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Sample records for ethyl glucuronide determination

  1. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Walsham, Natalie E; Sherwood, Roy A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol misuse is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although clinical history, examination, and the use of self-report questionnaires may identify subjects with harmful patterns of alcohol use, denial or under-reporting of alcohol intake is common. Existing biomarkers for detecting alcohol misuse include measurement of blood or urine ethanol for acute alcohol consumption, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and gamma-glutamyl transferase for chronic alcohol misuse. There is a need for a biomarker that can detect excessive alcohol consumption in the timeframe between 1 day and several weeks. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct metabolite of ethanol detectable in urine for up to 90 h and longer in hair. Because EtG has high specificity for excess alcohol intake, it has great potential for use in detecting "binge" drinking. Using urine or hair, this noninvasive marker has a role in a variety of clinical and forensic settings. PMID:25735859

  2. Improvement of ethyl glucuronide determination in human urine and serum samples by solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Janda, I; Alt, A

    2001-07-15

    An improved method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in human serum and urine was developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric detection (MS). EtG was isolated from serum and urine using aminopropyl SPE columns after deproteination with perchloric acid and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The chromatographic separation was performed on a DB 1701 fused-silica column. At a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1, a quantification limit of 173 and 560 ng/ml and a detection limit of 37 and 168 ng/ml could be determined for serum and urine, respectively. This indicates high specificity and sensitivity of the described method. The mean absolute recovery was approximately 85%, while intra- and inter-day precision of the assay were all less than 7.5%. The linearity of the calibration curves was satisfying as indicated by correlation coefficients of >0.993. The presented method provides the basis for determination and identification of EtG in human serum and urine samples in a low-concentration range for monitoring alcohol consumption during treatment for alcohol dependence and comorbid alcohol abuse of psychotherapy patients. PMID:11486833

  3. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in human serum by hyphenation of capillary isotachophoresis and zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Novkov, Michaela; Krivnkov, Ludmila

    2008-04-01

    The determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a marker of recent alcohol consumption, in human serum by hyphenation of capillary ITP (CITP) and CZE is reported. For CITP step, 1 x 10(-2) M hydrochloric acid adjusted with epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) to pH 4.4 was used as the leading electrolyte, and 1 x 10(-2) M nicotinic acid with EACA, pH 4.4, was used as the terminating electrolyte (TE). All electrolytes contained 0.2% hydroxypropylcellulose to suppress electroosmosis. In CITP, EtG was separated from fast serum macrocomponents chloride, phosphate, lactate, and acetate. Zones of microcomponents including EtG that migrated between acetate and nicotinate were forwarded to the second capillary filled with a BGE identical with the TE. Conductivity detection was used in the CITP step. Sensitive detection in the CZE step was performed using indirect spectrophotometric detection at 254 nm. The assay is based on a 1:5 dilution of serum with deionized water and has a concentration LOD for EtG in diluted sample of 9.8 x 10(-9) M. The method was used for the determination of EtG in sera of volunteers consuming alcohol. PMID:18383012

  4. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair to assess excessive alcohol consumption in a student population.

    PubMed

    Oppolzer, David; Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was used to evaluate the pattern of alcohol consumption amongst the Portuguese university student population. A total of 975 samples were analysed. For data interpretation, the 2014 guidelines from the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) for the use of alcohol markers in hair for the assessment of both abstinence and chronic excessive alcohol consumption were considered. EtG concentrations were significantly higher in the male population. The effect of hair products and cosmetics was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and significant lower concentrations were obtained when conditioner or hair mask was used or when hair was dyed. Based on the analytical data and information obtained in the questionnaires from the participants, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed in order to determine the ideal cut-offs for our study population. Optimal cut-off values were estimated at 7.3 pg/mg for abstinence or rare occasional drinking control and 29.8 pg/mg for excessive consumption. These values are very close to the values suggested by the SoHT, proving their adequacy to the studied population. Overall, the obtained EtG concentrations demonstrate that participants are usually well aware of their consumption pattern, correlating with the self-reported consumed alcohol quantity, consumption habits and excessive consumption close to the time of hair sampling. PMID:26537927

  5. Glucuronic acid and the ethanol metabolite ethyl-glucuronide cause Toll-like receptor 4 activation and enhanced pain

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Susannah S.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Zhang, Yingning; Hund, Dana K.; Maier, Steven F.; Rice, Kenner C.; Watkins, Linda R.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously observed that the non-opioid morphine metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, enhances pain via a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent mechanism. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether TLR4-dependent pain enhancement generalizes to other classes of glucuronide metabolites. In silico modeling predicted that glucuronic acid alone and ethyl glucuronide, a minor but long-lasting ethanol metabolite, would dock to the same MD-2 portion of the TLR4 receptor complex previously characterized as the docking site for morphine-3-glucuronide. Glucuronic acid, ethyl glucuronide and ethanol all caused an increase in TLR4-dependent reporter protein expression in a cell line transfected with TLR4 and associated co-signaling molecules. Glucuronic acid-, ethyl glucuronide-, and ethanol-induced increases in TLR4 signaling were blocked by the TLR4 antagonists LPS-RS and (+)-naloxone. Glucuronic acid and ethyl glucuronide both caused allodynia following intrathecal injection in rats, which was blocked by intrathecal co-administration of the TLR4 antagonist LPS-RS. The finding that ethyl glucuronide can cause TLR4-dependent pain could have implications for human conditions such as hangover headache and alcohol withdrawal hyperalgesia, as well as suggesting that other classes of glucuronide metabolites could have similar effects. PMID:23348028

  6. Validation of a headspace solid-phase microextraction-GC-MS/MS for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair according to forensic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Nadulski, Thomas; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Schrder, Johannes; Dufaux, Bertin; Yegles, Michel; Pragst, Fritz

    2010-03-20

    The analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair is a powerful tool for chronic alcohol abuse control because of the typical wide detection window of the hair matrix and due to the possibility of segmentation, allowing evaluation of alcohol consumption in different periods. Additionally, EtG in hair is often the only diagnostic parameter of choice for alcohol abuse when other clinical parameters such as ALT, AST, gammaGT and CDT (asialotransferrin and disialotransferrin) are in the normal range and EtG in urine negative. In this paper, we describe the development, optimization and validation of a new method based on hair extraction with water, clean-up by solid phase extraction (SPE), derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in combination with GC-MS/MS according to forensic guidelines. The assay linearity of EtG was confirmed over the range from 2.8 to 1000 pg/mg hair, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) above 0.999. The LLOQ was 2.8 pg/mg and the LLOD was 0.6 pg/mg. An error profile calculated according to the "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement" (GUM) at 99% confidence intervals for the range 5-750 pg/mg hair did not exceed 10%. This range corresponds to more than 98% of the positive samples analysed. PMID:20061100

  7. Detection of ethyl glucuronide in blood spotted on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M; Kaufmann, E; Thoma, D; Thierauf, A; Weinmann, W; Skopp, G; Alt, A

    2011-07-15

    This study aims to show that sensitive detection of ethyl glucuronide in dried blood spotted onto various surfaces after a period of 24h is feasible. At present, there is insufficient information how tightly ethyl glucuronide (EtG) binds to various materials and how easily it can be eluted. 4ml aliquots of blood samples obtained from seven volunteers after consumption of alcoholic beverages were applied to six different surfaces. After drying and a 24h-storage at 20±2°C the samples were re-dissolved in water, and EtG was subsequently analyzed by a LC-MS Paul-type ion trap. A comparison was made between dried and corresponding fluid samples. EtG was detectable in all subjects' samples following consumption of alcohol. EtG was also detectable after a storage time of four weeks at 4°C in whole blood that had been preserved with EDTA. EtG was detectable in all samples dried on different surfaces and its concentration remained relatively constant irrespective of the particular condition of the material. Detection of EtG in blood spots from the scene may indicate recent alcohol consumption in cases where collection of blood remained undone or could not be performed. PMID:21641739

  8. SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF URINARY ETHYL GLUCURONIDE AND ETHYL SULFATE IN LIVER DISEASE PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott H.; Koch, David G.; Burgess, Douglas M.; Willner, Ira R.; Reuben, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Background It is important to monitor alcohol use in the care of liver disease patients, but patient self-report can be unreliable. We therefore evaluated the performance of urine ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in detecting alcohol use in the days preceding a clinical encounter. Methods Subjects (n=120) were recruited at a university-based Hepatology clinic or during hospitalization. Alcohol consumption was ascertained by validated self-report measures. Urine EtG (cutoff 100 ng/mL) and EtS (cutoff 25 ng/mL) concentrations were assayed by a contracted laboratory using tandem mass spectrometry. The sensitivity and specificity of each biomarker in the detection of drinking during the 3 and 7 days preceding the clinic visit were determined, as well as the influence of liver disease severity on these results. Results Urine EtG (sensitivity 76%, specificity 93%) and urine EtS (sensitivity 82%, specificity 86%) performed well in identifying recent drinking, and liver disease severity does not affect biomarker performance. After elimination of one false negative self-report, urine EtG > 100 ng/mL was 100% specific for drinking within the past week, whereas 9% of the subjects without evidence of alcohol drinking for at least one week had EtS > 25 ng/mL. Conclusions Urine EtG and EtS can objectively supplement the detection of recent alcohol use in patients with liver disease. Additional research may determine optimal methods for integrating these tests into clinical care. PMID:22725265

  9. Comparison of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) concentrations in hair for testing abstinence.

    PubMed

    Albermann, M E; Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2011-04-01

    Hair analysis is a powerful tool for retrospective drug analysis. By determining the minor ethanol metabolites ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair, even a previous consumption of alcohol is detectable. However, previous studies showed a lack of correlation if both parameters are determined simultaneously. A further study was conducted to confirm or refute these results. One hundred and sixty hair samples were analyzed for EtG and FAEE in the context of driving ability. In 109 cases, alcohol abstinence was clearly proven and was excluded in 15 cases. In 36 cases, ambiguous results were found. Possible reasons for the deviating results are discussed. It is recommended, that in context of driving ability diagnostics the EtG result is determinant. In critical cases FAEE concentrations can be determined for checking purposes, but a negative FAEE result cannot refute a determined EtG concentration >7 pg/mg. PMID:21127843

  10. Examination of sex differences in fatty acid ethyl ester and ethyl glucuronide hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Gareri, Joey; Rao, Chitra; Koren, Gideon

    2014-06-01

    Clinical studies examining performance of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in identifying excessive alcohol consumption have been primarily conducted in male populations. An impact of hair cosmetics in producing both false-negative EtG results and false-positive FAEE results has been demonstrated, suggesting a possible bias in female populations. This study evaluates FAEE-positive hair samples (>0.50?ng/mg) from n?=?199 female and n?=?73 male subjects for EtG. Higher FAEE/EtG concordance was observed amongst male over female subjects. Performance of multiple proposed EtG cut-off levels were assessed; amongst female samples, FAEE/EtG concordance was 36.2% (30?pg/mg), 36.7% (27?pg/mg), and 43.7% (20?pg/mg). Non-coloured hair demonstrated a two-fold increase in concordance (41.8 v. 20.8%) over coloured hair in the female cohort. FAEE levels did not differ between male and female subjects; however they were lower in coloured samples (p?=?0.046). EtG was lower in female subjects (p?=?0.019) and coloured samples (p?=?0.026). A total of n?=?111 female samples were discordant. Amongst discordant samples (EtG-negative), 26% had evidence of recent alcohol use including consultation histories (n?=?20) and detectable cocaethylene (n?=?9); 29% of discordant samples were coloured. False-negative risk with ethyl glucuronide analysis in females was mediated by cosmetic colouring. These findings suggest that combined analysis of FAEE and EtG is optimal when assessing a female population and an EtG cut-off of 20?pg/mg is warranted when using combined analysis. While concordant FAEE/EtG-positive findings constitute clear evidence, discordant FAEE/EtG findings should still be considered suggestive evidence of chronic excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:24817046

  11. Testing for ethanol markers in hair: discrepancies after simultaneous quantification of ethyl glucuronide and fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Nicholson, D

    2014-10-01

    The hair of 97 cases were analysed for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE, including ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate) according to the Society of Hair Testing guidelines to examine the role of both tests in documenting chronic excessive alcohol drinking, particularly when the results are in contradiction. 27 (27.8%) results were EtG negative and FAEE positive, when applying the SoHT cut-offs, probably due to the use of alcohol-containing hair products. Four cases (4.1%) were EtG positive and FAEE negative that were attributed to the use of herbal lotions containing EtG. PMID:24794020

  12. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.…

  13. Voucher-Based Reinforcement for Alcohol Abstinence Using the Ethyl-Glucuronide Alcohol Biomarker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonell, Michael G.; Howell, Donelle N,; McPherson, Sterling; Cameron, Jennifer M.; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol consumption in 10 alcohol-dependent participants. An ABCA design was used. Vouchers were provided contingent on results of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) urine tests (an alcohol biomarker with a 2-day detection period) and alcohol breath tests during the C phase.

  14. Development and validation of a gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair and its application to forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Kharbouche, Hicham; Sporkert, Frank; Troxler, Stphanie; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice; Staub, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor and direct metabolite of ethanol. EtG is incorporated into the growing hair allowing retrospective investigation of chronic alcohol abuse. In this study, we report the development and the validation of a method using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS/MS) for the quantification of EtG in hair. EtG was extracted from about 30 mg of hair by aqueous incubation and purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using mixed mode extraction cartridges followed by derivation with perfluoropentanoic anhydride (PFPA). The analysis was performed in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode using the transitions m/z 347-->163 (for the quantification) and m/z 347-->119 (for the identification) for EtG, and m/z 352-->163 for EtG-d(5) used as internal standard. For validation, we prepared quality controls (QC) using hair samples taken post mortem from 2 subjects with a known history of alcoholism. These samples were confirmed by a proficiency test with 7 participating laboratories. The assay linearity of EtG was confirmed over the range from 8.4 to 259.4 pg/mg hair, with a coefficient of determination (r(2)) above 0.999. The limit of detection (LOD) was estimated with 3.0 pg/mg. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was fixed at 8.4 pg/mg. Repeatability and intermediate precision (relative standard deviation, RSD%), tested at 4 QC levels, were less than 13.2%. The analytical method was applied to several hair samples obtained from autopsy cases with a history of alcoholism and/or lesions caused by alcohol. EtG concentrations in hair ranged from 60 to 820 pg/mg hair. PMID:19109074

  15. Ethyl-glucuronide and ethyl-sulfate in placental and fetal tissues by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Morini, Luca; Falcn, Maria; Pichini, Simona; Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Danesino, Paolo; Groppi, Angelo; Luna, Aurelio

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for the determination of ethyl-glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl-sulfate (EtS), two direct ethanol metabolites, in early placental and fetal human tissues, as potential biomarkers of transplacental ethanol transfer from the mother to the fetus. Placental and fetal tissue samples were obtained from women undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy at 12 weeks of gestation. Samples were deproteinized and directly injected into a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) system. Limits of detection of 13.0 and 23.0 pmol/g and lower limits of quantification of 22.0 and 40.0 pmol/g were reached for EtG and EtS, respectively. Inter- and intraday imprecision and accuracy were always lower than 15%. The method was applied to 70 samples (35 placentas and 35 fetal tissues). Of 35 samples, 4 samples collected from 4 women tested positive for EtG and EtS, always showing higher concentrations for EtG. The placenta/fetal tissue ratio for EtG was 2.9 0.9, whereas EtS showed a ratio of 1.7 0.7. Preliminary results suggest that these metabolites are present in both tissues. Further studies should now corroborate the hypothesis, not yet confirmed, that transplacental transfer of ethanol takes place not only for the parent compound but also for EtG and EtS. PMID:21787742

  16. The influence of ethanol containing cosmetics on ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair.

    PubMed

    Martins Ferreira, Liliane; Binz, Tina; Yegles, Michel

    2012-05-10

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), non-volatile, direct metabolites of ethanol have been shown to be suitable markers for the evaluation of social and chronic excessive alcohol consumption. Previous investigations have shown that the regular use of hair-care products with high alcohol content lead to an increase of FAEE concentration and consequently gave false-positive results for the determination of FAEE in hair. In this study we investigated the influence of a long-term hair treatment with EtOH containing lotion, on the EtG concentrations in hair. In this study 7 volunteer subjects (classified as either rare, social or heavy drinkers) treated the right side of their scalp every day during a one or two month period with a commercial hair tonic (Seborin), which contains 44.0% ethanol (vol%). Collection of hair specimens from both sides of the scalp was done one day before hair treatment, one week and one month after treatment (for 5 subjects also after two months of treatment). A hair segment of 3 centimeters (cm) was cut and then washed with water and acetone, and then pulverized. EtG was quantified by GC/MS after pulverization and 2h of ultrasonication in water, extraction by solid phase extraction using Oasis MAX columns and derivatization with HFBA. Measurements were done in negative chemical ionization mode using EtG-D5 as internal standard. Comparison of EtG concentration in the treated and in the non-treated hair specimens did not show any increase at the different dates of collection for the 7 subjects. In conclusion, these results show that there is no indication for an increase of EtG after use of ethanol containing hair cosmetics. PMID:22051770

  17. Clinical Sensitivity and Specificity of Meconium Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters, Ethyl Glucuronide, and Ethyl Sulfate for Detecting Maternal Drinking During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Dukes, Kimberly A.; Tripp, Tara; Petersen, Julie M.; Raffo, Cheri; Burd, Larry; Odendaal, Hein; Elliott, Amy J.; Hereld, Dale; Signore, Caroline; Willinger, Marian; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated agreement between self-reported prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and objective meconium alcohol markers to determine the optimal meconium marker and threshold for identifying PAE. Methods Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 0.1 g meconium from infants of Safe Passage Study participants. Detailed PAE information was collected from women with a validated timeline follow-back interview. As meconium formation begins during weeks 12-20, maternal self-reported drinking at or beyond 19 weeks was our exposure variable. Results Of 107 women, 33 reported no alcohol consumption in pregnancy, 16 stopped drinking by week 19, and 58 drank beyond 19 weeks (including 45 3rd trimester drinkers). There was moderate-substantial agreement between self-reported PAE ≥19 weeks and meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g (kappa: 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.73). This biomarker and associated cutoff was superior to a 7 FAEE sum ≥2 nmol/g and all other individual and combination marker cutoffs. With meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g as the gold-standard condition and maternal self-report ≥19 weeks gestation as the test condition, 82% sensitivity (95% CI: 71.6-92.0) and 75% specificity (95% CI: 63.2-86.8) were observed. A significant dose-concentration relationship between self-reported drinks per drinking day and meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g also was observed (P<0.01). Conclusions We assessed meconium EtG, EtS, and FAEE concentrations in the same meconium sample and compared concentrations to detailed self-reported PAE data. Maternal alcohol consumption ≥19 weeks was better represented by meconium EtG ≥30 ng/g compared to current FAEE cutoffs. PMID:25595440

  18. Quantitation of Ethyl Glucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate in Urine Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    PubMed

    Slawson, Matthew H; Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate are minor conjugated metabolites of ethanol that can be detected in urine for several days after last ingestion of ethanol. The monitoring of ethanol use has both clinical and forensic applications and a longer detection window afforded by monitoring these metabolites is obvious. LC-MS/MS is used to analyze diluted urine with deuterated analogs of each analyte as internal standards to ensure accurate quantitation and control for any potential matrix effects. High aqueous HPLC is used to chromatograph the metabolites. Negative ion electrospray is used to introduce the metabolites into the mass spectrometer. Selected reaction monitoring of two product ions for each analyte allows for the calculation of ion ratios which ensures correct identification of each metabolite, while a matrix-matched calibration curve is used for quantitation. PMID:26660185

  19. Combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair for diagnosis of alcohol abuse: interpretation and advantages.

    PubMed

    Pragst, F; Rothe, M; Moench, B; Hastedt, M; Herre, S; Simmert, D

    2010-03-20

    In this study the combined use of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for diagnoses of chronically excessive alcohol abuse is investigated at 174 hair samples from driving ability examination, workplace testing and child custody cases for family courts and evaluated with respect to the basics of interpretation. Using the cut-off values of 0.50 ng/mg for FAEE and 25 pg/mg for EtG, both markers were in agreement in 75% of the cases with 103 negative and 28 positive results and there were 30 cases with FAEE positive and EtG negative and 13 cases with FAEE negative and EtG positive. As the theoretical basis of interpretation, the pharmacokinetics of FAEE and EtG is reviewed for all steps between drinking of ethanol to incorporation in hair with particular attention to relationships between alcohol dose and concentrations in hair. It is shown that the concentrations of both markers are essentially determined by the area under the ethanol concentration in blood vs. time curve AUC(EtOH), despite large inter-individual variations. It is demonstrated by calculation of AUC(EtOH) on monthly basis for moderate, risky and heavy drinking that AUC(EtOH) increases very strongly in the range between 60 and 120 g ethanol per day. This specific feature which is caused by the zero-order elimination of ethanol is a favorable prerequisite for a high discrimination power of the hair testing for alcohol abuse. From the consideration of the different profiles of FAEE and EtG along the hair and in agreement with the literature survey, a standardized hair segment 0-3 cm is proposed with cut-off values of 0.5 ng/mg for FAEE and 30 pg/mg for EtG. This improves also the agreement between FAEE and EtG results in the cases of the present study. A scheme for combined interpretation of FAEE and EtG is proposed which uses the levels of abstinence and the double of the cut-off values as criteria in addition to the cut-off's. Considering the large variations in the relationship between ethanol dose and FAEE and EtG concentrations in hair, the combined use of both parameters strongly increases the accuracy of the diagnosis by mutual confirmation and identification of false positive or false negative results due to biological variations or analytical errors. PMID:20061103

  20. Identification and preliminary characterization of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases catalyzing formation of ethyl glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Nicole; Skopp, Gisela

    2014-04-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol, is used as a marker of alcohol consumption in a variety of clinical and forensic settings. At present there are very few studies of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT), responsible for catalyzing EtG formation, and the possible effect of nutritional components, e.g. flavonoids, which are extensively glucuronidated, on EtG formation has not been addressed at all. The following incubation conditions were optimized with regard to previously published conditions: buffer, substrate concentration, and incubation time. Isolation of EtG from the incubation mixture was also optimized. Recombinant UGT enzymes (UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9, 2B7, 2B10, 2B15) were screened for their activity towards ethanol, and kinetic data were then established for all enzymes. It was decided to study the effect of the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol on glucuronidation of ethanol. Isolation was by solid-phase extraction (SPE) to minimize matrix effects. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS), with EtG-d5 as the internal standard. SPE was vital to avoid severe ion suppression after direct injection of the incubation solution. EtG formation was observed for all enzymes under investigation; their kinetics followed the Michaelis-Menten model, meaning the maximum reaction rate achieved at saturating substrate concentrations (V(max)) and the substrate concentration at which the reaction rate is half of V(max) (Michaelis-Menten constant, K(m)) could be calculated. The highest rate of glucuronidation was observed with UGT1A9 and 2B7. After co-incubation with both flavonoids, formation of EtG was significantly reduced for all enzymes except for UGT2B15, whose activity did not seem to be affected. Results reveal that multiple UGT isoforms are capable of catalyzing glucuronidation of ethanol; nevertheless, the effect of UGT polymorphism on glucuronidation of ethanol needs further study. Formation of EtG is inhibited by the flavonoids under investigation. Obviously, nutritional components affect conversion of ethanol to EtG. This observation may serve as a partial explanation of its variable formation in man. PMID:24553666

  1. Influence of thermal hair straightening on ethyl glucuronide content in hair.

    PubMed

    Ettlinger, Jana; Kirchen, Luc; Yegles, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Hair analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) has become a valuable marker for the detection of moderate and chronic alcohol consumption. It has been shown that bleaching and perming may decrease EtG content in hair. So far, no studies exist about the influence of thermal hair straightening on EtG content in hair. Forty-one positive EtG hair samples were treated in vitro with a hair straightener at 200C. Duration of treatment of 1 min was chosen for this study. After washing, pulverization, incubation in ultrasonic bath, solid-phase extraction, and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride, EtG was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry - negative ion chemical ionization (GC-MS-NICI). The EtG contents in straightened hair strands were then compared with those in the corresponding untreated strands. In 20 of 41 hair samples, a decrease of EtG content was found ranging from 0.7% to 79.3% (average 20%) whereas in 21 cases an increase was shown ranging from 2.0% to 50.9% (average 15%). The variation of the results seems to depend on hair colour. The decrease may be explained by thermic in vitro destruction of EtG. The increase may be explained by denaturation of the hair matrix by thermal treatment possibly causing a better extraction of EtG during incubation in ultrasonic bath. This in vitro study indicates that thermal hair straightening has an impact on the EtG content in hair. This has to be considered for a correct interpretation of EtG results in hair. However, these results should be confirmed by in vivo studies. PMID:24817051

  2. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium from newborns for detection of alcohol abuse in a maternal health evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Burger, Pascal; Goecke, Tamme W; Fasching, Peter A; Reulbach, Udo; Bleich, Stefan; Hastedt, Martin; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pragst, Fritz; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2010-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) were determined in 602 meconium samples in a maternal health evaluation study for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated headspace solid phase microextraction method in combination with GC-MS was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl palmitate, ethyl linoleate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 500 ng/g was applied for interpretation. A new and simple method was developed and validated for quantification of EtG from 10-20 mg meconium with D(5)-EtG as internal standard consisting of 30 min. extraction with methanol/water (1:1, v/v), evaporation of methanol, filtration of the aqueous solution through a cellulose filter and injection into LC-MS-MS. The limits of detection and quantification for EtG were 10 and 30 ng/g, the recovery 86.6 to 106.4% and the standard deviation of the concentrations ranged from 13% at 37 ng/g to 5% at 46,700 ng/g (N = 6). FAEE above the cut-off were found in 43 cases (7.1%) with cumulative concentrations between 507 and 22,580 ng/g and with one outlier of about 150,000 ng/g (EtG not detected). EtG was detected in 97 cases (16.3%) and concentrations between LOD and 10,200 ng/g with another outlier of 82,000 ng/g (FAEE 10,500 ng/g). Optimal agreement between the two markers was obtained with a cut-off for EtG of 274 ng/g and 547 cases with both FAEE- and EtG-negative, 33 cases with both FAEE- and EtG-positive, nine cases with FAEE-positive and EtG-negative, and seven cases with FAEE-negative and EtG-positive. Differences in physical, chemical, and biochemical properties and in the pharmacokinetic behavior are discussed as reasons for the deviating cases. In none of the 602 cases, serious alcohol consumption was reported by the mothers and no evidence for gestational ethanol exposure was observed in the medical investigation of the newborns. It is concluded that the combined use of FAEE and EtG in meconium as markers for fetal alcohol exposure essentially increases the accuracy of the interpretation and helps to avoid false positive and false-negative results. PMID:20145912

  3. Ethyl glucuronide in hair and fingernails as a long-term alcohol biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lisa; Fendrich, Michael; Jones, Joseph; Fuhrmann, Daniel; Plate, Charles; Lewis, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to evaluate the performance of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair and fingernails as a long-term alcohol biomarker. Design Cross-sectional survey with probability sampling. Setting Midwestern United States. Participants Participants were 606 undergraduate college students between the ages of 18 and 25 years at the time of selection for potential study participation. Measurements EtG concentrations in hair and fingernails were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry at three thresholds [30 picograms (pg) per milligram (mg); 20 pg/mg; and 8 pg/mg]. Any weekly alcohol use, increasing-risk drinking and high-risk drinking on average during the past 12 weeks was assessed by participant interview using the time-line follow-back method. Findings In both hair and fingernails at all three EtG thresholds, sensitivity was greatest for the high-risk drinking group [hair: 0.43, confidence interval (CI) = 0.17, 0.69 at 30 pg/mg, 0.71, CI = 0.47, 0.95 at 20 pg/mg; 0.93, CI = 0.79, 1.00 at 8 pg/mg; fingernails: 1.00, CI = 1.001.00 at 30, 20 and 8 pg/mg] and specificity was greatest for any alcohol use (hair: 1.00, CI = 1.00, 1.00 at 30 and 20 pg/mg; 0.97, CI = 0.920.99 at 8 pg/mg; fingernails: 1.00, CI = 1.001.00 at 30, 20 and 8 pg/mg). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were significantly higher for EtG concentration in fingernails than hair for any weekly alcohol use (P = 0.02, DeLong test, two-tailed) and increasing-risk drinking (P = 0.02, DeLong test, two-tailed). Conclusions Ethyl glucuronide, especially in fingernails, may have potential as a quantitative indicator of alcohol use. PMID:24524319

  4. Quantitation of ethyl glucuronide in serum & urine by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Bharat, Venkatesh; Murthy, Pratima

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Alcohol misuse has now become a serious public health problem and early intervention is important in minimizing the harm. Biochemical markers of recent and high levels of alcohol consumption can play an important role in providing feedback regarding the health consequences of alcohol misuse. Existing markers are not sensitive to recent consumption and in detecting early relapse. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a phase-II metabolite of ethanol is a promising marker of recent alcohol use and can be detected in body fluids. In this study an analytical technique for quantitation of EtG in body fluids using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric detection (MS) was developed and validated. Methods: De-proteinization of serum and urine samples was done with perchloric acid and hydrochloric acid, respectively. Serum samples were passed through phospholipids removal cartridges for further clean up. EtG was isolated using amino propyl solid phase extraction columns. Chromatographic separation was achieved by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Results: Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 50 and 150 ng/ml for urine and 80 and 210 ng/ml for serum, respectively. Signal to noise ratio was 3:1, mean absolute recovery was 80-85 per cent. Significant correlation was obtained between breath alcohol and serum EtG levels (r=0.853) and urine EtG and time since last abuse (r = -0.903) in clinical samples. Interpretation & conclusions: In the absence of other standardized techniques to quantitate EtG in biological samples, this GC-MS method was found to have high throughput and was sensitive and specific. PMID:25857498

  5. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair: a controlled alcohol-dosing study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    L Crunelle, Cleo; Cappelle, Delphine; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2016-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor phase II metabolite of alcohol that accumulates in hair. It has been established as a sensitive marker to assess the retrospective consumption of alcohol over recent months using a cut-off of ≥7 pg/mg hair to assess repeated alcohol consumption. The primary aim was to assess whether amounts of alcohol consumed correlated with EtG concentrations in hair. Additionally, we investigated whether the current applied cut-off value of 7 pg/mg hair was adequate to assess the regular consumption of low-to-moderate amounts of alcohol. A prospective controlled alcohol-dosing study in 30 healthy individuals matched on age and gender. Individuals were instructed to drink no alcohol (N = 10), 100 g alcohol per week (N = 10) or 150 g alcohol per week (N = 10) for 12 consecutive weeks, before and after which hair was collected. Throughout the study, compliance to daily alcohol consumption was assessed by analyzing urine EtG three times weekly. Participants in the non-drinking group had median EtG concentrations of 0.5 pg/mg hair (interquartile range (IQR) 1.7 pg/mg; range < 0.21-4.5 pg/mg). Participants consuming 100 and 150 g alcohol per week showed median EtG concentrations of 5.6 pg/mg hair (IQR 4.7 pg/mg; range 2.0-9.8 pg/mg) and 11.3 pg/mg hair (IQR 5.0 pg/mg; range 7.7-38.9 pg/mg), respectively. Hair EtG concentrations between the three study groups differed significantly from one another (p < 0.001). Hair EtG concentrations can be used to differentiate between repeated (low-to-moderate) amounts of alcohol consumed over a long time period. For the assessment of repeated alcohol use, we propose that the current cut-off of 7 pg/mg could be re-evaluated. PMID:26549114

