and seeks to develop a more complete and expansive understanding of intelligence.

  13. Using the Blue Gourami in Ethological and Embryological Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Theresa; Pollak, Edward I.

    1981-01-01

    Lists advantages in the use of the blue gourami in laboratory experiments on reproduction and embryogenesis. Materials and procedures for maintaining and spawning blue gouramis are provided. Also includes details on microscopic examination of developing embryos and histological techniques for microscope slide preparation. (CS)

  14. Ethology of Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox) (Diptera: Asilidae) in Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In southwest Wyoming, Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox), hunted primarily from the surface of the sandy substrate in a greasewood community. Prey, captured in flight, represented four insect orders with Diptera and Hymenoptera predominating. Courtship consisted of the male approaching the female from...

  15. The Biological Unity of Mankind: Human Ethology, Concepts and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Irenaus

    1977-01-01

    Compares inborn behavior patterns of animals and humans, and argues that all human behavior is not shaped by environment and culture. A cross-cultural comparison of human motor patterns is described in order to substantiate the author's argument that man's behavior is not entirely learned. (AV)

  16. Ethological concepts revisited: immediate early gene induction in response to sexual stimuli in birds.

    PubMed

    Ball, G F; Balthazar, J

    2001-05-01

    Courtship behaviors were interpreted by ethologists as being examples of 'sign stimuli' that would act as 'releasers' of stereotypic species-typical behaviors in conspecifics. A key component of the sign stimulus concept is that some form of stimulus filtering occurs that is responsible for the marked selective behavioral responsiveness. Studies of immediate early gene induction in the avian brain in response to conspecific stimuli associated with courtship and mating reveal that such gene induction is highly selective. In male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), studies of the immediate early gene c-fos or zenk have been conducted in birds engaging in both appetitive and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior. High induction of immediate early genes occurs in hypothalamic and limbic areas such as the medial preoptic nucleus, bed nucleus striae terminalis and parts of the archistriatum in birds who had copulated and/or who had expressed a learned social proximity response, reflecting appetitive sexual behavior. Immediate early gene expression was also increased in telencephalic areas such as the hyperstriatum ventrale that presumably plays a role in the integration of sensory cues related to female recognition. In European starlings, studies of zenk induction have been conducted in females who hear male-typical courtship song. Clayton and Mello had shown that zenk is induced in the auditory telencephalon of canaries and zebra finches at high levels specifically in response to conspecific song. Immediate early genes such as fos and zenk are also expressed in song control nuclei specifically in association with song production. In starlings it was found that song was effective in rapidly inducing zenk expression in the auditory telencephalon in males and in females in the breeding as well as in the non-breeding season. Thus, the expression is not greater in females who use song to choose mates or during the breeding season when females are choosing mates. However, there is evidence that high levels of induction in certain areas of the auditory telencephalon in females are greater in response to songs organized in longer bouts that females prefer. Though immediate early gene induction in the brain does not exactly mimic selective behavioral responses to sign stimuli it may represent one important way in which stimulus selectivity of the sort hypothesized previously by Tinbergen and Lorenz is coded. Engaging in species-typical behaviors is also associated with motor-driven immediate early gene expression. PMID:11641562

  17. Affiliative Subgroups in Preschool Classrooms: Integrating Constructs and Methods from Social Ethology and Sociometric Traditions.

    PubMed

    Santos, António J; Daniel, João R; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of school-age children and adolescents have used social network analyses to characterize selection and socialization aspects of peer groups. Fewer network studies have been reported for preschool classrooms and many of those have focused on structural descriptions of peer networks, and/or, on selection processes rather than on social functions of subgroup membership. In this study we started by identifying and describing different types of affiliative subgroups (HMP- high mutual proximity, LMP- low mutual proximity, and ungrouped children) in a sample of 240 Portuguese preschool children using nearest neighbor observations. Next, we used additional behavioral observations and sociometric data to show that HMP and LMP subgroups are functionally distinct: HMP subgroups appear to reflect friendship relations, whereas LMP subgroups appear to reflect common social goals, but without strong, within-subgroup dyadic ties. Finally, we examined the longitudinal implications of subgroup membership and show that children classified as HMP in consecutive years had more reciprocated friendships than did children whose subgroup classification changed from LMP or ungrouped to HMP. These results extend previous findings reported for North American peer groups. PMID:26134139

  18. The "Specters" of Bodies and Affects in the Classroom: A Rhizo-Ethological Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the poststructuralist notions of the body and affect by Gilles Deleuze, the author will show that bodies and affects in the classroom may be redefined as intensities and energies that "produce" new affective and embodied "connections". What he suggests is that reconceiving teaching and learning as a plane for the production of intense…

  19. Cybernetic control model from ethology for adaptive coordination of robot behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlueter, Bernd

    1992-08-01

    In this paper we propose a cybernetic approach to behavior based robotics. We present a distributed adaptive control architecture for coordination of different motivations and behaviors of an autonomous vehicle. The system is based on the Zurich Model of Social Motivation, a cybernetic approach to mammalian behavior by the Swiss ethologist BISCHOF. Our system controls a simulated autonomous robot by teaching a reflective associative memory to propose an action based on the input of eight range sensors. The emerging behavior at every stage reflects the system's experience, and the robust in unexpected situations.

  20. Formation and Stabilization of Vertical Hierarchies among Adolescents: Towards a Quantitative Ethology of Dominance among Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John Levi

    2009-01-01

    Social psychological investigations of hierarchy formation have been almost entirely confined to the case of task-oriented groups and hence have produced theories that turn on the existence of such a task. But other forms of vertical hierarchy may emerge in non-task groups. One form, orderings of dominance, has been studied among animals using…

  1. [Ethological competence of Perm Territory dwellers in the assurance of personal infection safety].

    PubMed

    Merzlova, N B; Serova, I A; Iagodina, A Iu

    2014-01-01

    The authors attempted to analyze preventive measures against infectious and parasitic diseases, which were used domestically by the Perm Territory population, their conjugacy with the stereotypes of attitude towards domestic animals, as well as behavioral features of compliance andcompetence in the assurance of infection safety. The found gaps in the assurance of personal infection safety (drinking unboiled water, unprotected sex, disregard of helminth prevention in domestic animals, and unwillingness to go in for sports) are coherent with the epidemiological situation in the Perm Territory and to our clinical and laboratory study of the patients of the Perm Territory Children's Clinical Hospital in 2011. Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to examine 10075 patients for helminths and protozoa; parasitic diseases were detected in 2047 (20.3%) persons. The diagnostic titer of antibodies to Toxocara antigens was revealed in 677 (11.8%) children of 5700 patients examined for toxocariasis; that for Opisthorchis antigens was in 595 (37.7%) of 1578 examined for Opisthorchis infestation. The diagnostic titers for echinococcosis was found in 9 (0.75%) of 1198 patients; later on the diagnosis of hydatid disease was verified by epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Despite the inadequate informative value of EIA for the diagnosis of giardiasis, high antibody titers to Lamblia antigens were detected in 766 (47.9%) of 1599 children. PMID:25296422

  2. Ethological study of the effects of tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) on social recognition in rats.

    PubMed

    Gheusi, G; Bluthe, R M; Goodall, G; Dantzer, R

    1994-05-01

    Two major difficulties confront ethopharmacological investigations on cognitive abilities such as social recognition in drug-treated animals involved in free social interactions. The first concerns the choice of the most relevant behaviours, those reflecting the cognitive abilities attributed to the animals and assessing the specificity of the drug activity, and those reflecting non-specific drug effects. The second refers to the experimenter's awareness that in contrast to physical objects, social stimuli respond to drug-treated subjects and that their own level of responsiveness may influence the changes of drug-treated subjects' social interest. In addition, their contribution may vary according to the different treatments the drug-treated subjects receive. In examining the effects of tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) at doses of 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg on the ability of adult male rats to recognize previously encountered conspecifics, we attempted to take into consideration such difficulties. A detailed behavioural profile of drug-treated rats was reported to separate specific from non-specific effects of THA. In addition, rats were assigned an index of responsibility for contact which takes into account the interactive dimension of each dyad and allows relevant comparisons between different treatments. The doses of THA which were found to decrease the duration of exploration of a familiar juvenile were also found to decrease the number of contacts initiated by the drug-treated subjects. THA induced a relative increase in body care by comparison to saline treatment. However, it had no effect of locomotor activity and rearing of the subjects. These findings enable dissociation of the effects of THA on cognitive versus non-cognitive processes. PMID:7855227

  3. Amygdala lesions produce analgesia in a novel, ethologically relevant acute pain test.

    PubMed

    Hebert, M A; Ardid, D; Henrie, J A; Tamashiro, K; Blanchard, D C; Blanchard, R J

    1999-08-01

    Acute pain tests using mechanical stimuli typically do not involve objects important in the evolutionary history of the subjects, and may fail to evaluate the contribution of biobehavioral defensive reactions to the total pain response. Spines are common structural defenses that protect plants and animals against predation. The present studies examined the reaction to contact with such natural, mechanical pain stimuli in the laboratory rat, utilizing a floor board with protruding pins located in the middle of a novel alley (the "fakir" test). Behavioral responses were characterized in 10-min tests (Experiment 1). Subjects showed voluntary contact with the pins followed by patterns of avoidance and risk assessment (stretch attend and stretch approach). Few subjects crossed the array of pins. The amygdala has been implicated in the perception of pain, particularly in stressful or fearful contexts. In Experiment 2, the fakir test was used to examine, concurrently, the effects of amygdala lesions on analgesiometric (frequency and duration of pin crossings) and anxiometric (risk assessment) measures. Large, bilateral, lesions of the amygdala significantly increased both the number of pin crossings and time spent on the pins without affecting the risk assessment measures. These findings suggest a possible dissociation between anxiety and pain perception with an important (nonaffective) role for the amygdala in the latter. PMID:10463635

  4. Urban begging and ethnic nepotism in Russia : An ethological pilot study.

    PubMed

    Butovskaya, M; Salter, F; Diakonov, I; Smirnov, A

    2000-06-01

    Ethnic nepotism theory predicts that even in times of communal peace altruism is more pronounced within than between ethnic groups. The present study tested the hypothesis that altruism in the form of alms giving would be greater within than between ethnic groups, and greater between more closely related groups than between more distant groups. The three groups chosen for study were ethnic Russians, Moldavians, and Gypsies. Russians are genetically closer to Moldavians than to Gypsies. Observations were made of 128 ethnic Russian, 25 Moldavian, and 25 Gypsy beggars receiving gifts from ethnic Russians in Moscow trains. The Gypsies were mainly girls, contrary to the Russian sample. Multivariate analysis identified three main strategies: active, personified, and appeasing-undirected. Russian strategies were most variable. Gypsies presented strong charity releasers: 84% were children who played music and sang and showed appeasing-undirected behavior. The few adults were highly submissive or friendly. Nevertheless, their success was limited compared with that of ethnic Russians despite the latter's demanding behavior and their being mostly mature or elderly persons. Moldavians received an intermediate amount of charity. The hypothesis was supported. PMID:26193365

  5. Affiliative Subgroups in Preschool Classrooms: Integrating Constructs and Methods from Social Ethology and Sociometric Traditions

    PubMed Central

    Santos, António J.; Daniel, João R.; Fernandes, Carla; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of school-age children and adolescents have used social network analyses to characterize selection and socialization aspects of peer groups. Fewer network studies have been reported for preschool classrooms and many of those have focused on structural descriptions of peer networks, and/or, on selection processes rather than on social functions of subgroup membership. In this study we started by identifying and describing different types of affiliative subgroups (HMP- high mutual proximity, LMP- low mutual proximity, and ungrouped children) in a sample of 240 Portuguese preschool children using nearest neighbor observations. Next, we used additional behavioral observations and sociometric data to show that HMP and LMP subgroups are functionally distinct: HMP subgroups appear to reflect friendship relations, whereas LMP subgroups appear to reflect common social goals, but without strong, within-subgroup dyadic ties. Finally, we examined the longitudinal implications of subgroup membership and show that children classified as HMP in consecutive years had more reciprocated friendships than did children whose subgroup classification changed from LMP or ungrouped to HMP. These results extend previous findings reported for North American peer groups. PMID:26134139

  6. [Basic ethological considerations concerning the evaluation of the welfare of farm animals].

    PubMed

    Knierim, U

    2002-06-01

    In the assessment of husbandry conditions with regard to farm animal welfare the probability or risk is evaluated to which extent the animals are feeling well or are prone to pain, suffering or physical harm under the specific husbandry conditions. It is emphasised that well-being is more than merely the absence of pain, suffering and physical harm. Well-being is defined as the experience of the extent of being able to successfully cope with the environment. Consequently, any prevention to actively and successfully interact with the environment may impair animal well-being. This situation often arises because of conflicts between husbandry conditions and innate species-specific behaviour programs, regardless of any domestication effects on the reactivity of the farm animals to their environment. Based on these presumptions, four broad categories of influence on the well-being of animals are identified and exemplary explained. On the side of the environment these are the extent of (1) physical opportunity to perform species-specific behaviour, (2) availability of adequate stimuli and substrates for this behaviour and (3) adequate learning opportunities, especially during rearing. On the animals' side it is the extent of (4) their genetically based bodily capacity to perform species-specific behaviour. Less behavioural restriction is associated with the likelihood that better well-being is safeguarded under the aspect of behaviour. For a full assessment with respect to animal welfare also health aspects and other variables as appropriate must be taken into account. The assessment is comparative by nature and does not in itself include any conclusion about the acceptability of certain conditions. PMID:12125171

  7. A New Curriculum for Ethology and Student Skills in The Netherlands. Part 2: Innovation and Implementation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Bram J.; Dijkstra, Maurits J.; Bloem, Alex

    1997-01-01

    Presents the case for employing an action research framework for curriculum development in The Netherlands. Argues that this bottom-up strategy can be effective because many teachers are willing to refine and modify their practices. (DDR)

  8. [A pharmaco-ethological study of the GABA-ergic mechanisms regulating the depression-like behavior of mice].

    PubMed

    Belozertseva, I V; Andreev, B V

    1997-01-01

    It is known that repeated stress may result in depression-like alterations of behavior. This behavior is characterized by decreased social exploratory activity and increase in occurrence of defensive postures in a social interaction test in mice. The passive defensive behavior is effectively antagonized by antidepressant drugs thus providing a useful animal model of depression. Effects of several GABAergic drugs were studied in opponent test in individually housed male mice. For two weeks preceding the test, mice were repeatedly exposed to foot shock stimulation and/or social confrontation with an aggressive mouse. Muscimol, a selective agonist of GABA(A) receptors, decreased the frequency and duration of defensive postures and increased the duration of some forms of individual activity (grooming and eating), like the agonist of GABA(B) receptors baclofen. Muscimol was the only compound that facilitated exploratory activity towards an unfamiliar partner and did not suppress the locomotion. Effects of another agonist of GABA(B) receptors phenibut and inhibitor of GABA transaminase valproate Na were less specific and consisted in general suppression of behavior (prevalence of static forms of behavior). It can be thought that GABA(A) receptors are essential for regulation of depression-like behavior of mice. PMID:9472168

  9. On the Ethology of Female Homo Sapiens Sapiens at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittle, Christopher

    This study is a followup to the author's earlier study of the learning differences exhibited by museum exhibit visitors and seeks to discern the effects of the pathological cultural problems identified by other researchers in a science education setting. The setting for this followup study was the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.…

  10. Eco-ethological heterogeneity of the members of the Anopheles minimus complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southeast Asia and its consequences for vector control.

    PubMed

    Van Bortel, Wim; Trung, Ho Dinh; Sochantha, Tho; Keokenchan, Kalouna; Roelants, Patricia; Backeljau, Thierry; Coosemans, Marc

    2004-05-01

    The presence of cryptic species within Anopheles minimus s.l. Theobald, one of the most widespread malaria vectors in Southeast Asia, was suggested on the basis of behavioral heterogeneities observed within this taxon. Subsequently, two species, A and C, were recognized. However, the existence of these cryptic species did not explain all observed behavioral heterogeneities within this complex. Besides, data on the behavior of vectors are essential to understand the dynamics of disease transmission and thus evaluate the appropriateness of vector control measures. Different collection methods were used to collect Anopheles species from several localities in Southeast Asia to assess the inter- and intraspecific behavioral divergences of An. minimus A and C. Collection results were subjected to a correspondence analysis. The members of the An. minimus complex were identified by use of the octanol dehydrogenase allozyme profiles or the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Large intraspecific behavioral differences were observed among populations of An. minimus A. These populations belong to the same species on the basis of the applied genetic markers. In northern Vietnam, species A tended to be more zoophilic, whereas in the study sites of south central Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos it showed marked antropophilic behavior when cattle were scarce. In the most northern study site, An. minimus A showed noteworthy endophilic behavior. An. minimus C was primarily zoophilic and based on this behavior, its role in malaria transmission is questionable. However, it was only found in one locality, so that intraspecific behavioral variation could not be assessed. An. minimus A is able to change its host preference in function of local situations in host availability. Hence, its role in malaria transmission can differ from region to region. Similarly, the impact of vector control on this species may differ between localities. In conclusion, intraspecific behavioral differences in Anopheles species can occur and these behavioral heterogeneities, albeit important for disease transmission and control, are not a priori indicative for the presence of cryptic species. PMID:15185937

  11. The role of neighborhood relations in maintenance of the spatial-ethological structure of local settlements as exemplified by the water vole (Arvicola amphibius).

    PubMed

    Evsikov, V I; Muzyka, V Yu; Potapova, O F; Potapov, M A

    2016-07-01

    Adult males of the water vole have been found experimentally to recognize their neighbors and react to them differently depending on the degree of spatial proximity in nature. Most tensions (estimated by the number of aggressive acts in the encounters) were observed between distant neighbors (from neighboring settlements), which did not belong to the same groups with established hierarchy and a relatively reduced aggression. These are probably perceived as the most likely competitors (because of their spatial proximity). At the same time, male voles kept away from the obviously unfamiliar ones, though they do not express any apparent aggression. PMID:27595823

  12. Anti-aversive effects of cannabidiol on innate fear-induced behaviors evoked by an ethological model of panic attacks based on a prey vs the wild snake Epicrates cenchria crassus confrontation paradigm.

    PubMed

    Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Francisco, Audrey; Castiblanco-Urbina, Maria Angélica; Twardowschy, André; Salgado-Rohner, Carlos José; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Zuardi, Antônio Waldo; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2012-01-01

    Several pharmacological targets have been proposed as modulators of panic-like reactions. However, interest should be given to other potential therapeutic neurochemical agents. Recent attention has been given to the potential anxiolytic properties of cannabidiol, because of its complex actions on the endocannabinoid system together with its effects on other neurotransmitter systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cannabidiol on innate fear-related behaviors evoked by a prey vs predator paradigm. Male Swiss mice were submitted to habituation in an arena containing a burrow and subsequently pre-treated with intraperitoneal administrations of vehicle or cannabidiol. A constrictor snake was placed inside the arena, and defensive and non-defensive behaviors were recorded. Cannabidiol caused a clear anti-aversive effect, decreasing explosive escape and defensive immobility behaviors outside and inside the burrow. These results show that cannabidiol modulates defensive behaviors evoked by the presence of threatening stimuli, even in a potentially safe environment following a fear response, suggesting a panicolytic effect. PMID:21918503

  13. Peer Group Formation in Young Children: Perception. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Murray S.

    This study is an attempt to integrate two theoretical approaches in child development: ethology and cognitive theory. An ethological approach suggests that children structure their social world hierarchically and are emotionally involved in perceiving and participating in interactions involving dominance. It is through this involvement that…

  14. Human Behavior: Do Animals Have the Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    Results of psychological experiments usinganimals are presented. Use of the animal-human analogy to generalize these findings to humans is discussed. Ethological studies are interpreted in light of the total environment and situation involved. The completeness of the ethological model compared to the animal-experimental model is discussed. (LS)

  15. Specialist Osmia bees forage indiscriminately among hybridizing Balsamorhiza floral hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even generalist pollinators are typically taxonomic specialists during individual foraging bouts. Such floral constancy restricts pollen flow, and thereby gene flow, between otherwise inter-fertile flowering species, thus serving as an ethological mating barrier. Among incipient species, however, ...

  16. Specialist Osmia Bees Forage Indiscriminately Among Hybridizing Balsamorhiza Floral Hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even generalist pollinators are typically taxonomic specialists during individual foraging bouts. Such floral constancy restricts pollen flow, and thereby gene flow, between otherwise inter-fertile flowering species, thus serving as an ethological mating barrier. Among incipient species, however, ...

