Sample records for ethyl glucuronide determination

  1. Quantitative determination of ethyl glucuronide in sweat.

    PubMed

    Schummer, Claude; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Wennig, Robert

    2008-08-01

    In this study, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a specific metabolite of ethanol, was for the first time detected in sweat after alcohol consumption by human volunteers. Sweat was collected using a sweat patch (PharmChek). After collection, chemicals accumulated on the patch were extracted with water and extracts were purified by solid phase extraction. EtG was determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection in negative chemical ionization mode. In parallel, the amount of sodium deposited on the patch was determined by capillary electrophoresis and used as a correction factor to calculate the volume of sweat accumulated on the patch and, hence, the concentration of EtG in sweat. The EtG sweat concentration observed ranged from 1.7 to 103.0 microg/L for alcohol consumption from 38.0 to 154.6 g equivalent pure ethanol. No EtG was detected in subjects who did not consume alcohol. Our results demonstrate that after ethanol consumption, EtG is detectable in sweat collected using a sweat patch. The simultaneous determination of sodium allows the estimation of the volume of sweat accumulated on the patch and to calculate the concentration of EtG in sweat. This represents the first quantitative determination of a xenobiotic in sweat collected using a sweat patch. This study suggests that EtG determination in sweat could represent an interesting alternative to urine or serum analysis for the control of abstinence of patients included in treatment programs. PMID:18641544

  2. Ethyl glucuronide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Martin Wurst; Christoph Kempter; Joerg Metzger; Stephan Seidl; Andreas Alt

    2000-01-01

    A marker with a specific time spectrum of detection and both high sensitivity and specificity is required to diminish the clinically as well as forensically important gap on the time axis between short- and long-term markers of alcohol consumption like ethanol and CDT, GGT or MCV, respectively. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a non-volatile, water-soluble, stable upon storage, direct metabolite of

  3. Ethyl glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Walsham, Natalie E; Sherwood, Roy A

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Subjects abusing alcohol can be identified through clinical history, examination or self-report questionnaires. A range of biomarkers is available for detecting alcohol misuse, but there is still a need for a marker that can detect alcohol consumption in the time window between one day (ethanol) and one week (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin). Ethyl glucuronide is a direct metabolite that can be detected in urine for up to 90 h and has the potential to become a useful marker of 'binge' drinking. As a non-invasive marker, it could have a role in a variety of clinical and forensic settings. PMID:22113954

  4. A novel and an effective analytical approach for the LCMS determination of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donata Favretto; Alessandro Nalesso; Giampietro Frison; Guido Viel; Pietro Traldi; Santo Davide Ferrara

    2010-01-01

    An alternative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method based on no discharge (ND) atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was developed for the simultaneous determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in urine in negative ion conditions. Abundant [M-H] - species of EtG and EtS were obtained, allowing to reach limits of quantification (0.1 ?g\\/ml for both analytes), accuracy, and

  5. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Walsham, Natalie E; Sherwood, Roy A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol misuse is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although clinical history, examination, and the use of self-report questionnaires may identify subjects with harmful patterns of alcohol use, denial or under-reporting of alcohol intake is common. Existing biomarkers for detecting alcohol misuse include measurement of blood or urine ethanol for acute alcohol consumption, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and gamma-glutamyl transferase for chronic alcohol misuse. There is a need for a biomarker that can detect excessive alcohol consumption in the timeframe between 1 day and several weeks. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct metabolite of ethanol detectable in urine for up to 90h and longer in hair. Because EtG has high specificity for excess alcohol intake, it has great potential for use in detecting "binge" drinking. Using urine or hair, this noninvasive marker has a role in a variety of clinical and forensic settings. PMID:25735859

  6. Improvement of ethyl glucuronide determination in human urine and serum samples by solid-phase extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ines Janda; Andreas Alt

    2001-01-01

    An improved method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in human serum and urine was developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric detection (MS). EtG was isolated from serum and urine using aminopropyl SPE columns after deproteination with perchloric acid and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The chromatographic separation was performed on a DB 1701 fused-silica

  7. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in urine using reversed-phase HPLC and pulsed electrochemical detection (Part II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romina Kaushik; William R. LaCourse; Barry Levine

    2006-01-01

    A direct, versatile method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a biomarker of ethanol consumption, in urine has been developed using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection (PED). EtG and methyl glucuronide (MetG), which serves as an internal standard, are readily separated using a mobile phase consisting of 1% acetic acid\\/acetonitrile (98\\/2, v\\/v). Post-column addition of NaOH allows

  8. [Ethyl glucuronide: a biomarker of alcohol consumption].

    PubMed

    Kharbouche, H; Sporkert, F; Staub, C; Mangin, P; Augsburger, M

    2009-11-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption represents a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality. It is therefore indispensable to be able to detect at-risk drinking. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a specific marker of alcohol consumption. The determination of ethyl glucuronide in urine or blood can be used to prove recent driving under the influence of alcohol, even if ethanol is no longer detectable. The commercialization of an EtG specific immunological assay now allows to obtain preliminary results rapidly and easily with satisfying sensitivity. Moreover, the detection of ethyl glucuronide in hair offers the opportunity to evaluate an alcohol consumption over a long period. The EtG concentration in hair is in correlation with the amount of ingested alcohol. Thus, the analysis of ethyl glucuronide can be used to monitor abstinence, to detect alcohol relapse and to identify at-risk drinkers. However, a cut off allowing to detect chronic alcohol abuser reliably still does not exist. Therefore, it is recommended to perform the analysis of ethyl glucuronide in complement to the existing blood markers. A study financed by the Swiss Foundation for Alcohol Research is actually conducted by the West Switzerland University Center of Legal Medicine in order to establish an objective cut-off. PMID:20029783

  9. Urinary concentrations of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate as thresholds to determine potential ethanol-induced alteration of steroid profiles.

    PubMed

    Thieme, D; Grosse, J; Keller, L; Graw, M

    2011-01-01

    The suppression of steroid biotransformation resulting in a decrease of the major urinary metabolites--androsterone and etiocholanolone--and the elevation of testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratios following ethanol administration is well described. At least the latter parameter T/E represents an important indicator for endogenous steroid abuse in doping control. The quantitative correlation between ethanol consumption markers and steroid profile alteration was evaluated, aiming to differentiate between permitted ethanol administration and potential steroid abuse. Steroid profiles, ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and sulfate (EtS) were quantified after administration of ethanol (intended maximum ethanol concentration in blood was 1 mg/g) to 21 male and 15 female volunteers. EtG concentrations in urine (corrected by either specific gravity or creatinine concentration) were found to be most suitable for quantitative evaluations. Gender specific urinary EtG concentrations of 48 ug/ml (men) and 15.5 ug/ml (women) may be considered as useful thresholds for a potential ethanol-induced suppression of steroids biotransformation. PMID:22213685

  10. A novel and an effective analytical approach for the LC-MS determination of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in urine.

    PubMed

    Favretto, Donata; Nalesso, Alessandro; Frison, Giampietro; Viel, Guido; Traldi, Pietro; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2010-03-01

    An alternative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method based on no discharge (ND) atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was developed for the simultaneous determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in urine in negative ion conditions. Abundant [M-H](-) species of EtG and EtS were obtained, allowing to reach limits of quantification (0.1 microg/ml for both analytes), accuracy, and precision comparable to those proposed in the literature. Additionally, the LC-ND-APCI-MS method proved to be reliable, requiring little maintenance even when high throughput analyses (i.e., 6,000 samples per year) were required. PMID:19859726

  11. [Determination of ethyl glucuronide in human urine by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yu, Tianxiao; Li, Qing; Wan, Tao; Li, Jianbo; Ding, Shijia

    2011-02-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometry (MS) method for determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in human urine was established. One mL urine sample was deproteinated by 100 microL 3 mol/L hydrochloric acid and cleaned up through a solid phase extraction column. The target analytes were eluted from an NH2-column with 4% ammonia solution and then treated with bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) + trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) (99:1) for derivatization. The derivatized samples were analyzed by GC-MS. Data were acquired in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode and the quantitation of EtG was done through internal standard method. Good linearity was obtained at the mass concentration range of 0.1 - 3.2 mg/L with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9921. The limit of detection (LOD) was 28.4 microg/L. The range of recoveries was 92.5% - 108.7%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day were all less than 5%. This method is sensitive, specific, accurate and can be applied to the determination of EtG for medicolegal identification and clinical laboratory. PMID:21598520

  12. Comparison of analytical approaches for liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry determination of the alcohol biomarker ethyl glucuronide in urine.

    PubMed

    Helander, Anders; Kenan, Naama; Beck, Olof

    2010-06-30

    Official guidelines originating from a European Union directive regulate requirements for analytical methods used to identify chemical compounds in biological matrices. This study compared different liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) procedures for accurate determination of the conjugated ethanol metabolite and alcohol biomarker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine, and the value of combined EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) measurement. Analysis was carried out on 482 urines following solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample cleanup or using direct injection of a diluted sample. SPE combined with LC/MS/MS was demonstrated to be the most selective and sensitive method and was chosen as reference method. The EtG results by different methods showed good correlation (r = 0.96-0.98). When comparing five reporting limits for EtG in the range 0.10-1.00 mg/L, the overall agreement with the reference method (frequency of true positives plus true negatives) was 82-97% for direct-injection LC/MS/MS, 90-97% for SPE-LC/MS, 86-98% for direct-injection LC/MS, and 86-98% for direct-injection LC/MS analysis of EtG and EtS. Most deviations were attributable to uncertainty in quantitation, when the value was close to a cutoff but the respective results were slightly above and below, or vice versa, the critical limit. However, for direct-injection LC/MS/MS, despite earning 4 identification points, equally many negative results were due to a product ion ratio outside the +/-20% deviation accepted by the guidelines. These results indicate that the likelihood of different analytical methods to provide reliable analytical results depends on the reporting limit applied. PMID:20499317

  13. Microwave assisted extraction for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Freire, Iván Alvarez; Barrera, Ana María Bermejo; Silva, Purificación Cid; Duque, María Jesús Tabernero; Gómez, Purificación Fernández; Eijo, Patricia López

    2008-08-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently abused 'addictive substance' that causes serious social problems throughout the world; thus alcoholism is of particular interest in clinical and forensic medicine. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a marker of recent alcohol consumption that detects alcohol use reliably over a definite time period. The present paper describes a new method for the determination of EtG in urine. It was based both on microwave assisted extraction (MAE) to extract the analyte from urine samples, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify and quantify the EtG in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method was applied to 33 urine samples from alcohol users, obtaining positive results in all cases. It was fully validated including a linear range (0.1-100 microg ml(-1)) and the main precision parameters. In summary, the use of microwave assisted extraction turned out to be a substantially simpler, faster and more sensitive procedure than any other conventional sample preparations. PMID:18344200

  14. A high-performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in urine validated according to forensic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Albermann, M E; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2012-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are powerful markers for alcohol intake and abuse. Several analytical procedures for the quantification of EtG and EtG in serum and urine have been developed so far. Many of the published methods show limits of detections (LODs) or limits of quantifications (LOQs) for EtG in urine within the range of 0.1 mg/L or higher. Since this is the actual cutoff value for proving abstinence in Germany, problems may occur if urine samples are highly diluted. In this paper, the validation of a highly sensitive, fast and simple LC-MS-MS for the determination of EtG and EtS in urine is described. The calibration curves for EtG and EtS is linear over the whole range (0.025-2.0 mg/L). Very low detection limits can be achieved (LOD: EtG 0.005 mg/L, EtS 0.005 mg/L; and LOQ: EtG 0.019 mg/L, EtS 0.015 mg/L). All data for selectivity, precision and accuracy, recovery, as well as for the processed sample and the freeze/thaw stability, comply with the guidelines of the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry. Strong matrix-related effects can be compensated for by using an internal standard. Finally, the applicability of the procedure is proven by analysis of 87 human urine samples and by successful participation in interlaboratory comparison tests. PMID:22291056

  15. A High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic–Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method for the Determination of Ethyl Glucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate in Urine Validated According to Forensic Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Albermann, M.E.; Musshoff, F.; Madea, B.

    2012-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are powerful markers for alcohol intake and abuse. Several analytical procedures for the quantification of EtG and EtG in serum and urine have been developed so far. Many of the published methods show limits of detections (LODs) or limits of quantifications (LOQs) for EtG in urine within the range of 0.1 mg/L or higher. Since this is the actual cutoff value for proving abstinence in Germany, problems may occur if urine samples are highly diluted. In this paper, the validation of a highly sensitive, fast and simple LC–MS–MS for the determination of EtG and EtS in urine is described. The calibration curves for EtG and EtS is linear over the whole range (0.025–2.0 mg/L). Very low detection limits can be achieved (LOD: EtG 0.005 mg/L, EtS 0.005 mg/L; and LOQ: EtG 0.019 mg/L, EtS 0.015 mg/L). All data for selectivity, precision and accuracy, recovery, as well as for the processed sample and the freeze/thaw stability, comply with the guidelines of the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry. Strong matrix-related effects can be compensated for by using an internal standard. Finally, the applicability of the procedure is proven by analysis of 87 human urine samples and by successful participation in interlaboratory comparison tests. PMID:22291056

  16. Detection Times for Urinary Ethyl Glucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate in Heavy Drinkers during Alcohol Detoxification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Helander; Christoph Fehr; Norbert Dahmen; Olof Beck

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are conjugated ethanol metabolites formed in low amounts after alcohol consumption. Compared with ethanol, EtG and EtS are excreted in urine for a prolonged time, making them useful as sensitive alcohol biomarkers. This study determined the detection times for EtG and EtS in alcoholic patients undergoing alcohol detoxification. Methods: Alcohol-dependent patients (n

  17. EVALUATION OF A NEW IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY ETHYL GLUCURONIDE TESTING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLOF BECK; ANDERS HELANDER

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The minor ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is used as a sensitive and specific test for recent alcohol consumption with clinical and forensic applications. This study evaluated a new enzyme immunoassay (DRI-EtG EIA, Microgenics Corp.) for determination of the EtG concentration in urine samples. Methods: Evaluation was done using the kit calibrators (range 0-5.0 mg\\/L) and controls, an external

  18. [Detection and application of ethyl glucuronide in forensic toxicology].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Zhuo, Xian-yi; Shen, Bao-hua

    2009-02-01

    Ethyl glucuronide is a specific metabolite of ethanol. There have been plenty of articles referring its pharmacokinetics, detection and application as a specific bio-marker of alcohol intake. This article reviews various analytical methods of EtG, relationship between EtG quantification and ethanol intake, and criteria for determining chronic alcohol abuse, and origin of ethanol found in the cadavers by EtG analysis. EtG has its potential application in forensic toxicology. PMID:19397218

  19. Direct determination of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in postmortem urine specimens using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Al-Asmari, Ahmed I; Anderson, Robert A; Appelblad, Patrik

    2010-06-01

    This work was aimed at developing and validating a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometric method for identification and quantification of ethyl glucuronide (ETG) and ethyl sulfate (ETS) as ethanol biomarkers and at employing this method for analysis of postmortem urine samples. Analytes of interest were separated on a ZIC-HILIC column (150 x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) connected to a Thermo Finnigan LCQ Deca Plus liquid chromatographic- tandem mass spectrometric instrument operated in the ESI-selected reaction monitoring mode. Seventy-nine urine case samples were divided into three groups depending on the ethanol concentration found in blood and analyzed by the developed method: group A with postmortem blood ethanol concentrations higher than 200 mg/100 mL; group B with ethanol concentrations in the range 80-200 mg/100 mL; and group C with ethanol concentrations in the range 10-80 mg/100 mL. ETG and ETS had high recoveries of 98-99%, and the HILIC column produced fine, sharp peak shapes and achieved baseline separation in less than 7 min. Both ethanol markers were detected in all groups with overall median concentrations of 100 and 23 mg/L for ETG and ETS, respectively. It can be concluded that the potential for postmortem production of alcohol increased in the low ethanol concentration group as several cases tested negative for both biomarkers in group C. ETG was detected at low concentrations in some cases for which ETS tested negative. Although ETS is stable after being subjected to many stability conditions, the use of ETS as sole evidence of alcohol ingestion may lead to a false-negative result, as we noticed in groups A and C in the present study. The use of ETG is a more reliable ethanol biomarker. Both ethanol biomarkers should be determined in heavily putrefied cases and when the ethanol concentration in postmortem blood is low. PMID:20529460

  20. Detection of ethyl glucuronide in dried human blood using LCMS\\/MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eckhard Kaufmann; Andreas Alt

    2008-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide, as a direct metabolite of ethanol degradation, has proven useful as a long-term marker in many forensic\\u000a applications. The inability to determine ethyl glucuronide in dried blood left a missing link in many investigations. Here,\\u000a we describe a new method based on mass spectrometry in a Pauli-type ion trap in order to determine this substance in dried\\u000a blood

  1. Validation of a headspace solid-phase microextraction–GC–MS\\/MS for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair according to forensic guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Agius; Thomas Nadulski; Hans-Gerhard Kahl; Johannes Schräder; Bertin Dufaux; Michel Yegles; Fritz Pragst

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair is a powerful tool for chronic alcohol abuse control because of the typical wide detection window of the hair matrix and due to the possibility of segmentation, allowing evaluation of alcohol consumption in different periods. Additionally, EtG in hair is often the only diagnostic parameter of choice for alcohol abuse when other

  2. Ethyl sulphate and ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor as postmortem evidence marker for ethanol consumption prior to death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Thierauf; Jürgen Kempf; Markus Große Perdekamp; Volker Auwärter; Heike Gnann; Ariane Wohlfarth; Wolfgang Weinmann

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the circumstances of death, the degree of inebriation is of importance in many cases, but for several reasons the determination of the ethanol concentration in post-mortem samples can be challenging and the synopsis of ethanol and the direct consumption markers ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) has proved to be useful. The use of a rather stable

  3. Validation of a headspace solid-phase microextraction-GC-MS/MS for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair according to forensic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Schräder, Johannes; Dufaux, Bertin; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    The analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair is a powerful tool for chronic alcohol abuse control because of the typical wide detection window of the hair matrix and due to the possibility of segmentation, allowing evaluation of alcohol consumption in different periods. Additionally, EtG in hair is often the only diagnostic parameter of choice for alcohol abuse when other clinical parameters such as ALT, AST, gammaGT and CDT (asialotransferrin and disialotransferrin) are in the normal range and EtG in urine negative. In this paper, we describe the development, optimization and validation of a new method based on hair extraction with water, clean-up by solid phase extraction (SPE), derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in combination with GC-MS/MS according to forensic guidelines. The assay linearity of EtG was confirmed over the range from 2.8 to 1000 pg/mg hair, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) above 0.999. The LLOQ was 2.8 pg/mg and the LLOD was 0.6 pg/mg. An error profile calculated according to the "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement" (GUM) at 99% confidence intervals for the range 5-750 pg/mg hair did not exceed 10%. This range corresponds to more than 98% of the positive samples analysed. PMID:20061100

  4. Practical use of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in postmortem cases as markers of antemortem alcohol ingestion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun Høiseth; Ritva Karinen; Asbjørg Christophersen; Jørg Mørland

    2010-01-01

    In postmortem toxicology, it could be difficult to determine whether a positive blood ethanol concentration reflects antemortem\\u000a ingestion or postmortem synthesis of alcohol. Measurement of the nonoxidative ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has\\u000a been suggested as a marker of antemortem ingestion of alcohol, but EtG might degrade postmortem which could make interpretation\\u000a difficult. So far, the published articles concern EtG

  5. Influence of preservatives on the stability of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate in urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Thierauf; Annerose Serr; Claudia C. Halter; Ali Al-Ahmad; Sumandeep Rana; Wolfgang Weinmann

    2008-01-01

    BackgroundEthyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) are specific and sensitive markers of ethanol consumption well established in monitoring withdrawal treatment in patients with chronic alcoholism. Recently, bacterial decomposition as well as in vitro and post-mortem formation of EtG was reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different preservatives on the stability of EtG and

  6. In vitro study of bacterial degradation of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Baranowski; Annerose Serr; Annette Thierauf; Wolfgang Weinmann; Markus Gro?e Perdekamp; Friedrich M. Wurst; Claudia C. Halter

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies show that ethyl glucuronide (EtG) can be decomposed by bacteria; whilst so far no degradation of ethyl sulphate\\u000a (EtS) has been observed. In the present study, in vitro experiments with bacterial colonies were performed. Bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Clostridium sordellii) were isolated from autopsy material (liver, heart blood, urine, ascites, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid) tested for ?-glucuronidase

  7. A study of distribution of ethyl glucuronide in different keratin matrices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Pirro; D. Di Corcia; S. Pellegrino; M. Vincenti; B. Sciutteri; A. Salomone

    2011-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct metabolite of ethanol, frequently used as a biomarker of alcohol abuse. To this purpose, EtG is preferentially determined in hair samples, using a cut-off value of 30pg\\/mg to discriminate between social and heavy drinkers, as recently fixed by an international consensus conference. Although this cut-off value is assumed for head hair, alternative matrices, such

  8. Biotransformation of Ethanol to Ethyl Glucuronide in a Rat Model after a Single High Oral Dosage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trista H. Wright; Kenneth E. Ferslew

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor ethanol metabolite that confirms the absorption and metabolism of ethanol after oral or dermal exposure. Human data suggest maximum blood EtG (BEtG) concentrations are reached between 3.5 - 5.5 hours post ethanol administration (Hoiseth et al, 2007). This study was undertaken to determine if the Sprague Dawley (SD) rat biotransforms ethanol to EtG after

  9. In vitro study of bacterial degradation of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Stefanie; Serr, Annerose; Thierauf, Annette; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Grosse Perdekamp, Markus; Wurst, Friedrich M; Halter, Claudia C

    2008-09-01

    Recent studies show that ethyl glucuronide (EtG) can be decomposed by bacteria; whilst so far no degradation of ethyl sulphate (EtS) has been observed. In the present study, in vitro experiments with bacterial colonies were performed. Bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Clostridium sordellii) were isolated from autopsy material (liver, heart blood, urine, ascites, pericardial fluid, pleural fluid) tested for beta-glucuronidase activity, and three bacterial strains were added to nutrient-deficient medium containing EtG and/or EtS and incubated at 36 +/- 1 degrees C. Samples were taken after various intervals up to 11 days, and EtG and EtS were determined by electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). EtG was degraded by E. coli and C. sordellii--complete degradation occurred in the range of 3-4 days--and these bacteria exhibited beta-glucuronidase activity. EtS was not affected within 11 days of incubation. PMID:18574590

  10. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF URINARY ETHYL GLUCURONIDE AND ETHYL SULFATE IN LIVER DISEASE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott H.; Koch, David G.; Burgess, Douglas M.; Willner, Ira R.; Reuben, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background It is important to monitor alcohol use in the care of liver disease patients, but patient self-report can be unreliable. We therefore evaluated the performance of urine ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in detecting alcohol use in the days preceding a clinical encounter. Methods Subjects (n=120) were recruited at a university-based Hepatology clinic or during hospitalization. Alcohol consumption was ascertained by validated self-report measures. Urine EtG (cutoff 100 ng/mL) and EtS (cutoff 25 ng/mL) concentrations were assayed by a contracted laboratory using tandem mass spectrometry. The sensitivity and specificity of each biomarker in the detection of drinking during the 3 and 7 days preceding the clinic visit were determined, as well as the influence of liver disease severity on these results. Results Urine EtG (sensitivity 76%, specificity 93%) and urine EtS (sensitivity 82%, specificity 86%) performed well in identifying recent drinking, and liver disease severity does not affect biomarker performance. After elimination of one false negative self-report, urine EtG > 100 ng/mL was 100% specific for drinking within the past week, whereas 9% of the subjects without evidence of alcohol drinking for at least one week had EtS > 25 ng/mL. Conclusions Urine EtG and EtS can objectively supplement the detection of recent alcohol use in patients with liver disease. Additional research may determine optimal methods for integrating these tests into clinical care. PMID:22725265

  11. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after intensive exposure to high ethanol content mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Pesce, Amadeo J; Crews, Bridgit O; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    To determine the degree of ethanol absorption and the resultant formation and urinary excretion of its conjugated metabolites following intensive use of high ethanol content mouthwash, 10 subjects gargled with Listerine(®) antiseptic 4 times daily for 3¼ days. First morning void urine specimens were collected on each of the four study days and post-gargle specimens were collected at 2, 4, and 6 h after the final gargle of the study. Urine ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulfate (EtS), and creatinine were measured. Ethanol was below the positive threshold of 20 mg/dL in all of the urine specimens. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (6 and 82 ng/mL; 16 and 83 ?g/g creatinine). Only one specimen contained detectable EtG (173 ng/mL; 117 ?g/g creatinine). EtS was detected in the urine of seven study subjects, but was not detected in the single specimen that had detectable EtG. The maximum EtS concentrations were 104 ng/mL and 112 ?g/g creatinine (in different subjects). Three subjects produced a total of eight (non-baseline) urinary EtS concentrations above 50 ng/mL or 50 ?g/g creatinine and three EtS concentrations exceeding 100 ng/mL or 100 ?g/g creatinine. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG and EtS concentrations, currently accepted EtG and EtS cutoffs of 500 ng/mL are adequate to distinguish between ethanol consumption and four times daily use of high ethanol content mouthwash. PMID:21619720

  12. Clinical Application of Ethyl Glucuronide Testing in the U.S. Army

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gregory Lande; Barbara Marin; Audrey S. Chang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the clinical characteristics of ethyl glucuronide testing among service members referred to a military substance abuse program. The authors analyzed 1,852 urine specimens from 328 service members collected over a two year period. Among all participants, approximately one-fifth (n = 45\\/262, 17.2%) produced a positive ethyl glucuronide result at the initial assessment. Nearly two-thirds (n = 29\\/45,

  13. Solid-phase extraction procedure for ethyl glucuronide in urine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yufang; Helander, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of the conjugated ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine is increasingly being used as a biomarker for recent alcohol consumption. Prior to quantification of EtG by mass spectrometric (MS) methods [liquid chromatography (LC)-MS or gas chromatography-MS], there is sometimes need for sample cleanup to remove interfering matrix constituents. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure using a HyperSep SAX strong anion exchanger was developed for sample cleanup of urinary EtG prior to LC-MS analysis. The EtG content in a 50-100-microL urine sample was finally reconstituted in the same volume as the original aliquot. The cleaner SPE extracts, without sample dilution, allowed for improved quantification of urinary EtG in the low concentration range. The detection limit of the SPE procedure when combined with LC-MS analysis was < 0.1 mg/L EtG, and the assay imprecision < 5.5% (total CV) in the 0.5-5.0 mg/L concentration range. The absolute recovery of urinary EtG was ~80%, which was compensated for by using a deuterated analogue (EtG-d(5)) as internal standard. The urinary EtG results with SPE followed by LC-MS were highly correlated (r(2) = 0.959) with those obtained using a sensitive and selective ultra-performance LC-tandem MS method. PMID:19021935

  14. [Carbohydrate deficient transferrin and ethyl glucuronide: markers for alcohol use].

    PubMed

    Paling, Erik P; Mostert, Leendert J

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on the usefulness of physicians testing for carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) when there are doubts about alcohol use by their patients. A 44-year-old male consulted his general practitioner with depressive symptoms and denied using alcohol. Laboratory examination revealed an elevated CDT value. The latter was caused by chronic alcohol use. The second patient, a 32-year-old female with known alcohol dependence and receiving inpatient treatment at an addiction clinic, came back from leave. She denied having consumed alcohol and her blood alcohol concentration was zero. Examination of her urine showed an elevated EtG/creatinine ratio. This was caused by having had a few drinks during her leave and could not have been caused by using mouthwash or disinfection soap. We describe how to use the results of CDT and EtG testing in the therapeutic process and give recommendations for patient communication before performing these two tests. PMID:23739598

  15. Development and validation of a gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hicham Kharbouche; Frank Sporkert; Stéphanie Troxler; Marc Augsburger; Patrice Mangin; Christian Staub

    2009-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography–negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC–NCI-MS\\/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30mg

  16. Kinetics in serum and urinary excretion of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide after medium dose ethanol intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia C. Halter; Sebastian Dresen; Volker Auwaerter; Friedrich M. Wurst; Wolfgang Weinmann

    2008-01-01

    The direct ethanol metabolites, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS), are of increasing importance for clinical\\u000a and forensic applications, but there are only few studies on the kinetics of EtG in serum and none on EtS. In this study,\\u000a 13 volunteers (social drinkers) drank ethanol in the form of white wine to reach a blood alcohol concentration of 0.51?±?0.17 g\\/kg,

  17. Effect of succinic acid and tween-80 on glucuronidation of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine.

    PubMed

    Baranov, P A; Kravtsova, O U; Sariev, A K; Sherdev, V P

    2008-07-01

    We studied the effect of succinic acid on the process of glucuronidation of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine after peroral and intraperitoneal administration in the form of succinate or a base. Since the basic form of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine is insoluble in water, it was administered in 5% Tween-80. It was necessary to evaluate also the effect of Tween-80 on glucuronidation of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine in different administration routes. Quantitative assay of glucuronidated fractions was performed by the method of reversed-phase HPLC with fluorometrical detection. The detection limit for this method was 10 ng/ml. We confirmed that the major excretion pathway for 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine is conjugation with glucuronic acid. It was found that succinic acid increased excretion of glucuronidated metabolite after both peroral and intraperitoneal administration of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine in the form of succinate and base in 5% Tween-80. The effect of Tween-80 was detected only after peroral administration, which was probably related to its effect on absorption of this compound. Tween-80 increased excretion of glucuronate after peroral administration of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine in the form of succinate and in 5% Tween solution. PMID:19145350

  18. Distribution of ethyl glucuronide in rib bone marrow, other tissues and body liquids as proof of alcohol consumption before death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiko Schloegl; Thomas Rost; Wolfgang Schmidt; Friedrich Martin Wurst; Wolfgang Weinmann

    2006-01-01

    Postmortem ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations in rib bone marrow, liver, muscle, fat tissue, urine, blood and bile have been determined by LC–MS\\/MS. Samples have been taken from twelve corpses during autopsies. In nine corpses EtG could be detected, corresponding blood ethanol concentrations (BAC) were 0.04–0.37g%. In three cases, no EtG was found; two of these cases showed postmortem BACs –

  19. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate after the consumption of “non-alcoholic” beer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Thierauf; Heike Gnann; Ariane Wohlfarth; Volker Auwärter; Markus Große Perdekamp; Klaus-Juergen Buttler; Friedrich M. Wurst; Wolfgang Weinmann

    2010-01-01

    In abstinence maintenance programs, for reissuing the driving licence and in workplace monitoring programs abstinence from ethanol and its proof are demanded. Various monitoring programs that mainly use ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as alcohol consumption marker have been established. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular non-alcoholic beer has become more and more popular.

  20. Measurement of ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alper Keten; Ali Riza Tumer; Aysun Balseven-Odabasi

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundIt is important to detect alcohol intake in postmortem investigations. However it can be difficult to interpret the results of alcohol analysis in putrefied corpses. To avoid this difficulty, there have been studies on detection of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a non-oxidative metabolite of ethyl alcohol. The aim of this study was investigate EtG levels in vitreous humor (VH), a valuable

  1. Effect of bleaching on ethyl glucuronide in hair: An in vitro experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Morini; Alessandra Zucchella; Aldo Polettini; Lucia Politi; Angelo Groppi

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionEthyl glucuronide in hair (HEtG) has recently gained great attention, because of its high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse. Due to its high polarity hydrophilicity, a strong hair treatment followed by a shampooing may lead to removal\\/degradation of this molecule from hair matrix.

  2. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  3. A pharmacokinetic study of ethyl glucuronide in blood and urine: Applications to forensic toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun Høiseth; Jean Paul Bernard; Ritva Karinen; Lene Johnsen; Anders Helander; Asbjørg S. Christophersen; Jørg Mørland

    2007-01-01

    This pharmacokinetic study investigated the kinetics of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in blood and urine during the whole time course of absorption and elimination. There are few previous studies on the kinetics of EtG in blood, and we wanted to evaluate whether such knowledge could yield valuable information regarding the time of ethanol ingestion in forensic cases,

  4. SENSITIVITY OF COMMERCIAL ETHYL GLUCURONIDE (ETG) TESTING IN SCREENING FOR ALCOHOL ABSTINENCE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK H. WOJCIK; JEFFREY S. HAWTHORNE

    2007-01-01

    The '80 h Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) test' has become an idiom of the alcohol testing community, a review of the literature shows this window of detection applies only to extreme cases. EtG testing is becoming more common as a method to test for alcohol consumption in individuals who have been ordered to abstain from alcohol consumption. We tested 19 subjects

  5. Ethyl glucuronide: on the time course of excretion in urine during detoxification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Martin Wurst; Stephan Seidl; Dieter Ladewig; Franz Müller-Spahn; Andreas Alt

    2002-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a promising new biological state marker of recent alcohol consumption that detects alcohol use reliably over a definite time period. Other currently available markers lack acceptable sensitivity and specificity. Our aim is to elucidate under naturalistic conditions the time course of EtG excretion in urine following alcohol consumption and to show how this can be utilized

  6. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate after the consumption of "non-alcoholic" beer.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Auwärter, Volker; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Buttler, Klaus-Juergen; Wurst, Friedrich M; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2010-10-10

    In abstinence maintenance programs, for reissuing the driving licence and in workplace monitoring programs abstinence from ethanol and its proof are demanded. Various monitoring programs that mainly use ethyl glucuronide (EtG) as alcohol consumption marker have been established. To abstain from ethanol, but not from the taste of alcoholic beverages, in particular non-alcoholic beer has become more and more popular. In Germany, these "alcohol-free" beverages may still have an ethanol content of up to 0.5vol.% without the duty of declaration. Due to severe negative consequences resulting from positive EtG tests, a drinking experiment with 2.5L of non-alcoholic beer per person was performed to address the question of measurable concentrations of the direct metabolites EtG and EtS (ethyl sulphate) in urine and blood. Both alcohol consumption markers - determined by LC-MS/MS - were found in high concentrations: maximum concentrations in urine found in three volunteers were EtG 0.30-0.87mg/L and EtS 0.04-0.07mg/L, i.e., above the often applied cut-off value for the proof of abstinence of 0.1mg EtG/L. In the urine samples of one further volunteer, EtG and EtS concentrations cumulated over-night and reached up to 14.1mg/L EtG and 16.1mg/L EtS in the next morning's urine. Ethanol concentrations in blood and urine samples were negative (determined by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method). PMID:20457499

  7. Practical use of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in postmortem cases as markers of antemortem alcohol ingestion.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Karinen, Ritva; Christophersen, Asbjørg; Mørland, Jørg

    2010-03-01

    In postmortem toxicology, it could be difficult to determine whether a positive blood ethanol concentration reflects antemortem ingestion or postmortem synthesis of alcohol. Measurement of the nonoxidative ethanol metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has been suggested as a marker of antemortem ingestion of alcohol, but EtG might degrade postmortem which could make interpretation difficult. So far, the published articles concern EtG only. Another nonoxidative metabolite, ethyl sulfate (EtS), which is more stable, has therefore been included in this study. We present a material of 36 deaths where postmortem formation of ethanol was suspected and where both EtG and EtS were measured in blood and urine to assist the interpretation. In 19 cases, EtG and EtS were positive in the body fluids analyzed. The median concentration of EtG and EtS in blood was 0.4 (range 0.1-23.2) and 0.9 mg/L (range 0.04-7.9), respectively. The median concentration of EtG and EtS in urine was 35.9 (range 1.0-182) and 8.5 mg/L (range 0.3-99), respectively. In another 16 cases, there was no trace of EtG or EtS in the specimens analyzed. In one case, there was inconsistency between the results of EtG and EtS; they were both positive in urine, while only EtS was positive in blood. This study showed that, out of 36 cases, antemortem ingestion of alcohol was very likely in 19 and unlikely in 16, according to EtG and EtS results. In the last case, the interpretation was more difficult. One possible explanation would be postmortem degradation of EtG in blood. PMID:19937334

  8. Ethyl glucuronide for detecting alcohol lapses in patients with an alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Lahmek, Pierre; Michel, Laurent; Diviné, Catherine; Meunier, Nadine; Pham, Béatrice; Cassereau, Catherine; Aussel, Christian; Aubin, Henri-Jean

    2012-03-01

    Urine ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was screened in 75 patients during a hospital-based treatment for an alcohol use disorder. During follow-up, EtG was detected in 35 (14.6%) of the 239 urine samples. Positive screens were found in 22 patients (29%), of whom nine were outpatients (39.1% of all outpatients) and 13 inpatients (25.0% of all inpatients). Of the 22 patients with positive EtG, five (22%) also gave a positive breath alcohol test and 10 (45.5%) reported recent alcohol consumption; 12 (54.5%) gave a negative breath alcohol test and declared no alcohol lapse. Ethyl glucuronide has been found useful in detecting covered lapses. PMID:21817916

  9. ETHYL GLUCURONIDE — A MARKER OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND A RELAPSE MARKER WITH CLINICAL AND FORENSIC IMPLICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRIEDRICH MARTIN WURST; CHRISTOPH KEMPTER; STEPHAN SEIDL; ANDREAS ALT

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a non-volatile, water-soluble, direct metabolite of ethanol that can be detected in body fluids and hair. We investigated urine and serum samples from three patient groups: (1) 33 in-patients in acute alcohol withdrawal; (2) 30 detoxified in-patients (treated for at least 4 weeks) from a 'motivation station'; and (3) 43 neuro-rehabilitation patients (non-alcoholics; most of them

  10. Ethyl glucuronide in hair – A highly effective test for the monitoring of alcohol consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald Agius; Thomas Nadulski; Hans-Gerhard Kahl; Bertin Dufaux

    In Germany drink driving offenders lose their license and must prove abstinence for one year in order to regain it. In this paper we assess the newly introduced ethyl glucuronide (EtG) tests in urine and hair in this alcohol abstinence monitoring. 20% (80 out of 386) of the 3cm long hair samples were tested positive for EtG in hair, compared

  11. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Suesse; F. Pragst; T. Mieczkowski; C. M. Selavka; A. Elian; H. Sachs; M. Hastedt; M. Rothe; J. Campbell

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454

  12. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in urine after consumption of various beverages and foods—misleading results?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Musshoff; Elena Albermann; Burkhard Madea

    2010-01-01

    Urine testing for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is used to spot recent alcohol intake and is utilized to document alcohol abstinence.\\u000a However, other possible sources of ethanol existed when special beverages or foods were ingested. EtG concentration curves\\u000a in urine were measured after the consumption of non-alcoholic beers, fruit juices, sauerkraut, and matured bananas. Using\\u000a a cutoff of 0.1 mg\\/l, positive EtG

  13. Ethyl sulphate and ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor as postmortem evidence marker for ethanol consumption prior to death.

    PubMed

    Thierauf, Annette; Kempf, Jürgen; Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Auwärter, Volker; Gnann, Heike; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2011-07-15

    To clarify the circumstances of death, the degree of inebriation is of importance in many cases, but for several reasons the determination of the ethanol concentration in post-mortem samples can be challenging and the synopsis of ethanol and the direct consumption markers ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) has proved to be useful. The use of a rather stable matrix like vitreous humor offers further advantages. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of ethanol and the biomarkers in the robust matrix of vitreous humor and to compare them with the respective levels in peripheral venous blood and urine. Samples of urine, blood from the femoral vein and vitreous humor were taken from 26 deceased with suspected ethanol consumption prior to death and analyzed for ethanol, EtS and EtG. In the urine samples creatinine was also determined. The personal data, the circumstances of death, the post-mortem interval and the information about ethanol consumption prior to death were recorded. EtG and EtS analysis in urine was performed by LC-ESI-MS/MS, creatinine concentration was determined using the Jaffé reaction and ethanol was detected by HS-GC-FID and by an ADH-based method. In general, the highest concentrations of the analytes were found in urine and showed statistical significance. The mean concentrations of EtG were 62.8mg/L (EtG100 206.5mg/L) in urine, 4.3mg/L in blood and 2.1mg/L in vitreous humor. EtS was found in the following mean concentrations: 54.6mg/L in urine (EtS100 123.1mg/L), 1.8mg/L in blood and 0.9mg/L in vitreous humor. Ethanol was detected in more vitreous humor samples (mean concentration 2.0g/kg) than in blood and urine (mean concentration 1.6g/kg and 2.1g/kg respectively). There was no correlation between the ethanol and the marker concentrations and no statistical conclusions could be drawn between the markers and matrices. PMID:21367549

  14. A study of distribution of ethyl glucuronide in different keratin matrices.

    PubMed

    Pirro, V; Di Corcia, D; Pellegrino, S; Vincenti, M; Sciutteri, B; Salomone, A

    2011-07-15

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct metabolite of ethanol, frequently used as a biomarker of alcohol abuse. To this purpose, EtG is preferentially determined in hair samples, using a cut-off value of 30pg/mg to discriminate between social and heavy drinkers, as recently fixed by an international consensus conference. Although this cut-off value is assumed for head hair, alternative matrices, such as pubic, axillary and chest hair, are often analyzed when head hair is not available. Previous studies suggested that determination of EtG in various keratin matrices may lead to different results; growth cycle and rate, urine contamination, distribution of sebum glands and other environmental factors are likely to contribute to these differences. We analyzed more than 2700 samples (head, pubic, chest and axillary hair) to evaluate the inter- and intra-individual distribution of the EtG concentration in the different keratin matrices. The data were interpreted on a statistical basis, on the assumption that large population data-sets will level off the average alcohol consumption of each group. From both inter- and intra-individual distribution data, significant differences were observed in EtG concentrations recorded in head, axillary and pubic hair samples. It is concluded that pubic hair cannot be utilized alternatively to head hair to prove chronic alcohol abuse, nor is axillary hair, since positive and negative biases respectively affect these determinations. In contrast, for chest hair, EtG distributions similar to head hair were found, although the large discrepancy between the examined population dimensions presently prevents any definitive conclusion. Thus, chest hair represents a promising alternative to head hair for EtG determinations, deserving further investigation on samples collected from the same individuals, in order to establish a clear correlation between their respective EtG concentrations. PMID:21511419

  15. Voucher-based reinforcement for alcohol abstinence using the ethyl-glucuronide alcohol biomarker.

    PubMed

    McDonell, Michael G; Howell, Donelle N; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M; Ries, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase. The percentage of negative urines was 35% during the first baseline phase, 69% during the C phase, and 20% during the return-to-baseline phase. Results suggest that EtG urine tests may be a feasible method to deliver CM to promote alcohol abstinence. PMID:22403460

  16. VOUCHER-BASED REINFORCEMENT FOR ALCOHOL ABSTINENCE USING THE ETHYL-GLUCURONIDE ALCOHOL BIOMARKER

    PubMed Central

    McDonell, Michael G; Howell, Donelle N; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M; Ries, Richard K

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase. The percentage of negative urines was 35% during the first baseline phase, 69% during the C phase, and 20% during the return-to-baseline phase. Results suggest that EtG urine tests may be a feasible method to deliver CM to promote alcohol abstinence. PMID:22403460

  17. Stability of ethyl glucuronide in urine, post-mortem tissue and blood samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiko Schloegl; Sebastian Dresen; Karin Spaczynski; Mylène Stoertzel; Friedrich Martin Wurst; Wolfgang Weinmann

    2006-01-01

    The stability of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) under conditions of degradation was examined in urine samples of nine volunteers\\u000a and in post-mortem tissue (liver, skeletal muscle) and blood taken from seven corpses at autopsies. Analysis was performed\\u000a via LC-MS\\/MS. EtG concentrations in urine samples ranged from 2.5 to 296.5 mg\\/l. When stored at 4°C in airtight test tubes,\\u000a EtG concentrations remained relatively

  18. Influence of thermal hair straightening on ethyl glucuronide content in hair.

    PubMed

    Ettlinger, Jana; Kirchen, Luc; Yegles, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has become a valuable marker for the detection of moderate and chronic alcohol consumption. It has been shown that bleaching and perming may decrease EtG content in hair. So far, no studies exist about the influence of thermal hair straightening on EtG content in hair. Forty-one positive EtG hair samples were treated in vitro with a hair straightener at 200°C. Duration of treatment of 1 min was chosen for this study. After washing, pulverization, incubation in ultrasonic bath, solid-phase extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, EtG was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry - negative ion chemical ionization (GC-MS-NICI). The EtG contents in straightened hair strands were then compared with those in the corresponding untreated strands. In 20 of 41 hair samples, a decrease of EtG content was found ranging from 0.7% to 79.3% (average 20%) whereas in 21 cases an increase was shown ranging from 2.0% to 50.9% (average 15%). The variation of the results seems to depend on hair colour. The decrease may be explained by thermic in vitro destruction of EtG. The increase may be explained by denaturation of the hair matrix by thermal treatment possibly causing a better extraction of EtG during incubation in ultrasonic bath. This in vitro study indicates that thermal hair straightening has an impact on the EtG content in hair. This has to be considered for a correct interpretation of EtG results in hair. However, these results should be confirmed by in vivo studies. PMID:24817051

  19. An improved method to detect ethyl glucuronide in urine using reversed-phase liquid chromatography and pulsed electrochemical detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Romina Shah; William R. LaCourse

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed electrochemical detection (PED) following reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) has been applied recently to the detection of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in the urine of live and deceased individuals. In this paper, several key improvements to the method are made to enhance sensitivity, reproducibility, and accuracy. These improvements include (i) further optimization of the sample preparation procedure that has increased the

  20. Biotransformation of ethanol to ethyl glucuronide in a rat model after a single high oral dosage.

    PubMed

    Wright, Trista H; Ferslew, Kenneth E

    2012-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor ethanol metabolite that confirms the absorption and metabolism of ethanol after oral or dermal exposure. Human data suggest that maximum blood EtG (BEtG) concentrations are reached between 3.5 and 5.5h after ethanol administration. This study was undertaken to determine if the Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat biotransforms ethanol to EtG after a single high oral dose of ethanol. SD rats (male, n=6) were gavaged with a single ethanol dose (4 g/kg), and urine was collected for 3 h in metabolic cages, followed by euthanization and collection of heart blood. Blood and urine were analyzed for ethanol and EtG by gas chromatography and enzyme immunoassay. Blood and urine ethanol concentrations were 195±23 and 218±19 mg/dL, whereas BEtG and urine EtG (UEtG) concentrations were 1,363±98 ng equivalents/mL and 210±0.29 mg equivalents/dL (X ± standard error of the mean [S.E.M.]). Sixty-six male SD rats were gavaged ethanol (4 g/kg) and placed in metabolic cages to determine the extent and duration of ethanol to EtG biotransformation and urinary excretion. Blood and urine were collected up to 24 h after administration for ethanol and EtG analysis. Maximum blood ethanol, urine ethanol, and UEtG were reached within 4 h, whereas maximum BEtG was reached 6 h after administration. Maximum concentrations were blood ethanol, 213±20 mg/dL; urine ethanol, 308±34 mg/dL; BEtG, 2,683±145 ng equivalents/mL; UEtG, 1.2±0.06 mg equivalents/mL (X±S.E.M.). Areas under the concentration-time curve were blood ethanol, 1,578 h*mg/dL; urine ethanol, 3,096 h*mg/dL; BEtG, 18,284 h*ng equivalents/mL; and UEtG, 850 h*mg equivalents/dL. Blood ethanol and BEtG levels were reduced to below limits of detection (LODs) within 12 and 18 h after ethanol administration. Urine ethanols were below LOD at 18 h, but UEtG was still detectable at 24h after administration. Our data prove that the SD rat biotransforms ethanol to EtG and excretes both in the urine and suggest that it is similar to that of the human. PMID:22019193

  1. A pharmacokinetic study of ethyl glucuronide in blood and urine: applications to forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Bernard, Jean Paul; Karinen, Ritva; Johnsen, Lene; Helander, Anders; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg

    2007-10-25

    This pharmacokinetic study investigated the kinetics of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in blood and urine during the whole time course of absorption and elimination. There are few previous studies on the kinetics of EtG in blood, and we wanted to evaluate whether such knowledge could yield valuable information regarding the time of ethanol ingestion in forensic cases, such as, for instance, drunk driving. Ten male volunteers consumed ethanol at a fixed dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight in a fasted state. Blood samples were collected for 14 h and urine samples were collected for 45-50 h after the start of drinking. EtG reached its maximum concentration (C(max)) in blood after a median of 4 h (range 3.5-5), a median of 3 h (range 2-4.5) after C(max) for ethanol. The ethanol-to-EtG ratios in blood (ethanol in g/L, EtG in mg/L) were >1 only for the first median 3.5 h (range 2.5-3.5) after drinking. EtG elimination occurred with a median half-life of 2.2 h (range 1.7-3.1 h), and the renal clearance was 8.32 L/h (median, range 5.25-20.86). The concentrations of EtG were always much higher in urine than in blood. The total amount of EtG excreted in the urine was median 30 mg (range 21.5-39.7), representing 0.017% (median, range 0.013-0.022) of the ethanol given, on a molar basis. The information from the present study may be a valuable supplement to determine the time of ethanol ingestion. For this purpose, two subsequent increasing EtG values and a high ethanol-to-EtG ratio in blood would support information of recent drinking. PMID:17306943

  2. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in urine after consumption of various beverages and foods--misleading results?

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Albermann, Elena; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-11-01

    Urine testing for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is used to spot recent alcohol intake and is utilized to document alcohol abstinence. However, other possible sources of ethanol existed when special beverages or foods were ingested. EtG concentration curves in urine were measured after the consumption of non-alcoholic beers, fruit juices, sauerkraut, and matured bananas. Using a cutoff of 0.1 mg/l, positive EtG findings were revealed after the ingestion of a lot of non-alcoholic beer up to 13 h later, sauerkraut up to 5 h later, and matured bananas up to 3.5 h later. In German abstinence programs, subjects have to deliver a urine sample within 24 h after advice, and all participants are informed about possible misleading results caused by the consumption of certain beverages or foods. With respect to the present results, a 0.1 mg/l cutoff can be considered useful, and misleading results should not be expected from informed subjects within a 24-h waiting period. PMID:20838803

  3. Comparison of ethyl glucuronide in hair with phosphatidylethanol in whole blood as post-mortem markers of alcohol abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Bendroth; Robert Kronstrand; Anders Helander; Jesper Greby; Nikolai Stephanson; Peter Krantz

    2008-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct metabolite of ethanol and has been used as a marker of alcohol abuse in both urine and hair. This study investigated the value of EtG testing in post-mortem hair for diagnostic improvement of alcohol abuse in forensic medicine. Material from 70 consecutive medico-legal autopsies was collected in accordance with the recommendations on ethics by

  4. Kinetics in serum and urinary excretion of ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide after medium dose ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Halter, Claudia C; Dresen, Sebastian; Auwaerter, Volker; Wurst, Friedrich M; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    The direct ethanol metabolites, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS), are of increasing importance for clinical and forensic applications, but there are only few studies on the kinetics of EtG in serum and none on EtS. In this study, 13 volunteers (social drinkers) drank ethanol in the form of white wine to reach a blood alcohol concentration of 0.51 +/- 0.17 g/kg, and blood and urine samples were analyzed for EtG and EtS simultaneously by chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Mean peak serum EtG and EtS concentrations were 2.9 +/- 1.3 and 2.8 +/- 1.6 micromol/l, respectively, and were reached between 4.0 +/- 0.9 h after the start of drinking (3.0 +/- 0.5 h for EtS). The mean time differences between reaching maximum blood ethanol levels and serum metabolite levels were 2.3 +/- 0.9 h for EtG and 1.2 +/- 0.5 h for EtS. In the last blood samples collected (10-11 h after the start of drinking), 11 (of 13) volunteers were still positive for EtG in serum, whereas only 2 were positive for EtS. In the serum of one female person, no EtS was detectable at any time; however, it was excreted in the urine in (low) concentrations. Ethanol was detectable in the serum for up to 8.6 h after the start of drinking, whereas EtG and EtS were detectable up to more than 5.8 h (EtG) and 4.0 h (EtS), respectively. Mean peak urinary concentrations were 401 +/- 232 micromol/l for EtG and 266 +/- 153 micromol/l for EtS, and mean peak levels were reached 6.2 +/- 0.9 h (EtG) and 5.3 +/- 1.2 h (EtS) after the start of drinking. Maximum concentrations of EtG and EtS in serum showed a wide interindividual variation and could not be correlated to the maximum blood ethanol concentrations. Correlations (p < 0.001, Kendall's Tau b) were found when comparing pairs of parameters, but mostly involved areas under the curve (AUC) of metabolites or of ethanol; one correlation linked the peak concentrations of EtG and EtS in urine. PMID:17558515

  5. Ethyl glucuronide in hair - A highly effective test for the monitoring of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Dufaux, Bertin

    2012-05-10

    In Germany drink driving offenders lose their license and must prove abstinence for one year in order to regain it. In this paper we assess the newly introduced ethyl glucuronide (EtG) tests in urine and hair in this alcohol abstinence monitoring. 20% (80 out of 386) of the 3cm long hair samples were tested positive for EtG in hair, compared to only 2% (92 out of 4248 samples) in urine in the same time period. Additionally 50% of the samples positive for EtG in hair had EtG values greater than 30pg/mg hair, indicating chronic alcohol consumption in the last three months. This study shows that four EtG tests in 3cm hair lengths reveal a significantly higher percentage of drink driving offenders who fail to be sober in the rehabilitation period, than do six random EtG tests in urine. Presumably, the hair test is more adequate to monitor long term alcohol abstinence than the urine test as defined by the new driving license re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) in Germany. PMID:22019393

  6. Ethyl glucuronide excretion in humans following oral administration of and dermal exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Rosano, Thomas G; Lin, Jing

    2008-10-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct ethanol biomarker and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has advised that specificity studies at low EtG levels are needed for distinction of ethanol consumption and incidental exposure. The authors report urinary EtG excretion with ethanol abstinence, dermal exposure and oral consumption. EtG concentration by sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement in 39 urine specimens from adult alcohol abstainers (< 10-62 microg/L) and in urine from 13 children (< 10-80 microg/L) indicates either unrecognized ethanol exposure or endogenous ethanol metabolism. With repetitive daily dermal exposure to hand sanitizer (60% ethanol) by 9 adults, EtG concentration ranged from < 10 to 114 microg/L in 88 first-morning void specimens. EtG excretion following a 24 g ethanol drink by 4 adults revealed maximum urine EtG concentration (12,200-83,200 microg/L) at 3 to 8 h postdose and an EtG detection window up to 25-39 h, compared to an ethanol window of only 2 to 4 h. Oral ethanol use also showed an increase in the percent (molar equivalent) ethanol excreted as EtG with increasing oral ethanol doses. Human excretion studies show 1. EtG detectable at low concentration (< 100 microg/L) when ethanol use or exposures is not evident, 2. EtG concentration less than 120 microg/L in first morning specimens from adults with repeated dermal exposure to ethanol, 3. EtG levels maximally elevated within 3-8 h and above baseline for up to 39 h after a 24 g ethanol drink, and 4. a dose-dependent increase in the percentage of ethanol excreted as EtG with increasing oral ethanol use. PMID:19007508

  7. Quantitation of ethyl glucuronide in serum & urine by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Bharat, Venkatesh; Murthy, Pratima

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Alcohol misuse has now become a serious public health problem and early intervention is important in minimizing the harm. Biochemical markers of recent and high levels of alcohol consumption can play an important role in providing feedback regarding the health consequences of alcohol misuse. Existing markers are not sensitive to recent consumption and in detecting early relapse. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a phase-II metabolite of ethanol is a promising marker of recent alcohol use and can be detected in body fluids. In this study an analytical technique for quantitation of EtG in body fluids using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric detection (MS) was developed and validated. Methods: De-proteinization of serum and urine samples was done with perchloric acid and hydrochloric acid, respectively. Serum samples were passed through phospholipids removal cartridges for further clean up. EtG was isolated using amino propyl solid phase extraction columns. Chromatographic separation was achieved by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Results: Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 50 and 150 ng/ml for urine and 80 and 210 ng/ml for serum, respectively. Signal to noise ratio was 3:1, mean absolute recovery was 80-85 per cent. Significant correlation was obtained between breath alcohol and serum EtG levels (r=0.853) and urine EtG and time since last abuse (r = -0.903) in clinical samples. Interpretation & conclusions: In the absence of other standardized techniques to quantitate EtG in biological samples, this GC-MS method was found to have high throughput and was sensitive and specific. PMID:25857498

  8. Preliminary investigations on ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate cutoffs for detecting alcohol consumption on the basis of an ingestion experiment and on data from withdrawal treatment.