  6. Quantification of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in meconium for detection of alcohol abuse during pregnancy: Correlation study between both biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Tabernero, Mara Jess; Otero, Jos Lus; Mguez, Martha; Bermejo, Ana Mara; Martello, Simona; De Giovanni, Nadia; Chiarotti, Marcello

    2014-11-01

    This article presents results from 47 meconium samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for detection of gestational alcohol consumption. A validated microwave assisted extraction (MAE) method in combination with GC-MS developed in the Institute of Forensic Science (Santiago de Compostela) was used for FAEE and the cumulative concentration of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate and ethyl stearate with a cut-off of 600ng/g was applied for interpretation. A simple method for identification and quantification of EtG has been evaluated by ultrasonication followed solid phase extraction (SPE). Successful validation parameters were obtained for both biochemical markers of alcohol intake. FAEE and EtG concentrations in meconium ranged between values lower than LOD and 32,892ng/g or 218ng/g respectively. We have analyzed FAEE and EtG in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. Certain agreement between the two biomarkers was found as they are both a very specific alcohol markers, making it a useful analysis for confirmation. PMID:25137651

  7. Determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Choe, Sanggil; In, Sangwhan; Pyo, Jae Sung

    2016-03-15

    The main objective of this study was to develop and validate a simpler and less time consuming analytical method for determination of propofol glucuronide from hair sample, by using mixed mode anion exchange cartridge and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The study uses propofol glucuronide, a major metabolite of propofol, as a marker for propofol abuse. The hair sample was digested in sodium hydroxide solution and loaded in mixed-mode anion cartridge for solid phase extraction. Water and ethyl acetate were used as washing solvents to remove interfering substances from the hair sample. Consequently, 2% formic acid in ethyl acetate was employed to elute propofol glucuronide from the sorbent of mixed-mode anion cartridge, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The method validation parameters such as selectivity, specificity, LOD, LLOQ, accuracy, precision, recovery, and matrix effect were also tested. The linearity of calibration curves showed good correlation, with correlation coefficient 0.998. The LOD and LLOQ of the propofol glucuronide were 0.2pg/mg and 0.5pg/mg, respectively. The intra and inter-day precision and accuracy were acceptable within 15%. The mean values of recovery and matrix effect were in the range of 91.7-98.7% and 87.5-90.3%, respectively, signifying that the sample preparation, washing and extraction procedure were efficient, and there was low significant hair matrix effect for the extraction of propofol glucuronide from hair sample on the mixed mode anion cartridge. To evaluate the suitability of method, the hair of propofol administered rat was successfully analyzed with this method. PMID:26946424

  8. A Highly Specific, Fully Validated Urinary Ethyl Glucuronide Analysis Using Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Acikkol, Munevver; Ozdemir, Ali Acar; Anilanmert, Beril; Mirsal, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    A highly specific and selective analytical method using LC/MS/MS for the quantitative determination of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine was developed and fully validated. Since the determination of EtG in urine may be possible days after the elimination of alcohol, it is an indication of alcohol use in alcohol treatment programs and antemortem and postmortem toxicological investigations. Propyl glucuronide (PrG), which increased the selectivity of the method, was used as an internal standard. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, LOD, LOQ, intraday and interday precision, and recovery. The analyte and PrG in the SPE cleaned up extract were separated on a 150 mm C18 column in 3.3 min with high resolution. The rest of the peaks from the matrix were eluted in 9.0 min. The LOD was 90.8 ng/mL and the LOQ was calculated using the EURACHEM method as 185.0 ng/mL. The intraday and the intermediate precision of the method was calculated using analysis of variance and confirmed with calculation of HorRat values, which were found within acceptable limits. The method provided a reliable solution for monitoring patients under alcohol addiction treatment and was successfully applied to real samples. PMID:26086255

  9. Ethyl glucuronide in human hair after daily consumption of 16 or 32 g of ethanol for 3 months.

    PubMed

    Kronstrand, Robert; Brinkhagen, Linda; Nyström, Fredrik H

    2012-02-10

    The overall objectives of the study were to develop a sensitive method for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) determination in hair and then investigate if a low or moderate intake of ethanol could be differentiated from total abstinence. Forty-four subjects were included in the study, 12 males (7 drinkers and 5 abstinent) and 32 females (14 drinkers and 18 abstinent). The study lasted 3 months and the female drinkers consumed one glass (16 g of ethanol) and the males consumed two glasses (32 g of ethanol) of wine (13.5-14%) daily. Hair samples were collected as close as possible above the skin and the proximal 2 cm were analyzed for EtG. Hair was cut into pieces of about 0.5 cm length and washed before incubation overnight in water and then extracted on Clean Screen EtG Carbon columns. The LC/MS/MS system consisted of a Waters ACQUITY UPLC connected to an API 4000 triple quadrupole instrument. Two transitions for EtG and one for the internal standard EtG-D(5) were measured. The method was linear from 60 to 10,000 pg/sample. Imprecision studies were performed at three levels as well as with an authentic sample. Total imprecision was 16% at 200 pg/sample, 8% at 1000 pg/sample, 6% at 8000 pg/sample and 13% at 29 pg/mg in the authentic sample. Of those who drank two glasses of wine every day, four had measurable amounts of EtG in their hair (5-11 pg/mg), and in only one of the females drinking one glass of wine EtG was quantified (3 pg/mg). Among the 23 abstinent subjects two had traces of EtG in the hair. We conclude that persons who ingested 16 or 32 g of ethanol daily for 3 months presented with low concentrations of EtG in hair, well below the proposed threshold for overconsumption set at 30 pg/mg. In addition, none of those who ingested 16 g/day had concentrations over the proposed abstinence threshold of 7 pg/mg. PMID:21367545

  10. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat

    PubMed Central

    Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001–100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours. PMID:26996103

  11. Hair Ethyl Glucuronide is Highly Sensitive and Specific for Detecting Moderate-to-Heavy Drinking in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Scott H.; Koch, David G.; Willner, Ira R.; Randall, Patrick K.; Reuben, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Hair ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a promising biomarker of moderate-to-heavy alcohol consumption and may have utility in detecting and monitoring alcohol use in clinical populations where alcohol use is of particular importance. This study evaluated the relationship between hair EtG and drinking in patients with liver disease. Methods: The subjects (n=200) were patients with liver disease who presented for care at a university medical center. Alcohol use during the 3 months preceding participation in the study was assessed, and a sample of hair was obtained for EtG testing. Classification of drinking status (any drinking or averaging at least 28g per day) by hair EtG was evaluated, as well as the effects of liver disease severity and demographic and hair care factors. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for detecting an average of 28g or more per day during the prior 90 days was 0.93. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity of hair EtG ?8pg/mg for averaging at least 28g of ethanol per day were 92 and 87%, respectively. Cirrhosis and gender may have a modest influence on the relationship between drinking and hair EtG. Conclusion: Hair EtG was highly accurate in differentiating subjects with liver disease averaging at least 28g of ethanol per day from abstainers and lighter drinkers. PMID:23015609

  12. A wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption lifestyle through Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) detection in human sweat.

    PubMed

    Panneer Selvam, Anjan; Muthukumar, Sriram; Kamakoti, Vikramshankar; Prasad, Shalini

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time a wearable biochemical sensor for monitoring alcohol consumption through the detection and quantification of a metabolite of ethanol, ethyl glucuronide (EtG). We designed and fabricated two co-planar sensors with gold and zinc oxide as sensing electrodes. We also designed a LED based reporting for the presence of EtG in the human sweat samples. The sensor functions on affinity based immunoassay principles whereby monoclonal antibodies for EtG were immobilized on the electrodes using thiol based chemistry. Detection of EtG from human sweat was achieved through chemiresistive sensing mechanism. In this method, an AC voltage was applied across the two coplanar electrodes and the impedance across the sensor electrodes was measured and calibrated for physiologically relevant doses of EtG in human sweat. EtG detection over a dose concentration of 0.001-100 μg/L was demonstrated on both glass and polyimide substrates. Detection sensitivity was lower at 1 μg/L with gold electrodes as compared to ZnO, which had detection sensitivity of 0.001 μg/L. Based on the detection range the wearable sensor has the ability to detect alcohol consumption of up to 11 standard drinks in the US over a period of 4 to 9 hours. PMID:26996103

  13. High levels of agreement between clinic-based ethyl glucuronide (EtG) immunoassays and laboratory-based mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Leickly, Emily; McDonell, Michael G.; Vilardaga, Roger; Angelo, Frank A.; Lowe, Jessica M.; McPherson, Sterling; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immunoassay urine drug screening cups that detect use for two or more days are commonly used in addiction treatment settings. Until recently, there has been no comparable immunoassay test for alcohol use in these settings. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the agreement of a commercially available ethyl glucuronide immunoassay (EtG-I) test conducted at an outpatient addiction clinic and lab-based EtG mass spectrometry (EtG-MS) conducted at a drug testing laboratory at three cut-off levels. High agreement between these two measures would support the usefulness of EtG-I as a clinical tool for monitoring alcohol use. Methods Forty adults with co-occurring alcohol dependence and serious mental illnesses submitted 1068 urine samples over a 16-week alcohol treatment study. All samples were tested using EtG-I on a benchtop analyzer and 149 were randomly selected for EtG-MS analysis at a local laboratory. Agreement was defined as the number of samples where EtG-I and EtG-MS were both above or below a specific cut-off level. Agreement was calculated at low cut-off levels (100 and 250 ng/ml), as well as at a higher cut-off level (500 ng/ml) recommended by most by commercial drug testing laboratories. Results Agreement between EtG-I and EtG-MS was high across all cut-off levels (90.6% at 100 ng/ml, and 96.6% at 250 and 500 ng/ml). Conclusions EtG immunoassays conducted at low cut-off levels in point-of-care testing settings have high agreement with lab-based EtG-MS. EtG-I can be considered a useful clinical monitoring tool for alcohol use in community-based addiction treatment settings. PMID:25695340

  14. Practical experiences in application of hair fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide for detection of chronic alcohol abuse in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Suesse, S; Pragst, F; Mieczkowski, T; Selavka, C M; Elian, A; Sachs, H; Hastedt, M; Rothe, M; Campbell, J

    2012-05-10

    This article presents results from 1872 hair samples, which were analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG). The results were evaluated in the context of self-reported drinking behavior, the use of hair cosmetics, the gender of the sample donors and hair sample length. For comparison, CDT and GGT in serum were available in 477 and 454 cases, respectively. A number of alcohol abstainers or low moderate drinkers and excessive drinkers were selected for assessment of cut-offs for FAEEs in the proximal 6cm hair segments and for EtG in the proximal 3cm hair segments. Cut-off values were assessed by ROC analysis. It was found that the cut-offs of 1.0ng/mg FAEE and 30pg/mg EtG presently used for excessive drinking lead to a low portion of false positives (4% and 3% respectively) but to a higher portion of false negatives (23% and 25% respectively). Comparison of the mean and medium concentrations in samples without any reported hair cosmetics (N=1079) and in samples with reported use of hair spray (N=79) showed an increase by the factor of about two for FAEE but no significant difference for EtG. Mean values of EtG were decreased by 80% in bleached samples (N=164) and by 63% in dyed samples (N=96). There was no significant effect of bleaching and dyeing on FAEE. Hair gel and hair wax, oil or grease showed no significant effect on both FAEE and EtG. With respect to gender and investigated hair length ambiguous results were obtained because of major differences in the compared subpopulations of male with higher alcohol consumption and mainly shorter hair, and less drinking female with longer hair. For excessive drinkers FAEEs in the 0-6cm hair segment and EtG in the 0-3cm segment decreased with increasing time of reported abstinence before sample collection. These drinkers attain the level of teetotalers only after more than 10 months of abstinence. In comparison to scalp hair, FAEEs recovered from armpit hair and leg hair were lower and from chest hair were higher. EtG in armpit hair was lower and in leg hair higher than in scalp hair. It is concluded that the combined use of FAEE and EtG essentially increases the accuracy of interpretation since both markers complement each other by a different sensitivity to sources of error. PMID:22036309

  15. Determination of major UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzymes and their genotypes responsible for 20-HETE glucuronidation[S

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Yazun Bashir; Cha, Eun-Young; Seo, Kyung-Ah; Ghim, Jong-Lyul; Kim, Hyo-Ji; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Su-Jun; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2014-01-01

    The compound 20-HETE is involved in numerous physiological functions, including blood pressure and platelet aggregation. Glucuronidation of 20-HETE by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) is thought to be a primary pathway of 20-HETE elimination in humans. The present study identified major UGT enzymes responsible for 20-HETE glucuronidation and investigated their genetic influence on the glucuronidation reaction using human livers (n = 44). Twelve recombinant UGTs were screened to identify major contributors to 20-HETE glucuronidation. Based on these results, UGT2B7, UGT1A9, and UGT1A3 exhibited as major contributors to 20-HETE glucuronidation. The Km values of 20-HETE glucuronidation by UGT1A3, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 were 78.4, 22.2, and 14.8 ?M, respectively, while Vmax values were 1.33, 1.78, and 1.62 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Protein expression levels and genetic variants of UGT1A3, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 were analyzed in human livers using Western blotting and genotyping, respectively. Glucuronidation of 20-HETE was significantly correlated with the protein levels of UGT2B7 (r2 = 0.33, P < 0.001) and UGT1A9 (r2 = 0.31, P < 0.001), but not UGT1A3 (r2 = 0.02, P > 0.05). A correlation between genotype and 20-HETE glucuronidation revealed that UGT2B7 802C>T, UGT1A9 ?118T9>T10, and UGT1A9 1399T>C significantly altered 20-HETE glucuronide formation (P < 0.050.001). Increased levels of 20-HETE comprise a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and the present data may increase our understanding of 20-HETE metabolism and cardiovascular complications. PMID:25249502

  16. Validation of a novel method to identify in utero ethanol exposure: simultaneous meconium extraction of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl glucuronide, and ethyl sulfate followed by LC-MS/MS quantification

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; Concheiro, Marta; Scheidweiler, Karl B.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in meconium, the first neonatal feces, identifies maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Current meconium alcohol marker assays require separate analyses for FAEE and EtG/EtS. We describe development and validation of the first quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for 9 FAEEs, EtG, and EtS in 100 mg meconium. For the first time, these alcohol markers are analyzed in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. 100 mg meconium was homogenized in methanol and centrifuged. The supernatant was divided, and applied to two different solid phase extraction columns for optimized analyte recovery. Limits of quantification for ethyl laurate, myristate, linolenate, palmitoleate, arachidonate, linoleate, palmitate, oleate, and stearate ranged from 2550 ng/g, with calibration curves to 2,5005,000 ng/g. EtG and EtS linear dynamic ranges were 51,000 and 2.5500 ng/g, respectively. Mean bias and between-day imprecision were <15 %. Extraction efficiencies were 51.296.5 %. Matrix effects ranged from ?84.7 to 16.0 %, but were compensated for by matched deuterated internal standards when available. All analytes were stable (within 20 % change from baseline) in 3 authentic positive specimens, analyzed in triplicate, after 3 freeze/thaw cycles (?20 C). Authentic EtG and EtS also were stable after 12 h at room temperature and 72 h at 4 C; some FAEE showed instability under these conditions, although there was large inter-subject variability. This novel method accurately detects multiple alcohol meconium markers and enables comparison of markers for maternal alcohol consumption. PMID:24408304

  17. Validation of a novel method to identify in utero ethanol exposure: simultaneous meconium extraction of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl glucuronide, and ethyl sulfate followed by LC-MS/MS quantification.

    PubMed

    Himes, Sarah K; Concheiro, Marta; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-03-01

    Presence of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in meconium, the first neonatal feces, identifies maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Current meconium alcohol marker assays require separate analyses for FAEE and EtG/EtS. We describe development and validation of the first quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for 9 FAEEs, EtG, and EtS in 100mg meconium. For the first time, these alcohol markers are analyzed in the same meconium aliquot, enabling comparison of the efficiency of gestational ethanol exposure detection. 100mg meconium was homogenized in methanol and centrifuged. The supernatant was divided, and applied to two different solid phase extraction columns for optimized analyte recovery. Limits of quantification for ethyl laurate, myristate, linolenate, palmitoleate, arachidonate, linoleate, palmitate, oleate, and stearate ranged from 25-50ng/g, with calibration curves to 2,500-5,000ng/g. EtG and EtS linear dynamic ranges were 5-1,000 and 2.5-500ng/g, respectively. Mean bias and between-day imprecision were <15%. Extraction efficiencies were 51.2-96.5%. Matrix effects ranged from -84.7 to 16.0%, but were compensated for by matched deuterated internal standards when available. All analytes were stable (within 20% change from baseline) in 3 authentic positive specimens, analyzed in triplicate, after 3 freeze/thaw cycles (-20C). Authentic EtG and EtS also were stable after 12h at room temperature and 72h at 4C; some FAEE showed instability under these conditions, although there was large inter-subject variability. This novel method accurately detects multiple alcohol meconium markers and enables comparison of markers for maternal alcohol consumption. PMID:24408304

  18. The influence of cleansing shampoos on ethyl glucuronide concentration in hair analyzed with an optimized and validated LC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Binz, Tina M; Baumgartner, Markus R; Kraemer, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is widely used as a marker for assessment of alcohol consumption behavior. In this study the influence of special cleansing shampoos on ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair was investigated. For that purpose an optimized LC-MS/MS method was developed using a Hypercarb porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column and validated according to the guidelines of the German Society of Toxicological and Forensic Chemistry (GTFCh). Twenty-five hair samples of persons with known alcohol consumption behavior were investigated (21 positive samples and 4 blank samples). The hair samples were divided into two strands of hair and were analyzed after treatment with one out of four cleansing shampoos and without shampoo treatment. EtG concentrations in hair did not show any significant differences after a single application of the different cleansing shampoos. EtG was still detectable in all the positive hair samples without significant concentration change. These results clearly demonstrated that a single application of the tested cleansing shampoos did not remove EtG from hair and therefore had no influence on EtG concentration in analytical hair analysis. PMID:25151107

  19. Degradation of the ethyl glucuronide content in hair by hydrogen peroxide and a non-destructive assay for oxidative hair treatment using infra-red spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Dominic; Becker, Roland; Kohl, Anka; Hnisch, Jessica; Nehls, Irene

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of quantification results of the alcohol abuse marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair in comparison to the cut-off values for the drinking behavior may be complicated by cosmetic hair bleaching. Thus, the impact of increasing exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the EtG content of hair was investigated. Simultaneously, the change of absorbance in the range of 1000-1100 cm(-1) indicative for the oxidation of cystine was investigated non-destructively by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) using pulverized portions of the respective hair samples. Hair samples treated with hydrogen peroxide consistently displayed a significantly increased absorbance at 1040 cm(-1) associated with the formation of cysteic acid. The EtG content decreased significantly if the hair was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide as during cosmetic bleaching. It could be shown that ATR-FTIR is capable of detecting an exposure to hydrogen peroxide when still no brightening was visible and already before the EtG content deteriorated significantly. Thus, hair samples suspected of having been exposed to oxidative treatment may be checked non-destructively by a readily available technique. This assay is also possible retrospectively after EtG extraction and using archived samples. PMID:25180828

  20. Determination of tapentadol and tapentadol-O-glucuronide in human serum samples by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Hillewaert, Vera; Pusecker, Klaus; Sips, Luc; Verhaeghe, Tom; de Vries, Ronald; Langhans, Manfred; Terlinden, Rolf; Timmerman, Philip

    2015-02-15

    Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with 2 mechanisms of action, MOR agonism and noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibition in a single molecule. It is the first member of a new therapeutic class, MOR-NRI. A high throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of tapentadol and its O-glucuronide metabolite in human serum. Simultaneous quantification was deemed to be challenging because of the large difference in concentrations between tapentadol and its O-glucuronide metabolite in clinical samples. Therefore, a method was established using a common processed sample, but with different injection volumes and chromatographic conditions for each analyte. Tapentadol and tapentadol-O-glucuronide were determined by protein precipitation of 0.100ml of the samples with acetonitrile. The internal standards used are D₆-tapentadol and D₆-tapentadol-O-glucuronide. The validated concentration range was 0.200-200 ng/ml (tapentadol) and 10.0-10,000 ng/ml (tapentadol-O-glucuronide). Chromatographic separation was achieved by gradient elution on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH C18 (1.7 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm) column, with mobile phase consisting of 0.01 M ammonium formate (adjusted to pH 4 using formic acid) (A) and methanol (B). A separate injection was done for measurement of each analyte, with a different gradient and run time. The analytes were detected by using an electrospray ion source on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in positive ionization mode. The run time was 1.6 min for tapentadol and 1.5 min for tapentadol-O-glucuronide. The high sensitivity and acceptable performance of the assay allowed its application to the analysis of serum samples in clinical trials. The validated method was used for analysis of tapentadol in over 17,000 samples. PMID:25600054

  1. The in vivo glucuronidation of buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Moody, David E; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2006-04-01

    The opioid partial agonist medication, buprenorphine (BUP), and its primary metabolite, norbuprenorphine (NBUP), are extensively glucuronidated. Sensitive analytical methods that include determination of buprenorphine-3-glucuronide (BUPG) and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide (NBUPG) are needed to more fully understand the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine. A method has now been developed that uses solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. BUP-d4, NBUP-d3, and morphine-3-glucuronide-d3 were used as internal standards. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 and 0.5 ng/mL for each of the analytes in 1-mL of human plasma and urine, respectively, except for NBUP in urine in which it was 2.5 ng/mL. The analytes were stable under the following conditions: plasma and urine at room temperature, up to 20 hours; plasma and urine at -20 degrees C for 119 and 85 days, respectively; plasma freeze-thaw, up to 3 cycles; processed sample, up to 96 hours at -20 degrees C and up to 48 hours on the autosampler; stock solutions at room temperature and at -20 degrees C, up to 6 hours and 128 days, respectively. In plasma collected from 5 subjects on maintenance daily sublingual doses of 16 mg BUP and 4 mg naloxone, respective 0- to 24-hour areas under the curve were 32, 88, 26, and 316 ng/mL x h for BUP, NBUP, BUPG, and NBUPG. In urine samples respective percent of daily dose excreted in the 24-hour urine were 0.014%, 1.89%, 1.01%, and 7.76%. This method allowed us to determine that NBUPG is a major metabolite present in plasma and urine of BUP. Because urinary elimination is limited ( approximately 11% of daily dose), the role of NBUPG in total clearance of buprenorphine is not yet known. PMID:16628138

  2. Quantitative Determination of Common Urinary Odorants and Their Glucuronide Conjugates in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Wagenstaller, Maria; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study on the identification of common odorants and their conjugates in human urine demonstrated that this substance fraction is a little-understood but nonetheless a promising medium for analysis and diagnostics in this easily accessible physiological medium. Smell as an indicator for diseases, or volatile excretion in the course of dietary processes bares high potential for a series of physiological insights. Still, little is known today about the quantitative composition of odorous or volatile targets, as well as their non-volatile conjugates, both with regard to their common occurrence in urine of healthy subjects, as well as in that of individuals suffering from diseases or other physiological misbalancing. Accordingly, the aim of our study was to develop a highly sensitive and selective approach to determine the common quantitative composition of selected odorant markers in healthy human subjects, as well as their corresponding glucuronide conjugates. We used one- and two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with stable isotope dilution assays to quantify commonly occurring and potent odorants in human urine. The studies were carried out on both native urine and on urine that had been treated by glucuronidase assays, with analysis of the liberated odor-active compounds using the same techniques. Analytical data are discussed with regard to their potential translation as future diagnostic tool. PMID:24958143

  3. Quantitative determination of common urinary odorants and their glucuronide conjugates in human urine.

    PubMed

    Wagenstaller, Maria; Buettner, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study on the identification of common odorants and their conjugates in human urine demonstrated that this substance fraction is a little-understood but nonetheless a promising medium for analysis and diagnostics in this easily accessible physiological medium. Smell as an indicator for diseases, or volatile excretion in the course of dietary processes bares high potential for a series of physiological insights. Still, little is known today about the quantitative composition of odorous or volatile targets, as well as their non-volatile conjugates, both with regard to their common occurrence in urine of healthy subjects, as well as in that of individuals suffering from diseases or other physiological misbalancing. Accordingly, the aim of our study was to develop a highly sensitive and selective approach to determine the common quantitative composition of selected odorant markers in healthy human subjects, as well as their corresponding glucuronide conjugates. We used one- and two-dimensional high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in combination with stable isotope dilution assays to quantify commonly occurring and potent odorants in human urine. The studies were carried out on both native urine and on urine that had been treated by glucuronidase assays, with analysis of the liberated odor-active compounds using the same techniques. Analytical data are discussed with regard to their potential translation as future diagnostic tool. PMID:24958143

  4. Identifying and applying a highly selective probe to simultaneously determine the O-glucuronidation activity of human UGT1A3 and UGT1A4

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li; Liang, Si-Cheng; Wang, Chao; Ge, Guang-Bo; Huo, Xiao-Kui; Qi, Xiao-Yi; Deng, Sa; Liu, Ke-Xin; Ma, Xiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Glucuronidation mediated by uridine 5′-diphospho (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase is an important detoxification pathway. However, identifying a selective probe of UDP- glucuronosyltransferase is complicated because of the significant overlapping substrate specificity displayed by the enzyme. In this paper, desacetylcinobufagin (DACB) 3-O- and 16-O-glucuronidation were found to be isoform-specific probe reactions for UGT1A4 and UGT1A3, respectively. DACB was well characterized as a probe for simultaneously determining the catalytic activities of O-glucuronidation mediated by UGT1A3 and UGT1A4 from various enzyme sources, through a sensitive analysis method. PMID:25884245

  5. Bisphenol A glucuronide deconjugation is a determining factor of fetal exposure to bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Gauderat, Glenn; Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Corbel, Tanguy; Vigui, Catherine; Puel, Sylvie; Lacroix, Marlne Z; Mindeguia, Pierre; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Gayrard, Vronique

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies in experimental animals have shown that maternal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) during late pregnancy leads to high plasma concentrations of BPA glucuronide (BPAG) in fetus compared to mother due to the inability of BPAG to cross the placental barrier. A recent in vitro study has reported that BPAG can exert adipogenic effect underlining the need for characterization of the fetal disposition of BPAG. Experiments were conducted in chronically catheterized fetal sheep to determine the contribution of BPAG hydrolysis to BPA to the elimination of BPAG from the fetal compartment and its resulting effect on the overall fetal exposure to free BPA. Serial sampling of fetal arterial blood, amniotic fluid, maternal venous blood and urine was performed following separate single doses of BPA and BPAG administered intravenously to eight fetal/maternal pairs after cesarean section, and repeated BPAG doses given to two fetal sheep. On average 67% of the BPA entering the fetal circulation was rapidly eliminated through fetal to maternal clearance, with a very short half-life (20min), while the remaining fraction (24%) was glucuronoconjugated. BPA conjugation-deconjugation cycling was responsible for a 43% increase of the overall fetal exposure to free BPA. A very specific pattern of fetal exposure to free BPA was observed due to its highly increased persistence with a hydrolysis-dependent plasma terminal free BPA half-life of several tens of hours. These findings suggest that although the high fetal to maternal clearance of free BPA protects the fetus from transient increases in free BPA plasma concentrations associated with maternal BPA intake, low but sustained basal free BPA concentrations are maintained in the fetus through BPA conjugation-deconjugation cycling. The potential health implications of these low but sustained basal concentrations of free BPA in fetal plasma should be addressed especially when considering time-dependent effects. PMID:26540084

  6. Regioselectivity of Human UDP-Glucuronsyltransferase 1A1 in the Synthesis of Flavonoid Glucuronides Determined by Metal Complexation and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Barry D; Brodbelt, Jennifer S

    2008-01-01

    A three-part tandem mass spectrometric strategy that entails MSn analysis and a post-column LC-MS cobalt complexation method is developed to identify flavonoid monoglucuronide metabolites synthesized using the 1A1 isozyme of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Ten flavonoid aglycons were used as substrates, spanning the subclasses of flavones, flavonols and flavanones. The products were characterized by LC-MS and LC-MSn, with post-column cobalt complexation employed to pinpoint the specific sites of conjugation. The dissociation of complexes of the form [Co(II) (flavonoid glucuronide – H) (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)2]+ allowed identification of the products and differentiation of isomers. The correlation between glycosylation site and elution order is used to provide additional structural confirmation. Flavonoids lacking a 3′ hydroxyl group were glucuronidated only at position 7, while those containing this functionality also formed 3′-O-glucuronides and sometimes 4′-O-glucuronides, thus supporting the conclusion that the presence or absence of the 3′-OH group is the major determinant of the regioselectivity of glucuronidation. Moreover, the specific distribution of multiple glucuronide products (7-O, 3′-O, 4′-0) is governed by the subclass of flavonoid. PMID:18083528

  7. A SPME-GC/MS procedure for the determination of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair for confirmation of abstinence test results.

    PubMed

    Albermann, Maria Elena; Madea, Burkhard; Musshoff, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), direct metabolites of ethanol, are suitable alcohol markers that can be detected in different tissues. The determination of FAEE in hair can help to evaluate social and excessive alcohol consumption. Due to the presence of FAEE in the hair of teetotalers, proving alcohol abstinence seems to be impossible. To verify these results, an solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry procedure for the determination of the four FAEE: ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate and ethyl stearate in hair was validated with special focus on low concentration levels. Besides very high sensitivity (limits of detection between 0.005 and 0.009 ng/mg), good results for linearity, precision and accuracy, recovery and stability were achieved. In addition, 73 hair samples with measured ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations between 4 and 10 pg/mg were analyzed for FAEE. By using the following cut-offs: EtG: 7 pg/mg, FAEE: 0.2 ng/mg a satisfying matching rate of 72.6% was found. This shows that FAEE can be determined to verify borderline EtG concentrations even in the context of abstinence tests. However, the diversified influencing factors on analyte concentrations in hair, which may explain the large deviations between EtG and FAEE results observed in some cases, have to be mentioned when interpret ambiguous results. PMID:24125737

  8. Determination of sulfates and glucuronides of endogenic steroids in biofluids by high-performance liquid chromatography/orbitrap mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenistaya, E. N.; Virus, E. D.; Rodchenkov, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    the possibility of selective determination of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronides in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry using solid phase microextraction on a meps cartridge was studied. the effect of the biological matrix on the spectra of conjugated steroids can be taken into account by using the spectra of conjugates recorded for urine samples after hydrolysis as reference spectra. the conditions of fragmentation in the ion source were optimized for separate analytes. this method was used for analyzing real samples with different testosterone/epitestosterone ratios. variations in conjugate contents and qualitative changes in the steroid profile of endogenic compounds were observed.