  17. The Ontogenesis of Social Dominance: A Strategy-Based Evolutionary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Patricia H.

    1999-01-01

    Reintroduces the ethological concept of social dominance, and interprets it from a strategy-based perspective. Maintains that, by adopting this approach to social dominance and explicitly incorporating developmental processes and uniquely human capacities, human social-dominance patterns appear to be more similar to primate patterns than commonly…

  18. Children, Play, and Development. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Fergus P.

    2010-01-01

    Children, Play, and Development, Fourth Edition, discusses the relationship of play to the physical, social, intellectual, and emotional growth of the child. Author Fergus P. Hughes focuses on the historical, sociocultural, and ethological context of play; the role of development in play; and the wide range of theories that provide a framework for…

  19. Exploring Ethograms in the Schoolyard: A Lesson on Animal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graszer, Christina L.; Gnau, Katie; Melber, Leah M.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights a core lesson that has been used in a number of Lincoln Park Zoo educational programs. The lesson teaches students to conduct an ethological, or animal behavior, study on a bird. This study can be implemented in a variety of outdoor settings, including a park, schoolyard, or zoo. Using an ethogram, students will practice…

  20. Role of Amygdala and Hippocampus in the Neural Circuit Subserving Conditioned Defeat in Syrian Hamsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Chris M.; Taylor, Stacie L.; Huhman, Kim L.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the roles of the amygdala and hippocampus in the formation of emotionally relevant memories using an ethological model of conditioned fear termed conditioned defeat (CD). Temporary inactivation of the ventral, but not dorsal hippocampus (VH, DH, respectively) using muscimol disrupted the acquisition of CD, whereas pretraining VH…

  1. Animal Navigation in the Classroom: Lessons from a Pilot Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanini, Lucia

    2011-01-01

    In response to a direct request from science teachers, researchers initiated a pilot experience on animal orientation and navigation, which was delivered to 61 13-year-old students in Florence, Italy. The aim was to explain the approach to ethology and to link animal navigation with geography, focusing on species crossing the Italian territory.…

  2. Crying in the First Year: An Opertant Interpretation of the Bell and Ainsworth (1972) Findings. (sic)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsley, Nancy J.; Rabinowitz, F. Michael

    1975-01-01

    Attempts to integrate the ethological interpretation of the Bell and Ainsworth findings on the promptness of mother reaction to infant crying, with operant laboratory infant research. Suggests an alternative operant interpretation based on the concept of counter conditioning. (Author/ED)

  3. Environmental Biology Programs at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getz, Lowell L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the programs of the Department of Ecology, Ethology, and Evolution at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign). Focuses on the graduate degrees offered in environmental biology. Lists research interests and courses in plant biology, entomology, forestry, civil engineering, and landscape architecture. (TW)

  4. Imitation of Tongue Protrusion in Human Neonates: Specificity of the Response in a Large Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Emese; Pilling, Karen; Orvos, Hajnalka; Molnar, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although a large body of evidence has accumulated on the young human infant's ability to imitate, the phenomenon has failed to gain unanimous acceptance. Imitation of tongue protrusion, the most tested gesture to date, was examined in a sample of 115 newborns in the first 5 days of life in 3 seating positions. An ethologically based…

  5. Emotional Development and Delay: The Child in the Context of the Family Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Nancy W.

    The paper reviews aspects of a young child's emotional development occurring in social interactions and discusses implications for children having, or at risk of having, emotional and behavioral problems. Contributions of ethology and ecology are cited in an examination of the child's interaction with the family. Research findings are reviewed on…

  6. Jean-Jacques Is Alive and Well: Rousseau and Contemporary Sociobiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the author's personal fascination with and study of Rousseau's life. Discusses Rousseau's many questions that are relevant to evolutionary biology, sociobiology, anthropology, and ethology. Questions concern the nature of human nature, the origin of human society, nurture-nature influences on humans, and the nature of male-female…

  7. Ecological and Developmental Issues in the Practice of Educational Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowler, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    This conceptual article examines what is meant by the term "ecological-contextual" in relation to the assessment of children's needs. Revisiting the discipline of ethology, the article applies the construct of niche to the human species, including examples from children's experiences to validate the relevance of this link. Issues of power…

  8. The Emergence of Interest in Social Interaction in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alan

    The paper analyzes changes in conceptions of social interaction in infancy from a unidirectional process to a bidirectional one requiring dyadic analysis. Developments in the fields of ethology and comparative psychology are cited as are implications of early behaviorist research that pointed out the effects on the mother of the infant's behavior.…

  9. Contribution from Various Disciplines to Measurement and Evaluation in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Actual and potential contributions from the fields of anthropology, sociology, ecological and environmental psychology, and ethology to measurement and evaluation, particularly in early childhood education, are discussed. The diversity and potency of these approaches suggest that a multidisciplinary, eclectic approach to finding measures for…

  10. It's Time to Challenge the Gifted: Some Tested Lessons, K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Instruction.

    Presented is a guide designed for teachers who have gifted students. Lessons designed for the gifted student are suggested. More than a dozen sample lessons are provided. Lesson titles include: Folk Songs, Geometry, Graphing Leaves, Creating a Nature Trail, The New Science of Ethology, and Original Research. In addition to the lessons, advice for…

  11. Behavioral Science and the Teaching of Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, George E.

    1980-01-01

    When the findings of sociobiology and ethology are properly interpreted, they are surprisingly compatible with commonsense ethical values, adding to our understanding of moral and ethical principles as an essential element of human social behavior. This paper provides a brief overview of the broader scientific interpretation to illustrate this…

  12. Visual Reinforcement in the Female Siamese Fighting Fish, "Betta Splendens"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elcoro, Mirari; da Silva, Stephanie P.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    2008-01-01

    Operant conditioning with "Betta splendens" ("Bettas") has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female "Bettas" have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male "Bettas". Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female "Bettas" to examine the…

  13. The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB): Furthering the Understanding and Measurement of Neurodevelopmental Competence in Preterm and Full-Term Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Als, Heidelise; Butler, Samantha; Kosta, Sandra; McAnulty, Gloria

    2005-01-01

    The Assessment of Preterm Infants' Behavior (APIB) is a newborn neurobehavioral assessment appropriate for preterm, at risk, and full-term newborns, from birth to 1 month after expected due date. The APIB is based in ethological--evolutionary thought and focuses on the assessment of mutually interacting behavioral subsystems in simultaneous…

  14. Attachment and Social Problem Solving in Juvenile Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathew, Saritha S.; And Others

    This study investigates characteristics of juvenile delinquency and youth violence by examining attachment and social problem skills. Attachment theory integrates features of psychoanalytic theory, ethology, and cognitive psychology. Research on adolescent attachment suggests that parents continue to function as a secure base for their teenage…

  15. On the Shortcomings of Our Organisational Forms: With Implications for Educational Change and School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    This article informs school improvement and educational change from a radically different perspective. Building upon work done recently in neural psychology, primatology and ethology, the article examines four common and general types of organisational form: the cell, the silo, the pyramidal, and the network types of organisational structures.…

  16. Proxemics and Kinesics of Adolescents in Dual-Gender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terneus, Sandra K.; Malone, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    Ethological research indicates that during courtship, men and women usually communicate their interests via body language and interpersonal space (kinesics and proxemics). Many studies have validated the usage of kinesics and the ebb and flow of proximity during the process of courtship. Although the majority of studies have focused on young…

  17. Six Species of Signs: Some Propositions and Strictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebeok, Thomas A.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with the relationship existing between the signifier and the signified components of signs, and with problems in the definition of signs. It is also concerned with recognizing the relationship of semiotics to developmental psychology and ethology. (Available from Semiotica, Co-Libri, P.O. Box 482, The Hague 2076, The Netherlands)

  18. Peer Preferences of At-Risk and Normally Developing Children in a Preschool Mainstream Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallaro, Sahli A.; Porter, Richard H.

    1980-01-01

    Social interactions and peer preferences in a preschool mainstream classroom containing 20 normally developing and at-risk children were studied, using the ethological method of direct observation. Data on social play and gaze orientation indicated that normally developing children and at-risk children interacted primarily with children from their…

  19. Evolution and Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardwick, Judith M.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the theory and research on the physiological or genetic origins of parenting behavior, noting that an ethological or evolutionary analysis of parenting behavior supports the idea that primates, including man, have evolved psychological structures which are particularly adapted to respond to cues from young children. (Author/JM)

  20. "A Human Ethogram: Its Scientific Acceptability and Importance." A Treatise Assessing Modern Theories of Personality Development and Proposing a New Comprehensive Theory of Behavior and Behavioral Development, key chapters and sections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jesness, Bradley

    Written by a methodological behaviorist, this treatise critiques neo-Hullian, Freudian, Eriksonian, and Piagetian theories and presents an ethological perspective on behavior and personality development. The critique is extended to cover social learning, cognitive-developmental, neo-Freudian, and Skinnerian theories, as well as the ideas of…

  1. The Non-Verbal Behavior of Children in a Listening Situation; Theoretical Implications and Practical Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Raffler-Engel, Walburga

    The present paper is part of a long range research project in Developmental Kinesics. The gist of the project is empirical: the object is to find out what happens rather than look for anything in particular or test a hypothesis. The methodology for the analysis is ethological in approach. Empirical observations are carefully described.…

  2. The myth of the aggressive monkey.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Captive rhesus macaques are not naturally aggressive, but poor husbandry and handling practices can trigger their aggression toward conspecifics and toward the human handler. The myth of the aggressive monkey probably is based on often not taking into account basic ethological principles when managing rhesus macaques in the research laboratory setting. PMID:16221082

  3. [I. P. Pavlov and K. Lorenz].

    PubMed

    Gorokhovskaia, E A

    2000-01-01

    In the thirtieth, the founder of ethology Austrian zoologist Konrad Lorenz put forward the new theory of behavior, which was met with considerable resistance of the dominant views on the mechanisms of behavior, including Pavlov's concept. From his first theoretical works and later on Lorenz debated with Pavlov. However, these debates were not reduced to a disagreement. He appreciated greatly the scientific contribution of Pavlov, and the ideas of the Russian physiologist were often the starting point of his own speculations. His polemics with Pavlov differed very much from his uncompromising controversies with behaviorists. When Lorenz compared Pavlov's views with behaviorism, he often preferred Pavlov's ideas. Lorenz also draw some parallels between the Pavlov's understanding of behavior and the ethological approach. Lorenz's discussion with Pavlov about the nature of conditioned reflex is of particular interest, since it stimulated Lorenz to develop the theory of this phenomenon. PMID:10750201

  4. Using chronic social stress to model postpartum depression in lactating rodents.

    PubMed

    Carini, Lindsay M; Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stress is a reliable predictor of depressive disorders, and social stress is a common ethologically relevant stressor in both animals and humans. However, many animal models of depression were developed in males and are not applicable or effective in studies of postpartum females. Recent studies have reported significant effects of chronic social stress during lactation, an ethologically relevant and effective stressor, on maternal behavior, growth, and behavioral neuroendocrinology. This manuscript will describe this chronic social stress paradigm using repeated exposure of a lactating dam to a novel male intruder, and the assessment of the behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine effects of this model. Chronic social stress (CSS) is a valuable model for studying the effects of stress on the behavior and physiology of the dam as well as her offspring and future generations. The exposure of pups to CSS can also be used as an early life stress that has long term effects on behavior, physiology, and neuroendocrinology. PMID:23792810

  5. Behavioural Profiles in Captive-Bred Cynomolgus Macaques: Towards Monkey Models of Mental Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Sandrine M. J.; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Li, Qin; Hausberger, Martine; Bezard, Erwan

    2013-01-01

    Background To date, experimental and preclinical studies on neuropsychiatric conditions have almost exclusively been performed in experimentally-induced animal models and have only rarely relied upon an ethological approach where animals have been observed in more naturalistic settings. The laboratory species of choice has been the rodent while the potential of more closely-related non-human primates have remained largely underexplored. Methods The present study, therefore, aimed at investigating the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 cynomolgus macaques in captive conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence analysis and a hierarchical clustering. Results The study identified five distinct profiles (groups A to E) that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, gaze directions and locations in the cage environment. We suggest that animals from the low n groups (D and E) present depressive-like and anxious-like symptoms, reminiscent of depressive and generalized anxiety disorders. Inter-individual differences were highlighted through unbiased ethological observations of spontaneous behaviours and associated parameters, although these were not associated with differences in plasma or cerebrospinal fluid levels of either stress-related hormones or monoamines, i.e. in accordance with the human situation. Conclusions No interventional behavioural testing was required to discriminate between 3 typical and 2 atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like and anxiety-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might, thus, allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups. PMID:23658620

  6. Compendium of crane behavior. Part 1: Individual (nonsocial) behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Archibald, G.W.; Swengel, S.R.; Kepler, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides the organizational framework, nomenclature, and abbreviated descriptions for all conspicuous nonsocial behavioral units for all 15 species of crane. We present eight generalized functional classes of behavior. These classes include about 90 discrete motor patterns that constitute the nonsocial repertoire of all cranes. We present this compendium to facilitate information exchanges among students of crane behavior and to encourage interest in future detailed studies of the descriptive ethology of each species.

  7. Collective behaviour across animal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment.

  8. Science-based assessment of animal welfare: companion animals.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, J S J

    2005-08-01

    Human history reveals that the way in which humans treat animals is based on their views of themselves as well as of the living environment around them. These views may vary from an assumption of human superiority to one of equality between humans and animals. Recent trends affecting companion-animal welfare are: modern philosophies on animal issues, the specialised and varied roles that companion animals play in modern societies, new results from animal neuroscience, human-animal interaction studies and the new profession of companion animal ethology. This paper concludes that applied ethology could provide science-based criteria to assess companion-animal welfare. Due to the integral part that companion animals play in human societies, the paper is divided into an animal component that deals with the animal's basic needs and its ability to adapt, and a human component assessing the living environment of animals as provided by humans and responsible companion-animal ownership. The greatest challenge for future research is to find ways to disseminate knowledge of companion animal ethology to companion animal owners. PMID:16358503

  9. Macaques exhibit a naturally-occurring depression similar to humans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fan; Wu, Qingyuan; Xie, Liang; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Peng; Zhou, Qinmin; Ji, Yongjia; Wang, Tao; Li, Xin; Fang, Liang; Li, Qi; Yang, Deyu; Li, Juan; Melgiri, Narayan D; Shively, Carol; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models have dominated preclinical investigations into the mechanisms of depression. However, these models-which rely on subjecting individual rodents to physical stressors - do not realistically resemble the etiopathological development of depression, which occurs naturally in a social context. A non-human primate model that better reflects the social ethological aspects of depression would be more advantageous to investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and developing antidepressant therapeutics. Here, we describe and model a naturally-occurring depressive state in a non-human primate species, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), in a realistic social ethological context and associate the depressed behavioral phenotype with significant serum metabolic perturbations. One to two subjects per stable social colony (17-22 subjects) manifested a depressive phenotype that may be attributed to psychosocial stress. In accordance with rodent and human studies, the serum metabolic phenotype of depressed and healthy subjects significantly differed, supporting the model's face validity. However, application of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine failed to demonstrate predictive validity. This study proposes a non-human primate depression model in a realistic social ethological context that can better approximate the psychosocial stressors underlying depression. PMID:25783476

  10. Macaques Exhibit a Naturally-Occurring Depression Similar to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fan; Wu, Qingyuan; Xie, Liang; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Peng; Zhou, Qinmin; Ji, Yongjia; Wang, Tao; Li, Xin; Fang, Liang; Li, Qi; Yang, Deyu; Li, Juan; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Shively, Carol; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models have dominated preclinical investigations into the mechanisms of depression. However, these models-which rely on subjecting individual rodents to physical stressors - do not realistically resemble the etiopathological development of depression, which occurs naturally in a social context. A non-human primate model that better reflects the social ethological aspects of depression would be more advantageous to investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and developing antidepressant therapeutics. Here, we describe and model a naturally-occurring depressive state in a non-human primate species, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), in a realistic social ethological context and associate the depressed behavioral phenotype with significant serum metabolic perturbations. One to two subjects per stable social colony (17–22 subjects) manifested a depressive phenotype that may be attributed to psychosocial stress. In accordance with rodent and human studies, the serum metabolic phenotype of depressed and healthy subjects significantly differed, supporting the model's face validity. However, application of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine failed to demonstrate predictive validity. This study proposes a non-human primate depression model in a realistic social ethological context that can better approximate the psychosocial stressors underlying depression. PMID:25783476

  11. What Use Is Science to Animal Welfare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, A. J. F.

    1998-06-01

    My concern is to question the quality and utility of science in general and ethology in particular as applied to animal welfare. This topic has in the past provoked me to some severe criticism, for example, 'A lot of well-intended welfare research is neither very good science nor very helpful to the animals.... Too much welfare research is (in my opinion) flawed either because it is oversimplistic, or because it is not so much designed to test preconceptions but to reinforce prejudice' (Webster 1994). Dawkins (1997) has recently responded to this challenge, addressing the question 'Why has there not been more progress in welfare research?' Her response is concerned largely with applied ethology. My own criticism was not directed at ethologists in particular. I was more concerned by the misuse of scientific method by those who seek to obtain a so-called 'objective' measurement of something which they preconceive to be a stress (e.g. measurement of plasma concentrations of cortisol or endorphins in animals following transportation). Here the 'objective' measure frequently becomes the test that gives the answer that they want, and if it fails, then they seek other 'objective' markers until they achieve a set of measurements that supports the subjective impression which they had at the outset. My second main concern is that the welfare state of a sentient animal is a very complex affair and cannot be embraced by any single scientific discipline, be it ethology, physiology, molecular or neurobiology. Unfortunately it is also too complex to be embraced by a single-sentence definition. The best I can do is to suggest that it is determined by the capacity of an animal to sustain physical fitness and avoid mental suffering. The assessment of this is necessarily multidisciplinary.

  12. Criteria of validity for animal models of psychiatric disorders: focus on anxiety disorders and depression.

    PubMed

    Belzung, Catherine; Lemoine, Maël

    2011-01-01

    Animal models of psychiatric disorders are usually discussed with regard to three criteria first elaborated by Willner; face, predictive and construct validity. Here, we draw the history of these concepts and then try to redraw and refine these criteria, using the framework of the diathesis model of depression that has been proposed by several authors. We thus propose a set of five major criteria (with sub-categories for some of them); homological validity (including species validity and strain validity), pathogenic validity (including ontopathogenic validity and triggering validity), mechanistic validity, face validity (including ethological and biomarker validity) and predictive validity (including induction and remission validity). Homological validity requires that an adequate species and strain be chosen: considering species validity, primates will be considered to have a higher score than drosophila, and considering strains, a high stress reactivity in a strain scores higher than a low stress reactivity in another strain. Pathological validity corresponds to the fact that, in order to shape pathological characteristics, the organism has been manipulated both during the developmental period (for example, maternal separation: ontopathogenic validity) and during adulthood (for example, stress: triggering validity). Mechanistic validity corresponds to the fact that the cognitive (for example, cognitive bias) or biological mechanisms (such as dysfunction of the hormonal stress axis regulation) underlying the disorder are identical in both humans and animals. Face validity corresponds to the observable behavioral (ethological validity) or biological (biomarker validity) outcomes: for example anhedonic behavior (ethological validity) or elevated corticosterone (biomarker validity). Finally, predictive validity corresponds to the identity of the relationship between the triggering factor and the outcome (induction validity) and between the effects of the treatments

  13. Eye color as an indicator of behavior: revisiting Worthy and Scott.

    PubMed

    Elias, Vicky L; Nicolas, Cindy L; Abramson, Charles I

    2008-06-01

    Phenotypic eye color has been suggested as an indicator of genetic predisposition toward certain behaviors both in humans and in animals. Previous research has yielded mixed results. Phototaxic and ethological behaviors were examined in 14 different strains of Drosophila melanogaster. No significant correlation between phenotypic eye coloration and behavior was found, although significant genotypical behavioral differences were noted even among subjects with similar eye colors. An analysis of cellular defects associated with eye color in D. melanogaster pointed to significant behavioral differences among cell-defect groups, indicating that the cell defect which causes eye color, rather than eye color itself, may serve as a crude indicator of behavior. PMID:18763448

  14. The squirrel monkey as a candidate for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Kaack, B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of its size and other unique diurnal-primate characteristics, the squirrel monkey is used in: (1) actual bioflight missions, (2) in laboratory tests designed to clarify the risks to man during launch and recovery as well as in hazardous spaceflight environments; and (3) in the acquisition of data on unknown risks encountered in long duration space exploration. Pertinent data concerning samiri sciureus as described in published and unpublished reports are summarized. Topics include: taxonomy, ethology, life history, sensory-learning-motor capabilities in primate perspective, anatomy and physiology (including homeostatic adaptation to stress), susceptibility to environmental hazards, reproduction, care and clinical management, and previous use in aerospace biomedical research.