    PubMed

    Albermann, Maria Elena; Musshoff, Frank; Doberentz, Elke; Heese, Peter; Banger, Markus; Madea, Burkhard

    2012-09-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are commonly used alcohol markers for previous alcohol consumption. Nevertheless, the optimum EtG cutoff for urinary abstinence tests is still being discussed, and no cutoff has been recommended for EtS yet. The aim of this study was to verify cutoffs by investigating EtG and EtS concentrations (c(EtG) and c(EtS)) in the urine of healthy persons after drinking small, but realistic amounts of alcohol (one or two glasses of beer or white wine), and to look for the window of detection in strongly alcohol-intoxicated patients who were beginning withdrawal treatment. Very high EtG and EtS concentrations were measured in the first urine samples of patients under withdrawal treatment. However, 24 h later, concentrations decreased considerably, and c (EtG)?determined in 26.7 % (4/13) and 13.3 % (2/13) of the samples, respectively. Concentrations above 0.1 mg/l (EtG) and 0.05 mg/l (EtS) were measured for 23.5 and 20.5 h after consuming 0.1 l of white wine or 0.33 l of beer, and 24 h after the experiment, 75 % (9/12) of the urine samples were tested negative for EtG and EtS using the following cutoffs: EtG 0.5 mg/l and EtS 0.1 mg/l. In half of the samples, concentrations below 0.1 mg/l (EtG) and 0.05 mg/l (EtS) were detected. Urinary cutoffs for EtG of 0.5 mg/l or higher are not suitable for testing abstinence. Even 0.1 mg/l is not effective to detect the intake of small amounts of alcohol in the context of abstinence tests. For EtS, 0.05 mg/l were found to be a potential cutoff to exclude the repeated intake of alcohol. Yet, further research is required to verify this cutoff. For a limited time period, EtG and EtS concentrations within the range of these cutoffs are also detectable after unintentional consumption of alcohol. Participants of abstinence programs have to be informed about the alcohol content of certain foods and beverages whose consumption is in conflict with strict abstinence. PMID:22752748

  9. Comparison of ethyl glucuronide in hair with phosphatidylethanol in whole blood as post-mortem markers of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Bendroth, Peter; Kronstrand, Robert; Helander, Anders; Greby, Jesper; Stephanson, Nikolai; Krantz, Peter

    2008-03-21

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct metabolite of ethanol and has been used as a marker of alcohol abuse in both urine and hair. This study investigated the value of EtG testing in post-mortem hair for diagnostic improvement of alcohol abuse in forensic medicine. Material from 70 consecutive medico-legal autopsies was collected in accordance with the recommendations on ethics by the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. A method for determination of EtG in hair samples was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS/MS; LOQ, 2.5 pg/mg). The result of the EtG analysis was compared with the findings of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in femoral whole blood, as measured by high performance liquid chromatography with an evaporative light-scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD; LOQ, 0.22 micromol/l). Evaluation of liver histology and anamnestic evidence of alcohol abuse of the deceased were taken in consideration for the interpretation. Measurable levels of EtG were present in 49 of the 70 autopsy cases whereas PEth was present in 36. Thirty-nine cases had EtG levels above the cutoff limit (> or = 30 pg/mg) compared with 29 for PEth (> or = 0.7 micromol/l). Fifteen cases had EtG as exclusive indicator for alcohol abuse compared with four cases for PEth. These findings suggest that measurements of EtG in hair may provide improved diagnostic information on alcohol abuse, due to a long retrospective time-window for detection and stability of EtG in hair in the decaying cadaver. However, an EtG level below the cutoff does not completely exclude previous alcohol abuse. PMID:18023314

  10. Utility of urinary ethyl glucuronide analysis in post-mortem toxicology when investigating alcohol-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Sundström, M; Jones, A W; Ojanperä, I

    2014-08-01

    Use and abuse of alcohol are common findings when unnatural deaths are investigated as evidenced by high blood- and urine- alcohol concentrations (BAC and UAC) at autopsy. Because ethanol is metabolized in the liver until the time of death, the autopsy BAC or UAC might be negative even though the deceased had consumed alcohol in the immediate ante-mortem period. Analysis of the non-oxidative metabolite of ethanol [ethyl glucuronide (EtG)] offers a more sensitive test of recent drinking. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of ethanol and EtG in urine samples from 972 consecutive forensic autopsies. In 425 cases (44%) both EtG and ethanol were positive, which supports ante-mortem drinking. In 342 cases (35%), both EtG and ethanol was negative, which speaks against any consumption of alcohol just before death. In 181 cases, ethanol was negative in urine (<0.2 g/kg), whereas EtG was positive (>0.5 mg/L), which points towards ingestion of alcohol some time before death. In these cases, mean and median concentrations of EtG were 53.2 mg/L and 23.7 mg/L, respectively, although there was no mention of alcohol on 131 of the death certificates. Alcohol was mentioned on death certificates as an underlying or immediate cause of death or a contributing factor in 435 (45%) cases, which rose to 566 (58%) cases when positive EtG results were included. This article demonstrates the usefulness of EtG analysis in routine post-mortem toxicology when ante-mortem drinking and alcohol-related deaths are investigated. PMID:24954799

  11. Levels of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in oral fluid, blood, and urine after use of mouthwash and ingestion of nonalcoholic wine.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Christophersen, Asbjørg

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid and both EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in blood and urine following intense use of mouthwash and ingestion of nonalcoholic wine, which are proven to contain 3 mg/L EtG, 1.5 mg/L EtS, and 0.2 g/L ethanol. Twelve subjects participated in a controlled experiment. All subjects ingesting nonalcoholic wine showed urine samples negative for EtG but positive for EtS (Cmax 2.15 mg/L). All four subjects using mouthwash were negative for EtG and EtS in urine. All samples of oral fluid were negative for EtG and all samples of blood were negative for EtG and EtS. This study showed that ingestion of EtG and EtS as components of nonalcoholic wine lead to detection of urine EtS only, suggesting superior bioavailability of orally ingested EtS compared to EtG. This possibility of false-positive EtS results in urine after ingestion of nonalcoholic wine is important to remember when using EtG and EtS as relapse markers for alcohol. Finally, the study showed that a positive EtG or EtS result after accidental alcohol exposure is unlikely in blood and oral fluid. PMID:20223100

  12. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers: relationship to creatinine content and blood and urine ethanol concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Bergström; A Helander; A. W Jones

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of alcohol in blood (BAC) and two successive urine voids (UAC) from 100 drunk drivers were compared with the concentration of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol in urine, and the urinary creatinine content as an indicator of dilution. The subjects consisted of 87 men with mean age 42.2±14.2 years (±standard deviation, S.D.) and 13 women

  13. An evaluation of washing and extraction techniques in the analysis of ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters from hair samples.

    PubMed

    Bossers, L C A M; Paul, R; Berry, A J; Kingston, R; Middendorp, C; Guwy, A J

    2014-03-15

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are alcohol metabolites measured in hair and are after a decade of research thought to be the best markers in hair to indicate alcoholism and abstinence Forensic Sci. Int. 218 (2012) 2. A great body of work concerning EtG and FAEEs detection in hair has been performed. However, no recent extensive comparison has been made concerning washing and extraction procedures. This work shows that the washing procedure of dichloromethane followed by a methanol rinse of the hair sample removes more than 16% of the FAEEs and 50% of the total EtG that is present in and on the hair. A review of ten washing protocols (where the removal is categorised: high, medium or low) showed that a relatively high percentage of FAEEs was removed and "medium" amount of EtG compared to the other washing protocols. This work shows promising results for the extraction of the FAEEs and the combined extraction of FAEEs and EtG by using 30min of sonication with methanol. More FAEEs were recovered from hair with methanol than with any other extraction solvent including the commonly used dimethyl sulfoxide/heptane mixture. When the sonication time was increased a higher percentage of transesterification of the FAEEs was observed, the extraction was "dirtier" as solids and a colour change was observed whereas the extraction efficiency did not increase. Therefore, washing the hair sample with dichloromethane and methanol followed by an addition of 1ml of methanol and sonication for 30min to extract the FAEEs and EtG from hair is recommended for FAEEs as well as for the combined analysis of EtG and FAEEs. A linear calibration curve (r(2)>0.99) was obtained for all analytes. PMID:24590191

  14. Hair Ethyl Glucuronide is Highly Sensitive and Specific for Detecting Moderate-to-Heavy Drinking in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott H.; Koch, David G.; Willner, Ira R.; Randall, Patrick K.; Reuben, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Hair ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a promising biomarker of moderate-to-heavy alcohol consumption and may have utility in detecting and monitoring alcohol use in clinical populations where alcohol use is of particular importance. This study evaluated the relationship between hair EtG and drinking in patients with liver disease. Methods: The subjects (n = 200) were patients with liver disease who presented for care at a university medical center. Alcohol use during the 3 months preceding participation in the study was assessed, and a sample of hair was obtained for EtG testing. Classification of drinking status (any drinking or averaging at least 28 g per day) by hair EtG was evaluated, as well as the effects of liver disease severity and demographic and hair care factors. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting an average of 28 g or more per day during the prior 90 days was 0.93. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity of hair EtG ?8 pg/mg for averaging at least 28 g of ethanol per day were 92 and 87%, respectively. Cirrhosis and gender may have a modest influence on the relationship between drinking and hair EtG. Conclusion: Hair EtG was highly accurate in differentiating subjects with liver disease averaging at least 28 g of ethanol per day from abstainers and lighter drinkers. PMID:23015609

  15. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

    2012-05-10

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from chest hair were higher. EtG in armpit hair was lower and in leg hair higher than in scalp hair. It is concluded that the combined use of FAEE and EtG essentially increases the accuracy of interpretation since both markers complement each other by a different sensitivity to sources of error. PMID:22036309

  16. High levels of agreement between clinic-based ethyl glucuronide (EtG) immunoassays and laboratory-based mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Leickly, Emily; McDonell, Michael G.; Vilardaga, Roger; Angelo, Frank A.; Lowe, Jessica M.; McPherson, Sterling; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunoassay urine drug screening cups that detect use for two or more days are commonly used in addiction treatment settings. Until recently, there has been no comparable immunoassay test for alcohol use in these settings. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the agreement of a commercially available ethyl glucuronide immunoassay (EtG-I) test conducted at an outpatient addiction clinic and lab-based EtG mass spectrometry (EtG-MS) conducted at a drug testing laboratory at three cut-off levels. High agreement between these two measures would support the usefulness of EtG-I as a clinical tool for monitoring alcohol use. Methods Forty adults with co-occurring alcohol dependence and serious mental illnesses submitted 1068 urine samples over a 16-week alcohol treatment study. All samples were tested using EtG-I on a benchtop analyzer and 149 were randomly selected for EtG-MS analysis at a local laboratory. Agreement was defined as the number of samples where EtG-I and EtG-MS were both above or below a specific cut-off level. Agreement was calculated at low cut-off levels (100 and 250 ng/ml), as well as at a higher cut-off level (500 ng/ml) recommended by most by commercial drug testing laboratories. Results Agreement between EtG-I and EtG-MS was high across all cut-off levels (90.6% at 100 ng/ml, and 96.6% at 250 and 500 ng/ml). Conclusions EtG immunoassays conducted at low cut-off levels in point-of-care testing settings have high agreement with lab-based EtG-MS. EtG-I can be considered a useful clinical monitoring tool for alcohol use in community-based addiction treatment settings. PMID:25695340

  17. Profiling serum bile acid glucuronides in humans: gender divergences, genetic determinants, and response to fenofibrate.

    PubMed

    Trottier, J; Perreault, M; Rudkowska, I; Levy, C; Dallaire-Theroux, A; Verreault, M; Caron, P; Staels, B; Vohl, M-C; Straka, R J; Barbier, O

    2013-10-01

    Glucuronidation, catalyzed by uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, detoxifies cholestatic bile acids (BAs). We aimed to (i) characterize the circulating BA-glucuronide (BA-G) pool composition in humans, (ii) determine how sex and UGT polymorphisms influence this composition, and (iii) analyze the effects of the lipid-lowering drug fenofibrate on the circulating BA-G profile in 300 volunteers and 5 cholestatic patients. Eleven BA-Gs were determined in pre- and postfenofibrate samples. Men exhibited higher BA-G concentrations, and various genotype/BA-G associations were discovered in relevant UGT genes. The chenodeoxycholic acid-3G (CDCA-3G) concentration was associated with the UGT2B7 802C>T polymorphism. Glucuronidation assays confirmed the predominant role of UGT2B7 and UGT1A4 in CDCA-3G formation. Fenofibrate exposure increased the serum levels of five BA-G species, including CDCA-3G, and upregulated expression of UGT1A4, but not UGT2B7, in hepatic cells. This study demonstrated that fenofibrate stimulates BA glucuronidation in humans and thus reduces BA toxicity in the liver. PMID:23756370

  18. Degradation of the ethyl glucuronide content in hair by hydrogen peroxide and a non-destructive assay for oxidative hair treatment using infra-red spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Dominic; Becker, Roland; Kohl, Anka; Hänisch, Jessica; Nehls, Irene

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of quantification results of the alcohol abuse marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair in comparison to the cut-off values for the drinking behavior may be complicated by cosmetic hair bleaching. Thus, the impact of increasing exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the EtG content of hair was investigated. Simultaneously, the change of absorbance in the range of 1000-1100 cm(-1) indicative for the oxidation of cystine was investigated non-destructively by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) using pulverized portions of the respective hair samples. Hair samples treated with hydrogen peroxide consistently displayed a significantly increased absorbance at 1040 cm(-1) associated with the formation of cysteic acid. The EtG content decreased significantly if the hair was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide as during cosmetic bleaching. It could be shown that ATR-FTIR is capable of detecting an exposure to hydrogen peroxide when still no brightening was visible and already before the EtG content deteriorated significantly. Thus, hair samples suspected of having been exposed to oxidative treatment may be checked non-destructively by a readily available technique. This assay is also possible retrospectively after EtG extraction and using archived samples. PMID:25180828

  19. Regiospecificity of Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase Isoforms in Chalcone and Flavanone Glucuronidation Determined by Metal Complexation and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, Emily D.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    The glucuronidation of a series of chalcones (2'-hydroxychalcone, 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone, 3,2'-dihydroxychalcone, 4,2'-dihydroxychalcone, and cardamonin) and their corresponding cyclized flavanones (7-hydroxyflavanone, 3'-hydroxyflavanone, 4'-hydroxyflavanone, and alpinetin) by nine human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A enzymes was evaluated. A post-column metal complexation LC-MS/MS strategy was used successfully to produce characteristic mass spectrometric product ions that were utilized in combination with elution order trends to identify chalcone and flavanone monoglucuronides unambiguously, thus allowing determination of the regioselectivities of the UGT1A isoforms. The presence of hydroxy groups on the A or B-ring had a significant effect on the glucuronide product yield and the site where glucuronidation occurred. For example, for reaction with UGT1A9, formation of the 2'-O-glucuronide was increased for dihydroxychalcones with A-ring hydroxy substituents. In contrast, although UGT1A8 reacted with 3,2'-dihydroxychalcone and 4,2'-dihydroxychalcone to yield 2'-O-glucuronide products, the presence of a B-ring hydroxy group at the 4' position on cardamonin and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone quenched the reaction at the OH-2' position. Moreover, the A-ring OH-4 group promoted glucuronidation at the 2' position for the reaction of 4,2'-dihydroxychalcone with UGT1A1 and 1A3. For UGT1A7, hydroxy group substituents on the chalcone A-ring also promoted cyclization and formation of the corresponding flavanone glucuronide. PMID:23713759

  20. Determination of ajulemic acid and its glucuronide in human plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Batista, Catarina; Berisha, Myftar; Karst, Matthias; Salim, Kahlid; Schneider, Udo; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2005-06-01

    A method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the determination of ajulemic acid (AJA), a non-psychoactive synthetic cannabinoid with interesting therapeutic potential, in human plasma. When using two calibration graphs, the assay linearity ranged from 10 to 750 ng/ml, and 750 to 3000 ng/ml AJA. The intra- and inter-day precision (R.S.D., %), assessed across the linear ranges of the assay, was between 1.5 and 7.0, and 3.6 and 7.9, respectively. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 10 ng/ml. The amount of AJA glucuronide was determined by calculating the difference in the AJA concentration before ("free AJA") and after enzymatic hydrolysis ("total AJA"). The present method was used within a clinical study on 21 patients suffering from neuropathic pain with hyperalgesia and allodynia. For example, plasma levels of 599.4+/-37.2 ng/ml (mean+/-R.S.D., n=9) AJA were obtained for samples taken 2 h after the administration of an oral dose of 20 mg AJA. The mean AJA glucuronide concentration at 2h was 63.8+/-127.9 ng/ml. PMID:15866495

  1. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in oral fluid, blood, and urine after volunteers drank 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg doses of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Mørland, Jørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid, blood, and urine after healthy volunteers drank two doses of ethanol, 0.5 (n = 11) and 1.0 g/kg (n = 10), after an overnight fast. Samples of oral fluid, blood, and urine were collected before drinking started and at 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 8.5, 11.5, and 24 h post-dosing. Following ingestion of low dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 0.36 mg/L (range 0.28-0.41 mg/L) in blood and 69.8 mg/L (range 47.1-96.5 mg/L) in urine. In oral fluid, the concentrations were < 1% of those in blood, and only three subjects exceeded the limit of quantification for EtG in oral fluid. After ingestion of the high dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 1.06 mg/L (range 0.8-1.22 mg/L) in blood, 159.9 mg/L (range 97.2-225.5 mg/L) in urine, and 0.032 mg/L (range 0.013-0.059 mg/L) in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood ratio was 0.029 (range 0.012-0.054) for EtG. The detection time for EtG was median 11.5 h (range 3.5-11.5 h) in oral fluid. According to this, the detection time for EtG in oral fluid is therefore only a few hours longer than for ethanol itself and represents limited additional value. PMID:20663284

  2. A fully validated method for the quantification of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate in urine by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS applied in a prospective alcohol self-monitoring study.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Natalie; Wille, Sarah; Di Fazio, Vincent; Lambert, Willy; Samyn, Nele

    2013-06-15

    A method for the quantification of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulphate (EtS) in human urine is developed and fully validated according to international guidelines. Protein precipitation is used as sample preparation. During the development of the method on an UPLC-ESI-MS/MS system using a CSH C18 column, special attention was paid to reduce matrix effects to improve assay sensitivity and to improve detection of the second transition for EtS for specificity purposes. The method was linear from 0.1 to 10?g/mL for both analytes. Ion suppression less than 24% (RSD<15%) was observed for EtG and no significant matrix effect was measured for EtS. The recovery was around 80% (RSD<14%) for both compounds. This method provides good precision (RSDr and RSDt<10%) and bias (<15%) for internal and external quality control samples. The reproducibility of the method was demonstrated by the successful participation to proficiency tests (z-score<0.86). This method was finally used to analyze urine samples obtained from twenty-seven volunteers whose alcohol consumption during the 5 days before sampling was monitored. Concentrations between 0.5 and 101.9?g/mL (mean 10.9, median 1.4) for EtG and between 0.1 and 37.9?g/mL (mean 3.6, median 0.3) for EtS were detected in urine samples of volunteers who declared having consumed alcohol the day before the sampling. EtG and EtS concentrations in urine were highly correlated (r=0.996, p<0.001). A moderate correlation between the number of drinks the day before sampling and the concentration of EtG (r=0.448, p<0.02) or EtS (r=0.406, p<0.04) was observed. Using a cut-off value at 0.1?g/mL for EtG and EtS, this method is able to detect social alcohol consumption approximately 24h after the intake, without showing any false positive result. PMID:23685426

  3. The in vivo glucuronidation of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Moody, David E; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2006-04-01

    The opioid partial agonist medication, buprenorphine (BUP), and its primary metabolite, norbuprenorphine (NBUP), are extensively glucuronidated. Sensitive analytical methods that include determination of buprenorphine-3-glucuronide (BUPG) and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide (NBUPG) are needed to more fully understand the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine. A method has now been developed that uses solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. BUP-d4, NBUP-d3, and morphine-3-glucuronide-d3 were used as internal standards. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 and 0.5 ng/mL for each of the analytes in 1-mL of human plasma and urine, respectively, except for NBUP in urine in which it was 2.5 ng/mL. The analytes were stable under the following conditions: plasma and urine at room temperature, up to 20 hours; plasma and urine at -20 degrees C for 119 and 85 days, respectively; plasma freeze-thaw, up to 3 cycles; processed sample, up to 96 hours at -20 degrees C and up to 48 hours on the autosampler; stock solutions at room temperature and at -20 degrees C, up to 6 hours and 128 days, respectively. In plasma collected from 5 subjects on maintenance daily sublingual doses of 16 mg BUP and 4 mg naloxone, respective 0- to 24-hour areas under the curve were 32, 88, 26, and 316 ng/mL x h for BUP, NBUP, BUPG, and NBUPG. In urine samples respective percent of daily dose excreted in the 24-hour urine were 0.014%, 1.89%, 1.01%, and 7.76%. This method allowed us to determine that NBUPG is a major metabolite present in plasma and urine of BUP. Because urinary elimination is limited ( approximately 11% of daily dose), the role of NBUPG in total clearance of buprenorphine is not yet known. PMID:16628138

  4. Use of Isoform-Specific UGT Metabolism to Determine and Describe Rates and Profiles of Glucuronidation of Wogonin and Oroxylin A by Human Liver and Intestinal Microsomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiong Zhou; Zhijie Zheng; Bijun Xia; Lan Tang; Chang Lv; Wei Liu; Zhongqiu Liu; Ming Hu

    2010-01-01

    Purposes  Glucuronidation via UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (or UGTs) is a major metabolic pathway. The purposes of this study are to\\u000a determine the UGT-isoform-specific metabolic fingerprint (or GSMF) of wogonin and oroxylin A, and to use isoform-specific\\u000a metabolism rates and kinetics to determine and describe their glucuronidation behaviors in tissue microsomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  \\u000a In vitro glucuronidation rates and profiles were measured using expressed UGTs and

  5. Autism and Phthalate Metabolite Glucuronidation

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Margaret D.; Steer, Robert A.; Ming, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals may precipitate autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in genetically susceptible children. Differences in the efficiency of the glucuronidation process may substantially modulate substrate concentrations and effects. To determine whether the efficiency of this pathway is compromised in children with ASD, we measured the efficiency of glucuronidation for a series of metabolites derived from the commonly used plasticizer, diethylhexyl phthalate. Spot urines were collected and analyzed for the fraction of each metabolite conjugated by isotope dilution-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry. The degree of glucuronidation was lower with the ASD group. The glucuronidation pathway may differ in some children with ASD. PMID:23575644

  6. Direct gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of salicylic acid, with the corresponding glycine and glucuronide conjugates in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Vree, T B; van Ewijk-Beneken Kolmer, E W; Verwey-van Wissen, C P; Hekster, Y A

    1994-02-11

    A gradient reversed-phase HPLC analysis for the direct measurement of salicylic acid (SA) with the corresponding glycine and glucuronide conjugates in plasma and urine of humans was developed. The glucuronides were isolated by preparative HPLC from human urine samples. The concentration of the glucuronides in the isolated fraction were determined after enzymatic hydrolysis. Salicylic acid acyl glucuronide (SAAG) was not present in plasma. No isoglucuronides were present in acidic and alkaline urine of the volunteer. The limits of quantitation in plasma are: SA 0.2 microgram/ml, salicyluric acid (SU) 0.1 microgram/ml, salicylic acid phenolic glucuronide (SAPG) 0.4 microgram/ml and salicyluric acid phenolic glucuronide (SUPG) 0.2 microgram/ml. The limit of quantitation in urine is for all compounds 5 micrograms/ml. Salicylic acid acyl glucuronide is stable in phosphate buffer pH 4.9 during 8 h at 37 degrees C; thereafter it declines to 80% after 24 h. The subject's urine was therefore acidified by the oral intake of 4 x 1.2 g of ammonium chloride/day. With acidic urine, hardly any salicylic acid is excreted unchanged (0.6%). It is predominantly excreted as salicyluric acid (68.7%). PMID:8006100

  7. Quantitative Determination of Common Urinary Odorants and Their Glucuronide Conjugates in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Wagenstaller, Maria; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study on the identification of common odorants and their conjugates in human urine demonstrated that this substance fraction is a little-understood but nonetheless a promising medium for analysis and diagnostics in this easily accessible physiological medium. Smell as an indicator for diseases, or volatile excretion in the course of dietary processes bares high potential for a series of physiological insights. Still, little is known today about the quantitative composition of odorous or volatile targets, as well as their non-volatile conjugates, both with regard to their common occurrence in urine of healthy subjects, as well as in that of individuals suffering from diseases or other physiological misbalancing. Accordingly, the aim of our study was to develop a highly sensitive and selective approach to determine the common quantitative composition of selected odorant markers in healthy human subjects, as well as their corresponding glucuronide conjugates. We used one- and two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with stable isotope dilution assays to quantify commonly occurring and potent odorants in human urine. The studies were carried out on both native urine and on urine that had been treated by glucuronidase assays, with analysis of the liberated odor-active compounds using the same techniques. Analytical data are discussed with regard to their potential translation as future diagnostic tool. PMID:24958143

  8. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base...U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month period ending on...quantity'' of imports of fuel ethyl alcohol with a zero percent local feedstock...

  9. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base...U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month period ending on...quantity'' of imports of fuel ethyl alcohol with a zero percent local feedstock...

  10. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ...Investigation No. 332-288] Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base...U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month period ending on...quantity'' of imports of fuel ethyl alcohol, and the Commission transmitted it...

  11. Determination of sulfates and glucuronides of endogenic steroids in biofluids by high-performance liquid chromatography/orbitrap mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenistaya, E. N.; Virus, E. D.; Rodchenkov, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    the possibility of selective determination of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronides in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry using solid phase microextraction on a meps cartridge was studied. the effect of the biological matrix on the spectra of conjugated steroids can be taken into account by using the spectra of conjugates recorded for urine samples after hydrolysis as reference spectra. the conditions of fragmentation in the ion source were optimized for separate analytes. this method was used for analyzing real samples with different testosterone/epitestosterone ratios. variations in conjugate contents and qualitative changes in the steroid profile of endogenic compounds were observed.

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of mycophenolic acid and its glucuronide metabolite in human plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher E Jones; Paul J Taylor; Anthony G Johnson

    1998-01-01

    Two HPLC–UV assays are reported here: one is a rapid assay for mycophenolic acid (MPA) and the other is a simultaneous assay for MPA and its metabolite mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG). For both methods, plasma samples (500 ?l) with added internal standard were acidified and extracted using C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 Novapak column

  13. Rapid and sensitive determination of propofol glucuronide in hair by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Seung; Cheong, Jae Chul; Lee, Jae Il; In, Moon Kyo

    2013-11-01

    A fast, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection and quantitation of propofol glucuronide in human hair has been developed and validated. Propofol glucuronide was extracted from 10mg of hair using a simple methanol extraction method, with recovery greater than 91% at 3 quality control samples (15, 100, 4000 pg/mg). A reversed phase column (C8) was used to analyze and the mobile phase was composed of ammonium formate and acetonitrile gradient at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 5 pg/mg and the assay was linear to 5000 pg/mg. The intra- and inter-day precision (% CV, coefficient of variation) ranged from 1.26 to 4.50% while the accuracy (% RE, relative error) were -4.24 to 4.4%. The matrix effects were monitored at 3 different concentrations and the %CV of the results for these concentrations was less than 10.6%. Propofol glucuronide was stable during processing and analysis in human hair. The procedure was validated and applied to the analysis of hair samples in human subjects previously administered in propofol. PMID:23872469

  14. Determination of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronides in urine by ultra performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kaur-Atwal, Gushinder; Reynolds, James C; Mussell, Christopher; Champarnaud, Elodie; Knapman, Tom W; Ashcroft, Alison E; O'Connor, Gavin; Christie, Steven D R; Creaser, Colin S

    2011-10-01

    UPLC-ion mobility spectrometry separations combined with mass spectrometry (UPLC-IM-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-IM-MS/MS) have been investigated for the simultaneous determination of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronides in urine. The glucuronide epimers of testosterone and epitestosterone were separated by ion mobility spectrometry prior to mass analysis on the basis of differences in their collision cross sections, which have been measured in nitrogen. Combining ion mobility separation with UPLC/MS enhances the analysis of these low-abundance steroids in urine by selective interrogation of specific retention time, mass-to-charge and mobility regions. Detection limits for the UPLC-IM-MS/MS analysis of TG and ETG were 9.9 ng mL(-1) and 98 ng mL(-1) respectively, equivalent to 0.7 ng mL(-1) and 7.4 ng mL(-1) in urine, with linear dynamic ranges corresponding to 0.7-108 ng mL(-1) and 7.4-147 ng mL(-1) in urine. Repeatability (%RSD) for urine extracts was 0.64% and 2.31% for TG and ETG respectively. PMID:21842047

  15. Determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tai, D.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water samples were developed. Concentrations in the milligram-per-liter range were determined by injecting an aqueous sample into the analysis system through an injection port, trapping the organics on Tenax-GC at room temperature, and thermally desorbing the organics into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector for analysis. Concentrations in the microgram-per-liter range were determined by sweeping the headspace vapors over a water sample at 50C, trapping on Tenax-GC, and thermally desorbing the organics into the gas chromatograph. The precision for two operators of the milligram-per-liter concentration procedure, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was generally less than 2 percent for concentrations ranging from 16 to 160 milligrams per liter. The precision from two operators of the microgram-per-liter concentration procedure was between 2 and 4 percent for concentrations of 20 and 60 micrograms per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Determination of Serotonin and Dopamine Metabolites in Human Brain Microdialysis and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples by UPLC-MS/MS: Discovery of Intact Glucuronide and Sulfate Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Suominen, Tina; Uutela, Päivi; Ketola, Raimo A.; Bergquist, Jonas; Hillered, Lars; Finel, Moshe; Zhang, Hongbo; Laakso, Aki; Kostiainen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    An UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), their phase I metabolites 5-HIAA, DOPAC and HVA, and their sulfate and glucuronide conjugates in human brain microdialysis samples obtained from two patients with acute brain injuries, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from four patients with obstructive hydrocephalus, and a lumbar CSF sample pooled mainly from patients undergoing spinal anesthesia in preparation for orthopedic surgery. The method was validated by determining the limits of detection and quantification, linearity, repeatability and specificity. The direct method enabled the analysis of the intact phase II metabolites of 5-HT and DA, without hydrolysis of the conjugates. The method also enabled the analysis of the regioisomers of the conjugates, and several intact glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were identified and quantified for the first time in the human brain microdialysis and CSF samples. We were able to show the presence of 5-HIAA sulfate, and that dopamine-3-O-sulfate predominates over dopamine-4-O-sulfate in the human brain. The quantitative results suggest that sulfonation is a more important phase II metabolism pathway than glucuronidation in the human brain. PMID:23826355

  17. Manual and automated (robotic) high-performance liquid chromatography methods for the determination of mycophenolic acid and its glucuronide conjugate in human plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsina Irene; Chu Frances; Kyle Hama; Martin Kaloostian; Ling Tam Yuen; Thomas Tarnowski; Wong Belinda

    1996-01-01

    A manual and an automated (Zymark PyTechnology robot) HPLC method for simultaneous determination of plasma mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its glucuronide conjugate (MPAG) are described here. Both methods are reproducible and accurate, and both are equivalent in all respects, including quantification limits (MPA, 0.100 ?g\\/ml; MPAG, 4.00 ?g\\/ml), range (using 0.05–0.5 ml of plasma: MPA, 0.0500–20.0 ?g\\/aliquot; MPAG, 2.00–200 ?g\\/aliquot),

  18. Determination of naringenin and its glucuronide conjugate in rat plasma and brain tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. W. Peng; F. C. Cheng; Y. T. Huang; C. F. Chen; T. H. Tsai

    1998-01-01

    An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection was utilized for the investigation of the pharmacokinetics of naringenin and its glucuronide conjugate in rat plasma and brain tissue. Plasma and brain tissue were deproteinized by acetonitrile, then centrifuged for sample clean-up. The drugs were separated by a reversed-phase C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile–orthophosphoric acid solution

  19. Development of LC-MS/MS methodology for the detection/determination and confirmation of chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide, florfenicol, florfenicol amine and thiamphenicol residues in bovine, equine and porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Fedeniuk, Rick W; Mizuno, Massey; Neiser, Connie; O'Byrne, Collin

    2015-06-01

    A method for the detection and confirmation of organic solvent extractable residues of the neutral, acidic, and basic analytes of the amphenicol class veterinary drugs and selected metabolites was developed and validated. Using a modified QuEChERS extraction with SPE cleanup and LC-MS/MS analysis, limits of detection and confirmation for the different analytes in bovine, equine, and porcine liver ranged from 0.1ng/g for chloramphenicol to 1ng/g for florfenicol amine. Tissue homogenization with an ammonium formate/EDTA solution and subsequent analyte partitioning against 7:3 acetonitrile:isopropanol solution and mixed-mode strong-cation exchange solid-phase extraction cartridge cleanup allowed for the extraction of all compounds from tissues with mean recoveries ranging from 50% (chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide) to 90% (thiamphenicol). Matrix effects ranged from greater than 85% suppression for florfenicol amine to 70% matrix enhancement for chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide. Quantitation and confirmation were accomplished using commercially available penta-deuterated chloramphenicol as internal standard and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two or three transitions per target analyte. Method accuracy was greater than 15% for all compounds except the glucuronide metabolite. Intra-lab method repeatability estimates ranged from 73% RSD for chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide to 14% RSD for chloramphenicol. Only chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide and florfenicol amine at the low end of their calibration ranges (0.25 and 1ng/g, respectively) did not meet AOAC recommended HorRatr guidelines for intra-lab repeatabilities. Preliminary tests show that the method's extraction protocol can be used to recover analytes of the ?-agonists, corticosteroids, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracycline drug classes from the same matrices. Requirements for use in national chemical monitoring programs as a detection/confirmatory (florfenicol amine and chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide) and determinative/confirmatory (chloramphenicol, florfenicol, thiamphenicol) analytical methodology are met. PMID:25913426

  20. Potential of ethyl acetate in the determination of extractable organic halogens (EOX) from contaminated soil, sediment, and sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Reemtsma; M. Jekel

    1996-01-01

    The potential of methyl-tert. butyl ether, toluene and ethyl acetate for determining extractable organic halogens (EOX) from contaminated soil, lake sediments and sewage sludge was investigated and compared with hexane, which is prescribed in the German standard method of EOX determination. Soxhlet-extraction with ethyl acetate proved most efficient and yielded 2 - 6 times the EOX-values obtained by hexane. Washing

  1. Influence of Phenobarbital on Morphine Metabolism and Disposition:LCMS\\/MS Determination of Morphine (M) and Morphine3Glucuronide (M3G) in Wistar-Kyoto Rat Serum, Bile, and Urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yazen M. Alnouti; Melinda K. Shelby; Chuan Chen; Curtis D. Klaassen

    2007-01-01

    A simple LC-MS\\/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of mor- phine (M) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) in rat serum, bile, and urine. Deuterated D3-M and D3-M3G were used as internal standards (IS) for M and M3G, respectively. Serum samples were processed by acetonitrile precipitation. Bile samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis MCX cartridges.

  2. [HPLC-MS determination of 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-oxypyridine].

    PubMed

    Baranov, P A; Appolonova, S A; Dikunets, M A; Rodchenkov, G M; Sariev, A K; Zherdev, V P

    2009-01-01

    An HPLC-ESI-MS method has been developed for determining 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-oxypyridine (EMO) in human urine upon peroral administration of this substance in form ofmexidol. Various sample preparation (extraction) procedures were tested and compared for evaluating the recovery and matrix effect. Solid-phase extraction procedure followed by derivation with dansyl chloride is proposed as a method of choice. The recovery of analyte was 48.1 +/- 3.4%, and the matrix effect was 99.4 +/- 4.1%. The MS and MS/MS spectra of EMO and its dansyl derivatives are presented and interpreted. The analyses were performed using a mass spectrometer of the ion trap type with electrospray ionization at atmospheric pressure, operating in the regime of positive ion detection. PMID:19642588

  3. Deconjugation of soy isoflavone glucuronides needed for estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Bekele, R; Vanden Berg, J H J; Kuswanti, Y; Thapa, O; Soltani, S; van Leeuwen, F X R; Rietjens, I M C M; Murk, A J

    2015-06-01

    Soy isoflavones (SIF) are present in the systemic circulation as conjugated forms of which the estrogenic potency is not yet clear. The present study provides evidence that the major SIF glucuronide metabolites in blood, genistein-7-O-glucuronide (GG) and daidzein-7-O-glucuronide (DG), only become estrogenic after deconjugation. The estrogenic potencies of genistein (Ge), daidzein (Da), GG and DG were determined using stably transfected U2OS-ER?, U2OS-ER? reporter gene cells and proliferation was tested in T47D-ER? cells mimicking the ER?/ER? ratio of healthy breast cells and inT47D breast cancer cells. In all assays applied, the estrogenic potency of the aglycones was significantly higher than that of their corresponding glucuronides. UPLC analysis revealed that in U2OS and T47D cells, 0.2-1.6% of the glucuronides were deconjugated to their corresponding aglycones. The resulting aglycone concentrations can account for the estrogenicity observed upon glucuronide exposure. Interestingly, under similar experimental conditions, rat breast tissue S9 fraction was about 30 times more potent in deconjugating these glucuronides than human breast tissue S9 fraction. Our study confirms that SIF glucuronides are not estrogenic as such, and that the small % of deconjugation in the cell is enough to explain the slight bioactivity observed for the SIF-glucuronides. Species differences in deconjugation capacity should be taken into account when basing risk-benefit assessment of these SIF for the human population on animal data. PMID:25661160

  4. Conjugation position of quercetin glucuronides and effect on biological activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea J Day; Yongping Bao; Michael R. A Morgan; Gary Williamson

    2000-01-01

    Quercetin glycosides are common dietary antioxidants. In general, however, potential biological effects of the circulating plasma metabolites (e.g., glucuronide conjugates) have not been measured. We have determined the rate of glucuronidation of quercetin at each position on the polyphenol ring by human liver cell-free extracts containing UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. The apparent affinity of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase followed the order 4?- > 3?- > 7-

  5. Determination of ?- and ?-boldenone sulfate, glucuronide and free forms, and androstadienedione in bovine urine using immunoaffinity columns clean-up and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Luca; Pavlovic, Radmila; Dusi, Guglielmo; Pasquale, Elisa; Casati, Alessio; Panseri, Sara; Arioli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the origins of boldenone in bovine urine is ongoing for two decades in Europe. Despite the fact that its use as a growth promoter has been banned in the European Union (EU) since 1981, its detection in bovine urine, in the form of ?-boldenone conjugate, is considered fully compliant up to 2 ng mL(-1). The conjugated form of ?-boldenone must be absent. In recent years, the literature about boldenone has focused on the identification of biomarkers that can indicate an illicit treatment. ?-boldenone sulfate is a candidate molecule, even if the only studies currently available have taken place in small populations. In this study, a method for the determination of sulfate and glucuronate conjugates of ?-boldenone was developed and validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and applied to ?-boldenone sulfate and glucuronide, ?- and ?-boldenone free forms and androstadienedione (ADD), too. The clean-up with immunoaffinity columns enabled the direct determination of the conjugates and free forms and allowed specific and sensitive analyses of urine samples randomly selected to verify this method. The decision limits (CC?) ranged between 0.07 and 0.08 ng mL(-1), the detection capabilities (CC?) between 0.08 and 0.1 ng mL(-1). Recovery was higher than 92% for all the analytes. Intra-day repeatability was between 5.8% and 17.2%, and inter-day repeatability was between 6.0% and 21.8% for the studied free and conjugated forms. This method has been developed as a powerful tool with the aim to study the origin of boldenone in a trial on a significant number of animals. PMID:25281088

  6. Direct quantification of steroid glucuronides in human urine by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Oscar J; Van Eenoo, Peter; Van Thuyne, Wim; Deventer, Koen; Delbeke, Frans T

    2008-03-01

    A method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the direct quantification of glucuronides of testosterone (TG), epitestosterone (EPG), androsterone (AG) and etiocholanolone (ETG) has been developed. The method allowed for the direct determination of these analytes avoiding hydrolysis and derivatization, which are usual steps in commonly used methods based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The electrospray ionization and the product ion spectra of the glucuronides have been studied in order to obtain the most specific transitions. The use of the selected transitions is necessary for the determination of the analytes at low ng/ml concentration levels. Two different approaches have been tested for sample preparation: direct injection after filtration and acidic liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with ethyl acetate. Both approaches have been validated obtaining satisfactory values for accuracy and precision with limits of detection lower than 1 ng/ml for TG and EPG. Ion suppression was more pronounced after LLE probably due to the concentration of interferences from acidic urine. The applicability of the method has been checked by the analysis of 40 urine samples. The results were compared with those obtained with the common GC-MS method. Results have shown a good correlation between both methods with correlation coefficients higher than 0.97. A slope close to 1 was obtained for all analytes except for AG possibly due to losses during the extraction process prior to GC-MS. PMID:18258241

  7. Stereoselective glucuronidation of formoterol by human liver microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei; Fawcett, J Paul; Kennedy, Julia M; Shaw, John P

    2000-01-01

    Aims Formoterol is a ?2-adrenoceptor agonist marketed as a racemic mixture of the active (R; R)- and inactive (S; S)-enantiomers (rac-formoterol). The drug produces prolonged bronchodilation by inhalation but there is significant interpatient variability in duration of effect. Previous work has shown that in humans formoterol is metabolized by conjugation with glucuronic acid but little is known about the stereoselectivity of this reaction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the glucuronidation of formoterol enantiomers in vitro by human liver microsomes. Methods The kinetics of formation of formoterol glucuronides during incubation of racemate and of single formoterol enantiomers with human liver microsomes (n = 9) was characterized by chiral h.p.l.c. assay. Results The kinetics of glucuronidation of the two formoterol enantiomers obeyed the Michaelis-Menten equation. Glucuronidation of formoterol was stereoselective and occurred more than two times faster for (S; S)-formoterol than for (R; R)-formoterol. In incubations with single formoterol enantiomers, the median (n = 9) Km values for (R; R)-glucuronide and (S; S)-glucuronide were 827.6 and 840.4 ?m, respectively, and the median Vmax values were 2625 and 4304 pmol min?1 mg?1, respectively. Corresponding values determined in incubations with rac-formoterol were 357.2 and 312.1 ?m and 1435 and 2086 pmol min?1 mg?1 for (R; R)- and (S; S)-glucuronide, respectively. Interindividual variation was large with the ratio of Vmax/Km (S; S/R; R) ranging from 0.57 to 6.90 for incubations with rac-formoterol. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that glucuronidation of formoterol by human liver microsomes is stereoselective and subject to high interindividual variability. These findings suggest that clearance of formoterol in humans is subject to variable stereoselectivity which could explain the variation in duration of bronchodilation produced by inhaled formoterol in patients with asthma. PMID:10671910

  8. Validation of an efficient method for the determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables using ethyl acetate for extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Perihan Aysal; Árpád Ambrus; Steven J. Lehotay; Andrew Cannavan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a version of the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS) method was modified to use ethyl acetate (EtOAc) rather than acetonitrile (MeCN) for extraction in the determination of multiple pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. EtOAc is better suited than MeCN for gas chromatographic (GC) analysis with electron capture detection (ECD) and nitrogen-phosphorus detection (NPD).

  9. The Determination of Pesticidal and Non-Pesticidal Organotin Compounds in Water Matrices by in situ Ethylation and Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concurrent determination of pesticidal and non-pesticidal organotin compounds in several water matrices, using a simultaneous in situ ethylation and liquid-liquid extraction followed by splitless injection mode capillary gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detect...

  10. The Determination of Pesticidal and Non-Pesticidal Organotin Compounds by in situ Ethylation and Capillary Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concurrent determination of pesticidal and non-pesticidal organotin compounds in several water matrices, using a simultaneous in situ ethylation and liquid-liquid extraction followed by splitless injection mode capillary gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detect...

  11. Ethyl sulphate: a direct ethanol metabolite reflecting recent alcohol consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friedrich Martin Wurst; Sebastian Dresen; John P. Allen; Gerhard Wiesbeck; Marc Graf; Wolfgang Weinmann

    2006-01-01

    Background Ethyl sulphate (EtS), a direct ethanol metabolite, appears to offer potential as a biomarker for recent alcohol consumption. Although its window of assessment is similar to that of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), there are dif- ferences between the two markers in their pathways for formation and degradation. Aims (a) To assess the excre- tion of EtS compared to EtG and

  12. Correlation between plasma estradiol and estrone-3-glucuronide in urine during the monitoring of ovarian induction therapy.

    PubMed

    Catalan, R; Castellanos, J M; Palomino, T; Senti, M; Antolin, M; Galard, R M

    1989-01-01

    An improved radioimmunoassay was developed to determine estrone-3-glucuronide in daily urine. Resulting levels were compared with those of estradiol in plasma of 10 healthy women and 14 undergoing ovulation induction therapy with human menopausal gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin. A highly significant correlation between plasma estradiol and urinary estrone-3-glucuronide in normal (r = .9209; P less than .01) and stimulated (r = .9229; P less than .01) women was demonstrated. These results proved that the pattern of excretion of estrone-3-glucuronide perfectly reflected the changes in plasmatic estradiol levels when monitoring ovarian induction and that estrone-3-glucuronide determinations can provide clinically useful information in human induction therapy. PMID:2570765

  13. Absolute quantification of UGT1A1 in various tissues and cell lines using isotope label-free UPLC-MS/MS method determines its turnover number and correlates with its glucuronidation activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Gao, Song; Wu, Baojian; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Uridine 5'-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A1 is a major phase II metabolism enzyme responsible for glucuronidation of drugs and endogenous compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the expression level of UGT1A1 in human liver microsomes and human cell lines by using an isotope label-free LC-MS/MS method. A Waters Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system coupled with an API 5500Qtrap mass spectrometer was used for the analysis. Two signature peptides (Pep-1, and Pep-2) were employed to quantify UGT1A1 by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) approach. Standard addition method was used to validate the assay to account for the matrix effect. 17?-Estradiol was used as the marker substrate to determine UGT1A1 activities. The validated method has a linear range of 200-0.0195nM for both signature peptides. The precision, accuracy, and matrix effect were in acceptable ranges. UGT1A1 expression levels were then determined using 8 individual human liver microsomes, a pooled human liver microsomes, three UGT1A1 genotyped human liver microsomes, and four cell lines (Caco-2, MCF-7, Hela, and HepG2). The correlations study showed that the UGT1A1 protein levels were strongly correlated with its glucuronidation activities in human liver microsomes (R(2)=0.85) and in microsomes prepared from cell lines (R(2)=0.95). Isotope-labeled peptides were not necessary for LC-MS/MS quantitation of proteins. The isotope label-free absolute quantification method used here had good accuracy, sensitivity, linear range, and reproducibility, and were used successfully for the accurate determination of UGT1A1 from tissues and cell lines. PMID:24055854

  14. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 × 2.1-mm i.d., 5-?m film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quanti?cation of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identi?cation of target compounds in the samples. Additional identi?cation and con?rmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and speci?city for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application. PMID:24359823

  15. Validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 3-hydroxflavone and its glucuronide in blood and bioequivalent buffers: application to pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Yang, Guanyi; Ge, Shufan; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming; Gao, Song

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify 3-hydroxyflavone (3-HF) and its metabolite, 3-hydroxyflavone-glucuronide (3-HFG) from biological samples. A Waters BEH C8 column was used with acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phases. The mass analysis was performed in an API 5500 Qtrap mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mood. The one-step protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to extract the analytes from blood. The results showed that the linear response range was 0.61-2500.00 nM for 3-HF and 0.31-2500.00 nM for 3-HFG. The intra-day variance is less than 16.5% and accuracy is in 77.7-90.6% for 3-HF and variance less than 15.9%, accuracy in 85.1-114.7% for 3-HFG. The inter-day variance is less than 20.2%, accuracy is in 110.6-114.2% for 3-HF and variance less than 15.6%, accuracy in 83.0-89.4% for 3-HFG. The analysis was done within 4.0 min. Only 10 ?l of blood is needed due to the high sensitivity of this method. The validated method was successfully used to pharmacokinetic study in A/J mouse, transport study in the Caco-2 cell culture model, and glucuronidation study using mice liver and intestine microsomes. The applications revealed that this method can be used for 3-HF and 3-HFG analysis in blood as well as in bioequivalent buffers such HBSS and KPI. PMID:23973631

  16. Development and validation of GC-MS method for the determination of methyl methanesulfonate and ethyl methanesulfonate in imatinib mesylate.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, K; Raman, N V V S S; Rao, K M V Narayana; Prasad, A V S S; Reddy, K Subhaschander

    2008-03-13

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method has been developed for the identification and determination of two carcinogenic and genotoxic mesylate esters viz. methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in imatinib mesylate (INM). The method was optimized based on the peak shapes and resolution of MMS and EMS. The method was validated as per International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines in terms of limits of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity and robustness. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 0.3 and 1.0 microg/ml, respectively. The method is linear within the range of 1-15 microg/ml for both the compounds. These mesylate esters were not found in three different batches of pure and pharmaceutical formulations of INM. PMID:18178357

  17. Icosapent Ethyl

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are allergic to icosapent ethyl; fish, including shellfish (clams, scallops, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, crab, oyster, mussels, others); ... water pills'); estrogen-containing contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, and injections); or estrogen replacement therapy. Your ...

  18. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Chinese Yellow Rice Wine by Diatomaceous Earth Extraction and GC/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pinggu; Zhang, Liqun; Shen, Xianghong; Wang, Liyuan; Zou, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Tang, Jun; Ma, Bingjie; Pan, Xiaodong; Jiang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    A sensitive and rapid analytical method based on alkaline diatomaceous earth extraction followed by GC/MS was developed for the quantitative determination of the toxic contaminant ethyl carbamate (EC) in yellow rice wines. The optimal extraction conditions were investigated. With the application of diatomaceous earth extraction, the damage of organic acids to the capillary column was greatly reduced. By using d5-EC as an internal standard for quantitative analysis of EC, the linearity of the calibration curves was good between 10 and 1000 ng/mL. The LOD and LOQ were 1.7 and 5.0 ?g/kg, respectively. The spiked level of EC was 5.0-300 ?g/kg, and the average recovery of the spikes was between 78.4 and 98.2%, with an RSD between 4.3 and 8.3%. Upon validation by five laboratories when spiked with 50, 100, and 300 ?g/kg, the average respective recoveries were 102.9, 102.2, and 98.7% with a RSD between 0.7 and 8.1%. The validation results demonstrated that the method is fast, simple, selective, and suitable for the determination of EC in yellow rice wines. PMID:26086264

  19. Determination of benazolin-ethyl residues in soil and rape seed by SPE clean-up and GC with electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolu; Yang, Tao; Hu, Jiye

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed and established for residue determination of benazolin-ethyl in soil and rape seed samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Limits of quantification of the method are 0.005 mg/kg for both soil and rape seed, which are sufficiently below the maximum residue limit, and the limit of detection is 0.0023 ng. The average recoveries of the analyte range from 85.89 to 105.84% with relative standard deviations (coefficient of variation) less than 5.53% at the three spike levels (0.005, 0.1 and 0.5 mg/kg). The half-life of benazolin-ethyl in soil from the experimental field is 4.62 days. The final residues of benazolin-ethyl in soil and rape seed samples are lower than 0.005 mg/kg at harvest time. Direct confirmation of the analyte in real samples is achieved by GC-mass spectrometry. It is demonstrated that the proposed method is simple, rapid and efficient, and reliable to detect benazolin-ethyl residues in soil and rape seed samples. PMID:22718745

  20. Species-Associated Differences in the Inhibition of Propofol Glucuronidation by Magnolol

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lu; Zhu, Liangliang; Ge, Guangbo; Xiao, Ling; Wu, Yan; Liang, Sicheng; Cao, Yunfeng; Yang, Ling; Wang, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Magnolol, a major active constituent in herbal medicine, potently inhibits propofol glucuronidation in human liver microsomes, with inhibition constants in the nanomolar range. This study was conducted to investigate magnolol-induced inhibition of propofol glucuronidation in liver microsomes from Swiss–Hauschka mice, Sprague–Dawley rats, Chinese Bama pigs, and cynomolgus macaques. Results indicated that magnolol (10 ?M) inhibited propofol glucuronidation in liver microsomes from Bama pigs and cynomolgus macaques but not in those from mice or rats. Data from liver microsomes from Bama pigs indicated a competitive inhibition mechanism, with a Ki of 1.7 ?M. In contrast to that of pig liver microsomes, the inhibition of microsomes from cynomolgus macaques followed a noncompetitive mechanism, with a Ki of 3.4 ?M. In summary, this study indicates that magnolol-induced inhibition of propofol glucuronidation varies substantially among species, and the Ki values determined by using liver microsomes from various experimental animal species far exceed that for human liver microsomes. The inhibition of propofol glucuronidation by magnolol in liver microsomes from all animal species tested was significantly lower than the inhibition previously demonstrated in human liver microsomes. Hepatic microsomes from Swiss–Hauschka mice, Sprague–Dawley rats, Chinese Bama pigs, and cynomolgus macaques are not effective models of the inhibition of glucuronidation induced by magnolol in humans. PMID:25199099

  1. Species-associated differences in the inhibition of propofol glucuronidation by magnolol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Zhu, Liangliang; Ge, Guangbo; Xiao, Ling; Wu, Yan; Liang, Sicheng; Cao, Yunfeng; Yang, Ling; Wang, Dong

    2014-07-01

    Magnolol, a major active constituent in herbal medicine, potently inhibits propofol glucuronidation in human liver microsomes, with inhibition constants in the nanomolar range. This study was conducted to investigate magnolol-induced inhibition of propofol glucuronidation in liver microsomes from Swiss-Hauschka mice, Sprague-Dawley rats, Chinese Bama pigs, and cynomolgus macaques. Results indicated that magnolol (10 ?M) inhibited propofol glucuronidation in liver microsomes from Bama pigs and cynomolgus macaques but not in those from mice or rats. Data from liver microsomes from Bama pigs indicated a competitive inhibition mechanism, with a Ki of 1.7 ?M. In contrast to that of pig liver microsomes, the inhibition of microsomes from cynomolgus macaques followed a noncompetitive mechanism, with a Ki of 3.4 ?M. In summary, this study indicates that magnolol-induced inhibition of propofol glucuronidation varies substantially among species, and the Ki values determined by using liver microsomes from various experimental animal species far exceed that for human liver microsomes. The inhibition of propofol glucuronidation by magnolol in liver microsomes from all animal species tested was significantly lower than the inhibition previously demonstrated in human liver microsomes. Hepatic microsomes from Swiss-Hauschka mice, Sprague-Dawley rats, Chinese Bama pigs, and cynomolgus macaques are not effective models of the inhibition of glucuronidation induced by magnolol in humans. PMID:25199099

  2. Urine tested positive for ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate after the consumption of yeast and sugar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Thierauf; Ariane Wohlfarth; Volker Auwärter; Markus Große Perdekamp; Friedrich Martin Wurst; Wolfgang Weinmann

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundTo an increasing degree, EtG and EtS are routinely used for the proof of abstinence for purposes of traffic, occupational, addiction and social medicine. This routine use demands further investigations on the sensitivity and specificity of these analytes and the examination of possible genesis of positive EtG and EtS concentrations even without the consumption of ethanol. In vivo fermentation with

  3. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in autopsy samples 27 years after death

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Politi; Luca Morini; Francesco Mari; Angelo Groppi; Elisabetta Bertol

    2008-01-01

    The unique case of a 50-year-old known alcoholic whose corpse was exhumed 27 years after death is reported. The man apparently\\u000a committed suicide by hanging, but many years later the case was questioned and homicide—linked to a long-lasting serial killer\\u000a case—was suspected. Thus, the corpse was exhumed, and at the autopsy it was found to be naturally mummified. This fact permitted

  4. Glucuronidation and Covalent Protein Binding of Benoxaprofen and Flunoxaprofen in Sandwich-Cultured Rat and Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jennifer Q.