  9. Determination of glucuronide conjugates of hydroxyl triphenyl phosphate (OH-TPHP) metabolites in human urine and its use as a biomarker of TPHP exposure.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Letcher, Robert J; Yu, Hongxia; Gooden, David M; Stapleton, Heather M

    2016-04-01

    In vitro studies using avian hepatocytes or human liver microsomes suggest that hydroxylation is an important pathway in the metabolism of triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), a chemical used as a flame retardant and plasticizer. TPHP metabolism can lead to the formation of para(p)- and meta(m)-hydroxyl-(OH-)TPHP products as well as their glucuronide conjugates. To determine whether the TPHP hydroxylation and depuration pathway also occurs in vivo in humans, the present study developed a sensitive method for quantification of p- and m-OH-TPHP glucuronides in human urine samples. In n = 1 pooled urine sample and n = 12 individual urine samples collected from four human volunteers from Ottawa (ON, Canada), p- and m-OH-TPHP glucuronides were detectable in 13 and 9 of the 13 analyzed samples and at concentrations ranging from glucuronide and diphenyl phosphate concentrations (DPHP, a known dealkylated metabolite of TPHP). To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that TPHP hydroxylation and conjugation occurs in vivo in humans, and further suggests that p-OH-TPHP glucuronide can be used as a specific biomarker of TPHP exposure in humans. PMID:26874059

  10. Electrospray LC-MS method with solid-phase extraction for accurate determination of morphine-, codeine-, and ethylmorphine-glucuronides and 6-acetylmorphine in urine.

    PubMed

    Svensson, J-O; Andersson, M; Gustavsson, E; Beck, O

    2007-03-01

    A method for the identification and quantification of morphine-3-glucuronide, codeine-6-glucuronide, ethylmorphine-6-glucuronide, and 6-acetylmorphine in human urine based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and electrospray ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was validated for use as a confirmation procedure in combination with immunochemical screening for opiates. Three deuterium-labelled analogues were used as internal standards: morphine-3-glucuronide-d3, codeine-d3, and 6-acetylmorphine-d3. Fifty-microliter aliquots of urine were prepared by SPE using 30-mg Oasis HLB cartridges. The chromatographic system consisted of a 2.0 x 100-mm C18 column and the gradient elution buffers used acetonitrile and 25 mmol/L formic acid. The protonated molecular ions were monitored in the selected ion monitoring mode together with one qualifier ion for each analyte. The interassay variability was less than 10% at the reporting limit 30 ng/mL for 6-acetylmorphine and 300 ng/mL for the other analytes. The method was validated by comparison with a reference gas chromatographic (GC)-MS method using authentic urine samples. The two methods agreed completely regarding identified analytes, and for the quantitative results there were slightly lower levels when measuring glucuronides directly as compared to total determination after hydrolysis by GC-MS. This result was to be expected because the free compounds are not measured with the LC-MS method. This study concludes that the presented LC-MS method is robust and reliable, and suitable for use as a confirmation method in clinical urine drug testing for opiates. PMID:17536742

  11. Validation and Application of a Method for the Determination of Buprenorphine, Norbuprenorphine, and Their Glucuronide Conjugates in Human Meconium

    PubMed Central

    Kacinko, Sherri L.; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    A novel liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for quantification of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and glucuronidated conjugates was developed and validated. Analytes were extracted from meconium using buffer, concentrated by solid-phase extraction and quantified within 13.5 min. In order to determine free and total concentrations, specimens were analyzed with and without enzyme hydrolysis. Calibration was achieved by linear regression with a 1/x weighting factor and deuterated internal standards. All analytes were linear from 20 to 2000 ng/g with a correlation of determination of >0.98. Accuracy was ?85.7% with intra-assay and interassay imprecision ?13.9 and 12.4%, respectively. There was no interference from 70 licit and illicit drugs and metabolites. Buffer extraction followed by SPE yielded recoveries of ?85.0%. There was suppression of ionization by the polar matrix; however, this did not interfere with sensitivity or analyte quantification due to inclusion of deuterated internal standards. Analytes were stable on the autosampler, at room temperature, at 4 C, and when exposed to three freeze/thaw cycles. This sensitive and specific method can be used to monitor in utero buprenorphine exposure and to evaluate correlations, if any, between buprenorphine exposure and neonatal outcomes. PMID:18044957

  12. Autism and Phthalate Metabolite Glucuronidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, T. Peter; Schluter, Margaret D.; Steer, Robert A.; Ming, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals may precipitate autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in genetically susceptible children. Differences in the efficiency of the glucuronidation process may substantially modulate substrate concentrations and effects. To determine whether the efficiency of this pathway is compromised in children with ASD, we measured…

  13. Autism and Phthalate Metabolite Glucuronidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, T. Peter; Schluter, Margaret D.; Steer, Robert A.; Ming, Xue

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental chemicals may precipitate autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in genetically susceptible children. Differences in the efficiency of the glucuronidation process may substantially modulate substrate concentrations and effects. To determine whether the efficiency of this pathway is compromised in children with ASD, we measured

  14. Determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tai, D.Y.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of acetone and methyl ethyl ketone in water samples were developed. Concentrations in the milligram-per-liter range were determined by injecting an aqueous sample into the analysis system through an injection port, trapping the organics on Tenax-GC at room temperature, and thermally desorbing the organics into a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector for analysis. Concentrations in the microgram-per-liter range were determined by sweeping the headspace vapors over a water sample at 50C, trapping on Tenax-GC, and thermally desorbing the organics into the gas chromatograph. The precision for two operators of the milligram-per-liter concentration procedure, expressed as the coefficient of variation, was generally less than 2 percent for concentrations ranging from 16 to 160 milligrams per liter. The precision from two operators of the microgram-per-liter concentration procedure was between 2 and 4 percent for concentrations of 20 and 60 micrograms per liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Quantitative determination of free and total bisphenol A in human urine using labeled BPA glucuronide and isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kubwabo, Cariton; Kosarac, Ivana; Lalonde, Kaela; Foster, Warren G

    2014-07-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely used industrial chemical in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastic bottles, food and beverage can linings, thermal receipts, and dental sealants. Animal and human studies suggest that BPA may disrupt normal hormonal function and hence, potentially, have negative effects on the human health. While total BPA is frequently reported, it is recognized that free BPA is the biologically active form and is rarely reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to develop a sensitive and improved method for the measurement of free and total BPA in human urine. Use of a labeled conjugated BPA (bisphenol A-d6 β-D-glucuronide) allowed for the optimization of the enzymatic reaction and permitted an accurate determination of the conjugated BPA concentration in urine samples. In addition, a (13)C12-BPA internal standard was used to account for the analytical recoveries and performance of the isotope dilution method. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with derivatization and analysis using a triple quadrupole GC-EI/MS/MS system achieved very low method detection limit of 0.027 ng/mL. BPA concentrations were measured in urine samples collected during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy in 36 Canadian women. Total maternal BPA concentrations in urine samples ranged from not detected to 9.40 ng/mL (median, 1.21 ng/mL), and free BPA concentrations ranged from not detected to 0.950 ng/mL (median, 0.185 ng/mL). Eighty-six percent of the women had detectable levels of conjugated BPA, whereas only 22 % had detectable levels of free BPA in their urine. BPA levels measured in this study agreed well with data reported internationally. PMID:24817354

  16. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... recent previous determination for the 2012 amount in the Federal Register on December 30, 2011 (76 FR... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States... is equal to 7 percent of the U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month...

  17. Simultaneous determination of phenolphthalein and phenolphthalein glucuronide from dog serum, urine and bile by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, J A; Bailey, L C; Shepard, T A; Venturella, V S

    1992-07-24

    A procedure is described to simultaneously quantitate phenolphthalein and its glucuronide metabolite from dog serum, urine and bile using high-performance liquid chromatography. The major advantages of this over pre-existing methods include direct analysis of the parent compound and glucuronide metabolite without enzymatic hydrolysis, increased sensitivity and the potential for automation of a large number of samples. Analytes were extracted from serum and urine using a combination of liquid- and solid-phase extraction methodology. Bile samples were analyzed directly after a twenty-fold dilution with mobile phase. The components plus internal standard were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using step gradient elution and quantitated by the absorbance of ultraviolet light at 230 nm. Limits of detection from 1 ml of serum, 0.1 ml of urine and 0.05 ml of bile were 0.1, 0.5 and 10 microgram/ml for phenolphthalein and 0.1, 10 and 50 microgram/ml for phenolphthalein glucuronide, respectively. PMID:1400802

  18. Lithocholate glucuronide is a cholestatic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Oelberg, D.G.; Chari, M.V.; Little, J.M.; Adcock, E.W.; Lester, R.

    1984-06-01

    Lithocholic acid and its taurine, glycine, and sulfate derivatives are potent cholestatic agents. (3 beta-/sup 3/H)lithocholate 3-O-beta-D-glucuronide was synthesized, and chemical and radiochemical purity were established. The aqueous solubility of lithocholate glucuronide was determined and found to be greater than that of lithocholic acid or several of its derivatives. In the range of concentrations examined, calcium ions precipitated lithocholate glucuronide stoichiometrically. The material was administered to rats prepared with an external biliary fistula. When 17-25 micrograms quantities were administered, 89.1 +/- 4.5% (mean +/- SEM) of the radiolabel was secreted in bile within the first 20 h after administration, the major fraction being secreted in less than 20 min. Four-fifths of the radiolabeled material in bile was the administered unaltered parent compound, while a minor fraction consisted of a more polar derivative(s). We showed that increasing biliary concentrations of more polar derivatives were observed with milligram doses of (3H)lithocholate glucuronide, and with time after the administration of these loading doses. Milligram doses of (3H)lithocholate glucuronide resulted in partial or complete cholestasis. When induced cholestasis was partial, secretion in bile remained the primary excretory route (82.5-105.6% recovery in bile), while, when complete cholestasis was induced, wide tissue distribution of radiolabel was observed. Cholestasis developed rapidly during infusion of (3H)lithocholate glucuronide. Bile flow was diminished within 10-20 min of the start of an infusion of 0.05 mumol, 100 g-1 body weight, minute-1, administered concomitantly with an equimolar infusion of taurocholate. The results establish that lithocholate glucuronide exerts cholestatic effects comparable to those exerted by unconjugated lithocholic acid.

  19. Involvement of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases UGT1A9 and UGT2B7 in ethanol glucuronidation, and interactions with common drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Al Saabi, Alaa; Allorge, Delphine; Sauvage, François-Ludovic; Tournel, Gilles; Gaulier, Jean-Michel; Marquet, Pierre; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) determination is increasingly used in clinical and forensic toxicology to document ethanol consumption. The enzymes involved in EtG production, as well as potential interactions with common drugs of abuse, have not been extensively studied. Activities of human liver (HLM), kidney (HKM), and intestinal (HIM) microsomes, as well as of 12 major human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), toward ethanol (50 and 500 mM) were evaluated in vitro using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Enzyme kinetic parameters were determined for pooled microsomes and recombinant UGTs with significant activity. Individual contributions of UGTs were estimated using the relative activity factor approach, proposed for scaling activities obtained with cDNA-expressed enzymes to HLM. Interaction of morphine, codeine, lorazepam, oxazepam, nicotine, cotinine, cannabinol, and cannabidiol (5, 10, 15 mg/l) with ethanol (1.15, 4.6, 11.5 g/l; i.e., 25, 100, 250 mM) glucuronidation was assessed using pooled HLM. Ethanol glucuronidation intrinsic clearance (Cl(int)) was 4 and 12.7 times higher for HLM than for HKM and HIM, respectively. All recombinant UGTs, except UGT1A1, 1A6, and 1A10, produced EtG in detectable amounts. UGT1A9 and 2B7 were the most active enzymes, each accounting for 17 and 33% of HLM Cl(int), respectively. Only cannabinol and cannabidiol significantly affected ethanol glucuronidation. Cannabinol increased ethanol glucuronidation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas cannabidiol significantly inhibited EtG formation in a noncompetitive manner (IC(50) = 1.17 mg/l; inhibition constant (K(i)) = 3.1 mg/l). UGT1A9 and 2B7 are the main enzymes involved in ethanol glucuronidation. In addition, our results suggest that cannabinol and cannabidiol could significantly alter ethanol glucuronidation. PMID:23230132

  20. Development of LC-MS/MS methodology for the detection/determination and confirmation of chloramphenicol, chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide, florfenicol, florfenicol amine and thiamphenicol residues in bovine, equine and porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Fedeniuk, Rick W; Mizuno, Massey; Neiser, Connie; O'Byrne, Collin

    2015-06-01

    A method for the detection and confirmation of organic solvent extractable residues of the neutral, acidic, and basic analytes of the amphenicol class veterinary drugs and selected metabolites was developed and validated. Using a modified QuEChERS extraction with SPE cleanup and LC-MS/MS analysis, limits of detection and confirmation for the different analytes in bovine, equine, and porcine liver ranged from 0.1ng/g for chloramphenicol to 1ng/g for florfenicol amine. Tissue homogenization with an ammonium formate/EDTA solution and subsequent analyte partitioning against 7:3 acetonitrile:isopropanol solution and mixed-mode strong-cation exchange solid-phase extraction cartridge cleanup allowed for the extraction of all compounds from tissues with mean recoveries ranging from 50% (chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide) to 90% (thiamphenicol). Matrix effects ranged from greater than 85% suppression for florfenicol amine to 70% matrix enhancement for chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide. Quantitation and confirmation were accomplished using commercially available penta-deuterated chloramphenicol as internal standard and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two or three transitions per target analyte. Method accuracy was greater than 15% for all compounds except the glucuronide metabolite. Intra-lab method repeatability estimates ranged from 73% RSD for chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide to 14% RSD for chloramphenicol. Only chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide and florfenicol amine at the low end of their calibration ranges (0.25 and 1ng/g, respectively) did not meet AOAC recommended HorRatr guidelines for intra-lab repeatabilities. Preliminary tests show that the method's extraction protocol can be used to recover analytes of the ?-agonists, corticosteroids, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracycline drug classes from the same matrices. Requirements for use in national chemical monitoring programs as a detection/confirmatory (florfenicol amine and chloramphenicol 3-O-?-d-glucuronide) and determinative/confirmatory (chloramphenicol, florfenicol, thiamphenicol) analytical methodology are met. PMID:25913426

  1. Simultaneous determination of morinidazole, its N-oxide, sulfate, and diastereoisomeric N(+)-glucuronides in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruina; Zhong, Dafang; Liu, Ke; Xia, Yu; Shi, Rongwei; Li, Hua; Chen, Xiaoyan

    2012-11-01

    Morinidazole is a new third-generation 5-nitroimidazole antimicrobial drug. To investigate the pharmacokinetic profiles of morinidazole and its major metabolites in humans, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of morinidazole, its N-oxide metabolite (M4-1), a sulfate conjugate (M7), and two diastereoisomeric N(+)-glucuronides (M8-1 and M8-2) in human plasma. A simple acetonitrile-induced protein precipitation was employed to extract five analytes and internal standard metronidazole from 50?L human plasma. To avoid the interference from the in-source dissociation of the sulfate and achieve the baseline-separation of diastereoisomeric N(+)-glucuronides, all the analytes were separated from each other with the mobile phase consisting of 10mM ammonium formate and acetonitrile using gradient elution on a Hydro-RP C(18) column (50mm2mm, 4?m) with a total run time of 5min. The API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode using the electrospray ionization technique. The developed method was linear in the concentration ranges of 10.0-12,000ng/mL for morinidazole, 1.00-200ng/mL for M4-1, 2.50-500ng/mL for M7, 3.00-600ng/mL for M8-1, and 10.0-3000ng/mL for M8-2. The intra- and inter-day precisions for each analyte met the accepted value. Results of the stability of morinidazole and its metabolites in human plasma were also presented. The method was successfully applied to the clinical pharmacokinetic studies of morinidazole injection in healthy subjects, patients with moderate hepatic insufficiency, and patients with severe renal insufficiency, respectively. PMID:23122401

  2. Determination of n-hexane metabolites by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. 2. Glucuronide-conjugated metabolites in untreated urine samples by electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Manini, P; Andreoli, R; Mutti, A; Bergamaschi, E; Niessen, W M

    1998-01-01

    A liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-LC/MS) system was evaluated for the identification and characterization of n-hexane conjugated metabolites (glucuronides) in untreated urine samples. Chromatography of glucuronides was obtained under ion-suppressed reversed-phase conditions, by using high-speed (3 cm, 3 microns) columns and formic acid (2 mM) as modifier in the mobile phase. The mass spectrometer was operated in negative ion (NI) mode. For the first time, four glucuronides were identified by ESI-LC/MS in untreated urine samples of rats exposed to n-hexane: 2-hexanol-glucuronide, 5-hydroxy-2-hexanone-glucuronide, 2,5-hexanediol-glucuronide and 4,5-dihydroxy-2-hexanone-glucuronide. Confirmation of the conjugated metabolites was obtained by LC/MS/MS experiments. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) LC/MS analyses were performed on the same samples. An integrated approach GC/MS-LC/MS for the semi-quantitative analysis of n-hexane glucuronides, whose standards are not commercially available, is discussed and proposed here. In order to understand the fate of the metabolites during sample pre-treatment, a study about the effects of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis on urine samples was conducted on glucuronides isolated by solid-phase extraction. Combined analyses by GC/MS and LC/MS enabled us to distinguish 'true' n-hexane metabolites from compounds resulting from sample treatment and handling (i.e. enzymatic and acid hydrolysis, extraction and GC injection). PMID:9807835

  3. Validation of a Rapid and Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for Determination of Exemestane and Its Metabolites, 17?-Hydroxyexemestane and 17?-Hydroxyexemestane-17-O-?-D-Glucuronide: Application to Human Pharmacokinetics Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling-Zhi; Goh, Sok-Hwei; Wong, Andrea Li-Ann; Thuya, Win-Lwin; Lau, Jie-Ying Amelia; Wan, Seow-Ching; Lee, Soo-Chin; Ho, Paul C.; Goh, Boon-Cher

    2015-01-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the evaluation of exemestane pharmacokinetics and its metabolites, 17?-dihydroexemestane (active metabolite) and 17?-dihydroexemestane-17-O-?-D-glucuronide (inactive metabolite) in human plasma. Their respective D3 isotopes were used as internal standards. Chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved using Thermo Fisher BDS Hypersil C18 analytic HPLC column (100 2.1 mm, 5 ?m). The mobile phase was delivered at a rate of 0.5 mL/min by gradient elution with 0.1 % aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile. The column effluents were detected by API 4000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer using electrospray ionisation (ESI) and monitored by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive mode. Mass transitions 297 > 121 m/z, 300 > 121 m/z, 299 > 135 m/z, 302 > 135 m/z, 475 > 281 m/z, and 478 > 284 m/z were monitored for exemestane, exemestane-d3, 17?-dihydroexemestane, 17?-dihydroexemestane-d3, 17?-dihydroexemestane-17-O-?-D-glucuronide, and 17?-dihydroexemestane-17-O-?-D-glucuronide-d3 respectively. The assay demonstrated linear ranges of 0.4 40.0 ng/mL, for exemestane; and 0.2 15.0 ng/mL, for 17?-dihydroexemestane and 17?-dihydroexemestane-17-O-?-D-glucuronide, with coefficient of determination (r2) of > 0.998. The precision (coefficient of variation) were ?10.7%, 7.7% and 9.5% and the accuracies ranged from 88.8 to 103.1% for exemestane, 98.5 to 106.1% for 17?-dihydroexemestane and 92.0 to 103.2% for 17?-dihydroexemestane-17-O-?-D-glucuronide. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetics/dynamics study in breast cancer patients receiving exemestane 25mg daily orally. For a representative patient, 20.7% of exemestane in plasma was converted into 17?-dihydroexemestane and 29.0% of 17?-dihydroexemestane was inactivated as 17?-dihydroexemestane-17-O-?-D-glucuronide 24 hours after ingestion of exemestane, suggesting that altered 17-dihydroexemestane glucuronidation may play an important role in determining effect of exemestane against breast cancer cells. PMID:25793887

  4. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... its notice instituting this investigation in the Federal Register of March 21, 1990 (55 FR 10512), and..., 2010 (75 FR 82069). By order of the Commission. James R. Holbein, Secretary. BILLING CODE 7020-02-P ... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United...

  5. Determination of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair by GC-MS and application in a population of cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Politi, Lucia; Mari, Francesco; Furlanetto, Sandra; Del Bravo, Ester; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2011-04-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate in hair samples was developed, validated and applied to real samples. Ethyl myristate, ethyl palmitate, ethyl oleate, and ethyl stearate are fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) which are known to be direct biotransformation products of ethanol. Their presence in the body fluids and tissue is therefore indicative of alcohol intake and, in particular, FAEE concentration in hair higher than 0.5 ng/mg is indicative of excessive chronic alcohol consumption. The method was applied to 80 hair samples formerly found positive for cocaine and FAEE analytical results were compared with the presence of cocaethylene, a cocaine metabolite formed only when alcohol and cocaine are used together. According to our data the two biomarkers (FAEE and cocaethylene in hair) are tools of great value in the assessment of the diagnosis of use of cocaine and ethanol. In fact, discrepancies were noted and might be related to various factors including differences in consumption habits and thus permitting to distinguish the use of both substances non-concurrently or concurrently. Also, the determination of both markers may, in some cases, discriminate the use of moderate or heavy alcohol amounts when associated with cocaine. Finally, in a population of non-cocaine-users our results support FAEE as valuable means in the assessment of excessive alcohol chronic use. PMID:21159458

  6. Species- and gender-dependent differences in the glucuronidation of a flavonoid glucoside and its aglycone determined using expressed UGT enzymes and microsomes.

    PubMed

    Dai, Peimin; Luo, Feifei; Wang, Ying; Jiang, Huangyu; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Guiyu; Zhu, Lijun; Hu, Ming; Wang, Xinchun; Lu, Linlin; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2015-12-01

    Flavonoids occur naturally as glucosides and aglycones. Their common phenolic hydroxyl groups may trigger extensive UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)- catalysed metabolism. Unlike aglycones, glucosides contain glucose moieties. However, the influence of these glucose moieties on glucuronidation of glucosides and aglycones remains unclear. In this study, the flavonoid glucoside tilianin and its aglycone acacetin were used as model compounds. The glucuronidation characteristics and enzyme kinetics of tilianin and acacetin were compared using human UGT isoforms, liver microsomes and intestinal microsomes obtained from different animal species. Tilianin and acacetin were metabolized into different glucuronides, with UGT1A8 produced as the main isoform. Assessment of enzyme kinetics in UGT1A8, human liver microsomes and human intestinal microsomes revealed that compared with tilianin, acacetin displayed lower Km (0.6-, 0.7- and 0.6-fold, respectively), higher Vmax (20-, 60- and 230-fold, respectively) and higher clearance (30-, 80- and 300-fold, respectively). Furthermore, glucuronidation of acacetin and tilianin showed significant species- and gender-dependent differences. In conclusion, glucuronidation of flavonoid aglycones is faster than that of glucosides in the intestine and the liver. Understanding the metabolism and species- and gender-dependent differences between glucosides and aglycones is crucial for the development of drugs from flavonoids. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26317684

  7. Structure–Metabolism Relationships in the Glucuronidation of d-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Representative d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitors were subjected to in vitro liver microsomal stability tests in the absence or presence of uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid (UDPGA). While carboxylate-based DAAO inhibitors displayed little glucuronidation, most DAAO inhibitors containing α-hydroxycarbonyl moiety exhibited nearly complete glucuronidation within 30 min. The one exception was 6-[2-(3,5-difluorophenyl)ethyl]-4-hydroxypyridazin-3(2H)-one 10, which exhibited some degree of resistance to glucuronidation by liver microsomes from mice, rats, and humans. PMID:25408840

  8. Deconjugation of soy isoflavone glucuronides needed for estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Bekele, R; Vanden Berg, J H J; Kuswanti, Y; Thapa, O; Soltani, S; van Leeuwen, F X R; Rietjens, I M C M; Murk, A J

    2015-06-01

    Soy isoflavones (SIF) are present in the systemic circulation as conjugated forms of which the estrogenic potency is not yet clear. The present study provides evidence that the major SIF glucuronide metabolites in blood, genistein-7-O-glucuronide (GG) and daidzein-7-O-glucuronide (DG), only become estrogenic after deconjugation. The estrogenic potencies of genistein (Ge), daidzein (Da), GG and DG were determined using stably transfected U2OS-ER?, U2OS-ER? reporter gene cells and proliferation was tested in T47D-ER? cells mimicking the ER?/ER? ratio of healthy breast cells and inT47D breast cancer cells. In all assays applied, the estrogenic potency of the aglycones was significantly higher than that of their corresponding glucuronides. UPLC analysis revealed that in U2OS and T47D cells, 0.2-1.6% of the glucuronides were deconjugated to their corresponding aglycones. The resulting aglycone concentrations can account for the estrogenicity observed upon glucuronide exposure. Interestingly, under similar experimental conditions, rat breast tissue S9 fraction was about 30 times more potent in deconjugating these glucuronides than human breast tissue S9 fraction. Our study confirms that SIF glucuronides are not estrogenic as such, and that the small % of deconjugation in the cell is enough to explain the slight bioactivity observed for the SIF-glucuronides. Species differences in deconjugation capacity should be taken into account when basing risk-benefit assessment of these SIF for the human population on animal data. PMID:25661160

  9. Determination of ?- and ?-boldenone sulfate, glucuronide and free forms, and androstadienedione in bovine urine using immunoaffinity columns clean-up and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Luca; Pavlovic, Radmila; Dusi, Guglielmo; Pasquale, Elisa; Casati, Alessio; Panseri, Sara; Arioli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the origins of boldenone in bovine urine is ongoing for two decades in Europe. Despite the fact that its use as a growth promoter has been banned in the European Union (EU) since 1981, its detection in bovine urine, in the form of ?-boldenone conjugate, is considered fully compliant up to 2 ng mL(-1). The conjugated form of ?-boldenone must be absent. In recent years, the literature about boldenone has focused on the identification of biomarkers that can indicate an illicit treatment. ?-boldenone sulfate is a candidate molecule, even if the only studies currently available have taken place in small populations. In this study, a method for the determination of sulfate and glucuronate conjugates of ?-boldenone was developed and validated according to the European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and applied to ?-boldenone sulfate and glucuronide, ?- and ?-boldenone free forms and androstadienedione (ADD), too. The clean-up with immunoaffinity columns enabled the direct determination of the conjugates and free forms and allowed specific and sensitive analyses of urine samples randomly selected to verify this method. The decision limits (CC?) ranged between 0.07 and 0.08 ng mL(-1), the detection capabilities (CC?) between 0.08 and 0.1 ng mL(-1). Recovery was higher than 92% for all the analytes. Intra-day repeatability was between 5.8% and 17.2%, and inter-day repeatability was between 6.0% and 21.8% for the studied free and conjugated forms. This method has been developed as a powerful tool with the aim to study the origin of boldenone in a trial on a significant number of animals. PMID:25281088

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: determinants of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in the Shanghai Womens Health Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and colorectal cancer have been reported previously but few studies have characterized PAH exposure using biological measurements. We evaluated colorectal cancer risk in relation to urinary concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide (1-OHPG), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolite, and assessed determinants of PAH exposure among controls in the Shanghai Womens Health Study (SWHS). Methods Concentrations of 1-OHPG were measured in spot urine samples collected from 343 colorectal cancer cases and 343 individually matched controls. Questionnaires were administered to collect information on demographic characteristics and reported exposures. Odds ratios were calculated for risk of colorectal cancer in relation to quartiles of urinary 1-OHPG concentration. Potential determinants of natural log-transformed urinary 1-OHPG concentration were evaluated among a combined sample of controls from this study and another nested casecontrol study in the SWHS (Ntotal=652). Results No statistically significant differences in risk of colorectal cancer by urinary 1-OHPG levels were observed. Among controls, the median (interquartile range) urinary 1-OHPG concentration was 2.01 pmol/mL (0.95-4.09). Active and passive smoking, using coal as a cooking fuel, eating foods that were cooked well done, and recent consumption of fried dough (e.g., yutio) were associated with elevated levels of 1-OHPG, though only active smoking and fried dough consumption achieved statistical significance in multivariate analyses. Conclusions This study does not provide evidence of an association between urinary levels of 1-OHPG and risk of colorectal cancer among women. Several environmental and dietary sources of PAH exposure were identified. Overall, the levels of 1-OHPG in this population of predominantly non-smoking women were considerably higher than levels typically observed among non-smokers in Europe, North America, and other developed regions. PMID:23758680

  11. Diclofenac and Its Acyl Glucuronide: Determination of In Vivo Exposure in Human Subjects and Characterization as Human Drug Transporter Substrates In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueping; Han, Yong-Hae; Putluru, Siva Prasad; Matta, Murali Krishna; Kole, Prashant; Mandlekar, Sandhya; Furlong, Michael T; Liu, Tongtong; Iyer, Ramaswamy A; Marathe, Punit; Yang, Zheng; Lai, Yurong; Rodrigues, A David

    2016-03-01

    Although the metabolism and disposition of diclofenac (DF) has been studied extensively, information regarding the plasma levels of its acyl-β-d-glucuronide (DF-AG), a major metabolite, in human subjects is limited. Therefore, DF-AG concentrations were determined in plasma (acidified blood derived) of six healthy volunteers following a single oral DF dose (50 mg). Levels of DF-AG in plasma were high, as reflected by a DF-AG/DF ratio of 0.62 ± 0.21 (Cmax mean ± S.D.) and 0.84 ± 0.21 (area under the concentration-time curve mean ± S.D.). Both DF and DF-AG were also studied as substrates of different human drug transporters in vitro. DF was identified as a substrate of organic anion transporter (OAT) 2 only (Km = 46.8 µM). In contrast, DF-AG was identified as a substrate of numerous OATs (Km = 8.6, 60.2, 103.9, and 112 µM for OAT2, OAT1, OAT4, and OAT3, respectively), two organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP1B1, Km = 34 µM; OATP2B1, Km = 105 µM), breast cancer resistance protein (Km = 152 µM), and two multidrug resistance proteins (MRP2, Km = 145 µM; MRP3, Km = 196 µM). It is concluded that the disposition of DF-AG, once formed, can be mediated by various candidate transporters known to be expressed in the kidney (basolateral, OAT1, OAT2, and OAT3; apical, MRP2, BCRP, and OAT4) and liver (canalicular, MRP2 and BCRP; basolateral, OATP1B1, OATP2B1, OAT2, and MRP3). DF-AG is unstable in plasma and undergoes conversion to parent DF. Therefore, caution is warranted when assessing renal and hepatic transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions with DF and DF-AG. PMID:26714763

  12. Determination of a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, nemonoxacin, in human feces and its glucuronide conjugate in human urine and feces by high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    He, Gaoli; Guo, Beining; Yu, Jicheng; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Xiaojie; Cao, Guoying; Shi, Yaoguo; Tsai, Cheng-Yuan