  15. Collective behaviour across animal species

    PubMed Central

    DeLellis, Pietro; Polverino, Giovanni; Ustuner, Gozde; Abaid, Nicole; Macrì, Simone; Bollt, Erik M.; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    We posit a new geometric perspective to define, detect, and classify inherent patterns of collective behaviour across a variety of animal species. We show that machine learning techniques, and specifically the isometric mapping algorithm, allow the identification and interpretation of different types of collective behaviour in five social animal species. These results offer a first glimpse at the transformative potential of machine learning for ethology, similar to its impact on robotics, where it enabled robots to recognize objects and navigate the environment. PMID:24430561

  16. To Act or Not to Act: Endocannabinoid/Dopamine Interactions in Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Giovanni; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making is an ethologically adaptive construct that is impaired in multiple psychiatric disorders. Activity within the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system has been traditionally associated with decision-making. The endocannabinoid system through its actions on inhibitory and excitatory synapses modulates dopamine activity and decision-making. The aim of this brief review is to present a synopsis of available data obtained when the endocannabinoid system is manipulated and dopamine activity recorded. To this end, we review research using different behavioral paradigms to provide further insight into how this ubiquitous signaling system biases dopamine-related behaviors to regulate decision-making. PMID:26733830

  17. Ants Can Expect the Time of an Event on Basis of Previous Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Cammaerts, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Working on three ant species of the genus Myrmica, M. ruginodis, M. rubra, and M. sabuleti, we showed that foragers can expect the subsequent time at which food will be available on the basis of the previous times at which food was present. The ants acquired this expectative ability right after having experienced two time shifts of food delivery. Moreover, the ants' learning score appeared to be a logarithmic function of time (i.e., of the number of training days). This ability to expect subsequent times at which an event will occur may be an advantageous ethological trait. PMID:27403457

  18. Some Properties of Transforms in Cultural Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballonoff, Paul

    2010-12-01

    It is shown that, in certain circumstances, systems of cultural rules may be represented by doubly stochastic matrices denoted Π, called “possibility transforms,” and by certain real valued “possibility densities” π=( π 1, π 2,…, π n ) with inner product <π,πrangle=sumiπi2=1. We may characterize a certain problem of ethnographic or ethological description as a problem of prediction, in which observations are predicted by properties of fixed points of transforms of “pure systems”, or by properties of convex combinations of such “pure systems”. Other relationships to quantum methods are noted.

  19. Cap-shaped gastropods from Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits of northern East Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzhov, A. V.; Zakharov, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    Cap-shaped gastropods are first identified in Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sections of northern East Siberia. They belong to three new genera of the subclass Pectinibranchia ( Boreioconus gen. nov., Nixepileolus gen. nov., and Taimyroconus gen. nov.), which are identified at the species level ( B. bojarkensis sp. nov., N. depressus sp. nov., T. zakharovi sp. nov.), and several species with the open nomenclature. The genus Taimyroconus attributed to the family Calyptraeidae is considered as an ancestral form of the genus Crepidula. The stratigraphic position of each taxon is determined for several sections. The facies confinement, habitat conditions, and ethology of defined genera are considered with the analysis of their geographic distribution.

  20. Translational science in action: Hostile attributional style and the development of aggressive behavior problems

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the development of hostile attributional style and its role in children's aggressive behavior is proposed, based on the translation of basic science in ethology, neuroscience, social psychology, personality psychology, and developmental psychology. Theory and findings from these domains are reviewed and synthesized in the proposed model, which posits that (a) aggressive behavior and hostile attributions are universal human characteristics, (b) socialization leads to the development of benign attributions, (c) individual differences in attributional style account for differences in aggressive behavior, and (d) interventions to change attributions have the potential to alter antisocial development. Challenges for future research are described. PMID:17152401

  1. Revisiting the concept of behavior patterns in animal behavior with an example from food-caching sequences in wolves (Canis lupus), coyotes (Canis latrans), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Gadbois, Simon; Sievert, Olivia; Reeve, Catherine; Harrington, F H; Fentress, J C

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the history, conceptualization, and relevance of behavior patterns in modern ethology by explaining the evolution of the concepts of fixed action patterns and modal action patterns. We present the movement toward a more flexible concept of natural action sequences with significant degrees of (production and expressive) freedom. An example is presented with the food caching behavior of three Canidae species: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), coyote (Canis latrans) and gray wolf (Canis lupus). Evolutionary, ecological, and neuroecological/neuroethological arguments are presented to explain the difference in levels of complexity and stereotypy between Canis and Vulpes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. PMID:25446624

  2. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Migratory Behavior of Ungulates Using Isotopic Analysis of Tooth Enamel and Its Effects on Forager Mobility.

    PubMed

    Pilaar Birch, Suzanne E; Miracle, Preston T; Stevens, Rhiannon E; O'Connell, Tamsin C

    2016-01-01

    Zooarchaeological and paleoecological investigations have traditionally been unable to reconstruct the ethology of herd animals, which likely had a significant influence on the mobility and subsistence strategies of prehistoric humans. In this paper, we reconstruct the migratory behavior of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and caprids at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northeastern Adriatic region using stable oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel. The data show a significant change in δ18O values from the Pleistocene into the Holocene, as well as isotopic variation between taxa, the case study sites, and through time. We then discuss the implications of seasonal faunal availability as determining factors in human mobility patterns. PMID:27275784

  3. Called home: The creation of family life.

    PubMed

    Hutch, R A

    1992-09-01

    Engendering family life is a spiritual process (theosis) based on human ethological constants of gender difference and generational turnover. Recent studies on ethnicity suggest that such a process retrieves a primordial sense of the human species as a whole, "humankind." Families, especially in this broad sense, link together the living and the dead and, at their best, morally empower individuals who link their destinies to such a vision of creation and human health. Reference is made to work on human strengths and speciation by Erik Erikson and to that on maternal thinking by Sara Ruddick. A political program by which an ideology of "familism" can be made is offered. PMID:24271052

  4. Ants Can Expect the Time of an Event on Basis of Previous Experiences.

    PubMed

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; Cammaerts, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Working on three ant species of the genus Myrmica, M. ruginodis, M. rubra, and M. sabuleti, we showed that foragers can expect the subsequent time at which food will be available on the basis of the previous times at which food was present. The ants acquired this expectative ability right after having experienced two time shifts of food delivery. Moreover, the ants' learning score appeared to be a logarithmic function of time (i.e., of the number of training days). This ability to expect subsequent times at which an event will occur may be an advantageous ethological trait. PMID:27403457

  5. [Formation of probabilistic structure of motor behavior in bottlenose dolphins in captivity].

    PubMed

    Chechina, O N; Kondrat'eva, N L

    2009-01-01

    A probabilistic structure of the motor behavior was analyzed in dolphin calves Tursiops truncatus in the prenatal period and adult dolphins in an oceanarium. Ethograms were recorded and subjected to a computer analysis. Ranking probabilities of transitions between behavioral acts revealed a highly determined sequence of operations underlying the newborn dolphins' behavior. The principle of formation of the variation ethologic structures providing a contact between a developing organism and the environment was determined. The results are discussed in terms of the concept of the informational brain-environment interaction. PMID:19947534

  6. Late Pleistocene/Early Holocene Migratory Behavior of Ungulates Using Isotopic Analysis of Tooth Enamel and Its Effects on Forager Mobility

    PubMed Central

    Pilaar Birch, Suzanne E.; Miracle, Preston T.; Stevens, Rhiannon E.; O’Connell, Tamsin C.

    2016-01-01

    Zooarchaeological and paleoecological investigations have traditionally been unable to reconstruct the ethology of herd animals, which likely had a significant influence on the mobility and subsistence strategies of prehistoric humans. In this paper, we reconstruct the migratory behavior of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and caprids at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the northeastern Adriatic region using stable oxygen isotope analysis of tooth enamel. The data show a significant change in δ18O values from the Pleistocene into the Holocene, as well as isotopic variation between taxa, the case study sites, and through time. We then discuss the implications of seasonal faunal availability as determining factors in human mobility patterns. PMID:27275784

  7. Interview with daniel C. Dennett.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Daniel Dennett was educated at Harvard and Oxford, receiving his D.Phil. in 1965. After six years at University of California Irvine, he moved to Tufts, where he is Distinguished Professor of Arts and Sciences and Director of the Center for Cognitive Studies. It is the author of articles on many issues in artificial intelligence, psychology, and cognitive ethology, as well as in philosophy. His books are Content and Consciousness (1969), Brainstorms (1978), The Mind's I (with Douglas Hofstadter, 1981). Elbow Room (1984), The Intentional Stance (1987), and Consciousness Explained (1991). His new book, Darwin's Dangerous Idea, will be published by Simon & Schuster in spring, 1995. PMID:23961869

  8. Molecular Organization of Vomeronasal Chemoreception

    PubMed Central

    Isogai, Yoh; Si, Sheng; Pont-Lezica, Lorena; Tan, Taralyn; Kapoor, Vikrant; Murthy, Venkatesh N.; Dulac, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) plays a key role in mediating the social and defensive responses of many terrestrial vertebrates to species- and sex-specific chemosignals1. Over 250 putative pheromone receptors have been identified in the mouse VNO2,3, but the nature of the signals detected by individual VNO receptors has not yet been elucidated. In order to gain insight into the molecular logic of VNO detection leading to mating, aggression, or defensive responses, we sought to uncover the response profiles of individual vomeronasal receptors to a wide range of animal cues. We describe here the repertoire of ethological and physiological stimuli detected by a large number of individual vomeronasal receptors, and define a global map of vomeronasal signal detection. We demonstrate that the two classes of vomeronasal receptors V1Rs and V2Rs use fundamentally different strategies to encode chemosensory information, and that distinct receptor subfamilies have evolved towards the specific recognition of certain animal groups or chemical structures. The association of large subsets of vomeronasal receptors with cognate, ethologically and physiologically relevant stimuli establishes the molecular foundation of vomeronasal information coding, and opens new avenues for further investigating the neural mechanisms underlying behavior specificity. PMID:21937988

  9. Defectors cannot be detected during"small talk" with strangers.

    PubMed

    Manson, Joseph H; Gervais, Matthew M; Kline, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    To account for the widespread human tendency to cooperate in one-shot social dilemmas, some theorists have proposed that cooperators can be reliably detected based on ethological displays that are difficult to fake. Experimental findings have supported the view that cooperators can be distinguished from defectors based on "thin slices" of behavior, but the relevant cues have remained elusive, and the role of the judge's perspective remains unclear. In this study, we followed triadic conversations among unacquainted same-sex college students with unannounced dyadic one-shot prisoner's dilemmas, and asked participants to guess the PD decisions made toward them and among the other two participants. Two other sets of participants guessed the PD decisions after viewing videotape of the conversations, either with foreknowledge (informed), or without foreknowledge (naïve), of the post-conversation PD. Only naïve video viewers approached better-than-chance prediction accuracy, and they were significantly accurate at predicting the PD decisions of only opposite-sexed conversation participants. Four ethological displays recently proposed to cue defection in one-shot social dilemmas (arms crossed, lean back, hand touch, and face touch) failed to predict either actual defection or guesses of defection by any category of observer. Our results cast doubt on the role of "greenbeard" signals in the evolution of human prosociality, although they suggest that eavesdropping may be more informative about others' cooperative propensities than direct interaction. PMID:24358201

  10. The swimming behavior of Artemia (Anostraca): new experimental and observational data.

    PubMed

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2014-12-01

    Artemia (Anostraca) is among the most primitive and ancient groups of crustaceans. Artemia spp. play a dominant role in the ecosystems of hypersaline waters, and often they are the only animals in these extreme biotopes. Most ethological studies on Artemia have been conducted on nauplii and metanauplii. We made ethological observations on Artemia under laboratory conditions and in the natural waters of Crimea, where we studied growth and ontogenetic changes of swimming behavior. Growth occurred during the first 50 days up to a size of 9.5-10.5mm, after which time the size did not increase (some females lived up to 6.5 months). A strong positive relation was found between maximal speed and individual length, which varied between 0.4 and 10.5mm; it may be approximated by the power equation: Vmax=1.205·K(0.820), where Vmax is the maximal speed of Artemia (in mms(-1)) of the length K (in mm). There is no similar relation between average speed and length of Artemia. The average speed of adults was 40-60% lower in environments with microalgae compared to media without food. The duration of the "riding position" for mating pairs of Artemia urmiana in our experiments varied from 10 to 27 days. In lakes we observed different Artemia aggregations varying in size and form. We conclude that the swimming behavior of Artemia is quite complex and diverse, and develops during ontogeny. PMID:25438935

  11. NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOR OF 6- AND 12-MONTH OLD INFANTS HAVING THE NEUROLOGICAL PROBLEMS FROM THE BIRTH: A PILOT STUDY.

    PubMed

    Yu, Vekovischeva O; Lyakso, E E

    2015-12-01

    Ethological approach was applied to compare a non-verbal behavior of the 6- and 12-month old infants having neurological diagnosis by the birth (P 91.8 according to ICD-10 scale; risk infants) with the behavior of their healthy (norm infants) peers. The double-blind controlled uninterrupted observation of 1- and 2-minute videos was done to estimate duration and sequence of behavioral elements manifested by infants in familiar home environment during everyday activity. We suggested that if the specific behavioral differences exist it would be considered as predictive markers of infant's development problems. Ethological analysis indicated that the main behavioral differences were related with infant's eye and hand activities. The risk infants of the both age distracted from an object in their hands "looking aside" more often than their healthy peers. The 12-month old risk infants displayed less communicative and explorative abilities than their norm peers. It was proposed that the short-term observations of nonverbal behavior would be useful like an addition to a diagnostic scale to estimate briefly an infant's cognitive condition. PMID:26987232

  12. World, environment, Umwelt, and innerworld: a biological perspective on visual awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2013-03-01

    The world is all physical reality (Higgs bosons, and so forth), the "environment" is a geographical locality (your city, …), the "Umwelt" is the totality of possible actions of the environment on the sensitive body surface of an agent (you, your dog, …) and the possible actions of the agent on the environment (mechanical, chemical, …), whereas the "innerworld" is what it is for the agent to be, that is awareness. Awareness is pre-personal, proto-conscious, and (perhaps) proto-rational. The various "worlds" described above are on distinct ontological levels. The world, and the environment are studied in the exact sciences, the Umwelt is studied by physiology and ethology. Ethology is like behavioristic psychology, with the difference that it applies to all animals. It skips the innerworld, e.g., it considers speech to be a movement of air molecules.The innerworld can only be known through first person reports, thus is intrinsically subjective. It can only be approached through "experimental phenomenology", which is based on intersubjectivity among humans. In this setting speech may mean something in addition to the movements of molecules. These views lead to a model of vision as an "optical user interface". It has consequences for many applications.

  13. Breed-specific companions--inter-individual distances reflect isolating mechanisms within domesticated chickens (Gallus gallus f.d.).

    PubMed

    Tiemann, Inga; Rehkämper, Gerd

    2008-06-15

    White Crested Polish (WCP) chickens are an interesting breed because of skull anatomy (crest), brain size and composition. This makes them attractive to investigate processes of selection that could parallel a step towards speciation in terms of ethological isolation. Lohmann Brown Classic (BL) and Red Leghorn (RL) were selected as comparative breeds to detect whether WCPs flock together as shown by shorter inter-individual distances within WCP than across breeds. WCP and BL were observed in the first year whereas RL served as comparative breed to WCP in the second year. Eggs of both breeds of each year were incubated at the same time, and chicks hatched and were raised together. Three young hens of each breed were randomly chosen and observed weekly in an open field situation for 20 min between the first and 31st week of life. Intra-breed distances differed significantly from those distances measured across breeds. Results demonstrate breed-specific flocking within observed breeds. This flocking behaviour may reflect breed-specific social and sexual preferences. Our observations indicate that domestic breeds may represent an ethological entity. Selective processes controlled by human intervention as given in domestication may therefore to be set in parallel to evolutionary processes. PMID:18498945

  14. Birth Origin Differentially Affects Depressive-Like Behaviours: Are Captive-Born Cynomolgus Monkeys More Vulnerable to Depression than Their Wild-Born Counterparts?

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Sandrine MJ.; Rochais, Céline; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Li, Qin; Hausberger, Martine; Bezard, Erwan

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse early-life experience might lead to the expression of abnormal behaviours in animals and the predisposition to psychiatric disorder (e.g. major depressive disorder) in Humans. Common breeding processes employ weaning and housing conditions different from what happens in the wild. Methods The present study, therefore, investigated whether birth origin impacts the possible existence of spontaneous atypical/abnormal behaviours displayed by 40 captive-born and 40 wild-born socially-housed cynomolgus macaques in farming conditions using an unbiased ethological scan-sampling analysis followed by multifactorial correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses. Results We identified 10 distinct profiles (groups A to J) that significantly differed on several behaviours, body postures, body orientations, distances between individuals and locations in the cage. Data suggest that 4 captive-born and 1 wild-born animals (groups G and J) present depressive-like symptoms, unnatural early life events thereby increasing the risk of developing pathological symptoms. General differences were also highlighted between the captive- and wild-born populations, implying the expression of differential coping mechanisms in response to the same captive environment. Conclusions Birth origin thus impacts the development of atypical ethologically-defined behavioural profiles, reminiscent of certain depressive-like symptoms. The use of unbiased behavioural observations might allow the identification of animal models of human mental/behavioural disorders and their most appropriate control groups. PMID:23861787

  15. Environmental enrichment as a therapeutic avenue for anxiety in aged Wistar rats: Effect on cat odor exposition and GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Sampedro-Piquero, P; Castilla-Ortega, E; Zancada-Menendez, C; Santín, L J; Begega, A

    2016-08-25

    The use of more ethological animal models to study the neurobiology of anxiety has increased in recent years. We assessed the effect of an environmental enrichment (EE) protocol (24h/day over a period of two months) on anxiety-related behaviors when aged Wistar rats (21months old) were confronted with cat odor stimuli. Owing to the relationship between GABAergic interneurons and the anxiety-related neuronal network, we examined changes in the expression of Parvalbumin (PV) and 67kDa form of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67) immunoreactive cells in different brain regions involved in stress response. Behavioral results revealed that enriched rats traveled further and made more grooming behaviors during the habituation session. In the cat odor session, they traveled longer distances and they showed more active interaction with the odor stimuli and less time in freezing behavior. Zone analysis revealed that the enriched group spent more time in the intermediate zone according to the proximity of the predator odor. Regarding the neurobiological data, the EE increased the expression of PV-positive cells in some medial prefrontal regions (cingulate (Cg) and prelimbic (PL) cortices), whereas the GAD-67 expression in the basolateral amygdala was reduced in the enriched group. Our results suggest that EE is able to reduce anxiety-like behaviors in aged animals even when ethologically relevant stimuli are used. Moreover, GABAergic interneurons could be involved in mediating this resilient behavior. PMID:27235742

  16. Structure and composition of the courtship phenotype in the bird of paradise Parotia lawesii (Aves: Paradisaeidae).

    PubMed

    Scholes, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    Ethology is rooted in the idea that behavior is composed of discrete units and sub-units that can be compared among taxa in a phylogenetic framework. This means that behavior, like morphology and genes, is inherently modular. Yet, the concept of modularity is not well integrated into how we envision the behavioral components of phenotype. Understanding ethological modularity, and its implications for animal phenotype organization and evolution, requires that we construct interpretive schemes that permit us to examine it. In this study, I describe the structure and composition of a complex part of the behavioral phenotype of Parotia lawesii Ramsay, 1885--a bird of paradise (Aves: Paradisaeidae) from the forests of eastern New Guinea. I use archived voucher video clips, photographic ethograms, and phenotype ontology diagrams to describe the modular units comprising courtship at various levels of integration. Results show P. lawesii to have 15 courtship and mating behaviors (11 males, 4 females) hierarchically arranged within a complex seven-level structure. At the finest level examined, male displays are comprised of 49 modular sub-units (elements) differentially employed to form more complex modular units (phases and versions) at higher-levels of integration. With its emphasis on hierarchical modularity, this study provides an important conceptual framework for understanding courtship-related phenotypic complexity and provides a solid basis for comparative study of the genus Parotia. PMID:18359213