    2009-01-01

    Benoxaprofen (BNX), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that was withdrawn because of hepatotoxicity, is more toxic than its structural analog flunoxaprofen (FLX) in humans and rats. Acyl glucuronides have been hypothesized to be reactive metabolites and may be associated with toxicity. Both time- and concentration-dependent glucuronidation and covalent binding of BNX, FLX, and ibuprofen (IBP) were determined by exposing sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes to each NSAID. The levels of glucuronide and covalent protein adduct measured in cells followed the order BNX > FLX > IBP. These results indicate that 1) BNX-glucuronide (G) is more reactive than FLX-G, and 2) IBP-G is the least reactive metabolite, which support previous in vivo studies in rats. The proportional increases of protein adduct formation for BNX, FLX, and IBP as acyl glucuronidation increased also support the hypothesis that part of the covalent binding of all three NSAIDs to hepatic proteins is acyl glucuronide-dependent. Moreover, theses studies confirmed the feasibility of using sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes for studying glucuronidation and covalent binding to hepatocellular proteins. These studies also showed that these in vitro methods can be applied using human tissues for the study of acyl glucuronide reactivity. More BNX-protein adduct was formed in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes than FLX-protein adduct, which not only agreed with its relative toxicity in humans but also was consistent with the in vitro findings using rat hepatocyte cultures. These data support the use of sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes as an in vitro screening model of acyl glucuronide exposure and reactivity. PMID:19773537

  5. Overestimation of Flavonoid Aglycones as a Result of the ex vivo Deconjugation of Glucuronides by the Tissue ?-Glucuronidase

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Lifeng; Eibl, Guido; Go, Vay-Liang W.

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoid glucuronides are the main circulating metabolites of flavonoids in humans and animals. There has been a growing interest in the biological function of glucuronides. In order to differentiate biological activity and to assess efficacy it is essential to accurately determine the levels of flavonoid aglycone and metabolic conjugate in vivo. Many organs and body fluids of humans and animals exhibit ?-glucuronidase against flavonoid glucuronides. Studies have shown that ?-glucuronidase within the tissues hydrolyzes glucuronides to their aglycones during the tissue extraction, leading to artificially higher reported tissue levels of aglycone than actual in vivo concentrations. The aims of this study were to estimate the extent by which the aglycones were overestimated and to investigate the use of saccharo-1,4-lactone, a ?-glucuronidase inhibitor, to block the ex vivo hydrolysis of flavonoid glucuronides. Our data demonstrate that in mouse liver tissues and human tumor xenografts levels of quercetin and methylated quercetin aglycones could be over-estimated by 7 fold. The inhibition of deconjugation of quercetin and baicalein glucuronides by saccharo-1,4-lactone is dose-dependent. The amount of saccharo-1,4-lactone used to produce optimal inhibition of the enzyme activity is in the range of 15 – 24 ?mol per gram of liver tissue. The use of ?-glucuronidase inhibitor blocks the ex vivo deconjugation resulting in an accurate estimation of tissue levels of aglycone and conjugate. Our study described here can be extended to other animal models and human studies with different types of substrates of ?-glucuronidase. PMID:24176739

  6. Glucuronidation of macelignan by human liver microsomes and expressed UGT enzymes: identification of UGT1A1 and 2B7 as the main contributing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongming; Wu, Zhufeng; Ma, Zhiguo; Wu, Baojian

    2014-12-01

    Macelignan is a natural phenolic compound that possesses many types of health benefits such as antiinflammation. This study aimed to characterize the metabolism of macelignan via the glucuronidation pathway and to identify the main UGT enzymes involved in macelignan glucuronidation. The rates of glucuronidation were determined by incubating macelignan with UDPGA-supplemented microsomes. Kinetic parameters were derived by fitting an appropriate model to the data. Reaction phenotyping, the relative activity factor (RAF) approach and activity correlation analysis were employed to identify the main UGT enzymes contributing to the hepatic metabolism of macelignan. Glucuronidation of macelignan in pooled human liver microsomes (pHLM) was rather efficient with a high CLint (the intrinsic clearance) value of 13.90 ml/min/mg. All UGT enzymes, except UGT1A4, 1A6 and 2B10, showed metabolic activities toward macelignan. UGT1A1 and 2B7 were the enzymes with the highest activities; the CLint values were 4.92 and 2.13 ml/min/mg, respectively. Further, macelignan glucuronidation was significantly correlated with 3-O-glucuronidation of ?-estradiol (r = 0.69; p < 0.01) and glucuronidation of zidovudine (r = 0.60; p < 0.05) in a bank of individual HLMs (n = 14). Based on the RAF approach, UGT1A1 and 2B7, respectively, contributed 55.40% and 32.20% of macelignan glucuronidation in pHLM. In conclusion, macelignan was efficiently metabolized via the glucuronidation pathway. It was also shown that UGT1A1 and 2B7 were probably the main contributors to the hepatic glucuronidation of macelignan. PMID:25099990

  7. The kinetics of mycophenolic acid and its glucuronide metabolite in adult kidney transplant recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony G. Johnson; Russell J. Rigby; Paul J. Taylor; Christopher E. Jones; Joan Allen; Kirsten Franzen; Michael C. Falk; David Nicol

    1999-01-01

    Background: Mycophenolic acid kinetics have been reported to vary after renal transplantation, and mycophenolic acid area under the concentration–time curve (AUC) is the best predictor of suppression of graft rejection.Methods: To determine whether mycophenolic acid kinetics vary after renal transplantation and to examine the potential role of enterohepatic recirculation, we investigated the kinetics of mycophenolic acid and mycophenolic acid glucuronide

  8. Multiplexed Targeted Quantitative Proteomics Predicts Hepatic Glucuronidation Potential.

    PubMed

    Margaillan, Guillaume; Rouleau, Michèle; Klein, Kathrin; Fallon, John K; Caron, Patrick; Villeneuve, Lyne; Smith, Philip C; Zanger, Ulrich M; Guillemette, Chantal

    2015-09-01

    Phase II metabolism is prominently governed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in humans. These enzymes regulate the bioactivity of many drugs and endogenous small molecules in many organs, including the liver, a major site of regulation by the glucuronidation pathway. This study determined the expression of hepatic UGTs by targeted proteomics in 48 liver samples and by measuring the glucuronidation activity using probe substrates. It demonstrates the sensitivity and accuracy of nano-ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry to establish the complex expression profiles of 14 hepatic UGTs in a single analysis. UGT2B7 is the most abundant UGT in our collection of livers, expressed at 69 pmol/mg microsomal proteins, whereas UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT2B4, and UGT2B15 are similarly abundant, averaging 30-34 pmol/mg proteins. The average relative abundance of these five UGTs represents 81% of the measured hepatic UGTs. Our data further highlight the strong relationships in the expression of several UGTs. Most notably, UGT1A4 correlates with most measured UGTs, and the expression levels of UGT2B4/UGT2B7 displayed the strongest correlation. However, significant interindividual variability is observed for all UGTs, both at the level of enzyme concentrations and activity (coefficient of variation: 45%-184%). The reliability of targeted proteomics quantification is supported by the high correlation between UGT concentration and activity. Collectively, these findings expand our understanding of hepatic UGT profiles by establishing absolute hepatic concentrations of 14 UGTs and further suggest coregulated expression between most abundant hepatic UGTs. Data support the value of multiplexed targeted quantitative proteomics to accurately assess specific UGT concentrations in liver samples and hepatic glucuronidation potential. PMID:26076694

  9. Application of ethyl chloroformate derivatization for solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of bisphenol-A in water and milk samples.

    PubMed

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Jain, Rajeev; Dua, Virendra K; Singh, Amit Kumar; Sharma, V P; Murthy, R C

    2011-09-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method based on in-matrix ethyl chloroformate (ECF) derivatization has been developed for the quantitative determination of bisphenol-A (BPA) in milk and water samples. The samples containing BPA were derivatised with ECF in the presence of pyridine for 20 s at room temperature, and the non-polar derivative thus formed was extracted using polydimethylsiloxane solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres with thicknesses of 100 ?m followed by analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three alkyl chloroformates (methyl, ethyl and isobutyl chloroformate) were tested for optimum derivatisation yields, and ECF has been found to be optimum for the derivatisation of BPA. Several parameters such as amount of ECF, pyridine and reaction time as well as SPME parameters were studied and optimised in the present work. The limit of detection for BPA in milk and water samples was found to be 0.1 and 0.01 ?g L(-1), respectively, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1. The limit of quantitation for BPA in milk and water was found to be 0.38 and 0.052 ?g L(-1), respectively, with a signal-to-noise ratio of 10:1. In conclusion, the method developed was found to be rapid, reliable and cost-effective in comparison to silylation and highly suitable for the routine analysis of BPA by various food and environmental laboratories. PMID:21744235

  10. Optimization of an automated FI-FT-IR procedure for the determination of o-xylene, toluene and ethyl benzene in n-hexane

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Ian; Worsfold, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    The development and optimization of an automated flow injection (FI) manifold coupled with a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detector for the determination of toluene, ethyl benzene and o-xylene in an n-hexane matrix is described. FT-IR parameters optimized were resolution and number of co-added scans; FI parameters optimized were type of pump tubing, carrier flow rate and sample volume. ATR and transmission flow cells were compared for the determination of o-xylene, the ATR cell was easier to use and gave better figures of merit, except for sensitivity, for which the transmission cell was twice as good. Multivariate calibration routines were applied to the FI-FT-IR data and the PLS1 algorithm gave relative root mean standard errors of crossvalidation (RRMSECVs) < 7% for all three analytes using mean-centred data and the first derivative for o-xylene. PMID:18924847

  11. Fate of glucuronide conjugated estradiol in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive hormone, 17ß-estradiol (E2), is made more water soluble (polar) in the body by attachment of glucuronide acid to E2, facilitating urinary elimination. The fate of this potentially more mobile polar form of E2 is not well understood. Soil sorption studies were conducted using [14C] 1...

  12. Stereoselective urinary excretion of formoterol and its glucuronide conjugate in human

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei; Fawcett, J Paul; Shaw, John P

    2002-01-01

    Aims Formoterol is an inhaled ?2-adrenoceptor agonist used as a racemic mixture of the active (R; R)- and inactive (S; S)-enantiomers (rac-formoterol). Glucuronidation is an important route of metabolism in humans which occurs faster for (S; S)-formoterol in human liver microsomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the stereoselectivity of urinary excretion of formoterol and its glucuronide conjugate after oral dosing with rac-formoterol. Methods Seven nonsmoking volunteers (six males, one female) were included in the study. After an overnight fast, a single 60 µg oral dose of rac-formoterol fumarate dihydrate was ingested. Urine samples were collected at 1 h intervals for the first 4 h, and at 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after dosing. Formoterol enantiomers were analysed by chiral h.p.l.c. assay and formoterol glucuronides were determined as formoterol enantiomers after enzymatic cleavage with ?-glucuronidase. Results The female subject displayed a different pattern of metabolism and statistical analysis was therefore limited to data for the six males. The median (range) of the total urinary excretion of formoterol was 37.8% (20.9–51.2%) of the dose. The medians (ranges) of the amounts of (R; R)- and (S; S)-formoterol and of (R; R)- and (S; S)-formoterol glucuronide excreted were 2.1 (1.0–2.9), 3.5 (2.6–3.8), 21.0 (13.1–31.0) and 10.3 (4.2–14.6)%, respectively, of the dose. Unchanged (S; S)-formoterol excretion was significantly greater than that of unchanged (R; R)-formoterol and (R; R)-formoterol glucuronide excretion was significantly greater than that of (S; S)-formoterol glucuronide. The total RR-formoterol (unchanged drug plus glucuronide) excreted was significantly greater than the total (S; S)-formoterol. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the urinary excretion of formoterol in male humans after oral administration of rac-formoterol is stereoselective with preferential excretion of the active (R; R)-formoterol as unchanged drug and glucuronide. The different pattern of metabolism in the female subject provides impetus for further studies of the effect of gender on the stereoselective metabolism and pharmacokinetics of formoterol. PMID:12236843

  13. Glucuronidation in humans. Pharmacogenetic and developmental aspects.

    PubMed

    de Wildt, S N; Kearns, G L; Leeder, J S; van den Anker, J N

    1999-06-01

    During human development impressive changes in drug disposition occur. An important determinant of drug clearance is metabolism, something that is not only determined by ontogenic regulation but also by genetic processes which add to the variability of drug metabolism during different stages of childhood. Therefore, an understanding of the developmental regulation of different metabolic pathways, together with information on the genetic determinants of drug metabolism, will increase the knowledge of inter- and intraindividual variability in drug disposition during childhood. Conjugation has historically received less attention than cytochrome P450 metabolism. An important group of conjugation reactions are catalysed by the uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs); to date at least 10 different UGT isoforms have been identified. The UGTs are not only involved in the metabolism of many drugs [e.g. morphine, paracetamol (acetaminophen)] but also capable of the biotransformation of important endogenous substrates (e.g. bilirubin, ethinylestradiol) and several xenobiotics. Isoform specificity for these substrates has, however, not been fully characterised. Serious adverse events associated with chloramphenicol toxicity in the neonate have highlighted the importance of developmental changes in UGT activity. However, isoform-specific differences preclude the generalisation of a simple developmental pattern for UGT activity. UGT2B7 is the only UGT isoform for which ontogeny has been characterised both in vitro and in vivo, using morphine as the probe drug. However, no general developmental pattern for the individual UGT isoforms which might be of value for the clinician is currently available. Genetic polymorphisms have been identified for the UGT family. Not only for the UGT1A gene, which reduces bilirubin glucuronidation, leading to genetic hyperbilirubinaemia (the Crigler-Najjar and Gilbert's syndromes), but also for 3 other UGT isoforms. However, the impact of these genetic differences on drug metabolism remains to be established because of overlapping isoform specificity of the drugs studied, as well as a lack of specific probe substrates to test the activity of individual UGT isoforms in relation to these gene mutations. Clearly, an information gap exists regarding the developmental and genetic aspects of UGT regulation and its potential impact on therapy. More research is needed on the pharmacogenetics and ontogeny of the UGTs for effective translation of scientific information into clinically applicable knowledge. PMID:10427468

  14. Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The discharge of wastewater that contains high concentrations of reactive dyes is a well-known problem associated with dyestuff activities. In recent years, semiconductor photocatalysis has become more and more attractive and important since it has a great potential to contribute to such environmental problems. One of the most important aspects of environmental photocatalysis is in the selection of semiconductor materials like ZnO and TiO2, which are close to being two of the ideal photocatalysts in several respects. For example, they are relatively inexpensive, and they provide photo-generated holes with high oxidizing power due to their wide band gap energy. In this work, nanostructural ZnO film on the Zn foil of the Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide-Zinc Cell was fabricated to degrade EV dye. The major innovation of this paper is to obtain the degradation mechanism of ethyl violet dyes resulting from the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analyses. Results The fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on zinc foils with a simple solution-based corrosion strategy and the synthesis, characterization, application, and implication of Zn would be reported in this study. Other objectives of this research are to identify the reaction intermediates and to understand the detailed degradation mechanism of EV dye, as model compound of triphenylmethane dye, with active Zn metal, by HPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS. Conclusions ZnO nanostructure/Zn-foils had an excellent potential for future applications on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye in the environmental remediation. The intermediates of the degradation process were separated and characterized by the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS, and twenty-six intermediates were characterized in this study. Based on the variation of the amount of intermediates, possible degradation pathways for the decolorization of dyes are also proposed and discussed. PMID:22748361

  15. Disposition of Naringenin via Glucuronidation Pathway Is Affected by Compensating Efflux Transporters of Hydrophilic Glucuronides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyan; Kulkarni, Kaustubh H.; Singh, Rashim; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Stephen W.J.; Tam, Vincent H.; Hu, Ming

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate how efflux transporters and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) affect the disposition of naringenin. A rat intestinal perfusion model with bile duct cannulation was used along with rat intestinal and liver microsomes. In the intestinal perfusion model, both absorption and subsequent excretion of naringenin metabolites were rapid and site-dependent (p < 0.05). Naringenin was absorbed the most in colon and its glucuronides were excreted the most in duodenum. In metabolism studies, the intrinsic clearance value of naringenin glucuronidation was the highest in jejunum microsomes, followed by liver, ileal and colonic microsomes. The rapid metabolism in microsomes did not always translate into more efficient excretion in the rat perfusion model, however, because of presence of rate-limiting efflux transporters. When used separately, MK-571 (an inhibitor of multidrug resistance-related protein 2 or Mrp2) or dipyridamole (an inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein or Bcrp1) did not affect excretion of naringenin glucuronides, but when used together, they significantly (p < 0.05) decreased intestinal and biliary excretion of naringenin glucuronides. In conclusion, efflux transporters Mrp2 and Bcrp1 are shown to compensate for each other and enable the intestinal excretion of flavonoid (i.e., naringenin) glucuronides. PMID:19736994

  16. Differences in the Glucuronidation of Resveratrol and Pterostilbene: Altered Enzyme Specificity and Potential Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Dellinger, Ryan W.; Gomez Garcia, Angela M.; Meyskens, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in grapes, berries and other plants, has been proposed as an ideal chemopreventative agent due to its plethora of health promoting activities. However, despite its lofty promise as a cancer prevention agent its success in human clinical trials has been limited due to its poor bioavailability. Thus, interest in other natural polyphenols is intensifying including the naturally occurring dimethylated analog of resveratrol, pterostilbene. The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) family of enzymes plays a vital role in the metabolism of both resveratrol and pterostilbene. The current study sought to elucidate the UGT family members responsible for the metabolism of pterostilbene and to examine gender differences in the glucuronidation of resveratrol and pterostilbene. We demonstrate that UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 are mainly responsible for pterostilbene glucuronidation although UGT1A8, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 also had detectable activity. Intriguingly, UGT1A1 exhibits the highest activity against both resveratrol and pterostilbene despite altered hydroxyl group specificity. Using pooled human liver microsomes, enzyme kinetics were determined for pterostilbene and resveratrol glucuronides. In all cases females were more efficient than males, indicating potential gender differences in stilbene metabolism. Importantly, the glucuronidation of pterostilbene is much less efficient than that of resveratrol, indicating that pterostilbene will have dramatically decreased metabolism in humans. PMID:23965644

  17. Inhibition of SN38 glucuronidation by ketoconazole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Yong; J. Ramirez; F. Innocenti; M. J. Ratain

    2005-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Ketoconazole has been shown to inhibit the glucuronidation of the UGT2B7 substrates AZT and lorazepam. Its effect on UGT1A substrates is unknown. A recent study (Kehrer et al, JClin Oncol, 2002) found that co-administration of irinotecan and ketoconazole led to a significant increase in the formation of SN-38. This study investigates whether ketoconazole contributes to the increase in SN-38

  18. Simultaneous determination of ethyl carbamate and 4-(5-)methylimidazole in yellow rice wine and soy sauce by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pinggu; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Liyuan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Tang, Jun; Ma, Bingjie; Pan, Xiaodong; Jiang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    We developed a new method, based on alkaline diatomite solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of the toxic contaminants ethyl carbamate (EC) and 4-(5-)methylimidazole (4-MEI) in yellow rice wine and soy sauce. The optimal extraction conditions were defined. With the application of alkaline diatomite solid-phase extraction, damage to the capillary column by organic acids was greatly reduced. With deuterated EC used as the internal standard, the linearity of the calibration curves for EC and 4-MEI was good with correlation coefficient above 0.99. In a spiked experiment with EC and 4-MEI in yellow rice wine and soy sauce, recovery of the added EC was 80.5-102.5% and that of 4-MEI was 78.3-92.8%. The limit of quantification and limit of detection for EC were 6.0 and 2.0 ?g/kg, respectively, and for 4-MEI were 15.0 and 5.0 ?g/kg, respectively. The validation results demonstrate that the method is fast, simple, and selective, and therefore is suitable for simultaneously determining the presence of EC and 4-MEI in fermented food. PMID:24865453

  19. Novel ethyl-derivatization approach for the determination of fluoride by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris; Ding, Jianfu; Sturgeon, Ralph E; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Mester, Zoltán

    2013-01-15

    We report a novel derivatization chemistry for determination of fluoride based on the batch reaction of fluoride ions with triethyloxonium tetrachloroferrate(III) in a closed vessel to yield fluoroethane. Gaseous fluoroethane was readily separated from the matrix, sampled from the headspace, and determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The method was validated using rainwater certified reference material (IRMM CA408) and subsequently applied to the determination of fluoride in various matrixes, including tap water, seawater, and urine. An instrumental limit of detection of 3.2 ?g/L with a linear range up to 50 mg/L was achieved. The proposed derivatization is a one-step reaction, requires no organic solvents, and is safe, as the derivatizing agent is nonvolatile. Determination of fluoride is affected by common fluoride-complexing agents, such as Al(III) and Fe(III). The effect of large amounts of these interferences was studied, and the adverse effect of these ions was eliminated by use of the method of standard additions. PMID:23215254

  20. Structural evaluation of the glucuronides of morphine and formoterol using chemical derivatization with 1,2-dimethylimidazole-4-sulfonyl chloride and liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salomonsson, Matilda Lampinen; Bondesson, Ulf; Hedeland, Mikael

    2008-09-01

    For the first time chemical derivatization of isomeric drug glucuronides with 1,2-dimethylimidazole-4-sulfonyl chloride (DMISC) has been successfully applied as a tool for determining the site of conjugation. This provides a way to differentiate between glucuronide isomers containing aliphatic and phenolic hydroxyl groups. The analyses were performed with liquid chromatography/electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MSn). DMISC has previously been shown to react selectively with phenols in estrogens, thus improving sensitivity in ESI-MS. The model compounds selected for this study were commercially available standards of formoterol, morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G). Formoterol glucuronides were produced with an enzymatic method in house. Both formoterol and morphine possess one phenolic and one aliphatic hydroxyl group where glucuronidation could take place. The product ion mass spectra of the native morphine glucuronides were indistinguishable due to the initial neutral loss of monodehydrated glucuronic acid (176 u). However, a significant difference between the isomers was observed with DMISC derivatization, as only the form with a free phenol, M6G, gave a detectable reaction product. Formoterol formed two detectable glucuronide isomers in the enzymatic reaction. Their respective sites of conjugation could not be directly determined from the product ion spectra. Reaction with DMISC, however, gave a detectable product with only one of the isomers. Based on previous experience of the preferred DMISC reactions with phenols, and interpretation of the fragmentation pattern of the derivative, it was concluded that the reactive isomer had a free phenol, and was thus conjugated on the aliphatic chain. PMID:18677706

  1. Detection of pentachlorophenol and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in fish bile and exposure water

    SciTech Connect

    Stehly, G.R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1988-08-01

    The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of pentachlorophenol (PCP) that were present in the bile and exposure water of goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used to develop methodology to quantify PCP and its metabolites. Reverse phase HPLC with radioactivity detection separated PCP and its metabolites, and was used to verify a method of quantification that used differential extraction and scintillation counting. Extractions of aqueous phase at pH 2 or 8, with butanol, ethyl acetate, or ether indicated that ether at pH 8 best separated PCP from its metabolites. The sulfate conjugate of PCP was the major metabolite produced when goldfish were exposed to 125 micrograms UC-PCP/l. It was present primarily in the exposure water, but also appeared in the bile.

  2. Low level determinations of methyl methanesulfonate and ethyl methanesulfonate impurities in Lopinavir and Ritonavir Active pharmaceutical ingredients by LC/MS/MS using electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Kakadiya, P R; Reddy, B Pratapa; Singh, V; Ganguly, S; Chandrashekhar, T G; Singh, D K

    2011-05-15

    Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) have been highlighted as potential genotoxic impurities (PGIs). A sensitive LC/MS/MS method is developed and validated for the determination of MMS and EMS impurities in both Lopinavir and Ritonavir Active pharmaceutical ingredient. Method utilizes, Atlantis T3 column with electrospray ionization in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode for quantitation of impurities. The proposed method is specific, linear, accurate and precise. The calibration curves show good linearity over the concentration range of 0.01-0.23 ?g/mL for MMS and 0.005-0.23 ?g/mL for EMS. The correlation coefficient obtained is >0.99 in each case. Method has very low limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ). LOD and LOQ of MMS and EMS are as low as ?0.002 ?g/mL and ?0.01 ?g/mL respectively. Method has accuracy within 80-120% for both the analytes. This method is a good quality control tool for quantitation of MMS and EMS impurities at very low levels in Lopinavir and Ritonavir. PMID:21353429

  3. A new oleanene glucuronide having a branched-chain sugar from Melilotus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Udayama, M; Kinjo, J; Yoshida, N; Nohara, T

    1998-03-01

    A new oleanene glucuronide called melilotus-saponin O1 (1) was isolated together with three known ones from the roots of Melilotus officinalis (L.) PALLAS (Leguminosae). The structure of 1 was determined to be 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1--> 3)]- beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl soyasapogenol B by spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:9549893

  4. Direct quantification of steroid glucuronides in human urine by liquid chromatography–electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar J. Pozo; Peter Van Eenoo; Wim Van Thuyne; Koen Deventer; Frans T. Delbeke

    2008-01-01

    A method based on liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) for the direct quantification of glucuronides of testosterone (TG), epitestosterone (EPG), androsterone (AG) and etiocholanolone (ETG) has been developed. The method allowed for the direct determination of these analytes avoiding hydrolysis and derivatization, which are usual steps in commonly used methods based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The electrospray ionization and

  5. Overestimation of flavonoid aglycones as a result of the ex vivo deconjugation of glucuronides by the tissue ?-glucuronidase.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Lifeng; Eibl, Guido; Go, Vay Liang W

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoid glucuronides are the main circulating metabolites of flavonoids in humans and animals. There has been a growing interest in the biological function of glucuronides. In order to differentiate biological activity and to assess efficacy it is essential to accurately determine the levels of flavonoid aglycone and metabolic conjugate in vivo. Many organs and body fluids of humans and animals exhibit ?-glucuronidase against flavonoid glucuronides. Studies have shown that ?-glucuronidase within the tissues hydrolyzes glucuronides to their aglycones during the tissue extraction, leading to artificially higher reported tissue levels of aglycone than actual in vivo concentrations. The aims of this study were to estimate the extent by which the aglycones were overestimated and to investigate the use of saccharo-1,4-lactone, a ?-glucuronidase inhibitor, to block the ex vivo hydrolysis of flavonoid glucuronides. Our data demonstrate that in mouse liver tissues and human tumor xenografts levels of quercetin and methylated quercetin aglycones could be over-estimated by 7-fold. The inhibition of deconjugation of quercetin and baicalein glucuronides by saccharo-1,4-lactone is dose-dependent. The amount of saccharo-1,4-lactone used to produce optimal inhibition of the enzyme activity is in the range of 15-24?mol per gram of liver tissue. The use of ?-glucuronidase inhibitor blocks the ex vivo deconjugation resulting in an accurate estimation of tissue levels of aglycone and conjugate. Our study described here can be extended to other animal models and human studies with different types of substrates of ?-glucuronidase. PMID:24176739

  6. Forensic confirmatory analysis of ethyl sulfate—A new marker for alcohol consumption—by liquid-chromatography\\/electrospray ionization\\/tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Dresen; Wolfgang Weinmann; Friedrich Martin Wurst

    2004-01-01

    Ethyl sulfate (EtS)—a new direct marker for ethanol intake besides ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and others—was detected in urine\\u000a samples by electrospray ionization tandem mass-spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS\\/MS). Ethyl sulfate sodium salt was used for method\\u000a development, yielding a precursor [M?H]?\\u000a m\\/z 125 and product ions m\\/z 97 [HSO4]? and m\\/z 80 [SO3]?. Pentadeuterated EtS (D5-EtS) was synthesized by esterification of sulfuric acid

  7. Determination of total tiopronin in human plasma by LC–ESI–MS using tris (2-carboxy-ethyl) phosphine as reducing reagent and methyl acrylate as derivatization reagent for the thiol group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianfang Liu; Honghai Wu; Yanning Hou

    2006-01-01

    A quantitative method for the determination of total tiopronin (TP) in human plasma was developed by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometric detection. After reduction with tris (2-carboxy-ethyl) phosphine (TCEP) and derivatization with methyl acrylate (MA) for the thiol group of TP, plasma samples were processed successively by deproteinization and solid phase extraction. N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) was selected as

  8. Microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction with ethyl acetate-cyclohexane before determination of organochlorines in fish tissue by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    PubMed

    Weichbrodt, M; Vetter, W; Luckas, B

    2000-01-01

    Focused open-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (FOV-MAE), closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (CV-MAE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were used for extraction before determination of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dieldrin) in cod liver and fish fillets. Wet samples were extracted without the time-consuming step of lyophilization or other sample-drying procedures. Extractions were performed with the solvent mixture ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (1 + 1, v/v), which allowed direct use of gel-permeation chromatography without solvent exchange. For FOV-MAE, the solvent mixture removed water from the sample matrix via azeotropic distillation. The status of water removal was controlled during extraction by measuring the temperature of the distillate. After water removal, the temperature of the distillate increased and the solvent mixture became less polar. Only the pure extraction solvent allowed quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds. For CV-MAE, water could not be separated during the extraction. For this reason, the extraction procedure for wet fish tissue required 2 extraction steps: the first for manual removal of coextracted water, and the second for quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds with the pure solvent. Therefore, CV-MAE is less convenient for samples with high water content. For ASE, water in the sample was bound with Na2SO4. The reproducibility for each technique was very good (relative standard deviation was typically <10%); the slightly varying levels were attributed to deviations during sample cleanup and the generally low levels. PMID:11128135

  9. Multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction after matrix modification for avoiding matrix effect in the determination of ethyl carbamate in bread.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chang-Wen; Zhang, Xue-Na; Gao, Yuan-Li; Wang, Yu-Long; Pan, Si-Yi; Li, Xiu-Juan

    2012-01-13

    This study presents the potential of multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction (multiple HS-SPME) for the quantification of analytes in solid samples. Multiple HS-SPME shares the same advantages as SPME. It also enables a complete recovery of the target compound and therefore the matrix effect, which commonly appears in SPME-based analysis, is avoided. A method based on multiple HS-SPME for the determination of the toxic contaminant ethyl carbamate (EC) in bread samples has been developed and validated, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector. A novel polyethylene glycol/hydroxy-terminated silicone oil fiber was prepared for the first time and subsequently used instead of commercial ones because of its high extraction ability and good operational stability. An important problem still remained in multiple HS-SPME of EC in fresh bread samples. The adsorption of EC by water in the samples caused low transport of analyte to the headspace, which made multiple HS-SPME invalidated. Mixing with anhydrous sodium sulphate, the sensitivity of the method was improved and the problem was solved. The proposed method showed satisfactory linearity (0.15-1500 ?g g(-1)), precision (1.6%, n=5) and limit of detection (0.041 ?g g(-1)). Good recoveries, from 92.5 to 103.4%, were observed at three spiking levels. The method was applied to 14 bread samples. The multiple HS-SPME technique offers several advantages including reducing the manipulation time and cost, and avoiding analyte losses, especially in the analysis of a large number of samples in different matrices. PMID:22123114

  10. Resveratrol is absorbed in the small intestine as resveratrol glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Kuhnle, G; Spencer, J P; Chowrimootoo, G; Schroeter, H; Debnam, E S; Srai, S K; Rice-Evans, C; Hahn, U

    2000-05-27

    We have studied the absorption and metabolism of resveratrol in the jejunum in an isolated rat small intestine model. Only small amounts of resveratrol were absorbed across the enterocytes of the jejunum and ileum unmetabolised. The major compound detected on the serosal side was the glucuronide conjugate of resveratrol (96.5% +/- 4.6 of the amount absorbed) indicating the susceptibility of resveratrol to glucuronidation during transfer across the rat jejunum. The presence of the glucuronide was confirmed using HPLC-PDA and nanoES-MS/MS techniques. These findings suggest that resveratrol is most likely to be in the form of a glucuronide conjugate after crossing the small intestine and entering the blood circulation. This will have important implications for the biological functions of resveratrol in vivo. PMID:10872829

  11. The small intestine can both absorb and glucuronidate luminal flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J P; Chowrimootoo, G; Choudhury, R; Debnam, E S; Srai, S K; Rice-Evans, C

    1999-09-17

    We have studied the perfusion of the jejunum and ileum in an isolated rat intestine model with flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates and the influence of glycosylation on the subsequent metabolism. Flavone and flavonol glucosides and their corresponding aglycones are glucuronidated during transfer across the rat jejunum and ileum and this glucuronidation occurs without the need for gut microflora. Furthermore, this suggests the presence of glycosidases as well as UDP-glucuronyl transferase in the jejunum. In contrast, quercetin-3-glucoside and rutin are mainly absorbed unmetabolised. The results suggest that the more highly reducing phenolics are absorbed predominantly as glucuronides (96.5%+/-4.6) of the amount absorbed, whereas monophenolic hydroxycinnamates and monophenolic B-ring flavonoids are less predisposed to glucuronidation and higher levels of aglycone (88.1%+/-10.1) are detected on absorption through both the jejunum and ileum. PMID:10481070

  12. The effect of various drugs on the glucuronidation of zidovudine (azidothymidine; AZT) by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Sim, S M; Back, D J; Breckenridge, A M

    1991-01-01

    1. Zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine; AZT) is the drug of proven efficacy available for the treatment of patients with AIDS or ARC. It is eliminated mainly by hepatic glucuronidation. Therefore, interference with this metabolic pathway may lead to enhancement of AZT effect or to increased toxicity of the drug. We have examined the effect of a number of drugs which themselves undergo glucuronidation on AZT conjugation by human liver microsomes in vitro. 2. AZT glucuronidation followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent Km and Vmax values (mean +/- s.d., n = 5), were 2.60 +/- 0.52 mM and 68.0 +/- 23.4 nmol h-1 mg-1, respectively, as determined from Eadie-Hofstee plots. 3. Dideoxyinosine, sulphanilamide and paracetamol were essentially non-inhibitory at concentrations up to 10 mM (4 times the concentration of AZT in the incubation). The most marked inhibitory effects were seen with indomethacin, naproxen, chloramphenicol, probenecid and ethinyloestradiol, with enzyme activity decreased by 97.7, 94.9, 88.7, 83.4% and 79.0%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 mM. Other compounds producing some inhibition of AZT conjugation were oxazepam, salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid. 4. Further studies are necessary to characterise the inhibition observed but the method described enables a screen of potentially important drug interactions to be carried out. PMID:1909542

  13. Hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase is responsible for eslicarbazepine glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Ana I; Fernandes-Lopes, Carlos; Bonifácio, Maria J; Wright, Lyndon C; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2011-09-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a once-daily novel antiepileptic drug approved in Europe for use as adjunctive therapy for refractory partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization. Metabolism of ESL consists primarily of hydrolysis to eslicarbazepine, which is then subject to glucuronidation followed by renal excretion. In this study, we have identified that human liver microsomes (HLM) enriched with uridine 5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid give origin to a single Escherichia coli ?-glucuronidase-sensitive eslicarbazepine glucuronide (most likely the O-glucuronide). The kinetics of eslicarbazepine glucuronidation in HLM was investigated in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The apparent K(m) were 412.2 ± 63.8 and 349.7 ± 74.3 ?M in the presence and absence of BSA, respectively. Incubations with recombinant human UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) indicated that UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, and UGT2B17 appear to be involved in eslicarbazepine conjugation. The UGT with the highest affinity for conjugation was UGT2B4 (K(m) = 157.0 ± 31.2 and 28.7 ± 10.1 ?M, in the absence and presence of BSA, respectively). There was a significant correlation between eslicarbazepine glucuronidation and trifluoperazine glucuronidation, a typical UGT1A4 substrate; however, no correlation was found with typical substrates for UGT1A1 and UGT1A9. Diclofenac inhibited eslicarbazepine glucuronidation in HLM with an IC(50) value of 17 ?M. In conclusion, glucuronidation of eslicarbazepine results from the contribution of UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, and UGT2B17, but the high-affinity component of the UGT2B4 isozyme may play a major role at therapeutic plasma concentrations of unbound eslicarbazepine. PMID:21673130

  14. Focused ultrasound-assisted acceleration of enzymatic hydrolysis of alkylphenols and 17?-oestradiol glucuronide in fish bile.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Asier; Usobiaga, Aresatz; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Cajaraville, Miren P; Fernández, Luis A; Zuloaga, Olatz

    2010-11-01

    According to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), alkylphenols, such as octylphenols and nonylphenols, and 17?-oestradiol are considered as priority or emerging pollutants, respectively, mainly due to their possible properties as endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). EDCs are accumulated in liver, fat, kidney and bile in the glucuronide form. In order to determine the concentration of these compounds in bile, an enzymatic hydrolysis step is necessary. This step is usually long (~16 h), and in this sense, ultrasound probes were studied as a possible alternative energy source to accelerate this process. Enzymatic hydrolysis was reduced to 20 min using an ultrasound probe at one cycle and 10% of amplitude. For validation of analytical procedure, nonylphenol glucuronide (4NP-G), 4-tert-octylphenol glucuronide (4tOP-G) and 4-n-octylphenol glucuronide (4nOP-G) were synthesised while 17?-oestradiol glucuronide (E2-G) was commercially available. Bile from thick-lip grey mullets (Chelon labrosus) was spiked with known amounts of 4NP-G, 4tOP-G, 4nOP-G and E2-G and submitted to the optimised procedure. Good recoveries (77-122%), precision in the 5% to 12% range and limits of detection, ranging from the low nanogramme per gramme level for 4tOP, 4nOP and E2 to the low microgramme per gramme level for nonylphenols, were obtained. The optimised method was applied for the determination of alkylphenol in the bile of thick-lip grey mullets fish bile from the Urdaibai estuary (UNESCO reserve of the Biosphere, Bay of Biscay), and high concentrations (2.3-14.2 ?g/g), such as those obtained in polluted areas, were measured. E2 was determined in the bile of thick-lip grey mullets, intraperitoneally injected with E2. PMID:20835815

  15. HPLC with laser-induced native fluorescence detection for morphine and morphine glucuronides from blood after immunoaffinity extraction.

    PubMed

    Hupka, Y; Beike, J; Roegener, J; Brinkmann, B; Blaschke, G; Köhler, H

    2005-05-01

    A new immunoaffinity solid phase extraction of morphine and its phase II metabolites, morphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide and morphine-6-beta-D-glucuronide is described. An immunoadsorber was applied which was created for the first time by the immobilisation of specific antibodies (polyclonal, host: rabbit) by the sol-gel method. The extraction method in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence determination has been validated and shown to be applicable to blood samples of heroin victims in a low concentration range. Blood extracts were essentially free of interfering matrix components when compared to C8-extracts. Additionally, a novel, sensitive and selective detection system for wavelength-resolved analysis of laser-induced fluorescence coupled to HPLC was developed. The analytes were excited with a frequency tripled Ti:Sa laser (lambda=244 nm quasi cw). The total emission spectrum was recorded with a detection system consisting of an imaging spectrograph and a back-illuminated CCD camera. This technique of detection, combined with an extended optical path (at least 6 mm could be illuminated by the laser), resulted in an optimal fluorescence intensity of the analytes. The method permitted the analysis of morphine, morphine-3-beta-D-glucuronide and morphine-6-beta-D-glucuronide in a low concentration range and could be applied to a complex matrix such as postmortem blood samples because analyte peaks could be discriminated from matrix peaks by their characteristic emission spectra. PMID:15657745

  16. ETHYL GLUCURONIDE: A BIOMARKER TO IDENTIFY ALCOHOL USE BY HEALTH PROFESSIONALS RECOVERING FROM SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GREGORY E. SKIPPER; WOLFGANG WEINMANN; ANNETTE THIERAUF; PATRICK SCHAEFER; GERHARD WIESBECK; JOHN P ALLEN; MICHAEL MILLER; FRIEDRICH MARTIN WURST

    Aims: Physicians recovering from substance-related disorders are usually allowed to return to practice if they agree to remain abstinent from drugs, including alcohol, and to undergo random urine testing. Over 9000 physicians are currently involved in such monitoring programs in the US. To date, it has been difficult to adequately monitor abstinence from alcohol due to the short half- life

  17. NMR characterization of an S-linked glucuronide metabolite of the potent, novel, nonsteroidal progesterone agonist tanaproget.

    PubMed

    Keating, Kelly A; McConnell, Oliver; Zhang, Yingru; Shen, Li; Demaio, William; Mallis, Larry; Elmarakby, Sayed; Chandrasekaran, Appavu

    2006-08-01

    Tanaproget is a first-in-class nonsteroidal progesterone receptor agonist that is being investigated for use in contraception. A major in vitro and in vivo metabolite of tanaproget formed in humans was initially characterized as a glucuronide of tanaproget. However, whether the glucuronide was linked to the nitrogen or sulfur of the benzoxazine-2-thione group in tanaproget could not be determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. To obtain additional structural details for this metabolite, additional quantities were generated from rat liver microsomal incubations and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for NMR analysis. The NMR data for the metabolite confirmed that the glucuronide was covalently bound to either the sulfur or the nitrogen of the benzoxazine-2-thione moiety. The lack of key through-bond (scalar) and through-space (dipolar) one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR couplings and correlations in the metabolite spectra (due primarily to low sample concentration) precluded an unambiguous structure elucidation. Subsequent synthesis of the S- and N-glucuronides of tanaproget from tanaproget facilitated the unambiguous regio- and stereochemical assignment of the metabolite by comparison of 1D NMR chemical shifts and scalar coupling constants, 2D NMR correlations, and HPLC and LC/MS characteristics between the synthetic compounds and the metabolite. From extensive comparison of the spectral and chromatographic data of the microsomally derived metabolite and the synthetic compounds, the metabolite has been determined to be the S-(beta)-D-glucuronide of tanaproget. PMID:16698893

  18. Determination of Nucleic Acids Sensitized by Emulsifier OP-micelle Using Ethyl Rhodamine B as a Resonance Light-Scattering Probe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zhang; Bin Du; Qin Wei

    2007-01-01

    The resonance light scattering (RLS) spectra of ethyl rhodamine B with nucleic acid (calf thymus DNA and herring sperm DNA) have been studied. The effective factors and the optimum conditions have been studied, and the enhanced intensity of RLS is in proportion to the concentration of nucleic acids in the range 0?5.00 µg mL for calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) and 0?3.50 µg mL for

  19. Determination of a High Potential Barrier Hindering Internal Rotation from the Analysis of the Ground State Spectrum: The Case of Ethyl Cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, D.; Dubrulle, A.; Demaison, J.; Dreizler, H.

    1980-11-01

    The ground state rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been reinvestigated between 8 and 250 GHz. The barrier potential V3 is calculated from 11 high J, ground state transitions which were found split into doublets. V3 is 3007 cal/mole, assuming I? = 3.167 u Å2 and ? (i,a) = 48.65°. The splittings of the K-doublet transitious have also been analyzed.

  20. Diethylstilbestrol can effectively accelerate estradiol-17-O-glucuronidation, while potently inhibiting estradiol-3-O-glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liangliang; Xiao, Ling; Xia, Yangliu; Zhou, Kun; Wang, Huili; Huang, Minyi; Ge, Guangbo; Wu, Yan; Wu, Ganlin; Yang, Ling

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study investigates the effects of diethylstilbestrol (DES), a widely used toxic synthetic estrogen, on estradiol-3- and 17-O- (E2-3/17-O) glucuronidation, via culturing human liver microsomes (HLMs) or recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) with DES and E2. DES can potently inhibit E2-3-O-glucuronidation in HLM, a probe reaction for UGT1A1. Kinetic assays indicate that the inhibition follows a competitive inhibition mechanism, with the Ki value of 2.1±0.3?M, which is less than the possible in vivo level. In contrast to the inhibition on E2-3-O-glucuronidation, the acceleration is observed on E2-17-O-glucuronidation in HLM, in which cholestatic E2-17-O-glucuronide is generated. In the presence of DES (0-6.25?M), Km values for E2-17-O-glucuronidation are located in the range of 7.2-7.4?M, while Vmax values range from 0.38 to 1.54nmol/min/mg. The mechanism behind the activation in HLM is further demonstrated by the fact that DES can efficiently elevate the activity of UGT1A4 in catalyzing E2-17-O-glucuronidation. The presence of DES (2?M) can elevate Vmax from 0.016 to 0.81nmol/min/mg, while lifting Km in a much lesser extent from 4.4 to 11?M. Activation of E2-17-O-glucuronidation is well described by a two binding site model, with KA, ?, and ? values of 0.077±0.18?M, 3.3±1.1 and 104±56, respectively. However, diverse effects of DES towards E2-3/17-O-glucuronidation are not observed in liver microsomes from several common experimental animals. In summary, this study issues new potential toxic mechanisms for DES: potently inhibiting the activity of UGT1A1 and powerfully accelerating the formation of cholestatic E2-17-O-glucuronide by UGT1A4. PMID:25596428

  1. The Impact of Glucuronidation on the Bioactivation and DNA Adduction of the Cooked-Food Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Ubick, E A; Felton, J S

    2005-03-31

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the glucuronidation of many different chemicals. Glucuronidation is especially important for detoxifying reactive intermediates from metabolic reactions, which otherwise can be biotransformed into highly reactive cytotoxic or carcinogenic species. Detoxification of certain food-borne carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) is highly dependent on UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most mass abundant carcinogenic HA found in well-done cooked meat, is extensively glucuronidated by UGT1A proteins. In humans, CYP1A2 catalyzed N-hydroxylation and subsequent UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation is a dominant pathway in the metabolism of PhIP. Therefore, changes in glucuronidation rates could significantly alter PhIP metabolism. To determine the importance of UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation in the biotransformation of PhIP, UGT1A proficient Wistar and UGT1A deficient Gunn rats were exposed to a single 100 {micro}g/kg oral dose of [{sup 14}C]-PhIP. Urine was collected over 24 h and the PhIP urinary metabolite profiles were compared between the two strains. After the 24 h exposure, livers and colon were removed and analyzed for DNA adduct formation by accelerator mass spectrometry. Wistar rats produced several PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides that accounted for {approx}25% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. In the Gunn rats, PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides were reduced by 68-92%, compared to the Wistar rats, and comprised only 4% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. PhIP-DNA adduct analysis from the Gunn rats revealed a correlation between reduced PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronide levels in the urine and increased hepatic DNA adducts, compared to the Wistar rats. These results indicate that UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation of PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP is an important pathway for PhIP detoxification. Failure to form glucuronide conjugates results in increases in PhIP bioactivation and DNA adduct formation, which can potentially lead to increases in tumor formation. Therefore, diminished UGT1A activity could pose a significant risk for the development of certain cancers from exposure to PhIP.

  2. Glucuronidation of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin by human liver microsomes. Inhibition by certain drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Irshaid; K. I. Gharaybeh; F. F. Ammari; N. M. Rawashdeh

    1990-01-01

    Summary  Glucuronidation of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (7-OH-4-MC) was comparable in three of the four human liver samples studied.\\u000a In liver sample IV the glucuronidation rate of 7-OH-4-MC was almost 40% of that in the other samples. That might be due to\\u000a interindividual variation in the capacity to glucuronidate. Glucuronidation rates were not reduced in the one human liver\\u000a sample which displayed mild centrilobular

  3. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  4. Studies on the renal excretion of the acyl glucuronide, phenolic glucuronide and sulphate conjugates of diflunisal.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, R G; King, A R; McKinnon, G E; Hooper, W D; Eadie, M J; Herkes, G K

    1993-01-01

    1. In five healthy male volunteers given multiple doses of diflunisal (DF), renal clearances (CLR) of the acyl glucuronide (DAG), phenolic glucuronide (DPG) and sulphate (DS) conjugates were about 42, 25 and 13 ml min-1, respectively. 2. These relatively low CLR values are probably due largely to the very high plasma protein binding of the conjugates, found in vitro to be 99.0%, 97.8% and 99.45%, respectively. 3. Thus glomerular filtration plays the minor and active tubular secretion the major role in renal excretion of the three conjugates. 4. This conclusion was supported by the effect of probenecid co-administration, which decreased CLR of DAG and DPG by about 70%. CLR for DS could not be calculated when probenecid was co-administered (because of interference by probenecid metabolites in the analysis of DS in urine). 5. Water-induced diuresis had no effect on CLR of the DF conjugates, consistent with tubular reabsorption being negligible. PMID:8329288

  5. Induction of cytokine release by the acyl glucuronide of mycophenolic acid: a link to side effects?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eberhard Wieland; Maria Shipkova; Ulrike Schellhaas; Ekkehard Schütz; Paul Dieter Niedmann; Victor William Armstrong; Michael Oellerich

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: We have identified an acyl glucuronide (M-2) of the immunosuppressant mycophenolic acid (MPA). Acyl glucuronides have toxic potential and may contribute to drug toxicity. Whether acyl glucuronides are able to induce release of proinflammatory cytokines is unknown. Gastrointestinal disturbances have been observed during MPA therapy and may involve an inflammatory reaction. This study investigated whether M-2 can induce IL-6

  6. Morphine-6-glucuronide: actions and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Gavin J; Smith, Terry W

    2005-09-01

    Morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) appears to show equivalent analgesia to morphine but to have a superior side-effect profile in terms of reduced liability to induce nausea and vomiting and respiratory depression. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence behind this statement and to identify the possible reasons that may contribute to the profile of M6G. The vast majority of available data supports the notion that both M6G and morphine mediate their effects by activating the micro-opioid receptor. The differences for which there is a reasonable consensus in the literature can be summarized as: (1) Morphine has a slightly higher affinity for the micro-opioid receptor than M6G, (2) M6G shows a slightly higher efficacy at the micro-opioid receptor, (3) M6G has a lower affinity for the kappa-opioid receptor than morphine, and (4) M6G has a very different absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile from morphine. However, none of these are adequate alone to explain the clinical differences between M6G and morphine. The ADME differences are perhaps most likely to explain some of the differences but seem unlikely to be the whole story. Further work is required to examine further the profile of M6G, notably whether M6G penetrates differentially to areas of the brain involved in pain and those involved in nausea, vomiting, and respiratory control or whether micro-opioid receptors in these brain areas differ in either their regulation or pharmacology. PMID:15952175

  7. Analysis of glucuronide and sulfate steroids in urine by ultra-high-performance supercritical-fluid chromatography hyphenated tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Doué, Mickael; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Pouponneau, Karinne; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Profiling conjugated urinary steroids to detect anabolic-steroid misuse is recognized as an efficient analytical strategy in both chemical-food-safety and anti-doping fields. The relevance and robustness of such profiling rely on the analysis of glucuronide and sulfate steroids, which is expected to have properties including accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, and, if possible, rapidity. In this context, the ability of ultra-high-performance supercritical-fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) hyphenated tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) to provide reliable and accurate phase II analysis of steroids was assessed. Four stationary phases with sub-2 ?m particles (BEH, BEH 2-ethyl-pyridine, HSS C18 SB, and CSH fluorophenyl) were screened for their capacity to separate several conjugated steroid isomers. Analytical conditions including stationary phase, modifier composition and percentage, back pressure, column temperature, and composition and flow rate of make-up solvent were investigated to improve the separation and/or the sensitivity. Thus, an analytical procedure enabling the analysis of eight glucuronide and 12 sulfate steroids by two different methods in 12 and 15 min, respectively, was optimized. The two procedures were evaluated, and UHPSFC-MS-MS analysis revealed its ability to provide sensitive (limits of quantification: 0.1 ng mL(-1) and 0.5 ng mL(-1) for sulfate and glucuronide steroids, respectively) and reliable quantitative performance (R (2)?>?0.995, RSD?Glucuronide and sulfate steroids analysis in urine by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography hyphenated tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:25736246

  8. EPA dashes ethyl`s hopes for MMT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heller

    1992-01-01

    Up until the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA; Washington) decided to deny Ethyl`s (Richmond, VA) petition to sell manganese-based gasoline additive MMT, many on Wall Street were bullish. Bets were that MMT sales could create an up to $200 million\\/year sales windfall for Ethyl with $60 million\\/year income, and push its near $26\\/share price up by at least 50 cts. But

  9. Determination of methyl and ethyl esters of methanesulfonic, benzenesulfonic and p-toluenesulfonic acids in active pharmaceutical ingredients by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to GC/SIM-MS.