    2015-05-01

    Three methods were developed and validated for determination of nemonoxacin in human feces and its major metabolite, nemonoxacin acyl-β- d-glucuronide, in human urine and feces. Nemonoxacin was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction in feces homogenate samples and nemonoxacin acyl-β- d-glucuronide by a solid-phase extraction procedure for pretreatment of both urine and feces homogenate sample. Separation was performed on a C18 reversed-phase column under isocratic elution with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid. Both analytes were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization in selected reaction monitoring mode and gatifloxacin as the internal standard. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of nemonoxacin in feces was 0.12 µg/g and the calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 0.12-48.00 µg/g. The LLOQ of the metabolite was 0.0010 µg/mL and 0.03 µg/g in urine and feces matrices, while the linear range was 0.0010-0.2000 µg/mL and 0.03-3.00 µg/g, respectively. Validation included selectivity, accuracy, precision, linearity, recovery, matrix effect, carryover, dilution integrity and stability, indicating that the methods can quantify the corresponding analytes with excellent reliability. The validated methods were successfully applied to an absolute bioavailability clinical study of nemonoxacin malate capsule. PMID:25322721

  13. Validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of maackiain and its sulfate and glucuronide in blood: Application to pharmacokinetic and disposition studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Yang, Zhen; Yin, Taijun; You, Ming; Hu, Ming

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simultaneous, sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify maackiain and its phase II metabolites, maackiain-sulfate (M-7-S) and maackiain-glucuronide (M-7-G). A Waters BEH C18 column was used with acetonitrile/water as mobile phases. Analysis was performed under negative ionization electrospray mass spectrometer via the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The one-step protein precipitation by methanol was used to extract the analytes from plasma. The results showed that the linear response range was 5000 - 9.75 nM for maackiain, M-7-S, and M-7-G. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) was 4.88 nM for these three analytes. The intra-day variance is less than 15% and accuracy is in 85.7102.0 %. The inter-day variance is less than 11.2 % and accuracy is in 89.6122.2 %. The analysis was done within 4.0 min. Only 20 l of blood is needed for analysis due to the high sensitivity of this method. The validated method was used to pharmacokinetic study in A/J mouse, maackiain Caco-2 cell culture model experiment, and maackiain glucuronidation/ sulfation metabolism studies. The applications revealed that this method can be used for maackiain, M-7-S, and M-7-G analysis in both bioequivalent buffer and in blood. PMID:21349678

  14. Gas chromatographic method for the determination of residual monomers, 2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl isocyanate and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl isocyanate, as curing agents in an ultraviolet curable adhesive.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Hyoun; Kim, Nosun; Moon, Dong Cheul

    2014-02-01

    A gas chromatographic method is described for the determination of residual 2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl isocyanate (AOI) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl isocyanate (MOI) as curing agents in an ultraviolet curable adhesive. Pre-column derivatization was employed in the determination of AOI and MOI as a means of enhancing the response of the flame ionization detector. Urethane derivatives of AOI and MOI were derived using methanol for 30 min at room temperature. The accuracies (n = 5, three concentration levels) were in the range of 113.4 to 126.7%, and precisions (n = 5, three concentration levels) were in the range of 0.8 to 4.3% for AOI-OMe. Furthermore, the accuracies were in the range of 79.5 to 108.6% and the precisions were in the range of 1.0 to 2.4% for MOI-OMe. The correlation coefficients of six calibration standards were all greater than 0.9999 for AOI-OMe and greater than 0.9998 for MOI-OMe over the range from 10 to 100 g/mL. PMID:23357043

  15. Optimization to eliminate the interference of migration isomers for measuring 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide without extensive chromatographic separation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Y-J; Akinsanya, J Billy; Raghavan, Nirmala; Zhang, Donglu

    2008-01-01

    A highly selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method has been investigated for the determination of muraglitazar 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide in animal and human plasma without chromatographic separation of this naturally formed acyl glucuronide from its migration isomers. In the ion source or the collision cell, glucuronides are often prone to lose the dehydrated glucuronic acid (176 Da) and convert back into the parent drug (aglycone). The extent of loss of the glucuronide moiety can differ among glucuronides. For the naturally occurring muraglitazar 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide, or its synthetic anomer 1-O-alpha-glucuronide, the loss of the glucuronide moiety was a major fragment ion. The loss of the glucuronide moiety was greater for the 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide than the 1-O-alpha-anomer. In addition, the loss of the glucuronide moiety was insignificant (less than 0.01%) with the other glucuronide isomers (2-, 3- or 4-O, alpha or beta). Given the fact that the 1-O-alpha-anomer was a minor impurity in the muraglitazar 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide reference standard, and not either a conversion product of 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide or endogenously formed, the SRM transition corresponding to the loss of the glucuronide moiety was very specific for 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide, and practically free from interference of the other isomers under optimized collision-cell conditions. As a result, extensive chromatographic separation of 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide from its migration isomers was not required. The use of this specific SRM transition effectively reduced the separation time from 12.0 min of a long-column high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to 2.5 min by use of a shorter column. The standard curve performance and analysis results of 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide incubation samples showed that the short-column method could produce equivalent results to the long-column method but with a 4.5-fold improvement in sample throughput. This approach may be useful for other 1-O-beta-acyl glucuronide measurements with proper tuning of collision energy. The generation of a breakdown curve (abundance vs. collision energy) helps to define whether appropriate conditions may be selected for specific MRM transitions. PMID:18059002

  16. Validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 3-Hydroxflavone and its glucuronide in blood and bioequivalent buffers: Application to pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism studies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Beibei; Yang, Guanyi; Ge, Shufan; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming; Gao, Song

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify 3-hydroxy-flavone (3-HF) and its metabolite, 3-hydroxyflavone-glucuronide (3-HFG) from biological samples. A Waters BEH C8 column was used with acetonitrile/0.1 % formic acid in water as mobile phases. The mass analysis was performed in an API 5500 Qtrap mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mood. The one-step protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to extract the analytes from plasma. The results showed that the linear response range was 0.61– 2,500.00 nM for 3-HF and 0.31– 2,500.00 nM for 3-HFG. The intra-day variance is less 16.48 % and accuracy is in 77.70–90.64 % for 3-HF and variance less than 15.86%, accuracy in 85.08–114.70 % for 3-HFG. The inter-day variance is less than 20.23 %, accuracy is in 110.58–114.2 % for 3-HF and variance less than 15.59 %, accuracy in 83.00–89.40% for 3-HFG. The analysis was done within 4.0 min. Only 10 μL of blood is needed due to the high sensitivity of this method. The validated method was successfully used to pharmacokinetic study in A/J mouse, transport study in the Caco-2 cell culture model, and glucuronidation study using mice liver and intestine microsomes. The applications revealed that this method can be used for 3-HF and 3-HFG analysis in blood as well as in bioequivalent buffers such HBSS and KPI. PMID:23973631

  17. Validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of 3-hydroxflavone and its glucuronide in blood and bioequivalent buffers: application to pharmacokinetic, absorption, and metabolism studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Beibei; Yang, Guanyi; Ge, Shufan; Yin, Taijun; Hu, Ming; Gao, Song

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify 3-hydroxyflavone (3-HF) and its metabolite, 3-hydroxyflavone-glucuronide (3-HFG) from biological samples. A Waters BEH C8 column was used with acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phases. The mass analysis was performed in an API 5500 Qtrap mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mood. The one-step protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to extract the analytes from blood. The results showed that the linear response range was 0.61-2500.00 nM for 3-HF and 0.31-2500.00 nM for 3-HFG. The intra-day variance is less than 16.5% and accuracy is in 77.7-90.6% for 3-HF and variance less than 15.9%, accuracy in 85.1-114.7% for 3-HFG. The inter-day variance is less than 20.2%, accuracy is in 110.6-114.2% for 3-HF and variance less than 15.6%, accuracy in 83.0-89.4% for 3-HFG. The analysis was done within 4.0 min. Only 10 ?l of blood is needed due to the high sensitivity of this method. The validated method was successfully used to pharmacokinetic study in A/J mouse, transport study in the Caco-2 cell culture model, and glucuronidation study using mice liver and intestine microsomes. The applications revealed that this method can be used for 3-HF and 3-HFG analysis in blood as well as in bioequivalent buffers such HBSS and KPI. PMID:23973631

  18. Validation of an Efficient Method for the Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables Using Ethyl Acetate for Extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a version of the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS) method was modified to use ethyl acetate (EtOAc) rather than acetonitrile (MeCN) for extraction in the determination of multiple pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. EtOAc is better suited than MeCN...

  19. LC-MS-MS method for simultaneous determination of THCCOOH and THCCOOH-glucuronide in urine: Application to workplace confirmation tests.

    PubMed

    Felli, M; Martello, S; Chiarotti, M

    2011-01-30

    Cannabis is the one of the most frequently detected drug in workplace drug testing and in cases of driving under influence of drugs, and there is a greater demand for sensitive, rapid and reliable methods for confirming the presence of this drug in biological samples. This paper describes an LC-MS-MS procedure for direct analysis of cTHC and cTHC-glucuronide in urine, without hydrolysis of the samples or derivatisation. The sample preparation is very simple and consist only in a dilution of urine with methanol 1:1 (v/v) after adding the deuterated internal standard (cTHC-d3); then 10?l of the final solution is injected in LC-MS-MS. Chromatographic separation was performed using a reversed-phase column and gradient elution with 0.01% formic acid/acetonitrile/methanol and two MS-MS transitions for each substance were monitored. The method was fully validated and proved to be accurate (RSD <15%), precise (intra-day CV <10%) and sensitive with a limit of detection (LOD) of 5ng/ml for both the compounds studied. Linearity was tested in the range 5-1000ng/ml and the values of R(2) resulted >0.99. The developed method was applied to several authentic samples of urine which tested positive in the immunoassay screening and 98% of them was confirmed. PMID:20627630

  20. In vitro glucuronidation using human liver microsomes and the pore-forming peptide alamethicin.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M B; Campanale, K; Ackermann, B L; VandenBranden, M; Wrighton, S A

    2000-05-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are a superfamily of membrane-bound enzymes whose active site is localized inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Glucuronidation using human liver microsomes has traditionally involved disruption of the membrane barrier, usually by detergent treatment, to attain maximal enzyme activity. The goals of the current work were to develop a universal method to glucuronidate xenobiotic substrates using microsomes, and to apply this method to sequential oxidation-glucuronidation reactions. Three assays of UGT catalytic activity estradiol-3-glucuronidation, acetaminophen-O-glucuronidation, and morphine-3-glucuronidation, which are relatively selective probes for human UGT1A1, 1A6, and 2B7 isoforms, respectively, were developed. Treatment of microsomes with the pore-forming peptide alamethicin (50 microg/mg protein) resulted in conjugation rates 2 to 3 times the rates observed with untreated microsomes. Addition of physiological concentrations of Mg(2+) to the alamethicin-treated microsomes yielded rates that were 4 to 7 times the rates with untreated microsomes. Optimized assay conditions were found not to detrimentally affect cytochrome P450 activity as determined by effects on testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation and 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylation. Formation of estradiol-3-glucuronide displayed atypical kinetics, and data best fit the Hill equation, yielding apparent kinetic parameters of K(m)(app) = 0.017 mM, V(max)(app) = 0.4 nmol/mg/min, and n = 1.8. Formation of acetaminophen-O-glucuronide also best fit the Hill equation, with K(m)(app) = 4 mM, V(max)(app) = 1.5 nmol/mg/min, and n = 1.4. Alternatively, morphine-3-glucuronide formation displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with K(m)(app) = 2 mM and V(max)(app) = 2. 5 nmol/mg/min. Finally, alamethicin treatment of microsomes was found to be effective in facilitating the sequential oxidation-glucuronidation of 7-ethoxycoumarin. PMID:10772635

  1. A New Rapid In Vitro Assay for Assessing Reactivity of Acyl Glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Sheng; Jones, Russell; Lu, Wenzhe; Schadt, Simone; Ottaviani, Giorgio

    2015-11-01

    Idiosyncratic drug toxicity is a major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry since complex and multifactorial steps are involved, the dose-dependency is unclear, and its occurrence is not reliably predictable. Whereas the exact mechanisms leading to idiosyncratic toxicity remain elusive in many cases, there are often hints at the involvement of reactive metabolites, such as acyl glucuronides formed by conjugation of carboxylic acids with glucuronic acid. Because the patient-related susceptibilities leading to idiosyncratic toxicity are not sufficiently understood, the best option for the pharmaceutical industry is to minimize drug-related risk factors such as potential acyl glucuronide formation. Here, we describe a rapid in vitro assay for the assessment of the reactivity of acyl glucuronides, on the basis of acyl glucuronide migration, that can support the selection of low-risk drug candidates in the drug discovery phase. Twenty marketed compounds with a wide range of half-lives were tested, their acyl glucuronide migration rates were determined and compared with the half-lives of the respective acyl glucuronides. Ranking of acyl glucuronide stability using this method compared well with the results from existing methodologies. With this method, migration rates >20% would indicate higher risk of reactivity. This simpler approach using the acyl glucuronide migration rate is not dependent on authentic standards, therefore eliminating the requirement for either lengthy chemical synthesis or in vitro biosynthesis and purification of the 1-O-?-glucuronide. This methodology provides a rapid in vitro assay to assess acyl glucuronide stability and reactivity that is well suited for use early in the drug discovery phase. PMID:26276581

  2. Simultaneous determination of baicalin, oroxylin A-7-O-glucuronide and wogonoside in rat plasma by UPLC-DAD and its application in pharmacokinetics of pure baicalin, Radix Scutellariae and Yinhuang granule.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Li, Zheng; Li, Yin-jie; Wu, Xiao-wen; Wang, Shi-rui; Chen, Kai; Zheng, Xiao-xiao; Du, Qian; Tang, Dao-quan

    2015-12-01

    A novel UPLC-DAD method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of baicalin (baicalein-7-glucuronide, BG), oroxylin A-7-O-glucuronide (OAG) and wogonoside (WG) in rat plasma using rutin as the internal standard. Plasma samples were precipitated using acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. Separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 µm) using gradient acetonitrile and 0.2% formic acid water solution as mobile phase. The flow-rate was set at 0.4 mL/min and the eluate was detected at 275 nm. The method was linear over the ranges of 0.075-17.50, 0.050-12.60 and 0.056-14.10 µg/mL for BG, OAG and WG, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were respectively <4.8% and 6.4%. All of the limits of detection of three analytes in rat plasma were 0.01 µg/mL, whereas the limits of quantification were, respectively, 0.035, 0.025 and, 0.025 µg/mL. This assay has been successfully applied to pharmacokinetics of BG, OAG and WG in rats after oral administration of Yinhuang granule (YHG) and comparative pharmacokinetics of BG in rats following oral administration of the pure BG, Radix Scutellariae (RS) or YHG. We speculate that some co-existing ingredients in RS or YHG may increase the absorption and elimination of BG in rat. This work may be helpful for the quality control of Yinhuang granule. PMID:26018907

  3. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay for 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate and 6-hydroxymelatonin glucuronide in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, P.L.; Leone, A.M.; Young, I.M.; Stovell, P.; Silman, R.E.

    1987-04-01

    Circulating melatonin is hydroxylated to 6-hydroxymelatonin and excreted in urine as the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates. We extracted these two compounds from urine by using octadecylsilane-bonded silica cartridges to eliminate most of the urea and electrolytes, and silica cartridges to separate the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates. After hydrolyzing the separated conjugates enzymically, we determined the free hydroxymelatonin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Though recoveries were low and variable, we were able to quantify the analyte in the original sample by adding deuterated sulfate and glucuronide conjugates to the urines before extraction.

  4. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugation in the fungal metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Cerniglia, C E; Freeman, J P; Mitchum, R K

    1982-01-01

    Cunninghamella elegans oxidized naphthalene to ethyl acetate-soluble and water-soluble metabolites. Experiments with [14C]-naphthalene indicated that 21% of the substrate was converted into metabolites. The ratio of organic-soluble metabolites to water-soluble metabolites was 76:24. The major ethyl acetate-soluble naphthalene metabolites were trans-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydro-naphthalene, 4-hydroxy-1-tetralone, and 1-naphthol. Enzymatic treatment of the aqueous phase with either arylsulfatase or beta-glucuronidase released metabolites of naphthalene that were extractable with ethyl acetate. In both cases, the major metabolite was 1-naphthol. The ratio of water-soluble sulfate conjugates to water-soluble glucuronide conjugates was 1:1. Direct analysis of the aqueous phase by high-pressure liquid and thin-layer chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques indicated that 1-naphthyl sulfate and 1-naphthyl glucuronic acid were major water-soluble metabolites formed from the fungal metabolism of naphthalene. C. elegans oxidized biphenyl primarily to 4-hydroxy biphenyl. Deconjugation experiments with biphenyl water-soluble metabolites indicated that the glucuronide and sulfate ester of 4-hydroxy biphenyl were metabolites. The data demonstrate that sulfation and glucuronidation are major pathways in the metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons by fungi. PMID:7103474

  5. Dietary green and white teas suppress UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT2B17 mediated testosterone glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Carl; Petroczi, Andrea; Barker, James; Naughton, Declan P

    2012-05-01

    The anabolic steroid testosterone can be used by athletes to enhance athletic performance and muscle growth. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT2B17) is the key enzyme involved in the glucuronidation of testosterone to testosterone glucuronide, which also serves as a marker for the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio used to detect testosterone abuse in sport. Inhibitors of testosterone glucuronidation could have an impact on circulating testosterone levels, thus aiding performance, as well as potentially affecting the urinary T/E ratio and therefore masking testosterone abuse. Previous reports have revealed that non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac and ibuprofen, inhibit the UGT2B17 enzyme. The aim of this study is to analyse dietary tea samples for inhibition of testosterone glucuronidation and, where inhibition is present, to identify the active compounds. Analysis of testosterone glucuronidation was conducted by performing UGT2B17 assays with detection of un-glucuronidated testosterone using high performance liquid chromatography. The results from this study showed that testosterone glucuronidation was inhibited by the green and white tea extracts, along with specific catechin compounds, notably: epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and catechin gallate. The IC50 inhibition value for EGCG was determined, using a Dixon plot, to be 64 ?M, equalling the most active NSAID inhibitor diclofenac. Thus, common foodstuffs and their constituents, for the first time, have been identified as inhibitors of a key enzyme involved in testosterone glucuronidation. Whilst these common compounds are not substrates of the UGT2B17 enzyme, we showed that they inhibit testosterone glucuronidation which may have implications on current doping control in sport. PMID:22429924

  6. In Vitro Stability of Free and Glucuronidated Cannabinoids in Blood and Plasma Following Controlled Smoked Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Karschner, Erin L.; Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood and plasma cannabinoid stability is important for test interpretation and is best studied in authentic rather than fortified samples. METHODS Low and high blood and plasma pools were created for each of 10 participants after they smoked a cannabis cigarette. The stabilities of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide were determined after 1 week at room temperature; 1, 2, 4, 12, and 26 (2) weeks at 4 C; and 1, 2, 4, 12, 26 (2), and 52 (4) weeks at ?20 C. Stability was assessed by Friedman test. RESULTS Numbers of THC-glucuronide and CBD-positive blood samples were insufficient to assess stability. In blood, 11-OH-THC and CBN were stable for 1 week at room temperature, whereas THC and THCCOOH-glucuronide decreased and THCCOOH increased. In blood, THC, THCCOOH-glucuronide, THCCOOH, 11-OH-THC, and CBN were stable for 12, 4, 4, 12, and 26 weeks, respectively, at 4 C and 12, 12, 26, 26, and 52 weeks at ?20 C. In plasma, THC-glucuronide, THC, CBN, and CBD were stable for 1 week at room temperature, whereas THCCOOH-glucuronide and 11-OH-THC decreased and THCCOOH increased. In plasma, THC-glucuronide, THC, THCCOOH-glucuronide, THCCOOH, 11-OH-THC, CBN, and CBD were stable for 26, 26, 2, 2, 26, 12, and 26 weeks, respectively, at 4 C and 52, 52, 26, 26, 52, 52, and 52 weeks, respectively, at ?20 C. CONCLUSIONS Blood and plasma samples should be stored at ?20 C for no more than 3 and 6 months, respectively, to assure accurate cannabinoid quantitative results. PMID:23519966

  7. The Determination of Pesticidal and Non-Pesticidal Organotin Compounds in Water Matrices by in situ Ethylation and Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concurrent determination of pesticidal and non-pesticidal organotin compounds in several water matrices, using a simultaneous in situ ethylation and liquid-liquid extraction followed by splitless injection mode capillary gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detect...

  8. The Determination of Pesticidal and Non-Pesticidal Organotin Compounds by in situ Ethylation and Capillary Gas Chromatography with Pulsed Flame Photometric Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concurrent determination of pesticidal and non-pesticidal organotin compounds in several water matrices, using a simultaneous in situ ethylation and liquid-liquid extraction followed by splitless injection mode capillary gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detect...

  9. Development of a rapid method for the simultaneous separation and determination of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its N- and O-glucuronides in human urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yao, Li; Zheng, Saijing; Guan, Yafeng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Baizhan; Wang, Weimiao; Zhu, Xiaolan

    2013-07-25

    Determination of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its N- and O-glucuronides (NNAL-N-Gluc and NNAL-O-Gluc) is important for toxicology analysis of tobacco smoke induced carcinogenicity and the understanding of detoxification mechanisms of the carcinogenic nitrosamine in humans. But previously reported indirect measurement methods involving enzymolysis and base treatment steps were tedious and time-consuming. In this work, a direct measurement method for simultaneous determination of urinary NNAL, NNAL-N-Gluc and NNAL-O-Gluc by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a single run was developed for the first time without the need to perform enzymatic or base hydrolysis. Urine samples were purified using dichloromethane and further extracted by solid-phase extraction. Then they were analyzed by LC-MS/MS operated in electrospray positive ionization mode. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex Kinetex PFP column within 6 min. The proposed method was validated and the results demonstrated that the method can produce satisfactory recoveries and reproducibility for the analytes. The applicability of this newly developed method was investigated for the simultaneous analysis of the three metabolites in smokers' urine and the obtained results were comparable to those detected using the conventional enzymolysis method. PMID:23845482

  10. Occurrence of orally administered curcuminoid as glucuronide and glucuronide/sulfate conjugates in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Asai, A; Miyazawa, T

    2000-10-27

    Curcuminoids, curcumin and its structurally related compounds, constitute the phenolic yellowish pigment of turmeric. We investigated the absorption and metabolism of orally administered curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin) in rats. HPLC and LC-MS analyses after enzymatic hydrolyses showed that the predominant metabolites in plasma following administration were glucuronides and glucuronide/sulfates (conjugates with both glucuronide and sulfate) of curcuminoids. The plasma concentrations of conjugated curcuminoids reached a maximum one hour after administration. The conjugative enzyme activities for glucuronidation and sulfation of curcumin were found in liver, kidney and intestinal mucosa. These results indicate that orally administered curcuminoids are absorbed from the alimentary tract and present in the general blood circulation after largely being metabolized to the form of glucuronide and glucuronide/sulfate conjugates. PMID:11105995

  11. The chemiluminescence determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide using luminol-AgNO3-silver nanoparticles system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Shamsi, Javad; Barsang, Mehran Jam; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) was presented. It was found that 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) could inhibit the CL of the luminol-AgNO3 system in the presence of silver nanoparticles in alkaline solution, which made it applicable for determination of 2-CEES. The presented method is simple, convenient, rapid and sensitive. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.0001-1 ng mL-1, with the correlation coefficient of 0.992; while the limit of detection (LOD), based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, was 6 × 10-6 ng mL-1. Also, the relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 5) for determination of 2-CEES (0.50 ng mL-1) was 3.1%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of 2-CEES in environmental aqueous samples.

  12. The chemiluminescence determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide using luminol-AgNO3-silver nanoparticles system.

    PubMed

    Maddah, Bozorgmehr; Shamsi, Javad; Barsang, Mehran Jam; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    A highly sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) was presented. It was found that 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (2-CEES) could inhibit the CL of the luminol-AgNO3 system in the presence of silver nanoparticles in alkaline solution, which made it applicable for determination of 2-CEES. The presented method is simple, convenient, rapid and sensitive. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.0001-1ngmL(-1), with the correlation coefficient of 0.992; while the limit of detection (LOD), based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, was 6×10(-6)ngmL(-1). Also, the relative standard deviation (RSD, n=5) for determination of 2-CEES (0.50ngmL(-1)) was 3.1%. The method was successfully applied for the determination of 2-CEES in environmental aqueous samples. PMID:25703367

  13. Determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula by liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Bin; Lin, Zhengfeng; Zhou, Xiujin; Wang, Chengjun; Zhu, Zhenou

    2014-02-01

    A simple, precise, accurate, and validated liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula samples. Following ultrasonic extraction with methanol/water (1:1, vol/vol), and clean-up on an HLB solid-phase extraction cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA), samples were separated on a Waters XSelect HSS T3 column (150 2.1-mm i.d., 5-?m film thickness; Waters Corp.), with 0.1% formic acid solution-acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Quanti?cation of the target was performed by the internal standard approach, using isotopically labeled compounds for each chemical group, to correct matrix effects. Data acquisition was carried out in multiple reaction monitoring transitions mode, monitoring 2 multiple reaction monitoring transitions to ensure an accurate identi?cation of target compounds in the samples. Additional identi?cation and con?rmation of target compounds were performed using the enhanced product ion modus of the linear ion trap. The novel liquid chromatography-quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry platform offers the best sensitivity and speci?city for characterization and quantitative determination of vanillin, ethyl vanillin, and coumarin in infant formula and fulfills the quality criteria for routine laboratory application. PMID:24359823

  14. Comparing the glucuronidation capacity of the feline liver with substrate-specific glucuronidation in dogs.

    PubMed

    van Beusekom, C D; Fink-Gremmels, J; Schrickx, J A

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the overall glucuronidation capacity of cats, using prototypic substrates identified for human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). To this end, Michaelis-Menten kinetics were established for the substrates using feline hepatic microsomal fractions, and results were compared with similar experiments carried out with dog liver microsomes. Cats are known for their low capacity of glucuronide formation, and UGT1A6 was found to be a pseudogene. However, functional studies with typical substrates were not performed and knowledge of the enzymology and genetics of other glucuronidation enzymes in felidae is lacking. The results of this study showed extremely low formation of naphthol-1-glucuronide (1.7 0.4 nmol/mg protein/min), estradiol-17-glucuronide (<0.7 nmol/mg protein/min), and morphine-3-glucuronide (0.2 0.03 nmol/mg protein/min), suggesting a lack of functional UGT1A6 and UGT2B7 homologues in the cat's liver. Dog liver microsomes were producing these glucuronides in much higher amounts. Glucuronide capacity was present for the substrates 17?-estradiol (estradiol-3-glucuronide, 2.9 0.2 nmol/mg protein/min) and 4-methylumbelliferone (31.3 3.3 nmol/mg protein/min), assuming that cats have functional homologue enzymes to at least the human UGT1A1 and probably other UGT1A isozymes. This implies that for new drugs, glucuronidation capacity has to be investigated on a substance-to-substance base. Knowledge of the glucuronidation rate of a drug provides the basis for pharmacokinetic modeling and as a result proper dosage regimens can be established to avoid undesirable drug toxicity in cats. PMID:23888985

  15. Comparative evaluation of ELISA kit and HPLC DAD for the determination of chlorpyrifos ethyl residues in water and sediments.

    PubMed

    Otieno, P O; Owuor, P O; Lalah, J O; Pfister, G; Schramm, K-W

    2013-12-15

    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit is a versatile, cheap and relatively available tool that can be used in remote areas. In this study, performance of ELISA kit was evaluated in terms of accuracy, recovery, precision, sensitivity, cross reactivity and matrix interference for pesticide residue determination in water and sediment samples. This method was compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which is not a commonly available analytical technique for chlorpyrifos ethyl residue analysis in developing countries. The ELISA kit had limits of detection (LOD) of 0.37 µg L(-1) and 0.42 µg Kg(-1) dry weight (dw), for chlorpyrifos ethyl in water and sediment samples, respectively using deionized water and a control sediment sample. Mean percentage recoveries and coefficients of variation (CV) for ELISA kit varied from 96.0±5.8% to 108.0±3.4% for water and sediment samples. Comparison between ELISA and HPLC analysis results using water and sediment samples from Lake Naivasha showed no significant difference in results (p≤0.05). Strong correlations (r2=0.9878 water samples and r1=0.9670, p<0.0001 for sediment samples, n=48) were reported between the methods for the two samples analyzed. Bland-Altman bias plot analysis showed that the two methods were in agreement within 95% confidence interval of limits -2.9 to 3.8 and -2.2 to 3.6 for water and sediment, respectively. Given the high sensitivity reported and the obtained acceptable limits of coefficient of variation and percentage recovery, ELISA appears to be a suitable rapid analytical tool in analysis of chlorpyrifos ethyl in water and sediment samples. Results demonstrate comparability to HPLC and could complement conventional tools in regular monitoring program particularly in developing countries. This will hasten results delivery for ecological risk assessment and timely execution of mitigation measures. PMID:24209337

  16. Comparative evaluation of ELISA kit and HPLC DAD for the determination of chlorpyrifos ethyl residues in water and sediments.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Otieno PO; Owuor PO; Lalah JO; Pfister G; Schramm KW

    2013-12-15

    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit is a versatile, cheap and relatively available tool that can be used in remote areas. In this study, performance of ELISA kit was evaluated in terms of accuracy, recovery, precision, sensitivity, cross reactivity and matrix interference for pesticide residue determination in water and sediment samples. This method was compared with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) which is not a commonly available analytical technique for chlorpyrifos ethyl residue analysis in developing countries. The ELISA kit had limits of detection (LOD) of 0.37 µg L(-1) and 0.42 µg Kg(-1) dry weight (dw), for chlorpyrifos ethyl in water and sediment samples, respectively using deionized water and a control sediment sample. Mean percentage recoveries and coefficients of variation (CV) for ELISA kit varied from 96.0±5.8% to 108.0±3.4% for water and sediment samples. Comparison between ELISA and HPLC analysis results using water and sediment samples from Lake Naivasha showed no significant difference in results (p≤0.05). Strong correlations (r2=0.9878 water samples and r1=0.9670, p<0.0001 for sediment samples, n=48) were reported between the methods for the two samples analyzed. Bland-Altman bias plot analysis showed that the two methods were in agreement within 95% confidence interval of limits -2.9 to 3.8 and -2.2 to 3.6 for water and sediment, respectively. Given the high sensitivity reported and the obtained acceptable limits of coefficient of variation and percentage recovery, ELISA appears to be a suitable rapid analytical tool in analysis of chlorpyrifos ethyl in water and sediment samples. Results demonstrate comparability to HPLC and could complement conventional tools in regular monitoring program particularly in developing countries. This will hasten results delivery for ecological risk assessment and timely execution of mitigation measures.