  17. Attachment in integrative neuroscientific perspective.

    PubMed

    Hruby, Radovan; Hasto, Jozef; Minarik, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Attachment theory is a very influential general concept of human social and emotional development, which emphasizes the role of early mother-infant interactions for infant's adaptive behavioural and stress copying strategies, personality organization and mental health. Individuals with disrupted development of secure attachment to mother/primary caregiver are at higher risk of developing mental disorders. This theory consists of the complex developmental psycho-neurobiological model of attachment and emerges from principles of psychoanalysis, evolutionary biology, cognitive-developmental psychology, ethology, physiology and control systems theory. The progress of modern neuroscience enables interpretation of neurobiological aspects of the theory as multi-level neural interactions and functional development of important neural structures, effects of neuromediattors, hormones and essential neurobiological processes including emotional, cognitive, social interactions and the special key role of mentalizing. It has multiple neurobiological, neuroendocrine, neurophysiological, ethological, genetic, developmental, psychological, psychotherapeutic and neuropsychiatric consequences and is a prototype of complex neuroscientific concept as interpretation of modern integrated neuroscience. PMID:21552202

  18. Primate Auditory Recognition Memory Performance Varies With Sound Type

    PubMed Central

    Chi-Wing, Ng; Bethany, Plakke; Amy, Poremba

    2009-01-01

    Neural correlates of auditory processing, including for species-specific vocalizations that convey biological and ethological significance (e.g. social status, kinship, environment),have been identified in a wide variety of areas including the temporal and frontal cortices. However, few studies elucidate how non-human primates interact with these vocalization signals when they are challenged by tasks requiring auditory discrimination, recognition, and/or memory. The present study employs a delayed matching-to-sample task with auditory stimuli to examine auditory memory performance of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), wherein two sounds are determined to be the same or different. Rhesus macaques seem to have relatively poor short-term memory with auditory stimuli, and we examine if particular sound types are more favorable for memory performance. Experiment 1 suggests memory performance with vocalization sound types (particularly monkey), are significantly better than when using non-vocalization sound types, and male monkeys outperform female monkeys overall. Experiment 2, controlling for number of sound exemplars and presentation pairings across types, replicates Experiment 1, demonstrating better performance or decreased response latencies, depending on trial type, to species-specific monkey vocalizations. The findings cannot be explained by acoustic differences between monkey vocalizations and the other sound types, suggesting the biological, and/or ethological meaning of these sounds are more effective for auditory memory. PMID:19567264

  19. Defectors Cannot Be Detected during“Small Talk” with Strangers

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Joseph H.; Gervais, Matthew M.; Kline, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    To account for the widespread human tendency to cooperate in one-shot social dilemmas, some theorists have proposed that cooperators can be reliably detected based on ethological displays that are difficult to fake. Experimental findings have supported the view that cooperators can be distinguished from defectors based on “thin slices” of behavior, but the relevant cues have remained elusive, and the role of the judge's perspective remains unclear. In this study, we followed triadic conversations among unacquainted same-sex college students with unannounced dyadic one-shot prisoner's dilemmas, and asked participants to guess the PD decisions made toward them and among the other two participants. Two other sets of participants guessed the PD decisions after viewing videotape of the conversations, either with foreknowledge (informed), or without foreknowledge (naïve), of the post-conversation PD. Only naïve video viewers approached better-than-chance prediction accuracy, and they were significantly accurate at predicting the PD decisions of only opposite-sexed conversation participants. Four ethological displays recently proposed to cue defection in one-shot social dilemmas (arms crossed, lean back, hand touch, and face touch) failed to predict either actual defection or guesses of defection by any category of observer. Our results cast doubt on the role of “greenbeard” signals in the evolution of human prosociality, although they suggest that eavesdropping may be more informative about others' cooperative propensities than direct interaction. PMID:24358201

  20. Origin of floral isolation between ornithophilous and sphingophilous plant species.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, V

    1993-01-01

    Three plant groups in temperate western North America contain closely related ornithophilous and sphingophilous species: the Aquilegia formosa/Aquilegia caerulea group (Ranunculaceae), the Ipomopsis aggregata group (Polemoniaceae), and the Diplacus longiflorus group (Scrophulariaceae). The ornithophilous and sphingophilous species are products of allopatric speciation on the diploid level. Geographical races which are adapted to one class of pollinators in one area where these pollinators are abundant and effective and to another class of pollinators in another geographically isolated area (pollination races) represent a probable intermediate stage in the process of allopatric speciation. Mechanical and ethological isolation (collectively, floral isolation) is a byproduct of the divergence in pollination systems. Selection for reproductive isolation per se has not played any detectable role in the origin of the floral isolation in the three plant groups. PMID:11607421

  1. From natural geometry to spatial cognition.

    PubMed

    Tommasi, Luca; Chiandetti, Cinzia; Pecchia, Tommaso; Sovrano, Valeria Anna; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2012-02-01

    A review of selected works on spatial memory in animals and humans is presented, and some ideas about the encoding of geometry and its role in evolution are presented, based on recently accumulated evidence from psychology, ethology and the neurosciences. It is argued that comparative analyses at the level of both spatial navigation behaviors and their underlying neural mechanisms may provide a solid foundation for the biological origins of organisms' spontaneous ability in dealing with geometric concepts. To this aim, the representations of space underlying memory tasks involving discrete (i.e., landmark arrays) or continuous elements (i.e., enclosed environments) are evaluated and compared as regards the impact of their geometric arrangement. PMID:22206900

  2. Neuroethology as a translational neuroscience strategy in the era of the NIMH Research Domain Criteria.

    PubMed

    Krystal, John H

    2016-03-01

    The article by Latzman et al. in the current special issue utilizes a novel dataset consisting of behavioral, brain, and genomic data from a sample of 76 captive chimpanzees to make the case that negative affective expression is influenced by variation in the gene coding for arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A), in a sex-linked manner. A novel feature of this study is the ethological approach employed by the authors, i.e., the use of scratching as a behavioral indicator of negative affective state. I comment on conceptual and methodological aspects of this work, and consider how it interfaces with the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework as described by Kozak and Cuthbert in their article for this issue. PMID:26877127

  3. Dissecting the hypothalamic pathways that underlie innate behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zha, Xi; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    Many complex behaviors that do not require learning are displayed and are termed innate. Although traditionally the subject matter of ethology, innate behaviors offer a unique entry point for neuroscientists to dissect the physiological mechanisms governing complex behaviors. Since the last century, converging evidence has implicated the hypothalamus as the central brain area that controls innate behaviors. Recent studies using cutting-edge tools have revealed that genetically-defined populations of neurons residing in distinct hypothalamic nuclei and their associated neural pathways regulate the initiation and maintenance of diverse behaviors including feeding, sleep, aggression, and parental care. Here, we review the newly-defined hypothalamic pathways that regulate each innate behavior. In addition, emerging general principles of the neural control of complex behaviors are discussed. PMID:26552801

  4. Nonverbal behavior during clinical interviews: similarities and dissimilarities among schizophrenia, mania, and depression.

    PubMed

    Annen, Sigrid; Roser, Patrik; Brüne, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia and depression differ from nonclinical subjects in nonverbal behavior. In contrast, there is a paucity of studies addressing differences in nonverbal communication between diagnostic groups and as to what extent nonverbal communication feeds into standard ratings of psychopathology. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia were compared with 24 patients with affective disorders (13 depressed, 11 manic) regarding their nonverbal behavior using the Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptom severity was rated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Patients with mania displayed more illustrative gestures than did patients with schizophrenia or depression. Subtler behavioral differences between the groups occurred regarding assertive behaviors and displacement activities suggestive of hostility and motivational conflict, respectively. Distinct correlations between nonverbal communication and psychopathology ratings emerged in all three groups. Patients with schizophrenia, depression, and mania differ in nonverbal behavior. Nonverbal communication seems to be a significant contributor to clinicians' intuitive ratings. PMID:22210359

  5. A critical review of fear tests used on cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry and horses.

    PubMed

    Forkman, B; Boissy, A; Meunier-Salaün, M-C; Canali, E; Jones, R B

    2007-10-22

    Fear is arguably the most commonly investigated emotion in domestic animals. In the current review we attempt to establish the level of repeatability and validity found for fear tests used on cattle, pigs, sheep and goats, poultry and horses. We focus the review on the three most common types of fear tests: the arena test (open field), the novel object test, and the restraint test. For some tests, e.g. tonic immobility in poultry, there is a good and broad literature on factors that affect the outcome of the test, the validity of the test and its age dependency. However, there are comparatively few of these well defined and validated tests and what is especially missing for most tests is information on the robustness, i.e., what aspects can be changed without affecting the validity of the tests. The relative absence of standardized tests hampers the development of applied ethology as a science. PMID:18046784

  6. Shoot first, ask questions later: Interpretative narratives of Neanderthal hunting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Mark; Pettitt, Paul; Schreve, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the hunting strategies employed by Neanderthals at a series of kill or near-kill sites from the Middle Palaeolithic of Europe (Mauran, La Borde, Taubach, Zwoleń and Salzgitter Lebenstedt). Using palaeolandscape reconstructions and animal ethology as our context, we adopt a multifaceted approach that views hunting as a chaîne opératoire involving the decisions and actions of both the hunter and the hunted, which together help reconstruct a forensic picture of past events as they unfolded. Our conclusions indicate that Neanderthals did not necessarily pre-select individuals from a herd, who they then isolated, pursued and killed, but rather ambushed whole groups, which they slaughtered indiscriminately. There is strong evidence, however, that Neanderthals were highly selective in the carcasses they then chose to process. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals were excellent tacticians, casual executioners and discerning diners.

  7. The role of neuropeptide F in a transition to parental care.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Christopher B; VanDenHeuvel, Kathryn; Khana, Daven B; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Moore, Allen J

    2016-04-01

    The genetics of complex social behaviour can be dissected by examining the genetic influences of component pathways, which can be predicted based on expected evolutionary precursors. Here, we examine how gene expression in a pathway that influences the motivation to eat is altered during parental care that involves direct feeding of larvae. We examine the expression ofneuropeptide F, and its receptor, in the burying beetleNicrophorus vespilloides, which feeds pre-digested carrion to its begging larvae. We found that thenpfreceptorwas greatly reduced during active care. Our research provides evidence that feeding behaviour was a likely target during the evolution of parental care inN. vespilloides Moreover, dissecting complex behaviours into ethologically distinct sub-behaviours is a productive way to begin to target the genetic mechanisms involved in the evolution of complex behaviours. PMID:27095268

  8. Social defense: an evolutionary-developmental model of children's strategies for coping with threat in the peer group.

    PubMed

    Martin, Meredith J; Davies, Patrick T; MacNeill, Leigha A

    2014-01-01

    Navigating the ubiquitous conflict, competition, and complex group dynamics of the peer group is a pivotal developmental task of childhood. Difficulty negotiating these challenges represents a substantial source of risk for psychopathology. Evolutionary developmental psychology offers a unique perspective with the potential to reorganize the way we think about the role of peer relationships in shaping how children cope with the everyday challenges of establishing a social niche. To address this gap, we utilize the ethological reformulation of the emotional security theory as a guide to developing an evolutionary framework for advancing an understanding of the defense strategies children use to manage antagonistic peer relationships and protect themselves from interpersonal threat (Davies and Sturge-Apple, 2007). In this way, we hope to illustrate the value of an evolutionary developmental lens in generating unique theoretical insight and novel research directions into the role of peer relationships in the development of psychopathology. PMID:25299884

  9. Mass homicide: the civil massacre.

    PubMed

    Cantor, C H; Mullen, P E; Alpers, P A

    2000-01-01

    Seven cases of mass homicide in Australia, New Zealand, and Britain between 1987 and 1996 are presented. These cases add to the world literature on these rare crimes and balance previous, mostly North American reports. These acts were committed by socially unsuccessful, self-absorbed, and resentful individuals. Lengthy fantasy comprising identification, modeling, and rehearsal preceded the incidents, even where the final acts had impulsive elements. Most had a long-standing fascination with firearms fueling their fantasies and providing the means for mass killing. Their targets were mostly unprotected strangers. Overt suicidal intent or a preparedness to die while committing the homicides was invariable. Ethological theories of status acquisition may provide a useful understanding of mass homicide. PMID:10774842

  10. Central Nervous System Drug Evaluation Using Positron Emission Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Jun; Shimada, Hitoshi; Nogami, Tsuyoshi; Arakawa, Ryosuke; Takano, Harumasa; Higuchi, Makoto; Ito, Hiroshi; Okubo, Yoshiro; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    In conventional pharmacological research in the field of mental disorders, pharmacological effect and dose have been estimated by ethological approach and in vitro data of affinity to the site of action. In addition, the frequency of administration has been estimated from drug kinetics in blood. However, there is a problem regarding an objective index of drug effects in the living body. Furthermore, the possibility that the concentration of drug in blood does not necessarily reflect the drug kinetics in target organs has been pointed out. Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques have made progress for more than 20 years, and made it possible to measure the distribution and kinetics of small molecule components in living brain. In this article, we focused on rational drug dosing using receptor occupancy and proof-of-concept of drugs in the drug development process using PET. PMID:23431048

  11. Animal models for human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Beach, F A

    The value of animal models in biomedical research is firmly established, and many basic principles of human psychology have been explicated as the result of comparative studies. There is pressing need for non-human models in the behavioural sciences as represented by psychiatry, psychology and ethology; and such models should be constructed, provided their validity can be assured. Valid models cannot be based exclusively on similarity in the formal properties of behaviour. Commonality of descriptive terms as applied to different species does not guarantee identity of the concepts to which the terms apply. Model builders must evaluate interspecific similarities and differences in the causes, mediating mechanisms and functional outcomes of behaviour. The validity of interspecific generalization can never exceed the reliability of intraspecific analysis; and the latter is an indispensable antecedent of the former. Existing and potential models for homosexuality and other psychosexual characteristics of human beings are evaluated within the perspective provided by the foregoing generalizations. PMID:256826

  12. [Regulation of the mouse aggressive behavior (pharmacologic analysis of the GABAergic mechanism)].

    PubMed

    Belozertseva, I V; Andreev, B V

    1999-01-01

    Ethological procedures were used to study the effects of GABA-positive drugs on aggression in male albino mice kept in isolation (opponent test). The results revealed several variants of antiaggressive effects of the tested GAB Aergic drugs: 1) antiaggressive, re-socializing of GABAA agonists muscimol (0.125 and 0.5 mg/kg) and THIP (2.0 mg/kg), and GABAB agonist baclofen (2.5-10 mg/kg); 2) antiaggressive, sedative of GABAB agonists baclofen (12.5 mg/kg), phenibut (50-100 mg/kg), and inhibitor of GABA transamininase sodium valproate (100 mg/kg); 3) antiaggressive, anxiogenic for muscimol (1 mg/kg), THIP (5 mg/kg), and sodium valproate (25-50 mg/kg). PMID:10570533

  13. Animal Models of Depression: Molecular Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Vaishnav; Nestler, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the current understanding about the pathogenesis of altered mood, impaired concentration and neurovegetative symptoms in major depression has come from animal models. However, because of the unique and complex features of human depression, the generation of valid and insightful depression models has been less straightforward than modeling other disabling diseases like cancer or autoimmune conditions. Today’s popular depression models creatively merge ethologically valid behavioral assays with the latest technological advances in molecular biology and automated video-tracking. This chapter reviews depression assays involving acute stress (e.g., forced swim test), models consisting of prolonged physical or social stress (e.g., social defeat), models of secondary depression, genetic models, and experiments designed to elucidate the mechanisms of antidepressant action. These paradigms are critically evaluated in relation to their ease, validity and replicability, the molecular insights that they have provided, and their capacity to offer the next generation of therapeutics for depression. PMID:21225412

  14. A role for molecular genetics in biological conservation.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, S J

    1994-01-01

    The recognition of recent accelerated depletion of species as a consequence of human industrial development has spawned a wide interest in identifying threats to endangered species. In addition to ecological and demographic perils, it has become clear that small populations that narrowly survive demographic contraction may undergo close inbreeding, genetic drift, and loss of overall genomic variation due to allelic loss or reduction to homozygosity. I review here the consequences of such genetic depletion revealed by applying molecular population genetic analysis to four endangered mammals: African cheetah, lion, Florida panther, and humpback whale. The accumulated genetic results, combined with physiological, ecological, and ethological data, provide a multifaceted perspective of the process of species diminution. An emerging role of population genetics, phylogenetics, and phylogeography as indicators of a population's natural history and its future prognosis provides valuable data of use in the development of conservation management plans for endangered species. PMID:7912434

  15. State-dependent sensorimotor processing: gaze and posture stability during simulated flight in birds

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Kimberly L.

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular responses play an important role in maintaining gaze and posture stability during rotational motion. Previous studies suggest that these responses are state dependent, their expression varying with the environmental and locomotor conditions of the animal. In this study, we simulated an ethologically relevant state in the laboratory to study state-dependent vestibular responses in birds. We used frontal airflow to simulate gliding flight and measured pigeons′ eye, head, and tail responses to rotational motion in darkness, under both head-fixed and head-free conditions. We show that both eye and head response gains are significantly higher during flight, thus enhancing gaze and head-in-space stability. We also characterize state-specific tail responses to pitch and roll rotation that would help to maintain body-in-space orientation during flight. These results demonstrate that vestibular sensorimotor processing is not fixed but depends instead on the animal's behavioral state. PMID:21307332

  16. A Method for Psychosocial Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Rats.

    PubMed

    Manvich, Daniel F; Stowe, Taylor A; Godfrey, Jodi R; Weinshenker, David

    2016-06-01

    We describe a novel preclinical model of stress-induced relapse to cocaine use in rats using social defeat stress, an ethologically valid psychosocial stressor in rodents that closely resembles stressors that promote craving and relapse in humans. Rats self-administered cocaine for 20 days. On days 11, 14, 17, and 20, animals were subjected to social defeat stress or a nonstressful control condition following the session, with discrete environmental stimuli signaling the impending event. After extinction training, reinstatement was assessed following re-exposure to these discrete cues. Animals re-exposed to psychosocial stress-predictive cues exhibited increased serum corticosterone and significantly greater reinstatement of cocaine seeking than the control group, and active coping behaviors during social defeat episodes were associated with subsequent reinstatement magnitude. These studies are the first to describe an operant model of psychosocial stress-induced relapse in rodents and lay the foundation for future work investigating its neurobiological underpinnings. PMID:26257242

  17. Follow-me: A new start-and-stop method for visual animal tracking in biology research.

    PubMed

    Linares-Sanchez, Luis Javier; Fernandez-Aleman, Jose Luis; Garcia-Mateos, Gines; Perez-Ruzafa, Angel; Sanchez-Vazquez, Francisco Javier

    2015-08-01

    Very frequently, research in biology and ethology requires visual tracking of live animals, such as insects, rodents and fish. The challenge is particularly difficult in the aquatic environment because of the light scattering effect of water: reflections and refractions, low contrast and resolution images, noise, and also due to the unpredictable animal behavior. This paper describes a new tracking method that is based in start and stop detection. When the animals stop or move very slowly, a precise tracker based on AdaBoost classifiers is applied. Otherwise, when they move faster, a more efficient process based on background detection is used. A control system is responsible for deciding which method should be used in each instant. The experimental results using sea cucumbers (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea), zebrafish and rodents, show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method, which is able to deal with complex situations. PMID:26736372

  18. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior.