    PubMed

    Colón, Ivelisse; Richoll, Stephen M

    2005-09-15

    The development, optimization and validation of an extraction method for methyl and ethyl esters of various sulfonic acids is presented. The extraction and determination of these esters in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was accomplished using solid-phase microextraction coupled to GC/MS in the SIM mode. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency are discussed. This method was validated as a limits test and allows the determination of the sulfonic esters at the 5 ppm level in APIs. The method proved to be reproducible (%R.S.D.s less than 6%) and suitable for use with external standard quantitation, and also met basic validation requirements. This method offers numerous advantages over liquid-liquid extraction methods and was also compared to other extraction techniques such as solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) also being developed in our laboratories. PMID:15950423

  10. Glucuronidation patterns of common urinary and serum monoester phthalate metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manori J. Silva; Dana B. Barr; John A. Reidy; Kayoko Kato; Nicole A. Malek; Carolyn C. Hodge; Donald Hurtz; Antonia M. Calafat; Larry L. Needham; John W. Brock

    2003-01-01

    Metabolism of most diesters of phthalic acid in humans occurs by an initial phase I biotransformation in which phthalate monoesters are formed, followed by a phase II biotransformation in which phthalate monoesters react with glucuronic acid to form their respective glucuronide conjugates. The phase II conjugation increases water solubility and facilitates urinary excretion of phthalate, and reduces the potential biological

  11. Glucuronidation of acetaminophen catalyzed by multiple rat phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Fay K; Kessler, Marissa R; Auyeung, Diana J; Ritter, Joseph K

    2002-03-01

    Gunn rats glucuronidate acetaminophen (APAP) at reduced rates and show increased susceptibility to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. This defect is presumed to involve UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A6, which is nonfunctional in Gunn rats, but it is currently unclear whether other 1A family members are also involved. In humans, two 1A isoforms are known to be active (1A6 and 1A9) but 1A6 form has a 25-fold lower apparent K(m) (2 mM). Rat liver microsomal APAP UGT activity is induced by in vivo treatment with beta-naphthoflavone or oltipraz, an effect correlating with induction of 1A6 and 1A7. To address a possible role of 1A7 in APAP glucuronidation relative to other 1A forms, cDNAs encoding UGTs 1A1, 1A5, 1A6, 1A7, and 1A8 were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells and the contents of expressed enzyme in prepared membrane fractions determined by quantitative immunoblotting. At 2.5 mM APAP, 1A7 showed the highest specific activity (2.8 nmol/min/nmol 1A7 protein), followed by 1A6 (1.1 nmol/min/nmol), and 1A8 (0.27 nmol/min/nmol). 1A1 and 1A5 were essentially inactive. Kinetic comparisons indicated 1A7 had a similar apparent K(m) as 1A6 (4.7 versus 3.9 mM, respectively) but a 2.4-fold higher catalytic activity. These data suggest that in rats, 1A7 plays a major role in APAP glucuronidation and contributes to protection against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. The involvement of other UGTs besides 1A6 is further underscored by the presence of significant residual APAP-glucuronidating activity by Gunn rat hepatocytes, indicating the activity of an unknown UGT2 family member. PMID:11854153

  12. Ethyl Alcohol Production. 

    E-print Network

    O'Neal, Henry

    1981-01-01

    mixture is known as beer. 6. The next step is to separate the ethyl alcohol from the beer using two 12-inch diameter plate distillation columns, each 20 feet in height. All of the fermented mash is put into the first column (beer column) with steam... of the second column (rectifying column) where alcohol vapor is driven off at the top and condensed to yield liquid alcohol. The normal production proof of the Texas A&M University plant is 182 to 184. 7. The solid grain residues are separated from...

  13. Biotransformation of zearalenone and zearalenols to their major glucuronide metabolites reduces estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Frizzell, Caroline; Uhlig, Silvio; Miles, Christopher O; Verhaegen, Steven; Elliott, Christopher T; Eriksen, Gunnar S; Sørlie, Morten; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi. Once ingested, ZEN may be absorbed and metabolised to ?- and ?-zearalenol (?-ZOL, ?-ZOL), and to a lesser extent ?- and ?-zearalanol (?-ZAL, ?-ZAL). Further biotransformation to glucuronide conjugates also occurs to facilitate the elimination of these toxins from the body. Unlike ZEN and its metabolites, information regarding the estrogenic activity of these glucuronide conjugates in various tissues is lacking. ZEN-14-O-glucuronide, ?-ZOL-14-O-glucuronide, ?-ZOL-7-O-glucuronide, ?-ZOL-14-O-glucuronide and ?-ZOL-16-O-glucuronide, previously obtained as the major products from preparative enzymatic synthesis, were investigated for their potential to cause endocrine disruption through interference with estrogen receptor transcriptional activity. All five glucuronide conjugates showed a very weak agonist response in an estrogen responsive reporter gene assay (RGA), with activity ranging from 0.0001% to 0.01% of that of 17?-estradiol, and also less than that of ZEN, ?-ZOL and ?-ZOL which have previously shown estrogenic potencies of the order 17?-estradiol>?-ZOL>ZEN>?-ZOL. Confirmatory mass spectrometry revealed that any activity observed was likely a result of minor deconjugation of the glucuronide moiety. This study confirms that formation of ZEN and ZOL glucuronides is a detoxification reaction with regard to estrogenicity, serving as a potential host defence mechanism against ZEN-induced estrogenic activity. PMID:25645597

  14. Low level determination of 4-amino-2-ethoxy-cinnamic acid and its ethyl ester in a drug substance and its formulation prototypes by HPLC-UV-DAD.

    PubMed

    Soman, A; Jacob, S; Swanek, F

    2009-04-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) has been evaluated for monitoring trace levels of impurities, such as 4-amino-2-ethoxy-cinnamic acid (impurity A), hydrochloride salt of 4-amino-2-ethoxy-ethyl cinnamate (impurity B), and 4-bromo-3-ethoxy-nitrobenzene (impurity C), in drug substance and 3 different formulation prototypes. These compounds have been highlighted as potential genotoxins and 2-ethoxy-4-amino-cinnamic acid (impurity A) as possible degradant isolated during the synthesis of BI drug substance. HPLC-UV-DAD was found to be more promising, and limits of quantification were between 0.09 and 0.6 microg/mL, which enabled detection limits in drug substance at 2-15 ppm for a 15 mg/mL solution. All three genotoxic impurities are completely resolved from each other as well as from diluent peaks, drug substance, and other related impurities within 40 min. The retention times of impurities A, B, and C were 3.4, 13.1, and 21.3 min. The results demonstrating the specificity, assay precision, recovery, linearity, and range achieved during the method validation experiments are presented in this paper. PMID:19406019

  15. Use of cloned and expressed human liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferases for analysis of drug glucuronide formation and assessment of drug toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, B; Ebner, T; Baird, S; Bin Senafi, S; Clarke, D; Brierley, C; Sutherland, L

    1994-01-01

    Five cloned human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) cDNAs were stably expressed in tissue culture cell lines. More than 100 drugs and xenobiotics were used as substrates for glucuronidation catalyzed by the cloned human transferases to determine the chemical structures accepted as substrates. UGT-HP1 exhibited a limited substrate specificity for planar phenolic compounds, whereas UGT-HP4 was more accepting of nonplanar phenols, anthraquinones, flavones, alphatic alcohols, aromatic carboxylic acids, steroids and many drugs of varied structure. UGT-HP3 (bilirubin UGT) catalyzed the glucuronidation of ethinylestradiol. UGT-H6 and UGT-H25 (steroid/bile acid UGTs) also catalyzed the glucuronidation of some xenobiotics. Levels of UGT-HP4 activity towards some substrates were sufficient to allow determination of kinetic parameters for the enzyme reaction. Further, metabolism of drugs could be studied by addition to the recombinant cell lines in culture and extraction of the media allowed analysis of glucuronide formation. The protection afforded against cytotoxic drugs was observed. The data presented here demonstrate the potential of using these recombinant cell lines for investigation of phase II metabolism by human UGTs and subtle differences in protein structure which affect their specificity. PMID:7698078

  16. Crystal structures of frozen room temperature ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF 4), hexafluoroniobate (EMImNbF 6) and hexafluorotantalate (EMImTaF 6), determined by low-temperature X-ray diffraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Matsumoto; Rika Hagiwara; Zoran Mazej; Primož Benki?; Boris Žemva

    2006-01-01

    The crystal structures of three salts, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF4), hexafluoroniobate (EMImNbF6) and hexafluorotantalate (EMImTaF6), all of which form room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), have been determined by low-temperature X-ray diffraction studies of their single crystals. EMImBF4 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21\\/c with a=8.653(5) Å, b=9.285(18) Å, c=13.217(7) Å, ?=121.358(15) Å, V=906.8(19) Å3, Z=4 at 100 K. EMImBF4 exhibits a unique structure wherein EMIm cations

  17. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C?1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 °C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C?1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (?243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value. PMID:23969233

  18. Identification of a novel intestinal first pass metabolic pathway: NQO1 mediated quinone reduction and subsequent glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Haiping; Wang, Guangji; Cui, Nan; Li, Jing; Xie, Lin; Ding, Zuoqi

    2007-02-01

    Quinones represent a very important class of compounds found in nature and for the chemically synthesized drugs. The present study was designed to elucidate the intestinal first pass metabolic pathways in vivo and in vitro, of tanshinone IIA (TS), a derivative of phenanthrene-quinone isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza. Five metabolites, proposed to be TS catechol glucuronides (two position isomers), dehydrotanshinone IIA and its two catechol glucuronides, were identified from the rat intestinal homogenates after oral administration of TS. TS metabolism was further conducted in the subcellular system including cytosol, microsomes, mitochondrial and S9 under both phase I and phase II metabolic conditions. TS underwent negligible metabolism in all of the subcellular systems under phase I metabolic condition using NADPH as the cofactor. However, significant and substantial metabolic elimination of TS was observed in the cytosol and S9 fractions, while not in the microsomes fractions, when both NADPH and UDPGA were added. Two TS catechol glucuronides were identified from such an in vitro metabolic medium. Dicoumarol, a specific inhibitor of the NAD(P)H dependent quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), significantly inhibited the metabolic elimination of TS in a noncompetitive way, suggesting that NQO1 was responsible for the quinone reduction of TS to form the catechol intermediate. The catechol intermediate failed to be detected directly was proved to be highly unstable and autoxidized back to TS accompanied with hydrogen peroxide generation. Dicoumarol exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on the hydrogen peroxide generation, further supporting that the reduction of TS was catalyzed by NQO1. The absolute bioavailability of TS was significantly enhanced by oral dicoumarol pretreatment. In conclusion, a novel intestinal metabolic pathway for quinones, NQO1 mediated reduction and subsequent glucuronidation, was determined using TS as a model compound. This study should be helpful for the general understanding of quinones absorption and intestinal first pass metabolism. PMID:17305492

  19. Characterization of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene-trans-11,12-diol (dibenzo[def,p]chrysene) glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kristine C; Sun, Dongxiao; Chen, Gang; Sharma, Arun K; Amin, Shantu; Ropson, Ira J; Spratt, Thomas E; Lazarus, Philip

    2011-09-19

    Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) (dibenzo[def,p]chrysene) is a highly carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that has been identified in tobacco smoke and is found in our environment due to incomplete combustion of organic matter. Its metabolites are known to form stable DNA adducts in bacteria and mammalian cells, and can lead to tumors in animal models. Glucuronidation of major metabolites of DB[a,l]P by the uridine-5'-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) family of enzymes is an important route of detoxification of this pro-carcinogen. The focus of the current study was to characterize the glucuronidation of the pro-carcinogenic enantiomers DB[a,l]P-(+)-trans-11S,12S-diol and DB[a,l]P-(-)-trans-11R,12R-diol. Glucuronidation assays with HEK293 cell lines overexpressing individual human UGT enzymes demonstrated that UGTs 1A1, 1A4, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, 1A10, and 2B7 glucuronidated one or both DB[a,l]P-trans-11,12-diol enantiomers. Three glucuronide conjugates were observed in activity assays with UGTs 1A1 and 1A10, while two glucuronides were formed by UGTs 1A7, 1A8, and 1A9, and one glucuronide was made by UGT1A4 and UGT2B7. Enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that UGT1A9 was the most efficient UGT at forming both the (+)-DB[a,l]P-11-Gluc and (-)-DB[a,l]P-11-Gluc products, while UGTs 1A1 and 1A10 were the most efficient at forming the (+)-DB[a,l]P-12-Gluc product (as determined by k(cat)/K(M)). Incubations with human liver microsomes showed the formation of three diastereomeric glucuronide products: (+)-DB[a,l]P-11-Gluc, (+)-DB[a,l]P-12-Gluc, and (-)-DB[a,l]P-11-Gluc, with an average overall ratio of 31:32:37 in four liver specimens. Human bronchus and trachea tissue homogenates demonstrated glucuronidation activity against both DB[a,l]P-trans-11,12-diol enantiomers, with both tissues producing the (+)-DB[a,l]P-11-Gluc and (+)-DB[a,l]P-12-Gluc with little or no formation of (-)-DB[a,l]P-11-Gluc. These results indicate that multiple UGTs are involved in the stereospecific glucuronidation of DB[a,l]P-trans-11,12-diol in a pattern consistent with their expression in respiratory tract tissues and that glucuronidation may be an important first-line detoxification mechanism of DB[a,l]P metabolites. PMID:21780761

  20. Determination of direct alcohol markers: a review.

    PubMed

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Álvarez, Iván; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol is the most popular legal drug used in our society today, and its consumption by pregnant women remains an important public health problem. Gestational alcohol consumption can result in a continuum of adverse fetal outcomes known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Effective strategies are needed to prevent the increasing adoption of risky drinking behaviors. Because ethanol itself is only measurable for a few hours after ethanol intake in conventional matrices including blood, urine, and sweat, these matrices are only useful to detect recent ethanol exposure. Since approximately early 2000, the non-oxidative ethanol metabolites have received increasing attention because of their specificity and, in some cases, wide time window of detection in non-conventional matrices including hair and meconium. In the attempt to update analytical methods for the determination of non-oxidative markers of alcohol, the objective of this study is to review published studies that measure fatty-acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in alternative biological matrices, focusing on the extraction and detection methods and full analytical conditions used. PMID:25935676

  1. Glucuronidation of psilocin and 4-hydroxyindole by the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Manevski, Nenad; Kurkela, Mika; Höglund, Camilla; Mauriala, Timo; Court, Michael H; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Finel, Moshe

    2010-03-01

    We have examined the glucuronidation of psilocin, a hallucinogenic indole alkaloid, by the 19 recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) of subfamilies 1A, 2A, and 2B. The glucuronidation of 4-hydroxyindole, a related indole that lacks the N,N-dimethylaminoethyl side chain, was studied as well. UGT1A10 exhibited the highest psilocin glucuronidation activity, whereas the activities of UGTs 1A9, 1A8, 1A7, and 1A6 were significantly lower. On the other hand, UGT1A6 was by far the most active enzyme mediating 4-hydroxyindole glucuronidation, whereas the activities of UGTs 1A7-1A10 toward 4-hydroxyindole resembled their respective psilocin glucuronidation rates. Psilocin glucuronidation by UGT1A10 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in which psilocin is a low-affinity high-turnover substrate (K(m) = 3.8 mM; V(max) = 2.5 nmol/min/mg). The kinetics of psilocin glucuronidation by UGT1A9 was more complex and may be best described by biphasic kinetics with both intermediate (K(m1) = 1.0 mM) and very low affinity components. The glucuronidation of 4-hydroxyindole by UGT1A6 exhibited higher affinity (K(m) = 178 microM) and strong substrate inhibition. Experiments with human liver and intestinal microsomes (HLM and HIM, respectively) revealed similar psilocin glucuronidation activity in both samples, but a much higher 4-hydroxyindole glucuronidation rate was found in HLM versus HIM. The expression levels of UGTs 1A6-1A10 in different tissues were studied by quantitative real-time-PCR, and the results, together with the activity assays findings, suggest that whereas psilocin may be subjected to extensive glucuronidation by UGT1A10 in the small intestine, UGT1A9 is likely the main contributor to its glucuronidation once it has been absorbed into the circulation. PMID:20007669

  2. Carboxyl-glucuronidation of mitiglinide by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lushan Yu; Sijie Lu; Yongjun Lin; Su Zeng

    2007-01-01

    Mitiglinide (MGN) is a new potassium channel antagonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, a potential metabolic pathway of MGN, via carboxyl-linked glucuronic acid conjugation, was found. MGN carboxyl-glucuronide was isolated from a reaction mixture consisting of MGN and human liver microsomes fortified with UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) and identified by a hydrolysis reaction with

  3. DETERMINATION OF KOW VALUES FOR A SERIES OF ARYL GLUCURONIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An important perameter in toxicokinetic modeling is the octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow). This parameter has often been used to predict the accumulation of contaminants from water to fish (Klamer and Beekman 1995); however, few Kow values are available for modeling the b...

  4. Determination of maternal-fetal biomarkers of prenatal exposure to ethanol: a review.

    PubMed

    Joya, X; Friguls, B; Ortigosa, S; Papaseit, E; Martínez, S E; Manich, A; Garcia-Algar, O; Pacifici, R; Vall, O; Pichini, S

    2012-10-01

    The deleterious effects exerted by prenatal ethanol exposure include physical, mental, behavioural and/or learning disabilities that are included in the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Objective assessment of exposure to ethanol at both prenatal and postnatal stages is essential for early prevention and intervention. Since pregnant women tend to underreport alcohol drinking by questionnaires, a number of biological markers have been proposed and evaluated for their capability to highlight gestational drinking behaviour. These biomarkers include classical biomarkers (albeit indirect) of alcohol-induced pathology (mean corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)) acetaldehyde-derived conjugates, and finally derivatives of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulphate (EtS) and phosphaditylethanol (PEth)). Since ethanol itself and acetaldehyde are only measured few hours after ethanol intake in conventional matrices such as blood, urine and sweat, they are only useful to detect recent ethanol exposure. In the past few years, the non-oxidative ethanol metabolites have received increasing attention because of their specificity and in some case wide time-window of detection in non-conventional matrices from the pregnant mother (oral fluid and hair) and fetus-newborn (neonatal hair, meconium, placenta and umbilical cord). This article reviews bioanalytical procedures for the determination of these markers of ethanol consumption during pregnancy and related prenatal exposure. In addition, clinical toxicological applications of these procedures are presented and discussed. PMID:22300909

  5. Ethyl`s MMT ready to hit the road

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, J.

    1996-01-03

    After spending two decades and about $30 million on the fight to sell the fuel octane booster methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT), Ethyl has started marketing the product. Ethyl president and chief operating officer Thomas Gottwald says he expects a profit from MMT from the outset. {open_quotes}MMT is a gangbuster new product,{close_quotes} says Paul Raman, an analyst with S.G. Warburg (New York), {open_quotes}and it will be very profitable for Ethyl.{close_quotes} Ethyl`s effort to bring MMT to market faced pressure from EPA and automakers. EPA says MMT should not be marketed until more research is done on health effects of the manganese-based additive. US automakers oppose MMT, fearing it will damage catalytic converters. Last October Ethyl won a federal appeals court decision compelling EPA to approve MMT use. Gottwald says the MMT fight has been well worth it: {open_quotes}We fought with our eye on the bottom line.{close_quotes}

  6. Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Tom S. [Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 264 Rene Levesque E, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 1P1 (Canada)], E-mail: chatsy@gmail.com; Wilson, John X. [Department of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, 14214 (United States); Selliah, Subajini; Bilodeau, Marc; Zwingmann, Claudia [Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, 264 Rene Levesque E, Montreal, Quebec, H2X 1P1 (Canada); Poon, Raymond [Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0K9 (Canada); O'Brien, Peter J. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3M2 (Canada)

    2008-11-01

    Industry-derived organochlorines are persistent environmental pollutants that are a continuing health concern. The effects of these compounds on drug metabolism are not well understood. In the current study we present evidence that the inhibition of acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation by minute concentrations of organochlorines correlates well with their ability to stimulate the D-glucuronate pathway leading to ascorbate synthesis. A set of 6 arylated organochlorines, including 5 PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners, were assessed for their effects on APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The capacity of each organochlorine to inhibit APAP glucuronidation was found to be directly proportional to its capacity to stimulate ascorbate synthesis. PCB153, PCB28 and bis-(4-chlorophenyl sulfone) (BCPS) in increasing order were the most effective organochlorines for inhibiting APAP glucuronidation and stimulating the D-glucuronate pathway. None of the 3 inhibitors of APAP glucuronidation were able to alter the expression of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT1A8 (the major isoforms responsible for APAP glucuronidation in the rat), however, their efficacy at inhibiting APAP glucuronidation was proportional to their capacity to deplete UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). BCPS-mediated inhibition of APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes had non-competitive characteristics and was insensitive to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. The effective organochlorines were also able to selectively stimulate the hydrolysis of UDPGA to UDP and glucuronate in isolated microsomes, but could not inhibit APAP glucuronidation in microsomes when UDPGA was in excess. We conclude that organochlorines are able to inhibit APAP glucuronidation in hepatocytes by depleting UDPGA via redirecting UDPGA towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the glucuronidating capacity of hepatocytes.

  7. Nicotine N-glucuronidation relative to N-oxidation and C-oxidation and UGT2B10 genotype in five ethnic/racial groups.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sharon E; Park, Sung-Shim L; Thompson, Elizabeth F; Wilkens, Lynne R; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O; Le Marchand, Loic

    2014-11-01

    Nicotine metabolism influences smoking behavior and differences in metabolism probably contribute to ethnic variability in lung cancer risk. We report here on the proportion of nicotine metabolism by cytochrome P450 2A6-catalyzed C-oxidation, UDP-glucuronosyl transferase 2B10 (UGT2B10)-catalyzed N-glucuronidation and flavin monooxygenase 3-catalyzed N-oxidation in five ethnic/racial groups and the role of UGT2B10 genotype on the metabolic patterns observed. Nicotine and its metabolites were quantified in urine from African American (AA, n = 364), Native Hawaiian (NH, n = 311), White (n = 437), Latino (LA, n = 453) and Japanese American (JA, n = 674) smokers. Total nicotine equivalents, the sum of nicotine and six metabolites, and nicotine metabolism phenotypes were calculated. The relationship of UGT2B10 genotype to nicotine metabolic pathways was determined for each group; geometric means were computed and adjusted for age, sex, creatinine, and body mass index. Nicotine metabolism patterns were unique across the groups, C-oxidation was lowest in JA and NH (P < 0.0001), and N-glucuronidation lowest in AA (P < 0.0001). There was no difference in C-oxidation among Whites and AA and LA. Nicotine and cotinine glucuronide ratios were 2- and 3-fold lower in AA compared with Whites. Two UGT variants, a missense mutation (Asp67Tyr, rs61750900) and a splice variant (rs116294140) accounted for 33% of the variation in glucuronidation. In AA, the splice variant accounted for the majority of the reduced nicotine glucuronidation. UGT2B10 variant allele carriers had increased levels of C-oxidation (P = 0.0099). Our data indicate that the relative importance of nicotine metabolic pathways varies by ethnicity, and all pathways should be considered when characterizing the role of nicotine metabolism on smoking behavior and cancer risk. PMID:25233931

  8. Enzyme-assisted synthesis and structural characterization of pure benzodiazepine glucuronide epimers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Pallmann; U. Jonas; M. Wagner; M. Thevis; H. Kaeferstein; M. A. Rothschild; K. Bender

    2010-01-01

    The three hydroxybenzodiazepines oxazepam, temazepam, and lorazepam used for their anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant properties are metabolized by glucuronidation, which is the predominant pathway in the clearance mechanism of exogenous and endogenous substances during phase II metabolism. The aim of this study was the synthesis of benzodiazepine-O-glucuronides as analytical reference substances. All benzodiazepines are prescribed clinically as racemic formulations. The

  9. Determination of ammonia based on the electro-oxidation of hydroquinone in dimethylformamide or in the room temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debora Giovanelli; Marisa C Buzzeo; Nathan S Lawrence; Christopher Hardacre; Kenneth R Seddon; Richard G Compton

    2004-01-01

    The results detail a novel methodology for the electrochemical determination of ammonia based on its interaction with hydroquinone in DMF. It has been shown that ammonia reversibly removes protons from the hydroquinone molecules, thus facilitating the oxidative process with the emergence of a new wave at less positive potentials. The analytical utility of the proposed methodology has been examined with

  10. Species differences in the formation of vabicaserin carbamoyl glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zeen; Chandrasekaran, Appavu; DeMaio, William; Jordan, Ronald; Li, Hongshan; Moore, Robin; Poola, Nagaraju; Burghart, Peter; Hultin, Theresa; Scatina, JoAnn

    2010-04-01

    Vabicaserin is a potent 5-hydroxtryptamine 2C full agonist with therapeutic potential for a wide array of psychiatric disorders. Metabolite profiles indicated that vabicaserin was extensively metabolized via carbamoyl glucuronidation after oral administration in humans. In the present study, the differences in the extent of vabicaserin carbamoyl glucuronide (CG) formation in humans and in animals used for safety assessment were investigated. After oral dosing, the systemic exposure ratios of CG to vabicaserin were approximately 12 and up to 29 in monkeys and humans, respectively, and the ratios of CG to vabicaserin were approximately 1.5 and 1.7 in mice and dogs, respectively. These differences in systemic levels of CG are likely related to species differences in the rate and extent of CG formation and elimination. Whereas CG was the predominant circulating metabolite in humans and a major metabolite in mice, dogs, and monkeys, it was a relatively minor metabolite in rats, in which oxidative metabolism was the major metabolic pathway. Although the CG was not detected in plasma or urine of rats, approximately 5% of the dose was excreted in bile as CG in the 24-h collection postdose, indicating the rat had the metabolic capability of producing the CG. In vitro, in a CO(2)-enriched environment, the CG was the predominant metabolite in dog and human liver microsomes, a major metabolite in monkey and mice, and only a very minor metabolite in rats. Carbamoyl glucuronidation and hydroxylation had similar contributions to vabicaserin metabolism in mouse and monkey liver microsomes. However, only trace amounts of CG were formed in rat liver microsomes, and other metabolites were more prominent than the CG. In conclusion, significant differences in the extent of formation of the CG were observed among the various species examined. The exposure ratios of CG to vabicaserin were highest in humans, followed by monkeys, then mice and dogs, and lowest in rats, and the in vitro metabolite profiles generally correlated well with the in vivo metabolites. PMID:20032194

  11. BIOMARKERS TO DISCLOSE RECENT INTAKE OF ALCOHOL: POTENTIAL OF 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHOL GLUCURONIDE TESTING USING NEW DIRECT UPLC-TANDEM MS AND ELISA METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OLOF BECK; NIKOLAI STEPHANSON; NORBERT DAHMEN

    2007-01-01

    Aims: This study compared two new methods for direct determination of 5-hydroxytryptophol glucuronide (GTOL) in urine, a biomarker for detection of recent alcohol consumption. Methods: Urine samples were collected from ten alcoholic patients during recovery from intoxication. A direct injection ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS\\/MS) method for measurement of the urinary GTOL to 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) ratio, and an

  12. Effect of quercetin and its metabolites isorhamnetin and quercetin-3-glucuronide on inflammatory gene expression: role of miR155

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Boesch-Saadatmandi; Agnieszka Loboda; Anika E. Wagner; Anna Stachurska; Alicja Jozkowicz; Jozef Dulak; Frank Döring; Siegfried Wolffram; Gerald Rimbach

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the effect of quercetin and its major metabolites quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) and isorhamnetin on inflammatory gene expression was determined in murine RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Quercetin and isorhamnetin but not Q3G significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Furthermore a significant decrease in mRNA levels of interleukin 1?, interleukin 6, macrophage inflammatory

  13. Bilirubin kinetics in intact rats and isolated perfused liver. Evidence for hepatic deconjugation of bilirubin glucuronides.

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, J; Hammaker, L; Licko, V; Schmid, R

    1981-01-01

    Most previous compartmental models describing bilirubin transport and metabolism in the liver have been validated solely by analysis of the plasma disappearance of radiolabeled bilirubin in human subjects. We now have determined the transport kinetics of a bilirubin tracer pulse by analysis of plasma, liver, and bile radioactivity data from 30 intact rats. Plasma [3H]bilirubin disappearance was best described by the sum of three exponentials, and a six-compartment model, derived by simulation analysis, was necessary and adequate to describe all experimental data. Examination of the injected radiolabeled bilirubin by extraction with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and thin-layer chromatography revealed that 6.6% (mean) of the original pigment had been degraded to labeled nonbilirubin derivatives during preparation of the tracer dose. This material exhibited a significantly longer half-life (mean 50.6 min) of the plasma terminal exponential than that of authentic radiobilirubin (20.6 min). In isolated perfused rat liver, the kinetics of [3H]bilirubin in perfusate and bile readily fitted the proposed model. Compatibility of the model with the data obtained, both in the isolated liver and in vivo, required that a fraction of bilirubin conjugated in the liver be deconjugated and returned to the plasma. Deconjugation of bilirubin glucuronides was evaluated directly by infusion of bilirubin monoglucuronides, containing 14C in the glucuronosyl group, into rats with an external bile fistula. Since metabolic degradation of hydrolyzed 14C-labeled glucuronic acid yields 14CO2, this was measured in expired air. Whereas 86% of the administered labeled pigment was recovered in bile, 7% of the label appeared in 14CO2. These findings directly validate a portion of the proposed kinetic model and suggest that hepatic deconjugation of a small fraction of bilirubin glucuronides is a physiological event. Deconjugation may also account, at least in part, for the presence of increased concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin in the plasma of patients with cholestasis. PMID:7204563

  14. Low Level Determinations of Methyl Methanesulfonate and Ethyl Methanesulfonate Impurities in Emtricitabine Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient by LC/MS/MS Using Electrospray Ionization

    PubMed Central

    Kakadiya, P.R.; Chandrashekhar, T.G.; Ganguly, S.; Singh, D.K.; Singh, V.

    2011-01-01

    Alkyl methanesulfonates have been highlighted as potential genotoxic impurities (PGIs). A sensitive LC/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of Alkyl methanesulfonate impurities in Emtricitabine API (active pharmaceutical ingredient). LC/MS/MS method on Zorbax SB C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d.), 3.5 ?m, with electrospray ionization (ESI) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used. The proposed method was specific, linear, accurate, rugged and precise. The calibration curves showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0.0025 ?g/ml to 0.3 ?g/ml the correlation coefficient was >0.999 in each case. Method had very low limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) as 0.3 ?g/g and 0.4 ?g/g respectively for both the analytes. Accuracy was observed within 80%–120% for both the analytes. This method can be further extended a good quality control tool for low level quantitation of Alkyl methanesulfonate impurities in other API. PMID:21760706

  15. Low level determinations of methyl methanesulfonate and ethyl methanesulfonate impurities in emtricitabine active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC/MS/MS using electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Kakadiya, P R; Chandrashekhar, T G; Ganguly, S; Singh, D K; Singh, V

    2011-01-01

    Alkyl methanesulfonates have been highlighted as potential genotoxic impurities (PGIs). A sensitive LC/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of Alkyl methanesulfonate impurities in Emtricitabine API (active pharmaceutical ingredient). LC/MS/MS method on Zorbax SB C(18) column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d.), 3.5 ?m, with electrospray ionization (ESI) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used. The proposed method was specific, linear, accurate, rugged and precise. The calibration curves showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0.0025 ?g/ml to 0.3 ?g/ml the correlation coefficient was >0.999 in each case. Method had very low limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) as 0.3 ?g/g and 0.4 ?g/g respectively for both the analytes. Accuracy was observed within 80%-120% for both the analytes. This method can be further extended a good quality control tool for low level quantitation of Alkyl methanesulfonate impurities in other API. PMID:21760706

  16. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance with good feeding practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy. [46 FR 52333, Oct. 27, 1981, as amended at 72 FR 41620, July 31,...

  17. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance with good feeding practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy. [46 FR 52333, Oct. 27, 1981, as amended at 72 FR 41620, July 31,...

  18. Detection and identification of 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide in nitrite adulterated urine specimens containing morphine and its glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Luong, Susan; Fu, Shanlin

    2014-03-01

    In vitro urine adulteration is a well-documented practice adopted by individuals aiming to evade detection of drug use, when required to undergo mandatory sports and workplace drug testing. Potassium nitrite is an effective urine adulterant due to its oxidizing potential, and has been shown to mask the presence of many drugs of abuse. However, limited research has been conducted to understand its mechanism of action, and to explore the possibility of the drugs undergoing direct oxidation to form stable reaction products. In this study, opiates including morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide were exposed to potassium nitrite in water and urine to mimic the process of nitrite adulteration. It was found that two stable reaction products were detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) when morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide were exposed to nitrite. Isolation and elucidation using spectrometric and spectroscopic techniques revealed that they were 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide, respectively. These reaction products were also formed when an authentic morphine-positive urine specimen was fortified with nitrite. 2-Nitro-morphine was found to be stable enough to undergo the enzymatic hydrolysis procedure and also detectable by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after forming a trimethylsilyl derivative. On the contrary, morphine-3-glucuronide did not appear to be chemically manipulated when exposed to potassium nitrite in urine. These reaction products are not endogenously produced, are relatively stable and can be monitored with both LC-MS and GC-MS confirmatory techniques. As a result, these findings have revealed the possibility for the use of 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide as markers for the indirect monitoring of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in urine specimens adulterated with nitrite. PMID:23592389

  19. Hesperetin glucuronide, a photoprotective agent arising from flavonoid metabolism in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Proteggente, Anna R; Basu-Modak, Sharmila; Kuhnle, Gunter; Gordon, Matthew J; Youdim, Kuresh; Tyrrell, Rex; Rice-Evans, Catherine A

    2003-09-01

    There is considerable interest in the biological properties of flavonoids in terms of their antioxidant and cytoprotective actions. The interaction of the flavanone hesperetin with human skin fibroblasts (FEK4) has revealed the potential for metabolism to hesperetin glucuronide and its subsequent extrusion. As a consequence of this observation, the effectiveness of hesperetin glucuronides, in comparison with that of the aglycone form, in protecting against UV-A radiation has been investigated. The results indicate that hesperetin glucuronides, but not hesperetin, protect against UV-A-induced necrotic cell death. PMID:14556312

  20. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific...

  1. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific...

  2. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific...

  3. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products...AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific...

  4. Trans-stilbene oxide administration increased hepatic glucuronidation of morphine but decreased biliary excretion of morphine glucuronide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman-Lane, C.; Fujimoto, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The effect of the inducing agent trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) on the metabolism and biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C)morphine was studied in the isolated in situ perfused rat liver. After administration of morphine by intraportal injection or by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique, the TSO-treated group showed a marked decrease in the biliary recovery of morphine as its glucuronide conjugate (morphine-3-glucuronide (MG)). However, recovery of MG in the venous outflow of the single pass perfusate was greatly increased. These findings suggested that TSO treatment enhanced the formation of MG from morphine and changed the primary route of hepatic elimination of MG. TSO treatment also decreased the excretion of morphine (as MG) in the bile of anesthetized renal-ligated rats. This decreased biliary function required several days to develop and appeared closely associated with the inductive effect of TSO. After i.v. administration of (/sup 14/C)MG itself, biliary recovery was also markedly decreased in TSO-treated rats. It is postulated that the effect of the TSO treatment led to either a decrease in canalicular transport of MG into bile or an increase in the efficiency of transfer of MG to the blood at the sinusoidal side of the hepatocyte. Regardless of the mechanism, the results indicate the need to study compartmentalization of drug transport and metabolism functions.

  5. Accurate Prediction of Glucuronidation of Structurally Diverse Phenolics by Human UGT1A9 Using Combined Experimental and In Silico Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Baojian; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Shuxing; Hu, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The catalytic selectivity of human UGT1A9, an important membrane-bound enzyme catalyzing glucuronidation of xenobiotics were determined experimentally using 145 phenolics, and analyzed by 3D-QSAR methods. Methods The catalytic efficiency of UGT1A9 was determined by kinetic profiling. Quantitative structure activity relationships were analyzed using the CoMFA and CoMSIA techniques. Molecular alignment of the substrate structures was made by superimposing the glucuronidation site and its adjacent aromatic ring to achieve maximal steric overlap. For a substrate with multiple active glucuronidation sites, each site was considered as a separate substrate. Results The 3D-QSAR analyses produced statistically reliable models with good predictive power (CoMFA: q2 = 0.548, r2= 0.949, r2pred = 0.775; CoMSIA: q2 = 0.579, r2= 0.876, r2pred = 0.700). The contour coefficient maps were applied to elucidate structural features among substrates that are responsible for the selectivity differences. Furthermore, the contour coefficient maps were overlaid in the catalytic pocket of a homology model of UGT1A9; this enabled us to identify the UGT1A9 catalytic pocket with a high degree of confidence. Conclusion The CoMFA/CoMSIA models can predict the substrate selectivity and in vitro clearance of UGT1A9. Our findings also provide a possible molecular basis for understanding UGT1A9 functions and its substrate selectivity. PMID:22302521

  6. Absolute bioavailability of [14C] genistein in the rat; plasma pharmacokinetics of parent compound, genistein glucuronide and total radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Coldham, Nick G; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Key, Pauline; Sauer, Maurice J

    2002-01-01

    The systemic plasma pharmacokinetics of genistein were determined in rats to evaluate the absolute oral bioavailability and make comparison with similar data in the literature derived from humans subjects. The plasma concentrations of genistein, genistein glucuronide and carbon-14 were determined by LC-MS/MS and liquid scintillation counting following oral and intravenous dosing with [14C]genistein (4 mg kg(-1) body weight). The absorption of total radioactivity from the gut, (parent compound and metabolites), was 56 and 111% in male and female rats, respectively. In contrast, the absolute oral bioavailability of genistein in male and female rats was 7 and 15%. There was a significant (P<0.001) difference between Cmax of genistein after intravenous (6921 and 4392 ng/ml) and oral (21 and 22 ng/ml) dosing in male and female rats, respectively. After oral administration, the concentration profile of genistein glucuronide in plasma greatly exceeded that of parent compound during the absorption/distribution phase suggesting extensive first pass metabolism, and provided evidence of entero-hepatic circulation. Selective plasma analysis by LC-MS/MS, without prior enzymatic hydrolysis, enabled ready discrimination between parent and conjugated metabolites and prevented gross overestimation of genistein bioavailability. Pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax and AUC were similar to those reported in humans, which supports the use of the rat model for genistein toxicity studies. PMID:12587954

  7. A rapid and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of serum androsterone glucuronide, etiocholanolone glucuronide, and androstan-3?, 17? diol 17-glucuronide in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuyong; Gonthier, Renaud; Isabelle, Maxim; Bertin, Jonathan; Simard, Jean-Nicolas; Dury, Alain Y; Labrie, Fernand

    2015-05-01

    Quantification of steroidal glucuronide conjugates by the indirect methods of immunoassay and GC-MS/MS may underestimate some conjugates since hydrolysis is needed in sample processing. In the present work, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous direct quantification of androsterone glucuronide, etiocholanolone glucuronide, and androstan-3?, 17? diol 17-glucuronide in postmenopausal women's serum. The quantification limits are 0.1ng/mL for 3?-diol-17G and 4ng/mL for both ADT-G and Etio-G, respectively, with an extraction from 200?L serum while the total run time is less than 6min for all three glucuronides. In this method, solid phase extraction is used for sample preparation. The assay has been validated in compliance with EndoCeutics SOPs and FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method development and validation. The recovery of glucuronides in stripped serum is consistent with that in unstripped serum, where the average difference in stripped and unstripped is less than 10%. A linear regression model fits well the standard curves of all three compounds with R?0.99 where the weighting factor is 1/X. Interday accuracy and CV for all levels of QCs are within the range of 15% in both stripped and unstripped serum while all calibration curves are within the range of 6% except for LLOQs, which are within the range of 9%. Other parameters have also been assessed such as selectivity, matrix, lipemic and hemolysis effects as well as stabilities in solution and matrix. Incurred sample reanalysis has been performed with a result of over 93% within 20% of the original values. This reliable, sensitive and fast method is ready for large-scale clinical sample assays. PMID:25701608

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A CLASS-SELECTIVE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY PHENOLIC GLUCURONIDES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Class-selective immunoassays for the measurement of glucuronides in human urine can aid evaluation of human exposure to complex mixtures of xenobiotics. Therefore, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the group-selective detection of phenolic ...

  9. Optimization and validation of liquid chromatography and headspace-gas chromatography based methods for the quantitative determination of capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, glycol monosalicylate, methyl salicylate, ethyl salicylate, camphor and l-menthol in a topical formulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Pauwels; Ward D’Autry; Larissa Van den Bossche; Cédric Dewever; Michel Forier; Stephanie Vandenwaeyenberg; Kris Wolfs; Jos Hoogmartens; Ann Van Schepdael; Erwin Adams

    Capsaicinoids, salicylic acid, methyl and ethyl salicylate, glycol monosalicylate, camphor and l-menthol are widely used in topical formulations to relieve local pain. For each separate compound or simple mixtures, quantitative analysis methods are reported. However, for a mixture containing all above mentioned active compounds, no assay methods were found. Due to the differing physicochemical characteristics, two methods were developed and

  10. Surface tension of aqueous lithium bromide + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Berman, N.S. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)); Wood, B.D. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States))

    1994-01-01

    The surface tension of an aqueous lithium bromide solution containing an active surfactant (2-ethyl-1-hexanol) was measured over the lithium bromide concentration range 40 [<=] C[sub LiBr] [<=] 60 wt % and surfactant concentration range 0 [<=] C[sub sur] [<=] 200 ppm. The Du Nouy ring method was employed to determine the surface tension.

  11. Affinity profiles of morphine, codeine, dihydrocodeine and their glucuronides at opioid receptor subtypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Mignat; Uta Wille; Albrecht Ziegler

    1995-01-01

    The affinity of morphine, codeine, dihydrocodeine and their glucuronides for ?-, ?,- and ?-opioid receptors was investigated. Binding was studied on guinea-pig brain homogenates with [3H]DAMGO, [3H]DPDPE, and [3H]U69593. The substitution of the free phenolic group of morphine caused a decrease in binding at opioid receptors without affecting the ??-ratio nor that of ??. Glucuronidation of the 6-hydroxyl group of

  12. Movement of Fluorescein and Its Glucuronide Across Retinal Pigment Epithelium-Choroid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Koyano; Makoto Araie; Shuichiro Eguchi

    Purpose. To characterize movement of fluorescein and its glucuronide across the blood-retinal barrier. Methods. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid preparations from New Zealand albino rabbit were sealed in an Ussing-type chamber in a stabilized condition for 3 hr, where move- ment of fluorescein and fluorescein glucuronide across the RPE-choroid was studied under a short circuit condition. Results. The outward (vitreous-choroid) permeability

  13. In Vitro Glucuronidation of the Antibacterial Triclocarban and Its Oxidative MetabolitesS?

    PubMed Central

    Schebb, N. H.; Franze, B.; Maul, R.; Ranganathan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Triclocarban (3,4,4?-trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) is widely used as an antibacterial in bar soaps. During use of these soaps, a significant portion of TCC is absorbed by humans. For the elimination from the body, glucuronidation plays a key role in both biliary and renal clearance. To investigate this metabolic pathway, we performed microsomal incubations of TCC and its hydroxylated metabolites 2?-OH-TCC, 3?-OH-TCC, and 6-OH-TCC. Using a new liquid chromatography-UV-mass spectrometry method, we could show a rapid glucuronidation for all OH-TCCs by the uridine-5?-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) present in liver microsomes of humans (HLM), cynomolgus monkeys (CLM), rats (RLM), and mice (MLM). Among the tested human UGT isoforms, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, and UGT1A9 showed the highest activity for the conjugation of hydroxylated TCC metabolites followed by UGT1A1, UGT1A3, and UGT1A10. Due to this broad pattern of active UGTs, OH-TCCs can be efficiently glucuronidated in various tissues, as shown for microsomes from human kidney (HKM) and intestine (HIM). The major renal metabolites in humans, TCC-N-glucuronide and TCC-N?-glucuronide, were formed at very low conversion rates (<1%) by microsomal incubations. Low amounts of N-glucuronides were generated by HLM, HIM, and HKM, as well as by MLM and CLM, but not by RLM, according to the observed species specificity of this metabolic pathway. Among the human UGT isoforms, only UGT1A9 had activity for the N-glucuronidation of TCC. These results present an anomaly where in vivo the predominant urinary metabolites of TCC are N and N?-glucuronides, but these compounds are slowly produced in vitro. PMID:21953915

  14. A concise synthesis of glucuronide metabolites of urolithin-B, resveratrol, and hydroxytyrosol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Lucas; David Alcantara; Juan Carlos Morales

    2009-01-01

    A simple and direct strategy to chemically synthesize O-?-d-glucuronides of urolithin-B 4, resveratrol 5, and the corresponding hydroxytyrosol derivatives 6, 7 (as a regioisomeric mixture), and 8 is described. The critical glycosylation step has been optimized using a structurally simple phenol, urolithin-B, by modification of several reaction parameters (solvent, promoter, and glucuronide donor). Very high yields have been obtained in

  15. A review of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide's pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships in experimental and clinical pain.

    PubMed

    Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Lund, Trine Meldgaard; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Christrup, Lona Louring; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2015-07-10

    Morphine is a widely used opioid for treatment of moderate to severe pain, but large interindividual variability in patient response and no clear guidance on how to optimise morphine dosage regimen complicates treatment strategy for clinicians. Population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models can be used to quantify dose-response relationships for the population as well as interindividual and interoccasion variability. Additionally, relevant covariates for population subgroups that deviate from the typical population can be identified and help clinicians in dose optimisation. This review provides a detailed overview of the published human population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies for morphine analgesia in addition to basic drug disposition and pharmacological properties of morphine and its analgesic active metabolite, morphine-6-glucuronide, that may help identify future covariates. Furthermore, based on simulations from key pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models, the contribution of morphine-6-glucuronide to the analgesic response in patients with renal insufficiency was investigated. Simulations were also used to examine the impact of effect-site equilibration half-life on time course of response. Lastly, the impact of study design on the likelihood of determining accurate pharmacodynamic parameters for morphine response was evaluated. PMID:25861720

  16. Identification of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms responsible for leonurine glucuronidation in human liver and intestinal microsomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Bo; Cai, Weimin; Zhang, Jinlian; Zhou, Ning; Ma, Guo; Yang, Ping; Zhu, Qing; Zhu, Yizhun

    2014-09-01

    Leonurine is a potent component of herbal medicine Herba leonuri. The detail information on leonurine metabolism in human has not been revealed so far. Two primary metabolites, leonurine O-glucuronide and demethylated leonurine, were observed and identified in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and O-glucuronide is the predominant one. Among 12 recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), UGT1A1, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT1A10 showed catalyzing activity toward leonurine glucuronidation. The intrinsic clearance (CLint) of UGT1A1 was approximately 15-to 20-fold higher than that of UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT1A10, respectively. Both chemical inhibition study and correlation study demonstrated that leonurine glucuronidation activities in HLMs had significant relationship with UGT1A1 activities. Leonurine glucuronide was the major metabolite in human liver microsomes. UGT1A1 was principal enzyme that responsible for leonurine glucuronidation in human liver and intestine microsomes. PMID:24635759

  17. Characterization of in vitro glucuronidation clearance of a range of drugs in human kidney microsomes: comparison with liver and intestinal glucuronidation and impact of albumin.

    PubMed

    Gill, Katherine L; Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the importance of the addition of albumin for characterization of hepatic glucuronidation in vitro; however, no reports exist on the effects of albumin on renal or intestinal microsomal glucuronidation assays. This study characterized glucuronidation clearance (CL(int, UGT)) in human kidney, liver, and intestinal microsomes in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for seven drugs with differential UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B7 specificity, namely, diclofenac, ezetimibe, gemfibrozil, mycophenolic acid, naloxone, propofol, and telmisartan. The impact of renal CL(int, UGT) on accuracy of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of glucuronidation clearance was investigated. Inclusion of 1% BSA for acidic drugs and 2% for bases/neutral drugs in incubations was found to be suitable for characterization of CL(int, UGT) in different tissues. Although BSA increased CL(int, UGT) in all tissues, the extent was tissue- and drug-dependent. Scaled CL(int, UGT) in the presence of BSA ranged from 2.22 to 207, 0.439 to 24.4, and 0.292 to 23.8 ml · min(-1) · g tissue(-1) in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes. Renal CL(int, UGT) (per gram of tissue) was up to 2-fold higher in comparison with that for liver for UGT1A9 substrates; in contrast, CL(int, UGT) for UGT2B7 substrates represented approximately one-third of hepatic estimates. Scaled renal CL(int, UGT) (in the presence of BSA) was up to 30-fold higher than intestinal glucuronidation for the drugs investigated. Use of in vitro data obtained in the presence of BSA and inclusion of renal clearance improved the IVIVE of glucuronidation clearance, with 50% of drugs predicted within 2-fold of observed values. Characterization and consideration of kidney CL(int, UGT) is particularly important for UGT1A9 substrates. PMID:22275465

  18. Structure of ethyl phenyl selenone.

    PubMed

    Hoier, H; Carrell, H L; Glusker, J P; Spears, C P

    1993-03-15

    C8H10O2Se, M(r) = 217.13, monoclinic, P2(1)/n, a = 9.511 (2), b = 15.741 (3) c = 11.467 (2) A, beta = 91.31 (2) degrees, V = 1716.3 (6) A3, Z = 8 (two molecules per asymmetric unit), Dx = 1.68 Mg m-3, lambda (Mo K alpha) = 0.71069 A, mu = 4.19 mm-1, F(000) = 864, T congruent to 295 K, R(obs) = 0.060 for 1944 unique reflections with I > 2 sigma (I). The two molecules in the asymmetric unit are very similar; they differ only in the conformation of the ethyl side chain. There is considerable disorder in one molecule, that possibly can be represented by torsion about the Se-C(ethyl) bond. In each case the O atoms of the SeO2 group lie near the plane of the phenyl group. Se-O ... H-C interactions appear to be the only significant intermolecular interactions. These involve an H atom of the alpha-C atom of the ethyl group in addition to the H atoms of the phenyl group. PMID:8484923

  19. In vitro glucuronidation kinetics of deoxynivalenol by human and animal microsomes and recombinant human UGT enzymes.

    PubMed

    Maul, Ronald; Warth, Benedikt; Schebb, Nils Helge; Krska, Rudolf; Koch, Matthias; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), formed by Fusarium species, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon ingestion, the majority of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide conjugate. First in vitro data indicated that DON phase II metabolism is strongly species dependent. However, kinetic data on the in vitro metabolism as well as investigations on the specific enzymes responsible for DON glucuronidation in human are lacking. In the present study, the DON metabolism was investigated using human microsomal fractions and uridine-diphosphoglucuronyltransferases (UGTs) as well as liver microsomes from five animal species. Only two of the twelve tested human recombinant UGTs led to the formation of DON glucuronides with a different regiospecificity. UGT2B4 predominantly catalyzed the formation of DON-15-O-glucuronide (DON-15GlcA), while for UGT2B7 the DON-3-O-glucuronide (DON-3GlcA) metabolite prevailed. For human UGTs, liver, and intestinal microsomes, the glucuronidation activities were low. The estimated apparent intrinsic clearance (Clapp,int) for all human UGT as well as tissue homogenates was <1 mL/min mg protein. For the animal liver microsomes, moderate Clapp,int between 1.5 and 10 mL/min mg protein were calculated for carp, trout, and porcine liver. An elevated glucuronidation activity was detected for rat and bovine liver microsomes leading to Clapp,int between 20 and 80 mL/min mg protein. The obtained in vitro data points out that none of the animal models is suitable for estimating the human DON metabolism with respect to the metabolite pattern and formation rate. PMID:24927789

  20. Human hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 are glucuronidated and sulfated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Erratico, Claudio; Zheng, Xiaobo; Ryden, Andreas; Marsh, Goran; Maho, Walid; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-07-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were used worldwide as additive flame retardants and are classified as persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic environmental pollutants. In humans, the hydroxylated metabolites of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) formed in vitro have also been detected in vivo. To further characterize the metabolism of BDE-47 and BDE-99 and to identify candidate markers for monitoring the human exposure to PBDEs using non-invasive approaches, glucuronidation and sulfation of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were investigated using human liver microsomes and cytoplasm, respectively. The formed Phase II metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a novel approach to develop analytical methods in absence of authentic standards. All available standards for hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were glucuronidated and sulfated, showing that glucuronidation and sulfation are part of the metabolism pathway of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in vitro. The major glucuronidated and sulfated analogs of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 were (a) 2,4-DBP-Gluc and 5-Gluc-BDE-47, and (b) 2'-Sulf-BDE-28, 4-Sulf-BDE-42 and 3-Sulf-BDE-47, respectively. The major glucuronidated and sulfated analogs of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-99 were (a) 2,4,5-TBP-Gluc and 6'-Gluc-BDE-99, and (b) 3'-Sulf-BDE-99 and 5'-Sulf-BDE-99, respectively. Apparent Km values associated with the formation of sulfated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were ten times lower than those of the corresponding glucuronidated metabolites, suggesting that sulfated rather than glucuronidated metabolites of OH-PBDEs might be used as markers of human exposure to PBDEs using a non-invasive approach based on urine sample collection. PMID:25956475

  1. Vapour pressures and osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate with alcohols at T = 323.15 K

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noelia Calvar; Begoña González; Ángeles Domínguez; Eugénia A. Macedo

    2009-01-01

    Osmotic coefficients of binary mixtures containing alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) and the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulfate were determined at T=323.15K. Vapour pressure and activity coefficients of the studied systems were calculated from experimental data. The extended Pitzer model modified by Archer, and the modified NRTL model (MNRTL) were used to correlate the experimental data, obtaining standard

  2. A general synthesis of ethyl 4-aminophenyl and ethyl 4-[amino(hydroxyimino)methyl]phenyl phosphonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanislav Gobec; Katja Štrancar; Uroš Urleb

    2002-01-01

    Diethyl phosphonates were conveniently converted into ethyl 4-aminophenyl and ethyl 4-[amino(hydroxyimino)methyl]phenyl phosphonates as potentially useful intermediates for the preparation of functionalized phenyl phosphonates.