  17. S-Naproxen and desmethylnaproxen glucuronidation by human liver microsomes and recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT): role of UGT2B7 in the elimination of naproxen

    PubMed Central

    Bowalgaha, Kushari; Elliot, David J; Mackenzie, Peter I; Knights, Kathleen M; Swedmark, Stellan; Miners, John O

    2005-01-01

    Aims To characterize the kinetics of S-naproxen (naproxen) acyl glucuronidation and desmethylnaproxen acyl and phenolic glucuronidation by human liver microsomes and identify the human UGT isoform(s) catalysing these reactions. Methods Naproxen and desmethylnaproxen glucuronidation were investigated using microsomes from six and five livers, respectively. Human recombinant UGTs were screened for activity towards naproxen and desmethylnaproxen. Where significant activity was observed, kinetic parameters were determined. Naproxen and desmethylnaproxen glucuronides were measured by separate high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Results Naproxen acyl glucuronidation by human liver microsomes followed biphasic kinetics. Mean apparent Km values (SD, with 95% confidence interval in parentheses) for the high- and low-affinity components were 29 13 m (16, 43) and 473 108 m (359, 587), respectively. UGT 1A1, 1A3, 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, 1A10 and 2B7 glucuronidated naproxen. UGT2B7 exhibited an apparent Km (72 m) of the same order as the high-affinity human liver microsomal activity, which was inhibited by the UGT2B7 selective probe fluconazole. Although data for desmethylnaproxen phenolic glucuronidation by human liver microsomes were generally adequately fitted to either the single- or two-enzyme MichaelisMenten equation, model fitting was inconclusive for desmethylnaproxen acyl glucuronidation. UGT 1A1, 1A7, 1A9 and 1A10 catalysed both the phenolic and acyl glucuronidation of desmethylnaproxen, while UGT 1A3, 1A6 and 2B7 formed only the acyl glucuronide. Atypical glucuronidation kinetics were variably observed for naproxen and desmethylnaproxen glucuronidation by the recombinant UGTs. Conclusion UGT2B7 is responsible for human hepatic naproxen acyl glucuronidation, which is the primary elimination pathway for this drug. PMID:16187975

  18. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Jee-Yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung; Koh, Eunmi

    2015-09-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 g/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 g/kg and 6.30 g/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 g/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 g/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 g/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  19. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Alcoholic Beverages and Fermented Foods Sold in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dayeon; Choi, Bogyoung; Kim, Eunjoo; Park, Seri; Paeng, Hwijin; Kim, Cho-il; Lee, Jee-yeon; Yoon, Hae Jung

    2015-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate (EC) classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A) is naturally formed in alcoholic beverages and fermented foods during fermentation process and/or during storage. The objective of this study was to analyze EC in 34 food items including 14 alcoholic beverages and 20 fermented foods sold in Korea. Each food was collected from 18 supermarkets in 9 metropolitan cities in Korea, and then made into composite. According to food composition and alcohol content, samples were divided into four matrices such as apple juice, milk, Soju (liquor containing about 20% alcohol), and rice porridge. The maximum EC value of 151.06 µg/kg was found in Maesilju (liquor made from Maesil and Soju). Whisky and Bokbunjaju (Korean black raspberry wine) contained 9.90 µg/kg and 6.30 µg/kg, respectively. EC was not detected in other alcoholic beverages. Of 20 fermented foods, Japanese-style soy sauce had highest level of 15.59 µg/kg and traditional one contained 4.18 µg/kg. Soybean paste had 1.18 µg/kg, however, EC was not found in other fermented foods. PMID:26483888

  20. Simultaneous quantification of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, buprenorphine glucuronide, and norbuprenorphine glucuronide in human placenta by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Concheiro-Guisan, Marta; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    A LCMS method was developed and validated for the determination of buprenorphine (BUP), norbuprenorphine (NBUP), buprenorphine glucuronide (BUP-Gluc), and norbuprenorphine glucuronide (NBUP-Gluc) in placenta. Quantification was achieved by selected ion monitoring of m/z 468.4 (BUP), 414.3 (NBUP), 644.4 (BUP-Gluc), and 590 (NBUP-Gluc). BUP and NBUP were identified monitoring MS2 fragments m/z 396, 414 and 426 for BUP, and 340, 364 and 382 for NBUP, and glucuronide conjugates monitoring MS3 fragments m/z 396 and 414 for BUP-Gluc, and 340 and 382 for NBUP-Gluc. Linearity was 150 ng/g. Intra-day, inter-day and total assay imprecision (% RSD) were <13.4%, and analytical recoveries were 96.2113.1%. Extraction efficiencies ranged from 40.768%, process efficiencies 38.870.5%, and matrix effect 1.315.4%. Limits of detection were 0.8 ng/g for all compounds. An authentic placenta from an opioid-dependent pregnant woman receiving BUP pharmacotherapy was analyzed. BUP was not detected but metabolite concentrations were NBUP-Gluc 46.6, NBUP 15.7 and BUP-Gluc 3.2 ng/g. PMID:19247639

  1. Icosapent Ethyl

    MedlinePLUS

    ... weight loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like substance) in your blood. Icosapent ... ethyl may work by decreasing the amount of triglycerides and other fats made in the liver.

  2. Efflux Transport Characterization of Resveratrol Glucuronides in UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 Transfected HeLa Cells: Application of a Cellular Pharmacokinetic Model to Decipher the Contribution of Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Li, Feng; Quan, Enxi; Dong, Dong; Wu, Baojian

    2016-04-01

    Resveratrol undergoes extensive metabolism to form biologically active glucuronides in humans. However, the transport mechanisms for resveratrol glucuronides are not fully established. Here, we aimed to characterize the efflux transport of resveratrol glucuronides using UGT1A1-overexpressing HeLa cells (HeLa1A1 cells), and to determine the contribution of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 4 to cellular excretion of the glucuronides. Two glucuronide isomers [i.e., resveratrol 3-O-glucuronide (R3G) and resveratrol 4'-O-glucuronide (R4'G)] were excreted into the extracellular compartment after incubation of resveratrol (1-100 μM) with HeLa1A1 cells. The excretion rate was linearly related to the level of intracellular glucuronide, indicating that glucuronide efflux was a nonsaturable process. MK-571 (a dual inhibitor of UGT1A1 and MRPs) significantly decreased the excretion rates of R3G and R4'G while increasing their intracellular levels. Likewise, short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated silencing of MRP4 caused a significant reduction in glucuronide excretion but an elevation in glucuronide accumulation. Furthermore, β-glucuronidase expressed in the cells catalyzed the hydrolysis of the glucuronides back to the parent compound. A cellular pharmacokinetic model integrating resveratrol transport/metabolism with glucuronide hydrolysis/excretion was well fitted to the experimental data, allowing derivation of the efflux rate constant values in the absence or presence of shRNA targeting MRP4. It was found that a large percentage of glucuronide excretion (43%-46%) was attributed to MRP4. In conclusion, MRP4 participated in cellular excretion of R3G and R4'G. Integration of mechanistic pharmacokinetic modeling with transporter knockdown was a useful method to derive the contribution percentage of an exporter to overall glucuronide excretion. PMID:26758854

  3. A new chemiluminescence method for determination of clonazepam and diazepam based on 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate/copper as catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaichi, M. J.; Alijanpour, S. O.

    2014-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence (CL) reaction, Benzodiazepines-H2O2-1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate/copper, for determination of clonazepam and diazepam at nanogram per milliliter level in batch-type system have been described. The method relies on the catalytic effect of 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazolium Ethylsulfate/copper on the chemiluminescence reaction of Benzodiazepines, the oxidation of Benzodiazepines with hydrogen peroxide in natural medium. The influences of various experimental parameters such as solution pH, the ratio of 1-Ethyl-3 Methylimidazolium ethylsulfate concentration to copper ion, the type of buffer and the concentration of CL reagents were investigated. Under the optimum condition, the proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of these drugs in tablets and urine without the interference of their potential impurities.

  4. Synthesis, structure characterization, and enzyme screening of clenbuterol glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Alonen, Anna; Gartman, Minna; Aitio, Olli; Finel, Moshe; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Kostiainen, Risto

    2009-07-12

    Two clenbuterol O-glucuronide diastereomers were synthesized by the Koenigs-Knorr reaction. Structures and glucuronidation sites of the glucuronides were characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The two diastereomers were used as standard compounds in studies of stereoselective glucuronidation of clenbuterol with liver microsomes from different species and with 15 human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases. In this study, chemical and enzymatic reactions produced only O-glucuronides of clenbuterol, although on the basis of the chemical structure of the aglycone, both O- and N-glucuronides of clenbuterol could be formed. Differences in the production of diastereomers of clenbuterol glucuronides were observed among liver microsomes from the various animals. Dog and bovine liver microsomes were significantly active, and also stereoselective, each producing only one but a different diastereomer. Liver microsomes from rabbit and rat were also rather actively glucuronidating clenbuterol, but human, pig, and moose liver microsomes produced only minor amounts of glucuronides. Human liver microsomes produced only one clenbuterol glucuronide diastereomer, and the same was true of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases that were active (formation of glucuronide: 1A9 > 1A10 > 1A7). The marked differences in the stereoselective glucuronidation of clenbuterol show that UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in the livers of different animals do not have the same functions, activities, or distribution. This needs to be taken into account, particularly in toxicology testing. PMID:19447177

  5. [Direct determination of ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine and grape wine by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Ke, Runhui; Wang, Bing; Yin, Jianjun; Song, Quanhou

    2012-09-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method was established for the direct determination of ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine and grape wine. The Chinese rice wine and grape wine samples were diluted with distilled water, filtered through 0. 22 microm microporous membrane. The LC separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC system with a BEH C18 column, acetonitrile and 0. 1% (v/v) acetic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The ethyl carbamate was determined in the mode of electrospray positive ionization (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The butyl carbamate (BC) was used as the internal standard for the quantitative determination. The calibration curve showed good linearity in the range of 2 - 500 microg/L with the correlation coefficient greater than 0.995. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.7 microg/L and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 5.0 microg/L. The recoveries of the ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine and grape wine was in the range of 90% - 102%. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra-day and inter-day determinations were 0. 8% - 4.5% and 1.4% - 5.6% (n = 6). The results indicated that the proposed method is easy, fast, sensitive, and suitable for the determination of ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine and grape wine. PMID:23285971

  6. The Human UGT1A3 Enzyme Conjugates Norursodeoxycholic Acid into a C23-ester Glucuronide in the Liver*

    PubMed Central

    Trottier, Jocelyn; El Husseini, Diala; Perreault, Martin; Pquet, Sophie; Caron, Patrick; Bourassa, Sylvie; Verreault, Mlanie; Inaba, Ted T.; Poirier, Guy G.; Blanger, Alain; Guillemette, Chantal; Trauner, Michael; Barbier, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Norursodeoxycholic acid (norUDCA) exhibits efficient anti-cholestatic properties in an animal model of sclerosing cholangitis. norUDCA is eliminated as a C23-ester glucuronide (norUDCA-23G) in humans. The present study aimed at identifying the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme(s) involved in hepatic norUDCA glucuronidation and at evaluating the consequences of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the coding region of UGT genes on norUDCA-23G formation. The effects of norUDCA on the formation of the cholestatic lithocholic acid-glucuronide derivative and of rifampicin on hepatic norUDCA glucuronidation were also explored. In vitro glucuronidation assays were performed with microsomes from human tissues (liver and intestine) and HEK293 cells expressing human UGT enzymes and variant allozymes. UGT1A3 was identified as the major hepatic UGT enzyme catalyzing the formation of norUDCA-23G. Correlation studies using samples from a human liver bank (n = 16) indicated that the level of UGT1A3 protein is a strong determinant of in vitro norUDCA glucuronidation. Analyses of the norUDCA-conjugating activity by 11 UGT1A3 variant allozymes identified three phenotypes with high, low, and intermediate capacity. norUDCA is also identified as a competitive inhibitor for the hepatic formation of the pro-cholestatic lithocholic acid-glucuronide derivative, whereas norUDCA glucuronidation is weakly stimulated by rifampicin. This study identifies human UGT1A3 as the major enzyme for the hepatic norUDCA glucuronidation and supports that some coding polymorphisms affecting the conjugating activity of UGT1A3 in vitro may alter the pharmacokinetic properties of norUDCA in cholestasis treatment. PMID:19889628

  7. Nicotine Metabolism in African Americans and European Americans: Variation in Glucuronidation by Ethnicity and UGT2B10 Haplotype

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Jeannette Zinggeler; Mason, Jesse; Boettcher, Angela J.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Nicotine is the major addictive agent in tobacco smoke, and it is metabolized extensively by oxidation and glucuronide conjugation. The contributions of ethnicity and UGT2B10 haplotype on variation in nicotine metabolism were investigated. Nicotine metabolism was evaluated in two populations of smokers. In one population of African American and European American smokers (n = 93), nicotine and its metabolites were analyzed in plasma and 24-h urine over 3 days while participants were abstinent and at steady state on the nicotine patch. In a second study of smokers (n = 84), the relationship of a UGT2B10 haplotype linked with D67Y to nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation levels was determined. We observed that both African American ethnicity and the UGT2B10 D67Y allele were associated with a low glucuronidation phenotype. African Americans excreted less nicotine and cotinine as their glucuronide conjugates compared with European Americans; percentage of nicotine glucuronidation, 18.1 versus 29.3 (p < 0.002) and percentage of cotinine glucuronidation, 41.4 versus 61.7 (p < 0.0001). In smokers with a UGT2B10 Tyr67 allele, glucuronide conjugation of nicotine and cotinine was decreased by 20% compared with smokers without this allele. Two key outcomes are reported here. First, the observation that African Americans have lower nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation was confirmed in a population of abstinent smokers on the nicotine patch. Second, we provide the first convincing evidence that UGT2B10 is a key catalyst of these glucuronidation pathways in vivo. PMID:19786624

  8. Glucuronidation and Covalent Protein Binding of Benoxaprofen and Flunoxaprofen in Sandwich-Cultured Rat and Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jennifer Q.

    2009-01-01

    Benoxaprofen (BNX), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that was withdrawn because of hepatotoxicity, is more toxic than its structural analog flunoxaprofen (FLX) in humans and rats. Acyl glucuronides have been hypothesized to be reactive metabolites and may be associated with toxicity. Both time- and concentration-dependent glucuronidation and covalent binding of BNX, FLX, and ibuprofen (IBP) were determined by exposing sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes to each NSAID. The levels of glucuronide and covalent protein adduct measured in cells followed the order BNX > FLX > IBP. These results indicate that 1) BNX-glucuronide (G) is more reactive than FLX-G, and 2) IBP-G is the least reactive metabolite, which support previous in vivo studies in rats. The proportional increases of protein adduct formation for BNX, FLX, and IBP as acyl glucuronidation increased also support the hypothesis that part of the covalent binding of all three NSAIDs to hepatic proteins is acyl glucuronide-dependent. Moreover, theses studies confirmed the feasibility of using sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes for studying glucuronidation and covalent binding to hepatocellular proteins. These studies also showed that these in vitro methods can be applied using human tissues for the study of acyl glucuronide reactivity. More BNX-protein adduct was formed in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes than FLX-protein adduct, which not only agreed with its relative toxicity in humans but also was consistent with the in vitro findings using rat hepatocyte cultures. These data support the use of sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes as an in vitro screening model of acyl glucuronide exposure and reactivity. PMID:19773537

  9. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... March 21, 1990 (55 FR 10512), and published its most recent previous determination for the 2010 amount in the Federal Register of December 23, 2009 (74 FR 68282). The Commission uses official statistics... administration of the law is the greater of 60 million gallons or 7 percent of U.S. consumption, as determined...

  10. Fate of glucuronide conjugated estradiol in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reproductive hormone, 17ß-estradiol (E2), is made more water soluble (polar) in the body by attachment of glucuronide acid to E2, facilitating urinary elimination. The fate of this potentially more mobile polar form of E2 is not well understood. Soil sorption studies were conducted using [14C] 1...

  11. Desorption chemical ionization and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometric studies of the glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine.

    PubMed

    Lay, J O; Korfmacher, W A; Miller, D W; Siitonen, P; Holder, C L; Gosnell, A B

    1986-11-01

    Three glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine succinate were collected in a single fraction using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) from the urine of dosed male Fischer 344 rats. The metabolites were then separated using an additional HPLC step into fractions containing predominantly a single glucuronide metabolite. Analysis of the metabolites by methane and ammonia desorption chemical ionization, with and without derivatization, revealed fragment ions suggestive of a hydroxylated doxylamine moiety. Identification of the metabolites as glucuronides of doxylamine, desmethyldoxylamine and didesmethyldoxylamine was accomplished, based on determination of the molecular weight and exact mass of each metabolite using fast atom bombardment (FAB) ionization. This assignment was confirmed by the fragmentation observed in FAB mass spectrometric and tandem mass spectrometric experiments. Para-substitution of the glucuronide on the phenyl moiety was observed by 500-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. A fraction containing all three glucuronide metabolites, after a single stage of HPLC separation, was also analysed by FAB mass spectrometry, and the proton- and potassium-containing quasimolecular ions for all three metabolites were observed. PMID:2948588

  12. Ethyl carbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl carbamate ; CASRN 51 - 79 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  13. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  14. Ethyl chloride

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl chloride ; CASRN 75 - 00 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  15. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  16. Determination of Ethyl Carbamate in Chinese Yellow Rice Wine by Diatomaceous Earth Extraction and GC/MS Method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pinggu; Zhang, Liqun; Shen, Xianghong; Wang, Liyuan; Zou, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Tang, Jun; Ma, Bingjie; Pan, Xiaodong; Jiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A sensitive and rapid analytical method based on alkaline diatomaceous earth extraction followed by GC/MS was developed for the quantitative determination of the toxic contaminant ethyl carbamate (EC) in yellow rice wines. The optimal extraction conditions were investigated. With the application of diatomaceous earth extraction, the damage of organic acids to the capillary column was greatly reduced. By using d5-EC as an internal standard for quantitative analysis of EC, the linearity of the calibration curves was good between 10 and 1000 ng/mL. The LOD and LOQ were 1.7 and 5.0 μg/kg, respectively. The spiked level of EC was 5.0-300 μg/kg, and the average recovery of the spikes was between 78.4 and 98.2%, with an RSD between 4.3 and 8.3%. Upon validation by five laboratories when spiked with 50, 100, and 300 μg/kg, the average respective recoveries were 102.9, 102.2, and 98.7% with a RSD between 0.7 and 8.1%. The validation results demonstrated that the method is fast, simple, selective, and suitable for the determination of EC in yellow rice wines. PMID:26086264

  17. Evaluation of the DNA damaging potential of cannabis cigarette smoke by the determination of acetaldehyde derived N2-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Sandhu, Jatinderpal; Kaur, Balvinder; Juren, Tina; Steward, William P; Segerbck, Dan; Farmer, Peter B

    2009-06-01

    Acetaldehyde is an ubiquitous genotoxic compound that has been classified as a possible carcinogen to humans. It can react with DNA to form primarily a Schiff base N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dG) adduct. An online column-switching valve liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method was developed for the determination of N(2)-ethylidene-dG adducts in DNA following reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride (NaBH(3)CN) to the chemically stable N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethyl-dG) adduct. Accurate quantitation of the adduct was obtained by the addition of the [(15)N(5)]N(2)-ethyl-dG stable isotope-labeled internal standard prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of the DNA samples to 2'-deoxynucleosides with the incorporation of NaBH(3)CN in the DNA hydrolysis buffer. The method required 50 microg of hydrolyzed DNA on column for the analysis, and the limit of detection for N(2)-ethyl-dG was 2.0 fmol. The analysis of calf thymus DNA treated in vitro with acetaldehyde (ranging from 0.5 to 100 mM) or with the smoke generated from 1, 5, and 10 cannabis cigarettes showed linear dose-dependent increases in the level of N(2)-ethyl-dG adducts (r = 0.954 and r = 0.999, respectively). Similar levels (332.8 +/- 21.9 vs 348.4 +/- 19.1 adducts per 10(8) 2'-deoxynucleosides) of N(2)-ethyl-dG adducts were detected following the exposure of calf thymus DNA to 10 tobacco or 10 cannabis cigarettes. No significant difference was found in the levels of N(2)-ethyl-dG adducts in human lung DNA obtained from nonsmokers (n = 4) and smokers (n = 4) with the average level observed as 13.3 +/- 0.7 adducts per 10(8) 2'-deoxynucleosides. No N(2)-ethyl-dG adducts were detected in any of the DNA samples following analysis with the omission of NaBH(3)CN from the DNA hydrolysis buffer. In conclusion, these results provide evidence for the DNA damaging potential of cannabis smoke, implying that the consumption of cannabis cigarettes may be detrimental to human health with the possibility to initiate cancer development. PMID:19449825

  18. Disposition of Naringenin via Glucuronidation Pathway Is Affected by Compensating Efflux Transporters of Hydrophilic Glucuronides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyan; Kulkarni, Kaustubh H.; Singh, Rashim; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Stephen W.J.; Tam, Vincent H.; Hu, Ming

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate how efflux transporters and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) affect the disposition of naringenin. A rat intestinal perfusion model with bile duct cannulation was used along with rat intestinal and liver microsomes. In the intestinal perfusion model, both absorption and subsequent excretion of naringenin metabolites were rapid and site-dependent (p < 0.05). Naringenin was absorbed the most in colon and its glucuronides were excreted the most in duodenum. In metabolism studies, the intrinsic clearance value of naringenin glucuronidation was the highest in jejunum microsomes, followed by liver, ileal and colonic microsomes. The rapid metabolism in microsomes did not always translate into more efficient excretion in the rat perfusion model, however, because of presence of rate-limiting efflux transporters. When used separately, MK-571 (an inhibitor of multidrug resistance-related protein 2 or Mrp2) or dipyridamole (an inhibitor of breast cancer resistance protein or Bcrp1) did not affect excretion of naringenin glucuronides, but when used together, they significantly (p < 0.05) decreased intestinal and biliary excretion of naringenin glucuronides. In conclusion, efflux transporters Mrp2 and Bcrp1 are shown to compensate for each other and enable the intestinal excretion of flavonoid (i.e., naringenin) glucuronides. PMID:19736994

  19. Characterization of raloxifene glucuronidation. Potential role of UGT1A8 genotype on raloxifene metabolism in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dongxiao; Jones, Nathan R; Manni, Andrea; Lazarus, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Raloxifene is a 2nd-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and the prevention of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene is extensively metabolized by glucuronidation to form raloxifene-6-glucuronide (ral-6-Gluc) and raloxifene-4?-glucuronide (ral-4?-Gluc). The goal of the present study was to determine whether functional polymorphisms in active UGTs could play a role in altered raloxifene glucuronidation in vivo. Using homogenates from HEK293 UGT-overexpressing cell lines, raloxifene was shown to be glucuronidated primarily by the hepatic UGTs 1A1 and 1A9 and the extra-hepatic UGTs 1A8 and 1A10; no detectable raloxifene glucuronidation activity was found for UGT2B enzymes. Functional UGT1A1 transcriptional promoter genotypes were significantly (ptrend=0.005) associated with ral-6-Gluc formation in human liver microsomes, and, consistent with the decreased raloxifene glucuronidation activities observed in vitro with cell line over-expressing UGT1A8 variants, the UGT1A8*2 variant was significantly (p=0.023) correlated with total raloxifene glucuronide formation in human jejunum homogenates. While ral-4?-Gluc exhibited 1/100th the anti-estrogenic activity of raloxifene itself as measured by binding to the estrogen receptor, raloxifene glucuronides comprised ?99% of the circulating raloxifene dose in raloxifene-treated subjects, with ral-4?-Gluc comprising ?70% of raloxifene glucuronides. Plasma ral-6-Gluc (ptrend=0.0025), ral-4?-Gluc (ptrend=0.001), and total raloxifene glucuronides (ptrend=0.001) were increased in raloxifene-treated subjects who were predicted slow metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*1/*3)] vs intermediate metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*1/*1) or UGT1A8 (*1/*2)] vs fast metabolizers [UGT1A8 (*2/*2). These data suggest that raloxifene metabolism may be dependent on UGT1A8 genotype and that UGT1A8 genotype may play an important role in overall response to raloxifene. PMID:23682072

  20. Determination of amitraz and its transformation products in pears by ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tokman, Nilgun; Soler, Carla; Farré, Marinel la; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2009-04-10

    A method has been developed for identification and quantification of the acaricide amitraz and its transformation products, 2,4-dimethylaniline (DMA), 2,4-dimethylformamidine (DMF) and N-2,4-dimethylphenyl-N-methylformamidine (DMPF) in pears. The analytes were extracted using ethyl acetate and anhydrous sodium sulphate. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in the positive ion mode using a triple quadrupole (QqQ) instrument. Two precursor-product ion transitions were monitored for each compound in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was validated with pears taken from the orchard before the amitraz treatment and spiked at the limit of quantification (LOQ), 10 times the LOQ and the maximum residue limit (MRL). Recoveries were between 70 and 106% and relative standard deviations were below 19% (n=5 at each spiked level). Excellent sensitivity resulted in limits of detection (LODs) for all the compounds below 10 microg kg(-1). Quantification was carried out using matrix-matched standards calibration, response was a linear function of the concentration from the LOQs to, at least, three orders of magnitude. Recoveries and standard deviations were comparable to those obtained after hydrolysis of amitraz and its metabolites to DMA. Occurrence of amitraz and its metabolites in field-treated pears showed that, seven days after the treatment, DMPF and DMF are the main degradation products. This work reports for the first time the use of a conventional pesticide multiresidue method and LC-ESI-MS/MS for determining amitraz and its metabolites in pears. PMID:19232624

  1. Strategies employed to determine the acute aquatic toxicity of ethyl benzene, a highly volatile, poorly water-soluble chemical.

    PubMed

    Masten, L W; Boeri, R L; Walker, J D

    1994-04-01

    Studies are described in which ethyl benzene (EB) was tested to determine its acute toxicity to three marine organisms, Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia), mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), and diatoms (Skeletonema costatum), and to one freshwater algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). The respective 96-hr median lethal concentration (LC50) values and 95% confidence intervals for EB in the flow-through studies with fish and mysid shrimp were 5.1 (4.4-5.7) mg/liter and 2.6 (2.0-3.3) mg/liter. While the 96-hr median effective concentrations (EC50's) for growth inhibition and 95% confidence intervals for the static studies with diatoms and algae were 7.7 (5.9-10.0) mg/liter and 3.6 (1.7-7.6) mg/liter, respectively. Problems were encountered in all four studies as a result of the high volatility and poor water solubility of EB in water and an apparent "salting out" effect noted in seawater. This effect was found particularly true in the diatom and algae studies where the salinity was increased with the addition of culture medium. Measures are described which were used to overcome this stability problem with EB. These included sealing the test systems tight without any air spaces to prevent the collection of EB vapors. Also, increased mixing of EB in the test solutions was found to be essential in the flow-through studies to maintain stable levels. In the case of the diatom and algal studies, since current EPA test guidelines were judged to be inadequate to overcome EB volatility from the test medium, a new closed test system had to be developed and employed, after validation with a nonvolatile reference toxicant in the new and conventional static test systems. The results of these studies indicate that previous reports underestimated the potential acute aquatic toxicity of EB by at least one order of magnitude. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the potential environmental impact of EB and the resultant regulatory actions. PMID:7519552

  2. Glucuronidation, a new metabolic pathway for pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Qi; Yang, Li; Liu, Hui-Xin; Zhang, Jiang-Wei; Liu, Yong; Fong, Alan; Xiong, Ai-Zhen; Lu, Yan-Liu; Yang, Ling; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2010-03-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) possess significant hepatotoxicity to humans and animals after metabolic activation by liver P450 enzymes. Metabolism pathways of PAs have been studied for several decades, including metabolic activation, hydroxylation, N-oxidation, and hydrolysis. However, the glucuronidation of intact PAs has not been investigated, although glucuronidation plays an important role in the elimination and detoxication of xenobiotics. In this study, PAs glucuronidation was investigated, and three important points were found. First, we demonstrated that senecionine (SEN)-a representative hepatotoxic PA-could be conjugated by glucuronic acid via an N-glucuronidation reaction catalyzed by uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase in human liver microsomes. Second, glucuronidation of SEN was catalyzed not only by human but also other animal species and showed significant species differences. Rabbits, cattle, sheep, pigs, and humans showed the significantly higher glucuronidation activity than mice, rats, dogs, and guinea pigs on SEN. Kinetics of SEN glucuronidation in humans, pigs, and rabbits followed the one-site binding model of the Michaelis-Menten equation, while cattle and sheep followed the two-sites binding model of the Michaelis-Menten equation. Third, besides SEN, other hepatotoxic PAs including monocrotaline, adonifoline, and isoline also underwent N-glucuronidation in humans and several animal species such as rabbits, cattle, sheep, and pigs. PMID:20092275

  3. Glucuronidation and Sulfation Kinetics of Diflunisal in Man.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewen, Gordon Rapheal

    Diflunisal is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of arthritis and musculoskeletal pain. Diflunisal exhibits concentration- and dose-dependent kinetics, the mechanism of which has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for non-linear disposition of diflunisal and to examine environmental factors which may affect the elimination of diflunisal. The metabolites of diflunisal, including a new metabolite, the sulphate conjugate, were purified by column and semi-preparative high pressure liquid chromatography. Assays for the quantitation of diflunisal and conjugates in urine and diflunisal in plasma were developed. Plasma protein binding of diflunisal in blank plasma and in plasma obtained following multiple doses of diflunisal was determined by equilibrium dialysis. Total body clearance of diflunisal decreased when dose increased from 100 to 750 mg. Total clearance increased when dose increased from 750 to 1000 mg. The percent of recovered dose eliminated as the acyl glucuronide decreased and the percent eliminated as the sulphate increased with increasing dose of diflunisal. Plasma protein binding of diflunisal was concentration dependent over a range of diflunisal plasma concentrations of 3 to 257 mug/ml. Total clearance, and to a lesser degree, unbound clearance of diflunisal were decreased following multiple dose administration of 250 and 500 mg diflunisal. Percent of recovered dose eliminated as the acyl glucuronide decreased and percent eliminated as the sulphate conjugate increased following multiple dosing. Plasma protein binding of diflunisal was similar in blank plasma and plasma obtained at steady state. Unbound clearance of diflunisal exceeded liver plasma flow. Frequency distributions of the elimination of the conjugates of diflunisal were normally distributed. Sex, smoking, and use of vitamins or oral contraceptives were identified as factors which may affect the elimination of diflunisal.