    PubMed

    Roggeman, Saskia; van den Brink, Nico; Van Praet, Nander; Blust, Ronny; Bervoets, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were observed. Metal concentrations in soil, vegetation, hair, blood and feces were measured. Although both herds lived in the same reserve, their metal exposure differed significantly. A high consumption of soft rush by herd 1 during winter for instance was responsible for a large increase in daily Cd intake. The results of this study suggest that the exposure and health risks of large grazers can probably not only be predicted by a general monitoring of soil and vegetation pollution. Also detailed information about the occurring vegetation types, spatial habitat use together with the social- and foraging behavior and diet selection of the species need to be studied. PMID:23063994

  19. Visual reinforcement in the female Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Elcoro, Mirari; Silva, Stephanie P; Lattal, Kennon A

    2008-07-01

    Operant conditioning with Betta splendens (Bettas) has been investigated extensively using males of the species. Ethological studies of female Bettas have revealed aggressive interactions that qualitatively parallel those between male Bettas. Given these similarities, four experiments were conducted with female Bettas to examine the generality of a widely reported finding with males: mirror-image reinforcement. Swimming through a ring was reinforced by a 10-s mirror presentation. As with males, ring swimming was acquired and maintained when mirror presentations were immediate (Experiments 1, 2, and 3) and delayed (Experiment 4). The failure of conventional extinction (Experiments 1 and 2) and response-independent mirror presentations (Experiment 3) to maintain responding confirmed the reinforcing properties of mirror presentation. These results extend previous findings of mirror images as reinforcers in males of the same species and illustrate a complementarity between behavioral ecology and the experimental analysis of behavior. PMID:18683612

  20. The nature of human aggression.

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2009-01-01

    Human aggression is viewed from four explanatory perspectives, derived from the ethological tradition. The first consists of its adaptive value, which can be seen throughout the animal kingdom, involving resource competition and protection of the self and offspring, which has been viewed from a cost-benefit perspective. The second concerns the phylogenetic origin of aggression, which in humans involves brain mechanisms that are associated with anger and inhibition, the emotional expression of anger, and how aggressive actions are manifest. The third concerns the origin of aggression in development and its subsequent modification through experience. An evolutionary approach to development yields conclusions that are contrary to the influential social learning perspective, notably that physical aggression occurs early in life, and its subsequent development is characterized by learned inhibition. The fourth explanation concerns the motivational mechanisms controlling aggression: approached from an evolutionary background, these mechanisms range from the inflexible reflex-like responses to those incorporating rational decision-making. PMID:19411108

  1. How hierarchical is language use?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Stefan L.; Bod, Rens; Christiansen, Morten H.

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that hierarchical phrase structure plays a central role in human language. However, considerations of simplicity and evolutionary continuity suggest that hierarchical structure should not be invoked too hastily. Indeed, recent neurophysiological, behavioural and computational studies show that sequential sentence structure has considerable explanatory power and that hierarchical processing is often not involved. In this paper, we review evidence from the recent literature supporting the hypothesis that sequential structure may be fundamental to the comprehension, production and acquisition of human language. Moreover, we provide a preliminary sketch outlining a non-hierarchical model of language use and discuss its implications and testable predictions. If linguistic phenomena can be explained by sequential rather than hierarchical structure, this will have considerable impact in a wide range of fields, such as linguistics, ethology, cognitive neuroscience, psychology and computer science. PMID:22977157

  2. [Pedophilia and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Knecht, T

    2001-11-01

    Pedophilia is a frequent cause of infringement of children's sexual integrity. It's a widely spread deviant pattern of sexual arousal and behavior, which seems to be deeply rooted in human nature, as shown by impressive ethological and cultural historical evidence. Aetiology and pathogenesis of pedophilia are still not clarified, but there is a number of interesting findings suggesting multifactorial developmental disorder as the basis of pedophilia. Regarding the treatment of pedophiles, there is usually drawn a distinction between somatic and non-somatic methods. The latter aim at relapse-prevention by augmentation of self-control. The former mean drive-reduction on a hormonal basis. Antiandrogens, progestogens and LHRH-agonists have proven themselves as having significant effects on sexual drive, whereas their side effects are quite tolerable on the whole. PMID:11721303

  3. Communication in Natural and Artificial Organisms: Experiments in Evolutionary Robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocco, Davide; Nolfi, Stefano

    In the field of ethological studies many efforts of researchers are devoted to understand how animals communicate and what is the role of communication from an evolutionary and functional point of view. Progress in this area might also have an impact on our understanding of human communication since animal and human communication systems share several features (Hauser, 1996). The social function played by human language, for instance, is one of the first traits that allows us to place language in the same evolutionary field as other animal communication systems. Moreover, recently also the idea of the uniqueness of human language regarding the representational fashion of the knowledge and the compositionality of signals is challenged by new findings in primate research that indicate that, in baboons, knowledge is representational, based on properties that have discrete values and, from a certain point of view, propositional (Seyfarth et al., 2005).

  4. On the Utilization of Social Animals as a Model for Social Robotics

    PubMed Central

    Miklósi, Ádám; Gácsi, Márta

    2012-01-01

    Social robotics is a thriving field in building artificial agents. The possibility to construct agents that can engage in meaningful social interaction with humans presents new challenges for engineers. In general, social robotics has been inspired primarily by psychologists with the aim of building human-like robots. Only a small subcategory of “companion robots” (also referred to as robotic pets) was built to mimic animals. In this opinion essay we argue that all social robots should be seen as companions and more conceptual emphasis should be put on the inter-specific interaction between humans and social robots. This view is underlined by the means of an ethological analysis and critical evaluation of present day companion robots. We suggest that human–animal interaction provides a rich source of knowledge for designing social robots that are able to interact with humans under a wide range of conditions. PMID:22457658

  5. On the Socio-Sexual Behaviour of the Extinct Ursid Indarctos arctoides: An Approach Based on Its Baculum Size and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Abella, Juan; Valenciano, Alberto; Pérez-Ramos, Alejandro; Montoya, Plinio; Morales, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The fossil bacula, or os penis, constitutes a rare subject of study due to its scarcity in the fossil record. In the present paper we describe five bacula attributed to the bear Indarctos arctoides Depéret, 1895 from the Batallones-3 site (Madrid Basin, Spain). Both the length and morphology of this fossil bacula enabled us to make interpretative approaches to a series of ecological and ethological characters of this bear. Thus, we suggest that I. arctoides could have had prolonged periods of intromission and/or maintenance of intromission during the post-ejaculatory intervals, a multi-male mating system and large home range sizes and/or lower population density. Its size might also have helped females to choose from among the available males. PMID:24058484

  6. Shocking Revelations and Saccharin Sweetness in the Study of Drosophila Olfactory Memory

    PubMed Central

    Perisse, Emmanuel; Burke, Christopher; Huetteroth, Wolf; Waddell, Scott

    2013-01-01

    It is now almost forty years since the first description of learning in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Various incarnations of the classic mutagenesis approach envisaged in the early days have provided around one hundred learning defective mutant fly strains. Recent technological advances permit temporal control of neural function in the behaving fly. These approaches have radically changed experiments in the field and have provided a neural circuit perspective of memory formation, consolidation and retrieval. Combining neural perturbations with more classical mutant intervention allows investigators to interrogate the molecular and cellular processes of memory within the defined neural circuits. Here, we summarize some of the progress made in the last ten years that indicates a remarkable conservation of the neural mechanisms of memory formation between flies and mammals. We emphasize that considering an ethologically-relevant viewpoint might provide additional experimental power in studies of Drosophila memory. PMID:24028959

  7. Towards a standard framework to describe behaviours in the common-sloth (Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825): novel interactions data observed in distinct fragments of the Atlantic forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, S M; Clozato, C L; Moraes-Barros, N; Morgante, J S

    2013-08-01

    The common three-toed sloth is a widespread species, but the location and the observation of its individuals are greatly hindered by its biological features. Their camouflaged pelage, its slow and quiet movements, and the strictly arboreal habits resulted in the publication of sparse, fragmented and not patterned information on the common sloth behaviour. Thus, herein we propose an updated standardized behavioural categories' framework to the study of the species. Furthermore we describe two never reported interaction behaviours: a probable mating / courtship ritual between male and female; and apparent recognition behaviour between two males. Finally we highlight the contribution of small-duration field works in this elusive species ethological study. PMID:24212693

  8. [Depressive state of rats in conditions of chronic combined stress caused by the combination of differently modal stressors].

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    Chronic combined stress with the change of differently modal stressors (noise, vibration and pulsating bright light) according to the stochastic scheme against the background of constant stressors (restriction of movement, fluctuations of the temperature of the environment) causes symptoms of depression-like animal behavior, having the pronounced phenomenological simila rity with the clinical presentation of depression: anxiety, behavioral correlates of despair, hypodynamia, anhedonia, as well as morphosomatic consequences of chronic stress: involution of the thymus and spleen, hypertrophy of epinephros, ulceration of the mucous stomach membrane. Imipramine and fluoxetine effectively reduce the stated behavioral disorders, their effectiveness corresponds to the results of clinical studies and the data received from other models of depression. The described model of depression, has satisfactory, corresponding, constructive and predictive validity and can be used for physiological, ethological, and pharmacological studies. PMID:25507816

  9. [Depressive state of rats in conditions of chronic combined stress caused by the combination of differently modal stressors].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Bagmetova, V V; Chernysheva, Ia V; Borodin, D D

    2013-09-01

    Chronic combined stress with the change of differently modal stressors (noise, vibration and pulsating bright light) according to the stochastic scheme against the background of constant stressors (restriction of movement, fluctuations of the temperature of the environment) causes symptoms of depression-like animal behavior, having the pronounced phenomenological simila rity with the clinical presentation of depression: anxiety, behavioral correlates of despair, hypodynamia, anhedonia, as well as morphosomatic consequences of chronic stress: involution of the thymus and spleen, hypertrophy of epinephros, ulceration of the mucous stomach membrane. Imipramine and fluoxetine effectively reduce the stated behavioral disorders, their effectiveness corresponds to the results of clinical studies and the data received from other models of depression. The described model of depression, has satisfactory, corresponding, constructive and predictive validity and can be used for physiological, ethological, and pharmacological studies. PMID:25434218

  10. Geographic dialects in blind mole rats: role of vocal communication in active speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Nevo, E; Heth, G; Beiles, A; Frankenberg, E

    1987-01-01

    We compared and contrasted the physical structure of male "courtship" calls of 59 subterranean mole rats belonging to the Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies in Israel, comprising 11 populations of four chromosomal species (2N = 52, 54, 58, and 60). We also conducted behavioral auditory discrimination tests of 144 females of the four species in the laboratory. The results indicate that each chromosomal species has a vocal dialect significantly different from all others, although the call of 2N = 60, the last derivative of speciation, is not yet fully differentiated. Females of 2N = 52, 54, and 58 preferred their homospecific mates' calls, whereas females of 2N = 60 did not. We conclude that call differentiation builds up gradually and provides an efficient ethological reproductive premating isolation mechanism between the emerging species in the active speciation of mole rats in Israel. PMID:3472211

  11. Endocannabinoids shape accumbal encoding of cue-motivated behavior via CB1 receptor activation in the ventral tegmentum

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Erik B.; Beckert, Michael V.; Morra, Joshua T.; Lansink, Carien S.; Cachope, Roger; Abdullah, Rehab A.; Loriaux, Amy L.; Schetters, Dustin; Pattij, Tommy; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Cheer, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Transient increases in nucleus accumbens (NAc) dopamine concentration are observed when animals are presented with motivationally salient stimuli and are theorized to energize reward seeking. They arise from high frequency firing of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which also results in the release of endocannabinoids from dopamine cell bodies. In this context, endocannabinoids are thought to regulate reward seeking by modulating dopamine signaling, although a direct link has never been demonstrated. To test this, we pharmacologically manipulated endocannabinoid neurotransmission in the VTA while measuring transient changes in dopamine concentration in the NAc during reward seeking. Disrupting endocannabinoid signaling dramatically reduced, whereas augmenting levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) increased, cue-evoked dopamine concentrations and reward seeking. These data suggest that 2AG in the VTA regulates reward seeking by sculpting ethologically relevant patterns of dopamine release during reward-directed behavior. PMID:22284189

  12. On Cuteness: Unlocking the Parental Brain and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Kringelbach, Morten L; Stark, Eloise A; Alexander, Catherine; Bornstein, Marc H; Stein, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Cuteness in offspring is a potent protective mechanism that ensures survival for otherwise completely dependent infants. Previous research has linked cuteness to early ethological ideas of a 'Kindchenschema' (infant schema) where infant facial features serve as 'innate releasing mechanisms' for instinctual caregiving behaviours. We propose extending the concept of cuteness beyond visual features to include positive infant sounds and smells. Evidence from behavioural and neuroimaging studies links this extended concept of cuteness to simple 'instinctual' behaviours and to caregiving, protection, and complex emotions. We review how cuteness supports key parental capacities by igniting fast privileged neural activity followed by slower processing in large brain networks also involved in play, empathy, and perhaps even higher-order moral emotions. PMID:27211583

  13. Time-Specific Fear Acts as a Non-Photic Entraining Stimulus of Circadian Rhythms in Rats.

    PubMed

    Pellman, Blake A; Kim, Earnest; Reilly, Melissa; Kashima, James; Motch, Oleksiy; de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Kim, Jeansok J

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all animals have endogenous clock mechanisms that "entrain" to the light-dark (LD) cycle and synchronize psychophysiological functions to optimal times for exploring resources and avoiding dangers in the environment. Such circadian rhythms are vital to human mental health, but it is unknown whether circadian rhythms "entrained" to the LD cycle can be overridden by entrainment to daily recurring threats. We show that unsignaled nocturnal footshock caused rats living in an "ethological" apparatus to switch their natural foraging behavior from the dark to the light phase and that this switch was maintained as a free-running circadian rhythm upon removal of light cues and footshocks. Furthermore, this fear-entrained circadian behavior was dependent on an intact amygdala and suprachiasmatic nucleus. Thus, time-specific fear can act as a non-photic entraining stimulus for the circadian system, and limbic centers encoding aversive information are likely part of the circadian oscillator network that temporally organizes behavior. PMID:26468624

  14. Popularizing the ancestry of man: Robert Ardrey and the killer instinct.

    PubMed

    Weidman, Nadine

    2011-06-01

    This essay examines Robert Ardrey (1908-1980)-American playwright, screenwriter, and prolific author-as a case study in the popularization of science. Bringing together evidence from both paleoanthropology and ethology, Ardrey became in the 1960s a vocal proponent of the theory that human beings are innately violent. The essay shows that Ardrey used his popular scientific books not only to consolidate a new science of human nature but also to question the popularizer's standard role, to reverse conventional hierarchies of scientific expertise, and to test the boundaries of professional scientific authority. Understanding how he did this can help us reassess the meanings and uses of popular science as critique in Cold War America. The essay also shows that E. O. Wilson's sociobiology was in part a reaction to the subversive political message of Ardrey's science. PMID:21874688

  15. Vasotocin and reproductive functions of the domestic chicken.

    PubMed

    Jurkevich, A; Grossmann, R

    2003-07-01

    The neurohypophyseal hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) combines both antidiuretic and reproductive activities. In the domestic chicken AVT produces assimetric effects on the reproductive functions of males and females. AVT synthesized in magnocellular diencephalic neurons is released into circulation in a highly coordinated manner contributing to the peripheral control of oviposition in hens. Conversely, parvocellular AVT cells located in the limbic system (bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST)) are quite different in their properties and, possible, functions. In domestic chickens these cells express AVT in a sexually dimorphic manner and are found solely in males. This sexually dimorphic part of the AVT system is sensitive to gonadal steroids. Experimental data demonstrated that AVT modulates different aspects of reproductive behavior including courtship vocalization and copulation. Sexual differentiation of these limbic vasotocinergic cells show striking correlation with sexual differentiation of masculine behavior. Evidences coming from physiological, anatomical and ethological studies suggest strong implication of the vasotocinergic system in the control of reproductive functions. PMID:12963102

  16. Anxiogenic effect of low-dose methamphetamine in the test of elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Pometlová, M; Nohejlová-Deykun, K; Slamberová, R

    2012-01-01

    Methamphetamines (MA) are psychostimulant drugs that are known to change individuals' behavior. Psychostimulants could either evoke positive emotions (e.g. joy and happiness) or attenuate negative emotional states (e.g. anxiety and depression) in humans. In animal experiments, the test of elevated plus-maze (EPM) is widely used. This test is appropriate for evaluation of anxiolytic and anxiogenic drug effects, or for examination of specific subtypes of anxiety disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acute single dose of MA (1 mg/kg) on the behavior of laboratory rat in the EPM. The detailed ethologic analysis of behavior was performed using a modified protocol based on the study of Fernández Espejo (1997). Our results demonstrated that MA affects rat's behavior in the EPM in the majority of analyzed categories. The present protocol allowed us to determine positive anxiogenic effect of MA. PMID:22980563

  17. Men in Groups: Anthropology and Aggression, 1965-84.

    PubMed

    Milam, Erika Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    By the late 1950s, Harry Frank Guggenheim was concerned with understanding why some charismatic leaders fought for freedom, while others sought power and domination. He believed that best-selling books on ethological approaches to animal and human behavior, especially those by playwright and screenwriter Robert Ardrey, promised a key to this dilemma, and he created a foundation that would fund research addressing problems of violence, aggression, and dominance. Under the directorship of Rutgers University professors Robin Fox and Lionel Tiger, the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation fostered scientific investigations into the biological basis of human nature. This essay analyzes their discussions of aggression as fundamental to the behavior of men in groups in order to elucidate the private and professional dimensions of masculine networks of US philanthropic and academic authority in the late 1960s and 1970s. PMID:27066619

  18. Decision theory, reinforcement learning, and the brain.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Peter; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2008-12-01

    Decision making is a core competence for animals and humans acting and surviving in environments they only partially comprehend, gaining rewards and punishments for their troubles. Decision-theoretic concepts permeate experiments and computational models in ethology, psychology, and neuroscience. Here, we review a well-known, coherent Bayesian approach to decision making, showing how it unifies issues in Markovian decision problems, signal detection psychophysics, sequential sampling, and optimal exploration and discuss paradigmatic psychological and neural examples of each problem. We discuss computational issues concerning what subjects know about their task and how ambitious they are in seeking optimal solutions; we address algorithmic topics concerning model-based and model-free methods for making choices; and we highlight key aspects of the neural implementation of decision making. PMID:19033240

  19. Social stress models in depression research: what do they tell us?

    PubMed Central

    Chaouloff, Francis

    2013-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the use of social stress models, especially social defeat. Such an interest lies both on the recognition that stressors of social origin play a major role in human psychopathologies and on the acknowledgement that natural and hence ethologically-based stress models bear important translational value. The use of the most recent technology has allowed the recognition of the mechanisms through which social defeat may have enduring psychoneuroendocrine effects, especially social avoidance and anhedonia, two behaviours relevant to human depression. Taken with the sensitivity of these behavioural outcomes to repeated antidepressant treatments, it has been proposed that the social defeat model might be an animal model of depression. The present survey is aimed at examining the limits of such an interpretation, focusing on methodological aspects and on the relevance of social defeat to the study of anxiety-related pathologies. PMID:23532563

  20. [Lamarck needs Darwin: the search for purpose in the study of evolution and of history].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Lamarck's theory of the inheritance of acquired characteristics and immediate responses to environmental challenges has offered a promise of protagonism of human beings and their fellow travellers, the other organisms, in the evolutionary process. Darwin's theory about evolution by natural selection does not offer this consolation and does not presuppose anything else other than gradual changes in the composition of natural populations. The study of ecology, ethology, neurobiology, animal culture, psychology and human history reveals that the lamarckian interpretations of change and character transmission processes always assume what they intend to explain, that is previous processes of darwinian evolution that guarantee the adaptive nature of the observed responses. The permanent search of direction and intentionality in evolutionary processes by many scientists suggests the limited acceptance of materialistic explanations as those offered by Darwin's theory. PMID:21032945

  1. [Aspects of animal welfare in livestock production].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J

    2000-12-01

    The modern consumer is increasingly concerned about the welfare of farm animals which are kept in intensive systems on specialised farms where the health and well-being is almost completely dependent on the will, ability and care of the farmer. Further demands related to animal production are consumer health (quality and safety of food products), the protection of the environment and cheap food. The currently used husbandry systems are man made and emphasise automation which requires permanent critical observation of the welfare of the animals. Ethological indicators are equally important as health and performance to evaluate keeping systems. Future animal farming will be influenced by new technologies such as electronic animal identification and milking robots, and more important by biotechnology and genome analysis. Veterinary surgeons and farmers have to co-operate on the basis of scientifically sound animal welfare schemes which help to protect our farm animals in modern and intensive livestock production systems. PMID:11155522

  2. A comparative study of the effects of morphine in the dorsal periaqueductal gray and nucleus accumbens of rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze test.