  3. Genetic and environmental factors associated with variation of human xenobiotic glucuronidation and sulfation.

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, B; Coughtrie, M W

    1997-01-01

    Glucuronidation and sulfation are phase 2 metabolic reactions catalyzed by large families of different isoenzymes in man. The textbook view that glucuronidation and sulfation lead to the production of harmless conjugates for simple excretion is not valid. Biologically active and toxic sulfates and glucuronides are produced and leed to adverse drug reactions, including immune hypersensitivity. Considerable variation in xenobiotic conjugation is observed as a result of altered expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (STs). Recent cloning and expression of human cDNA encoding UGTs and STs has facilitated characterization of isoform substrate specificity, which has been further validated using specific antibodies and human tissue fractions. The availability of cloned/expressed human enzymes and specific antibodies has enabled the investigation of xenobiotic induction and metabolic disruption leeding to adverse responses. Genetic polymorphisms of glucuronidation and sulfation are known to exist although the characterization and assessment of the importance of these variations are hampered by appropriate ethical studies in men with suitable safe model compounds. Genetic analysis has allowed molecular identification of defects in well-known hyperbilirubinemias. However, full characterization of the specific functional roles of human UGTs and STs requires rigorous kinetic and molecular analyses of the role of each enzyme in vivo through the use of specific antibodies and inhibitors. This will leed to the better prediction of variation of xenobiotic glucuronidation and sulfation in man. PMID:9255555

  4. Altered morphine glucuronide and bile acid disposition in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Ferslew, B C; Johnston, C K; Tsakalozou, E; Bridges, A S; Paine, M F; Jia, W; Stewart, P W; Barritt, A S; Brouwer, K L R

    2015-04-01

    The functional impact of altered drug transport protein expression on the systemic pharmacokinetics of morphine, hepatically derived morphine glucuronide (morphine-3- and morphine-6-glucuronide), and fasting bile acids was evaluated in patients with biopsy-confirmed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) compared to healthy subjects. The maximum concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-last ) of morphine glucuronide in serum were increased in NASH patients (343 vs. 225 nM and 58.8 vs. 37.2 µM*min, respectively; P???0.005); morphine pharmacokinetics did not differ between groups. Linear regression analyses detected an association of NASH severity with increased morphine glucuronide Cmax and AUC0-last (P < 0.001). Fasting serum glycocholate, taurocholate, and total bile acid concentrations were associated with NASH severity (P < 0.006). Increased hepatic basolateral efflux of morphine glucuronide and bile acids is consistent with altered hepatic transport protein expression in patients with NASH and may partially explain differences in efficacy and/or toxicity of some highly transported anionic drugs/metabolites in this patient population. PMID:25669174

  5. Carboxyl nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are efficiently glucuronidated by microsomes of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Sabolovic, Nicole; Heydel, Jean-Marie; Li, Xin; Little, Joanna M; Humbert, Anne-Claude; Radominska-Pandya, Anna; Magdalou, Jacques

    2004-11-18

    Limited studies have been carried out on the biotransformation of carboxyl nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the liver. However, the role of the intestine in NSAID metabolism has not been investigated. In this report, the contribution of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract from five donors to the glucuronidation of the NSAIDs, RS-ketoprofen, S-naproxen, RS- and S-etodolac, was investigated. UGT activity and, for some donors, mRNA levels were evaluated. All NSAIDs were glucuronidated throughout the GI tract; however, glucuronidation was low in stomach and duodenum as compared to the remainder of the intestine. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the UGT1A isoforms, UGT1A3, 1A8, and 1A10, and UGT2B7 were expressed in the GI tract. Human recombinant UGT1A3, 1A9, 1A10 and 2B7 were actively involved in the glucuronidation of all NSAIDs while UGT1A7 and the intestine-specific UGT1A8 had no glucuronidating activity towards those compounds. Despite interindividual variations in both the levels of mRNA and the distribution of activity through the intestine, UGTs in the GI tract may contribute significantly to the first pass metabolism of orally administered NSAIDs. PMID:15535975

  6. 40 CFR 180.441 - Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, including its...Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, including...registration are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl,...

  7. 40 CFR 180.441 - Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, including its...Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, including...registration are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl,...

  8. 40 CFR 180.441 - Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, including its...Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl, including...registration are established for residues of the herbicide quizalofop ethyl,...

  9. Simplified analysis of acetaminophen glucuronide for quantifying gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis using deuterated water.

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Kahl, S; Carvalho, F; Barosa, C; Roden, M

    2015-06-15

    Measurement of acetaminophen glucuronide (AG) (2)H enrichment from deuterated water ((2)H2O) by (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of its monoacetone glucose (MAG) derivative provides estimation of gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic contributions to endogenous glucose production (EGP). However, AG derivatization to MAG is laborious and unsuitable for high-throughput studies. An alternative derivative, 5-O-acetyl monoacetone glucuronolactone (MAGLA), was tested. Eleven healthy subjects ingested (2)H2O to 0.5% body water enrichment and 500mg of acetaminophen. Plasma glucose and urinary glucuronide positional (2)H enrichments were measured by (2)H NMR spectroscopy of MAG and MAGLA, respectively. A Bland-Altman analysis indicated agreement at the 95% confidence level between glucose and glucuronide estimates. PMID:25800563

  10. Simultaneous determination of the phase II metabolites of the non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug etodolac in human urine.

    PubMed

    Berendes, U; Blaschke, G

    1996-01-01

    Etodolac, an antirheumatic and analgetic drug, is metabolized in humans by hydroxylation and acyl glucuronidation to yield the corresponding 1-O-glucuronides. The acylglucuronides of etodolac and one of its hydroxylated metabolites were determined by HPLC using a RP18 column. In order to increase the lipophilicity of these metabolites the hydroxy groups were acetylated and the carboxylic functions were methylated. In a study with five human volunteers a stereoselective excretion of the acylglucuronides could be observed. The S-etodolac-glucuronide is mainly excreted during the first 6 hours after administration of 400 mg of etodolac whereas the elimination of the R-glucuronide predominates at longer periods of time. The S-glucuronide of 7-hydroxy-etodolac was preferenetively excreted during the period of time observed. An unknown metabolite of etodolac could be characterized by chemical and enzymatically hydrolysis and by MS and NMR. PMID:9676278

  11. Carbon dioxide solubility in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan N. Soriano; Bonifacio T. Doma Jr.; Meng-Hui Li

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we present new solubility results for carbon dioxide in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate for temperatures ranging from (303.2 to 343.2)K and pressures up to 5.9MPa using a thermogravimetric microbalance. Carbon dioxide solubilities were determined from absorption saturation (equilibrium) results at each fixed temperature and pressure. The buoyancy effect was accounted for in the evaluation of the

  12. Aspects of Thermal Graft Copolymerization of Methyl Methacrylate onto Ethyl Cellulose in Homogeneous Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Abdel-Razik

    1997-01-01

    Homogeneous graft copolymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) onto ethyl cellulose (EC) using radical initiators such as ammonium persulfate (APS), potassium persulfate (KPS), and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was carried out in benzene\\/DMSO (1\\/1 v\\/v) mixed-solvent system. The grafting yield (GY%) was determined as functions of the polymerization temperature and of the concentrations of a monomer, ethyl cellulose, and an initiator. Several

  13. Pervaporation separation of ethyl acetate–ethanol binary mixtures using polydimethylsiloxane membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hasano?lu; Y. Salt; S. Kele?er; S. Özkan; S. Dinçer

    2005-01-01

    Pervaporation separation of azeotrope forming ethyl acetate–ethanol mixtures was investigated by using a selfmade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane. Sorption, desorption and pervaporation experiments for ethyl acetate–ethanol mixture with different concentrations were conducted at 30, 40 and 50°C. The effect of process parameters such as feed concentration and temperature on flux and selectivity is discussed. Equilibrium curves are determined by vapor–liquid equilibrium

  14. Transport of estradiol-17?-glucuronide, estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane: evidence for different transport systems.

    PubMed

    Wlcek, Katrin; Hofstetter, Lia; Stieger, Bruno

    2014-03-01

    Important reactions of drug metabolism, including UGT mediated glucuronidation and steroidsulfatase mediated hydrolysis of sulfates, take place in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes. Consequently, UGT generated glucuronides, like estradiol-17?-glucuronide, have to be translocated back into the cytoplasm to reach their site of excretion. Also steroidsulfatase substrates, including estrone-3-sulfate, have to cross the ER membrane to reach their site of hydrolysis. Based on their physicochemical properties such compounds are not favored for passive diffusion and therefore likely necessitate transport system(s) to cross the ER membrane in either direction. The current study aims to investigate the transport of taurocholate, estradiol-17?-glucuronide, and estrone-3-sulfate in smooth (SER) and rough (RER) endoplasmic reticulum membrane vesicles isolated from Wistar and TR(-) rat liver. Time-dependent and bidirectional transport was demonstrated for taurocholate, showing higher uptake rates in SER than RER vesicles. For estradiol-17?-glucuronide a fast time-dependent efflux with similar efficiencies from SER and RER but no clear protein-mediated uptake was shown, indicating an asymmetric transport system for this substrate. Estrone-3-sulfate uptake was time-dependent and higher in SER than in RER vesicles. Inhibition of steroidsulfatase mediated estrone-3-sulfate hydrolysis decreased estrone-3-sulfate uptake but had no effect on taurocholate or estradiol-17?-glucuronide transport. Based on inhibition studies and transport characteristics, three different transport mechanisms are suggested to be involved in the transport of taurocholate, estrone-3-sulfate and estradiol-17?-glucuronide across the ER membrane. PMID:24406246

  15. Interpretation problems in a forensic case of abstinence determination using alcohol markers in hair

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fritz Pragst

    In a child custody case a mother with a longstanding history of alcohol misuse had to show absolute abstinence for one year. She entered a residential rehabilitation for six months and was tested two months later by way of a hair test for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) with the result of 22pg\\/mg in the proximal 0–1cm segment and the segments 1–2cm

  16. The formation of bilirubin and p-nitrophenyl glucuronides by rabbit liver

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Geraldine A.; Yaffe, Sumner J.

    1966-01-01

    1. Glucuronide formation of bilirubin and p-nitrophenol in vitro with excess of UDP-glucuronic acid by UDP-glucuronyltransferase from livers of young and adult rabbits was studied. 2. The development of UDP-glucuronyltransferase for the two substrates followed a markedly different pattern during maturation of young rabbits, p-nitrophenol-conjugation ability being much higher at birth than that for bilirubin. 3. Mg2+ increased bilirubin conjugation, but inhibited p-nitrophenyl glucuronide formation. 4. p-Nitrophenol acted as a potent non-competitive inhibitor for bilirubin conjugation but bilirubin did not affect p-nitrophenyl glucuronidation. 5. The enzyme for bilirubin conjugation was inactivated at pH9 during treatment with snake venom, whereas in the same preparation the activity of the corresponding enzyme for p-nitrophenol was enhanced. In addition, some solubilization of the latter enzyme could be achieved by this method. 6. The possibility of the existence of more than one enzyme system for the formation of O-glucuronides is discussed. PMID:5944248

  17. In Vitro Glucuronidation of the Antibacterial Triclocarban and Its Oxidative MetabolitesS

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    In Vitro Glucuronidation of the Antibacterial Triclocarban and Its Oxidative MetabolitesS N. H: Triclocarban (3,4,4 -trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) is widely used as an antibacterial in bar soaps. During use,4,4 -trichlorocarbanilide; TCC) (Fig. 1) is widely used as an antibacterial agent in bar soaps in the United States. It can

  18. Age-related increases in F344 rat intestine microsomal quercetin glucuronidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to establish the extent age modifies intestinal quercetin glucuronidation capacity. Pooled microsomal fractions of three equidistant small intestine (SI) segments from 4, 12, 18, and 28 mo male F344 rats (n=8/group) were employed to model the enzyme kinetics of UDP-gl...

  19. [Synthesis and properties of the N-ethyl derivatives of carminomycin and rubomycin].

    PubMed

    Olsuf'eva, E N; Povarov, L S; Potapova, N P

    1982-01-01

    N-Monoethyl derivatives of carminomycin, rubomycin, 13-dihydrocarminomycin and 13-dihydrorubomycin were synthesized by condensation of their amino groups with acetic aldehyde in the presence of sodium boron hydride. The respective N,N-diethyl derivatives of the antibiotics were formed as by-products of the reaction. New compounds such as N-ethylcarminomycin, N,N-diethylcarminomycin, N-ethyl-13-dihydrocarminomycin, N,N-diethyl-13-dihydrocarminomycin, N-ethylrubomycin and N-ethyl-13-dihydrorubomycin were synthesized. Antibacterial activity of N-ethyl- and N,N-diethyl derivatives of carminomycin and rubomycin determined with the use of Bac. mycoides as the test microbe was 40-50 per cent and that of N-ethyl- and N,N-diethyl-13-dihydro-derivatives was 15-30 per cent of the activity of the respective antibiotics, carminomycin and rubomycin. PMID:6814352

  20. Effects of Icosapent Ethyl (Eicosapentaenoic Acid Ethyl Ester) on Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Rosiglitazone in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Braeckman, Rene A; Stirtan, William G; Soni, Paresh N

    2015-01-01

    Background Icosapent ethyl is a high-purity form of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester approved to reduce triglyceride levels in adults with triglycerides ?500?mg/dL. Candidates for triglyceride-lowering therapy include patients with diabetes mellitus who may be receiving rosiglitazone. We assessed the effects of icosapent ethyl on the pharmacokinetic parameters of rosiglitazone. Methods Subjects received a single 8-mg oral dose of rosiglitazone alone and with oral icosapent ethyl 4?g/day in this open-label drug–drug interaction study. Pharmacokinetic end points included area under the concentration versus time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–inf) and maximum observed concentration (Cmax) for rosiglitazone with and without icosapent ethyl. Results Of 30 subjects enrolled, 28 completed the study. Icosapent ethyl 4?g/day at steady-state did not significantly change the single-dose AUC0–inf or Cmax of rosiglitazone 8?mg. Least squares geometric mean ratios (90% confidence interval) for AUC0–inf and Cmax of rosiglitazone given with icosapent ethyl versus rosiglitazone alone were 0.90 (87.00–93.40) and 1.01 (92.02–109.9), respectively. No serious adverse events were reported and no subject discontinued due to an adverse event. Conclusions At steady-state concentrations, icosapent ethyl did not inhibit the pharmacokinetics of rosiglitazone. Co-administration of icosapent ethyl and rosiglitazone was safe and well tolerated.

  1. Role of Glucuronidation for Hepatic Detoxification and Urinary Elimination of Toxic Bile Acids during Biliary Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Martin; Bia?ek, Andrzej; Trottier, Jocelyn; Verreault, Mélanie; Caron, Patrick; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Barbier, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Biliary obstruction, a severe cholestatic condition, results in a huge accumulation of toxic bile acids (BA) in the liver. Glucuronidation, a conjugation reaction, is thought to protect the liver by both reducing hepatic BA toxicity and increasing their urinary elimination. The present study evaluates the contribution of each process in the overall BA detoxification by glucuronidation. Glucuronide (G), glycine, taurine conjugates, and unconjugated BAs were quantified in pre- and post-biliary stenting urine samples from 12 patients with biliary obstruction, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The same LC-MS/MS procedure was used to quantify intra- and extracellular BA-G in Hepatoma HepG2 cells. Bile acid-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells was evaluated using MTS reduction, caspase-3 and flow cytometry assays. When compared to post-treatment samples, pre-stenting urines were enriched in glucuronide-, taurine- and glycine-conjugated BAs. Biliary stenting increased the relative BA-G abundance in the urinary BA pool, and reduced the proportion of taurine- and glycine-conjugates. Lithocholic, deoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the most cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic/necrotic BAs for HepG2 cells. Other species, such as the cholic, hyocholic and hyodeoxycholic acids were nontoxic. All BA-G assayed were less toxic and displayed lower pro-apoptotic/necrotic effects than their unconjugated precursors, even if they were able to penetrate into HepG2 cells. Under severe cholestatic conditions, urinary excretion favors the elimination of amidated BAs, while glucuronidation allows the conversion of cytotoxic BAs into nontoxic derivatives. PMID:24244729

  2. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Leads to Deconjugation of Quercetin Glucuronides in Inflammatory Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Satomi; Shiba, Yuko; Minekawa, Shoko; Nishikawa, Tomomi; Mukai, Rie; Terao, Junji; Kawai, Yoshichika

    2013-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids, such as quercetin, have long been recognized to protect blood vessels from atherogenic inflammation by yet unknown mechanisms. We have previously discovered the specific localization of quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a phase II metabolite of quercetin, in macrophage cells in the human atherosclerotic lesions, but the biological significance is poorly understood. We have now demonstrated the molecular basis of the interaction between quercetin glucuronides and macrophages, leading to deconjugation of the glucuronides into the active aglycone. In vitro experiments showed that Q3GA was bound to the cell surface proteins of macrophages through anion binding and was readily deconjugated into the aglycone. It is of interest that the macrophage-mediated deconjugation of Q3GA was significantly enhanced upon inflammatory activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Zymography and immunoblotting analysis revealed that ?-glucuronidase is the major enzyme responsible for the deglucuronidation, whereas the secretion rate was not affected after LPS treatment. We found that extracellular acidification, which is required for the activity of ?-glucuronidase, was significantly induced upon LPS treatment and was due to the increased lactate secretion associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, the ?-glucuronidase secretion, which is triggered by intracellular calcium ions, was also induced by mitochondria dysfunction characterized using antimycin-A (a mitochondrial inhibitor) and siRNA-knockdown of Atg7 (an essential gene for autophagy). The deconjugated aglycone, quercetin, acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in the stimulated macrophages by inhibiting the c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation, whereas Q3GA acts only in the presence of extracellular ?-glucuronidase activity. Finally, we demonstrated the deconjugation of quercetin glucuronides including the sulfoglucuronides in vivo in the spleen of mice challenged with LPS. These results showed that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role in the deconjugation of quercetin glucuronides in macrophages. Collectively, this study contributes to clarifying the mechanism responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of dietary flavonoids within the inflammation sites. PMID:24260490

  3. Tissue and species differences in the glucuronidation of glabridin with UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Fang, Zhongze; Yang, Lu; Xiao, Ling; Xia, Yangliu; Gonzalez, Frank J; Zhu, Liangliang; Cao, Yunfeng; Ge, Guangbo; Yang, Ling; Sun, Hongzhi

    2015-04-25

    Glabridin (GA) has gained wide application in the cosmetics and food industry. This study was performed to investigate its metabolic inactivation and elimination by glucuronidation by use of liver and intestine microsomes from humans (HLM and HIM) and rats (RLM and RIM), and liver microsomes from cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs (CyLM and DLM). Both hydroxyl groups at the C2 and C4 positions of the B ring are conjugated to generate two mono-glucuronides (M1 and M2). HIM, RIM and RLM showed the most robust activity in catalyzing M2 formation with intrinsic clearance values (Clint) above 2000 ?L/min/mg, with little measurable M1 formation activity. DLM displayed considerable activity both in M1 and M2 formation, with Clint values of 71 and 214 ?L/min/mg, respectively, while HLM and CyLM exhibited low activities in catalyzing M1 and M2 formation, with Clint values all below 20 ?L/min/mg. It is revealed that UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A9, 2B7, 2B15 and extrahepatic UGT1A8 and 1A10 are involved in GA glucuronidation. Nearly all UGTs preferred M2 formation except for UGT1A1. Notably, UGT1A8 displayed the highest activity with a Clint value more than 5-fold higher than the other isoforms. Chemical inhibition studies, using selective inhibitors of UGT1A1, 1A9, 2B7 and 1A8, further revealed that UGT1A8 contributed significantly to intestinal GA glucuronidation in humans. In summary, this in vitro study demonstrated large species differences in GA glucuronidation by liver and intestinal microsomes, and that intestinal UGTs are important for the pathway in humans. PMID:25765239

  4. Separation optimization for the recovery of phenyl ethyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    Priddy, S A; Hanley, T R; Effler, W T

    1999-01-01

    Phenyl ethyl alcohol is a compound that occurs naturally in flower petals and in many common beverages, such as beer. Desire for the floral, rose-like notes imparted by phenyl ethyl alcohol has created a unique niche for this chemical in flavor and fragrance industries. Phenyl ethyl alcohol can be produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae via bioconversion. Often this method of production results in extremely low yields, thus placing a great deal of importance on recovery and purification of the valuable metabolite. To determine the best method for recovering the chemical, a primary recovery step and a secondary recovery step were developed. The primary recovery step consisted of comparing dead-end filtration with crossflow ultrafiltration. Crossflow ultrafiltration was ultimately selected to filter the fermentation broth because of its high flow rates and low affinity for the product. The secondary recovery step consisted of a comparison of liquid- liquid extraction and hydrophobic resin recovery. The hydrophobic resin was selected because of its higher rate of recovery and a higher purity than the liquid-liquid extraction, the current practice of Brown-Forman. PMID:15304716

  5. Determination by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection of total 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38) in beagle dog plasma after intravenous administration of liposome-based SN-38 (LE-SN38).

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Ahmad, A; Khan, S; Dahhani, F; Wang, Y F; Ahmad, I

    2003-07-01

    An HPLC- fluorescence method to quantitate total 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38) in beagle dog plasma spiked with liposome based formulation of SN-38 (LE-SN38) and using camptothecin (CPT) as the internal standard (I.S.) was developed and validated to support pharmacokinetics/toxicokinetics studies. Sample preparation was done by protein precipitation using acetonitrile with 0.5% acetic acid. The supernatant was evaporated, and reconstituted in acetonitrile-20 mM ammonium acetate, pH 3.5 (20:80, v/v). When injected onto a Zorbax SB-C(18) HPLC column SN-38 as well as I.S. were detected by fluorescence using an excitation at 368 nm and emission at 515 nm. The SN-38 concentrations in samples were calculated from a standard curve of peak area ratios of SN-38 to the I.S. using weighted linear regression. The sensitivity limit for SN-38 was 1.00 ng/ml in beagle dog plasma with a precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) of 12.4% and an accuracy (expressed as analytical recovery) of 104%. The assay was linear within the standard curve range of 1-750 ng/ml. Acceptable precision and accuracy were also obtained for concentrations over the balance of the standard curve range from between-run and within-run calculations. PMID:12798168

  6. Synthesis, high-performance liquid chromatography-nuclear magnetic resonance characterization and pharmacokinetics in mice of CD271 glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Rühl, R; Thiel, R; Lacker, T S; Strohschein, S; Albert, K; Nau, H

    2001-06-01

    Retinoic acid-glucuronides are known as retinoids with activity in acne therapy, limited placental transfer and reduced retinoid adverse effects. We synthesized the glucuronide of a novel retinoid, CD271 (adapalene), used for the treatment of moderate acne. The synthesis product ("CD271 glucuronide", CD271G) was purified by preparative HPLC. It undergoes in aqueous solution, like other glucuronides, rapid acyl-migration of the bound aglycone leading to position isomers. Thus characterization of purified CD271G could be only achieved by HPLC-NMR coupling. A subfraction ("CD271GB") consisting essentially of 2'- and 3'-CD271G was used for pharmacokinetic studies. After a single subcutaneous injection at a dosage of 30 mg/kg the substance showed considerable uptake and metabolism to CD271 indicating that CD271GB could serve as a prodrug for CD271. PMID:11419733

  7. Predominant Contribution of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 in the Glucuronidation of Racemic Flurbiprofen in the Human Liver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Mano; Takashi Usui; Hidetaka Kamimura

    2007-01-01

    Flurbiprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used as a racemic mixture. Although glucuronidation is one of its elimination pathways, the role of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) in this process remains to be investigated. Thus, the kinetics of the ste- reoselective glucuronidation of racemic (R,S)-flurbiprofen by re- combinant UGT isozymes and human liver microsomes (HLMs) were investigated, and the major human UGT isozymes

  8. Phase behaviour and physico-chemical properties of the binary systems {1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate, or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate + water, or + an alcohol}

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urszula Doma?ska; Marta Królikowska; Marek Królikowski

    2010-01-01

    Phase diagrams for the binary systems {1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate, [EMIM][SCN], or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tosylate [EMIM][TOS]+water, or +an alcohol (C7–C10)} have been determined at atmospheric pressure using a dynamic method. Water shows complete miscibility with [EMIM][SCN] in the liquid phase in the temperature range (298.15–438.15) K. (Liquid+liquid) phase equilibria and (solid+liquid) phase equilibria with complete miscibility in the liquid phase region were observed

  9. A sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative determination of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) in human plasma containing liposome-based SN-38 (LE-SN38).

    PubMed

    Khan, Sumsullah; Ahmad, Ateeq; Ahmad, Imran

    2003-12-01

    7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) is an active metabolite of Irinotecan (CPT-11), an anticancer pro-drug. To support clinical pharmacokinetic studies for liposome based formulation of SN-38 (LE-SN38) in cancer patients, a rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of total SN-38 in human plasma. Sample preparation was carried out by one-step protein precipitation using cold acetonitrile with 0.5% acetic acid (v/v). Camptothecin was used as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation of SN-38 and IS was achieved using a Synergi Hydro-RP column (C(18), 50 x 2 mm, 4 micro m), with a gradient elution of acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid. After ionization in electrospray source (positive ions), the acquisition was performed in the multiple reactions monitoring mode. Quantitation was accomplished using the precursor-->product ion combinations of m/z 393.1-->349.2 for SN-38 and 349.1-->305.1 for IS. The quantification limit of 0.05 ng/mL was achieved by using much lower volume (0.2 mL) of plasma and in the presence of LE-SN38. The method was validated over the concentration range of 0.05-400 ng/mL. Accuracy was within +/-12% of nominal at all concentration levels. Inter-day and intra-day precisions expressed as percentage coefficient of variation (%CVs) for quality control (QC) samples were less than 14 and 5%, respectively. PMID:14648604

  10. The Contribution of Common UGT2B10 and CYP2A6 Alleles to Variation in Nicotine Glucuronidation among European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, A. Joseph; von Weymarn, Linda B.; Martinez, Maribel; Bierut, Laura J.; Goate, Alison; Murphy, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosytransferase-2B10 (UGT2B10) is the primary catalyst of nicotine glucuronidation. To develop a predictive genetic model of nicotine metabolism, the conversion of deuterated (D2)-nicotine to D2-nicotine-glucuronide, D2-cotinine, D2-cotinine-glucuronide, and D2-trans-3'-hydroxycotinine were quantified in 188 European Americans, and the contribution of UGT2B10 genotype to variability in first-pass nicotine glucuronidation assessed, following a procedure previously applied to nicotine C-oxidation. The proportion of total nicotine converted to nicotine-glucuronide (D2-nicotine-glucuronide/ (D2-nicotine +D2-nicotine-glucuronide +D2-cotinine +D2-cotinine-glucuronide +D2-trans-3'-hydroxycotinine)) was the primary phenotype. The variant, rs61750900T (D67Y) (minor allele frequency (MAF) = 10%), is confirmed to abolish nicotine glucuronidation activity. Another variant, rs112561475G (N397D) (MAF = 2%), is significantly associated with enhanced glucuronidation. rs112561475G is the ancestral allele of a well-conserved amino acid, indicating that the majority of human UGT2B10 alleles are derived hypomorphic alleles. CYP2A6 and UGT2B10 genotype explain 53% of the variance in oral nicotine glucuronidation in this sample. CYP2A6 and UGT2B10 genetic variants are also significantly associated with un-deuterated (D0) nicotine glucuronidation in subjects smoking ad libitum. We find no evidence for further common variation markedly influencing hepatic UGT2B10 expression in European Americans. PMID:24192532

  11. Epicatechin and catechin are O-methylated and glucuronidated in the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kuhnle, G; Spencer, J P; Schroeter, H; Shenoy, B; Debnam, E S; Srai, S K; Rice-Evans, C; Hahn, U

    2000-10-22

    There is considerable interest in the bioavailability of polyphenols and their bioactivity in vivo. We have studied the absorption and metabolism of catechin and epicatechin in the small intestine and the comparative transfer across the jejunum and ileum. Perfusion of isolated jejunum with the flavanols resulted in glucuronidation ( approximately 45%), O-methylation: 3'-O-Methyl- and 4'-O-methyl- ( approximately 30%), and O-methyl-glucuronidation ( approximately 20% of total flavanols identified) during transfer across the enterocytes to the serosal side. This demonstrates the activity of catechol-O-methyl transferases in the metabolism of flavanols and suggests that these metabolites and conjugates are likely to enter the portal vein. In contrast, in the case of the ileum, the majority of the flavanols appeared on the serosal side unmetabolised and the total percentage of flavanols transferred was higher than that in the jejunum ( approximately fivefold). PMID:11032751

  12. Hormonal monitoring of early pregnancy by a direct radioimmunoassay of steroid glucuronides in first morning urine

    SciTech Connect

    Mendizabal, A.F.; Quiroga, S.; Farinati, Z.; Lahoz, M.; Nagle, C.

    1984-11-01

    The usefulness of the direct 4-hour radioimmunoassay of estriol-16-glucuronide (E/sub 3/G) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (P/sub 2/G) in first morning urine (FMU) for establishing a prognosis of the early pregnancy outcome was evaluated in 106 patients that became pregnant. Microaliquots of FMU were serially assayed from day 3 of the conception cycle until day 80 of pregnancy. The E/sub 3/G and P/sub 2/G profiles of 19 pregnancies which terminated in spontaneous abortion with either a diagnosis of the blighted ovum syndrome (n = 11) or presumption of a corpus luteum/trophoblast failure (n = 8) have been compared with those of clinically normal pregnancies (n = 87). Normal pregnancies displayed typical patterns of E/sub 3/G and P/sub 2/G development, while variations were observed in abortive events that reflected changes of the fetoplacental unit.

  13. Fenfluramine hydrochloride, (+-)-N-ethyl-m-(trifluoromethyl)amphetamine hydrochloride

    E-print Network

    Grunewald, Gary L; Creese, Mary W; Extine, Michael W

    1981-01-01

    ) . SHELX. Program for crya structure determination. Univ. of Cambridge, England. STEWART, R . F . , DAVIDSON, E . R . & SIMPSON, W. T. J. Chem.Phys. 4 2 , 3 1 7 5 - 3 1 8 7 . Acta Cryst. (1981). B37, 1790-1793 Fenfluramine Hydrochloride, (±)-A^-Ethyl-/w-(trifluoromethyl)amphetamine... reflections after anisotropic refinement of all non-H atoms. The solid-state conformations of the fenfluramine and amphetamine cations are the same. Introduction. Single crystals of racemic fenfluramine hydrochloride were obtained by recrystallization from...

  14. A new cyclopamine glucuronide prodrug with improved kinetics of drug release.

    PubMed

    Renoux, Brigitte; Legigan, Thibaut; Bensalma, Souheyla; Chadéneau, Corinne; Muller, Jean-Marc; Papot, Sébastien

    2011-12-21

    We prepared a new glucuronide prodrug of cyclopamine designed to target selectively the Hedgehog signalling pathway of cancer cells. This prodrug includes a novel self-immolative linker bearing a hydrophilic side chain that can be easily introduced via"click chemistry". With this design, the prodrug exhibits reduced toxicity compared to the free drug on U87 glioblastoma cells. However, in the presence of ?-glucuronidase, the prodrug conducts to the quick release of cyclopamine thereby restoring its antiproliferative activity. PMID:22042246

  15. Valproate Reduces the Glucuronidation of Asenapine Without Affecting Asenapine Plasma Concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mireille G. F. Gerrits; Rik de Greef; Peter Dogterom; Pierre A. M. Peeters

    2012-01-01

    Asenapine is indicated for treatment of schizophrenia in the United States and acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes, as monotherapy (United States and European Union) or adjunct therapy (United States only), associated with bipolar I disorder. It is extensively metabolized; the 2 main metabolites are asenapine N-glucuronide and N-desmethyl-asenapine. The authors investigated the pharmacokinetic interactions between asenapine and valproate

  16. Chemical reactivity of the naproxen acyl glucuronide and the naproxen coenzyme A thioester towards bionucleophiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jørgen Olsen; Inga Bjørnsdottir; Jette Tjørnelund; Steen Honoré Hansen

    2002-01-01

    Drugs may be metabolised to reactive electrophilic species that spontaneously react with proteins. The presence of such drug–protein adducts has been associated with drug toxicity. In this study, the reactivity of the major metabolite of naproxen—the 1-?-O-glucuronide (Nap-GlcU)—was compared to the corresponding naproxen coenzyme A (Nap-CoA) thioester. The reactivity of the two metabolites was assessed in vitro in a phosphate

  17. Probenecid impairment of acetaminophen and lorazepam clearance: direct inhibition of ether glucuronide formation.

    PubMed

    Abernethy, D R; Greenblatt, D J; Ameer, B; Shader, R I

    1985-08-01

    Eleven subjects received acetaminophen (650 mg i.v.) on two occasions in random sequence, with and without concurrent administration of probenecid (500 mg) every 6 hr. Nine subjects similarly received lorazepam (2 mg. i.v.) with and without concurrent probenecid. Acetaminophen half-life was prolonged during probenecid treatment (mean +/- S.E., 4.30 +/- 0.23 vs. 2.51 +/- 0.16 hr; P less than .001) due to markedly decreased clearance (178 +/- 13 vs. 329 +/- 24 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (65 +/- 4 vs. 69 +/- 3 l; NS). Urinary excretion of acetaminophen glucuronide during 24 hr was decreased (84 +/- 9 vs. 260 +/- 21 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide; P less than .001) and acetaminophen sulfate excretion was increased (323 +/- 25 vs. 217 +/- 17 mg of acetaminophen as sulfate; P less than .005) during concurrent probenecid treatment. However, the sum of the two conjugated metabolites was not significantly different (407 +/- 28 vs. 476 +/- 20 mg of acetaminophen as glucuronide plus sulfate excreted per 24 hr; NS). Lorazepam half-life was also prolonged during probenecid treatment (33.0 +/- 3.9 vs. 14.3 +/- 1.08 hr; P less than .001) due to decreased clearance (44.7 +/- 5.4 vs. 80.3 +/- 13.2 ml/min; P less than .001) with no change in volume of distribution (111 +/- 5 vs. 111 +/- 7 l; NS). Formation of the ether glucuronides of acetaminophen and lorazepam is impaired markedly by therapeutic doses of probenecid. Sulfate conjugation is not affected.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4020675

  18. Reverse-phase h.p.l.c. separation, quantification and preparation of bilirubin and its conjugates from native bile. Quantitative analysis of the intact tetrapyrroles based on h.p.l.c. of their ethyl anthranilate azo derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Spivak, W; Carey, M C

    1985-01-01

    We describe a facile and sensitive reverse-phase h.p.l.c. method for analytical separation of biliary bile pigments and direct quantification of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) and its monoglucuronide (BMG) and diglucuronide (BDG) conjugates in bile. The method can be 'scaled up' for preparative isolation of pure BDG and BMG from pigment-enriched biles. We employed an Altex ultrasphere ODS column in the preparative steps and a Waters mu-Bondapak C18 column in the separatory and analytical procedures. Bile pigments were eluted with ammonium acetate buffer, pH 4.5, and a 20 min linear gradient of 60-100% (v/v) methanol at a flow rate of 2.0 ml/min for the preparative separations and 1.0 ml/min for the analytical separations. Bile pigments were eluted in order of decreasing polarity (glucuronide greater than glucose greater than xylose conjugates greater than UCB) and were chemically identified by t.l.c. of their respective ethyl anthranilate azo derivatives. Quantification of UCB was carried out by using a standard curve relating a range of h.p.l.c. integrated peak areas to concentrations of pure crystalline UCB. A pure crystalline ethyl anthranilate azo derivative of UCB (AZO . UCB) was employed as a single h.p.l.c. reference standard for quantification of BMG and BDG. We demonstrate that: separation and quantification of biliary bile pigments are rapid (approximately 25 min); bile pigment concentrations ranging from 1-500 microM can be determined 'on line' by using 5 microliters of bile without sample pretreatment; bilirubin conjugates can be obtained preparatively in milligram quantities without degradation or contamination by other components of bile. H.p.l.c. analyses of a series of mammalian biles show that biliary UCB concentrations generally range from 1 to 17 microM. These values are considerably lower than those estimated previously by t.l.c. BMG is the predominant, if not exclusive, bilirubin conjugate in the biles of a number of rodents (guinea pig, hamster, mouse, prairie dog) that are experimental models of both pigment and cholesterol gallstone formation. Conjugated bilirubins in the biles of other animals (human, monkey, pony, cat, rat and dog) are chemically more diverse and include mono-, di- and mixed disconjugates of glucuronic acid, xylose and glucose in proportions that give distinct patterns for each species. PMID:3919713

  19. Hesperidin metabolite hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide, but not hesperetin-3'-O-glucuronide, exerts hypotensive, vasodilatory, and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Jokura, Hiroko; Hashizume, Koujiro; Ominami, Hideo; Shibuya, Yusuke; Suzuki, Atsushi; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2013-09-01

    Orally ingested hesperidin (HES) is hydrolyzed into hesperetin in the gastrointestinal tract and conjugated during absorption. Hesperetin conjugates are the main circulating metabolites in human and rat plasma. We previously reported that glucosyl hesperidin (GHES), a water-soluble HES derivative, prevents hypertension via improvement of endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Although these hesperetin conjugates seem to be responsible for hypotensive and endothelium-dependent vasodilatory activities of dietary GHES, little is known about the mechanisms of action of these conjugated metabolites. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hesperetin-7-O-?-d-glucuronide (HPT7G) and hesperetin-3'-O-?-d-glucuronide (HPT3'G), which are the predominant HES metabolites in rat plasma, on blood pressure and endothelial function. Intravenous administration of HPT7G (5 mg kg(-1)) decreased blood pressure in anesthetized SHRs. HPT7G enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to acetylcholine, but had no effect on endothelium-independent vasodilation in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in aortas isolated from SHRs. HPT7G decreased hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA expression in rat aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, HPT3'G had little effect on these parameters. In conclusion, HPT7G exerted hypotensive, vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities, similar to hesperetin and these effects are associated, in part, with the activity of GHES and HES to improve hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:23831969

  20. Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Arokiyaraj, S; Balamurugan, R; Augustian, P

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment. Results H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study. Conclusions The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats. PMID:23569798

  1. A validated method for the determination of paracetamol and its glucuronide and sulphate metabolites in the urine of HIV+\\/AIDS patients using wavelength-switching UV detection 1 This manuscript is dedicated to Professor Anthony Fell in recognition of his contributions to the pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of multiple wavelength and diode array techniques. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Di Girolamo; W. M. O’Neill; I. W. Wainer

    1998-01-01

    Paracetamol is a safe drug which has been used as an in-vivo probe to determine phase II metabolism in a HIV+\\/AIDS population. Due to the biohazard nature of HIV-infected samples, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay which offers minimal sample manipulation and maximal specificity was developed. This reverse-phase HPLC method uses wavelength-switching UV detection for the simultaneous determination of

  2. 40 CFR 180.429 - Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...180.429 Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide chlorimuron ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities in the table below....

  3. 40 CFR 180.441 - Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues. 180.441 Section 180.441 ...AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.441 Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1)...

  4. Elastic electron scattering by ethyl vinyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Khakoo, M. A.; Hong, L.; Kim, B.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V. [Department of Physics, California State University, Fullerton, California 92834 (United States); Troy High School, 2200 Dorothy Lane, Fullerton, California 92831 (United States); A. A. Noyes Laboratory of Chemical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    We report measured and calculated results for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by ethyl vinyl ether (ethoxyethene), a prototype system for studying indirect dissociative attachment processes that may play a role in DNA damage. The integral cross section displays the expected {pi}{sup *} shape resonance. The agreement between the calculated and measured cross sections is generally good.

  5. Striations in an ethyl alcohol glow discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, P. G.; Gómez, A.; Torres, C.; Martínez, H.; Castillo, F.; Vergara, J.

    2015-03-01

    This research shows the behavior of striations in glow discharge generated with high purity ethyl alcohol at a pressure of 0.6 Torr. This paper present the number of striations as a function of the of current and voltage discharge.

  6. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight...and none above 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by...

  7. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight...and none above 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by...

  8. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by weight...and none above 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by...

  9. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  10. Glass Ratio Glass Ratio pentane (tech) ethyl ether

    E-print Network

    Turro, Claudia

    Glass Ratio Glass Ratio pentane (tech) ethyl ether Petroleum Ether (30-60) 2-methyl-THF 2-methylpentane ethyl ether/isopentane 1:1, 1:2 3-methylpentane ethyl ether/methylcyclohexane 2:3 3-ethylpentane propyl ether/pentane 2:1 2,3-dimethylpentane EtOH 3-methylhexane glycerol 4-methylheptane 1-propanol 3

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl ether. 151.50-42 Section 151.50-42...Requirements § 151.50-42 Ethyl ether. (a)(1) Gravity tanks shall...taken to prevent the contamination of ethyl ether by strong oxidizing agents. (h)...

  12. Experimental study of the density and viscosity of 1-ethyl-3 -methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Schmidt; M. Stephan; J. Safarov; I. Kul; J. Nocke; I. M. Abdulagatov; E. Hassel

    Density and viscosity of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate [EMIM][EtSO4] have been measured over the temperature range from 283.15 K to 413.15 K and at pressures up to 140 MPa and in the temperature range from 283.15 K to 373.15 K at 0.1 MPa, respectively. The expanded uncertainty of the density, pressure, temperature, and viscosity measurements at the 95 % confidence level

  13. Contrasting influences of glucuronidation and O-methylation of epicatechin on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in neurons and fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Spencer, J P; Schroeter, H; Crossthwaithe, A J; Kuhnle, G; Williams, R J; Rice-Evans, C

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the comparative mechanisms by which the dietary form of the flavonoid epicatechin and its predominant in vivo metabolite, epicatechin glucuronide, influence oxidative stress-induced cell death in fibroblasts and neurons. The results demonstrate the contrasting influences of in vivo glucuronidation and methylation on the bioactivity of epicatechin. PMID:11677047

  14. Carfentrazone-ethyl Pond Dissipation and Efficacy on Floating Plants 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TYLER J. KOSCHNICK; W. T. HALLER; A. W. CHEN

    Carfentrazone-ethyl (CE) is a reduced risk herbicide that is currently being evaluated for the control of aquatic weeds. Greenhouse trials were conducted to determine efficacy of CE on water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms- Laub.), water lettuce ( Pistia stratiotes L.), salvinia ( Salvinia minima Baker) and landoltia (Landoltia punctata (G. Mey.) Les & D. J. Crawford ) .

  15. Sugars, acids, ethyl ?- d-glucopyranose and a methyl inositol in sea buckthorn ( Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baoru Yang

    2009-01-01

    Sea buckthorn berry is a rich source of nutrients and bioactive components beneficial for human health. Sugars and acids play an important role in determining the sensory properties of the berry. Sugars, acids, ethyl ?-d-glucopyranose and a methyl inositol were analysed in berries of three subspecies (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. sinensis, rhamnoides and mongolica) collected from China, Finland and Russia over

  16. Ethyl pyruvate decreases HMGB1 release and ameliorates murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Shaival H.; Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Li, Fengling; DeMarco, Richard A.; Beer-Stolz, Donna; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Fink, Mitchell P.; Lotze, Michael T.; Plevy, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    Signals from stressed cells and the enteric microbiota activate macrophages and dendritic cells and mediate intestinal inflammation. HMGB1 serves as an immunogenic stimuli causing release of inflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits secretion of HMGB1 and improves survival in models of endotoxemia and hemorrhagic shock. We reasoned that ethyl pyruvate may be protective in colitis, which involves similar inflammatory pathways. In IL-10?/? mice with established chronic colitis, ethyl pyruvate administration ameliorated colitis and reduced intestinal cytokine production. IL-10?/? mice demonstrated increased intestinal HMGB1 expression and decreased expression of RAGE compared with wild-type mice. Fecal HMGB1 levels were decreased in ethyl pyruvate-treated mice. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate induced HO-1 expression in intestinal tissue. In TNBS-induced colitis, intrarectal administration of ethyl pyruvate resulted in amelioration of colitis and reduced intestinal cytokine production. In LPS-activated murine macrophages, ethyl pyruvate decreased expression of IL-12 p40 and NO production but did not affect IL-10 levels. Ethyl pyruvate did not inhibit nuclear translocation of NF-?B family members but attenuated NF-?B DNA binding. Additionally, ethyl pyruvate induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression and HO-1 promoter activation. Moreover, ethyl pyruvate prevented nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1. In conclusion, the HMGB1/RAGE pathway has pathophysiologic and diagnostic significance in experimental colitis. Ethyl pyruvate and other strategies to inhibit HMGB1 release and function represent promising interventions in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:19454652

  17. Antimicrobial and demelanizing activity of Ganoderma lucidum extract, p-hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acids and their synthetic acetylated glucuronide methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Heleno, Sandrina A; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Esteves, Ana P; ?iri?, Ana; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Martins, Anabela; Sokovi?, Marina; Queiroz, Maria João R P

    2013-08-01

    Mushroom extracts or isolated compounds may be useful in the search of new potent antimicrobial agents. Herein, it is described the synthesis of protected (acetylated) glucuronide derivatives of p-hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acids, two compounds identified in the medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. Their antimicrobial and demelanizing activities were evaluated and compared to the parent acids and G. lucidum extract. p-Hydroxybenzoic and cinnamic acids, as also their protected glucuronide derivatives revealed high antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activity, even better than the one showed by commercial standards. Despite the variation in the order of parent acids and the protected glucuronide derivatives, their antimicrobial activity was always higher than the one revealed by the extract. Nevertheless, the extract was the only one with demelanizing activity against Aspergillus niger. The acetylated glucuronide derivatives could be deprotected to obtain glucuronide metabolites, which circulate in the human organism as products of the metabolism of the parent compounds. PMID:23607932

  18. 2D QSAR Study for Gemfibrozil Glucuronide as the Mechanism-based Inhibitor of CYP2C8

    PubMed Central

    Taxak, N.; Bharatam, P. V.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 involves the bioactivation of the drug to a reactive metabolite, which leads to cytochrome inhibition via various mechanisms. This is generally seen in the Phase I of drug metabolism. However, gemfibrozil (hypolipidemic drug) leads to mechanism-based inhibition after generating glucuronide conjugate (gemfibrozil acyl-?-glucuronide) in the Phase II metabolism reaction. The mechanism involves the covalent binding of the benzyl radical (generated from the oxidation of aromatic methyl group in conjugate) to the heme of CYP2C8. This article deals with the development of a 2D QSAR model based on the inhibitory potential of gemfibrozil, its analogues and corresponding glucuronide conjugates in inhibiting the CYP2C8-catalysed amodiaquine N-deethylation. The 2D QSAR model was developed using multiple linear regression analysis in Accelrys Discovery Studio 2.5 and helps in identifying the descriptors, which are actually contributing to the inhibitory potency of the molecules studied. The built model was further validated using leave one out method. The best quantitative structure activity relationship model was selected having a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.814 and cross-validated correlation coefficient (q2) of 0.799. 2D QSAR revealed the importance of volume descriptor (Mor15v), shape descriptor (SP09) and 3D matrix-based descriptor (SpMax_RG) in defining the activity for this series of molecules. It was observed that volume and 3D matrix-based descriptors were crucial in imparting higher potency to gemfibrozil glucuronide conjugate, as compared with other molecules. The results obtained from the present study may be useful in predicting the inhibitory potential (IC50 for CYP2C8 inhibition) of the glucuronide conjugates of new molecules and compare with the standard gemfibrozil acyl-?-glucuronide (in terms of pIC50 values) in early stages of drug discovery and development. PMID:24591743

  19. 2D QSAR Study for Gemfibrozil Glucuronide as the Mechanism-based Inhibitor of CYP2C8.

    PubMed

    Taxak, N; Bharatam, P V

    2013-11-01

    Mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 involves the bioactivation of the drug to a reactive metabolite, which leads to cytochrome inhibition via various mechanisms. This is generally seen in the Phase I of drug metabolism. However, gemfibrozil (hypolipidemic drug) leads to mechanism-based inhibition after generating glucuronide conjugate (gemfibrozil acyl-?-glucuronide) in the Phase II metabolism reaction. The mechanism involves the covalent binding of the benzyl radical (generated from the oxidation of aromatic methyl group in conjugate) to the heme of CYP2C8. This article deals with the development of a 2D QSAR model based on the inhibitory potential of gemfibrozil, its analogues and corresponding glucuronide conjugates in inhibiting the CYP2C8-catalysed amodiaquine N-deethylation. The 2D QSAR model was developed using multiple linear regression analysis in Accelrys Discovery Studio 2.5 and helps in identifying the descriptors, which are actually contributing to the inhibitory potency of the molecules studied. The built model was further validated using leave one out method. The best quantitative structure activity relationship model was selected having a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.814 and cross-validated correlation coefficient (q(2)) of 0.799. 2D QSAR revealed the importance of volume descriptor (Mor15v), shape descriptor (SP09) and 3D matrix-based descriptor (SpMax_RG) in defining the activity for this series of molecules. It was observed that volume and 3D matrix-based descriptors were crucial in imparting higher potency to gemfibrozil glucuronide conjugate, as compared with other molecules. The results obtained from the present study may be useful in predicting the inhibitory potential (IC50 for CYP2C8 inhibition) of the glucuronide conjugates of new molecules and compare with the standard gemfibrozil acyl-?-glucuronide (in terms of pIC50 values) in early stages of drug discovery and development. PMID:24591743

  20. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.; Peterson, C.L.; Drown, D.C. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. The optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].

  1. Glucuronidated Quercetin Lowers Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats via Deconjugation

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Pilar; Rodriguez-Gómez, Isabel; González-Manzano, Susana; Dueñas, Montserrat; Jiménez, Rosario; Menéndez, Carmen; Vargas, Félix; Tamargo, Juan; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic oral quercetin reduces blood pressure and restores endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive animals. However, quercetin (aglycone) is usually not present in plasma, because it is rapidly metabolized into conjugated, mostly inactive, metabolites. The aim of the study is to analyze whether deconjugation of these metabolites is involved in the blood pressure lowering effect of quercetin. Methodology/Principal Findings We have analyzed the effects on blood pressure and vascular function in vitro of the conjugated metabolites of quercetin (quercetin-3-glucuronide, Q3GA; isorhamnetin-3-glucuronide, I3GA; and quercetin-3?-sulfate, Q3'S) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Q3GA and I3GA (1 mg/kg i.v.), but not Q3'S, progressively reduced mean blood pressure (MBP), measured in conscious SHR. The hypotensive effect of Q3GA was abolished in SHR treated with the specific inhibitor of ?-glucuronidase, saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (SAL, 10 mg/ml). In mesenteric arteries, unlike quercetin, Q3GA had no inhibitory effect in the contractile response to phenylephrine after 30 min of incubation. However, after 1 hour of incubation Q3GA strongly reduced this contractile response and this effect was prevented by SAL. Oral administration of quercetin (10 mg/Kg) induced a progressive decrease in MBP, which was also suppressed by SAL. Conclusions Conjugated metabolites are involved in the in vivo antihypertensive effect of quercetin, acting as molecules for the plasmatic transport of quercetin to the target tissues. Quercetin released from its glucuronidated metabolites could be responsible for its vasorelaxant and hypotensive effect. PMID:22427863

  2. Inhibition of Genistein Glucuronidation by Bisphenol A in Human and Rat Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Janis L.; Thomas, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Genistein is a natural phytoestrogen of the soybean, and bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic chemical used in the production of polycarbonate plastics. Both genistein and BPA disrupt the endocrine system in vivo and in vitro. Growing concerns of altered xenobiotic metabolism due to concomitant exposures from soy milk in BPA-laden baby bottles has warranted the investigation of the glucuronidation rate of genistein in the absence and presence (25 ?M) of BPA by human liver microsomes (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). HLM yield Vmax values of 0.93 ± 0.10 nmol · min?1 · mg?1 and 0.62 ± 0.05 nmol · min?1 · mg?1 in the absence and presence of BPA, respectively. Km values for genistein glucuronidation by HLM in the absence and presence of BPA are 15.1 ± 7.9 ?M and 21.5 ± 7.7 ?M, respectively, resulting in a Ki value of 58.7 ?M for BPA. Significantly reduced Vmax and unchanged Km in the presence of BPA in HLM are suggestive of noncompetitive inhibition. In RLM, the presence of BPA resulted in a Ki of 35.7 ?M, an insignificant change in Vmax (2.91 ± 0.26 nmol · min?1 · mg?1 and 3.05 ± 0.41 nmol · min?1 · mg?1 in the absence and presence of BPA, respectively), and an increase in apparent Km (49.4 ± 14 ?M with no BPA and 84.0 ± 28 ?M with BPA), indicative of competitive inhibition. These findings are significant because they suggest that BPA is capable of inhibiting the glucuronidation of genistein in vitro, and that the type of inhibition is different between HLM and RLM. PMID:22146138

  3. Enzyme-assisted synthesis of the glucuronide conjugate of psilocin, an hallucinogenic component of magic mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Takuji; Fukuhara, Kiyoshi; Goda, Yukihiro; Okuda, Haruhiro

    2011-09-01

    An enzyme-assisted synthesis of psilocin glucuronide (PCG), a metabolite excreted in the urine of magic mushroom (MM) users, is described. In the presence of Aroclor 1254 pretreated rat liver microsomes, psilocin and the cofactor UDPGA were incubated for 20 h. Purification by HPLC gave PCG in 19% yield (3.6 mg). The compound structure was characterized by MS and NMR. The milligram amounts of PCG produced by this method will allow the direct identification and quantification of PCG in the urine of MM users. PMID:21960543

  4. EtG/EtS in Urine from sexual assault victims determined by UPLC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Hegstad, Solfrid; Helland, Arne; Hagemann, Cecilie; Michelsen, Lisbeth; Spigset, Olav

    2013-05-01

    In cases of sexual assault, victims often present too late for the detection of ethanol in biological samples. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in urine. Sample preparation prior to UPLC-MS-MS analysis was a simple sample dilution. The calibration ranges were 0.2-20 mg/L, and between-assay relative standard deviations were in the range of 0.7-7.0% at concentrations of 0.3, 3.0 and 7.0 mg/L. Urine samples were analyzed from 59 female patients presenting to the Sexual Assault Centre at St. Olav University Hospital in Trondheim, Norway between November 2010 and October 2011. EtG and EtS results were fully concordant, and positive in 45 of the 48 cases with self-reported alcohol intake. In contrast, ethanol was detectable in only 20 of these cases, corresponding to sensitivities of 94 and 42%, respectively. Of the patients reporting no alcohol intake, none had positive EtG/EtS findings. These data show that analysis of EtG and EtS greatly increases the detection window of alcohol ingestion in cases of sexual assault, and may shed additional light on the involvement of ethanol in such cases. The victims' self-reported intake of alcohol seems to be reliable in this study, according to the EtG/EtS findings. PMID:23467259

  5. Synthesis and characterization of deoxynivalenol glucuronide: its comparative immunotoxicity with deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianai; Murphy, Patricia; Cunnick, Joan; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2007-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin commonly contaminating wheat, barley and corn. DON glucuronide (DONGLU) is a major DON metabolite. We synthesized and purified DONGLU and tested its immunotoxicity, hypothesizing that DONGLU would be much less toxic to K562 cells compared with DON. DONGLU was synthesized using rat liver microsomes, uridine-5'-diphosphoglucuronic acid and DON, and purified with a Sephadex LH-20 column and reverse phase HPLC. beta-Glucuronidase hydrolysis formed a product with retention time and UV spectrum identical with DON. Using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in negative mode, the molecular mass (M-1) of purified DONGLU was 471 g/mol; in agreement with an expected molecular weight of 472 g/mol. MS and NMR indicated that the glucuronide moiety was conjugated with the carbon-3-hydroxyl group of DON. The cytotoxicity of DON and DONGLU were compared in cell culture using human erythroleukemia cell line K562. Fifty percent inhibition of cell number was observed with a DON concentration of 1.31 microM using a methylthaizol tetrazolium (MTS) cell viability assay whereas no significant cytotoxicity was observed for DONGLU at up to 270 microM. DONGLU did not influence DON toxicity at 0.5 microM, 1.3 microM and 8.4 microM concentration combinations of each compound. These data verified that DONGLU is a detoxification product of DON. PMID:17507135

  6. Determination of LSD and its metabolites in human biological fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Canezin, J; Cailleux, A; Turcant, A; Le Bouil, A; Harry, P; Allain, P

    2001-12-01

    A liquid chromatographic procedure with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric detection has been developed and validated for LSD and iso-LSD determination. A one-step liquid-liquid extraction on 1 ml blood or urine was used. The lower limit for quantitative determination was 0.02 microg/l for LSD and iso-LSD. The analytical procedure has been applied in two positive cases (case 1: LSD=0.31 microg/l, iso-LSD=0.27 microg/l in plasma and LSD=1.30 microg/l, iso-LSD=0.82 microg/l in urine; case 2: LSD=0.24 microg/l, iso-LSD=0.6 microg/l in urine). LSD metabolism was investigated using MS-MS neutral loss monitoring for the screening of potential metabolites. The main metabolite was 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD) present in urine at the concentrations of 2.5 microg/l and 6.6 microg/l, respectively, for case 1 and 2, and was not present in plasma. Nor-LSD was also found in urine at 0.15 and 0.01 microg/l levels. Nor-iso-LSD, lysergic acid ethylamide (LAE), trioxylated-LSD, lysergic acid ethyl-2-hydroxyethylamide (LEO) and 13 and 14-hydroxy-LSD and their glucuronide conjugates were detected in urine using specific MS-MS transitions. PMID:11817305

  7. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of novel C12 ethyl ketolides.