  4. Glucuronidation of paracetamol by human liver microsomes in vitro / enzyme kinetic parameters and interactions with short-chain aliphatic alcohols and opiates.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Petra; Rothschild, Markus A; Kaeferstein, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    In this study, glucuronidation of paracetamol (CAS 103-90-2) by human liver microsomes and the effects of aliphatic alcohols and opiates were investigated. Paracetamol glucuronidation was optimised for various incubation conditions. Ten different aliphatic alcohols and the opiates morphine, codeine and dihydrocodeine were analysed as inhibitors of paracetamol glucuronidation. Furthermore, the effects of paracetamol on morphine-3 and codeine glucuronidation were investigated. Enzyme kinetic analysis was carried out via determination of the parameters Km, Vmax, Ki and the type of inhibition. Except for methanol and ethanol, all Investigated alcohols inhibited glucuronidation of paracetamol. Ki values ranged between 4.59 mmol/l (n-pentanol) and 340.54 mmol/l (2-propanol). Extent of inhibition strongly depended on the structure and clearly increased with the length of the alkyl chain. All tested opiates inhibited paracetamol glucuronidation with Ki values between 4.02 mmol/l (dihydrocodeine) and 11.44 mmol/l (morphine). Paracetamol itself turned out to be an inhibitor of opiate glucuronidation. The apparent Ki values were 4.62 mmol/l (inhibition of morphine-3 glucuronidation) and 9.44 mmol/l (inhibition of codeine glucuronidation). A mixed inhibition type was determined for all substances. The in vitro studies show a great inhibition potential for the analysed substances. Transferring the results to the in vivo situation, a higher liver toxicity of paracetamol can be assumed, if concomitantly a lot of alcoholic beverages with congener alcohols--e.g. fruit schnapps or whisky--are drunk or if opiates--as analgesics or narcotics--are taken in higher doses. PMID:18380412

  5. The Contribution of Common Genetic Variation to Nicotine and Cotinine Glucuronidation in Multiple Ethnic/Racial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yesha M.; Stram, Daniel O.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Park, Sung-Shim L.; Henderson, Brian E.; Marchand, Loic Le; Haiman, Christopher A.; Murphy, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The lung cancer risk of smokers varies by race/ethnicity even after adjustment for smoking. Evaluating the role of genetics in nicotine metabolism is likely important in understanding these differences, as disparities in risk may be related to differences in nicotine dose and metabolism. Methods We conducted a genome-wide association study in search of common genetic variants that predict nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation in a sample of 2,239 smokers (437 European Americans, 364 African Americans, 453 Latinos, 674 Japanese Americans and 311 Native Hawaiians) in the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Urinary concentration of nicotine and its metabolites were determined. Results Among 11,892,802 variants analyzed, 1,241 were strongly associated with cotinine glucuronidation, 490 of which were also associated with nicotine glucuronidation (p<510?8). The vast majority were within chromosomal region 4q13, near UGT2B10. Fifteen independent and globally significant SNPs explained 33.2% of the variation in cotinine glucuronidation, ranging from 55% for African Americans to 19% for Japanese Americans. The strongest single SNP association was for rs115765562 (p=1.6010?155). This SNP is highly correlated with a UGT2B10 splice site variant, rs116294140, which together with rs6175900 (Asp67Tyr) explain 24.3% of the variation. The top SNP for nicotine glucuronidation (rs116224959, p=2.5610?43) was in high LD (r2=.99) with rs115765562. Conclusions Genetic variation in UGT2B10 contributions significantly to nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation but not to nicotine dose. Impact The contribution of genetic variation to nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation varies significantly by racial/ethnic group, but is unlikely to contribute directly to lung cancer risk. PMID:25293881

  6. Simultaneous Quantification of Free and Glucuronidated Cannabinoids in Human Urine by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Desrosiers, Nathalie A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug of abuse and is commonly quantified during urine drug testing. We conducted a controlled drug administration studies investigating efficacy of urinary cannabinoid glucuronide metabolites for documenting recency of cannabis intake and for determining stability of urinary cannabinoids. Methods A liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated quantifying ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide in 0.5 ml human urine via supported-liquid extraction. Chromatography was performed on an Ultra Biphenyl column with a gradient of 10 mmol/l ammonium acetate, pH 6.15 and 15% methanol in acetonitrile at 0. 4ml/min. Analytes were monitored by positive and negative mode electrospray ionization and multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Results Linear ranges were 0.550 ng/ml for THC-glucuronide, 1100 ng/ml for THCCOOH, 11-OH-THC and cannabidiol, 2100 ng/ml for THC and cannabinol, and 5500 ng/ml for THCCOOH-glucuronide (R2>0.99). Mean extraction efficiencies were 3473% with analytical recovery (bias) 80.5118.0% and total imprecision 3.010.2% coefficient of variation. Conclusion This method simultaneously quantifies urinary cannabinoids and phase II glucuronide metabolites, and enables evaluation of urinary cannabinoid glucuronides for documenting recency of cannabis intake and cannabinoid stability. The assay is applicable for routine urine cannabinoid testing. PMID:22771478

  7. Sonochemical degradation of ethyl paraben in environmental samples: Statistically important parameters determining kinetics, by-products and pathways.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Costas; Frontistis, Zacharias; Antonopoulou, Maria; Venieri, Danae; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Mantzavinos, Dionissios

    2016-07-01

    The sonochemical degradation of ethyl paraben (EP), a representative of the parabens family, was investigated. Experiments were conducted at constant ultrasound frequency of 20kHz and liquid bulk temperature of 30°C in the following range of experimental conditions: EP concentration 250-1250μg/L, ultrasound (US) density 20-60W/L, reaction time up to 120min, initial pH 3-8 and sodium persulfate 0-100mg/L, either in ultrapure water or secondary treated wastewater. A factorial design methodology was adopted to elucidate the statistically important effects and their interactions and a full empirical model comprising seventeen terms was originally developed. Omitting several terms of lower significance, a reduced model that can reliably simulate the process was finally proposed; this includes EP concentration, reaction time, power density and initial pH, as well as the interactions (EP concentration)×(US density), (EP concentration)×(pHo) and (EP concentration)×(time). Experiments at an increased EP concentration of 3.5mg/L were also performed to identify degradation by-products. LC-TOF-MS analysis revealed that EP sonochemical degradation occurs through dealkylation of the ethyl chain to form methyl paraben, while successive hydroxylation of the aromatic ring yields 4-hydroxybenzoic, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids. By-products are less toxic to bacterium V. fischeri than the parent compound. PMID:26964924

  8. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  9. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  10. Detection of pentachlorophenol and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in fish bile and exposure water

    SciTech Connect

    Stehly, G.R.; Hayton, W.L.

    1988-08-01

    The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of pentachlorophenol (PCP) that were present in the bile and exposure water of goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used to develop methodology to quantify PCP and its metabolites. Reverse phase HPLC with radioactivity detection separated PCP and its metabolites, and was used to verify a method of quantification that used differential extraction and scintillation counting. Extractions of aqueous phase at pH 2 or 8, with butanol, ethyl acetate, or ether indicated that ether at pH 8 best separated PCP from its metabolites. The sulfate conjugate of PCP was the major metabolite produced when goldfish were exposed to 125 micrograms UC-PCP/l. It was present primarily in the exposure water, but also appeared in the bile.

  11. Bioanalytical procedures and developments in the determination of alcohol biomarkers in biological specimens.

    PubMed

    Oppolzer, David; Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-02-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a global problem, and consequently its evaluation is of great clinical and forensic interest. Alcohol biomarkers have been the focus of several research works in the past decades, with new compounds being studied in more recent years. The main objective of this review is to discuss topics for an analyst to consider when evaluating alcohol consumption through the analysis of alcohol biomarkers in biological specimens. For this, existing alcohol biomarkers will be reviewed, including carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, 5-hydroxytryptophol, ethanol, hemoglobin-associated acetaldehyde, fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate and phosphatidylethanol. Additionally, their potential will be discussed, as well as analytical considerations, main challenges, limitations, data interpretation and existing methodologies for their determination in biological specimens. PMID:26795230

  12. Stereoselective Glucuronidation of Bupropion Metabolites In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Lu, Jessica Bo Li; Metzger, Ingrid F; Jones, David R; Desta, Zeruesenay

    2016-04-01

    Bupropion is a widely used antidepressant and smoking cessation aid in addition to being one of two US Food and Drug Administration-recommended probe substrates for evaluation of cytochrome P450 2B6 activity. Racemic bupropion undergoes oxidative and reductive metabolism, producing a complex profile of pharmacologically active metabolites with relatively little known about the mechanisms underlying their elimination. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay was developed to simultaneously separate and detect glucuronide metabolites of (R,R)- and (S,S)-hydroxybupropion, (R,R)- and (S,S)-hydrobupropion (threo) and (S,R)- and (R,S)-hydrobupropion (erythro), in human urine and liver subcellular fractions to begin exploring mechanisms underlying enantioselective metabolism and elimination of bupropion metabolites. Human liver microsomal data revealed marked glucuronidation stereoselectivity [Clint, 11.4 versus 4.3 µl/min per milligram for the formation of (R,R)- and (S,S)-hydroxybupropion glucuronide; and Clmax, 7.7 versus 1.1 µl/min per milligram for the formation of (R,R)- and (S,S)-hydrobupropion glucuronide], in concurrence with observed enantioselective urinary elimination of bupropion glucuronide conjugates. Approximately 10% of the administered bupropion dose was recovered in the urine as metabolites with glucuronide metabolites, accounting for approximately 40%, 15%, and 7% of the total excreted hydroxybupropion, erythro-hydrobupropion, and threo-hydrobupropion, respectively. Elimination pathways were further characterized using an expressed UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) panel with bupropion enantiomers (both individual and racemic) as substrates. UGT2B7 catalyzed the stereoselective formation of glucuronides of hydroxybupropion, (S,S)-hydrobupropion, (S,R)- and (R,S)-hydrobupropion; UGT1A9 catalyzed the formation of (R,R)-hydrobupropion glucuronide. These data systematically describe the metabolic pathways underlying bupropion metabolite disposition and significantly expand our knowledge of potential contributors to the interindividual and intraindividual variability in therapeutic and toxic effects of bupropion in humans. PMID:26802129

  13. Determination of carbamate, phenylurea and phenoxy acid herbicide residues by gas chromatography after potassium tert-butoxide/dimethyl sulphoxide/ethyl iodide derivatization reaction.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Corral, E; Santos-Delgado, M J; Polo-Dez, L M; Soria, A C

    2008-10-31

    The usefulness of the potassium tert-butoxide/dimethyl sulphoxide/ethyl iodide reaction with carbamate and phenylurea herbicides, and its application to phenoxy acids as a way to prevent hazards and toxicity of the sodium hydride/dimethyl sulphoxide/methyl iodide reaction was studied. Using factorial design optimization of this reaction was carried out. A solid-phase extraction method using dimethyl sulphoxide as eluent on-line with this reaction was developed to determine these herbicides in water samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Relative standard deviation values were lower than 10% for most of the herbicides in multicomponent trace determinations. Detection limits were in the 0.110-0.652 ng L(-1) concentration range. The validity of the method was confirmed by recovery studies from natural water samples. PMID:18823898

  14. Simultaneous determination of organotin compounds in textiles by gas chromatography-flame photometry following liquid/liquid partitioning with tert-butyl ethyl ether after reflux-extraction.

    PubMed

    Hamasaki, Tetsuo

    2013-10-15

    A rapid and relatively clean method for determining six organotin compounds (OtC) in textile goods with a gas chromatograph equipped with a conventional flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) has been developed. After the reflux-extraction to use methanol containing 1% (v/v) of hydrochloric acid, five hydrophobic OtC (e.g. tributyltin: TBT) and slightly less hydrophobic dibutyltin (DBT) could be drawn out through partitioning between the methanolic buffer solution and tert-butyl ethyl ether instead of hazardous dichloromethane, of which usage is provided by the official-methods notified in Japan, and following the ethylation procedure to use sodium tetraethylborate, the OtC were determined with the GC-FPD. The recoveries of DBT, TBT, tetrabutyltin, triphenyltin, dioctyltin, and trioctyltin from textile products (cloth diaper, socks, and undershirt) were 60-77, 89-98, 86-94, 71-78, 85-109, and 70-79% respectively, and their coefficients of variation were 2.5-16.5%. Calibration curves for OtC were linear (0.01-0.20 μg as Sn mL(-1)), and the correlation coefficients were 0.9922-1.0000. Their detection limits were estimated to be 2.7-9.7 n gas Sn g(-1). These data suggested that this method would be applicable to their simultaneous determination. Five retailed textile goods were analyzed by this proposed method, and 0.013-0.65 µg as Sn g(-1) of OtC (e.g. DBT) were determined in three. Moreover, a possibility that various OtC including non-targeted species in textile would be specifically detected by applying the studying speciation-technique of controlling signal intensity-flame fuel gas pressures of the GC-FPD was found. PMID:24054605

  15. Confirmation of diosmetin 3-O-glucuronide as major metabolite of diosmin in humans, using micro-liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry and ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Silvestro, Luigi; Tarcomnicu, Isabela; Dulea, Constanta; Attili, Nageswara Rao B N; Ciuca, Valentin; Peru, Dan; Rizea Savu, Simona

    2013-10-01

    Diosmin is a flavonoid often administered in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoids, and related affections. Diosmin is rapidly hydrolized in the intestine to its aglicone, diosmetin, which is further metabolized to conjugates. In this study, the development and validations of three new methods for the determination of diosmetin, free and after enzymatic deconjugation, and of its potential glucuronide metabolites, diosmetin-3-O-glucuronide, diosmetin-7-O-glucuronide, and diosmetin-3,7-O-glucuronide from human plasma and urine are presented. First, the quantification of diosmetin, free and after deconjugation, was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, on an Ascentis RP-Amide column (150 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm), in reversed-phase conditions, after enzymatic digestion. Then glucuronide metabolites from plasma were separated by micro-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry on a HALO C18 (50 × 0.3 mm, 2.7 μm, 90 Å) column, after solid-phase extraction. Finally, glucuronides from urine were measured using a Discovery HSF5 (100 × 2.1 mm, 5 μm) column, after simple dilution with mobile phase. The methods were validated by assessing linearity, accuracy, precision, low limit of quantification, selectivity, extraction recovery, stability, and matrix effects; results in agreement with regulatory (Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency) guidelines acceptance criteria were obtained in all cases. The methods were applied to a pharmacokinetic study with diosmin (450 mg orally administered tablets). The mean C max of diosmetin in plasma was 6,049.3 ± 5,548.6 pg/mL. A very good correlation between measured diosmetin and glucuronide metabolites concentrations was obtained. Diosmetin-3-O-glucuronide was identified as a major circulating metabolite of diosmetin in plasma and in urine, and this finding was confirmed by supplementary experiments with differential ion-mobility mass spectrometry. PMID:23949323

  16. Bioanalytical procedures for determination of drugs of abuse in blood.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Thomas; Paul, Liane D

    2007-08-01

    Determination of drugs of abuse in blood is of great importance in clinical and forensic toxicology. This review describes procedures for detection of the following drugs of abuse and their metabolites in whole blood, plasma or serum: Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol glucuronide, heroin, 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide, morphine-3-glucuronide, codeine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, N-ethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, cocaethylene, other cocaine metabolites or pyrolysis products (norcocaine, norcocaethylene, norbenzoylecgonine, m-hydroxycocaine, p-hydroxycocaine, m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, p-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, ethyl ecgonine, ecgonine, anhydroecgonine methyl ester, anhydroecgonine ethyl ester, anhydroecgonine, noranhydroecgonine, N-hydroxynorcocaine, cocaine N-oxide, anhydroecgonine methyl ester N-oxide). Metabolites and degradation products which are recommended to be monitored for assessment in clinical or forensic toxicology are mentioned. Papers written in English between 2002 and the beginning of 2007 are reviewed. Analytical methods are assessed for their suitability in forensic toxicology, where special requirements have to be met. For many of the analytes sensitive immunological methods for screening are available. Screening and confirmation is mostly done by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) or liquid chromatography (LC)-MS(/MS) procedures. Basic information about the biosample assayed, internal standard, workup, GC or LC column and mobile phase, detection mode, and validation data for each procedure is summarized in two tables to facilitate the selection of a method suitable for a specific analytic problem. PMID:17468860

  17. Synthesis, hydrolysis and stability of psilocin glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Martin, Rafaela; Schürenkamp, Jennifer; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Lehr, Matthias; Köhler, Helga

    2014-04-01

    A two-step synthesis of psilocin glucuronide (PCG), the main metabolite of psilocin, with methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-isobutyryl-1-O-trichloroacetimidoyl-α-d-glucopyranuronate is reported. With the synthesized PCG, hydrolysis conditions in serum and urine were optimized. Escherichia coli proved to be a better enzyme source for β-glucuronidase than Helix pomatia. It was essential to add ascorbic acid to serum samples to protect psilocin during incubation. Furthermore the stability of PCG and psilocin was compared as stability data are the basis for forensic interpretation of measurements. PCG showed a greater long-term stability after six months in deep frozen serum and urine samples than psilocin. The short-term stability of PCG for one week in whole blood at room temperature and in deep frozen samples was also better than that of psilocin. Therefore, PCG can be considered to be more stable than the labile psilocin and should always be included if psilocin is analyzed in samples. PMID:24513688

  18. Determining the degradation efficiency and mechanisms of ethyl violet using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The discharge of wastewater that contains high concentrations of reactive dyes is a well-known problem associated with dyestuff activities. In recent years, semiconductor photocatalysis has become more and more attractive and important since it has a great potential to contribute to such environmental problems. One of the most important aspects of environmental photocatalysis is in the selection of semiconductor materials like ZnO and TiO2, which are close to being two of the ideal photocatalysts in several respects. For example, they are relatively inexpensive, and they provide photo-generated holes with high oxidizing power due to their wide band gap energy. In this work, nanostructural ZnO film on the Zn foil of the Alkaline-Manganese Dioxide-Zinc Cell was fabricated to degrade EV dye. The major innovation of this paper is to obtain the degradation mechanism of ethyl violet dyes resulting from the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS analyses. Results The fabrication of ZnO nanostructures on zinc foils with a simple solution-based corrosion strategy and the synthesis, characterization, application, and implication of Zn would be reported in this study. Other objectives of this research are to identify the reaction intermediates and to understand the detailed degradation mechanism of EV dye, as model compound of triphenylmethane dye, with active Zn metal, by HPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS. Conclusions ZnO nanostructure/Zn-foils had an excellent potential for future applications on the photocatalytic degradation of the organic dye in the environmental remediation. The intermediates of the degradation process were separated and characterized by the HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS and GC-MS, and twenty-six intermediates were characterized in this study. Based on the variation of the amount of intermediates, possible degradation pathways for the decolorization of dyes are also proposed and discussed. PMID:22748361

  19. The effect of various drugs on the glucuronidation of zidovudine (azidothymidine; AZT) by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Sim, S M; Back, D J; Breckenridge, A M

    1991-01-01

    1. Zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine; AZT) is the drug of proven efficacy available for the treatment of patients with AIDS or ARC. It is eliminated mainly by hepatic glucuronidation. Therefore, interference with this metabolic pathway may lead to enhancement of AZT effect or to increased toxicity of the drug. We have examined the effect of a number of drugs which themselves undergo glucuronidation on AZT conjugation by human liver microsomes in vitro. 2. AZT glucuronidation followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent Km and Vmax values (mean +/- s.d., n = 5), were 2.60 +/- 0.52 mM and 68.0 +/- 23.4 nmol h-1 mg-1, respectively, as determined from Eadie-Hofstee plots. 3. Dideoxyinosine, sulphanilamide and paracetamol were essentially non-inhibitory at concentrations up to 10 mM (4 times the concentration of AZT in the incubation). The most marked inhibitory effects were seen with indomethacin, naproxen, chloramphenicol, probenecid and ethinyloestradiol, with enzyme activity decreased by 97.7, 94.9, 88.7, 83.4% and 79.0%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 mM. Other compounds producing some inhibition of AZT conjugation were oxazepam, salicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid. 4. Further studies are necessary to characterise the inhibition observed but the method described enables a screen of potentially important drug interactions to be carried out. PMID:1909542

  20. The role of glucuronidation in drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Mazerska, Zofia; Mrz, Anna; Paw?owska, Monika; Augustin, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    The final therapeutic effect of a drug candidate, which is directed to a specific molecular target strongly depends on its absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME). The disruption of at least one element of ADME may result in serious drug resistance. In this work we described the role of one element of this resistance: phase II metabolism with UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). UGT function is the transformation of their substrates into more polar metabolites, which are better substrates for the ABC transporters, MDR1, MRP and BCRP, than the native drug. UGT-mediated drug resistance can be associated with (i) inherent overexpression of the enzyme, named intrinsic drug resistance or (ii) induced expression of the enzyme, named acquired drug resistance observed when enzyme expression is induced by the drug or other factors, as food-derived compounds. Very often this induction occurs via ligand binding receptors including AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) PXR (pregnane X receptor), or other transcription factors. The effect of UGT dependent resistance is strengthened by coordinate action and also a coordinate regulation of the expression of UGTs and ABC transporters. This coupling of UGT and multidrug resistance proteins has been intensively studied, particularly in the case of antitumor treatment, when this resistance is "improved" by differences in UGT expression between tumor and healthy tissue. Multidrug resistance coordinated with glucuronidation has also been described here for drugs used in the management of epilepsy, psychiatric diseases, HIV infections, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Proposals to reverse UGT-mediated drug resistance should consider the endogenous functions of UGT. PMID:26808161

  1. Morphine-6-glucuronide: actions and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Gavin J; Smith, Terry W

    2005-09-01

    Morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) appears to show equivalent analgesia to morphine but to have a superior side-effect profile in terms of reduced liability to induce nausea and vomiting and respiratory depression. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence behind this statement and to identify the possible reasons that may contribute to the profile of M6G. The vast majority of available data supports the notion that both M6G and morphine mediate their effects by activating the micro-opioid receptor. The differences for which there is a reasonable consensus in the literature can be summarized as: (1) Morphine has a slightly higher affinity for the micro-opioid receptor than M6G, (2) M6G shows a slightly higher efficacy at the micro-opioid receptor, (3) M6G has a lower affinity for the kappa-opioid receptor than morphine, and (4) M6G has a very different absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile from morphine. However, none of these are adequate alone to explain the clinical differences between M6G and morphine. The ADME differences are perhaps most likely to explain some of the differences but seem unlikely to be the whole story. Further work is required to examine further the profile of M6G, notably whether M6G penetrates differentially to areas of the brain involved in pain and those involved in nausea, vomiting, and respiratory control or whether micro-opioid receptors in these brain areas differ in either their regulation or pharmacology. PMID:15952175

  2. Simultaneous Quantification of Buprenorphine, Norbuprenorphine, Buprenorphine-Glucuronide and Norbuprenorphine-Glucuronide in Human Umbilical Cord by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Concheiro, Marta; Shakleya, Diaa M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    A LCMS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of buprenorphine (BUP), norbuprenorphine (NBUP), buprenorphine glucuronide (BUP-Gluc) and norbuprenorphine glucuronide (NBUP-Gluc) in human umbilical cord. Quantification was achieved by selected ion monitoring of precursor ions m/z 468.4 for BUP; 414.3 for NBUP; 644.4 for BUP-Gluc and 590 for NBUP-Gluc. BUP and NBUP were identified by MS2, with m/z 396, 414 and 426 for BUP, and m/z 340, 364 and 382 for NBUP. Glucuronide conjugates were identified by MS3 with m/z 396 and 414 for BUP-Gluc and m/z 340 and 382 for NBUP-Gluc. The assay was linear 150 ng/g. Intra, inter-day and total assay imprecision (%RSD) were <14.5%, and analytical recovery ranged from 94.1% to 112.3% for all analytes. Extraction efficiencies were >66.3%, and process efficiency >73.4%. Matrix effect ranged, in absolute value, from 3.7% to 27.4% (CV<21.8%, n=8). The method was selective with no endogenous or exogenous interferences from 41 compounds evaluated. Sensitivity was high with limits of detection of 0.8 ng/g. In order to prove method applicability, an authentic umbilical cord obtained from an opioid-dependent pregnant woman receiving BUP pharmacotherapy was analyzed. Interestingly, BUP was not detected but concentrations of the other metabolites were NBUP-Gluc 13.4 ng/g, BUP-Gluc 3.5 ng/g and NBUP 1.2 ng/g. PMID:19406593

  3. Ethyl propiolate as a post-column derivatization reagent for thiols: development of a green liquid chromatographic method for the determination of glutathione in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zacharis, Constantinos K; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Zotou, Anastasia

    2011-03-25

    The present study reports the development, validation and application of a new green liquid chromatographic method for the determination of glutathione (GSH) in vegetable samples. In this work we introduce-for the first time-ethyl propiolate (EP) as an advantageous post-column derivatization reagent for thiolic compounds. GSH (t(R)=6.60 min) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC, internal standard) (t(R)=11.80 min) were separated efficiently from matrix endogenous compounds by using a 100% aqueous mobile phase (0.1%, v/v CH(3)COOH in 1 mmol L(-1) EDTA, Q(V)=0.5 mL min(-1)) and a Prevail() reversed phase column that offers the advantage of stable packing material in aqueous mobile phases. The parameters of the post-column reaction (pH, amount concentration of the reagent, flow rates, length of the reaction coil and temperature) were studied. The linear determination range for GSH was 1-200 ?mol L(-1) and the LOD was 0.1 ?mol L(-1) (S/N=3). Total endogenous GSH was determined in broccoli, potato, asparagus and Brussels sprouts using the standards addition approach. The accuracy was evaluated by both recovery experiments (R=91-110%) and comparison to an o-phthalaldehyde/glycine corroborative post-column derivatization fluorimetric method. PMID:21414445

  4. Quantitation of Buprenorphine, Norbuprenorphine, Buprenorphine Glucuronide, Norbuprenorphine Glucuronide, and Naloxone in Urine by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Marin, Stephanie J; McMillin, Gwendolyn A

    2016-01-01

    Buprenorphine is an opioid drug that has been used to treat opioid dependence on an outpatient basis, and is also prescribed for managing moderate to severe pain. Some formulations of buprenorphine also contain naloxone to discourage misuse. The major metabolite of buprenorphine is norbuprenorphine. Both compounds are pharmacologically active and both are extensively metabolized to their glucuronide conjugates, which are also active metabolites. Direct quantitation of the glucuronide conjugates in conjunction with free buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone in urine can distinguish compliance with prescribed therapy from specimen adulteration intended to mimic compliance with prescribed buprenorphine.This chapter quantitates buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, their glucuronide conjugates and naloxone directly in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Urine is pretreated with formic acid and undergoes solid phase extraction (SPE) prior to analysis by LC-MS/MS. PMID:26660175

  5. Simultaneous determination of ethyl carbamate and 4-(5-)methylimidazole in yellow rice wine and soy sauce by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pinggu; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Liyuan; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Ying; Tang, Jun; Ma, Bingjie; Pan, Xiaodong; Jiang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    We developed a new method, based on alkaline diatomite solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, for the simultaneous determination of the toxic contaminants ethyl carbamate (EC) and 4-(5-)methylimidazole (4-MEI) in yellow rice wine and soy sauce. The optimal extraction conditions were defined. With the application of alkaline diatomite solid-phase extraction, damage to the capillary column by organic acids was greatly reduced. With deuterated EC used as the internal standard, the linearity of the calibration curves for EC and 4-MEI was good with correlation coefficient above 0.99. In a spiked experiment with EC and 4-MEI in yellow rice wine and soy sauce, recovery of the added EC was 80.5-102.5% and that of 4-MEI was 78.3-92.8%. The limit of quantification and limit of detection for EC were 6.0 and 2.0 μg/kg, respectively, and for 4-MEI were 15.0 and 5.0 μg/kg, respectively. The validation results demonstrate that the method is fast, simple, and selective, and therefore is suitable for simultaneously determining the presence of EC and 4-MEI in fermented food. PMID:24865453

  6. A sensitive high performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method for N7-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]guanine determination.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuxia; Yue, Lijun; Liu, Qin; Chen, Jia; Xie, Jianwei

    2011-06-01

    A simple, fast, sensitive and robust method for the determination of the sulfur mustard (SM) exposure biomarker-N(7)-[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)thio]-ethyl]guanine (HETEG) was reported using high-performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS), working in multiple reaction monitor (MRM) mode. The method provided limit of detection of 0.330 ng/mL and lower limit of quantitation of 0.940 ng/mL. The method was linearly calibrated from 0.940 ng/mL to 587 ng/mL with precisions of 3.5-14.5%, and accuracies of 88-112%. The recovery varied from 102% to 118%. HETEG spiked in DNA hydrolytes isolated from the human whole blood was stable after five freeze/thaw cycles and 35-day frozen at -20C. For the exposed biological samples, alkylated DNA was isolated from SM-treated human whole blood, followed by DNA digestion and adducts enrichment, the resulting alkylation base was determined. By the procedure, the HETEG level in DNA hydrolytes isolated from the human whole blood exposure to 312 ng/mL SM was detected successfully. PMID:21515093

  7. PRACTICAL PREPARATION OF RESVERATROL 3-O-?-D-GLUCURONIDE

    PubMed Central

    Jungong, Christian S.; Novikov, Alexei V.

    2012-01-01

    A practical synthesis of resveratrol 3-O-?-D-glucuronide, suitable for preparation of large quantities, was developed using selective deacetylation of resveratrol triacetate with ammonium acetate. A simplified procedure for large scale preparation of resveratrol is also reported. PMID:22919115

  8. Fate of glucuronide conjugated estradiol in the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate and transport of conjugated reproductive hormones, which are polar compared to parent hormones, are little understood. Laboratory bench-scale soil (Hamar; Sandy, mixed, frigid typic Endoaquolls) sorption studies were conducted using [14C] 17ß-estradiol-3-glucuronide for a range of concentra...

  9. Determination of methyltin compounds in urine of occupationally exposed and general population by in situ ethylation and headspace SPME coupled with GC-FPD.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zongyan; Zhang, Kegang; Zhou, Qunfang; Liu, Jiyan; Jiang, Guibin

    2011-08-15

    A method for the determination of methyltin compounds in human urine samples was developed using headspace solid-phase microextration (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatographic separation and flame photometric detection. Three methyltin compounds, monomethyltin (MMT), dimethyltin (DMT), and trimethyltin (TMT) were in situ ethylated by sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)) for SPME and GC-FPD analysis. Under the optimized condition, the detection limits of MMT, DMT, and TMT were 8.1, 2.5 and 5.6 ng Sn L(-1), and the relative standard deviations were 11.0%, 7.3% and 4.0%, respectively. Methyltin compounds in thirteen urine samples from occupationally exposed population and two from general population were analyzed by the proposed method. The concentrations of total methyltin in the tested urine samples of occupationally exposed population ranged from 26.0 to 7892 ng Sn L(-1), and the average level is higher than those of the two non-occupationally exposed individuals. The methyltins in urine were adjusted by osmolality in order to enhance the comparability of different urine samples and the feasibility of this correction method was validated. PMID:21726734

  10. The Impact of Glucuronidation on the Bioactivation and DNA Adduction of the Cooked-Food Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Ubick, E A; Felton, J S

    2005-03-31

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the glucuronidation of many different chemicals. Glucuronidation is especially important for detoxifying reactive intermediates from metabolic reactions, which otherwise can be biotransformed into highly reactive cytotoxic or carcinogenic species. Detoxification of certain food-borne carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) is highly dependent on UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most mass abundant carcinogenic HA found in well-done cooked meat, is extensively glucuronidated by UGT1A proteins. In humans, CYP1A2 catalyzed N-hydroxylation and subsequent UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation is a dominant pathway in the metabolism of PhIP. Therefore, changes in glucuronidation rates could significantly alter PhIP metabolism. To determine the importance of UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation in the biotransformation of PhIP, UGT1A proficient Wistar and UGT1A deficient Gunn rats were exposed to a single 100 {micro}g/kg oral dose of [{sup 14}C]-PhIP. Urine was collected over 24 h and the PhIP urinary metabolite profiles were compared between the two strains. After the 24 h exposure, livers and colon were removed and analyzed for DNA adduct formation by accelerator mass spectrometry. Wistar rats produced several PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides that accounted for {approx}25% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. In the Gunn rats, PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronides were reduced by 68-92%, compared to the Wistar rats, and comprised only 4% of the total amount of recovered urinary metabolites. PhIP-DNA adduct analysis from the Gunn rats revealed a correlation between reduced PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronide levels in the urine and increased hepatic DNA adducts, compared to the Wistar rats. These results indicate that UGT1A-mediated glucuronidation of PhIP and N-hydroxy-PhIP is an important pathway for PhIP detoxification. Failure to form glucuronide conjugates results in increases in PhIP bioactivation and DNA adduct formation, which can potentially lead to increases in tumor formation. Therefore, diminished UGT1A activity could pose a significant risk for the development of certain cancers from exposure to PhIP.