    PubMed

    Anseloni, V C; Coimbra, N C; Morato, S; Brandão, M L

    1999-11-01

    We studied the effects of morphine injected either systemically or into the dorsal periaqueductal gray (DPAG) or nucleus accumbens (NA) using conventional and ethological analyses of behavior of rats submitted to the elevated plus-maze test with transparent walls. Intraperitoneal morphine (0.1 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg) increased both standard and ethological measures, expressing general exploratory activity such as total arm entries, end-exploration, scanning, head-dipping, and rearing. Morphine 10 (7.6 microg/microl) and 30 nmol (23 microg/microl) injected into nucleus accumbens produced similar effects, which were blocked by i.p. naltrexone (2.0 mg/kg), an opioid antagonist with good affinity for mu-opioid receptors. Morphine injected into the DPAG produced either antiaversive (10 nmol) or aversive effects (30 nmol), which respectively reduced and increased entries and time spent in the open arms and behaviors associated with risk assessment (peeping out, stretched attend postures, and flat back approach). The proaversive effects were inhibited by i.p. norbinaltorphimine (2.0 mg/kg), a selective inhibitor for kappa-opioid receptors. These findings support the contention that at least some of the motivational effects of morphine may be due to activation of opioid mechanisms in nucleus accumbens, and DPAG has neural substrates for antiaversive and aversive effects of morphine. Moreover, on the basis of previous and present data obtained in this laboratory, it is suggested that stimulation of mu-opioid receptors inhibits and stimulation of kappa-receptors activates the neural substrate of aversion in the DPAG. On the other hand, the increase in exploratory behavior due to interaction of morphine with mu-opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens may be due to the stimulation of the interface between neural substrates of motivation and motor output in this structure. PMID:10591900

  3. Behavioral profile of wild mice in the elevated plus-maze test for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Holmes, A; Parmigiani, S; Ferrari, P F; Palanza, P; Rodgers, R J

    2000-12-01

    Systematic observations of the defensive behavior of wild rodents have greatly informed the experimental study of anxiety and its neural substrates in laboratory animals. However, as the former work has been almost exclusively carried out in rats, few data are available concerning the reactivity of wild mice to standardized tests of anxiety-related behavior. In the present experiments, we employed ethological measures to examine the behavioral responses of a wild-derived population of house mice (Mus musculus) in the elevated plus-maze. In direct comparisons with laboratory Swiss mice, male wild mice exhibited substantially elevated levels of exploratory activities and an overall "preference" for the open arms of the plus-maze. On re-exposure to the plus-maze, male wild mice showed further increases in open arm exploration, while Swiss mice showed a marked shift to the enclosed parts of the plus-maze. Tested over a single session, female wild mice also exhibited a profile of high open arm exploration, but showed levels of exploratory behaviors and locomotor activity similar to female Swiss counterparts. While exploratory patterns in wild mice show similarities to profiles seen in certain laboratory strains (e.g., BALB/c), wild mice displayed a number of additional behaviors that are unprecedented in plus-maze studies with laboratory mice. These included actual and attempted jumps from the maze, spontaneous freezing, and exploration of the upper ledges of the closed arms. Thus, while in conventional terms the behavior of wild mice was consistent with one of low anxiety-like behavior, the presence of these unique elements instead indicates a profile more accurately characterized by high reactivity and escape motivation. We discuss how the use of an ethological approach to measuring plus-maze behavior can support accurate interpretation of other exceptional profiles in this test, such as those possibly arising from phenotyping of transgenic and gene knockout mice

  4. Can vocal conditioning trigger a semiotic ratchet in marmosets?

    PubMed Central

    Turesson, Hjalmar K.; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2015-01-01

    The complexity of human communication has often been taken as evidence that our language reflects a true evolutionary leap, bearing little resemblance to any other animal communication system. The putative uniqueness of the human language poses serious evolutionary and ethological challenges to a rational explanation of human communication. Here we review ethological, anatomical, molecular, and computational results across several species to set boundaries for these challenges. Results from animal behavior, cognitive psychology, neurobiology, and semiotics indicate that human language shares multiple features with other primate communication systems, such as specialized brain circuits for sensorimotor processing, the capability for indexical (pointing) and symbolic (referential) signaling, the importance of shared intentionality for associative learning, affective conditioning and parental scaffolding of vocal production. The most substantial differences lie in the higher human capacity for symbolic compositionality, fast vertical transmission of new symbols across generations, and irreversible accumulation of novel adaptive behaviors (cultural ratchet). We hypothesize that increasingly-complex vocal conditioning of an appropriate animal model may be sufficient to trigger a semiotic ratchet, evidenced by progressive sign complexification, as spontaneous contact calls become indexes, then symbols and finally arguments (strings of symbols). To test this hypothesis, we outline a series of conditioning experiments in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). The experiments are designed to probe the limits of vocal communication in a prosocial, highly vocal primate 35 million years far from the human lineage, so as to shed light on the mechanisms of semiotic complexification and cultural transmission, and serve as a naturalistic behavioral setting for the investigation of language disorders. PMID:26500583

  5. Depressive-like behavioral profiles in captive-bred single- and socially-housed rhesus and cynomolgus macaques: a species comparison

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Sandrine M. J.; Rochais, Céline; Blois-Heulin, Catherine; Li, Qin; Hausberger, Martine; Bezard, Erwan

    2014-01-01

    Background: To unravel the causes of major depressive disorder (MDD), the third leading cause of disease burden around the world, ethological animal models have recently been proposed. Our previous studies highlighted a depressive-like profile among single- and socially-housed farm-bred cynomolgus macaques. Although phylogenetically close, cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, the two most commonly used macaque species in biomedical research, differ on several levels such as patterns of aggression, reconciliation, temperament, or dominance styles. The question of whether one captive macaque species was more vulnerable than another in the development of a pathological profile reminiscent of MDD symptoms was explored. Methods: Behavioral data (including body postures, orientations, gaze directions, inter-individual distances, and locations in the cage) were collected in farming conditions. Using an unbiased validated ethological scan-sampling method, followed by multiple correspondence and hierarchical clustering analyses, 40 single- and 35 socially-housed rhesus macaques were assessed. Independently, for each housing condition, inter-species comparisons were made with previously acquired data on farm-bred cynomolgus monkeys. Results: Consistent with our previous studies, we found depressive-like characteristics (e.g., inactivity, low level of investigation and maintenance, long time spent inactive while facing the wall) among single- and socially-housed rhesus macaques. Species-specificities were reported in non-depressive time budgets and in the prevalence of the pathological profiles. Conclusions: Our results suggest that rhesus may be more vulnerable to developing a despair-like state than cynomolgus macaques, both in single- and in social-housing conditions. Therefore, rhesus macaques are more suitable for use as a “spontaneous” model of depressive disorders. PMID:24600363

  6. Is silence golden? Effects of auditory stimuli and their absence on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kirste, Imke; Nicola, Zeina; Kronenberg, Golo; Walker, Tara L; Liu, Robert C; Kempermann, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    We have previously hypothesized that the reason why physical activity increases precursor cell proliferation in adult neurogenesis is that movement serves as non-specific signal to evoke the alertness required to meet cognitive demands. Thereby a pool of immature neurons is generated that are potentially recruitable by subsequent cognitive stimuli. Along these lines, we here tested whether auditory stimuli might exert a similar non-specific effect on adult neurogenesis in mice. We used the standard noise level in the animal facility as baseline and compared this condition to white noise, pup calls, and silence. In addition, as patterned auditory stimulus without ethological relevance to mice we used piano music by Mozart (KV 448). All stimuli were transposed to the frequency range of C57BL/6 and hearing was objectified with acoustic evoked potentials. We found that except for white noise all stimuli, including silence, increased precursor cell proliferation (assessed 24 h after labeling with bromodeoxyuridine, BrdU). This could be explained by significant increases in BrdU-labeled Sox2-positive cells (type-1/2a). But after 7 days, only silence remained associated with increased numbers of BrdU-labeled cells. Compared to controls at this stage, exposure to silence had generated significantly increased numbers of BrdU/NeuN-labeled neurons. Our results indicate that the unnatural absence of auditory input as well as spectrotemporally rich albeit ethological irrelevant stimuli activate precursor cells-in the case of silence also leading to greater numbers of newborn immature neurons-whereas ambient and unstructured background auditory stimuli do not. PMID:24292324

  7. Wireless Adaptive Therapeutic TeleGaming in a Pervasive Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, James F.; Szturm, Tony; Borkowski, Maciej; Lockery, Dan; Ramanna, Sheela; Shay, Barbara

    This chapter introduces a wireless, pervasive computing approach to adaptive therapeutic telegaming considered in the context of near set theory. Near set theory provides a formal basis for observation, comparison and classification of perceptual granules. A perceptual granule is defined by a collection of objects that are graspable by the senses or by the mind. In the proposed pervasive computing approach to telegaming, a handicapped person (e.g., stroke patient with limited hand, finger, arm function) plays a video game by interacting with familiar instrumented objects such as cups, cutlery, soccer balls, nozzles, screw top-lids, spoons, so that the technology that makes therapeutic exercise game-playing possible is largely invisible (Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 89:2213-2217, 2008). The basic approach to adaptive learning (AL) in the proposed telegaming environment is ethology-inspired and is quite different from the traditional approach to reinforcement learning. In biologically-inspired learning, organisms learn to achieve some goal by durable modification of behaviours in response to signals from the environment resulting from specific experiences (Animal Behavior, 1995). The term adaptive is used here in an ethological sense, where learning by an organism results from modifying behaviour in response to perceived changes in the environment. To instill adaptivity in a video game, it is assumed that learning by a video game is episodic. During an episode, the behaviour of a player is measured indirectly by tracking the occurrence of gaming events such as a hit or a miss of a target (e.g., hitting a moving ball with a game paddle). An ethogram provides a record of behaviour feature values that provide a basis a functional registry for handicapped players for gaming adaptivity. An important practical application of adaptive gaming is therapeutic rehabilitation exercise carried out in parallel with playing action video games. Enjoyable and

  8. Correlation of etho-social and psycho-social data from "Mars-500" interplanetary simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafforin, Carole; Vinokhodova, Alla; Chekalina, Angelina; Gushin, Vadim

    2015-06-01

    Studies of social groups under isolation and confinement for the needs of space psychology were mostly limited by questionnaires completed with batteries of subjective tests, and they needed to be correlated with video recordings for objective analyses in space ethology. The aim of the present study is to identify crewmembers' behavioral profiles for better understanding group dynamics during a 520-day isolation and confinement of the international crew (n=6) participating to the "Mars-500" interplanetary simulation. We propose to correlate data from PSPA (Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes) computerized test, sociometric questionnaires and color choices test (Luscher test) used to measure anxiety levels, with data of video analysis during group discussion (GD) and breakfast time (BT). All the procedures were implemented monthly - GD, or twice a month - BT. Firstly, we used descriptive statistics for displaying quantitative subjects' behavioral profiles, supplied with a software based-solution: the Observer XT®. Secondly, we used Spearmen's nonparametric correlation analysis. The results show that for each subject, the level of non-verbal behavior ("visual interactions", "object interactions", "body interaction", "personal actions", "facial expressions", and "collateral acts") is higher than the level of verbal behavior ("interpersonal communication in Russian", and "interpersonal communication in English"). From the video analyses, dynamics profiles over months are different between the crewmembers. From the correlative analyses, we found highly negative correlations between anxiety and interpersonal communications; and between the sociometric parameter "popularity in leisure environment" and anxiety level. We also found highly significant positive correlations between the sociometric parameter "popularity in working environment" and interpersonal communications, and facial expressions; and between the sociometric parameter "popularity in leisure environment

  9. Brain disorders and the biological role of music

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Camilla N.; Downey, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite its evident universality and high social value, the ultimate biological role of music and its connection to brain disorders remain poorly understood. Recent findings from basic neuroscience have shed fresh light on these old problems. New insights provided by clinical neuroscience concerning the effects of brain disorders promise to be particularly valuable in uncovering the underlying cognitive and neural architecture of music and for assessing candidate accounts of the biological role of music. Here we advance a new model of the biological role of music in human evolution and the link to brain disorders, drawing on diverse lines of evidence derived from comparative ethology, cognitive neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies in the normal and the disordered brain. We propose that music evolved from the call signals of our hominid ancestors as a means mentally to rehearse and predict potentially costly, affectively laden social routines in surrogate, coded, low-cost form: essentially, a mechanism for transforming emotional mental states efficiently and adaptively into social signals. This biological role of music has its legacy today in the disordered processing of music and mental states that characterizes certain developmental and acquired clinical syndromes of brain network disintegration. PMID:24847111

  10. The biobehavioral consequences of psychogenic stress in a small, social primate (Callithrix jacchus jacchus).

    PubMed

    Johnson, E O; Kamilaris, T C; Carter, C S; Calogero, A E; Gold, P W; Chrousos, G P

    1996-09-01

    The biobehavioral consequences of psychogenic stress were examined using neuroendocrine and ethological methods in a captive colony of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). Specifically, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity was evaluated as a function of gender and social status in four consecutive social environments [(1) stable heterosexual pairs; (2) isolation; (3) unstable peer groups; and (4) stable peer groups], by measuring both basal plasma cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and beta-endorphin concentrations and responsiveness of these hormones to dexamethasone, ovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (oCRH), and ACTH1-24. Socially stressful conditions, such as isolation and peer group formation, were associated with increased HPA axis function and behavioral arousal, and individual profiles were related to gender and social status. Hormonal levels prior to group formation predicted subsequent status in peer groups. Basal morning concentrations of plasma cortisol, as well as cortisol responsiveness to dexamethasone suppression, were sensitive indices of HPA axis arousal during periods of social stress. The context-dependent development of hormonal and behavioral profiles, reminiscent of depression and/or anorexia nervosa, suggests that the common marmoset may be a useful model of psychiatric hypercortisolism. PMID:8874833

  11. Depression, masochism, and biology.

    PubMed

    Asch, S S

    1985-01-01

    In examining the conditions of depression and masochism, my intention has been to expand our area of study beyond psychodynamics alone. My first aim was to present what I believe are the intimately intertwined dynamics of each condition, a metaphorical double helix of depression and masochism in a matrix of narcissism. It may make clearer how either depression or masochism may present clinically in combination, at times in tandem, or manifestly as either state alone. My second, but major, aim is ecumenical: to interweave contributions from outside psychoanalysis. The neurophysiological bases and genetic determinants for most depressions are by now well-recognized. Masochism, much like depression, with which it is closely allied, may not necessarily arise out of conflict alone. I have presented brief excerpts of material, much of it still speculative, from areas of genetics, biochemistry, and ethology, to support the concept of a biological anlage for masochism. This would help explain the enormous difficulties therapists find in the path of its successful treatment. I believe Lorenz's theories on animal "bonding" suggest precursors to our concepts of masochism. I further believe our field of study has reached the point at which these and probably additional scientific disciplines can be helpful or even necessary for the further understanding of character, and for the solution of the persistent riddle of masochism, whose full understanding has continued to elude us. PMID:2991102

  12. Human sound localization: measurements in untrained, head-unrestrained subjects using gaze as a pointer.

    PubMed

    Populin, Luis C

    2008-09-01

    Studies of sound localization in humans have used various behavioral measures to quantify the observers' perceptions; a non-comprehensive list includes verbal reports, head pointing, gun pointing, stylus pointing, and laser aiming. Comparison of localization performance reveals that in humans, just as in animals, different results are obtained with different experimental tasks. Accordingly, to circumvent problems associated with task selection and training, this study used gaze, an ethologically valid behavior for spatial pointing in species with a specialized area of the fovea, to measure sound localization perception of human subjects. Orienting using gaze as a pointer does not require training, preserves the natural link between perception and action, and allows for direct behavioral comparisons across species. The results revealed, unexpectedly, a large degree of variability across subjects in both accuracy and precision. The magnitude of the average angular localization errors for the most eccentric horizontal targets, however, were very similar to those documented in studies that used head pointing, whereas the magnitude of the localization errors for the frontal targets were considerably larger. In addition, an overall improvement in sound localization in the context of the memory-saccade task, as well as a lack of effect of initial eye and head position on perceived sound location were documented. PMID:18575853

  13. Conjugating time and frequency: hemispheric specialization, acoustic uncertainty, and the mustached bat.

    PubMed

    Washington, Stuart D; Tillinghast, John S

    2015-01-01

    A prominent hypothesis of hemispheric specialization for human speech and music states that the left and right auditory cortices (ACs) are respectively specialized for precise calculation of two canonically-conjugate variables: time and frequency. This spectral-temporal asymmetry does not account for sex, brain-volume, or handedness, and is in opposition to closed-system hypotheses that restrict this asymmetry to humans. Mustached bats have smaller brains, but greater ethological pressures to develop such a spectral-temporal asymmetry, than humans. Using the Heisenberg-Gabor Limit (i.e., the mathematical basis of the spectral-temporal asymmetry) to frame mustached bat literature, we show that recent findings in bat AC (1) support the notion that hemispheric specialization for speech and music is based on hemispheric differences in temporal and spectral resolution, (2) discredit closed-system, handedness, and brain-volume theories, (3) underscore the importance of sex differences, and (4) provide new avenues for phonological research. PMID:25926767

  14. Assessment of social cognition in non-human primates using a network of computerized automated learning device (ALDM) test systems.

    PubMed

    Fagot, Joël; Marzouki, Yousri; Huguet, Pascal; Gullstrand, Julie; Claidière, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Fagot & Paleressompoulle(1) and Fagot & Bonte(2) have published an automated learning device (ALDM) for the study of cognitive abilities of monkeys maintained in semi-free ranging conditions. Data accumulated during the last five years have consistently demonstrated the efficiency of this protocol to investigate individual/physical cognition in monkeys, and have further shown that this procedure reduces stress level during animal testing(3). This paper demonstrates that networks of ALDM can also be used to investigate different facets of social cognition and in-group expressed behaviors in monkeys, and describes three illustrative protocols developed for that purpose. The first study demonstrates how ethological assessments of social behavior and computerized assessments of cognitive performance could be integrated to investigate the effects of socially exhibited moods on the cognitive performance of individuals. The second study shows that batteries of ALDM running in parallel can provide unique information on the influence of the presence of others on task performance. Finally, the last study shows that networks of ALDM test units can also be used to study issues related to social transmission and cultural evolution. Combined together, these three studies demonstrate clearly that ALDM testing is a highly promising experimental tool for bridging the gap in the animal literature between research on individual cognition and research on social cognition. PMID:25992495

  15. Experience-dependent overrepresentation of ultrasonic vocalization frequencies in the rat primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Heesoo

    2013-01-01

    Cortical sensory representation is highly adaptive to the environment, and prevalent or behaviorally important stimuli are often overrepresented. One class of such stimuli is species-specific vocalizations. Rats vocalize in the ultrasonic range >30 kHz, but cortical representation of this frequency range has not been systematically examined. We recorded in vivo cortical electrophysiological responses to ultrasonic pure-tone pips, natural ultrasonic vocalizations, and pitch-shifted vocalizations to assess how rats represent this ethologically relevant frequency range. We find that nearly 40% of the primary auditory cortex (AI) represents an octave-wide band of ultrasonic vocalization frequencies (UVFs; 32–64 kHz) compared with <20% for other octave bands <32 kHz. These UVF neurons respond preferentially and reliably to ultrasonic vocalizations. The UVF overrepresentation matures in the cortex before it develops in the central nucleus of inferior colliculus, suggesting a cortical origin and corticofugal influences. Furthermore, the development of cortical UVF overrepresentation depends on early acoustic experience. These results indicate that natural sensory experience causes large-scale cortical map reorganization and improves representations of species-specific vocalizations. PMID:23741037

  16. Conjugating time and frequency: hemispheric specialization, acoustic uncertainty, and the mustached bat

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Stuart D.; Tillinghast, John S.