    PubMed

    Burger, Matthew T; Hiebert, Christy; Seid, Mehran; Chu, Daniel T; Barker, Lynn; Langhorne, Mike; Shawar, Ribhi; Kidney, Jolene; Desai, Manoj C; Plattner, Jacob J

    2006-08-15

    A novel series of C(12) ethyl erythromycin derivatives have been discovered which exhibit in vitro and in vivo potency against key respiratory pathogens, including those resistant to erythromycin. The C(12) modification involves replacing the natural C(12) methyl group in the erythromycin core with an ethyl group via chemical synthesis. From the C(12) ethyl macrolide core, a series of C(12) ethyl ketolides were prepared and tested for antibacterial activity against a panel of relevant clinical isolates. Several compounds were found to be potent against macrolide-sensitive and -resistant bacteria, whether resistance was due to ribosome methylation (erm) or efflux (mef). In particular, the C(12) ethyl ketolides 4k,4s,4q,4m, and 4t showed a similar antimicrobial spectrum and comparable activity to the commercial ketolide telithromycin. The in vivo efficacy of several C(12) ethyl ketolides was demonstrated in a mouse infection model with Streptococcus pneumoniae as pathogen. PMID:16697203

  8. Detection of chlorpyrifos-ethyl (Dursban) and its metabolites in urine samples using immunoassays with confirmation by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Clewis, Suenda Beth

    1995-01-01

    and agricultural purposes because of their relatively low toxicity. Exposure to chlorpyrifos-ethyl is commonly determined by measuring cholinesterase inhibition. This method requires blood. sample analysis via gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and can...

  9. Glucuronidation genotypes and nicotine metabolic phenotypes: Importance of UGT2B10 and UGT2B17 knock-out polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Giambrone, Nino E.; Dluzen, Douglas F.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Berg, Arthur; Gallagher, Carla J.; Lazarus, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Glucuronidation is an important pathway in the metabolism of nicotine, with previous studies suggesting that ~22% of urinary nicotine metabolites are in the form of glucuronidated compounds. Recent in vitro studies have suggested that the UGTs 2B10 and 2B17 play major roles in nicotine glucuronidation with polymorphisms in both enzymes shown to significantly alter the levels of nicotine-, cotinine-, and trans-3?-hydroxy-cotinine (3HC)-glucuronides in human liver microsomes in vitro. In the present study, the relationship between the levels of urinary nicotine metabolites and functional polymorphisms in UGTs 2B10 and 2B17 were analyzed in urine specimens from 104 Caucasian smokers. Based on their percentage of total urinary nicotine metabolites, the levels of nicotine-glucuronide and cotinine-glucuronide were 42% (p<0.0005) and 48% (p<0.0001), respectively, lower in the urine from smokers exhibiting the UGT2B10 (*1/*2) genotype and 95% (p<0.05) and 98% (p<0.05), respectively, lower in the urine from smokers with the UGT2B10 (*2/*2) genotype as compared to the urinary levels in smokers having the wild-type UGT2B10 (*1/*1) genotype. The levels of 3HC-glucuronide was 42% (p<0.001) lower in the urine from smokers exhibiting the homozygous UGT2B17 (*2/*2) deletion genotype as compared to the levels in urine from wild-type UGT2B17 subjects. These data are consistent with previous in vitro studies and demonstrate that UGTs 2B10 and 2B17 play important roles in the glucuronidation of nicotine, cotinine and 3HC and suggest that the UGT2B10 codon 67 SNP and the UGT2B17 deletion significantly reduce overall glucuronidation rates of nicotine and its major metabolites in smokers. PMID:20876810

  10. Pallidol hexa­acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2013-01-01

    The entire mol­ecule of pallidol hexa­acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis­[4-(acet­yloxy)phen­yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra­hydro­indeno­[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra­acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol­ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ?). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa­acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100?Å) is 54.73?(6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol­ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70?(5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carb­oxy)—C—C torsion angles = ?70.24?(14), ?114.43?(10) and ?72.54?(13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H?O inter­actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol­ecules reside. PMID:24046702

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEPATIC MICROSOMAL THYROXINE GLUCURONIDATION AND TOTAL SERUM THYROXINE CONCENTRATIONS IN RATS TREATED WITH PCDDS, PCDFS AND PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HEPATIC MICROSOMAL THYROXINE GLUCURONIDATION AND TOTAL SERUM THYROXINE CONCENTRATIONS IN RATS TREATED WITH PCDDs, PCDFs AND PCBs. D G Ross, K M Crofton, M J DeVito, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC. Many PHAHs decrease thyroxine (T4), possibly due to inducti...

  12. Human and Rat ABC Transporter Efflux of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol A Glucuronide: Interspecies Comparison and Implications for Pharmacokinetic Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant interspecies differences exist between human and rodent with respect to absorption, distribution, and excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and its primary metabolite, BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G). ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter enzymes play important roles in these physi...

  13. In vitro glucuronidation of xanthohumol, a flavonoid in hop and beer, by rat and human liver microsomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Yilmazer; J. F. Stevens; D. R. Buhler

    2001-01-01

    Xanthohumol (XN) is the major prenylated flavonoid of hop plants and has been detected in beer. Previous studies suggest a variety of potential cancer chemopreventive effects for XN, but there is no information on its metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro glucuronidation of XN by rat and human liver microsomes. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, two

  14. Convenient Synthesis of Benzoylecgonine Ethyl Ester, a Homolog of Cocaine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica R. Brzezinski; Charles D. Christian; Meng-Feng Lin; Robert A. Dean; William F. Bosron; Edwin T. Harper

    1992-01-01

    Benzoylecgonine reacted with tetramethylethylenediamine to form a lipophilic ion pair, which was alkylated in the absence of water. The ethyl ester was readily recrystallized for pharmacological studies.

  15. Reaction Rate Coefficients of OH Radicals and Cl Atoms with Ethyl Propanoate, n-Propyl Propanoate, Methyl 2-Methylpropanoate, and Ethyl n-Butanoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cometto, Pablo M.; Daële, Véronique; Idir, Mahmoud; Lane, Silvia I.; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2009-09-01

    Kinetics of the reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with four saturated esters have been investigated. Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with ethyl propanoate (k1), n-propyl propanoate (k2), methyl 2-methylpropanoate (k3), and ethyl n-butanoate (k4) were measured using a conventional relative rate method and the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. At (296 ± 2) K, the rate coefficients obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. Significant curvatures in the Arrhenius plots have been observed in the temperature range 243-372 K for k1, k3, and k4. The rate coefficients for the reactions of the four esters with Cl atoms were determined using the relative rate method at (296 ± 2) K and atmospheric pressure. The values obtained are presented, compared with the literature values when they exist, and discussed. Reactivity trends and atmospheric implications for these esters are also presented.

  16. The effects of two internal rotations in the microwave spectrum of ethyl methyl ketone.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Van, Vinh; Stahl, Wolfgang; Kleiner, Isabelle

    2014-06-01

    The rotational spectra of ethyl methyl ketone, CH3CH2COCH3, were measured in the microwave region from 2 to 40 GHz using two molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometers. Splittings due to internal rotations of both, the acetyl methyl group -COCH3 and the ethyl methyl group CH3CH2CO-, could be completely resolved. All measured transitions were fitted using two different codes, XIAM and BELGI-Cs-2Tops. Molecular parameters like the rotational constants and the centrifugal distortion constants were determined with very high accuracy. The barrier to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group was fitted to 181.502(98) cm(-1), much lower than the value of 763.87(65) cm(-1) found for the ethyl methyl group. The splittings in the spectrum due to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group are accordingly much larger, up to 1.2 GHz, whereas for the ethyl methyl group only splittings from a few hundreds of kHz up to 4 MHz were observed. PMID:24908004

  17. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, "Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)". The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database. ...

  18. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including...tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl...are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section...acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance...acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section...acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance...acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section...acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance...acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  2. 19 CFR 10.99 - Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes. 10.99 Section...REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Ethyl Alcohol § 10.99 Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes. (a)...

  3. 19 CFR 10.99 - Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes. 10.99 Section...REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Ethyl Alcohol § 10.99 Importation of ethyl alcohol for nonbeverage purposes. (a)...

  4. Specific localization of quercetin-3-O-glucuronide in human brain.

    PubMed

    Ishisaka, Akari; Mukai, Rie; Terao, Junji; Shibata, Noriyuki; Kawai, Yoshichika

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, many papers have suggested that dietary flavonoids may exert beneficial effects in the brain tissue for the protection of neurons against oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the bioavailability of flavonoids across the blood-brain barrier and the localization in the brain remain controversial. Thus, we examined the localization of quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major phase-II metabolite of quercetin, in the human brain tissues with or without cerebral infarction by immunohistochemical staining using anti-Q3GA antibody. A significant immunoreactivity was observed in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, which constitute the structural basis of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, and in the foamy macrophages of recent infarcts. The cellular accumulation of Q3GA was also reproduced in vitro in macrophage-like RAW264, microglial MG6, and brain capillary endothelial RBEC1. It is of interest that a common feature of these cell lines is the deconjugation of Q3GA, resulting in the cellular accumulation of non-conjugated quercetin and the methylated forms. We then examined the anti-inflammatory activity of Q3GA and the deconjugated forms in the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cells and revealed that the deconjugated forms (quercetin and a methylated form isorhamnetin), but not Q3GA itself, exhibited inhibitory effects on the inflammatory responses through attenuation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathway. These results suggested that a quercetin glucuronide can pass through the blood-brain barrier, perhaps the CSF barrier, accumulate in specific types of cells, such as macrophages, and act as anti-inflammatory agents in the brain through deconjugation into the bioactive non-conjugated forms. PMID:24893148

  5. Uremic toxins inhibit renal metabolic capacity through interference with glucuronidation and mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Mutsaers, H A M; Wilmer, M J G; Reijnders, D; Jansen, J; van den Broek, P H H; Forkink, M; Schepers, E; Glorieux, G; Vanholder, R; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Masereeuw, R

    2013-01-01

    During chronic kidney disease (CKD), drug metabolism is affected leading to changes in drug disposition. Furthermore, there is a progressive accumulation of uremic retention solutes due to impaired renal clearance. Here, we investigated whether uremic toxins can influence the metabolic functionality of human conditionally immortalized renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) with the focus on UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and mitochondrial activity. Our results showed that ciPTEC express a wide variety of metabolic enzymes, including UGTs. These enzymes were functionally active as demonstrated by the glucuronidation of 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-OHC; K(m) of 12±2?M and a V(max) of 76±3pmol/min/mg) and p-cresol (K(m) of 33±13?M and a V(max) of 266±25pmol/min/mg). Furthermore, a wide variety of uremic toxins, including indole-3-acetic acid, indoxyl sulfate, phenylacetic acid and kynurenic acid, reduced 7-OHC glucuronidation with more than 30% as compared with controls (p<0.05), whereas UGT1A and UGT2B protein expressions remained unaltered. In addition, our results showed that several uremic toxins inhibited mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (i.e. complex II) activity with more than 20% as compared with controls (p<0.05). Moreover, indole-3-acetic acid decreased the reserve capacity of the electron transport system with 18% (p<0.03). In conclusion, this study shows that multiple uremic toxins inhibit UGT activity and mitochondrial activity in ciPTEC, thereby affecting the metabolic capacity of the kidney during CKD. This may have a significant impact on drug and uremic retention solute disposition in CKD patients. PMID:23017367

  6. Toxicological investigation of liquid petroleum gas explosion: human model for propane/ethyl mercaptan exposures.

    PubMed

    Lowry, W T; Gamse, B; Armstrong, A T; Corn, J M; Juarez, L; McDowell, J L; Owens, R

    1991-03-01

    Four individuals died as the result of a propane explosion. As with many propane explosions, the question was raised as to the adequacy of the product's odorization after the autopsy studies had been conducted. In most cases, this question leads to litigation. Ethyl mercaptan is a widely used odorant for propane and was used in this instance. Three of the four victims had blood available at autopsy for study. Quantitative analyses of the victims' blood, obtained during autopsy, were performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, without subjecting the samples to hydrolysis. These analyses determined the relative amounts of propane and ethyl mercaptan in the blood to be 90, 63, and 175 mL/m3 headspace, and 0.36, 0.34, and 0.77 microgram/L blood, respectively. Since mercaptans have been reported in human blood as products of metabolism, modeling studies were conducted to establish the validity of the autopsy data and to develop an autopsy toxicology protocol for investigating explosion deaths. When subjects were not exposed to an atmosphere containing ethyl mercaptan, dimethylsulfide was the only mercaptan detectable in their blood without severe hydrolysis prior to analysis. Metabolic ethyl mercaptan is sufficiently bound to be undetectable by the methods used without hydrolysis. Human subjects were exposed to a flammable mixture of air and propane odorized with ethyl mercaptan. The analyses of the blood from these subjects produced results which were comparable with those for the explosion victims, establishing that the question of odorant adequacy can be addressed at the autopsy of propane explosion victims. It is extremely important that the pathologist and toxicologist investigating gas explosion deaths recognize the valuable evidence existing in the victim's blood. PMID:2066720

  7. Highly sensitive sites for guanine-O6 ethylation in rat brain DNA exposed to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Nehls, P; Rajewsky, M F; Spiess, E; Werner, D

    1984-01-01

    Brain chromosomal DNA isolated from fetal BDIX-rats 1 h after i.v. administration of the ethylating N-nitroso carcinogen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (75 micrograms/g body weight), statistically contained one molecule of O6-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (O6-EtdGuo) per 81 micron of DNA, as determined in enzymatic DNA hydrolysates by competitive radio-immunoassay using a high-affinity anti-(O6-EtdGuo) monoclonal antibody (ER-6). After fragmentation of the DNA by the restriction enzyme AluI (average fragment length, Lav = 0.28 micron = 970 bp; length range, Lr = 1.87-0.02 micron = 6540 - 60 bp), a small (approximately 2%) fraction of DNA enriched in specific polypeptides tightly associated with DNA was separated from the bulk DNA by a glass fiber binding technique. As analyzed by immune electron microscopy, approximately 1% of the DNA molecules in this fraction contained clusters of 2-10 (O6-EtdGuo)-antibody binding sites (ABS). On the cluster-bearing fragments (Lav, 0.85 micron +/- 0.50 micron S.D.; corresponding to 2970 +/- 1760 bp) the average ABS-ABS interspace distance was 110 nm (= 390 bp; range approximately 9-600 nm), indicating a highly non-random distribution of O6-EtdGuo in target cell DNA. Images Fig. 2. PMID:6370677

  8. Thiophene separation from aliphatic hydrocarbons using the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ionic liquid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa Alonso; Alberto Arce; María Francisco; Ana Soto

    2008-01-01

    The ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate has been tested as solvent for the separation of thiophene from aliphatic hydrocarbons. Liquid–liquid equilibrium data have been determined for ternary systems containing the ionic liquid, thiophene and C6, C7, C12 or C16 alkanes at T=298.15K. The performance of the ionic liquid as solvent in such systems has been evaluated. The experimental data were correlated

  9. Identification of Flavone Glucuronide Isomers by Metal Complexation and Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Regioselectivity of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Isozymes in the Biotransformation of Flavones

    PubMed Central

    Robotham, Scott A.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    Flavone Glucuronide isomers of five flavones (chrysin, apigenin, luteolin, baicalein, and scutellarein) were differentiated by collision induced dissociation (CID) of [Co(II) (flavone-H) (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)2]+ complexes. The complexes were generated via post-column addition of a metal/ligand solution after separation of the glucuronide products generated upon incubation of each flavone with an array of UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase (UGT) isozymes. Elucidation of the glucuronide isomers allowed a systematic investigation of the regioselectivity of twelve human UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase (UGT) isozymes, including eight UGT1A and four UGT2B isozymes. Glucuronidation of the 7-OH position was the preferred site for all the flavones except for luteolin, which possessed adjacent hydroxyl groups on the B ring. For all flavones and UGT isozymes, glucuronidation of the 5-OH position was never observed. As confirmed by the metal complexation/MS/MS strategy, glucuronidation of the 6-OH position only occurred for baicalein and scutellarein when incubated with three of the UGT isozymes. PMID:23362992

  10. Hepatocellular Shuttling and Recirculation of Sorafenib-Glucuronide Is Dependent on Abcc2, Abcc3, and Oatp1a/1b.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Aksana; Durmus, Selvi; Li, Lie; Wagenaar, Els; Hu, Shuiying; Gibson, Alice A; Panetta, John C; Mani, Sridhar; Sparreboom, Alex; Baker, Sharyn D; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2015-07-01

    Recently, an efficient liver detoxification process dubbed "hepatocyte hopping" was proposed on the basis of findings with the endogenous compound, bilirubin glucuronide. According to this model, hepatocytic bilirubin glucuronide can follow a liver-to-blood shuttling loop via Abcc3 transporter-mediated efflux and subsequent Oatp1a/1b-mediated liver uptake. We hypothesized that glucuronide conjugates of xenobiotics, such as the anticancer drug sorafenib, can also undergo hepatocyte hopping. Using transporter-deficient mouse models, we show here that sorafenib-glucuronide can be extruded from hepatocytes into the bile by Abcc2 or back into the systemic circulation by Abcc3, and that it can be taken up efficiently again into neighboring hepatocytes by Oatp1a/1b. We further demonstrate that sorafenib-glucuronide excreted into the gut lumen can be cleaved by microbial enzymes to sorafenib, which is then reabsorbed, supporting its persistence in the systemic circulation. Our results suggest broad relevance of a hepatocyte shuttling process known as "hepatocyte hopping"-a novel concept in clinical pharmacology-for detoxification of targeted cancer drugs that undergo hepatic glucuronidation, such as sorafenib. Cancer Res; 75(13); 2729-36. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25952649

  11. Influence of temperature and light intensity on absorption, translocation, and phytotoxicity of fenoxaprop-ethyl and imazamethabenz-methyl in Avena fatua

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Xie; A. I. Hsiao; W. A. Quick

    1996-01-01

    The absorption and translocation of fenoxaprop-ethyl and imazamethabenz-methyl were investigated in wild oat (Avena fatua L.) plants grown under different temperature and light intensity conditions by using 14C tracer techniques. The phytotoxicity of both herbicides, applied as individual droplets, was also determined under similar\\u000a environments. The absorption of fenoxaprop-ethyl and imazamethabenz-methyl was increased by high temperature (30\\/20°C) and\\u000a to a

  12. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester. PMID:24788328

  13. Antitumor activity of vincristine encapsulated in glucuronide-modified long-circulating liposomes in mice bearing Meth A sarcoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Tokudome; Naoto Oku; Kanako Doi; Yukihiro Namba; Shoji Okada

    1996-01-01

    Liposomes modified with the uronic acid derivative palmityl-d-glucuronide (PGlcUA) have a long-circulation time and tend to accumulate in the tumors of tumor-bearing mice. Taking advantage of this character, we investigated the therapeutic effect of vincristine (VCR) encapsulated in liposomes containing PGlcUA (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine\\/cholesterol\\/PGlcUA= 4:4:1 as a molar ratio) on tumor-bearing mice. VCR was loaded into liposomes by a remote loading method,

  14. Ethyl chloride decomposition on oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    McGee, K.C.; Driessen, M.D.; Grassian, V.H. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Ethyl chloride decomposition on Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts has been investigated by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Ethyl chloride reacts on Pt particles at low temperatures near 200 K to form adsorbed C{sub 2} hydrocarbon fragments. By comparison to literature infrared spectra, three species are identified to be adsorbed on the Pt catalysts-ethyl (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}), ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}), and ethylidyne (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}). The C{sub 2}H{sub x} species coexist to a greater extent on the surface of the Pt particles than on single crystal Pt surfaces. The infrared data suggest there are two different reaction pathways that ethyl chloride may undergo on the Pt particles. The first reaction pathway involves {alpha}{beta}-elimination of HC{sub 1} to give adsorbed ethylene. The second reaction pathway results from C-Cl bond dissociation to give adsorbed ethyl groups and chlorine atoms. Adsorbed ethyl groups dehydrogenate to ethylidyne upon warming. In the presence of hydrogen, C{sub 2} fragments can be hydrogenated to give ethane. The data show that adsorbed ethyl and ethylene hydrogenate much more readily than ethylidyne. At higher temperatures near 473 K, ethyl chloride reacts on Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} to yield gas-phase ethylene, ethane, methane, and hydrogen chloride. The reaction rate is enhanced in the presence of hydrogen and there is a greater amount of ethane produced relative to ethylene. Ethyl chloride can react with the oxide support as well at high temperatures. Surface hydroxyl groups on the alumina support react with ethyl chloride to give ethoxy, AlOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}, near 473 K, whereas silica hydroxyl groups show no reaction with ethyl chloride up to 573 K. Possible mechanisms for the high-temperature reaction of ethyl chloride on oxide-supported Pt catalysts are discussed. 33 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. ( R)-(+)-[VCD(+)945]-4Ethyl4-methyloctane, the simplest chiral saturated hydrocarbon with a quaternary stereogenic center

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuma Fujita; Kazuhiro Obata; Shunsuke Kuwahara; Nobuaki Miura; Atsufumi Nakahashi; Kenji Monde; John Decatur; Nobuyuki Harada

    2007-01-01

    Enantiopure (R)-(+)-[VCD(+)945]-4-ethyl-4-methyloctane, the simplest chiral saturated hydrocarbon with a quaternary stereogenic center, was synthesized by the use of M?NP acid method, and its absolute configuration was first unambiguously determined by the 1H NMR anisotropy, X-ray crystallography, and VCD methods.

  16. 77 FR 41346 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ...the existing trinexapac-ethyl tolerance levels for wheat, forage and wheat, middlings as well as change the commodity definition...in or on barley, bran; sugarcane, molasses; and wheat, bran under the Federal Food, Drug, and...

  17. Pregnane × Receptor (PXR) expression in colorectal cancer cells restricts irinotecan chemosensitivity through enhanced SN-38 glucuronidation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical efficacy of chemotherapy in colorectal cancer is subjected to broad inter-individual variations leading to the inability to predict outcome and toxicity. The topoisomerase I inhibitor irinotecan (CPT-11) is worldwide approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and undergoes extensive peripheral and tumoral metabolism. PXR is a xenoreceptor activated by many drugs and environmental compounds regulating the expression of drug metabolism and transport genes in detoxification organs such as liver and gastrointestinal tract. Considering the metabolic pathway of irinotecan and the tissue distribution of Pregnane × Receptor (PXR), we hypothesized that PXR could play a key role in colon cancer cell response to irinotecan. Results PXR mRNA expression was quantified by RT-quantitative PCR in a panel of 14 colon tumor samples and their matched normal tissues. PXR expression was modulated in human colorectal cancer cells LS174T, SW480 and SW620 by transfection and siRNA strategies. Cellular response to irinotecan and its active metabolic SN38 was assessed by cell viability assays, HPLC metabolic profiles and mRNA quantification of PXR target genes. We showed that PXR was strongly expressed in colon tumor samples and displayed a great variability of expression. Expression of hPXR in human colorectal cancer cells led to a marked chemoresistance to the active metabolite SN38 correlated with PXR expression level. Metabolic profiles of SN38 showed a strong enhancement of SN38 glucuronidation to the inactive SN38G metabolite in PXR-expressing cells, correlated with an increase of UDPglucuronosyl transferases UGT1A1, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 mRNAs. Inhibition of PXR expression by lentivirus-mediated shRNA, led to SN38 chemoresistance reversion concomitantly to a decrease of UGT1A1 expression and SN38 glucuronidation. Similarly, PXR mRNA expression levels correlated to UGT1A subfamily expression in human colon tumor biopsies. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that tumoral metabolism of SN38 is affected by PXR and point to potential therapeutic significance of PXR quantification in the prediction of irinotecan response. Furthermore, our observations are pharmacologically relevant since many patients suffering from cancer diseases are often exposed to co-medications, food additives or herbal supplements able to activate PXR. A substantial part of the variability observed among patients might be caused by such interactions PMID:20196838

  18. Ethyl Carbamate in Foods and Beverages – A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. V. Weber; V. I. Sharypov

    \\u000a Foods and beverages contain many toxic chemicals that raise health concerns. Ethyl carbamate (EC) or urethane is the ethyl\\u000a ester of carbamic acid. It occurs at low levels, from ng\\/L to mg\\/L, in many fermented foods and beverages. EC is genotoxic\\u000a and carcinogenic for a number of species such as mice, rats, hamsters and monkeys. It has been classified as

  19. Theoretical Study of the Vibrational Spectroscopy of the Ethyl Radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, Daniel P.; Sibert, Edwin. L. Sibert, Iii

    2013-06-01

    The rich spectroscopy of the ethyl radical has attracted the attention of several experimental and theoretical investigations. The purpose of these studies was to elucidate the signatures of hyperconjugation, torsion, inversion, and Fermi coupling in the molecular spectra. Due to the number of degrees of freedom in the system, previous theoretical studies have implemented reduced-dimensional models. Our ultimate goal is a full-dimensional theoretical treatment of the vibrations using both Van Vleck and variational approaches. The methods will be combined with the potential that we have calculated using the CCSD(T) method on the cc-pVTZ basis set. In this talk we will discuss our initial work, which builds up from these reduced-dimensional models. Our calculations use coordinates that exploit the system's G_{12} PI symmetry in a simple fashion. By systematically adding more degrees of freedom to our model, we can determine the effects of specific couplings on the spectroscopy. T. Häber, A. C. Blair, D. J. Nesbitt and M. D. Schuder J. Chem. Phys. {124}, 054316, (2006). G .E. Douberly, unpublished. R. S. Bhatta, A. Gao and D. S. Perry J. Mol. Struct.: THEOCHEM {941}, 22, (2010).

  20. Electron diffraction investigation of the molecular structures of ethyl isocyanate and ethyl isothiocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cradock, Stephen; Durig, J. R.; Sullivan, J. F.

    1985-10-01

    Electron diffraction (ED) measurements and published microwave spectra are used to define the molecular structures of ethyl isocyanate and ethyl isothiocyanate in the gas phase. A cis-conformation is compatible with the data in both cases, while ED data for EtNCO are also consistent with a deviation of 45° from the cis conformation. An interpretation (in general terms) of the very complex microwave spectra in terms of an anharmonic two-dimensional motion combining the bend at nitrogen and the C?N torsion is proposed. An average cis structure ( r* av basis) consistent with ED and microwave data with removal of the effects of the torsional motion is proposed in each case, with skeletal parameters (NCO, NCS) rC?N 144.8 pm, 143.8; rC?C 152.4, 152.0 pm; rN?C 121.8 pm, 118.7; rC?O 117.4 pm, rC?S 158.0 pm; ?CCN 114.7°, 111.0°; ?CNC 132.2°, 147,4°; ?NCO 192.2°, ?NCS 184.5°.

  1. Vapor–liquid equilibria of ternary systems with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate using headspace gas chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Matsuda; Katsumi Tochigi; Vincent Liebert; Jürgen Gmehling

    2011-01-01

    Vapor–liquid equilibria (VLE) for two binary systems 1-propanol+water and methyl acetate+methanol, and the ternary mixtures with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate [EMIM]+[EtSO4]? as entrainer were measured by headspace gas chromatography. From the experimental VLE data, the influence of the ionic liquid on the separation factors was investigated. The experimental results for the ternary systems show that [EMIM]+[EtSO4]? has a

  2. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide induces ABCA1 expression by LXR? activation in murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Ohara, Kazuaki, E-mail: Kazuaki_Ohara@kirin.co.jp [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)] [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Hideyuki [Laboratory for New Product Development, Kirin Beverage Company Limited, 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8628 (Japan)] [Laboratory for New Product Development, Kirin Beverage Company Limited, 1-17-1 Namamugi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8628 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yoshimasa [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)] [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Shindo, Kazutoshi [Department of Food and Nutrition, Japan Women’s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan)] [Department of Food and Nutrition, Japan Women’s University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8681 (Japan); Yajima, Hiroaki [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)] [Research Laboratories for Health Science and Food Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Aruto [Central Laboratories for Key Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)] [Central Laboratories for Key Technologies, Kirin Company Limited, 1-13-5 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The major circulating quercetin metabolite (Q3GA) activated LXR?. •Q3GA induced ABCA1 via LXR? activation in macrophages. •Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts contained quercetin glycosides. •N. nucifera leaf extract feeding elevated HDLC in mice. -- Abstract: Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) removes excess cholesterol from macrophages to prevent atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is a crucial cholesterol transporter involved in RCT to produce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), and is transcriptionally regulated by liver X receptor alpha (LXR?), a nuclear receptor. Quercetin is a widely distributed flavonoid in edible plants which prevented atherosclerosis in an animal model. We found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major quercetin metabolite after absorption from the digestive tract, enhanced ABCA1 expression, in vitro, via LXR? in macrophages. In addition, leaf extracts of a traditional Asian edible plant, Nelumbo nucifera (NNE), which contained abundant amounts of quercetin glycosides, significantly elevated plasma HDLC in mice. We are the first to present experimental evidence that Q3GA induced ABCA1 in macrophages, and to provide an alternative explanation to previous studies on arteriosclerosis prevention by quercetin.

  3. Molecular Pathways: GLI1-Induced Drug Glucuronidation in Resistant Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Zahreddine, Hiba Ahmad; Borden, Katherine L B

    2015-05-15

    Drug resistance remains a major impediment in the development of durable cancer therapies. Studies in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients revealed a new form of multidrug resistance. Here, increased glioma-associated protein GLI1 leads to elevation of the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) enzymes. UGTs add glucuronic acid to xenobiotics and metabolites. Traditionally, the loss of these enzymes is thought to contribute to cancer as a result of impaired clearance of environmental carcinogens. However, we demonstrate that overexpression of UGTs can contribute to oncogenesis by promoting drug resistance. Indeed, UGT levels in AML patients treated with ribavirin and/or cytarabine were elevated at relapse relative to diagnosis. This was reversed by GLI1 inhibition, suggesting a clinically relevant strategy to overcome drug resistance. Further, overexpression of UGTs can also lead to drug resistance in other cancers, such as certain Hsp90 inhibitors and vorinostat in colorectal and chronic lymphoblastic leukemia, respectively. Not all drugs are targets of glucuronidation, suggesting that UGT status could be relevant to treatment choice. Here, we describe several facets of UGT biology and how these could be exploited clinically. These studies demonstrate how drugs in cancer cells can be metabolized differentially than their normal counterparts. In summary, we describe a new form of drug resistance relevant to a variety of cancer contexts. Clin Cancer Res; 21(10); 2207-10. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25810373

  4. Mutational specificity of ethyl methanesulfonate in excision-repair-proficient and -deficient strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Pastink, A; Heemskerk, E; Nivard, M J; van Vliet, C J; Vogel, E W

    1991-10-01

    The vermilion gene was used as a target to determine the mutational specificity of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in germ cells of Drosophila melanogaster. To study the impact of DNA repair on the type of mutations induced, both excision-repair-proficient (exr+) and excision-repair-deficient (exr-) strains were used for the isolation of mutant flies. In all, 28 mutants from the exr+ strain and 24 from the exr- strain, were characterized by sequence analysis. In two mutants obtained from the exr+ strain, small deletions were observed. All other mutations were caused by single base-pair changes. In two mutants double base-pair substitutions had occurred. Of the mutations induced in the exr+ strain, 22 (76%) were GC----AT transitions, 3 (10%) AT----TA transversions, 2 (6%) GC----TA transversions and 2 (6%) were deletions. As in other systems, the mutation spectrum of EMS in Drosophila is dominated by GC----AT transitions. Of the mutations in an exr- background, 12 (48%) were GC----TA transitions, 7 (28%) AT----TA transversions, 5 (20%) GC----TA transversions and 1 (4%) was a AT----GC transition. The significant increase in the contribution of transversion mutations obtained in the absence of an active maternal excision-repair mechanism, clearly indicates efficient repair of N-alkyl adducts (7-ethyl guanine and 3-ethyl adenine) by the excision-repair system in Drosophila germ cells. PMID:1921971

  5. Fabrication of polymerized crystalline colloidal array thin film modified ?-cyclodextrin polymer for paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl detection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Minh-Phuong N; Seo, Seong S

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an optical chemical sensor for the detection of organophosphate (OP) compounds using a polymerized crystalline colloidal array (PCCA) thin film composed of a close-packed colloidal array of polystyrene particles. The PCCA thin film was modified with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) polymer as a capping cavity for the selective detection of paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl chemical agents. The fabrication of the modified PCCA thin film was optimized and the structure was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The arrangement of polystyrene particles in the PCCA follows a pattern of the fcc (111) planes with strong diffraction peak in the visible spectral region and pH dependence. The diffraction peak of the ?-CD modified PCCA thin film showed a red shift according to the change of paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl concentrations at a fast response time (10 s) and high sensitivity with detection limits of 2.0 and 3.4 ppb, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed interaction mechanism of ?-CD with paraoxon-ethyl and parathion-ethyl in the ?-CD modified PCCA thin film were discussed. PMID:24813957

  6. [Iminium compounds against bacteria and fungi. 29. 3-Alkoxymethyl-1-ethyl-, 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-ethyl-, 3-alkoxymethyl-1-butyl-, and 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-butylbenzimidazolium chloride].

    PubMed

    Pernak, J; Skrzypczak, A; Michalak, L; Jedraszczyk, J; Krysi?ski, J; Kazmierczak, M; Mrówczy?ski, B

    1993-04-01

    Syntheses and antimicrobial activity of 3-alkoxymethyl-1-ethyl-, 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-ethyl-, 3-alkoxymethyl-1-butyl-, and 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-butylbenzimidazolium chlorides are described. The compounds were obtained by reaction of 1-ethyl- or 1-butylbenzimidazole with chloromethylalkyl ethers or chloromethylalkyl sulfide. Antibacterial properties were tested on 13 strains of bacteria and fungi. 3-Dodecylthio-methyl-1-ethyl-benzimidazolium chloride exhibited the highest antibacterial activity. PMID:8494485

  7. Decreased Expression of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 4 (MRP4/ABCC4) Leads to Reduced Glucuronidation of Flavonoids in UGT1A1-Overexpressing HeLa Cells: The Role of Futile Recycling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua; Zhou, Xiaotong; Zhang, Xingwang; Wu, Baojian

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the role of futile recycling (or deglucuronidation) in the disposition of two flavonoids (i.e., genistein and apigenin) was explored using UGT1A1-overexpressing HeLa cells (or HeLa1A1 cells). Glucuronidation of the flavonoids by HeLa1A1 cell lysate followed the substrate inhibition kinetics (Vmax = 0.10 nmol/min/mg, Km = 0.54 ?M, and Ksi = 2.0 ?M for genistein; Vmax = 0.19 nmol/min/mg, Km = 0.56 ?M, and Ksi = 3.7 ?M for apigenin). Glucuronide was efficiently generated and excreted after incubation of the cells with the aglycone (at doses of 1.25-20 nmol). The excretion rates were 0.40-0.69 and 0.84-1.1 nmol/min/mg protein for genistein glucuronide (GG) and apigenin glucuronide (AG), respectively. Furthermore, glucuronide excretion and total glucuronidation were significantly reduced in MRP4 knocked-down as compared to control cells. The alterations were well characterized by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model incorporating the process of futile recycling (defined by a first-order rate constant, Kde). The derived Kde values were 15 and 25 h(-1) for GG and AG, respectively. This was well consistent with the in vitro observation that AG was subjected to more efficient futile recycling compared to GG. In conclusion, futile recycling was involved in cellular glucuronidation, accounting for transporter-dependent glucuronidation of flavonoids. PMID:26066637

  8. A review of the genetic effects of ethyl methanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Sega, G A

    1984-01-01

    Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) is a monofunctional ethylating agent that has been found to be mutagenic in a wide variety of genetic test systems from viruses to mammals. It has also been shown to be carcinogenic in mammals. Alkylation of cellular, nucleophilic sites by EMS occurs via a mixed SN1/SN2 reaction mechanism. While ethylation of DNA occurs principally at nitrogen positions in the bases, because of the partial SN1 character of the reaction, EMS is also able to produce significant levels of alkylation at oxygens such as the O6 of guanine and in the DNA phosphate groups. Genetic data obtained using microorganisms suggest that EMS may produce both GC to AT and AT to GC transition mutations. There is also some evidence that EMS can cause base-pair insertions or deletions as well as more extensive intragenic deletions. In higher organisms, there is clear-cut evidence that EMS is able to break chromosomes, although the mechanisms involved are not well understood. An often cited hypothesis is that DNA bases ethylated by EMS (mostly the N-7 position of guanine) gradually hydrolyze from the deoxyribose on the DNA backbone leaving behind an apurinic (or possibly an apyrimidinic) site that is unstable and can lead to single-strand breakage of the DNA. Data also exist that suggest that ethylation of some chromosomal proteins in mouse spermatids by EMS may be an important factor in causing chromosome breakage. PMID:6390190

  9. Reactions of NO 3 with the man-made emissions 2-methylpent-2-ene, ( Z)-3-methylpent-2-ene, ethyl vinyl ether, and the stress-induced plant emission ethyl vinyl ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfrang, Christian; Tooze, Christopher; Nalty, Andrew; Canosa-Mas, Carlos E.; Wayne, Richard P.

    Rate coefficients for reactions of nitrate radicals (NO 3) with the anthropogenic emissions 2-methylpent-2-ene, ( Z)-3-methylpent-2-ene, ethyl vinyl ether, and the stress-induced plant emission ethyl vinyl ketone (pent-1-en-3-one) were determined to be (9.3±1.1)×10 -12, (9.3±3.2)×10 -12, (1.7±1.3)×10 -12 and (9.4±2.7)×10 -17 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. We performed kinetic experiments at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using a relative-rate technique with GC-FID analysis. Experiments with ethyl vinyl ether required a modification of our established procedure that might introduce additional uncertainties, and the errors suggested reflect these difficulties. Rate coefficients are discussed in terms of electronic and steric influences. Atmospheric lifetimes with respect to important oxidants in the troposphere were calculated. NO 3-initiated oxidation is found to be the strongly dominating degradation route for 2-methylpent-2-ene, ( Z)-3-methylpent-2-ene and ethyl vinyl ether. Atmospheric concentrations of the alkenes and their relative contribution to the total NMHC emissions from trucks can be expected to increase if plans for the introduction of particle filters for diesel engines are implemented on a global scale. Thus more kinetic data are required to better evaluate the impact of these emissions.

  10. Effect of urinary pH on the pharmacokinetics of salicylic acid, with its glycine and glucuronide conjugates in human.

    PubMed

    Vree, T B; Van Ewijk-Beneken Kolmer, E W; Verwey-Van Wissen, C P; Hekster, Y A

    1994-10-01

    We studied the effects of urinary pH on the kinetics of salicylic acid (SA) with its metabolites and assessed the contribution of alkaline hydrolysis of salicylic acid acyl glucuronide to the renal clearance of salicylic acid. Hydrolysis of SAAG in alkaline urine contributes marginally to the high renal clearance and excretion of salicylic acid, validating alkalinization of a patient with SA overdose. Under acidic urine conditions, salicylic acid (SA) had a terminal plasma t1/2 value of 3.29 +/- 0.52 hours while under alkaline urine conditions this t1/2 was significantly reduced to 2.50 +/- 0.41 hours (p = 0.0156). The total oral body clearance of salicylic acid under acidic conditions (1.38 +/- 0.43 l/h) is significantly lower than under alkaline urine conditions (2.27 +/- 0.83 l/h; p = 0.0410). The Km and Vmax values of SA, and its conjugates salicylic acid phenolic glucuronide (SAPG), salicyluric acid (SU) and salicyluric acid phenolic glucuronide (SUPG) did not differ statistically under acidic and alkaline urine conditions. The protein binding of SA was 93.8 +/- 1.0% and that of SU was 89.7 +/- 2.2% in vivo and in vitro. SUPG had a protein binding of 84.8 +/- 1.8%, while SAPG showed no protein binding at all. The renal excretion of salicylic acid depends strongly on the urinary pH. The percentage of the dose excreted unchanged increased from 2.3 +/- 1.5% under acidic conditions to 30.5 +/- 9.1% under alkaline conditions (p = 0.0006). Alkaline urine lowered by 50% the percentage of the dose excreted as SU (p = 0.0028), SAAG (p = 0.0013), and SUPG (p = 0.0296), while SAPG is only marginally lowered (p = 0.0589).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7834163

  11. Effect of pH and human serum albumin on the cytotoxicity of a glucuronide prodrug of 9-aminocamptothecin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeljko M. Prijovich; Yu-Lin Leu; Steve R. Roffler

    2007-01-01

    Purpose\\u000a   9-aminocamptothecin glucuronide (9ACG) is a prodrug of 9-aminocamptothecin (9AC) that displays potent antitumor activity against\\u000a human tumor xenografts in nude mice. Camptothecins exist in a pH dependent equilibrium between active lactone and inactive\\u000a carboxy forms that can be altered by binding to human serum albumin (HSA). Here we investigated the influence of pH and HSA\\u000a on the lactone-carboxy equilibrium,

  12. Accelerated Koenigs-Knorr glucuronidation of a deactivated nitrophenol: unveiling the role of polyamine additive 1,1,4,7,10,10-hexamethyltriethylenetetramine through design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Stazi, Federica; Palmisano, Giovanni; Turconi, Marco; Clini, Simona; Santagostino, Marco

    2004-02-20

    1,1,4,7,10,10-Hexamethyltriethylenetetramine (HMTTA) emerged from a limited parallel screening of selected polyamines as the most appropriate additive for an especially problematic Koenigs-Knorr glucuronidation. This initial finding rapidly evolved into a reliable and high-yielding procedure through the use of two sets of experimental designs. The detailed effect of the stoichiometry of reagents and the amount of amine additive on reaction yield was elucidated. The complexity of the response surface for product yield, described by a third-order polynomial equation, together with ancillary kinetic experiments evidenced the multiple role of HMTTA in the present glucuronidation process. PMID:14961657

  13. Morphine-6-glucuronide: analgesic effects and receptor binding profile in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, F.V.; Palmour, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The antinociceptive effects of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were examined in two animal models of pain, the tail immersion test (reflex withdrawal to noxious heat) and the formalin test (behavioral response to minor tissue injury). In the tail immersion test, M6G produced and increase in withdrawal latency that rose rapidly between 0.01 and 0.025 ug ICV or 1 and 2 mg/kg SC. A further increase occurred at doses greater than 0.2 ug ICV or 4 mg/kg SC and was associated with marked catelepsy and cyanosis. Naloxone, 0.1 mg/kg SC, shifted the lower component of the dose-effect relation by a factor of 24. In the formalin test, 0.01 ug M6G ICV produced hyperalgesia, while between 0.05 and 0.2 ug ICV, antinociception increased rapidly without toxicity. The dose effect relations for hyperalgesia and antinociception were shifted to the right by factors of 20- and 3-fold, respectively. By comparison, ICV morphine was 60 (formalin test) to 145-200 (tail immersion test) times less potent than M6G. At sub-nanomolar concentrations, M6G enhanced the binding of (/sup 3/H)-etorphine, (/sup 3/H)-dihydromorphine and (/sup 3/H)-naloxone to rat brain membrane receptors by 20-40%. At higher concentrations, M6G displaced each ligand from binding sites, with K/sub i/ values of about 30 nM, as compared to morphine K/sub i/ values of about 3 nM.

  14. Salt-enhanced removal of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from aqueous solutions by adsorption on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ganggang; Bao, Zongbi; Zhang, Zhiguo; Xing, Huabin; Su, Baogen; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2013-12-15

    2-Ethyl-1-hexanol has extensive industrial applications in solvent extraction, however, in view of its potential pollution to environment, the removal and recovery of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is considered an essential step toward its sustainable use in the future. In this work, we report the removal of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from aqueous solutions containing salts in high concentrations by adsorption on a coal-based activated carbon. Adsorption thermodynamics showed that the experimental isotherms were conformed well to the Langmuir equation. Also it was found that inorganic salts, i.e. MgCl2 and CaCl2 in high concentration significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity from 223 mg/g in the deionized water to 277 mg/g in a saline water. This phenomenon of adsorption enhancement could be ascribed to the salt-out effect. Kinetic analysis indicated that adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order equation and the adsorption rate constants increase with the salt concentration. The dynamic breakthrough volume and adsorbed amount of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were significantly elevated when the salt is present in the water. The dynamic saturated adsorption amount increased from 218.3mg/g in the deionized water to 309.5mg/g in a salt lake brine. The Tomas model was well applied to predict the breakthrough curves and determine the characteristics parameters of the adsorption column. PMID:24144367

  15. Communication: Substrate induced dehydrogenation: Transformation of octa-ethyl-porphyrin into tetra-benzo-porphyrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vörden, D.; Lange, M.; Schmuck, M.; Schaffert, J.; Cottin, M. C.; Bobisch, C. A.; Möller, R.

    2013-06-01

    Individual molecules of octa-ethyl-porhphyrin-iron(III)-chloride adsorbed on a Cu(111) surface are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. Upon moderate heating the molecules are found to transform into Fe-tetra-benzo-porphyrin at a surprisingly low temperature of 380 K. If the annealing is interrupted, the different steps of the transformation can be imaged. By evaluating the ratio of transformed molecules as function of annealing temperature, an approximate activation energy of 1.2 eV ± 0.1 eV could be determined.

  16. Tris(ethyl­enediamine)zinc(II) hexa­fluorido­silicate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Shi, Qi; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Woollins, J. Derek; Dong, Jinxiang

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, [Zn(C2H8N2)3](SiF6), was synthesized ionothermally using choline chloride–imidazolidone as solvent and template provider. In the crystal structure, the anions and cations are located on special positions of site symmetry 3.2 and show a typical octa­hedral geometry. The ZnII ion is coordinated by six N atoms from three ethyl­enediamine mol­ecules. The crystal structure displays weak hydrogen bonding between [SiF6]2? anions and the ethyl­enediamine NH hydrogen atoms. PMID:21578568

  17. Intermediate syndrome with delayed distal polyneuropathy from ethyl parathion poisoning.

    PubMed

    Nisse, P; Forceville, X; Cezard, C; Ameri, A; Mathieu-Nolf, M

    1998-12-01

    An acute poisoning in a 44-y-old female who ingested 50 ml of ethyl parathion concentrate (25 g) is described. She was treated by gastric lavage, administration of pralidoxime and atropine, and mechanical ventilation. As signs of intoxication disappeared at day 3, treatment was discontinued. The patient had a relapse of acute cholinergic crisis at day 4, and the same treatment was applied again. The acute poisoning phase was followed by an intermediate syndrome and delayed distal polyneuropathy. The clinical course of this severe ethyl parathion poisoning was favorable after 40 d. PMID:9830697

  18. Reaction rate coefficients of OH radicals and Cl atoms with ethyl propanoate, n-propyl propanoate, methyl 2-methylpropanoate, and ethyl n-butanoate.

    PubMed

    Cometto, Pablo M; Daële, Véronique; Idir, Mahmoud; Lane, Silvia I; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2009-10-01

    Kinetics of the reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with four saturated esters have been investigated. Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with ethyl propanoate (k(1)), n-propyl propanoate (k(2)), methyl 2-methylpropanoate (k(3)), and ethyl n-butanoate (k(4)) were measured using a conventional relative rate method and the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. At (296 +/- 2) K, the rate coefficients obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. Significant curvatures in the Arrhenius plots have been observed in the temperature range 243-372 K for k(1), k(3), and k(4). The rate coefficients for the reactions of the four esters with Cl atoms were determined using the relative rate method at (296 +/- 2) K and atmospheric pressure. The values obtained are presented, compared with the literature values when they exist, and discussed. Reactivity trends and atmospheric implications for these esters are also presented. PMID:19746921

  19. 40 CFR 721.10075 - Carbon black, 4-[[2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic...2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic...2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl-modified, sodium salts (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10075 - Carbon black, 4-[[2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic...2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl- modified, sodium salts (generic...2-(Sulfooxy) ethyl]substituted] phenyl-modified, sodium salts (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 63.61 - Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous...List § 63.61 Deletion of methyl ethyl ketone from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance methyl ethyl ketone (MEK,...

  2. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the biosynthesis of flavonoid-O-glucuronides and flavonoid-O-galactoside.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Hye Rin; Park, Kwang-Su; Kim, Bong-Gyu; Ahn, Joong-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Most flavonoids are glycosylated and the nature of the attached sugar can strongly affect their physiological properties. Although many flavonoid glycosides have been synthesized in Escherichia coli, most of them are glucosylated. In order to synthesize flavonoids attached to alternate sugars such as glucuronic acid and galactoside, E. coli was genetically modified to express a uridine diphosphate (UDP)-dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) specific for UDP-glucuronic acid (AmUGT10 from Antirrhinum majus or VvUGT from Vitis vinifera) and UDP-galactoside (PhUGT from Petunia hybrid) along with the appropriate nucleotide biosynthetic genes to enable simultaneous production of their substrates, UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-galactose. To engineer UDP-glucuronic acid biosynthesis, the araA gene encoding UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose formyltransferase/UDP-glucuronic acid C-4? decarboxylase, which also used UDP-glucuronic acid as a substrate, was deleted in E. coli, and UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (ugd) gene was overexpressed to increase biosynthesis of UDP-glucuronic acid. Using these strategies, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide were biosynthesized to levels of 300 and 687 mg/L, respectively. For the synthesis of quercetin 3-O-galactoside, UGE (encoding UDP-glucose epimerase from Oryza sativa) was overexpressed along with a glycosyltransferase specific for quercetin and UDP-galactose. Using this approach, quercetin 3-O-galactoside was successfully synthesized to a level of 280 mg/L. PMID:25515812

  3. Screening of 4-androstenedione misuse in cattle by LC-MS/MS profiling of glucuronide and sulfate steroids in urine.

    PubMed

    Anizan, Sebastien; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Di Nardo, Domenica; Monteau, Fabrice; Cesbron, Nora; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2011-10-30

    The use of anabolic agents in food producing animals is prohibited within the European Union since 1988. The illegal use of natural steroid hormones control is however still a current challenge, especially regarding the limitations of existing screening methods. In this context, the present study aimed to develop a new screening approach based on the emerging 'untargeted profiling' concept, but with a special emphasis on steroids phase II conjugated metabolites, in the scope of revealing potential biomarkers signing a fraudulent administration of 4-androstenedione. After extraction and separation of the urinary glucuronide and sulfate steroid fractions, each one was analyzed separately by UPLC-MS/MS using the precursor ion scan acquisition mode. This approach was carried out in order to monitor product ion characteristic of sulfate (m/z 97) and glucuronide (m/z 113) functional groups, and then to fish for any potential conjugated steroid leading to these ionic species after fragmentation. After statistical analysis, 86 metabolites (33 from steroid compounds and 53 from other unknown substances) were highlighted as potential biomarkers of 4-androstenedione abuse. After application of several robustness criteria, 26 metabolites (whom 5 were unambiguously structurally identified), were finally selected to build a statistical model which could be used as new diagnostic tool for screening purposes. PMID:22063529

  4. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

  5. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and...Time-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its...

  6. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

  7. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

  8. 40 CFR 180.515 - Carfentrazone-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...515 Carfentrazone-ethyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide carfentrazone-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the commodities listed in the following...

  9. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...General. (1) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, [2-chloro-4-fluoro-5...01 (2) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid,...

  10. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and...Time-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its...

  11. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and...Time-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether. 151.50-40 Section...Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl...

  13. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether. 151.50-40 Section...Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane. 721.10109 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9514 - Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified alkoxysilane salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9514 Ethyl silicate, reaction products with modified...generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...as Ethyl silicate, reaction products with...

  2. 40 CFR 180.441 - Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...established for the combined residues of the herbicide quizalofop (2-[4-(6-chloroquinoxalin-2-yl...established for the combined residues of the herbicide quizalofop (2-[4-(6-chloroquinoxalin-2-yl...established for the combined residues of the herbicide quizalofop-p ethyl ester...

  3. A green and regioselective acetylation of thioglycoside with ethyl acetate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pi-Hui Liang; Yin-Jen Lu; Ting-Hsuan Tang

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of saccharidic polyols in ethyl acetate with catalytic sulfuric acid leads to the corresponding primary monoacetate derivatives in good yields. The transesterification was realized by simple stirring without rigorous exclusion of moisture or oxygen. Our protocol is applicable to the regioselective monoacetylation of amino sugars having different substituents at the 2-positions.

  4. 77 FR 60917 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ...ppm; sugarcane, molasses at 2.5 ppm; and wheat, bran at 6.0 ppm. The rule also proposed...the existing trinexapac-ethyl tolerances for wheat, forage from 1.5 to 1.0 ppm and wheat, middlings from 6.5 to 10.5 ppm, as...

  5. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

  6. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  7. Asymmetric hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate: Diffusion effects on enantioselectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yongkui; Wang, Jian; LeBlond, C. [Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ (United States)] [and others] [Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ (United States); and others

    1996-07-01

    Enantioselectivity in the hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate over cinchona-alkaloid-modified Pt has been studied. Kinetic studies indicated different mechanisms in different reaction regimes. Solution hydrogen concentration strongly corrrelated with reaction rates and enantioselectivity. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Solubility and diffusion of CO 2 and H 2S in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amir Hossein Jalili; Ali Mehdizadeh; Mohammad Shokouhi; Amir Naser Ahmadi; Masih Hosseini-Jenab; Fakhrolsadat Fateminassab

    2010-01-01

    The solubility and diffusion coefficient were determined for carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide gases in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate ([emim][EtSO4]) at temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 353.15)K and pressures up to 1.6MPa. The Krichevsky–Kasarnovsky equation was used to correlate solubility data and Henry’s law constants at different temperatures were obtained. The partial molar thermodynamic functions of solution such as

  9. Separation of aromatic hydrocarbons from alkanes using the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifluoromethyl) sulfonyl}amide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Arce; Martyn J. Earle; Hector Rodrõ ´ gueza; Kenneth R. Seddonb

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium for the ternary system formed by hexane, benzene and the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}amide, (C2mim)(NTf2), has been experimentally determined at 25 uC and 40 uC. The results show that the (C2mim)(NTf2) can selectively remove benzene from its mixtures with hexane, suggesting that this ionic liquid can be used as an alternative solvent in liquid extraction processes for

  10. Voltammetric detection of guanosine and adenosine using a carbon paste electrode modified with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongwei Gao; Yuanyuan Duan; Mengying Xi; Wei Sun

    2011-01-01

    A novel kind of carbon paste electrode (CPE) was prepared by mixing graphite powder, liquid paraffin and the ionic liquid\\u000a 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulfate. The resulting electrode was used for the simultaneous determination of guanosine\\u000a and adenosine by differential pulse voltammetry. Compared to a conventional CPE, the oxidation peak currents are largely increased,\\u000a and the oxidation peak potentials are negatively shifted. The

  11. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urszula Doma?ska; Marta Królikowska; William E. Acree; Gary A. Baker

    2011-01-01

    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, ?13?, for 36 solutes, including alkanes, cycloalkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, tetrahydrofuran, ethers, acetone, and water, in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate, [EMIM][TCB], were determined by gas–liquid chromatography at temperatures from 298.15K to 358.15K. These values are compared to those previously published for selected solutes in the same ionic liquid. The values

  12. Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Han Hong; Wen-Wan Chao; Miaw-Ling Chen; Bi-Fong Lin

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate if food components that exert anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA). The cytokine profile and life span of BALB\\/c mice with acute inflammation after intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of 15 mg\\/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were determined. The results showed that the life span of LPS-induced inflammatory

  13. Eff ects of Trinexapac-Ethyl Foliar Application on Creeping Bentgrass Responses to Combined Drought and Heat Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E. McCann; Bingru Huang

    Simultaneous drought and heat stress is detri- mental to turfgrass growth. Growth regulators may infl uence plant responses to stresses. The objective of this study was to determine effects of pretreatment with trinexapac-ethyl (TE) on creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) responses to subsequent exposure to combined heat and drought stress. Plants were treated with TE (1.95 mL L-1 (v\\/v), Primo

  14. Androgen glucuronides analysis by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry: could it raise new perspectives in the diagnostic field of hormone-dependent malignancies?