  11. In vitro glucuronidation of five rhubarb anthraquinones by intestinal and liver microsomes from humans and rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjin; Hu, Nan; Zhang, Qingwen; Li, Yaping; Li, Peng; Yan, Ru; Wang, Yitao

    2014-08-01

    Anthraquinones naturally distribute in many plants including rhubarb and have widespread applications throughout industry and medicine. Recent studies provided new insights in potential applications of these traditional laxative constituents. Glucuronidation was the main metabolic pathway of rhubarb anthraquinones in vivo. This study examined the activity and regioselectivity of glucuronidation of rhubarb anthraquinones (aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol, physcion, rhein) in liver and intestinal microsomes from rats and humans, by comparing with the core structure danthron. All anthraquinones formed mono-glucuronides and, except for rhein, the conjugation sites of the main metabolites were unambiguously identified. Two minor glucuronides of emodin were first reported together with the dominant emodin-3-O-?-D-glucuronide. The substitution on the anthraquinone ring was crucial to the activity and regioselectivity of glucuronidation. In general, the activity was decreased greatly with a ?-COOH (rhein), while enhanced dramatically with a ?-OH (emodin). Glucuronidation showed an absolute preference towards ?-OH, followed by ?-OH and ?-alcoholic OH. The glucuronidation activity and regioselectivity also varied slightly with organs and species. All glucuronides of aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion were formed by multiple human UGT isoforms with 1A9 being the most prominent in most cases. The UGT2B subfamily (2B7 and 2B15) only showed high activity towards a ?-OH. In conclusion, the substitution at the anthraquinone ring was crucial to the rate and preference of glucuronidation. The high glucuronidation activity of UGT1A9 towards anthraquinones highlighted potential drug interactions. PMID:24854283

  12. Disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis in Ugt1a-deficient Gunn rats by microsomal enzyme inducers is not due to enhanced thyroxine glucuronidation

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Terrilyn A.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2010-10-01

    Microsomal enzyme inducers (MEI) that increase UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are thought to increase glucuronidation of thyroxine (T{sub 4}), thus reducing serum T{sub 4}, and subsequently increasing thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Ugt1a1 and Ugt1a6 mediate T{sub 4} glucuronidation. Therefore, this experiment determined the involvement of Ugt1a enzymes in increased T{sub 4} glucuronidation, decreased serum T{sub 4}, and increased TSH after MEI treatment. Male Wistar and Ugt1a-deficient Wistar (Gunn) rats were fed a control diet or diet containing pregnenolone-16{alpha}-carbonitrile (PCN; 800 ppm), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC; 200 ppm), or Aroclor 1254 (PCB; 100 ppm) for 7 days. Serum T{sub 4}, triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), and TSH concentrations, hepatic T{sub 4}/T{sub 3} glucuronidation, and thyroid histology and follicular cell proliferation were investigated. PCN, 3-MC, and PCB treatments decreased serum T{sub 4}, whereas serum T{sub 3} was maintained in both Gunn and Wistar rats (except for PCB treatment). TSH was increased in Wistar and Gunn rats after PCN (130 and 277%) or PCB treatment (72 and 60%). T{sub 4} glucuronidation in Wistar rats was increased after PCN (298%), 3-MC (85%), and PCB (450%), but was extremely low in Gunn rats, and unchanged after MEI. T{sub 3} glucuronidation was increased after PCN (121%) or PCB (58%) in Wistar rats, but only PCN increased T{sub 3} glucuronidation in Gunn rats (43%). PCN treatment induced thyroid morphological changes and increased follicular cell proliferation in both strains. These data demonstrate that T{sub 4} glucuronidation cannot be increased in Ugt1a-deficient Gunn rats. Thus, the decrease in serum T{sub 4}, increase in TSH, and increase in thyroid cell proliferation after MEI are not dependent on increased T{sub 4} glucuronidation, and cannot be attributed to Ugt1a enzymes.

  13. Development of a highly sensitive extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nickel(II) from environmental matrices using N-ethyl-3-carbazolecarboxaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    Ramachandraiah, C; Rajesh Kumar, J; Janardhan Reddy, K; Lakshmi Narayana, S; Varada Reddy, A

    2008-09-01

    Nickel(II) reacts with N-ethyl-3-carbazolecarboxaldehyde-3-thiosemicarbazone (ECCT) and forms a yellow colored complex, which was extracted into n-butanol from sodium acetate and acetic acid buffer at pH 6.0. The absorbance value of the Ni(II)-ECCT complex was measured at different intervals of time at 400 nm, to ascertain the time stability of the complex. The extraction of the complex into the solvent was instantaneous and stable for more than 72 h. The system obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range of 1.2-5.6 microg ml(-1) of nickel(II), with an excellent linearity and a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity of the extracted species were found to be 1.114 x 10(4)L mol(-1)cm(-1) and 5.29 x 10(-3)microg cm(-2) at 400 nm, respectively. Hence, a detailed study of the extraction of nickel(II) with ECCT has been undertaken with a view to developing a rapid and sensitive extractive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nickel(II) when present alone or in the presence of diverse ions which are usually associated with nickel(II) in environmental matrices like soil and industrial effluents. Various standard alloy samples (CM 247 LC, IN 718, BCS 233, 266, 253 and 251) have been tested for the determination of nickel for the purpose of validation of the present method. The results of the proposed method are comparable with those from atomic absorption spectrometry and were found to be in good agreement. PMID:17482341

  14. New Spectrophotometric Method for Determining Nitrogen Dioxide in Air Using 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline)-6-Sulfonic Acid-Diammonium Salt and Passive Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Alaa A.; Soliman, Ahmed A.; El-Haty, Ismail A.

    2011-01-01

    A new simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for determining nitrogen dioxide in air was developed. The method is based on converting atmospheric nitrogen dioxide to nitrite ions within the IVL passive samplers used for samples collection. Acidifying nitrite ions with concentrated HCl produced the peroxynitrous acid oxidizing agent which was measured using 2, 2-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid-diammonium salt (ABTS) as reducing coloring agent. A parallel series of collected samples were measured for its nitrite content using a validated ion chromatographic method. The results obtained using both methods were compared in terms of their sensitivity and accuracy. Developed spectrophotometric method was shown to be one order of magnitude higher in sensitivity compared to the ion chromatographic method. Quantitation limits of 0.05 ppm and 0.55 ?g/m3 were obtained for nitrite ion and nitrogen dioxid, respectively. Standard deviations in the ranges of 0.050.59 and 0.637.92 with averages of 0.27 and 3.11 were obtained for determining nitrite and nitrogen dioxide, respectively. Student-t test revealed t-values less than 6.93 and 4.40 for nitrite ions and nitrogen dioxide, respectively. These values indicated insignificant difference between the averages of the newly developed method and the values obtained by ion chromatography at 95% confidence level. Compared to continuous monitoring techniques, the newly developed method has shown simple, accurate, sensitive, inexpensive and reliable for long term monitoring of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air. PMID:21760708

  15. The effect of glucuronidation on isoflavone induced estrogen receptor (ER)? and ER? mediated coregulator interactions.

    PubMed

    Beekmann, Karsten; de Haan, Laura H J; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Houtman, Ren; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2015-11-01

    Non-prenylated isoflavone aglycones are known to have phyto-estrogenic properties and act as agonistic ligands on ER? and ER? due to their structural resemblance to 17?-estradiol (E2). Genistein and daidzein are the two main dietary isoflavones; upon uptake they are extensively metabolized and exist nearly exclusively as their conjugated forms in biological fluids. Little is known about the effect of conjugation on the intrinsic estrogenic activities of these isoflavones. To characterize and compare the intrinsic estrogenic activities of genistein and daidzein, and their respective 7-O-glucuronide metabolites a cell-free assay system was employed that determines the ligand-induced changes in ER?- and ER?-ligand binding domain (LBD) interactions with 154 different binding motifs derived from 66 different nuclear receptor coregulators. The glucuronides were 8 to 4400 times less potent than their respective aglycones to modulate ER?-LBD and ER?-LBD-coregulator interactions. Glucuronidation changed the preferential activation of genistein from ER?-LBD to ER?-LBD and further increased the slightly preferential activation of daidzein for ER?-LBD. The tested isoflavone compounds were less potent than E2 (around 5 to 1580 times for the aglycones) but modulated the LBD-coregulator interactions in a manner similar to E2. Our results show that genistein and daidzein remain agonistic ligands of ER?-LBD and ER?-LBD in their conjugated form with a higher relative preference for ER?-LBD than the corresponding aglycones. This shift in receptor preference is of special interest as the preferential activation of ER? is considered one of the possible modes of action underlying the supposed beneficial instead of adverse health effects of isoflavones. PMID:26361015

  16. Synthesis of an estradiol glucuronide derivative and investigation of its radiopharmaceutical potential.

    PubMed

    Biber, F Z; Unak, P; Ertay, T; Medine, E I; Zihnioglu, F; Tasci, C; Durak, H

    2006-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to synthesize a derivative of estradiol glucuronide, which is able to be labeled with 99mTc and to investigate its radiopharmaceutical potential using imaging and biodistribution studies. An estrogen derivative, beta-estradiol (1,3,5,[10]-estratriene-3,17beta-diol) attached to diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) was synthesized in six steps. At the end of these steps a compound of estradiol and DTPA derivative called deoxy demethyl homoestradiolyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (ESTDTPA) was synthesized. Afterwards, this compound was reacted with UDP-glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT). Following the glucuronidation reaction, the product called deoxy demethyl homoestradiolyl diethylenetriamine pentaaceticacid-glucuronide (ESTDTPAG) was obtained. Synthesized products were purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The identification of the purified products and impurities were also established using HPLC. Synthesized compound was labeled with 99mTc. Thin layer radio chromatography (TLRC) technique was used to determine their radiochemical yields and stabilities. Labeling yield was over 96%. The biodistribution studies were performed on female Albino Wistar rats. The activity per gram tissue was calculated and time-activity curves were plotted. The target organs (tumor, as well as uterus, ovaries, adrenals and other ER containing tissues) retain the estradiol derivative longer than nontarget organs, but even these lost most of their activity within a few hours. In addition, the imaging studies were performed on normal and tumor bearing female Albino Wistar rats using Camstar XR/T gamma camera. In gamma-scintigraphic imaging studies with 99mTc-ESTDTPAG the breast tumors could be well visualized up to 24 h. PMID:16531048

  17. Biotransformation of zearalenone and zearalenols to their major glucuronide metabolites reduces estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Frizzell, Caroline; Uhlig, Silvio; Miles, Christopher O; Verhaegen, Steven; Elliott, Christopher T; Eriksen, Gunnar S; Srlie, Morten; Ropstad, Erik; Connolly, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium fungi. Once ingested, ZEN may be absorbed and metabolised to ?- and ?-zearalenol (?-ZOL, ?-ZOL), and to a lesser extent ?- and ?-zearalanol (?-ZAL, ?-ZAL). Further biotransformation to glucuronide conjugates also occurs to facilitate the elimination of these toxins from the body. Unlike ZEN and its metabolites, information regarding the estrogenic activity of these glucuronide conjugates in various tissues is lacking. ZEN-14-O-glucuronide, ?-ZOL-14-O-glucuronide, ?-ZOL-7-O-glucuronide, ?-ZOL-14-O-glucuronide and ?-ZOL-16-O-glucuronide, previously obtained as the major products from preparative enzymatic synthesis, were investigated for their potential to cause endocrine disruption through interference with estrogen receptor transcriptional activity. All five glucuronide conjugates showed a very weak agonist response in an estrogen responsive reporter gene assay (RGA), with activity ranging from 0.0001% to 0.01% of that of 17?-estradiol, and also less than that of ZEN, ?-ZOL and ?-ZOL which have previously shown estrogenic potencies of the order 17?-estradiol>?-ZOL>ZEN>?-ZOL. Confirmatory mass spectrometry revealed that any activity observed was likely a result of minor deconjugation of the glucuronide moiety. This study confirms that formation of ZEN and ZOL glucuronides is a detoxification reaction with regard to estrogenicity, serving as a potential host defence mechanism against ZEN-induced estrogenic activity. PMID:25645597

  18. Analysis of glucuronide and sulfate steroids in urine by ultra-high-performance supercritical-fluid chromatography hyphenated tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dou, Mickael; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Pouponneau, Karinne; Monteau, Fabrice; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-06-01

    Profiling conjugated urinary steroids to detect anabolic-steroid misuse is recognized as an efficient analytical strategy in both chemical-food-safety and anti-doping fields. The relevance and robustness of such profiling rely on the analysis of glucuronide and sulfate steroids, which is expected to have properties including accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, and, if possible, rapidity. In this context, the ability of ultra-high-performance supercritical-fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) hyphenated tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) to provide reliable and accurate phase II analysis of steroids was assessed. Four stationary phases with sub-2 ?m particles (BEH, BEH 2-ethyl-pyridine, HSS C18 SB, and CSH fluorophenyl) were screened for their capacity to separate several conjugated steroid isomers. Analytical conditions including stationary phase, modifier composition and percentage, back pressure, column temperature, and composition and flow rate of make-up solvent were investigated to improve the separation and/or the sensitivity. Thus, an analytical procedure enabling the analysis of eight glucuronide and 12 sulfate steroids by two different methods in 12 and 15 min, respectively, was optimized. The two procedures were evaluated, and UHPSFC-MS-MS analysis revealed its ability to provide sensitive (limits of quantification: 0.1 ng mL(-1) and 0.5 ng mL(-1) for sulfate and glucuronide steroids, respectively) and reliable quantitative performance (R(2)?>?0.995, RSD?Glucuronide and sulfate steroids analysis in urine by ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography hyphenated tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:25736246

  19. Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 is the Primary Enzyme Responsible for the N-glucuronidation of N-hydroxy-PhIP in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Malfatti, M A; Felton, J S

    2004-04-06

    UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A proteins (UGT1A) catalyze the glucuronidation of many endogenous and xenobiotic compounds including heterocyclic amines and their hydroxylated metabolites (the main topic of this study). Studies have shown that in humans UGT1A mediated glucuronidation is an important pathway in the detoxification of food-borne carcinogenic heterocyclic amines. The biotransformation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most mass abundant heterocyclic amine found in cooked meats, is highly dependent on cytochrome P4501A2 hydroxylation followed by UGT catalyzed glucuronidation of the N-hydroxy-PhIP reactive intermediate. To determine which UGT1A proteins are involved in the glucuronidation of N-hydroxy-PhIP, microsomal preparations from baculovirus infected insect cells that express all of the known functional human UGT1A isozymes (UGT1A1, -1A3, -1A4, -1A6, -1A7, -1A8, -1A9, -1A10) were exposed to N-hydroxy-PhIP and the reaction products were isolated by HPLC. All UGT1A proteins except UGT1A6 showed some degree of activity towards N-hydroxy-PhIP. The formation of both N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide and N-hydroxy-PhIP-N3-glucuronide was both time and substrate concentration dependent in all the microsomal incubations that showed appreciable activity. UGT1A1 was the most efficient in converting N-hydroxy-PhIP to both conjugates producing 5 times more of the N{sup 2}-conjugate than UGT1A4, the next active UGT, and 286 times more than UGT1A7, the least active UGT. With an apparent Km of 52 {micro}M and a K{sub cat} of 114 min-1, UGT1A1 was also the most catalytically efficient in forming N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide. Catalytic constants for UGT1A4, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9 were 52 min-1, 35 min{sup -1} and 3.7 min{sup -1}, respectively. The catalytic efficiency for N-hydroxy-PhIP-N3-glucuronide formation was 8, 10, and 6 times lower for UGT1A1, -1A4, and -1A8, respectively, when compared to the k{sub cat} values for N-hydroxy-PhIP-N{sup 2}-glucuronide formation. These results clearly show that UGT1A1 is mainly responsible for glucuronidating N-hydroxy-PhIP. Polymorphic expression resulting in decreased UGT1A1 activity in humans can cause reduced rates of glucuronidation which can change the metabolic ratio between bioactivation and detoxification to favor bioactivation. This change will increase the susceptibility to the deleterious effects from PhIP exposure because the capacity to form nontoxic N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronide conjugates will be diminished.

  20. An immunoassay for the detection of triclosan-O-glucuronide, a primary human urinary metabolite of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Anupama; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-09-01

    Triclosan-O-glucuronide (TCSG) is one of the primary urinary metabolites of the antibacterial compound triclosan or TCS that is found in many personal care products and consumer goods. We have developed a competitive, indirect heterologous ELISA for the detection of the target TCSG in urine. Such an ELISA for TCSG could be developed as a useful tool to measure this important biomarker of human exposure to TCS. Immunogens were prepared by conjugating TCSG to thyroglobulin, via heterobifunctional cross-linkers AEDP or 3-[(2-aminoethyl)dithio] propionic acidhydrochloride and TFCS or N-[?-trifluoroacetylcaproyloxy]succinimide ester. The coating antigen was prepared by the direct conjugation of TCSG to bovine serum albumin. Antibodies raised in rabbits 2619, 2621 (immunogen TCSG-AEDP-Thy), and 2623 (immunogen TCSG-TFCS-Thy), and the coating antigen were screened and characterized to determine their optimal concentrations. The optimized ELISA, developed with antibody 2621, gave an IC50 value of 2.85ng/mL, with the linear range (IC20-IC80) determined to be 2.6-24.8ng/mL. Selectivity of the assay was assessed by measuring cross-reactivity of antibody 2621 to related congeners such as the aglycone TCS, triclosan-O-sulfate, triclocarban, a polybrominated diphenyl ether derivative, and 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol glucuronide. There was virtually no recognition by antibody 2621 to any of these cross-reactants. Graphical Abstract Urinary biomarker analysis of triclosan glucuronide. PMID:26255293

  1. 99mTc-d-penicillamine-glucuronide: synthesis, radiolabeling, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Teksz, Serap; Ihedef, Ci?dem Acar; Ozync, Seniha; Mftler, Fazilet Zmrt Biber; Unak, Perihan; Medine, Ilker Emin; Ertay, Trkan; Eren, Mine ?encan

    2011-10-01

    The current study was aimed at synthesizing a glucuronide derivative of D-penicillamine (D-PA) to be used for imaging purposes. First of all, D-PA-glucuronide (D-PA-Glu) was synthesized by experimental treatments starting with uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme rich microsome preparate. Then, the synthesized compound was labeled with technetium ((99m)Tc) by using a reduction method with stannous chloride. Quality controls were performed by using high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer radio chromatography (TLRC). Radiolabeling yield of (99m)Tc-D-PA-Glu was more than 98% according to TLRC results. In vitro evaluations of radiolabeled complexes were investigated on PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. (99m)Tc-D-PA-Glu exhibited more accumulation on PC-3 cells versus (99m)Tc-D-PA at 240 minutes. In order to determine its radiopharmaceutical potential, biodistribution studies were carried out in male Albino Wistar rats. The biodistribution results of (99m)Tc-D-PA-Glu, showed the highest uptake in prostate at 120 minutes postinjection with the main excretion route being through kidneys and bladder. (99m)Tc-D-PA-Glu and (99m)Tc-D-PA have exhibited different biodistribution results. PMID:21950558

  2. Glucuronidation of psilocin and 4-hydroxyindole by the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Manevski, Nenad; Kurkela, Mika; Hglund, Camilla; Mauriala, Timo; Court, Michael H; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Finel, Moshe

    2010-03-01

    We have examined the glucuronidation of psilocin, a hallucinogenic indole alkaloid, by the 19 recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) of subfamilies 1A, 2A, and 2B. The glucuronidation of 4-hydroxyindole, a related indole that lacks the N,N-dimethylaminoethyl side chain, was studied as well. UGT1A10 exhibited the highest psilocin glucuronidation activity, whereas the activities of UGTs 1A9, 1A8, 1A7, and 1A6 were significantly lower. On the other hand, UGT1A6 was by far the most active enzyme mediating 4-hydroxyindole glucuronidation, whereas the activities of UGTs 1A7-1A10 toward 4-hydroxyindole resembled their respective psilocin glucuronidation rates. Psilocin glucuronidation by UGT1A10 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in which psilocin is a low-affinity high-turnover substrate (K(m) = 3.8 mM; V(max) = 2.5 nmol/min/mg). The kinetics of psilocin glucuronidation by UGT1A9 was more complex and may be best described by biphasic kinetics with both intermediate (K(m1) = 1.0 mM) and very low affinity components. The glucuronidation of 4-hydroxyindole by UGT1A6 exhibited higher affinity (K(m) = 178 microM) and strong substrate inhibition. Experiments with human liver and intestinal microsomes (HLM and HIM, respectively) revealed similar psilocin glucuronidation activity in both samples, but a much higher 4-hydroxyindole glucuronidation rate was found in HLM versus HIM. The expression levels of UGTs 1A6-1A10 in different tissues were studied by quantitative real-time-PCR, and the results, together with the activity assays findings, suggest that whereas psilocin may be subjected to extensive glucuronidation by UGT1A10 in the small intestine, UGT1A9 is likely the main contributor to its glucuronidation once it has been absorbed into the circulation. PMID:20007669

  3. Glucuronidation of Psilocin and 4-Hydroxyindole by the Human UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Manevski, Nenad; Kurkela, Mika; Hglund, Camilla; Mauriala, Timo; Court, Michael H.; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the glucuronidation of psilocin, a hallucinogenic indole alkaloid, by the 19 recombinant human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) of subfamilies 1A, 2A, and 2B. The glucuronidation of 4-hydroxyindole, a related indole that lacks the N,N-dimethylaminoethyl side chain, was studied as well. UGT1A10 exhibited the highest psilocin glucuronidation activity, whereas the activities of UGTs 1A9, 1A8, 1A7, and 1A6 were significantly lower. On the other hand, UGT1A6 was by far the most active enzyme mediating 4-hydroxyindole glucuronidation, whereas the activities of UGTs 1A71A10 toward 4-hydroxyindole resembled their respective psilocin glucuronidation rates. Psilocin glucuronidation by UGT1A10 followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in which psilocin is a low-affinity high-turnover substrate (Km = 3.8 mM; Vmax = 2.5 nmol/min/mg). The kinetics of psilocin glucuronidation by UGT1A9 was more complex and may be best described by biphasic kinetics with both intermediate (Km1 = 1.0 mM) and very low affinity components. The glucuronidation of 4-hydroxyindole by UGT1A6 exhibited higher affinity (Km = 178 ?M) and strong substrate inhibition. Experiments with human liver and intestinal microsomes (HLM and HIM, respectively) revealed similar psilocin glucuronidation activity in both samples, but a much higher 4-hydroxyindole glucuronidation rate was found in HLM versus HIM. The expression levels of UGTs 1A61A10 in different tissues were studied by quantitative real-time-PCR, and the results, together with the activity assays findings, suggest that whereas psilocin may be subjected to extensive glucuronidation by UGT1A10 in the small intestine, UGT1A9 is likely the main contributor to its glucuronidation once it has been absorbed into the circulation. PMID:20007669

  4. Glucuronide directed molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction: isolation of testosterone glucuronide from its parent drug in urine.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, Serena; Shinde, Sudhirkumar; De Lorenzi, Ersilia; Sellergren, Borje

    2012-01-01

    Two molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) that we recently described to be class-selective for glucuronides have been successfully exploited for the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) of testosterone glucuronide (TG) from its parent drug (T) in urine. Both sorbents targeted the glucuronate fragment but feature different functional groups for binding the carboxylate anion, MIP1, a neutral 1,3-diarylurea group, and MIP2, a cationic imidazolium functionality. MISPE-HPLC-UV methods developed using both sorbents allowed the extraction of TG from its parent compound in urine samples spiked at 150, 300 or 600 ng mL(-1) for TG and at 50 ng mL(-1) for T. By comparing the performance of the two sorbents it came out that MIP1 is a more suitable SPE packing than MIP2, since it isolated the glucuronide with a higher precision (RSD 2-5%, n = 3) and with an enhanced enrichment factor (EF = 4.2). On the basis of these results, the imprinted receptor MIP1 can be applied for the direct extraction of TG in doping and clinical analysis and to selectively capture any other relevant glucuronated metabolite avoiding tedious deconjugation steps prior to quantification. PMID:22034618

  5. New spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of melatonin in the presence of N-{2-[1-({3-[2-(acetylamino)ethyl]-5-methoxy-1H-indol-2-yl}methyl)-5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl]- ethyl}acetamide: a contaminant in commercial melatonin preparations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Melatonin (MLT) has many health implications, therefore it is of valuable importance to develop specific analytical methods for determination of MLT in the presence of its main contaminant, N-{2-[1-({3-[2-(acetylamino)ethyl]-5-methoxy-1H-indol-2-yl}methyl)-5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl]ethyl}acetamide (10). For development of these analytical methods, compound 10 had to be prepared in an adequate amount. Results Compound 10 was synthesized in six steps starting from 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (1). Analytical performance of the proposed spectrofluorimetric methods was statistically validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the assay of MLT in laboratory prepared mixtures containing up to 60 % of compound 10 and in commercial MLT tablets with recoveries not less than 99.00 %. No interference was observed from common pharmaceutical additives and the results were favorably compared with those obtained by a reference method. Conclusions This work describes simple, sensitive, and reliable second derivative spectrofluorimetric method in addition to two multivariate calibration methods, principal component regression (PCR) and partial least square (PLS), for the determination of MLT in the presence of compound 10. PMID:22551394

  6. Organochlorines inhibit acetaminophen glucuronidation by redirecting UDP-glucuronic acid towards the D-glucuronate pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Tom S. Wilson, John X.; Selliah, Subajini; Bilodeau, Marc; Zwingmann, Claudia; Poon, Raymond; O'Brien, Peter J.

    2008-11-01

    Industry-derived organochlorines are persistent environmental pollutants that are a continuing health concern. The effects of these compounds on drug metabolism are not well understood. In the current study we present evidence that the inhibition of acetaminophen (APAP) glucuronidation by minute concentrations of organochlorines correlates well with their ability to stimulate the D-glucuronate pathway leading to ascorbate synthesis. A set of 6 arylated organochlorines, including 5 PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners, were assessed for their effects on APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes from male Sprague-Dawley rats. The capacity of each organochlorine to inhibit APAP glucuronidation was found to be directly proportional to its capacity to stimulate ascorbate synthesis. PCB153, PCB28 and bis-(4-chlorophenyl sulfone) (BCPS) in increasing order were the most effective organochlorines for inhibiting APAP glucuronidation and stimulating the D-glucuronate pathway. None of the 3 inhibitors of APAP glucuronidation were able to alter the expression of UGT1A6, UGT1A7 and UGT1A8 (the major isoforms responsible for APAP glucuronidation in the rat), however, their efficacy at inhibiting APAP glucuronidation was proportional to their capacity to deplete UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA). BCPS-mediated inhibition of APAP glucuronidation in isolated hepatocytes had non-competitive characteristics and was insensitive to the inactivation of cytochrome P450. The effective organochlorines were also able to selectively stimulate the hydrolysis of UDPGA to UDP and glucuronate in isolated microsomes, but could not inhibit APAP glucuronidation in microsomes when UDPGA was in excess. We conclude that organochlorines are able to inhibit APAP glucuronidation in hepatocytes by depleting UDPGA via redirecting UDPGA towards the D-glucuronate pathway. Because the inhibition is non-competitive, low concentrations of these compounds could have long term inhibitory effects on the glucuronidating capacity of hepatocytes.

  7. Ethyl alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.

    1980-11-01

    Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.

  8. Chlorimuron-ethyl

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorimuron - ethyl ; CASRN 90982 - 32 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  9. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl ethyl ketone ( MEK ) ( CASRN 78 - 93 - 3 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  10. Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 03 / 009 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE ( CAS No . 78 - 93 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been r

  11. Structure-Dependent Deconjugation of Flavonoid Glucuronides by Human ?-Glucuronidase - In Vitro and In Silico Analyses.

    PubMed

    Untergehrer, Monika; Bcherl, Daniel; Wittmann, Hans-Joachim; Strasser, Andrea; Heilmann, Jrg; Jrgenliemk, Guido

    2015-08-01

    Flavonoid glycosides are extensively metabolized to glucuronidated compounds after oral intake. Recently, a cleavage of quercetin glucuronides by ?-glucuronidase has been found. To characterize the deglucuronidation reaction and its structural prerequisites among the flavonoid subtypes more precisely, four flavonol glucuronides with varying glucuronidation positions, five flavone 7-O-glucuronides with varying A- and B-ring substitution as well as one flavanone- and one isoflavone-7-O-glucuronide were analyzed in a human monocytic cell line. Investigation of the deglucuronidation rates by HPLC revealed a significant influence of the glucuronidation position on enzyme activity for flavonols. Across the flavonoid subtypes, the C-ring saturation also showed a significant influence on deglucuronidation, whereas A- and B-ring variations within the flavone-7-O-glucuronides did not affect the enzymes' activity. Results were compared to computational binding studies on human ?-glucuronidase. Additionally, molecular modeling and dynamic studies were performed to obtain detailed insight into the binding and cleavage mode of the substrate at the active site of the human ?-glucuronidase. PMID:26018917

  12. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A6 and 1A10 catalyze reduced menadione glucuronidation

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Takahito; Ohnuma, Tomokazu; Inoue, Yuu; Kishi, Takehiko; Ogura, Kenichiro; Hiratsuka, Akira

    2008-06-27

    Menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquine), also known as vitamin K3, has been widely used as a model compound in the field of oxidative stress-related research. The metabolism of menadione has been studied, and it is known that menadione undergoes a two-electron reduction by NAD(P)H:Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) after which the reduced form of menadione (2-methyl-1,4-naphthalenediol, menadiol) is glucuronidated and excreted in urine. To investigate which human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms participate in the glucuronidation of menadiol reduced by NQO1 from menadione, we first constructed heterologously expressed NQO1 in Sf9 cells and tested the menadiol glucuronidating activity of 16 human recombinant UGT isoforms. Of the 16 UGT isoforms, UGTs 1A6, 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, and 1A10 catalyzed menadiol glucuronidation, and, of these, UGTs 1A6 and 1A10 catalyzed menadiol glucuronidation at much higher rates than the other UGTs. Menadiol was regioselectively glucuronidated in the manner of 4-position > 1-position by UGTs 1A7, 1A8, 1A9, and 1A10. In contrast to these UGTs, only UGT1A6 exhibited 1-menadiol-preferential glucuronidating activity. The results suggest possible detoxification pathways for quinones via NQO1 reduction followed by UGT glucuronidation.