    2015-01-01

    A prominent hypothesis of hemispheric specialization for human speech and music states that the left and right auditory cortices (ACs) are respectively specialized for precise calculation of two canonically-conjugate variables: time and frequency. This spectral-temporal asymmetry does not account for sex, brain-volume, or handedness, and is in opposition to closed-system hypotheses that restrict this asymmetry to humans. Mustached bats have smaller brains, but greater ethological pressures to develop such a spectral-temporal asymmetry, than humans. Using the Heisenberg-Gabor Limit (i.e., the mathematical basis of the spectral-temporal asymmetry) to frame mustached bat literature, we show that recent findings in bat AC (1) support the notion that hemispheric specialization for speech and music is based on hemispheric differences in temporal and spectral resolution, (2) discredit closed-system, handedness, and brain-volume theories, (3) underscore the importance of sex differences, and (4) provide new avenues for phonological research. PMID:25926767

  17. A Family of non-GPCR Chemosensors Defines an Alternative Logic for Mammalian Olfaction.

    PubMed

    Greer, Paul L; Bear, Daniel M; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Bloom, Maria Lissitsyna; Tsukahara, Tatsuya; Pashkovski, Stan L; Masuda, Francis Kei; Nowlan, Alexandra C; Kirchner, Rory; Hoekstra, Hopi E; Datta, Sandeep Robert

    2016-06-16

    Odor perception in mammals is mediated by parallel sensory pathways that convey distinct information about the olfactory world. Multiple olfactory subsystems express characteristic seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in a one-receptor-per-neuron pattern that facilitates odor discrimination. Sensory neurons of the "necklace" subsystem are nestled within the recesses of the olfactory epithelium and detect diverse odorants; however, they do not express known GPCR odor receptors. Here, we report that members of the four-pass transmembrane MS4A protein family are chemosensors expressed within necklace sensory neurons. These receptors localize to sensory endings and confer responses to ethologically relevant ligands, including pheromones and fatty acids, in vitro and in vivo. Individual necklace neurons co-express many MS4A proteins and are activated by multiple MS4A ligands; this pooling of information suggests that the necklace is organized more like subsystems for taste than for smell. The MS4As therefore define a distinct mechanism and functional logic for mammalian olfaction. PMID:27238024

  18. Cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes and neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuchao; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Dong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yan; Lu, Zhisong; Yu, Samuel C T; Li, Rui; Yang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have shown increasing promise in the field of biomedicine, especially in applications related to the nervous system. However, there are limited studies available on the neurotoxicity of SWCNTs used in vivo. In this study, neurobehavioral changes caused by SWCNTs in mice and oxidative stress were investigated. The results of ethological analysis (Morris water maze and open-field test), brain histopathological examination, and assessments of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species [ROS], malondialdehyde [MDA], and glutathione [GSH]), inflammation (nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1β), and apoptosis (cysteine-aspartic acid protease 3) in brains showed that 6.25 and 12.50 mg/kg/day SWCNTs in mice could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, brain histopathological alterations, and increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in mouse brains; however, 3.125 mg/kg/day SWCNTs had zero or minor adverse effects in mice, and these effects were blocked by concurrent administration of ascorbic acid. Down-regulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were proposed to explain the neuroprotective effects of ascorbic acid. This work suggests SWCNTs could induce cognitive deficits and decreased locomotor activity, and provides a strategy to avoid the adverse effects. PMID:24596461

  19. Neurocomputational model of moral behaviour.

    PubMed

    Plebe, Alessio

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of human morality has dramatically improved in the last decades, thanks to efforts carried out with scientific methods, in addition to the traditional speculative approach. Substantial contributions and relevant empirical data have come from neuroscience, psychology, genetics, comparative ethology, anthropology, and the social sciences. In this fruitful synergy, one useful approach is still missing: computational modeling. More precisely, a neurocomputational model aimed at simulating forms of moral behavior, to our knowledge, has not yet been designed. The purpose of this work is to start filling this gap, proposing MOral Neural Engine (MONE), a model that simulates the emergence of moral cognition. The neural engine in this model is assumed to be based in frontal areas, specifically the orbitofrontal and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and in connections to limbic areas involved in emotions and reward, such as the ventral striatum and the amygdala. Moral cognition is probably the result of a collection of several different neural processes, activated depending on the type of moral problem, each associated with a variety of emotions. This model, in its first implementation, deals with only a single moral situation: stealing someone's food, a transgression that typically elicits guilt, learned in the model from the angry facial expressions of the victim. PMID:26585964

  20. Variation in social relationships relates to song preferences and EGR1 expression in a female songbird.

    PubMed

    Schubloom, Hannah E; Woolley, Sarah C

    2016-09-01

    Social experiences can profoundly shape social behavior and the underlying neural circuits. Across species, the formation of enduring social relationships is associated with both neural and behavioral changes. However, it remains unclear how longer-term relationships between individuals influence brain and behavior. Here, we investigated how variation in social relationships relates to variation in female preferences for and neural responses to song in a pair-bonding songbird. We assessed variation in the interactions between individuals in male-female zebra finch pairs and found that female preferences for their mate's song were correlated with the degree of affiliation and amount of socially modulated singing, but not with the frequency of aggressive interactions. Moreover, variation in measures of pair quality and preference correlated with variation in the song-induced expression of EGR1, an immediate early gene related to neural activity and plasticity, in brain regions important for auditory processing and social behavior. For example, females with weaker preferences for their mate's song had greater EGR1 expression in the nucleus Taeniae, the avian homologue of the mammalian medial amygdala, in response to playback of their mate's courtship song. Our data indicate that the quality of social interactions within pairs relates to variation in song preferences and neural responses to ethologically relevant stimuli and lend insight into neural circuits sensitive to social information. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 1029-1040, 2016. PMID:26713856

  1. From behavioural analyses to models of collective motion in fish schools

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Ugo; Gautrais, Jacques; Couzin, Iain D.; Theraulaz, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Fish schooling is a phenomenon of long-lasting interest in ethology and ecology, widely spread across taxa and ecological contexts, and has attracted much interest from statistical physics and theoretical biology as a case of self-organized behaviour. One topic of intense interest is the search of specific behavioural mechanisms at stake at the individual level and from which the school properties emerges. This is fundamental for understanding how selective pressure acting at the individual level promotes adaptive properties of schools and in trying to disambiguate functional properties from non-adaptive epiphenomena. Decades of studies on collective motion by means of individual-based modelling have allowed a qualitative understanding of the self-organization processes leading to collective properties at school level, and provided an insight into the behavioural mechanisms that result in coordinated motion. Here, we emphasize a set of paradigmatic modelling assumptions whose validity remains unclear, both from a behavioural point of view and in terms of quantitative agreement between model outcome and empirical data. We advocate for a specific and biologically oriented re-examination of these assumptions through experimental-based behavioural analysis and modelling. PMID:24312723

  2. [A functional explanation of normative prescriptive-evaluative judgments and the concept of "evolutionary ethics"].

    PubMed

    Dorschel, A

    1992-01-01

    Neodarwinian ethology, today above all represented by sociobiology, is conceived of by responsible exponents as a descriptive and explanatory theory that cannot include any normative declarations. Still other, indeed notable, authors belonging to the discipline in question, either underhand or frankly employ prescriptive or evaluative judgments, or they claim (what is not an insight of natural science) that it is impossible to provide a rational foundation for prescriptive or evaluative judgments. (Michael Ruse and Edward O. Wilson even assert the latter without relinquishing the former.) Several functional explanations of normative validity claims advanced by Michael Ruse, Edward O. Wilson, Donald T. Campbell, Florian von Schilcher and Neil Tennant are designed to show that prescriptive or evaluative judgments cannot be justified. The reasonableness of this move is, however, dubious, because it implies strategies of raising oneself into a privileged status or of rendering the position of oneself immune from criticism by shifting it among the objects of the theory. Then Wilson's concept of 'evolutionary ethics' is thoroughly--and critically--analyzed. The suspicion that Wilson's fallacies in the transition from biological facts to moral norms are of exemplary nature is finally examined on the basis of tenets advanced by Herbert Spencer, Wolfgang Wickler, and Hans Mohr. PMID:1342729

  3. Comparison between two different methods for evaluating rumen papillae measures related to different diets.

    PubMed

    Scocco, Paola; Brusaferro, Andrea; Catorci, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Although the Geographical Information System (GIS), which integrates computerized drawing computer assisted design (CAD) and relational databases (data base management system (DBMS)), is best known for applications in geographical and planning cartography, it can also use many kinds of information concerning the territory. A multidisciplinary project was initiated since 5 years a multidisciplinary study was initiated to use GIS to integrate environmental and ecological data with findings on animal health, ethology, and anatomy. This study is chiefly aimed at comparing two different methods for measuring the absorptive surface of rumen papillae. To this scope, 21 female sheep (Ovis aries) on different alimentary regimes (e.g., milk and forage mixed diet, early herbaceous diet, dry hay diet, and fresh hay diet at the maximum of pasture flowering and at the maximum of pasture dryness) were used; after slaughtering, 20 papillae were randomly removed from each sample collected from four indicator regions of rumen wall, placed near a metric reference and digitally photographed. The images were developed with the ArcGIS™ software to calculate the area of rumen papillae by means of GIS and to measure their mid-level width and length to calculate the papillae area as previously performed with a different method. Spatial measurements were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. This work demonstrates that the GIS methodology can be efficiently used for measuring the absorptive surface of rumen papillae. In addition, GIS demonstrated to be a rapid, precise, and objective tool when compared with previously used method. PMID:22223350

  4. Do aphids actively search for ant partners?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christophe Y; Vanderplanck, Maryse; Lognay, Georges C; Detrain, Claire; Verheggen, François J

    2015-04-01

    The aphid-ant mutualistic relationships are not necessarily obligate for neither partners but evidence is that such interactions provide them strong advantages in terms of global fitness. While it is largely assumed that ants actively search for their mutualistic partners namely using volatile cues; whether winged aphids (i.e., aphids' most mobile form) are able to select ant-frequented areas had not been investigated so far. Ant-frequented sites would indeed offer several advantages for these aphids including a lower predation pressure through ant presence and enhanced chances of establishing mutuaslistic interactions with neighbor ant colonies. In the field, aphid colonies are often observed in higher densities around ant nests, which is probably linked to a better survival ensured by ants' services. Nevertheless, this could also result from a preferential establishment of winged aphids in ant-frequented areas. We tested this last hypothesis through different ethological assays and show that the facultative myrmecophilous black bean aphid, Aphis fabae L., does not orientate its search for a host plant preferentially toward ant-frequented plants. However, our results suggest that ants reduce the number of winged aphids leaving the newly colonized plant. Thus, ants involved in facultative myrmecophilous interactions with aphids appear to contribute to structure aphid populations in the field by ensuring a better establishment and survival of newly established colonies rather than by inducing a deliberate plant selection by aphid partners based on the proximity of ant colonies. PMID:24659520

  5. An emerging role for Cullin-3 mediated ubiquitination in sleep and circadian rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Amanda A.H.; Mandilaras, Konstantinos; Missirlis, Fanis; Sanyal, Subhabrata

    2013-01-01

    Although the neurophysiological correlates of sleep have been thoroughly described, genetic mechanisms that control sleep architecture, long surmised from ethological studies, family histories and clinical observations, have only been investigated during the past decade. Key contributions to the molecular understanding of sleep have come from studies in Drosophila, benefitting from a strong history of circadian rhythm research. For instance, a number of recent papers have highlighted the role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cullin-3 in the regulation of circadian rhythm and sleep. We propose that different Cullin-3 substrate adaptors may affect specific molecular pathways and diverse aspects of circadian rhythm and sleep. We have previously shown that mutations in BTBD9, a risk factor for Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) encoding a Cullin-3 substrate adaptor, lead to reduced dopamine, increased locomotion and sleep fragmentation. Here, we propose that Cullin-3 acts together with BTBD9 to limit the accumulation of iron regulatory proteins in conditions of iron deficiency. Our model is consistent with clinical observations implicating iron homeostasis in the pathophysiology of RLS and predicts that lack of BTBD9 leads to misregulation of cellular iron storage, inactivating the critical biosynthetic enzyme Tyrosine Hydroxylase in dopaminergic neurons, with consequent phenotypic effects on sleep. PMID:23455037

  6. [Possible evolutionary mechanisms of 'culture' in animals: The hypothesis of distributed social learning].

    PubMed

    Reznikova, Zh I; Panteleeva, S N

    2015-01-01

    There is a plethora of works on the origin and genesis of behavioral traditions in different animal species. Nevertheless, it still remains unclear as for which factors facilitate and which factors hinder the spreading those forms of behavior that are new for a population. Here, we present an analytical review on the topic, considering also the results of studies on 'culture' in animals and analyzing contradictions that arise when attempting to clarify the ethological mechanisms of cultural succession. The hypothesis of 'distributed social learning' is formulated, meaning that for spreading of complex behavioral stereotypes in a population the presence of few carriers of consistent stereotypes is enough under the condition that the rest of animals carry incomplete genetic programmes that start up these stereotypes. Existence of 'dormant' fragments of such programmes determines an inborn predisposition of their bearer to perform a certain sequence of acts. To complete the consistent stereotype, the simplest forms of social learning ('social alleviation') turn to be enough. The hypothesis is examined at the behavioral level and supported by experimental data obtained when studying the scenarios of hunting behavior development in ants Myrmica rubra L. It makes possible to explain the spreading of behavioral models in animal communities in a simpler way than cultural succession. PMID:26353397

  7. Initial moments of adaptation to microgravity of human orientation behavior, in parabolic flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafforin, Carole

    1996-06-01

    The first ethological studies of astronauts' adaptation to microgravity dealt with the behavioral strategies observed during short-term space missions. No attempts had however been made to consider the initial moments of adaptation dynamics, when the subject is first submitted to conditions allowing body orientations in the full three dimensions of space. The present experimental approach was both longitudinal and transversal. It consisted of analysing, during a goal-directed orientation task in parabolic flight, the orientation behavior of 12 subjects with a past experience of 0, 30 or more than 300 parabolas. During each microgravity phase, the subjects were asked to orientate their bodies and touch, with the dominant hand, four coloured targets arranged inside the aircraft. Results showed that for inexperienced subjects, the time between two target contacts was longer than experienced subjects. They often failed to reach all targets in the series during the first parabolas. They showed right-left confusion and a preference for the "up-down" vertical body orientation. Their performance, described by the efficiency of orientation in all three dimensions, improved over time and according to the level of experience. The results are discussed for the spontaneous, preliminary and integrative stages of adaptation, emphasizing new relationships between the body references and those of the surroundings. Such experiences lead the subject to develop a new mental representation of space.

  8. Olfaction and olfactory-mediated behaviour in psychiatric disease models.

    PubMed

    Huckins, Laura M; Logan, Darren W; Sánchez-Andrade, Gabriela

    2013-10-01

    Rats and mice are the most widely used species for modelling psychiatric disease. Assessment of these rodent models typically involves the analysis of aberrant behaviour with behavioural interactions often being manipulated to generate the model. Rodents rely heavily on their excellent sense of smell and almost all their social interactions have a strong olfactory component. Therefore, experimental paradigms that exploit these olfactory-mediated behaviours are among the most robust available and are highly prevalent in psychiatric disease research. These include tests of aggression and maternal instinct, foraging, olfactory memory and habituation and the establishment of social hierarchies. An appreciation of the way that rodents regulate these behaviours in an ethological context can assist experimenters to generate better data from their models and to avoid common pitfalls. We describe some of the more commonly used behavioural paradigms from a rodent olfactory perspective and discuss their application in existing models of psychiatric disease. We introduce the four olfactory subsystems that integrate to mediate the behavioural responses and the types of sensory cue that promote them and discuss their control and practical implementation to improve experimental outcomes. In addition, because smell is critical for normal behaviour in rodents and yet olfactory dysfunction is often associated with neuropsychiatric disease, we introduce some tests for olfactory function that can be applied to rodent models of psychiatric disorders as part of behavioural analysis. PMID:23604803

  9. Artificial organisms as tools for the development of psychological theory: Tolman's lesson.

    PubMed

    Miglino, Orazio; Gigliotta, Onofrio; Cardaci, Maurizio; Ponticorvo, Michela

    2007-12-01

    In the 1930s and 1940s, Edward Tolman developed a psychological theory of spatial orientation in rats and humans. He expressed his theory as an automaton (the "schematic sowbug") or what today we would call an "artificial organism." With the technology of the day, he could not implement his model. Nonetheless, he used it to develop empirical predictions which tested with animals in the laboratory. This way of proceeding was in line with scientific practice dating back to Galileo. The way psychologists use artificial organisms in their work today breaks with this tradition. Modern "artificial organisms" are constructed a posteriori, working from experimental or ethological observations. As a result, researchers can use them to confirm a theoretical model or to simulate its operation. But they make no contribution to the actual building of models. In this paper, we try to return to Tolman's original strategy: implementing his theory of "vicarious trial and error" in a simulated robot, forecasting the robot's behavior and conducting experiments that verify or falsify these predictions. PMID:17665237

  10. Domesticating nature? Surveillance and conservation of migratory shorebirds in the "Atlantic Flyway".

    PubMed

    Whitney, Kristoffer

    2014-03-01

    Using a recent environmental controversy on the U.S. east coast over the conservation of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) as a lens, I present a history of North American efforts to understand and conserve migratory shorebirds. Focusing on a few signal pieces of American legislation and their associated bureaucracies, I show the ways in which migratory wildlife have been thoroughly enrolled in efforts to quantify and protect their populations. Interactions between wildlife biologists and endangered species have been described by some scholars as "domestication"-a level of surveillance and intervention into nonhuman nature that constitutes a form of dependence. I pause to reflect on this historical trajectory, pointing out the breaks and continuities with older forms of natural history. Using the oft-mobilized Foucauldian metaphor of the panopticon as a foil, I question the utility and ethics of too-easily declaring "domesticated" wildlife an act of "biopower." Instead, I argue that Jacob von Uexküll's "umwelt" from early ecology and ethology, and more contemporary Science and Technology Studies (STS) analyses emphasizing multiple ontologies, offer more illuminating accounts of endangered species science. Neither science, conservation, nor history are well-served by the conflation of wildlife "surveillance" with the language of Foucauldian discipline. PMID:24268929

  11. Visuomotor Transformations Underlying Hunting Behavior in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Isaac H.; Engert, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Summary Visuomotor circuits filter visual information and determine whether or not to engage downstream motor modules to produce behavioral outputs. However, the circuit mechanisms that mediate and link perception of salient stimuli to execution of an adaptive response are poorly understood. We combined a virtual hunting assay for tethered larval zebrafish with two-photon functional calcium imaging to simultaneously monitor neuronal activity in the optic tectum during naturalistic behavior. Hunting responses showed mixed selectivity for combinations of visual features, specifically stimulus size, speed, and contrast polarity. We identified a subset of tectal neurons with similar highly selective tuning, which show non-linear mixed selectivity for visual features and are likely to mediate the perceptual recognition of prey. By comparing neural dynamics in the optic tectum during response versus non-response trials, we discovered premotor population activity that specifically preceded initiation of hunting behavior and exhibited anatomical localization that correlated with motor variables. In summary, the optic tectum contains non-linear mixed selectivity neurons that are likely to mediate reliable detection of ethologically relevant sensory stimuli. Recruitment of small tectal assemblies appears to link perception to action by providing the premotor commands that release hunting responses. These findings allow us to propose a model circuit for the visuomotor transformations underlying a natural behavior. PMID:25754638

  12. Anxiety, defence and the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R J; Dalvi, A

    1997-11-01

    The elevated plus-maze test has been in use as a rodent model of anxiety for a decade, and is representative of those tests that are based upon the study of spontaneous behaviour patterns and which have high ecological validity. The origins of the test in studies of the relationship between exploration and fear are reviewed, and attention is drawn to the distinct possibility that variation in the pharmacosensitivity of the procedure may be attributable to often extreme methodological variation between laboratories. In considering further this issue, attention is also drawn to the need to collect data under constant test conditions and to provide the minimum database necessary to reach conclusions regarding the behavioural specificity of drug action. Recent research, which has extended the conventional plus-maze scoring technique to include specific behavioural acts and postures (in particular, those relating to defensive behaviour), is described. The value of such an ethological approach to the plus-maze is then exemplified with original data that demonstrate behaviourally selective, anti-anxiety effects of the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol (0.125-1.0 mg/kg). It is concluded that, when used appropriately, the elevated plus-maze test can be a very valuable tool in drug screening and in the study of the neurobiology of anxiety and defence. More attention to behaviour and somewhat less emphasis on test simplicity and convenience would seem to be warranted. PMID:9415905

  13. Anxiety-related behavioral inhibition in rats: a model to examine mechanisms underlying the risk to develop stress-related psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Qi, C; Roseboom, P H; Nanda, S A; Lane, J C; Speers, J M; Kalin, N H

    2010-11-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an adaptive defensive response to threat; however, children who display extreme BI as a stable trait are at risk for development of anxiety disorders and depression. The present study validates a rodent model of BI based on an ethologically relevant predator exposure paradigm. We show that individual differences in rat BI are stable and trait-like from adolescence into adulthood. Using in situ hybridization to quantify expression of the immediate early genes homer1a and fos as measures of neuronal activation, we show that individual differences in BI are correlated with the activation of various stress-responsive brain regions that include the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and CA3 region of the hippocampus. Further supporting the concept that threat-induced BI in rodents reflects levels of anxiety, we also show that BI is decreased by administration of the anxiolytic, diazepam. Finally, we developed criteria for identifying extreme BI animals that are stable in their expression of high levels of BI and also show that high BI (HBI) individuals exhibit maladaptive appetitive responses following stress exposure. These findings support the use of predator threat as a stimulus and HBI rats as a model to study mechanisms underlying extreme and stable BI in humans. PMID:20738409

  14. Ethanol-induced enhancement of defensive behavior in different models of murine aggression.

    PubMed

    Berry, M S

    1993-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on agonistic behavior in mice were studied by introducing an intruder mouse to a resident, alcohol-treated test animal (or saline-injected control). Alcohol (0.1-2.0 g/kg, IP) was administered 20 minutes before testing, and an ethological analysis was made of all behavioral elements shown by the treated animal during a 500-second period. Alcohol did not increase aggression, whether baselines were high, low or experimentally suppressed. Defensive activities, however, were dose-dependently increased, with a threshold dose of 0.5 g/kg or lower in some situations. This suggests that alcohol did not reduce "anxiety" or "fear." Aggression tended to decrease, even with doses as low as 0.5 g/kg, which produced BACs of only 25-40 mg/dl at the start of the testing period. With the highest dose, however, aspects of timidity were still increased after 3 hours, but aggression returned to control level after 1 hour, when the BAC was about 250 mg/dl. In other studies, increased aggression has generally been found only with low alcohol doses. This acute tolerance to the anti-aggressive effect of alcohol reported here suggests the possibility of finding pro-aggressive effects at much higher BACs, perhaps more closely simulating the human situation. PMID:8410957

  15. Behavioral responses of 129/Sv, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice to a non-predator aversive olfactory stimulus.