    PubMed

    Kalogera, Eleni; Pistos, Constantinos; Provatopoulou, Xeni; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Gounaris, Antonia

    2013-12-01

    Breast and prostate constitute organs of intense steroidogenic activity. Clinical and epidemiologic data provide strong evidence on the influence of androgens and estrogens on the risk of typical hormone-dependent malignancies, like breast and prostate cancer. Recent studies have focused on the role of androgen metabolites in regulating androgen concentrations in hormone-sensitive tissues. Steroid glucuronidation has been suggested to have a prominent role in controlling the levels and the biological activity of unconjugated androgens. It is well-established that serum levels of androgen glucuronides reflect androgen metabolism in androgen-sensitive tissues. Quantitative analysis of androgen metabolites in blood specimens is the only minimally invasive approach permitting an accurate estimate of the total pool of androgens. During the past years, androgen glucuronides analysis most often involved radioimmunoassays (RIA) or direct immunoassays, both methods bearing serious limitations. However, recent impressive technical advances in mass spectrometry, and particularly in high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), have overcome these drawbacks enabling the simultaneous, quantitative analysis of multiple steroids even at low concentrations. Blood androgen profiling by LC-MS/MS, a robust and reliable technique of high selectivity, sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy emerges as a promising new approach in the study of human pathology. The present review offers a contemporary insight in androgen glucuronides profiling through the application of LC-MS/MS, highlighting new perspectives in the study of steroids and their implication in hormone-dependent malignancies. PMID:24140653

  15. Glucuronidation and sulfonation, in vitro, of the major endocrine-active metabolites of methoxychlor in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and induction following treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret O. James; Leah D. Stuchal; Beatrice A. Nyagode

    2008-01-01

    The organochlorine pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC), is metabolized in animals to phenolic mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites (OH-MXC and HPTE, respectively) that interact with estrogen receptors and may be endocrine disruptors. The phase II detoxication of these compounds will influence the duration of action of the estrogenic metabolites, but has not been investigated extensively. In this study, the glucuronidation and sulfonation of

  16. The Apparent Inhibition of Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase by Mycophenolic Acid Glucuronide Is Attributable to the Presence of Trace Quantities of Mycophenolic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdalena Korecka; Dejan Nikolic; Richard B. van Breemen; Leslie M. Shaw

    Background: Mycophenolic acid glucuronide, the pri- mary metabolite of the immunosuppressive agent my- cophenolic acid, affords weak inhibition of proliferat- ing and resting lymphocytes and recombinant human inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase in comparison to the active drug. We evaluated the hypothesis that mycophenolic acid is a trace contaminant of the gluc- uronide metabolite preparation and that this accounts for the observed

  17. UGT1A4*3 encodes significantly increased glucuronidation of olanzapine in patients on maintenance treatment and in recombinant systems.

    PubMed

    Haslemo, T; Loryan, I; Ueda, N; Mannheimer, B; Bertilsson, L; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Molden, E; Eliasson, E

    2012-08-01

    Olanzapine, a world leader in antipsychotic drugs, is used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. There is considerable interpatient variability in its hepatic clearance. Polymorphic glucuronidation of olanzapine by uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 (UGT1A4) was investigated retrospectively in patient samples taken for routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and in recombinant metabolic systems in vitro. Multivariate analyses revealed that patients who were heterozygous as well as those who were homozygous for the UGT1A4*3 allelic variant had significantly higher concentrations of the major metabolite olanzapine 10-N-glucuronide in serum (+38% (P = 0.011) and +246% (P < 0.001), respectively). This finding was in line with the significant increases in glucuronidation activity of olanzapine observed with recombinant UGT1A4.3 (Val-48) as compared with UGT1A4.1 (Leu-48) (1.3-fold difference, P < 0.001). By contrast, serum concentrations of the parent drug were not significantly influenced by UGT1A4 genotype. Our findings therefore indicate that UGT1A4-mediated metabolism is not a major contributor to interpatient variability in olanzapine levels. However, with respect to other drugs for which UGT1A4 has a dominant role in clearance, increased glucuronidation encoded by UGT1A4*3 might impact the risk for subtherapeutic drug exposure. PMID:22713701

  18. Tentative Structural Assignment of a Glucuronide Metabolite of Methyltestosterone in Tilapia Bile by Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nishshanka, Upul; Chu, Pak-Sin; Evans, Eric; Reimschuessel, Renate; Hasbrouck, Nicholas; Amarasinghe, Kande; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi

    2015-06-24

    Methyltestosterone (MT), a strong androgenic steroid, is not approved for use in fish aquaculture in the United States. It is used in the U.S. under an investigational new animal drug exemption (INAD) only during the early life stages of fish. There is a possibility that farmers feed fish with MT to enhance production for economic gains. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods for the detection of MT and its metabolite residues in fish tissue for monitoring purposes. Previously, our laboratory developed a liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF) method for characterization of 17-O-glucuronide metabolite (MT-glu) in bile of tilapia dosed with MT. The system used was an Agilent 6530 Q-TOF equipped with electrospray jet stream technology, operating in positive ion mode. Retrospective analysis of the data generated in that experiment by a feature-finding algorithm, combined with a search against an in-house library of possible MT-metabolites, resulted in the discovery of a major glucuronide metabolite of MT in the bile extracts. Preliminary data indicate it to be a glucuronide of a hydroxylated MT (OHMT-glu) which persists in tilapia bile for at least 2 weeks after dosing. We present the tentative structural assignment of the OHMT-glu in tilapia bile and time course of development. This glucuronide can serve as a marker to monitor illegal use of MT in tilapia culture. PMID:25980472

  19. Production of ethyl acetate from dilute ethanol solutions by Candida utilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Armstrong; Stanley M. Martin; Hiroshi Yamazaki

    1984-01-01

    The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate has an advantage as a method of ethanol recovery since ethyl acetate is amenable to simple solvent extraction. The potential of Candida utilis in this conversion was studied. The kinetics of accumulation of ethanol and ethyl acetate in glucose-grown C. utilis showed that ester formation resulted from ethanol utilization under appropriate aeration and

  20. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether. 151.50-40 Section 151.50-40...disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether. (a) The provisions of this section...bisulfide ) and § 151.50-42 for ethyl ether shall also be observed. [CFGR...

  1. Four isomeric ethyl 1-thioglycosides from 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-arabinose.

    PubMed

    Wolfrom, M L; Inouye, S

    1975-05-01

    Ethyl 2-amino-2-deoxy-1-thio-alpha- and -beta-D-arabinopyranoside (2 and 4) were obtained by direct ethanethiolation of 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-arabinose (1), and their structures were determined by mass and p.m.r. spectrometry. Ethyl 2-amino-2-deoxy-1-thio-alpha- and -beta-D-arabinofuranoside (11 and 13) were prepared by partial demercaptalation of 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-arabinose diethyl dithioacetal (6) with mercuric chloride (or, preferably, with bromine), with or without protection of the 5-hydroxyl group. Demercaptalation with mercuric chloride gave the beta-D anomers almost exclusively, and treatment with bromine gave a mixture of the alpha and beta anomer in the ratio of similar to 1:1. Alternatively, direct ethanethiolation of 1 in trifluoracetic acid yielded the alpha-D anomer. The structures of 11 and 13 were determined by mass spectrometry, by direct comparison of their N-acetyl derivatives with an authentic enantiomorph (15b), and by p.m.r. spectroscopy. The physicochemical properties of the four 1-thioglycosides (2,4,11, and 13) were compared with those of the O-GLYCOSIDES of D-arabinose. PMID:1137834

  2. Development of a hybrid fermentation-enzymatic bioprocess for the production of ethyl lactate from dairy waste.

    PubMed

    Koutinas, Michalis; Menelaou, Maria; Nicolaou, Evrydiki N

    2014-08-01

    This work explores the potential for the development of a hybrid fermentation-enzymatic process for the production of ethyl lactate from dairy waste. Cheese whey was used in Kluyveromyces marxianus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus batch cultures to produce ethanol and lactic acid respectively. Subsequently, the fermentation products were transferred into an organic phase through liquid-liquid extraction and ethyl lactate was formed in an esterification reaction catalyzed by lipases. The production of ethanol and lactic acid achieved under different conditions was 23gL(-1) and 29gL(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the efficiency of various organic solvents for the esterification reaction was evaluated and toluene was chosen for application in the process. The effect of water content was determined aiming to maximize the product yield and 40mgml(-1) was the optimal enzyme concentration. The bioprocess achieved maximum conversion of 33% constituting a valuable alternative to the application of energy demanding chemically derived methods. PMID:24785788

  3. Alkylation of deoxyribonucleic acid by carcinogens dimethyl sulphate, ethyl methanesulphonate, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Relative reactivity of the phosphodiester site thymidylyl(3'-5')thymidine.

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, D H; Lawley, P D

    1978-01-01

    1. The ethyl phosphotriester of thymidylyl(3'-5')thymidine, dTp(Et)dT, was identified as a product from reaction of DNA with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, by procedures parallel to those reported previously for the methyl homologue produced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. 2. Enzymic degradation to yield alkyl phosphotriesters from DNA alkylated by these carcinogens and by dimethyl sulphate and ethyl methanesulphonate was studied quantitatively, and the relative yields of the triesters dTp(Alk)dT were determined. The relative reactivity of the phosphodiester group dTpdT to each of the four carcinogens was thus obtained, and compared with that of DNA overall, or with that of the N-7 atom of guanine in DNA. Relative reactivity of the phosphodiester group was lowest towards dimethyl sulphate, the least electrophilic of the reagents used, and was highest towards N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, the most electrophilic reagent. 3. The nature of the alkyl group transferred also influenced reactivity of the phosphodiester site, since this site was relatively more reactive towards ethylation than would be predicted simply from the known Swain-Scott s values of the alkylating agents. It was therefore suggested that the steric accessibility of the weakly nucleophilic phosphodiester group on the outside of the DNA macromolecule favours its reaction with ethylating, as opposed to methylating, reagents. 4. Taking a value of the Swain-Scott nucleophilicity (n) of 2.5 for an average DNA nucleotide unit [Walles & Ehrenberg (1969) Acta Chem. Scand. 23, 1080-1084], a value of n of about 1 for the phosphodiester group was deduced, and this value was found to be 2-3 units less than that for the N-7 atom of guanine in DNA. 5. The reactivity of DNA overall was markedly high towards the alkylnitrosoureas, despite their relatively low s values. This was ascribed to an electrostatic factor that favoured reaction of the negatively charged polymer with alkyldiazonium cation intermediates. PMID:208508

  4. Elevated plasma creatinine due to creatine ethyl ester use.

    PubMed

    Velema, M S; de Ronde, W

    2011-02-01

    Creatine is a nutritional supplement widely used in sport, physical fitness training and bodybuilding. It is claimed to enhance performance. We describe a case in which serum creatinine is elevated due to the use of creatine ethyl esther. One week after withdrawal, the plasma creatinine had normalised. There are two types of creatine products available: creatine ethyl esther (CEE) and creatine monohydrate (CM). Plasma creatinine is not elevated in all creatine-using subjects. CEE , but not CM, is converted into creatinine in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result the use of CEE may be associated with elevated plasma creatinine levels. Since plasma creatinine is a widely used marker for renal function, the use of CEE may lead to a false assumption of renal failure. PMID:21411845

  5. Icosapent ethyl for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    PubMed Central

    Fares, Hassan; Lavie, Carl J; DiNicolantonio, James J; O’Keefe, James H; Milani, Richard V

    2014-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a highly prevalent lipid abnormality and it is associated with atherosclerosis, with a growing body of evidence linking elevated triglycerides (TGs) with cardiovascular disease. The current major omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) combination, lowers serum TGs while often increasing levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Icosapent ethyl is an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with a 96% pure ethyl ester of EPA that has been recently approved for lowering TG levels in patients with very high TGs (?500 mg/dL), and it does so without significantly affecting serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The potential benefits of omega-3 fatty acid therapy for dyslipidemias will be discussed, including the potential pros and cons of EPA alone versus the more common and readily available EPA/DHA combination therapy. PMID:25028554

  6. [Influence of ethyl alcohol on diabetes pathogenesis type].

    PubMed

    Zasimowicz, Elzbieta; Wolszczak, Blanka; Zasimowicz, Barbara

    2014-03-01

    Relations between metabolism of carbohydrates and ethyl alcohol consumption became a subject of many research because they occur very frequently amongst alcoholics. One of the most often and dangerous effects of abusing ethanol is hypoglycemia. It is caused by hepatic gluconeogenesis disturbed by ethyl alcohol. Chronic result of abusing alcohol is chronic pancreas inflammation (PZT), what causes disorders of exo- and endocrine function of pancreas. Endocrine function is secretion of insulin and the glucagon what regulates metabolism of absorbed compounds. Failure of beta cells of Langerhans islets causes diabetes demanding insulin therapy. The ethanol can cause recurring diabetes resulting from damage of cells of Langerhans islets but can be also the risk factor of diabetes type 2. PMID:24779223

  7. Identification of an antioxidant, ethyl protocatechuate, in peanut seed testa.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiow Chyn; Yen, Gow-Chin; Chang, Lee-Wen; Yen, Wen-Jye; Duh, Pin-Der

    2003-04-01

    The antioxidant activity and identification of the antioxidant component of peanut seed testa were investigated. The antioxidant activity of peanut seed testa was studied in the linoleic acid model system by using the ferric thiocyanate method. Among the five organic solvent extracts, the ethanolic extracts of peanut seed testa (EEPST) produced higher yields and stronger antioxidant activity than other organic solvent extracts. EEPST was separated into 17 fractions on silica gel column chromatography. Fraction 17, which showed the largest yield and significant antioxidant activity, was separated by thin-layer chromatography. Four major antioxidative subfractions were present. Subfraction 17-2 was found to be effective in preventing oxidation of linoleic acid. This subfraction was further fractionated and isolated and characterized by UV, MS, IR, and (1)H NMR techniques. The active compound was identified as ethyl protocatechuate (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester). PMID:12670184

  8. Species differences in sinusoidal and canalicular efflux transport of mycophenolic acid 7-O-glucuronide in sandwich-cultured hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tetsuka, Kazuhiro; Gerst, Nicolas; Tamura, Kouichi; Masters, Jeffrey N

    2014-01-01

    Metabolism and sinusoidal/canalicular efflux of mycophenolic acid (MPA) was investigated using sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCHs). After applying MPA to SCHs from humans, wild-type rats, and multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp) 2-deficient rats, the MPA metabolites 7-O-glucuronide (MPAG) and acyl glucuronide (AcMPAG) were detected in the intracellular compartment of the SCHs. Sinusoidal efflux of MPAG was detected in all SCH preparations including Mrp2-deficient rat SCHs, whereas canalicular efflux of MPAG was observed in wild-type rat and human SCHs but not in Mrp2-deficient rat SCHs. The ratio of canalicular efflux to net (canalicular plus sinusoidal) efflux was 37 ± 8% in wild-type rat SCHs, while the ratio in human SCHs was significantly lower (20 ± 2%, P < 0.05), indicating species differences in the direction of hepatic MPAG transport. This 20% ratio in human SCHs corresponds to a high sinusoidal MPAG efflux (80%) that can in part account for the urine-dominated recovery of MPAG in humans. Both sinusoidal and canalicular MPAG efflux in rat SCHs shows a good correspondence to urinary and biliary recovery of MPAG after MPA dosing. The sinusoidal efflux of AcMPAG in human SCHs was detected from one out of three donors, suggesting donor-to-donor variation. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the predictive value of SCHs for elucidating the interplay of metabolism and efflux transport, in addition to demonstrating a species difference between rat and human in sinusoidal and canalicular efflux of MPAG. PMID:25505584

  9. Structural analysis of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bifluoride melt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Matsumoto; Rika Hagiwara; Yasuhiko Ito; Shinji Kohara; Kentaro Suzuya

    2003-01-01

    The structure of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bifluoride (EMImF·HF) melt has been analyzed at 333 K by a high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction method. The total correlation function of the EMImF·HF melt was similar to that of the solid state, indicating that not only the short range but also the intermediate-range ordering in the solid are partially preserved in the liquid state. The intra-molecular

  10. An analysis of the fluorescence spectrum of europium ethyl sulphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Judd

    1959-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is made of the splittings induced in the levels F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6 of the ion Eu by the electric field of the ethyl sulphate lattice. Four parameters are used to fit the data, and it is found that very good agreement can be established between experiment and theory in the great majority of cases.

  11. Isolation and identification of products from alkylation of nucleic acids: ethyl- and isopropyl-purines.

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, P D; Orr, D J; Jarman, M

    1975-01-01

    Ethylation and isopropylation of guanine in alkaline solution, or of adenine in formic acid, by alkyl methanesulphonates gave the following products: 1-, N2-, 3-, O6-, 7- and 9-alkylguanines; 1-, 3-, 7- and 9-alkyladenines. The products were identified from their characteristic u.v-absorption spectra, by comparison with either known ethyladenines or with the corresponding known methyladenines, and were also characterized by mass spectrometry. Their chromatographic properties on paper, t.l.c. and various columns were determined. DNA was alkylated in neutral solution with 14C-labelled alkyl methanesulphonates and the ratios of the alkylpurines formed were obtained, and compared for alkylation by methyl, ethyl and isopropyl methanesulphonates and by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. The extents of alkylation at O-6 of guanine relative to those at N-7 of guanine varied with the reactivity of the methylating agents according to the predictions of Swain & Scott (1953) relating nucleophilicity of the groups alkylated with the substrate constants of the alkylating agents. The relative extents of alkylation at N-3 of adenine did not follow this correlation. PMID:172066

  12. Effects of wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California USA rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  13. Effects on wildlife of ethyl and methyl parathion applied to California rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hill, E.F.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    Selected rice fields on the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge Complex were aerially sprayed one time during May or June 1982 with either ethyl (0.11 kg Al/ha) or methyl (0.84 kg AI/ha) parathion for control of tadpole shrimp, Triops longicaudatus. No sick or dead vertebrate wildlife were found or adjacent to the treated rice fields after spraying. Specimens of the following birds and mammals were assayed for brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity to determine exposure to either form of parathion; house mouse, Mus musculus; black-tailed jackrabbit, Lepus californicus; mallard, Anas platyrhynchos; ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus; American coot, Fulica americana; and red-winged blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus. Both mice and pheasants from methyl parathion-treated fields had overall mean ChE activities that were significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited compared with controls, and 7, 40, 54 and 57% of individual blackbirds, pheasant, mice, and coots, respectively, had inhibited brain ChE activities (i.e., less than -2 SD of control mean). Although no overall species effect was detected for ethyl parathoid treatment, pheasants (43%), coots (33%), and mice (37%) had significantly inhibited brain ChE activities. Neither of the parathion treatment appeared acutely hazardous to wildlife in or adjacent to rice fields, but sufficient information on potential hazards was obtained to warrant caution in use of these chemicals, especially methyl parathion, in rice fields.

  14. Use of ethyl chloride topical anesthetic to reduce procedural pain in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Zappa, S C; Nabors, S B

    1992-04-01

    Pediatric cancer patients often become anxious, agitated, combative, and uncooperative due to the pain or fear of pain during invasive procedures. Generally, it is not the actual administration of medicines that produces this reaction, but the fear of the needle stick itself. Increased education and implementation of coping mechanisms is often not enough to allay this fear. The tangible solution of using ethyl chloride, an anesthetic spray, before port sticks, lumbar punctures, and bone marrow aspirations, was instituted by the hematology-oncology clinic to determine if the pain, emotional trauma, and fear of cancer treatments could be reduced in oncology patients. Survey results on 60 patients and 60 parents/caretakers showed that when given the choice to use the spray or to refuse its use, 68% of the parents thought that the patient had more of a sense of control and, thus, involvement in their treatment. Seventy-eight percent of the patients reported experiencing less pain associated with procedures. Staff noted an increase in cooperation, less combativeness, and more compliance with treatment. Perceiving the child's discomfort diminished, 87% of the parents/caretakers report feeling less anxious and, therefore, more capable of being supportive to each other and their child. These results verified the staff's perceptions of the advantages of using this noninvasive anesthetic. Ethyl chloride is an easy, effective, concrete approach to reducing procedural pain in pediatric oncology patients. PMID:1617619

  15. Rheological behaviors of cellulose in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride/dimethylsulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lejun; Gao, Lei; Cheng, Bowen; Ji, Xiujie; Song, Jun; Lu, Fei

    2014-09-22

    Dynamic rheological behaviors of ?-cellulose 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Emim]Cl)/dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solutions were investigated in a large range of cellulose concentrations (0.1-10 wt%) at 25°C. The overlap concentration c* and the entanglement concentration ce for cellulose in [Emim]Cl/DMSO were determined to be 0.5 wt% and 2.0 wt% respectively, and the exponents of the specific viscosity ?sp versus cellulose concentration c were determined as 1.1, 2.1 and 4.7 for dilute, semidilute unentangled and entangled regimes respectively, which were in accordance with the scaling prediction for neutral polymer in ? solvent. Under the same cellulose concentration, the complex viscosity ?*, the reptation time ?rep and the relaxation time of a segment between entanglements ?e all decreased with increasing DMSO content in the solvent, while the number of entanglements of cellulose chains and the molar mass of an entanglement strand Me both remained unchanged. PMID:24906758

  16. Effects of ethyl pyruvate on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation during early sepsis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guarda, Ismael Francisco Mota Siqueira; Correia, Cristiano Jesus; Breithaupt-Faloppa, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Sueli Gomes; Moreno, Ana Carolina Ramos; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio; Sannomiya, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Experimental studies on sepsis have demonstrated that ethyl pyruvate is endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ethyl pyruvate on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation in a live Escherichia coli-induced sepsis model in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were administered an intravenous suspension of E. coli bacteria or were subjected to a sham procedure. Three hours after bacterial infusion, the rats were randomized into the following groups: a control group without treatment, a group treated with lactated Ringer's solution (4 mL/kg, i.v.), and a group treated with lactated Ringer's solution (4 mL/kg, i.v.) plus ethyl pyruvate (50 mg/kg). At 24 h after bacterial infusion, leukocyte-endothelial interactions were investigated using intravital microscopy, and the expression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was evaluated via immunohistochemistry. White blood cell and platelet counts were also determined at baseline and 3 h and 24 h after E. coli inoculation. RESULTS: The non-treated and lactated Ringer's solution-treated groups exhibited increases in the numbers of rolling leukocytes (?2.5-fold increase), adherent cells (?3.0-fold), and migrated cells (?3.5-fold) compared with the sham group. In contrast, treatment with Ringer's ethyl pyruvate solution reduced the numbers of rolling, adherent and migrated leukocytes to the levels observed in the sham group. Additionally, the expression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was significantly increased on mesenteric microvessels in the non-treated group compared with the sham group (p<0.001). The expression of both adhesion molecules was reduced in the other groups, with ethyl pyruvate being more effective than lactated Ringer's solution. Infusion of bacteria caused significant leukopenia (3 h), followed by leukocytosis with granulocytosis (24 h). There was also an intense and progressive reduction in the number of platelets. However, no differences were observed after treatment with the different solutions. CONCLUSIONS: The presented data suggest that ethyl pyruvate efficiently reduces the inflammatory response in the mesenteric microcirculation in an experimental model of sepsis induced by live E. coli and is associated, at least in part, with down-regulation of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.

  17. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

  18. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  19. Prompt-NO formation in methane/oxygen/nitrogen flames seeded with oxygenated volatile organic compounds: Methyl ethyl ketone or ethyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Lamoureux, N.; El-Bakali, A.; Gasnot, L.; Pauwels, J.F.; Desgroux, P. [UMR CNRS 8522 PC2A ''Physicochimie des Processus de Combustion et de l'Atmosphere,'' Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex (France)

    2008-04-15

    In the present work, CH and NO profiles are determined using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements in eight low-pressure laminar flames of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} containing various amounts of methyl ethyl ketone or ethyl acetate with respect to the equivalence ratio. Relative CH LIF signals are calibrated using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), while NO LIF calibration is performed in the burned gases of NO seeded flames. Temperature measurements are obtained using a coated Pt/Rh thermocouple and serve as temperature profiles input for Chemkin modeling. Volatile organic compound (VOC) submechanisms, previously validated upon major and intermediate species profiles measured using sampling techniques, are incorporated into the GDF-Kin 3.0{sub N}CN for the CH{sub 4} oxidation. This mechanism is adjusted and validated to predict the effect of VOCs seeding on CH and NO formation. It takes into account not only the CH and NO profiles but those previously measured. When methane is replaced by either MEK or EA, the NO mole fraction in the burned gases and the CH peak value are found to jointly decrease, indicating that NO is mainly formed according to the prompt-NO mechanism. According to the kinetic analysis, the VOC impact on NO formation is demonstrated. It is shown that CH radical formation, through the C1 sequence, mainly involves the CH{sub 3} radical, which is formed with the same propensity by one molecule of methane, MEK, or EA. Due to the methane replacement by VOC while the equivalence ratio is maintained constant, we found that the CH peak value decrease follows the total fuel volumetric flow rate decrease, yielding, an NO decrease in the burned gases. (author)

  20. Modulation of Strawberry/Cranberry Phenolic Compounds Glucuronidation by Co-Supplementation with Onion: Characterization of Phenolic Metabolites in Rat Plasma Using an Optimized ?SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dubé, Pascal; Pilon, Geneviève; Marette, André; Jacques, Hélène; Weisnagel, John; Desjardins, Yves

    2014-03-26

    Plant phenolic compounds are suggested to exert pharmacological activities in regards to obesity and type-2 diabetes, but their mode of action is poorly understood due to a lack of information about their bioavailability. This work aimed to study the bioavailability of GlucoPhenol phenolic compounds, a strawberry-cranberry extracts blend, by characterizing plasma phenolic profile in obese rats. A comparison was performed by co-supplementation with an onion extract. Using an optimized ?SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS method, 21 phenolic metabolites were characterized, mostly conjugated metabolites and microbial degradation products of the native phenolic compounds. Their kinetic profiles revealed either an intestinal or hepatic formation. Among identified metabolites, isorhamnetin glucuronide sulfate was found in greater amount in plasma. Three glucuronidated conjugates of strawberry-cranberry phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid glucuronide, catechins glucuronide, and methyl catechins glucuronide were found in higher quantities when GlucoPhenol was ingested together with onion extract (+252%, +279%, and +118% respectively), suggesting a possible induction of glucuronidation processes by quercetin. This work allowed the characterization of actual phenolic metabolites generated in vivo following a phenolic intake, the analysis of their kinetics and suggested a possible synergistic activity of phenolic compounds for improving bioavailability. PMID:24628392

  1. Urinary steroid hormone analysis of ovarian cycles and pregnancy in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) indicate that menses, copulatory behavior, sexual swellings and reproductive condition are associated with changing estrone conjugates (E(1)C) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG).

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rebecca Sellin; Wheaton, Catharine J

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if sexual swellings in mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are a reflection of reproductive endocrine state. Urine samples were assayed using an enzyme immunoassay measuring pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and estrone conjugates (E(1)C). Hormone patterns of ovarian cycles, pregnancy and lactation were characterized and compared with sexual swellings and copulations relative to menses and peak E(1)C. Cycle lengths averaging 28.7 days and pregnancy length of 181 days determined by hormonal and sexual swelling measures were similar to those reported in other Old World primate species. First day of copulation was observed during rising E(1)C concentrations and preceded observations of peak swelling by 1-2 days. Observations of peak sexual swellings occurred at or on the day after peak E(1)C and decreased following the ovulatory increase in PdG. Observations of menses and sexual swellings are a useful method to track mandrill ovarian cycles and can assist zoos in determining the reproductive state of females in their collections. Zoo Biol 27:320-330, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19360627

  2. Determination of free and total bisphenol A in human urine to assess daily uptake as a basis for a valid risk assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Völkel; Mandy Kiranoglu; Hermann Fromme

    2008-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely distributed and exhibits weak estrogenic activity. In contrast to BPA, the corresponding glucuronide metabolite is not estrogenic. Therefore, free and total BPA were determined in human urine samples to assess the significance of free BPA for risk assessment. In only 10% of 474 samples from 287 subjects was free BPA detected in a range from

  3. Molecular analysis of ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutations at the hprt gene in the ethyl methanesulfonate-sensitive Chinese hamster cell line EM-C11 and its parental line CHO9.

    PubMed

    Op het Veld, C W; Zdzienicka, M Z; Vrieling, H; Lohman, P H; van Zeeland, A A

    1994-06-01

    The Chinese hamster cell line EM-C11 has been shown to be 5 times more sensitive than its parental line CHO9, but not hypermutable, after treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate. Ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutational spectra were determined at the hprt locus to investigate whether the same adducts are responsible for mutation induction in both cell lines. The mutational spectra for EM-C11 and CHO9 show an important difference. GC-->AT transitions were found in both cell lines at similar frequencies; however, the spectrum of CHO9 contains a class of AT-->GC transitions, which seems to be replaced by a group of deletions in EM-C11. Since the ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutation frequency for both lines is the same at equal exposure, it is hypothesized that the lesions leading to AT-->GC transitions in CHO9 are responsible for the deletions in EM-C11. This phenomenon might be explained if the responsible adduct(s) in CHO9 is bypassed resulting in replication errors, while blocking DNA synthesis in EM-C11 causing the observed increase in cell death. In surviving EM-C11 cells, DNA strand exchanges might have occurred at the position of stalled replication forks, leading to gross molecular changes. The adduct probably responsible for the AT-->GC transitions in CHO9 and the deletions in EM-C11 is 3-ethyladenine. PMID:8187089

  4. catena-Poly[[aqua­(4-ethyl­benzoic acid-?O)lanthanum(III)]-tri-?-4-ethyl­benzoato

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Juan; Li, Jiantong; Wang, Qiufen

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of lanthanum nitrate and 4-ethyl­benzoic acid (EBAH) in aqueous solution yielded the title polymer, [La(C9H9O2)3(C9H10O2)(H2O)]n. The asymmetric unit contains one LaIII atom, three 4-ethyl­benzoate (EBA) ligands, one neutral EBAH ligand and one coordinated water mol­ecule. Each LaIII ion is eight-coordinated by six O atoms from six bridging-bidentate EBA ligands, one O atom from a monodentate EBAH ligand and one water O atom in a distorted bicapped trigonal-prismatic geometry. The adjacent LaIII ions are linked by the carboxyl­ate groups of EBA ligands in a bridging-bidetate coordination mode, resulting in an infinite chain structure along the c axis. O—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions involving the water mol­ecules, carboxyl­ate groups and carboxyl H atoms are formed within the one-dimensional polymer. One of the ethyl groups is disordered over two positions with occupancies of 0.717?(7) and 0.283?(7). PMID:21579652

  5. Assessment of Acute Oral and Dermal Toxicity of 2 Ethyl-Carbamates with Activity against Rhipicephalus microplus in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Ochoa, María Guadalupe; Gutiérrez-Amezquita, Ricardo Alfonso; Abrego-Reyes, Víctor Hugo; Velázquez-Sánchez, Ana María; Muñoz-Guzmán, Marco Antonio; Ramírez-Noguera, Patricia; Angeles, Enrique; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The acute oral and dermal toxicity of two new ethyl-carbamates (ethyl-4-bromophenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorophenyl-carbamate) with ixodicide activity was determined in rats. The oral LD50 of each carbamate was 300 to 2000?mg/kg, and the dermal LD50 of each carbamate was >5000?mg/kg. Clinically, the surviving rats that had received oral doses of each carbamate showed decreased weight gain (P < 0.05) and had slight nervous system manifestations. These clinical signs were evident from the 300?mg/kg dose and were reversible, whereas the 2000?mg/kg dose caused severe damage and either caused their death or was motive for euthanasia. At necropsy, these rats had dilated stomachs and cecums with diffuse congestion, as well as moderate congestion of the liver. Histologically, the liver showed slight degenerative lesions, binucleated hepatocytes, focal coagulative necrosis, and congestion areas; the severity of the lesions increased with dosage. Furthermore, an slight increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine was observed in the plasma. The dermal application of the maximum dose (5000?mg/kg) of each carbamate did not cause clinical manifestations or liver and skin alterations. This finding demonstrates that the carbamates under study have a low oral hazard and low acute dermal toxicity. PMID:24883331

  6. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A Determinates Intracellular Accumulation and Anti-Cancer Effect of ?-Lapachone in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiying; Li, Qingran; Cheng, Xuefang; Wang, Hong; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2015-01-01

    ?-lapachone (?-lap), an NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) targeting antitumor drug candidate in phase II clinical trials, is metabolically eliminated via NQO1 mediated quinone reduction and subsequent UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyzed glucuronidation. This study intends to explore the inner link between the cellular glucuronidation and pharmacokinetics of ?-lap and its apoptotic effect in human colon cancer cells. HT29 cells S9 fractions exhibited high glucuronidation activity towards ?-lap, which can be inhibited by UGT1A9 competitive inhibitor propofol. UGT1A siRNA treated HT29 cells S9 fractions displayed an apparent low glucuronidation activity. Intracellular accumulation of ?-lap in HCT116 cells was much higher than that in HT29 cells, correlated with the absence of UGT1A in HCT116 cells. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of ?-lap in HT29 cells were much lower than that in HCT116 cells; moreover, ?-lap triggered activation of SIRT1-FOXO1 apoptotic pathway was observed in HCT116 cells but not in HT29 cells. Pretreatment of HT29 cells with UGT1A siRNA or propofol significantly decreased ?-lap’s cytotoxic and apoptotic effects, due to the repression of glucuronidation and the resultant intracellular accumulation. In conclusion, UGT1A is an important determinant, via switching NQO1-triggered redox cycle to metabolic elimination, in the intracellular accumulation of ?-lap and thereafter its cytotoxicity in human colon cancer cells. Together with our previous works, we propose that UGTs determined cellular pharmacokinetics is an important determinant in the apoptotic effects of NQO1 targeting substrates serving as chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:25692465

  7. Poly(ethylene glycol) modification of ?-glucuronidase-antibody conjugates for solid-tumor therapy by targeted activation of glucuronide prodrugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tian-Lu Cheng; Bing-Mae Chen; Lai-Yee Chan; Pin-Yi Wu; Ji-Wang Chern; Steve R. Roffler

    1997-01-01

    Methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modification of Escherichia coli?-glucuronidase (?G) was examined as a method to improve the stability and pharmacokinetics of antibody-?G conjugates for\\u000a the targeted activation of glucuronide prodrugs at tumor cells. Introduction of 3 PEG molecules did not affect ?G activity\\u000a whereas higher degrees of PEG modification produced progressively greater loss of enzymatic activity. The enzyme was found\\u000a to

  8. Cure of malignant ascites and generation of protective immunity by monoclonal antibody–targeted activation of a glucuronide prodrug in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing-Mae Chen; Lai-Yee Chan; Shing-Ming Wang; Ming-Fang Wu; Ji-Wang Chern; Steve R. Roffler

    1997-01-01

    We examined the in vivo efficacy of targeting b-glucuroni- dase (bG) to activate a glucuronide prodrug (BHAMG) of p-hydroxyaniline mustard (pHAM) at hepatoma ascites in Sprague-Dawley rats. Injection i.p. of 500 mg RH1-bG, a conjugate formed between recombinant bG and monoclonal antibody RH1 with specificity for an antigen expressed on AS-30D rat hepatoma cells, into rats bearing AS-30D ascites resulted

  9. Diabetes Mellitus Reduces Activity of Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 in Liver and Kidney Leading to Decreased Formation of Mycophenolic Acid Acyl-Glucuronide Metabolite

    PubMed Central

    Dostalek, Miroslav; Court, Michael H.; Hazarika, Suwagmani

    2011-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressive agent commonly used after organ transplantation. Altered concentrations of MPA metabolites have been reported in diabetic kidney transplant recipients, although the reason for this difference is unknown. We aimed to compare MPA biotransformation and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) expression and activity between liver (n = 16) and kidney (n = 8) from diabetic and nondiabetic donors. Glucuronidation of MPA, as well as the expression and probe substrate activity of UGTs primarily responsible for MPA phenol glucuronide (MPAG) formation (UGT1A1 and UGT1A9), and MPA acyl glucuronide (AcMPAG) formation (UGT2B7), was characterized. We have found that both diabetic and nondiabetic human liver microsomes and kidney microsomes formed MPAG with similar efficiency; however, AcMPAG formation was significantly lower in diabetic samples. This finding is supported by markedly lower glucuronidation of the UGT2B7 probe zidovudine, UGT2B7 protein, and UGT2B7 mRNA in diabetic tissues. UGT genetic polymorphism did not explain this difference because UGT2B7*2 or *1c genotype were not associated with altered microsomal UGT2B7 protein levels or AcMPAG formation. Furthermore, mRNA expression and probe activities for UGT1A1 or UGT1A9, both forming MPAG but not AcMPAG, were comparable between diabetic and nondiabetic tissues, suggesting the effect may be specific to UGT2B7-mediated AcMPAG formation. These findings suggest that diabetes mellitus is associated with significantly reduced UGT2B7 mRNA expression, protein level, and enzymatic activity of human liver and kidney, explaining in part the relatively low circulating concentrations of AcMPAG in diabetic patients. PMID:21123165

  10. Glucuronidation of 39Azido39Deoxythymidine (Zidovudine) by Human Liver Microsomes: Relevance to Clinical Pharmacokinetic Interactions with Atovaquone, Fluconazole, Methadone, and Valproic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CAROL BRAUN TRAPNELL; RAYMOND W. KLECKER; CARLOS JAMIS-DOW; JERRY M. COLLINS

    1998-01-01

    Zidovudine (3*-azido-3*-deoxythymidine (AZT)), an antiviral nucleoside analog effective in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection, is primarily metabolized to an inactive glucuronide form, GAZT, via uridine-5*-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. UGT enzymes exist as different isoforms, each exhibiting substrate specificity. Published clinical studies have shown that atovaquone, fluconazole, metha- done, and valproic acid decreased GAZT formation, presumably due to UGT inhibition.

  11. Quantification of free mycophenolic acid and its glucuronide metabolite in human plasma by liquid-chromatography using mass spectrometric and ultraviolet absorbance detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bronwyn Atcheson; Paul J. Taylor; David W. Mudge; David W. Johnson; Peter I. Pillans; Susan E. Tett

    2004-01-01

    The immunosuppressant drug mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its major metabolite, mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG), are highly bound to albumin. An HPLC-tandem-MS (HPLC\\/MS\\/MS) and an HPLC-UV assay were developed to measure free (unbound) concentrations of MPA and MPAG, respectively. Ultrafiltrate was prepared from plasma (500?l) by ultrafiltration at 3000×g for 20min (20°C). Both MPA and MPAG were isolated from ultrafiltrate (100?l)

  12. A study of the intermolecular interactions of tolmetin/N-acetyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester complex.

    PubMed

    Tito, Antonio; Jimenez-Lopez, Claudia; Kowalska, Agnieszka; Wysocki, Stanis?aw

    2009-06-01

    The formation of tolmetin/N-acetyl-l-tyrosine ethyl ester (ATEE) complex has been reported by means of both theoretical and experimental studies, including quantum mechanical calculations as well as UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and time-resolved spectroscopy measurements. It has been found that the fluorescence of ATEE is quenched due to the formation of a non-fluorescent complex between ATEE and tolmetin in the ground state. The geometrical parameters of ATEE/tolmetin complex have been determined with the use of the DFT method applying the B3LYP correlation-exchange functional and 6-31G(d) basis set. The results of experiments indicated the static ATEE quenching by tolmetin. Additionally, the experimental and theoretically predicted Gibbs free energy of complexation has been calculated. PMID:19181568

  13. Degradation Processes in Corona-Charged Electret Filter-Media with Exposure to Ethyl Benzene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren J. Jasper; Anushree Mohan; Juan Hinestroza; Roger Barker

    2007-01-01

    The degradation of filtration performance for corona- charged electret filter media exposed to ethyl benzene was assessed. Nonwoven corona-charged polypropy- lene fiber mats were exposed to ethyl-benzene using a custom made apparatus. Evaluated scenarios included ethyl-benzene vapor and liquid exposures. The filtra- tion performance was evaluated using DOP as a test aerosol to measure filtration performance. It was ob- served

  14. Fractionation of menhaden oil ethyl esters using supercritical fluid CO 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Nilsson; E. J. Gauglitz; J. K. Hudson; V. F. Stout; J. Spinelli

    1988-01-01

    Supercritical fluid CO2 was used to fractionate menhaden oil fatty acid ethyl esters to obtain concentrates of the esters of allcis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and allcis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Separation of the ethyl esters was found to occur primarily by carbon number,\\u000a thus limiting the degree to which the ethyl esters of EPA and DHA could be concentrated. Urea fractionation of whole

  15. Formation of ethyl acetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus on whey: studies of the ester stripping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thanet Urit; Christian Löser; Martin Wunderlich; Thomas Bley

    2011-01-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus is capable of converting lactose into ethyl acetate offering a chance for an economical reuse of whey. The microbial formation\\u000a of ethyl acetate as a bulk product calls for an aerobic process and, thus, the highly volatile ethyl acetate is discharged\\u000a from the aerated bioreactor. This stripping process was modeled and investigated experimentally. The stripping rate was proportional

  16. [Clinical evaluation of hydroxy-ethylated starch (preparation HAES)].

    PubMed

    Mayzner-Zawadzka, E; Kraska, A; Kami?ski, B

    Hydroxy-ethylated starch (HAES-Fresenius) has been evaluated clinically at the Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Medical Academy in Warsaw. This plasma substitute is used in several countries as plasma substitute similar to dextran but of better properties. Results of our studies have shown, that HAES is worth its opinion. It is quite good plasma substitute of favourable effect on tissue perfusion. The above features together with a wide therapeutical margin and the lack of any effect on blood coagulation place HAES over dextran plasma substitutes. This preparation should have wider use in Poland. PMID:7689729

  17. Mixture effects during the oxidation of toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanol over a cryptomelane catalyst.

    PubMed

    Santos, V P; Pereira, M F R; Órfão, J J M; Figueiredo, J L

    2011-01-30

    The catalytic oxidation of two-component VOC mixtures (ethanol, ethyl acetate and toluene) was studied over cryptomelane. Remarkable mixture effects were observed on the activity and the selectivity. Toluene inhibits both ethyl acetate and ethanol oxidation, this effect being more evident in the case of ethyl acetate. For instance, the temperature for 100% conversion is about 210 °C when ethyl acetate is oxidised alone, and 250 °C or higher, when it is oxidised in mixtures with toluene. On the contrary, toluene oxidation is only slightly inhibited by the presence of ethyl acetate, while the presence of ethanol has a promoting effect. Concerning the mixtures of ethyl acetate and ethanol, both compounds have a mutual inhibitory effect, which is more evident in the case of ethyl acetate (the temperature for 100% conversion of ethyl acetate is about 45 °C higher when ethyl acetate is oxidised in mixtures with ethanol, while in the case of ethanol the corresponding increase is only 10 °C). PMID:21044815

  18. Effect of hair care and hair cosmetics on the concentrations of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Hartwig; Volker Auwärter; Fritz Pragst

    2003-01-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) can be used as alcohol markers in hair. It was investigated in this study whether this diagnostic method is disturbed by hair care and hair cosmetics. Traces of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate were detected in all of 49 frequently applied hair care products by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and

  19. Photochemical reduction of iron trichloride in ethyl acetate: synthesis, Mössbauer spectra and the crystal structure at 80 K of hexakis(ethyl acetate)iron(II) bis-tetrachloroironate(III)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S?awomir Szafert; Tadeusz Lis; Krzysztof Drabent; Piotr Sobota

    1994-01-01

    FeCl3 in ethyl acetate under the influence of sunlight, undergoes partial reduction yields the [Fe(CH3CO2Et)6](FeCl4)2 salt. The Mössbauer spectra showed that the iron atoms are at +2 and +3 oxidation states. The crystal structure determined by X-ray diffraction methods at 80 K and refined by full-matrix least-squares techniques toR=0.028 for 2410 independent non-zero reflections is in good agreement with the

  20. 40 CFR 721.10130 - Quino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione, 5,12-dihydro-ar-[4-[[2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (generic). ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (generic). ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10130 - Quino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione, 5,12-dihydro-ar-[4-[[2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (generic). ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (generic). ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10130 - Quino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione, 5,12-dihydro-ar-[4-[[2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (generic). ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (generic). ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10130 - Quino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione, 5,12-dihydro-ar-[4-[[2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (generic). ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (generic). ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10130 - Quino[2,3-b]acridine-7,14-dione, 5,12-dihydro-ar-[4-[[2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (generic). ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (generic). ...2-(sulfooxy)ethyl]substituted]phenyl]-, monosodium salt (PMN...

  5. An effective method, composed of LAMP and dCAPS, to detect different mutations in fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant American sloughgrass (Beckmannia syzigachne Steud.) populations.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lang; Li, Jun; Xia, Wenwen; Zhang, Di; Dong, Liyao

    2015-01-01

    The decreased susceptibility of Beckmannia syzigachne to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl is due to the reliance on it to control grass weeds since the 1990s. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which is a proven simple, rapid, specific, sensitive and inexpensive assay method, has been used to detect the I1781L mutation in B. syzigachne. In the present study, four sets of primers detected four mutations in B. syzigachne, W2027C, I2041A, D2078G and G2096A, using the LAMP method. Additionally, five newly derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (dCAPS) markers were developed to detect five different mutations. With a method composed of LAMP and dCAPS, 19 fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant B. syzigachne populations collected in 2013 were studied. An effective method, composed of LAMP and dCAPS, to detect five mutations, I1781L, W2027C, I2041A, D2078G and G2096A, in B. syzigachne populations was developed. With this method, a B. syzigachne population resistant to fenoxaprop-P-ethyl can be studied to confirm its constitution. And we determined that the resistance level might be relevant to the mutation type and mutation frequency. The type of mutation and its frequency in fenoxaprop-P-ethyl-resistant B. syzigachne populations can be confirmed to provide appropriate herbicide management. PMID:25619905

  6. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L., E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: isabelle.kleiner@lisa.u-pec.fr, E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, CNRS/IPSL UMR7583 et Universites Paris Diderot et Paris Est, 61 av. General de Gaulle, F-94010 Creteil (France)

    2013-06-10

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  7. [Determination of the 14C content of fermentation alcohols].

    PubMed

    Martinière, P; Séverac, J

    1976-02-23

    The measuring activity in 14C of ethylic alcohol permits one to distinguish fermentation alcohol from synthetic alcohol. This activity is used to determine the corresponding percentages of these alcohols in cases of mixture. PMID:817844

  8. A Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometric Method for Quantification of Curcumin-O-Glucuronide and Curcumin in Human Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Fan-Havard, Patty; Yee, Lisa D.; Cao, Yu; Stoner, Gary D.; Chan, Kenneth K.; Liu, Zhongfa

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin is a widely-used herbal medicine for various human diseases including inflammation and cancer. The demonstration and optimization of curcumin’s activities in the clinical setting, however, has been compromised by its poor bioavailability and the lack of analytic methods to monitor its absorption. In this paper, we report the first validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneous quantification of curcumin and its major metabolite: curcumin-O-glucuronide (COG), in the linear range of 2.0–2000 ng/mL in human plasma. The intra-day and inter-day accuracies of curcumin and COG in human plasma were in the range of 91.3–111.5% and 82.7–109.2% and their co-efficiency of variations were in the range of 3.5–12.7% and 3.1–11.3%, respectively. This method was capable of detecting only COG in human plasma samples from two healthy volunteers after an oral ingestion of curcumin. PMID:22682887

  9. In Vivo-Formed versus Preformed Metabolite Kinetics of trans-Resveratrol-3-sulfate and trans-Resveratrol-3-glucuronide

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Satish; Iwuchukwu, Otito F.; Canney, Daniel J.; Zimmerman, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolites in safety testing have gained a lot of attention recently. Regulatory agencies have suggested that the kinetics of preformed and in vivo-formed metabolites are comparable. This subject has been a topic of debate. We have compared the kinetics of in vivo-formed with preformed metabolites. trans-3,5,4?-Trihydroxystilbene [trans-resveratrol (RES)] and its two major metabolites, resveratrol-3-sulfate (R3S) and resveratrol-3-glucuronide (R3G) were used as model substrates. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of R3S and R3G were characterized under two situations. First, the pharmacokinetics of R3S and R3G were characterized (in vivo-formed metabolite) after administration of RES. Then, synthetic R3S and R3G were administered (preformed metabolite) and their pharmacokinetics were characterized. PK models were developed to describe the data. A three-compartment model for RES, a two-compartment model for R3S (preformed), and an enterohepatic cycling model for R3G (preformed) was found to describe the data well. These three models were further combined to build a comprehensive PK model, which was used to perform simulations to predict in vivo-formed metabolite kinetics. Comparisons were made between in vivo-formed and preformed metabolite kinetics. Marked differences were observed in the kinetics of preformed and in vivo-formed metabolites. PMID:22807110

  10. A comparison of the thermal degradation behaviour of ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymer, low density polyethylene and poly(ethyl acrylate)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian C. McNeill; Musarrat H. Mohammed

    1995-01-01

    The thermal stability of low density polyethylene (LDPE), poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) and ethylene-ethyl acrylate (EEA) copolymer has been investigated in an inert atmosphere using thermogravimetry-differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG) and under vacuum by thermal volatilisation analysis (TVA). EEA copolymer was also investigated in nitrogen by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and LDPE and EEA copolymer have also been examined in air using TG-DTG.

  11. Determination of naproxen in human urine by solid-phase microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonella Aresta; Francesco Palmisano; Carlo G. Zambonin

    2005-01-01

    An SPME–LC–UV method for the determination of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen and, after hydrolysis, its glucuronide in human urine samples was developed for the first time using a carbowax\\/templated resin (CW\\/TPR-100)-coated fibre. The procedure required a very simple sample pre-treatment, an isocratic elution, and provides a highly selective extraction. All the aspects influencing adsorption (extraction time, temperature, pH

  12. Determination of Five Phthalate Monoesters in Human Urine Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumio Kondo; Yoshitomo Ikai; Rumiko Hayashi; Masanao Okumura; Satoshi Takatori; Hiroyuki Nakazawa; Shun-ichiro Izumi; Tsunehisa Makino

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method to determine five phthalate monoesters (monoethyl\\u000a phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), monoisononyl phthalate (MINP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBz))\\u000a in human urine. Human urine samples were subjected to enzymatic deconjugation of the glucuronides followed by extraction with\\u000a hexane. The extracted phthalate monoesters were methylated with diazomethane, purified on a

  13. STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ASPHALTENES AND ETHYL ACETATE INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS OF PETROLEUM VACUUM RESIDUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asphaltenes and insoluble fractions of vacuum residues (VRs) of two Indian crude oils (viz. Heera and Jodhpur) of different specific gravity were obtained by precipitation of VRs in n-hexane, n-heptane and ethyl acetate, and also by subsequent reprecipitation of n-heptane and ethyl acetate soluble f...

  14. Controlled Degradation of Poly(Ethyl Cyanoacrylate-Co-Methyl Methacrylate)(PECA-Co-PMMA) Copolymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes a method for modifying poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) in order to control the degradation and the stability as well as the glass transition temperatures. Copolymers of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PECA-co-PMMA) with various compositions were synthesized by free ...

  15. The effect of benzoic acid or its ethyl ester on rumen fermentation parameters

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The effect of benzoic acid or its ethyl ester on rumen fermentation parameters J Nousiainen Valio response of BA or its ethyl ester (EB) on the rumen fermentation parameters in the continuous culture to represent the maximum amount in vivo. The fermentation apparatus and the design of trials as well

  16. Photodissociation dynamics of ethyl ethynyl ether: A new ketenyl radical precursor

    E-print Network

    Butler, Laurie J.

    Photodissociation dynamics of ethyl ethynyl ether: A new ketenyl radical precursor M. J. Krisch, J that only cleavage of the C­O bond to form a C2HO radical and a C2H5 ethyl radical occurs. We observed radical is formed in two distinct product channels, with 37% of the radicals formed from a channel

  17. Survey of ethyl carbamate in fermented foods sold in the United Kingdom in 2004.

    PubMed

    Hasnip, Sarah; Crews, Colin; Potter, Nicholas; Christy, Julie; Chan, Danny; Bondu, Thomas; Matthews, Wendy; Walters, Barry; Patel, Krishna

    2007-04-01

    Results are presented of a survey of fermented foods and beverages sold in the United Kingdom for levels of ethyl carbamate (urethane) carried out to expand the range of food types sold in the United Kingdom for which data regarding ethyl carbamate are available. Samples were analyzed by in-house validated methods, which included measurement uncertainty estimates. The samples comprised 75 fermented liquids (beers, wines, fortified wines, spirits, liqueurs, soy sauces, and vinegars) and 25 fermented solid foods (cheeses, yogurts, soybean products, sauerkraut, yeast extract, olives, and Christmas pudding). Ethyl carbamate was not detected in the beers or the cider. Wines contained between 11 and 24 microg/kg and sake between 81 and 164 microg/kg. Fortified wines contained ethyl carbamate at levels between 14 and 60 microg/kg. Only two of five liqueurs contained ethyl carbamate. Most soy sauces and vinegars did not contain ethyl carbamate. No ethyl carbamate was detected in cheeses, yogurts, olives, or soybean-based products. Single samples of sauerkraut, yeast extract, and Christmas pudding contained low levels (29, 41, and 20 microg/kg ethyl carbamate, respectively). PMID:17328558

  18. Fungal degradation of an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in soil.

    PubMed

    Sondhia, Shobha; Waseem, Uzma; Varma, R K

    2013-11-01

    Owing to reported phytotoxicity of some sulfonylurea class of herbicides in number of sensitive crops and higher persistence in soil, present study was conducted to isolate and identify pyrazosulfuron-ethyl degrading fungi from soil of rice field. Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus niger, were isolated and identified from rhizospere soil of rice field, as potent pyrazosulfuron-ethyl degrading fungi. Degradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by P. chrysogenum and A. niger, yielded transformation products/metabolites which were identified and characterized by LC/MS/MS. The rate of dissipation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was found higher in soil of rice field and soil inoculated with P. chrysogenum. This showed important route of degradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by microbes apart from chemical degradation. PMID:23993642

  19. Production of ethyl acetate from dilute ethanol solutions by Candida utilis

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.W.; Martin, S.M.; Yamazaki, H.