    PubMed

    Capone, Francesca; Venerosi, Aldina; Puopolo, Maria; Alleva, Enrico; Cirulli, Francesca

    2005-01-01

    We examined the behavior of three inbred mouse strains (129/SvPasIco, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J) exposed to an object soaked with the chemical component of the aversive scent (toluquinone odor) emitted by a myriapod species (Ommatoiulus sabulosus) in the presence of a predator. Subjects were exposed to the odor for three consecutive days. Behavioral responses to the toluquinone odor were characterized both by an approach phase of risk assessment and by a repeated series of approach-avoid episodes. Results indicate that toluquinone exposure reduced completely, and in a strain independent fashion, selected behaviors such as crouching, catching and eating object. Other responses were strain-dependent: the DBA (DBA/2J) strain displayed defensive burying at high levels, C57 (C57BL/6J) mice performed high levels of withdrawal while the 129/Sv (129/SvPasIco) strain showed also high levels of stretch attend posture. Compared to other tasks, this test is ethological, simple, cheap and is not affected by strain differences in appetitive-sensory responses, as shown by some strain-independent responses. These features make this task as a good complement to any exploration-anxiety test battery. PMID:15794029

  16. Differences in anxiety-related behavior and response to diazepam in BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6J strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Lepicard, E M; Joubert, C; Hagneau, I; Perez-Diaz, F; Chapouthier, G

    2000-12-01

    The study in an ethological perspective of inbred strains of mice offers a more accurate description of anxiety-related behavior. In this context, behavioral performances of the BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6J strains were systematically compared in the staircase test, the light/dark test and the elevated plus maze test. A rarely used variable, the latency of the first entry in the dark box, was also recorded in the light/dark test. A new statistical approach to this measure meant that specific avoidance strategies could be differentiated in the two strains. A study of the behavioral responses of the two strains given treatment with diazepam, a widely used anxiolytic compound, was also carried out. Results showed substantial differences between BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6J strains. C57BL/6J mice had high baseline activity and exploration of a new environment, suggesting a low level of anxiety. BALB/cByJ mice displayed defensive and protective behavior, with limited exploration of the new environment together with low locomotor activity. The response to diazepam was also different for each strain: C57BL/6J mice showed higher sensitivity to diazepam treatment than did BALB/cByJ mice. PMID:11166064

  17. Combining whistle acoustic parameters to discriminate Mediterranean odontocetes during passive acoustic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Azzolin, Marta; Gannier, Alexandre; Lammers, Marc O; Oswald, Julie N; Papale, Elena; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Buffa, Gaspare; Mazzola, Salvatore; Giacoma, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic observation can complement visual observation to more effectively monitor occurrence and distribution of marine mammals. For effective acoustic censuses, calibration methods must be determined by joint visual and acoustic studies. Research is still needed in the field of acoustic species identification, particularly for smaller odontocetes. From 1994 to 2012, whistles of four odontocete species were recorded in different areas of the Mediterranean Sea to determine how reliably these vocalizations can be classified to species. Recordings were attributed to species by simultaneous visual observation. The results of this study highlight that the frequency parameters, which are linked to physical features of animals, show lower variability than modulation parameters, which are likely to be more dependent on complex eco-ethological contexts. For all the studied species, minimum and maximum frequencies were linearly correlated with body size. DFA and Classification Tree Analysis (CART) show that these parameters were the most important for classifying species; however, both statistical methods highlighted the need for combining them with the number of contour minima and contour maxima for correct classification. Generally, DFA and CART results reflected both phylogenetic distance (especially for common and striped dolphins) and the size of the species. PMID:24437790

  18. [Consolidation of international guidelines for the management of canine populations in urban areas and proposal of performance indicators].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Calderón, Néstor; Ferreira, Fernando

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a generic program for the management of urban canine populations with suggestion of performance indicators. The following international guidelines on canine population management were revised and consolidated: World Health Organization, World Organisation for Animal Health, World Society for the Protection of Animals, International Companion Animal Management Coalition, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Management programs should cover: situation diagnosis, including estimates of population size; social participation with involvement of various sectors in the planning and execution of strategies; educational actions to promote humane values, animal welfare, community health, and responsible ownership (through purchase or adoption); environmental and waste management to eliminate sources of food and shelter; registration and identification of animals; animal health care, reproductive control; prevention and control of zoonoses; control of animal commerce; management of animal behavior and adequate solutions for abandoned animals; and laws regulating responsible ownership, prevention of abandonment and zoonoses. To monitor these actions, four groups of indicators are suggested: animal population indicators, human/animal interaction indicators, public service indicators, and zoonosis indicators. The management of stray canine populations requires political, sanitary, ethologic, ecologic, and humanitarian strategies that are socially acceptable and environmentally sustainable. Such measures must also include the control of zoonoses such as rabies and leishmaniasis, considering the concept of "one health," which benefits both the animals and people in the community. PMID:23099875

  19. Hormonal and neurochemical correlates of various forms of animal "aggression".

    PubMed

    Brain, P F; Haug, M

    1992-11-01

    The majority of studies attempting to evaluate the roles of hormones and neurochemicals in "aggression" concern laboratory rodents, notably rats and mice, with fewer investigations on infrahuman primates. Studies suggest that situations used to assess aggression (e.g., social conflict tests, parental attack, predatory behavior, use of unavoidable electroshock) actually tap a diverse range of motivations whose functions include offense, defense and predation. It is also apparent that ethoexperimental techniques, i.e., those applying ethological methodologies and concepts to laboratory situations, have advantages in assessing the direct and indirect consequences of chemical treatments. In this review, the impacts of hormonal manipulation (by surgery and/or application) and varying neurotransmitters (studied in terms of regional changes and as consequences of drug treatments) on a variety of forms of behavior are assessed. Different tests do show varying responses to common treatments, confirming the heterogeneity of the available paradigms. A brief discussion is provided of which tests are likely to prove most relevant to clinical studies. PMID:1363136

  20. Model-Independent Phenotyping of C. elegans Locomotion Using Scale-Invariant Feature Transform

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Yelena; Sznitman, Raphael; Arratia, Paulo E.; Carls, Christopher; Krajacic, Predrag; Brown, André E. X.; Sznitman, Josué

    2015-01-01

    To uncover the genetic basis of behavioral traits in the model organism C. elegans, a common strategy is to study locomotion defects in mutants. Despite efforts to introduce (semi-)automated phenotyping strategies, current methods overwhelmingly depend on worm-specific features that must be hand-crafted and as such are not generalizable for phenotyping motility in other animal models. Hence, there is an ongoing need for robust algorithms that can automatically analyze and classify motility phenotypes quantitatively. To this end, we have developed a fully-automated approach to characterize C. elegans’ phenotypes that does not require the definition of nematode-specific features. Rather, we make use of the popular computer vision Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) from which we construct histograms of commonly-observed SIFT features to represent nematode motility. We first evaluated our method on a synthetic dataset simulating a range of nematode crawling gaits. Next, we evaluated our algorithm on two distinct datasets of crawling C. elegans with mutants affecting neuromuscular structure and function. Not only is our algorithm able to detect differences between strains, results capture similarities in locomotory phenotypes that lead to clustering that is consistent with expectations based on genetic relationships. Our proposed approach generalizes directly and should be applicable to other animal models. Such applicability holds promise for computational ethology as more groups collect high-resolution image data of animal behavior. PMID:25816290

  1. TMT predator odor activated neural circuit in C57BL/6J mice indicates TMT-stress as a suitable model for uncontrollable intense stress.

    PubMed

    Janitzky, K; D'Hanis, W; Kröber, A; Schwegler, H

    2015-03-01

    Intense stressful events can result in chronic disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In vulnerable individuals, a single aversive experience can be sufficient to cause long-lasting behavioral changes. Candidate brain regions implicated in stress-related psychopathology are the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. In rodents exposure to 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline (TMT), an ethologically relevant stressor, has been shown to induce intense stress and innate anxiety responses. To study dispositions for the development of maladaptive stress responses, mice models are required. Therefore C57BL/6J mice were exposed to TMT and Fos expression was studied in key brain regions implicated in stress responses and anxiety-like behavior. Our results show TMT-induced activation of a distinct neural circuit involving the BNST, the lateral septum (LS), the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the locus coeruleus (LC). Anatomical interconnection of the BNST with all these regions could point to an important modulatory role of this nucleus. Since, the BNST gets direct input from the olfactory bulbs and projects to the PVN and PAG and is therefore well positioned to modulate behavioral and endocrine stress responses to TMT. Hence, we suggest that TMT exposure is suitable to investigate uncontrollable stress responses in mice which exhibit similarities to maladaptive stress responses underlying PTSD in humans. PMID:25532494

  2. Assessing Anxiety in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Kristine; Pierre, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety can be broadly described as a psychological state in which normally innocuous environmental stimuli trigger negative emotional expectations. Human anxiety disorders are multidimensional and may be organic or acquired, situational or pervasive. The broad ranging nature of the anxiety phenotype speaks to the need for models that identify its various components and root causes to develop effective clinical treatments. The cross-species comparative approach to modeling anxiety disorders in animals aims to understand mechanisms that both contribute to and modulate anxiety. Nonhuman primate models provide an important bridge from nonprimate model systems because of the complexity of nonhuman primates’ biobehavioral capacities and their commonalities with human emotion. The broad goal of this review is to provide an overview of various procedures available to study anxiety in the nonhuman primate, with a focus on the behavioral aspects of anxiety. Commonly used methods covered in this review include assessing animals in their home environment or in response to an ethologically relevant threat, associative conditioning and startle response tests, and cognitive bias tests. We also discuss how these procedures can help veterinarians and researchers care for captive nonhuman primates. PMID:25225310

  3. On a quantum mechanical system theory of the origin of life: from the Stapp-model to the origin of natural symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balázs, András

    2016-01-01

    The Heisenberg-James-Stapp (quantum mechanical) mind model is surveyed and criticized briefly. The criticism points out that the model, while being essentially consistent concerning (human) consciousness, fundamentally lacks the evolutional point of view both onto- and phylogenetically. Ethology and other than Jamesian psychology is quoted and a quantum mechanical theoretical scheme is suggested to essentially extend Stapp's frame in an evolutionary context. It is proposed that its central supposition, spontaneous quantum measurement can be better utilized in an investigation of the origin of the "subjective" process, having come about concomitantly with the chemistry of the origin of life. We dwell on its applicability at this latter process, at its heart standing, it is supposed, the endophysical nonlinear "self-measurement" of (quantum mechanically describable) matter, and so our investigation is extended to this primeval phenomenon. It is suggested that the life phenomenon is an indirect C* → (W*) → C* quantum algebraic process transition, where the (W*) system would represent the living state. Summarized also are our previous results on an internalized, "reversed", time process, introduced originally by Gunji, which is subordinated to the external "forwards" time evolution, driving towards symmetry by gradual space-mappings, where the original splitting-up must have come about in a spontaneous symmetry breaking nonlinear "self-measurement" of matter in an endophysical World.

  4. Validation of Individual-Based Markov-Like Stochastic Process Model of Insect Behavior and a "Virtual Farm" Concept for Enhancement of Site-Specific IPM.

    PubMed

    Lux, Slawomir A; Wnuk, Andrzej; Vogt, Heidrun; Belien, Tim; Spornberger, Andreas; Studnicki, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports application of a Markov-like stochastic process agent-based model and a "virtual farm" concept for enhancement of site-specific Integrated Pest Management. Conceptually, the model represents a "bottom-up ethological" approach and emulates behavior of the "primary IPM actors"-large cohorts of individual insects-within seasonally changing mosaics of spatiotemporally complex faming landscape, under the challenge of the local IPM actions. Algorithms of the proprietary PESTonFARM model were adjusted to reflect behavior and ecology of R. cerasi. Model parametrization was based on compiled published information about R. cerasi and the results of auxiliary on-farm experiments. The experiments were conducted on sweet cherry farms located in Austria, Germany, and Belgium. For each farm, a customized model-module was prepared, reflecting its spatiotemporal features. Historical data about pest monitoring, IPM treatments and fruit infestation were used to specify the model assumptions and calibrate it further. Finally, for each of the farms, virtual IPM experiments were simulated and the model-generated results were compared with the results of the real experiments conducted on the same farms. Implications of the findings for broader applicability of the model and the "virtual farm" approach-were discussed. PMID:27602000

  5. Recovering data from historical collections: stratigraphic and spatial reconstruction of the outstanding carnivoran record from the Late Pleistocene Equi cave (Apuane Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezzo, Elena; Palchetti, Alessandro; Rook, Lorenzo

    2014-07-01

    Equi Terme is a hamlet located in northern Tuscany, in Apuan Alps regional Park. An outstanding fossil vertebrate collection housed in Florence is the result of excavations in the Equi cave and shelter during the period 1911-1919. This faunal assemblage (associated with Mousterian artefacts) may be correlated with the middle of MIS 3. All of the specimens recovered at Equi early in the last century were collected with attention to their stratigraphical positions. Detailed field annotation for nearly every specimen allowed us to organize them and attempt a stratigraphical and spatial reconstruction of the fossiliferous deposits. We present the results of the study of the spatial and stratigraphic distribution of the carnivoran species in the Equi cave and shelter, and re-evaluate the taphonomic agents of accumulation and the fossil distribution within the stratigraphic record. In particular, we evaluated the distribution of Panthera pardus, which, unusually for Europe, is abundant in the Equi cave assemblage. This analysis highlights the importance of the re-evaluation of historical collections and allows for future comparisons with data from more recent excavations at the Equi site. The analysis also provides an account of the distribution of carnivorans throughout the stratigraphic record. The constant presence and the predominance of leopards and wolves over lions and smaller carnivorans, allow for evaluations of their ethology and may be related to a short period of sediment accumulation.

  6. The Development of Animal Behavior: From Lorenz to Neural Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolhuis, Johan J.

    In the study of behavioral development both causal and functional approaches have been used, and they often overlap. The concept of ontogenetic adaptations suggests that each developmental phase involves unique adaptations to the environment of the developing animal. The functional concept of optimal outbreeding has led to further experimental evidence and theoretical models concerning the role of sexual imprinting in the evolutionary process of sexual selection. From a causal perspective it has been proposed that behavioral ontogeny involves the development of various kinds of perceptual, motor, and central mechanisms and the formation of connections among them. This framework has been tested for a number of complex behavior systems such as hunger and dustbathing. Imprinting is often seen as a model system for behavioral development in general. Recent advances in imprinting research have been the result of an interdisciplinary effort involving ethology, neuroscience, and experimental psychology, with a continual interplay between these approaches. The imprinting results are consistent with Lorenz' early intuitive suggestions and are also reflected in the architecture of recent neural net models.

  7. Nonlinear Dynamics, Artificial Cognition and Galactic Export

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rössler, Otto E.

    2004-08-01

    The field of nonlinear dynamics focuses on function rather than structure. Evolution and brain function are examples. An equation for a brain, described in 1973, is explained. Then, a principle of interactional function change between two coupled equations of this type is described. However, all of this is not done in an abstract manner but in close contact with the meaning of these equations in a biological context. Ethological motivation theory and Batesonian interaction theory are reencountered. So is a fairly unknown finding by van Hooff on the indistinguishability of smile and laughter in a single primate species. Personhood and evil, two human characteristics, are described abstractly. Therapies and the question of whether it is ethically allowed to export benevolence are discussed. The whole dynamic approach is couched in terms of the Cartesian narrative, invented in the 17th century and later called Enlightenment. Whether or not it is true that a "second Enlightenment" is around the corner is the main question raised in the present paper.

  8. The Effect of Different Working Definitions on Behavioral Research Involving Stereotypies in Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Moons, Christel PH; Breugelmans, Sofie; Cassiman, Nele; Kalmar, Isabelle D; Peremans, Kathelijne; Hermans, Katleen; Ödberg, Frank O

    2012-01-01

    Many sources of variation in animal experiments are related to characteristics of the animal or its husbandry conditions. In ethologic studies, observational methods can also affect interexperimental variation. Different descriptions for a behavior can lead to divergent findings that may be incorrectly attributed to other factors if not recognized as stemming from a classification dissonance. Here we discuss 2 observational studies in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). The first study describes how data vary when 2 different working definitions are used for stereotypic digging: WDmor, a definition based on a morphologic description of the behavior, and WD12, a definition that relies mainly on a duration criterion of digging bouts (greater than 12 s). The total duration and number of stereotypic bouts were 22.0% and 63.1% lower, respectively, when WD12 was applied compared with WDmor. However, strong correlations existed between data generated by WDmor and WD12, indicating that the 2 definitions yielded qualitatively similar results. The second study provides the first report that laboratory gerbils develop stereotypic behavior that is characterized by alternating bouts of digging and bar-gnawing. Of the 1685 stereotypy bouts investigated, 9.1% comprised both stereotypies, 87.6% consisted of digging only, and 3.3% consisted of bar gnawing only. Working definitions that neglect combined stereotypies can result in considerable underestimation of stereotypic behavior in Mongolian gerbils. PMID:22776116

  9. Sternal Gland Scent-Marking Signals Sex, Age, Rank, and Group Identity in Captive Mandrills.

    PubMed

    Vaglio, Stefano; Minicozzi, Pamela; Romoli, Riccardo; Boscaro, Francesca; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2016-02-01

    Mandrills are one of the few Old World primates to show scent-marking. We combined ethological and chemical approaches to improve our understanding of this behavior in 3 zoo-managed groups. We observed the olfactory behavior performed by adults and adolescents (N = 39) for 775h. We investigated the volatile components of sternal scent-marks using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared volatile profiles with traits of the signaler. Males marked more than females and within each sex the frequency of scent-marking was related to age and dominance status, but alpha males scent-marked most frequently and particularly in specific areas at the enclosure boundaries. We identified a total of 77 volatile components of sternal gland secretion, including compounds functioning as male sex pheromones in other mammals, in scent-marks spontaneously released on filter paper by 27 male and 18 female mandrills. We confirmed our previous findings that chemical profiles contain information including sex, male age and rank, and we also found that odor may encode information about group membership in mandrills. Our results support the hypotheses that scent-marking signals the status of the dominant male as well as playing territorial functions but also suggest that it is part of sociosexual communication. PMID:26708734

  10. Optogenetic feedback control of neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Jonathan P; Fong, Ming-fai; Millard, Daniel C; Whitmire, Clarissa J; Stanley, Garrett B; Potter, Steve M

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetic techniques enable precise excitation and inhibition of firing in specified neuronal populations and artifact-free recording of firing activity. Several studies have suggested that optical stimulation provides the precision and dynamic range requisite for closed-loop neuronal control, but no approach yet permits feedback control of neuronal firing. Here we present the ‘optoclamp’, a feedback control technology that provides continuous, real-time adjustments of bidirectional optical stimulation in order to lock spiking activity at specified targets over timescales ranging from seconds to days. We demonstrate how this system can be used to decouple neuronal firing levels from ongoing changes in network excitability due to multi-hour periods of glutamatergic or GABAergic neurotransmission blockade in vitro as well as impinging vibrissal sensory drive in vivo. This technology enables continuous, precise optical control of firing in neuronal populations in order to disentangle causally related variables of circuit activation in a physiologically and ethologically relevant manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07192.001 PMID:26140329