    1984-01-01

    The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate has an advantage as a method of ethanol recovery since ethyl acetate is amenable to simple solvent extraction. The potential of Candida utilis in this conversion was studied. The kinetics of accumulation of ethanol and ethyl acetate in glucose-grown C. utilis showed that ester formation resulted from ethanol utilization under appropriate aeration and was inhibited by Fe/sup 3 +/ supplementation. Candida utilis converted ethanol to ethyl acetate optimally at pH 5.0-7.0. The five-hour rate of ester production increased as the ethanol concentration increased to 10 g/L, and rapidly declined to zero at concentrations exceeding 35 g/L. Thus, C. utilis has potential to recover dilute ethanol in the form of ethyl acetate.

  20. The effects of pH on the enzymatic formation of ?-glucuronides of various retinoids by induced and noninduced microsomal UDPGA-glucuronosyltransferases of several rat tissues in vitro 1 1 Abbreviations used: acitretin, 9-(2?,3?,6? trimethyl, 4?methoxybenzyl1?) 3,7 dimethyl, nona-2,4,6,8 tetraenoic acid; acitretin-G, acitretin-glucuronide; BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene; CD367, tetramethyl, tetrahydro-anthracenyl-benzoic acid; CD367-G, CD367 glucuronide; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; 3MC, 3-methylcholanthrene; MES, 2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid; NEM, N-ethylmaleimide; 4-oxo-RA, 4-oxoretinoic acid; 4-oxo-RAG, 4-oxoretinoyl ?-glucuronide; RA, retinoic acid; RAG, retinoyl ?-glucuronide; RAR, retinoic acid receptor; ROL, retinol; RXR, retinoid X receptor; Tris, tris [hydroxymethyl] aminomethane; TTNPB, tetramethyl, tetrahydronaphthenyl-propenyl-benzoic acid; TTNPB-G, TTNPB glucuronide; UDPGA, UDP-glucuronic acid; UGT, UDPGA-glucuronosyl transferase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Genchi; Arun B Barua; Wei Wang; Wayne R Bidlack; James A Olson

    1998-01-01

    All-trans retinoyl-?-glucuronide, a prominent water-soluble metabolite of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) in animals, is formed by the enzymic transfer of the glucuronyl moiety of uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid to RA. Uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs) of microsomal preparations catalyze this reaction. In noninduced rat liver microsomes, maximal activity was observed in the physiologic range (pH 6.9–7.5) for all-trans-RA, 9-cis-RA, all-trans-4-oxo-RA,

  1. 40 CFR 180.217 - Ammoniates for [ethylenebis-(dithiocarbamato)] zinc and ethyl-enebis [dithiocarbamic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...for [ethylenebis-(dithiocarbamato)] zinc and ethyl-enebis [dithiocarbamic acid...for [ethylenebis-(dithiocarbamato)] zinc and ethyl-enebis [dithiocarbamic acid...of [ethylenebis (dithiocarbamato)] zinc with 1 part by weight ethylenebis...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10111 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10110 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10110 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10110 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10111 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10111 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10110 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10111 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10110 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and neopentlyl glycol. 721.10110 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10110 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10111 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with benzoic acid and diethylene glycol. 721.10111 Section...Chemical Substances § 721.10111 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed diesters with...

  12. General and cerebral haemodynamic activity of ethyl apovincaminate.

    PubMed

    Kárpáti, E; Szporny, L

    1976-01-01

    Systemic and cerebral haemodynamic effects of ethyl apovincaminate (RGH-4405, Cavinton), a new compound, have been investigated in anaesthetized dogs. The compound was administered i.v. and produced an increase in cerebral blood flow accompanied by a decrease in cerebral vascular resistance which persisted for 15 min. The effective dose was 0.2-0.5 mg/kg. Mean arterial blood pressure, total peripheral resistance and cardiac work were decreased, heart rate and cardiac output were increased. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was enhanced. It is assumed that the compound has a direct effect on cerebral metabolism. RGH-4405 has a weak antiarrhythmic and coronary dilating activity. Its effect on smooth muscle is more marked than that of papaverine. RGH-4405 appears to be a potent cerebral vasodilator enhancing cerebral metabolism. PMID:1037212

  13. Reactions of ethyl diazoacetate catalyzed by methylrhenium trioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z.; Espenson, H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-11-03

    Methylrhenium trioxide (CH{sub 3}ReO{sub 3} or MTO) has found wise use in catalysis, including the epoxidation and metathesis of olefins, aldehyde olefination, and oxygen transfer. Extensive reports have now appeared in the area of MTO-catalyzed substrate oxidations with hydrogen peroxide. Certain catalytic applications of MTO for organic reactions that do not utilize peroxide have now been realized. In particular, a catalytic amount of MTO with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA) will convert aromatic imines to aziridines and convert aldehydes and ketones to epoxides. The aziridine preparation proceeds in high yields under anaerobic conditions more conveniently than with existing methods. Compounds with a three-membered heterocyclic ring can be obtained with the EDA/MTO catalytic system. Aromatic imines undergo cycloaddition reactions to give aziridines under mild conditions.

  14. Photochemistry of ethyl chloride caged in amorphous solid water.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Yousif; Asscher, Micha

    2008-11-21

    Caging and photo-induced decomposition of ethyl chloride molecules (EC) within a layer of amorphous solid water (ASW) on top of clean and oxygen-covered Ru(001) under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions are presented. The caged molecules were estimated to reside 1.5 +/- 0.2 nm above the solid surface, based on parent molecule thermal decomposition on the clean ruthenium. Dissociative electron attachment (DEA) of the caged molecules following 193 nm laser irradiation, result in initial fragmentation to ethyl radical and chloride anion. It was found that photoreactivity on top of the clean ruthenium surface (Ru) is twenty times faster than on the oxygen-covered surface (O/Ru), with DEA cross sections: sigma(Ru) = (3.8 +/- 1) x 10(-19) cm(2) and sigma(O/Ru) = (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10(-20) cm(2). This difference is attributed to the higher work function of oxygen-covered ruthenium, leading to smaller electron attachment probability due to mismatch of the ruthenium photo-electron energy with the adsorbed EC excited electron affinity levels. EC molecules fragmented within the cage, result in post-irradiation TPD spectra that reveal primarily C(4)H(8), C(3)H(5) and C(3)H(3), without any oxygen-containing molecules. Unique stabilization of the photoproducts has been observed with the first layer of water molecules in direct contact with the substrate, desorbing near 180 K, a significantly higher temperature than the desorption of fully caged molecules. This study may contribute for understanding stratospheric photochemistry and processes in interstellar space. PMID:18979033

  15. Heat-treatment induced material property variations of Al-coated Mg alloy prepared in aluminum chloride\\/1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mu-Huan Chuang; Jeng-Kuei Chang; Pin-Ju Tsai; Wen-Ta Tsai; Ming-Jay Deng; I-Wen Sun

    2010-01-01

    An Al coating film, electrodeposited on a Mg alloy from aluminum chloride–1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AlCl3–EMIC) ionic liquid, effectively prevents the substrate from rapid corrosion in a hostile environment. The thickness of the Al film can be easily determined by controlling the total cathodic charge applied, because the current efficiency of the electrodeposition reaction is close to 100%. Heat treatment at 450°C

  16. Relaxation kinetics of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)amide ionic liquid during potential step experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Randriamahazaka; C. Plesse; D. Teyssié; C. Chevrot

    2005-01-01

    The relaxation kinetics poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) electrodeposited on platinum electrode surface were studied in a room temperature ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis((trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)amide (EMITFSI), by means of large amplitude potential step experiments. The influence of the applied potential and the film thickness were analyzed. We have developed a kinetic model allowing the determination of the kinetic features. Accordingly, two time or kinetic constants,

  17. Characterisation of DSSC-electrolytes based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide: Measurement of triiodide diffusion coefficient, viscosity, and photovoltaic performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp Wachter; Markus Zistler; Christian Schreiner; Marko Berginc; Urša Opara Krašovec; Dirk Gerhard; Peter Wasserscheid; Andreas Hinsch; Heiner J. Gores

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive characterisation of an ionic liquid based electrolyte for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC) was performed by determination of triiodide diffusion coefficients, viscosities and photovoltaic performances. The electrolyte, consisting of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide, 1-methyl-3-propylimidazolium iodide (MPII), and iodine, was examined at varying ionic liquid molar ratio and fixed iodine concentration, as well as at fixed ionic liquid molar ratio and varying

  18. Liquid–liquid equilibrium and interfacial tension of the ternary system heptane + thiophene + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Héctor Rodríguez; María Francisco; Ana Soto; Alberto Arce

    2010-01-01

    The liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) of the ternary system comprising heptane, thiophene and the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C2mim][NTf2]) was determined at 25°C and atmospheric pressure, for preliminary evaluation of the potential of this ionic liquid as solvent for the desulfurisation of transportation fuels. Classical parameters such as solute distribution ratio and selectivity were calculated from the LLE data and subsequently

  19. An improved and validated sample cleanup method for analysis of ethyl carbamate in Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qiang; Yuan, Huawei; Wu, Chongde; Zheng, Jia; Zhang, Suyi; Shen, Caihong; Yi, Bin; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a potential human carcinogen widely existing in fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. The solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry is a widely-used method to determine EC levels, but the accuracy varies with sample matrix and the effects of operation parameters are rarely examined. In this study, the influence factors involved in EC determination were investigated using Chinese liquor as sample matrix, and the improved method was further applied. Three types of SPE columns, including diatomite, Florisil, and primary-secondary amine, were compared in extraction efficiency, and the diatomite column exhibited the highest extraction efficiency. The optimal volumes of elution solvents with diatomite column were 15 mL for 3-mL samples solution loaded. In addition, the alcoholic strength for EC determination should be diluted below 20% (v/v) to avoid the enhancement of matrix-induced chromatographic response. Moreover, the pH neutralization could help improve EC recovery and peak resolution, reducing interfering effects. Based on these results, the improved method showed that the limit of detection, the limit of quantification, and average recoveries were 1.10 ?g/L, 3.65 ?g/L, and 93.06%, respectively. To further elucidate the underlying factors related to EC accumulation, partial least square regression analysis was conducted, and the results suggested that EC levels had the closest relationship with alcoholic strength among the remaining precursors. PMID:25124850

  20. New energetic materials: functionalized 1-ethyl-5-aminotetrazoles and 1-ethyl-5-nitriminotetrazoles.

    PubMed

    Stierstorfer, Jörg; Tarantik, Karina R; Klapötke, Thomas M

    2009-06-01

    Alkylation of 5-aminotetrazole (1) with 2-chloroethanol leads to a mixture of the N-1 and N-2 isomers of (2-hydroxyethyl)-5-aminotetrazole. Treatment of 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-aminotetrazole (2) with SOCl(2) yielded 1-(2-chlorethyl)-5-aminotetrazole (3). 1-(2-Azidoethyl)-5-aminotetrazole (4) was generated by the reaction of 3 with sodium azide. Nitration of 2, 3, and 4 with HNO(3) (100%) yielded in the case of 2 and 3 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-nitriminotetrazole (5) and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-5-nitriminotetrazole (6). In the case of 4, 1-(2-nitratoethyl)-5-nitriminotetrazole monohydrate (7) was obtained. 1-(2-Azidoethyl)-5-nitriminotetrazole (8) could be obtained by nitration of 4 with NO(2)BF(4) via the formation of potassium 1-(2-azidoethyl)-5-nitriminotetrazolate (9). The reaction of 6 with NaN(3) resulted in the formation of the salt sodium 1-(2-chloroethyl)-5-nitriminotetrazolate (10 a). The deprotonation reaction of 6 was further investigated by the formation of the ammonium salt (10 b). The protonation of 2 and 4 with dilute nitric acid led to 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-aminotetrazolium nitrate (11) and 1-(2-azidoethyl)-5-aminotetrazolium nitrate (12), respectively. Similarly, protonation of 4 with perchloric acid led to 1-(2-azidoethyl)-5-aminotetrazolium perchlorate monohydrate (13). Since 5-nitrimino-tetrazoles can be used as bidentate ligands, the coordination abilities of 5, 6, and 8 were tested by the reaction with copper nitrate trihydrate, yielding the copper complexes trans-[diaquabis{1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5-nitriminotetrazolato-kappa(2)N(4),O(5)}copper(II)] (14), trans-[diaquabis{1-(2-chloroethyl)-5-nitriminotetrazolato-kappa(2)N(4),O(5)}copper(II)] dihydrate (15), and [diaquabis{1-(2-azidoethyl)-5-nitriminotetrazolato-kappa(2)N(4),O(5)}copper(II)] (16). All compounds were characterized by low-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition, comprehensive characterization (IR, Raman, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (13)C), elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, DSC) was performed. The heats of formation of selected compounds were computed by using heats of combustion obtained by bomb calorimetry or calculated by the atomization method. With these values and the densities determined from X-ray crystallography, several detonation parameter were calculated by the EXPLO5 program. Finally, the sensitivities towards impact and friction were determined using a BAM drop hammer and friction tester. PMID:19373791

  1. Glucuronidation and sulfonation, in vitro, of the major endocrine-active metabolites of methoxychlor in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, and induction following treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene.

    PubMed

    James, Margaret O; Stuchal, Leah D; Nyagode, Beatrice A

    2008-01-31

    The organochlorine pesticide, methoxychlor (MXC), is metabolized in animals to phenolic mono- and bis-demethylated metabolites (OH-MXC and HPTE, respectively) that interact with estrogen receptors and may be endocrine disruptors. The phase II detoxication of these compounds will influence the duration of action of the estrogenic metabolites, but has not been investigated extensively. In this study, the glucuronidation and sulfonation of OH-MXC and HPTE were investigated in subcellular fractions of liver and intestine from untreated, MXC-treated and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC)-treated channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. MXC-treated fish were given i.p. injections of 2mg MXC/kg daily for 6 days and sacrificed 24h after the last dose. The 3-MC treatment was a single 10mg/kg i.p. dose 5 days prior to sacrifice. In hepatic microsomes from control fish, the V(max) value (mean+/-S.D., n=4) for glucuronidation of OH-MXC was 270+/-50pmol/min/mg protein, higher than found for HPTE (110+/-20pmol/min/mg protein). For each substrate, the V(max) values observed in intestinal microsomes were approximately twice those found in the liver. The K(m) values for OH-MXC and HPTE glucuronidation in control liver were not significantly different and were 0.32+/-0.04mM for OH-MXC and 0.26+/-0.06mM for HPTE. The K(m) for the co-substrate, UDPGA, was higher in liver (0.28+/-0.09mM) than intestine (0.04+/-0.02mM). Treatment with 3-MC but not MXC increased the V(max) for glucuronidation in liver and intestine. Glucuronidation was a more efficient pathway than sulfonation for both substrates, in both tissues. The V(max) values for sulfonation of OH-MXC and HPTE, respectively, in liver cytosol were 7+/-3 and 17+/-4pmol/min/mg protein and in intestinal cytosol were 13+/-3 and 30+/-5pmol/min/mg protein. Treatment with 3-MC but not MXC increased rates of sulfonation of OH-MXC and HPTE and the model substrate, 3-hydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene in both intestine and liver. Comparison of the kinetics of the conjugation pathways with those published for the demethylation of MXC showed that formation of the endocrine-active metabolites was more efficient than either conjugation pathway. Residues of OH-MXC and HPTE were detected in extracts of liver microsomes from MXC-treated fish. This work showed that although OH-MXC and HPTE could be eliminated by glucuronidation and sulfonation, the phase II pathways were less efficient than the phase I pathway leading to formation of these endocrine-active metabolites. PMID:18078677

  2. 40 CFR 180.221 - O-Ethyl S-phenyl ethylphos-phonodithioate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false O-Ethyl S-phenyl ethylphos-phonodithioate; tolerances...Tolerances § 180.221 O -Ethyl S -phenyl ethylphos-phonodithioate; tolerances...its oxygen analog (O -ethyl S -phenyl ethylphosphonothioate, in or on the...

  3. 40 CFR 180.221 - O-Ethyl S-phenyl ethylphos-phonodithioate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false O-Ethyl S-phenyl ethylphos-phonodithioate; tolerances...Tolerances § 180.221 O -Ethyl S -phenyl ethylphos-phonodithioate; tolerances...its oxygen analog (O -ethyl S -phenyl ethylphosphonothioate, in or on the...

  4. 40 CFR 180.221 - O-Ethyl S-phenyl ethylphos-phonodithioate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false O-Ethyl S-phenyl ethylphos-phonodithioate; tolerances...Tolerances § 180.221 O -Ethyl S -phenyl ethylphos-phonodithioate; tolerances...its oxygen analog (O -ethyl S -phenyl ethylphosphonothioate, in or on the...

  5. In vitro glucuronidation of the primary metabolite of 10-chloromethyl-11-demethyl-12-oxo-calanolide A by human liver microsomes and its interactions with UDP-glucuronosyltransferase substrates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Sheng, Li; Zhao, Manman; Mi, Jiaqi; Liu, Zhihao; Li, Yan

    2015-02-01

    F18 (10-chloromethyl-11-demethyl-12-oxo-calanolide), an analog of (+)-Calanolide A, is a novel small-molecule nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor for the therapy of human immunode?ciency virus (HIV) infection. M3, the most abundant primary metabolite of F18 in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and rat liver microsomes (RLMs), is mainly excreted in bile as a glucuronide conjugate in rats after oral administration. The aim of this study was to identify the UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms involved in the glucuronidation of M3 by HLMs and recombinant human UGTs and investigate the metabolic interactions of M3 with the substrates of UGTs in HLMs. As a result, UGT1A1 was the major isozyme responsible for the glucuronidation of M3, followed by UGT1A4, UGT1A9 and UGT2B7. M3 exhibited significant inhibition against UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 in both HLMs and recombinant human UGTs. In addition, M3 inhibited UGT1A9 catalyzed mycophenolic acid (MPA) glucuronidation with Ki of 0.39 ?M, and M3 also inhibited the glucuronidation of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) by a "mixed-type" mechanism with Ki of 16.8 ?M. The results suggest that UGT1A1 provides the major contribution to M3 glucuronidation in vitro and M3 has the potential to interact with xenobiotics and endogenous chemicals that are UGT1A9 and UGT 2B7 substrates. PMID:25760535

  6. The human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT2A1 and UGT2A2 enzymes are highly active in bile acid glucuronidation

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Martin; Gauthier-Landry, Louis; Trottier, Jocelyn; Verreault, Mélanie; Caron, Patrick; Finel, Moshe; Barbier, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) are essential modulators of lipid, glucose and cholesterol homeostasis, but exert cytotoxic effects in the cholestatic liver. Glucuronidation, catalyzed by the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes is a pharmacologically-relevant BA detoxification process. The present study aimed at characterizing the BA-conjugating activity of the little-studied human UGTs of subfamily 2A, UGT2A1, 2A2 and 2A3. Recombinant UGT2As, expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells, were assayed for the glucuronidation of 6 major bile acids, chenodeoxycholic (CDCA), cholic (CA), lithocholic (LCA), deoxycholic (DCA), hyocholic (HCA) and hyodeoxycholic (HDCA) acids. UGT2A3 exhibited detectable, but very low, activity with all the tested BAs substrates. UGT2A1 was highly efficient in forming LCA-3 and -24G, CDCA-24, DCA-24, HCA-24 and HDCA-24G, while UGT2A2 was the most active enzyme for CA-24G and CDCA-24G formation, and was also able to generate HDCA-6G, HDCA-24G, LCA-24G and HCA-24G. The Km values of UGT2A1 varied between 102.2 ± 14.3 ?M and 2.4 ± 1.2 mM. With the exception of CA-24G, a low affinity substrate for UGT2A2, all the Km values for UGT2A2 were in the 100 to 400 ?M range. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the high reactivity of the human UGT2A1 and UGT2A2 for bile acid glucuronidation. The physiological importance of these reactions to BA disposition remains, however, to be clarified in vivo. PMID:23756265

  7. Mucor circinelloides whole-cells as a biocatalyst for the production of ethyl esters based on babassu oil.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Grazielle S S; Carvalho, Ana K F; Romero, Cintia M; Oliveira, Pedro C; de Castro, Heizir F

    2014-12-01

    The intracellular lipase production by Mucor circinelloides URM 4182 was investigated through a step-by-step strategy to attain immobilized whole-cells with high lipase activity. Physicochemical parameters, such as carbon and nitrogen sources, inoculum size and aeration, were studied to determine the optimum conditions for both lipase production and immobilization in polyurethane support. Olive oil and soybean peptone were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively, to enhance the intracellular lipase activity. Low inoculum level and poor aeration rate also provided suitable conditions to attain high lipase activity (64.8 ± 0.8 U g(-1)). The transesterification activity of the immobilized whole- cells was assayed and optimal reaction conditions for the ethanolysis of babassu oil were determined by experimental design. Statistical analysis showed that M. circinelloides whole-cells were able to produce ethyl esters at all tested conditions, with the highest yield attained (98.1 %) at 35 °C using an 1:6 oil-to-ethanol molar ratio. The biocatalyst operational stability was also assayed in a continuous packed bed reactor (PBR) charged with glutaraldehyde (GA) and Aliquat-treated cells revealing half-life of 43.0 ± 0.5 and 20.0 ± 0.8 days, respectively. These results indicate the potential of immobilized M. circinelloides URM 4182 whole-cells as a low-cost alternative to conventional biocatalysts in the production of ethyl esters from babassu oil. PMID:24958521

  8. Stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ de-conjugation and thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measurement of 4-nonylphenol glucuronide in human urine sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Migaku Kawaguchi; Rie Ito; Yoshio Hayatsu; Hisao Nakata; Norihiro Sakui; Noriya Okanouchi; Koichi Saito; Hiroshi Yokota; Shun-ichiro Izumi; Tsunehisa Makino; Hiroyuki Nakazawa

    2006-01-01

    4-Nonylphenol glucuronide (NP-G) in human urine samples was analyzed using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with in situ de-conjugation by ?-glucuronidase and thermal desorption (TD)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Distilled water (1ml), 1.0M ammonium acetate solution (100?l) and ?-glucuronidase (10,000unitsml?1, 10?l) were added to human urine sample (1ml), and extraction was commenced for 90min at 37°C while stirring at 250rpm with

  9. Expression of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1 (UGT1) and Glucuronidation Activity toward Endogenous Substances in Humanized UGT1 Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Kutsuno, Yuki; Hirashima, Rika; Sakamoto, Masaya; Ushikubo, Hiroko; Michimae, Hirofumi; Itoh, Tomoo; Tukey, Robert H; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2015-07-01

    Although UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are important phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes, they are also involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds. Certain substrates of UGTs, such as serotonin and estradiol, play important roles in the brain. However, the expression of UGTs in the human brain has not been fully clarified. Recently, humanized UGT1 mice (hUGT1 mice) in which the original Ugt1 locus was disrupted and replaced with the human UGT1 locus have been developed. In the present study, the expression pattern of UGT1As in brains from humans and hUGT1 mice was examined. We found that UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A6, and 1A10 were expressed in human brains. The expression pattern of UGT1As in hUGT1 mouse brains was similar to that in human brains. In addition, we examined the expression of UGT1A1 and 1A6 in the cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex of hUGT1 mice. UGT1A1 in all brain regions and UGT1A6 in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex of 6-month-old hUGT1 mice were expressed at a significantly higher rate than those of 2-week-old hUGT1 mice. A difference in expression levels between brain regions was also observed. Brain microsomes exhibited glucuronidation activities toward estradiol and serotonin, with mean values of 0.13 and 5.17 pmol/min/mg, respectively. In conclusion, UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 might play an important role in function regulation of endogenous compounds in a region- and age-dependent manner. Humanized UGT1 mice might be useful to study the importance of brain UGTs in vivo. PMID:25953521

  10. Synthesis and characterization of biodegradable and thermosensitive polymeric micelles with covalently bound doxorubicin-glucuronide prodrug via click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Talelli, M; Morita, K; Rijcken, C J F; Aben, R W M; Lammers, T; Scheeren, H W; van Nostrum, C F; Storm, G; Hennink, W E

    2011-12-21

    Doxorubicin is an anthracycline anticancer agent that is commonly used in the treatment of a variety of cancers, but its application is associated with severe side effects. Biodegradable and thermosensitive polymeric micelles based on poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide-lactate] (mPEG-b-p(HPMAmLac(n))) have been studied as drug delivery systems for therapeutic and imaging agents and have shown promising in vitro and in vivo results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the covalent coupling of a doxorubicin-glucuronide prodrug (DOX-propGA3) to the core of mPEG-b-p(HPMAmLac(2)) micelles. This prodrug is specifically activated by human ?-glucuronidase, an enzyme that is overexpressed in necrotic tumor areas. To this end, an azide modified block copolymer (mPEG(5000)-b-p(HPMAmLac(2)-r-AzEMA)) was synthesized and characterized, and DOX-propGA3 was coupled to the polymer via click chemistry with a high (95%) coupling efficiency. Micelles formed by this DOX containing polymer were small (50 nm) and monodisperse and released 40% of the drug payload after 5 days incubation at 37 °C in the presence of ?-glucuronidase, but less than 5% in the absence of the enzyme. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that DOX micelles incubated with 14C cells showed the same cytotoxicity as free DOX only in the presence of ?-glucuronidase, indicating full conversion of the polymer-bound DOX into the parent drug. Overall, this novel system is very promising for enzymatically responsive anticancer therapy. PMID:22017211

  11. Morphine-6beta-glucuronide-induced hyperphagia: characterization of opioid action by selective antagonists and antisense mapping in rats.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, L; Silva, R M; Rossi, G C; Pasternak, G W; Bodnar, R J

    1998-11-01

    Opiate drugs such as morphine stimulate food intake in rats. The morphine metabolite, morphine-6beta-glucuronide (M6G), is more active than morphine in analgesic assays, and appears to act through distinct receptors. Thus, although morphine analgesia is decreased by antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS ODNs) targeting exons 1 and 4 of the MOR-1 clone, M6G analgesia is reduced by probes targeting exons 2 and 3 of the MOR-1 clone. Our study examined whether central administration of M6G increased food intake in rats, and characterized this response using either selective mu, kappa1, delta1 and delta2 antagonists, or antisense directed against the various cloned opioid receptors. Central M6G (10-1000 ng) significantly and dose-dependently increased intake after 4 hr. Whereas mu antagonism with betaFNA significantly and dose-dependently reduced M6G-induced hyperphagia, equimolar doses of delta1, delta2, and kappa1 antagonists were ineffective. AS ODNs directed against either exons 2 or 3 of the MOR-1 clone blocked M6G-induced hyperphagia, whereas either AS ODNs directed against exons 1 or 4, or a MS ODN directed against exon 2 were ineffective. In contrast, an AS ODN probe directed against exon 1, but not exon 2, of the MOR-1 clone reduced morphine-induced hyperphagia, an effect identical to DAMGO-induced hyperphagia. Whereas M6G-induced hyperphagia was insensitive to antisense probes directed against the DOR-1, KOR-1 and KOR-3/ORL1 clones, these probes respectively reduced hyperphagia induced by deltorphin II, U50488H and nociceptin. Although pharmacological data indicate that M6G-induced hyperphagia acts through mu receptors, antisense data imply that the hyperphagic actions of M6G are mediated by a receptor distinct from traditional mu agonists, either as an alternative splice variant of the MOR-1 clone or a distinct gene. PMID:9808678

  12. Ethyl benzene should be considered ototoxic at occupationally relevant exposure concentrations.

    PubMed

    Vyskocil, A; Leroux, T; Truchon, G; Lemay, F; Gendron, M; Gagnon, F; El Majidi, N; Viau, C

    2008-05-01

    Organic solvents can produce ototoxic effects in both man and experimental animals. The objective of this study was to review the literature on the effects of low-level exposure to ethyl benzene on the auditory system and consider its relevance for the occupational settings. Both human and animal investigations were evaluated only for realistic exposure concentrations based on the permissible exposure limits. In Quebec, the Time-Weighed Average Exposure Value for 8A h (TWAEV) is 100A ppm (434A mg/m(3)) and the Short-Term Exposure Value for 15A min (STEV) is 125A ppm (543A mg/m(3)). In humans, the upper limit for considering ototoxicity data relevant to the occupational exposure situation was set at STEV. Animal data were evaluated only for exposure concentrations up to 100 times the TWAEV. In workers, there is no evidence of either ethyl benzene-induced hearing losses or ototoxic interaction after combined exposure to ethyl benzene and noise. In rats, ethyl benzene affects the auditory function mainly in the cochlear mid-frequency range and ototoxic interaction was observed after combined exposure to noise and ethyl benzene. Further studies with sufficient data on the ethyl benzene exposure of workers are necessary to make a definitive conclusion. Given the current evidence from animal studies, we recommend considering ethyl benzene as an ototoxic agent. PMID:19022877

  13. Mechanism of quizalofop-ethyl selectivity in monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species

    SciTech Connect

    Ruizzo, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) susceptibility to quizalofop-ethyl herbicide was investigated under field and greenhouse conditions. Yield of cucumber cultivars was significantly reduced under field conditions with a single or repeat application of the ethyl ester of quizalofop at 0.14 or 0.28 kg ai/ha. Under greenhouse conditions, quialofop-ethyl significantly suppressed cucumber plant fresh weight with or without the presence of an adjuvant. Enhancement of herbicide activity was directly related to concentration of adjuvant. Microliter droplet application of quizalofop-ethyl at a 10/sup -3/ M concentration, inhibited the relative growth (RGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR) of the treated cucumber leaf 45% and 52%, respectively. Expression of herbicidal injury was localized on the treated leaf with no visible symptoms observed on adjacent leaves. Radiolabeled /sup 14/C-quizalofop-ethyl was applied to leaves of cucumber and corn (Zea mays L.) to compare translocation patterns between two susceptible plant species and relate this information to the observed selectivity of the herbicide. Cucumber autoradiographs showed minimal translocation of /sup 14/C-quizalofop-ethyl 192 hours after treatment. In contrast, corn autoradiographs showed both apoplastic and symplastic transport of quizalofop-ethyl 3 and 24 hours after treatment. Quantification of /sup 14/C in cucumber revealed 96% of absorbed /sup 14/C was confined to the treated leaf after 192h of exposure.

  14. Reactions of Ethyl Groups on a Model Chromia Surface: Ethyl Chloride on Stoichiometric Alpha-Cr2O3(1012)

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.; Ma, Q; Cox, D

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of CH3CH2Cl over the nearly-stoichiometric ?-Cr2O3 (1 0 View the MathML source 2) surface yields gas phase CH2double bond; length as m-dashCH2, CH3CH3, H2 and surface chlorine adatoms. The decomposition reaction is initiated via C-Cl bond cleavage to give a surface ethyl (CH3CH2-) intermediate. A rate-limiting ?-hydride elimination from the surface ethyl species produces gas phase CH2double bond; length as m-dashCH2 and surface hydrogen atoms. Two parallel competing reactions form CH3CH3, via ?-hydride addition to remaining surface ethyl species (reductive elimination), and H2, via the combination of two surface hydrogen atoms. The chlorine freed from the dissociation of CH3CH2Cl binds at the five-coordinate surface Cr3+ sites on the stoichiometric surface and inhibits the surface chemistry via simple site blocking. No surface carbon deposition is observed from the thermal reaction of ethyl chloride, suggesting that ethyl intermediates are not primary coke forming intermediates in the dehydrogenation of ethane over (1 0 View the MathML source 2) facets of ?-Cr2O3.

  15. The synthesis and purification of aromatic hydrocarbons V : 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebersole, Earl R

    1946-01-01

    The method used for the synthesis and purification of an 8-gallon quantity of 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene from m-creosol consists in obtaining m-methylcyclohexanone from m-creosol by hydrogenation followed by oxidation, condensation of the ketone with ethylmagnesium bromide, dehydration of the tertiary alcohol obtained, and the dehydration of the olefins to 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene. A yield of 28 percent of the theoretical was obtained from 98 percent commercial m-creosol. The physical properties of the 1-ethyl-3-methylbenzene are compared with selected values from the literature.

  16. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantitation of plagiochin E and its main metabolite plagiochin E glucuronides in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jie; Lv, Beibei; Xie, Chunfeng; Qu, Jianbo; Lou, Hongxiang

    2008-08-01

    Plagiochin E, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl isolated from liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, was found to have antifungal activity. To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of plagiochin E in rats, a sensitive and specific liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitation of plagiochin E and its total conjugated metabolites in rat plasma. For detection, a Sciex API 4000 LC-MS/MS with a TurboIonSpray ionization (ESI) inlet in the negative ion-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used. The plasma samples were pretreated by a simple liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The concentration of plagiochin E parent form was determined directly and the concentration of plagiochin E conjugated metabolites was assayed in the form of plagiochin E after treatment with beta-glucuronidase/sulfatase. The statistical evaluation for this method reveals excellent linearity, accuracy and precision for the range of concentrations 0.5-1000.0 ng/mL. The method had a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.5 ng/mL for plagiochin E in 50 microL of plasma. The method was successfully applied to the characterization of the pharmacokinetic profile of plagiochin E in rats after an oral and an intravenous administration. PMID:18420369

  17. Subchronic inhalation neurotoxicity studies of ethyl acetate in rats.

    PubMed

    Christoph, Greg R; Hansen, John F; Leung, Hon-Wing

    2003-12-01

    Rats were exposed to 0, 350, 750 or 1500 ppm of ethyl acetate by inhalation for 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 13 weeks. Functional observational battery (FOB) and motor activity tests occurred on non-exposure days during weeks 4, 8 and 13, after which tissues were microscopically examined for neuropathology. A subset of rats was monitored during a 4-week recovery period. Exposure to 750 and 1500 ppm, diminished behavioral responses to unexpected auditory stimuli during the exposure session and appeared to be an acute sedative effect. There were no signs of acute intoxication 30 min after exposure sessions ended. Rats exposed to 750 and 1500 ppm had reduced body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency, which fully or partially recovered within 4 weeks. Reductions in body weight gain and feed efficiency were observed in male rats exposed to 350 ppm. The principal behavioral effect of subchronic exposure was reduced motor activity in the 1500 ppm females, an effect that was not present after the 4-week recovery period. All other FOB and motor activity parameters were unaffected, and no pathology was observed in nervous system tissues. Operant sessions were conducted in another set of male rats preconditioned to a stable operant baseline under a multiple fixed ratio-fixed interval (FR-FI) schedule of food reinforcement. FR response rate, FR post-reinforcement pause duration, and the pattern of FI responding were not affected during or after the exposure series. In contrast, within-group FI rate for the treatment groups increased over time whereas those of the controls decreased. A historical control group, however, also showed a similar pattern of increase, indicating that these changes did not clearly represent a treatment-related effect. Results from these studies indicate a LOEL of 350 ppm for systemic toxicity based on the decreased body weight gain in male rats, and a LOEL of 1500 ppm for neurotoxicity based on the transient reduction in motor activity in female rats. In conclusion, there was no evidence that subchronic exposure up to 1500 ppm ethyl acetate produced any enduring neurotoxic effects in rats. PMID:14637381

  18. Replication across Regioisomeric Ethylated Thymidine Lesions by Purified DNA Polymerases

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Nisana; Wang, Pengcheng; Wang, Yinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Causal links exist between smoking cigarettes and cancer development. Some genotoxic agents in cigarette smoke are capable of alkylating nucleobases in DNA and higher levels of ethylated DNA lesions were observed in smokers than non-smokers. In this study, we examined comprehensively how the regioisomeric O2-, N3- and O4-ethylthymidine (O2-, N3- and O4-EtdT) perturb DNA replication mediated by purified human DNA polymerases (hPol) ?, ?, and ?, yeast DNA polymerase ? (yPol ?), and the exonuclease-free Klenow fragment (Kf?) of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I. Our results showed that hPol ? and Kf? could bypass all three lesions and generate full-length replication products, whereas hPol ? stalled after inserting a single nucleotide opposite the lesions. Bypass carried out by hPol ? and yPol ? differed markedly amongst the three lesions: Consistent with its known capability in bypassing efficiently the minor-groove N2-substituted 2?-deoxyguanosine lesions, hPol ? was able to bypass O2-EtdT, though it experienced great difficulty in bypassing N3-EtdT and O4-EtdT; yPol ? was only modestly blocked by O4-EtdT, but the polymerase was highly hindered by O2-EtdT and N3-EtdT. LC-MS/MS analysis of the replication products revealed that DNA synthesis opposite O4-EtdT was highly error-prone, with dGMP being preferentially inserted, while the presence of O2-EtdT and N3-EtdT in template DNA directed substantial frequencies of misincorporation of dGMP and, for hPol ? and Kf?, dTMP. Thus, our results suggested that O2-EtdT and N3-EtdT may also contribute to the AT?TA and AT?GC mutations observed in cells and tissues of animals exposed to ethylating agents. PMID:24134187

  19. Design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) analogs as glutaminase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Krupa; Ferraris, Dana V.; Thomas, Ajit G.; Stathis, Marigo; Duvall, Bridget; Delahanty, Greg; Alt, Jesse; Rais, Rana; Rojas, Camilo; Gao, Ping; Xiang, Yan; Dang, Chi V.; Slusher, Barbara S.; Tsukamoto, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,2,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES) is a potent and selective allosteric inhibitor of kidney-type glutaminase (GLS) that has served as a molecular probe to determine the therapeutic potential of GLS inhibition. In an attempt to identify more potent GLS inhibitors with improved drug-like molecular properties, a series of BPTES analogs were synthesized and evaluated. Our structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that some truncated analogs retained the potency of BPTES, presenting an opportunity to improve its aqueous solubility. One of the analogs, N-(5-{2-[2-(5-amino-[1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-ethylsulfanyl]-ethyl}-[1,3,4]thiadiazol-2-yl)-2-phenyl-acetamide, exhibited similar potency and better solubility relative to BPTES and attenuated the growth of P493 human lymphoma B cells in vitro as well as in a mouse xenograft model. PMID:23151085

  20. Validation (in-house and collaboratory) of the quantification method for ethyl carbamate in alcoholic beverages and soy sauce by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhu; Pan, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Ping-Gu; Chen, Qing; Han, Jian-Long; Shen, Xiang-Hong

    2013-12-15

    A method for ethyl carbamate (EC) determination in alcoholic beverages and soy sauce was developed by GC-MS. We adopted the diatomaceous earth solid-phase extraction (SPE) column and elution solvent of ethyl acetate/diethyl ether (5:95 v/v) for sample cleaning. The in-house validation showed the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 5.0 ?g/kg. In the accuracy assay, the total average recovery for was 96.7%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were <5%. Subsequently, a collaborative trial was organized for the further validation. The RSDs for repeatability and reproducibility were 1.2-7.8% and 2.3-9.6% respectively. It indicated that the present method performed well in different laboratories. PMID:23993600

  1. Indirect photolysis of perfluorochemicals: hydroxyl radical-initiated oxidation of N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate (N-EtFOSAA) and other perfluoroalkanesulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Plumlee, Megan H; McNeill, Kristopher; Reinhard, Martin

    2009-05-15

    Selected perfluorinated surfactants were irradiated in aqueous hydrogen peroxide solutions using artificial sunlight to study transformation under aquatic environmental conditions. Indirect photolysis mediated by hydroxyl radical was observed for N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamidoethanol (N-EtFOSE), N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetate (N-EtFOSAA), N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA), and perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA). An upper limitforthe bimolecular reaction rate constant for reaction of *OH and N-EtFOSAA was determined to be (1.7 +/- 0.7) x 10(9) M(-1)s(-1). A proposed reaction pathwayfor degradation of the parent perfluorochemical, N-EtFOSE, to the other perfluoroalkanesulfonamides and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was developed and includes oxidation and N-dealkylation steps. As they did not undergo additional degradation, perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) and PFOA were the final degradation products of hydroxyl radical-initiated oxidation. UV-visible absorption spectra for the perfluorochemicals, showing absorbance in the UV region below the range of natural sunlight are also reported. In sunlit environments, indirect photolysis of perfluorochemicals is likely to be important in the determination of their environmental fate given the slow rates expected for biotransformation and weak sorption. Photolytic conversion of perfluorochemicals into refractory perfluorinated acids, mainly PFOA, could mean that a significant fraction of these compounds will accumulate in the world's oceans. PMID:19544870

  2. Impact of trans-resveratrol-sulfates and -glucuronides on endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, nitric oxide release and intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Ladurner, Angela; Schachner, Daniel; Schueller, Katharina; Pignitter, Marc; Heiss, Elke H; Somoza, Veronika; Dirsch, Verena M

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenolic natural product mainly present in grape skin, berries and peanuts. In the vasculature resveratrol is thought to boost endothelial function by increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, by enhancing eNOS activity, and by reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Recent studies show that dietary resveratrol is metabolized in the liver and intestine into resveratrol-sulfate and -glucuronide derivatives questioning the relevance of multiple reported mechanistic in vitro data on resveratrol. In this study, we compare side by side different physiologically relevant resveratrol metabolites (resveratrol sulfates- and -glucuronides) and their parent compound in their influence on eNOS enzyme activity, endothelial NO release, and intracellular ROS levels. In contrast to resveratrol, none of the tested resveratrol metabolites elevated eNOS enzyme activity and endothelial NO release or affected intracellular ROS levels, leaving the possibility that not tested metabolites are active and able to explain in vivo findings. PMID:25329867

  3. Synthesis and application of resorufin ?-D-glucuronide, a low-cost chromogenic substrate for detecting Escherichia coli in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Magro, Germinal; Bain, Robert E S; Woodall, Claire A; Matthews, Robert L; Gundry, Stephen W; Davis, Anthony P

    2014-08-19

    The development of low-cost tests for Escherichia coli is hampered by the expense and limited choice of enzyme substrates. Most chromogenic substrates are required in costly amounts, while fluorogenic substrates require an additional apparatus (e.g., an ultraviolet lamp) to be detected. Herein, we propose an alternative chromogenic substrate, resorufin ?-d-glucuronide (REG), which is exceptionally sensitive and may be employed in very small amounts. We show that REG can be produced similarly to other simple glucuronides and should therefore be no more expensive. The compound is used by both healthy and injured E. coli, resulting in a pronounced color change from orange to a bright pink. Because the released dye (resorufin) has a high extinction coefficient, substantially lower amounts are needed than for commercially available substrates. The potential of this substrate is demonstrated by a presence/absence test requiring just 0.1 mg of REG/100 mL of water sample, one hundredth of the quantity needed for common chromogenic substrates, with an estimated bulk cost of ?0.1 U.S. cents/test. REG shows promise as a chromogenic substrate for E. coli detection and should be considered in the development of new water tests, especially for low-income settings. PMID:25035967

  4. Impact of Trans-Resveratrol-Sulfates and -Glucuronides on Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity, Nitric Oxide Release and Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Ladurner, Angela; Schachner, Daniel; Schueller, Katharina; Pignitter, Marc; Heiss, Elke H.; Somoza, Veronika; Dirsch, Verena M.

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4?-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a polyphenolic natural product mainly present in grape skin, berries and peanuts. In the vasculature resveratrol is thought to boost endothelial function by increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, by enhancing eNOS activity, and by reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Recent studies show that dietary resveratrol is metabolized in the liver and intestine into resveratrol-sulfate and -glucuronide derivatives questioning the relevance of multiple reported mechanistic in vitro data on resveratrol. In this study, we compare side by side different physiologically relevant resveratrol metabolites (resveratrol sulfates- and -glucuronides) and their parent compound in their influence on eNOS enzyme activity, endothelial NO release, and intracellular ROS levels. In contrast to resveratrol, none of the tested resveratrol metabolites elevated eNOS enzyme activity and endothelial NO release or affected intracellular ROS levels, leaving the possibility that not tested metabolites are active and able to explain in vivo findings. PMID:25329867

  5. Tris(ethyl-enedi-amine)-cobalt(II) dichloride.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Kristin; Olenev, Andrei V; Kovnir, Kirill

    2013-06-01

    The title compound, [Co(II)(C2H8N2)3]Cl2, was obtained unexpectedly as the product of an attempted solvothermal synthesis of cobalt selenide from the elements in the presence of NH4Cl in ethyl-enedi-amine solvent. The three chelate rings of the distorted octa-hedral [Co(C2H8N2)3](2+) complex cation adopt twisted conformations about their C-C bonds. The spread of cis-N-Co-N bond angles [80.17?(6)-98.10?(6)°] in the title compound is considerably greater than the equivalent data for [Co(III)(C2H8N2)3]Cl3 [Takamizawa et al. (2008 ?). Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 1689-1692]. In the crystal, the components are linked by numerous N-H?Cl hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network in which the cationic complexes are stacked in columns along [010] and separated by columns of chloride anions. PMID:23794994

  6. Electronic properties of N(5)-ethyl flavinium ion.

    PubMed

    Sichula, Vincent; Kucheryavy, Pavel; Khatmullin, Renat; Hu, Ying; Mirzakulova, Ekaterina; Vyas, Shubham; Manzer, Samuel F; Hadad, Christopher M; Glusac, Ksenija D

    2010-11-25

    We investigated the electronic properties of N(5)-ethyl flavinium perchlorate (Et-Fl(+)) and compared them to those of its parent compound, 3-methyllumiflavin (Fl). Absorption and fluorescence spectra of Fl and Et-Fl(+) exhibit similar spectral features, but the absorption energy of Et-Fl(+) is substantially lower than that of Fl. We calculated the absorption signatures of Fl and Et-Fl(+) using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods and found that the main absorption bands of Fl and Et-Fl(+) are (?,?*) transitions for the S(1) and S(3) excited states. Furthermore, calculations predict that the S(2) state has (n,?*) character. Using cyclic voltammetry and a simplistic consideration of the orbital energies, we compared the HOMO/LUMO energies of Fl and Et-Fl(+). We found that both HOMO and LUMO orbitals of Et-Fl(+) are stabilized relative to those in Fl, although the stabilization of the LUMO level was more pronounced. Visible and mid-IR pump-probe experiments demonstrate that Et-Fl(+) exhibits a shorter excited-state lifetime (590 ps) relative to that of Fl (several nanoseconds), possibly due to faster thermal deactivation in Et-Fl(+), as dictated by the energy gap law. Furthermore, we observed a fast (23-30 ps) S(2) ? S(0) internal conversion in transient absorption spectra of both Fl and Et-Fl(+) in experiments that utilized pump excitations with higher energy. PMID:21043534

  7. The pharmacological actions of pempidine and its ethyl homologue

    PubMed Central

    Spinks, A.; Young, E. H. P.; Farrington, J. A.; Dunlop, D.

    1958-01-01

    Pempidine, and other highly active ganglion blocking agents of the polyalkylpiperidine series, were developed from tertiary alkylamines, themselves weakly active, on the hypothesis that high activity was conferred by the presence in the molecule of a sterically hindered secondary or tertiary nitrogen atom. Pempidine and its N-ethyl homologue (26539) resembled mecamylamine qualitatively. All three drugs blocked sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia; this action was slow in onset and protracted. They blocked neuromuscular transmission, but only about one hundredth as powerfully as ganglionic transmission. They caused a fall in amplitude and rate of the isolated heart, and reduced coronary flow. They had local anaesthetic properties in one of four tests used. They caused tremor. All were well absorbed when administered orally. Pempidine was about twice as active as mecamylamine on ganglia, but only about one half to one quarter as toxic as judged by death, growth, induction of tremor, or cardiotoxicity. Compound 26539 was also quantitatively superior to mecamylamine in respect of these safety margins, but unlike pempidine or mecamylamine damaged the pituitary gland and testis when administered daily for several months. The mode of action of the three drugs is discussed: the results give tentative support for the hypothesis that their action is intracellular. PMID:13618559

  8. Mutational specificities of 1'-acetoxysafrole, N-benzoyloxy-N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene, and ethyl methanesulfonate in human cells.

    PubMed

    Ingle, C A; Drinkwater, N R

    1989-01-01

    We have used an oriP-tk shuttle vector to determine the types of mutations induced in human cells by ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), 1'-acetoxysafrole (AcOS), and N-benzoyloxy-N-methyl-4-aminoazobenzene (BzOMAB). Plasmid DNA was treated in vitro with mutagen and electroporated into human lymphoblastoid cells. After replication of the vector in human cells, plasmids were analyzed for mutations in the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene. Ethyl methanesulfonate induced predominantly GC----AT transition mutations. Treatment of the shuttle vector with AcOS induced 5 of the 6 possible base substitution mutations, including GC----AT (32%) and AT----GC (14%) transition mutations, GC----TA (9%), GC----CG (18%), and AT----TA (14%) transversion mutations, as well as a low frequency (9%) of -1 frameshift mutations at GC base pairs. Replication in human cells of DNA modified with BzOMAB yielded a significant increase (17-fold) in the frequency of deletion mutations relative to solvent-treated DNA. A majority (94%) of the point mutations induced by BzOMAB occurred at GC base pairs and were predominantly GC----AT transitions (33%) and -1 frameshift (22%) mutations, with the remainder consisting mainly of transversions at GC base pairs (28%). The broad spectrum of base substitution mutations observed for AcOS and BzOMAB may indicate the frequent insertion of a variety of bases during replicative bypass of aralkylated bases in human cells. PMID:2927421

  9. Effect of citrulline, urea, ethanol, and urease on the formation of ethyl carbamate in soybean paste model system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Gun; Lyu, Jihye; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of urease on the formation of ethyl carbamate (EC) in the presence of previously known precursors of EC (citrulline, urea, and ethanol) using a soybean paste model system. The levels of EC were quantitatively determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) every five days for a 30-day period. After 30days fermentation, the concentration of EC increased significantly by 135.2%, 242.2%, and 3757.1% when the precursors (citrulline, urea and ethanol) were added to the model system, respectively (p<0.05). Urease significantly decreased the level of EC by 38.4%, 18.8%, and 17.3% when citrulline, urea, and ethanol were added to the model system, respectively (p<0.05). PMID:26190603

  10. Effect of water presence on methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether liquid-phase syntheses

    SciTech Connect

    Cunill, F.; Vila, M.; Izquierdo, J.F.; Iborra, M.; Tejero, J. (Univ. of Barcelona (Spain))

    1993-03-01

    Equilibrium constants for the liquid-phase synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) were determined experimentally in the temperature range 40-80 C, using an initial water percentage range in the alcohol of 1.4-5 wt%. The initial molar alcohol-isobutylene ratio varied from 0.8 to 1.44. Both systems behave nonideally, and the equilibrium constants found agree with those determined without initial water quoted in the literature. In experimental kinetic runs performed at 40 C, ETBE and MTBE production rates are strongly lowered by the initial water presence. This inhibitor effect disappears as water is converted into tert-butyl alcohol (TBA). The TBA equilibrium is reached faster than those of the ethers, and the residual water is rather small.

  11. Orientational dynamics of the ionic organic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Orientational dynamics of the ionic organic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium nitrate Hu Cang, Jie-methylimidazolium nitrate (EMIM NO3 ) over time scales from 1 ps to 2 ns, and the temperatures range from 410 to 295

  12. 40 CFR 180.212 - S-Ethyl cyclohexylethylthio-carbamate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...cyclohexylethylthio-carbamate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide S -ethyl cyclohexylethylthiocarbamate in or on the following food commodities: Commodity Parts per million...

  13. 40 CFR 180.212 - S-Ethyl cyclohexylethylthio-carbamate; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...cyclohexylethylthio-carbamate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide S -ethyl cyclohexylethylthiocarbamate in or on the following food commodities: Commodity Parts per million...

  14. The Wolfe Institute The Ethyle R.Wolfe Institute for the Humanities,

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    The Wolfe Institute The Ethyle R.Wolfe Institute for the Humanities, in cooperation.951.5847 wolfeinstitute@brooklyn.cuny.edu Twitter: twitter.com/Wolfe_Institute Every year police officers detain hundreds

  15. 5-Isopropylidene-3-ethyl rhodanine induce growth inhibition followed by apoptosis in leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Subban; Chiruvella, Kishore K; Rajesh, K; Prabhu, V; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2010-07-01

    5-Isopropylidene-3-ethyl rhodanine II was prepared by conventional and Microwave assisted synthesis. For the first time, we found that rhodanine II treatment led to cytotoxicity in leukemic cell line, CEM by inducing apoptosis. PMID:20236736

  16. Rapeseed ethyl ester as bio-lube in 2-cycle engine

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The performance of four blends of gasoline with rapeseed ethyl ester (REE) and three commercial 2-cycle oils has been evaluated in engine tests by the University of Idaho. Details and results of the tests are given in the article.

  17. Hepatic studies of intraperitoneally administered tris(2-ethyl hexyl)trimellitate (TOTM) and di(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate in rats.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, K; Srivastava, S P; Seth, P K

    1990-02-01

    Adult male rats receiving tris(2-ethyl hexyl)trimellitate (TOTM) intraperitoneally for seven days exhibited no significant changes in the activities of hepatic aminopyrine-N-demethylase, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase or glutathione-S-transferase, or in the glutathione contents. However, except for the glutathione level, the di(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (DEHP)-treated group showed significant increases in the activities of these enzymes. Changes in the body weight and the absolute and relative liver weights were also observed among the DHEP-treated group. PMID:2335710

  18. Highly unsaturated fatty acids. III. Isolation of methyl eicosapentaenoate, ethyl docosapentaenoate, and ethyl docosahexaenoate from cod liver oil esters by chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed M. Abu-Nasr; Ralph T. Holman

    1954-01-01

    Summary  a) Displacement chromatography using a charcoal-isopropanol-methyl behenate system has been successfully applied to the isolation\\u000a of docosahexaenoic acid and ethyl docosahexaenoate from cod liver oil concentrates.\\u000a \\u000a b) Methyl eicosapentaenoate was isolated from cod liver oil methyl esters by combined elution chromatography on silicic acid\\u000a and displacement chromatography.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a c) Using silicic acid as adsorbent and petroleum ether-chloroform as solvent, ethyl docosapentaenoate

  19. Spray Application Parameters That Influence the Growth Inhibiting Effects of Trinexapac-Ethyl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew James Fagerness; Donald Penner

    1998-01-01

    identifies a broad range of effective spray carrier vol- umes (187-1683 L ha2 1 ), achievement of rainfastness Trinexapac-ethyl (4-(cyclopropyl-a-hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-diox- within 1 h after application, and no need for an adjuvant ocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester) is a foliar absorbed, cyclohex- to enhance efficacy. There is little evidence available to anedione turfgrass growth regulator that can inhibit shoot growth in numerous

  20. Solubility of carbon dioxide in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethylsulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan N. Soriano; Bonifacio T. Doma; Meng-Hui Li

    2008-01-01

    Experimental results for the solubility of carbon dioxide in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethylsulfate are not reported in the literature. To this end, we present in this work new solubility data for carbon dioxide in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethylsulfate for temperatures ranging from (303.2 to 343.2)K and pressures up to 6.7MPa using a thermogravimetric microbalance. The carbon dioxide solubility was