  13. Hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl esters as precursors to ethylphenols in wine.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Josh L; Sleep, Nicola R; Capone, Dimitra L; Elsey, Gordon M; Curtin, Christopher D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2012-03-01

    A method for determining ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate in wine using GC-MS with deuterium-labeled analogues has been developed and used to measure the evolution of these two esters during the production of two commercial monovarietal red wines, cv. Grenache and Shiraz. During fermentation, the concentration of ethyl coumarate rose from low levels to 0.4 mg/L in Grenache and 1.6 mg/L in Shiraz wines. These concentrations then increased further during barrel aging to 1.4 and 3.6 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of ethyl ferulate was much lower, reaching a maximum of only 0.09 mg/L. Conversion of ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate to their corresponding ethylphenols was observed during fermentations of a synthetic medium with two strains of Dekkera bruxellensis (AWRI 1499 and AWRI 1608), while a third (strain AWRI 1613) produced no ethylphenols at all from these precursors. Strains AWRI 1499 and 1608 produced 4-ethylphenol from ethyl coumarate in 68% and 57% yields, respectively. The corresponding yields of 4-ethylguaiacol from ethyl ferulate were much lower, 7% and 3%. Monitoring of ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate concentration during the Dekkera fermentations showed that the selectivity for ethylphenol production according to yeast strain and the precursor was principally a result of variation in esterase activity. Consequently, ethyl coumarate can be considered to be a significant precursor to 4-ethylphenol in wines affected by these two strains of Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeast, while ethyl ferulate is not an important precursor to 4-ethylguaiacol. PMID:22324721

  14. Determination of ultratrace amounts of copper (II) by its catalytic effect on the oxidative coupling reaction of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone with N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxy-3-sulfopropyl)-3,5-dimethoxyaniline.

    PubMed

    Ohno, S; Teshima, N; Watanabe, T; Itabashi, H; Nakano, S; Kawashima, T

    1996-10-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of ultratrace amounts of copper(II) based on its catalytic effect on the oxidative coupling reaction of 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone with N-ethyl-N-(2-hydroxy-3-sulfopropyl)-3,5-dimethoxyaniline to produce an intensely coloured dye (lambda(max) = 525 nm) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In this reaction, pyridine acted as an effective activator for the catalysis of copper(II). By measuring the absorbance of the dye, copper(II) can be determined at the 0.002-0.1 ng cm(-3) (3.1 x 10(-11)-1.6 x 10(-9) mol dm(-3) level. The relative standard deviation for ten determinations of 0.06 ng cm(0-3) of copper(II) was 2.6%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of copper(II) in tap water and biological material. PMID:9148646

  15. Ethyl N-phenyloxamate.

    PubMed

    Garca-Bez E, Efrn V; Gmez-Castro, Carlos Z; Hpfl, Herbert; Martnez-Martnez, Francisco J; Padilla-Martnez, Itzia I

    2003-10-01

    The oxamate group in the title compound, C(10)H(11)NO(3), is almost coplanar with the phenyl ring because of intramolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions, and the structure can be described as an anilide single bonded to an ethyl carboxylate group. The supramolecular structure is achieved through intermolecular hard N-H...O and soft C-H...X (X = O and phenyl) hydrogen-bonding interactions. PMID:14532664

  16. Trans-stilbene oxide administration increased hepatic glucuronidation of morphine but decreased biliary excretion of morphine glucuronide in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fuhrman-Lane, C.; Fujimoto, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    The effect of the inducing agent trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) on the metabolism and biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C)morphine was studied in the isolated in situ perfused rat liver. After administration of morphine by intraportal injection or by the segmented retrograde intrabiliary injection technique, the TSO-treated group showed a marked decrease in the biliary recovery of morphine as its glucuronide conjugate (morphine-3-glucuronide (MG)). However, recovery of MG in the venous outflow of the single pass perfusate was greatly increased. These findings suggested that TSO treatment enhanced the formation of MG from morphine and changed the primary route of hepatic elimination of MG. TSO treatment also decreased the excretion of morphine (as MG) in the bile of anesthetized renal-ligated rats. This decreased biliary function required several days to develop and appeared closely associated with the inductive effect of TSO. After i.v. administration of (/sup 14/C)MG itself, biliary recovery was also markedly decreased in TSO-treated rats. It is postulated that the effect of the TSO treatment led to either a decrease in canalicular transport of MG into bile or an increase in the efficiency of transfer of MG to the blood at the sinusoidal side of the hepatocyte. Regardless of the mechanism, the results indicate the need to study compartmentalization of drug transport and metabolism functions.

  17. In vitro stability of free and glucuronidated cannabinoids in urine following controlled smoked cannabis.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Lee, Dayong; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Concheiro-Guisan, Marta; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2014-01-01

    Analyte stability is an important factor in urine test interpretation, yet cannabinoid stability data are limited. A comprehensive study of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH), cannabidiol, cannabinol, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide stabilities in authentic urine was completed. Urine samples after ad libitum cannabis smoking were pooled to prepare low and high pools for each study participant; baseline concentrations were measured within 24 h at room temperature (RT), 4 °C and -20 °C. Stability at RT, 4 °C and -20 °C was evaluated by Friedman tests for up to 1 year. THCCOOH, THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide were quantified in baseline pools. RT THCCOOH baseline concentrations were significantly higher than -20 °C, but not 4 °C baseline concentrations. After 1 week at RT, THCCOOH increased, THCCOOH-glucuronide decreased, but THC-glucuronide was unchanged. In RT low pool, total THCCOOH (THCCOOH + THCCOOH-glucuronide) was significantly lower after 1 week. At 4 °C, THCCOOH was stable 2 weeks, THCCOOH-glucuronide 1 month and THC-glucuronide for at least 6 months. THCCOOH was stable frozen for 1 year, but 6 months high pool results were significantly higher than baseline; THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH-glucuronide were stable for 6 months. Total THCCOOH was stable 6 months at 4 °C, and frozen 6 months (low) and 1 year (high). THC, cannabidiol and cannabinol were never detected in urine; although not detected initially, 11-OH-THC was detected in 2 low and 3 high pools after 1 week at RT. Substantial THCCOOH-glucuronide deconjugation was observed at RT and 4 °C. Analysis should be conducted within 3 months if non-hydrolyzed THCCOOH or THCCOOH-glucuronide quantification is required. PMID:24292435

  18. Urinary bromophenol glucuronide and sulfate conjugates: Potential human exposure molecular markers for polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ka-Lok; Yau, Man-Shan; Murphy, Margaret B; Wan, Yi; Fong, Bonnie M-W; Tam, Sidney; Giesy, John P; Leung, Kelvin S-Y; Lam, Michael H-W

    2015-08-01

    One possible source of urinary bromophenol (BP) glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in mammalian animal models and humans is polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a group of additive flame-retardants found ubiquitously in the environment. In order to study the correlation between levels of PBDEs in human blood plasma and those of the corresponding BP-conjugates in human urine, concentrations of 17 BDE congeners, 22 OH-BDE and 13 MeO-BDE metabolites, and 3 BPs in plasma collected from 100 voluntary donors in Hong Kong were measured by gas chromatograph tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Geometric mean concentration of ?PBDEs, ?OH-BDEs, ?MeO-BDEs and ?BPs in human plasma were 4.45 ng g(-1) lw, 1.88 ng g(-1) lw, 0.42 ng g(-1) lw and 1.59 ng g(-1) lw respectively. Concentrations of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of 2,4-dibromophenol (2,4-DBP) and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP) in paired samples of urine were determined by liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). BP-conjugates were found in all of the parallel urine samples, in the range of 0.08-106.49 ?g g(-1)-creatinine. Correlations among plasma concentrations of ?PBDEs/?OH-BDEs/?MeO-BDEs/?BPs and BP-conjugates in urine were evaluated by multivariate regression and Pearson product correlation analyses. These urinary BP-conjugates were positively correlated with ?PBDEs in blood plasma, but were either not or negatively correlated with other organobromine compounds in blood plasma. Stronger correlations (Pearson's r as great as 0.881) were observed between concentrations of BDE congeners having the same number and pattern of bromine substitution on their phenyl rings in blood plasma and their corresponding BP-conjugates in urine. PMID:25817024

  19. Enzymatic synthesis of uracil glucuronide, labeling with 125/131I, and in vitro evaluation on adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Medine, Ilker Emin; Unak, Perihan; Sakarya, Serhan; Toksz, Feriha

    2010-06-01

    Human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are a family of membrane-bound enzymes of the endoplasmic reticulum. They catalyze the glucuronidation of various endogenous and exogenous compounds, converting them into more polar glucuronides. In this study, uracil glucuronide was enzymatically synthesized using a UGT-rich microsome preparate, which was separated from Hutu-80 cells. Two different glucuronide derivatives were obtained, with a total reaction yield of 22.95% +/- 2.4% (n = 4). The glucuronide ligands were defined as uracil-n-glucuronide (UNG) and uracil-o-glucuronide (UOG). These were then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and labeled with I-125 and I-131, separately. The radiolabeled (125/131)I-UNG and (125/131)I-UOG presented good incorporation ratios for Hutu-80, Caco-2, Detroit 562, and ACBRI 519 cells. The incorporation ratios of (125/131)I-UOG were higher than those of (125/131)I-UNG and of other labeled components for all cell types, and were also statistically significant compared to the values of (125/131)I-UNG for primary human intestinal epithelial cells (ACBRI 519) and human intestinal adenocarcinoma cells. Cell incorporation rates of n-glucuronides and o-glucuronides were higher compared to uracil, with o-glucuronides being more selective. The results suggest that both I-125- and I-131-labeled glucuronides can be used in imaging and therapy, and further research should be done in preclinical stages. PMID:20578839

  20. Investigation of therapeutic efficiency of bleomycin and bleomycin-glucuronide labeled with (131)I on the cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ediz, Melis; Avc?ba??, U?ur; Unak, Perihan; Mftler, Fazilet Zmrt Biber; Medine, Emin ?lker; Yurt K?lar, Ayfer; Demiro?lu, Hasan; Gm?er, Fikriye Gl; Sakarya, Serhan

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the incorporations of radiolabeled bleomycin ((131)I-BLM) and bleomycin-glucuronide ((131)I-BLMGLU) on PC-3 (human prostate carcinoma cell line), Caco-2 (human colon adenocarcinoma cell line), Hutu-80 (Human Duodenum adenocarcinoma cell line), and A549 (Human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) cancerous cell lines. For this purpose, BLM and BLMGLU enyzmatically synthesized were labeled with (131)I, quality control studies were done and the incorporation yields of (131)I-BLM and (131)I-BLMGLU on these cell lines were measured. Quality-control studies showed that the radiolabeling yields were obtained as 95% and 90% for (131)I-BLM and (131)I-BLMGLU, respectively. Also, as a result of the cell culture studies, it was found that (131)I-BLM and (131)I-BLMGLU had higher incorporation on PC-3 cells than that of other cell lines. In addition to this, it was reported that the incorporation yield of (131)I-BLMGLU was higher than that (131)I-BLM. At the end of the study, cytotoxicities of BLM and BLMGLU on PC-3 cancerous cell line were inspected and fluorescent images of BLM and BLMGLU were taken on PC-3 cells by using fluorescein isothiocyanate. In conclusion, cell culture studies demonstrated that the incorporation values of (131)I-BLMGLU on the four cell lines were about five to six times higher than (131)I-BLM. Radiolabeled glucuronide derivatives can be used in cancer therapy and tumor imaging, depending on the properties of radioiodine for the ?-glucuronidase-rich tissues because glucuronidation leads to rapid and higher incorporation on adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:23350895

  1. Determination of conformational and spectroscopic features of ethyl trans-alfa-cyano-3-indole-acrylate compound: an experimental and quantum chemical study.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Mehmet; Karabacak, Mehmet

    2013-03-01

    The optimized geometrical structure, vibrational and electronic transitions, chemical shifts and non-linear optical properties of ethyl trans-alfa-cyano-3-indole-acrylate (C(14)H(12)N(2)O(2)) compound were presented in this study. The ground state geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers were carried out by using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) as basis set. The vibrational spectra of title compound were recorded in solid state with FT-IR and FT-Raman in the range of 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-10 cm(-1), respectively. The fundamental assignments were done on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The (1)H, (13)C and DEPT NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution, and gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAO) method was used to predict the isotropic chemical shifts. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the compound were recorded in the range of 200-800 nm in various solvents of different polarity (acetone, benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroform, DMSO, ethanol, methanol and toluene). Solvent effects were calculated using TD-DFT and CIS method. To investigate the non-linear optical properties, the polarizability, anisotropy of polarizability and molecular first hyperpolarizability were computed. A detailed description of spectroscopic behaviors of compound was given based on the comparison of experimental measurements and theoretical computations. PMID:23274474

  2. Determination of conformational and spectroscopic features of ethyl trans-alfa-cyano-3-indole-acrylate compound: An experimental and quantum chemical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinar, Mehmet; Karabacak, Mehmet

    2013-03-01

    The optimized geometrical structure, vibrational and electronic transitions, chemical shifts and non-linear optical properties of ethyl trans-alfa-cyano-3-indole-acrylate (C14H12N2O2) compound were presented in this study. The ground state geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers were carried out by using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) as basis set. The vibrational spectra of title compound were recorded in solid state with FT-IR and FT-Raman in the range of 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-10 cm-1, respectively. The fundamental assignments were done on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. The 1H, 13C and DEPT NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution, and gauge-invariant atomic orbitals (GIAO) method was used to predict the isotropic chemical shifts. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the compound were recorded in the range of 200-800 nm in various solvents of different polarity (acetone, benzene, chlorobenzene, chloroform, DMSO, ethanol, methanol and toluene). Solvent effects were calculated using TD-DFT and CIS method. To investigate the non-linear optical properties, the polarizability, anisotropy of polarizability and molecular first hyperpolarizability were computed. A detailed description of spectroscopic behaviors of compound was given based on the comparison of experimental measurements and theoretical computations.

  3. Glucuronidation of 6 alpha-hydroxy bile acids by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Radomi?ska-Pyrek, A; Zimniak, P; Irshaid, Y M; Lester, R; Tephly, T R; St Pyrek, J

    1987-01-01

    The glucuronidation of 6-hydroxylated bile acids by human liver microsomes has been studied in vitro; for comparison, several major bile acids lacking a 6-hydroxyl group were also investigated. Glucuronidation rates for 6 alpha-hydroxylated bile acids were 10-20 times higher than those of substrates lacking a hydroxyl group in position 6. The highest rates measured were for hyodeoxy- and hyocholic acids, and kinetic analyses were carried out using these substrates. Rigorous product identification by high-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance and by electron impact mass spectrometry of methyl ester/peracetate derivatives revealed that 6-O-beta-D-glucuronides were the exclusive products formed in these enzymatic reactions. These results, together with literature data, indicate that 6 alpha-hydroxylation followed by 6-O-glucuronidation constitutes an alternative route of excretion of toxic hydrophobic bile acids. PMID:3110212

  4. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis, Characterization, and Scale-Up of Milk Thistle Flavonolignan Glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Graf, Tyler N; Paguigan, Noemi D; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-11-01

    Plant-based therapeutics, including herbal products, continue to represent a growing facet of the contemporary health care market. Mechanistic descriptions of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of constituents composing these products remain nascent, particularly for metabolites produced following herbal product ingestion. Generation and characterization of authentic metabolite standards are essential to improve the quantitative mechanistic understanding of herbal product disposition in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Using the model herbal product, milk thistle, the objective of this work was to biosynthesize multimilligram quantities of glucuronides of select constituents (flavonolignans) to fill multiple knowledge gaps in the understanding of herbal product disposition and action. A partnership between clinical pharmacology and natural products chemistry expertise was leveraged to optimize reaction conditions for efficient glucuronide formation and evaluate alternate enzyme and reagent sources to improve cost effectiveness. Optimized reaction conditions used at least one-fourth the amount of microsomal protein (from bovine liver) and cofactor (UDP glucuronic acid) compared with typical conditions using human-derived subcellular fractions, providing substantial cost savings. Glucuronidation was flavonolignan-dependent. Silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, and isosilybin B generated five, four, four, and three monoglucuronides, respectively. Large-scale synthesis (40 mg of starting material) generated three glucuronides of silybin A: silybin A-7-O-β-D-glucuronide (15.7 mg), silybin A-5-O-β-D-glucuronide (1.6 mg), and silybin A-4´´-O-β-D-glucuronide (11.1 mg). This optimized, cost-efficient method lays the foundation for a systematic approach to synthesize and characterize herbal product constituent glucuronides, enabling an improved understanding of mechanisms underlying herbal product disposition and action. PMID:26316643

  5. Characterization of in vitro glucuronidation clearance of a range of drugs in human kidney microsomes: comparison with liver and intestinal glucuronidation and impact of albumin.

    PubMed

    Gill, Katherine L; Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the importance of the addition of albumin for characterization of hepatic glucuronidation in vitro; however, no reports exist on the effects of albumin on renal or intestinal microsomal glucuronidation assays. This study characterized glucuronidation clearance (CL(int, UGT)) in human kidney, liver, and intestinal microsomes in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for seven drugs with differential UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B7 specificity, namely, diclofenac, ezetimibe, gemfibrozil, mycophenolic acid, naloxone, propofol, and telmisartan. The impact of renal CL(int, UGT) on accuracy of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of glucuronidation clearance was investigated. Inclusion of 1% BSA for acidic drugs and 2% for bases/neutral drugs in incubations was found to be suitable for characterization of CL(int, UGT) in different tissues. Although BSA increased CL(int, UGT) in all tissues, the extent was tissue- and drug-dependent. Scaled CL(int, UGT) in the presence of BSA ranged from 2.22 to 207, 0.439 to 24.4, and 0.292 to 23.8 ml · min(-1) · g tissue(-1) in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes. Renal CL(int, UGT) (per gram of tissue) was up to 2-fold higher in comparison with that for liver for UGT1A9 substrates; in contrast, CL(int, UGT) for UGT2B7 substrates represented approximately one-third of hepatic estimates. Scaled renal CL(int, UGT) (in the presence of BSA) was up to 30-fold higher than intestinal glucuronidation for the drugs investigated. Use of in vitro data obtained in the presence of BSA and inclusion of renal clearance improved the IVIVE of glucuronidation clearance, with 50% of drugs predicted within 2-fold of observed values. Characterization and consideration of kidney CL(int, UGT) is particularly important for UGT1A9 substrates. PMID:22275465

  6. Chemical and thermochemical aspects of the ozonolysis of ethyl oleate: decomposition enthalpy of ethyl oleate ozonide.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethyl oleate was ozonized in a bubble reactor and the progress of the ozonolysis was followed by infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The ozonolysis was conducted till a molar ratio O3/C=C?1 when the exothermal reaction spontaneously went to completion. A specific thermochemical calculation on ethyl oleate ozonation has been made to determine the theoretical heat of the ozonization reaction using the group increment approach. A linear relationship was found both in the integrated absorptivity of the ozonide infrared band at 1110 cm(-1) and the ozonolysis time as well as the thermal decomposition enthalpy of the ozonides and peroxides formed as a result of the ozonation. The DSC decomposition temperature of ozonated ethyl oleate occurs with an exothermal peak at about 150-155 C with a decomposition enthalpy of 243.0 kJ/mol at molar ratio O3/C=C?1. It is shown that the decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate is a constant value (?243 kJ/mol) at any stage of the O3/C=C once an adequate normalization of the decomposition enthalpy for the amount of the adsorbed ozone is taken into consideration. The decomposition enthalpy of ozonized ethyl oleate was also calculated using a simplified thermochemical model, obtaining a result in reasonable agreement with the experimental value. PMID:23969233

  7. Stemofoline ethyl acetate solvate

    PubMed Central

    Mungkornasawakul, Pitchaya; Pyne, Stephen G.; Ung, Alison T.; Jatisatienr, Araya; Willis, Anthony C.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound, C22H29NO5C4H8O2, {[systematic name: (2R,3R,5R,5aS,6R,8aR,9S)-(5Z)-5-[3-butyltetrahydro-6-methyl-2,5-methano-4,3,8a-[1]propanyl[3]ylidenefuro[3,2-f][1,4]oxazepin-7(5H)-ylidene]-4-methoxy-3-methylfuran-2(5H)-one ethyl acetate solvate} were isolated from the root extracts of Stemona aphylla (Stemonaceae). The structure closely resembles those of stemofoline derivatives which have previously been reported. Intermolecular contacts are observed between some C-bonded H atoms and nearby O atoms, perhaps indicating weak interactions which could influence the packing of species within the unit cell. PMID:21583572

  8. Separation of substrates and closely related glucuronide metabolites using various chromatographic modes.

    PubMed

    Romand, Stéphanie; Rudaz, Serge; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-02-26

    The aim of this study was to assess the retention and selectivity of a cocktail of 10 substrates of uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase enzymes (UGTs) and their respective glucuronides using four chromatographic approaches. For this purpose, seven different stationary phases were employed in reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC), two in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), one in aqueous normal phase chromatography (ANPC) and four in subcritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Highly orthogonal separations were achieved with these chromatographic modes. Hydrophobic interactions mainly governed the retention of the substrates and their polar glucuronides in RPLC despite the use of different chemical stationary phase bonding, involving additional possible interactions. In ANPC, atypical separations and poor peak shapes were observed with the selected compounds. In HILIC and SFC conditions, the metabolites were more retained than the substrates because of the polarity increase related to the glucuronic acid moiety. For the latter, a very high proportion of organic solvent (up to 80%) was required to elute the glucuronides that often displayed poor peak shapes. Finally, the selectivity of nine chromatographic systems was compared for the separation of isomeric and diastereoisomeric compounds. The stationary phases used in RPLC mode were more selective towards the two positional isomers of morphine glucuronides since they possess distinct lipophilicity. HILIC and SFC columns were found to be promising for the separation of a critical diastereoisomers pair, namely epitestosterone-glucuronide and testosterone-glucuronide. PMID:26818236

  9. Direct Quantification of Cannabinoids and Cannabinoid Glucuronides in Whole Blood by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Schwope, David M.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    The first method for quantifying cannabinoids and cannabinoid glucuronides in whole blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. Solid-phase extraction followed protein precipitation with acetonitrile. HPLC separation was achieved in 16 min via gradient elution. Electrospray ionization was utilized for cannabinoid detection; both positive (?9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC], cannabinol [CBN]) and negative (11-hydroxy-THC [11-OH-THC], 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC [THCCOOH], cannabidiol [CBD], THC-glucuronide and THCCOOH glucuronide) polarity were employed with multiple reaction monitoring. Calibration by linear regression analysis utilized deuterium-labeled internal standards and a 1/x2 weighting factor, yielding R2 values > 0.997 for all analytes. Linearity ranged from 0.550 ?g/L (THC-glucuronide), 1.0100 ?g/L (THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, CBD and CBN) and 5.0250 ?g/L (THCCOOH-glucuronide). Imprecision was < 10.5% CV, recovery was > 50.5% and bias within 13.1% of target for all analytes at three concentrations across the linear range. No carryover, endogenous or exogenous interferences were observed. This new analytical method should be useful for quantifying cannabinoids in whole blood and further investigating cannabinoid glucuronides as markers of recent cannabis intake. PMID:21727996

  10. Rapid and simultaneous determination of twenty amino acids in complex biological and food samples by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the aid of experimental design after ethyl chloroformate derivatization.

    PubMed

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Ratnasekhar, Ch; Jain, Rajeev; Saxena, Prem Narain; Chauhan, Abhishek; Murthy, R C

    2012-10-15

    Amino acids play a vital role as intermediates in many important metabolic pathways such as the biosynthesis of nucleotides, vitamins and secondary metabolites. A sensitive and rapid analytical method has been proposed for the first time for the simultaneous determination of twenty amino acids using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). The protein samples were hydrolyzed by 6M HCl under microwave radiation for 120 min. Then the amino acids were derivatized by ethyl chloroformate (ECF) and the ethoxy carbonyl ethyl esters of amino acids formed were extracted using SPME by direct immersion. Finally the extracted analytes on the SPME fiber were desorbed at 260C and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) in electron ionization mode. Factors which affect the SPME efficiency were screened by Plackett-Burmann design; most significant factors were optimized with response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for SPME are as follows: pH of 1.7, ionic strength of 733 mg, extraction time of 30 min and fiber of divinyl benzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS). The recovery of all the amino acids was found to be in the range of 89.17-100.98%. The limit of detection (LOD) of all derivatized amino acids in urine, hair and soybean was found to be in the range of 0.20-7.52 ?g L(-1), 0.21-8.40 ?g L(-1) and 0.18-5.62 ?g L(-1), respectively. Finally, the proposed technique was successfully applied for the determination of amino acids in complex biological (hair, urine) and food samples (soybean). The method can find wide applications in the routine analysis of amino acids in any biological as well as food samples. PMID:22998980

  11. Effects of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine (the alkaloids of Mitragyna speciosa Korth) on 4-methylumbelliferone glucuronidation in rat and human liver microsomes and recombinant human uridine 5’-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Haron, Munirah; Ismail, Sabariah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glucuronidation catalyzed by uridine 5’- diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) is a major phase II drug metabolism reaction which facilitates drug elimination. Inhibition of UGT activity can cause drug-drug interaction. Therefore, it is important to determine the inhibitory potentials of drugs on glucuronidation. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the inhibitory potentials of mitragynine, 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine and buprenorphine, respectively on 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation in rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes and recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms. Materials and Methods: The effects of the above four compounds on the formation of 4-MU glucuronide from 4-MU by rat liver microsomes, human liver microsomes, recombinant human UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 isoforms were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Results: For rat liver microsomes, ketamine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 6.21 ± 1.51 μM followed by buprenorphine with an IC50 value of 73.22 ± 1.63 μM. For human liver microsomes, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 6.32 ± 1.39 μM. For human UGT1A1 isoform, 7-hydroxymitragynine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation with an IC50 value of 7.13 ± 1.16 μM. For human UGT2B7 isoform, buprenorphine strongly inhibited 4-MU glucuronidation followed by 7-hydroxymitragynine and ketamine with respective IC50 values of 5.14 ± 1.30, 26.44 ± 1.31, and 27.28 ± 1.18 μM. Conclusions: These data indicate the possibility of drug-drug interaction if 7-hydroxymitragynine, ketamine, and buprenorphine are co-administered with drugs that are UGT2B7 substrates since these three compounds showed significant inhibition on UGT2B7 activity. In addition, if 7-hydroxymitragynine is to be taken with other drugs that are highly metabolized by UGT1A1, there is a possibility of drug-drug interaction to occur. PMID:26692748

  12. The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A polymorphism c.2042C>G (rs8330) is associated with increased human liver acetaminophen glucuronidation, increased UGT1A exon 5a/5b splice variant mRNA ratio, and decreased risk of unintentional acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Court, Michael H; Freytsis, Marina; Wang, Xueding; Peter, Inga; Guillemette, Chantal; Hazarika, Suwagmani; Duan, Su X; Greenblatt, David J; Lee, William M

    2013-05-01

    Acetaminophen is cleared primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. Polymorphisms in genes encoding the acetaminophen UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes could explain interindividual variability in acetaminophen glucuronidation and variable risk for liver injury after acetaminophen overdose. In this study, human liver bank samples were phenotyped for acetaminophen glucuronidation activity and genotyped for the major acetaminophen-glucuronidating enzymes (UGTs 1A1, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B15). Of these, only three linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the shared UGT1A-3'UTR region (rs10929303, rs1042640, rs8330) were associated with acetaminophen glucuronidation activity, with rs8330 consistently showing higher acetaminophen glucuronidation at all the tested concentrations of acetaminophen. Mechanistic studies using luciferase-UGT1A-3'UTR reporters indicated that these SNPs do not alter mRNA stability or translation efficiency. However, there was evidence for allelic imbalance and a gene-dose proportional increase in the amount of exon 5a versus exon 5b containing UGT1A mRNA spliced transcripts in livers with the rs8330 variant allele. Cotransfection studies demonstrated an inhibitory effect of exon 5b containing cDNAs on acetaminophen glucuronidation by UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 cDNAs containing exon 5a. In silico analysis predicted that rs8330 creates an exon splice enhancer site that could favor exon 5a (over exon 5b) utilization during splicing. Finally, the prevalence of rs8330 was significantly lower (P = 0.027, ?(2) test) in patients who had acute liver failure from unintentional acetaminophen overdose compared with patients with acute liver failure from other causes or a race- or ethnicity-matched population. Together, these findings suggest that rs8330 is an important determinant of acetaminophen glucuronidation and could affect an individual's risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. PMID:23408116

  13. Optical on-line method of ethyl mercaptan detection in liquid phase in motor fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireev, S. V.; Shnyrev, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    The letter reports on the experimental research of the absorption spectra of ethyl mercaptan in liquid phase in various motor fuels (petrol, kerosene, and diesel fuel). The values of ethyl mercaptan absorption sections were obtained in the above-mentioned fuels in the spectral range of 280–475 nm, and the dependences of ethyl mercaptan absorption coefficients on its part in the analyzed mixture with motor fuels were researched. On the basis of the obtained results we propose an optical on-line method of ethyl mercaptan detection in motor fuels. The optimal spectral ranges for the highest sensitivity of ethyl mercaptan detection in various motor fuels were determined.

  14. Determination of direct alcohol markers: a review.

    PubMed

    Cabarcos, Pamela; Álvarez, Iván; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol is the most popular legal drug used in our society today, and its consumption by pregnant women remains an important public health problem. Gestational alcohol consumption can result in a continuum of adverse fetal outcomes known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Effective strategies are needed to prevent the increasing adoption of risky drinking behaviors. Because ethanol itself is only measurable for a few hours after ethanol intake in conventional matrices including blood, urine, and sweat, these matrices are only useful to detect recent ethanol exposure. Since approximately early 2000, the non-oxidative ethanol metabolites have received increasing attention because of their specificity and, in some cases, wide time window of detection in non-conventional matrices including hair and meconium. In the attempt to update analytical methods for the determination of non-oxidative markers of alcohol, the objective of this study is to review published studies that measure fatty-acid ethyl esters (FAEE), ethyl glucuronide (EtG), and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in alternative biological matrices, focusing on the extraction and detection methods and full analytical conditions used. PMID:25935676

  15. Bisphenol A-glucuronide measurement in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Harthé, Catherine; Rinaldi, Sabina; Achaintre, David; de Ravel, Marc Rolland; Mappus, Elisabeth; Pugeat, Michel; Déchaud, Henri

    2012-10-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA), is one of the most abundant endocrine disruptors that are present in our environment, and has been repeatedly detected in most human biological samples. As it has been suggested that part of the BPA measured in human samples is due to contamination during samples collection or laboratory measurements, we have developed a specific radioimmunoassay for the measurement of BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G), the main endogenous metabolite of BPA in urine. We used a polyclonal anti-BPA antibody which has a 95% cross reactivity with BPA-G, and insignificant cross reactivity with most analogous BPA phenolic structures. To eliminate unconjugated BPA from urine samples, an extraction step with dichloromethane was required. The method proved to be valid, precise and accurate in the range of 0.05 μg/L to 5 μg/L. With this method, we measured BPA-G in 163 urine samples from a hospital population. We detected BPA-G in all samples, with mean values of 4.64 μg/L. In conclusion, the present radioimmunoassay is a useful tool for the screening of BPA exposure in human populations encompassing the problem of eventual contamination from laboratory manipulation. PMID:23141357

  16. Use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models to evaluate the impact of intestinal glucuronide hydrolysis on the pharmacokinetics of aglycone.

    PubMed

    Wu, Baojian

    2012-03-01

    Drug elimination via glucuronidation pathway is a complex process involving glucuronide excretion. Glucuronide excreted into the gut lumen either directly from the enterocytes or from the hepatobiliary route can be recovered back to the precursor (aglycone) through bacteria-mediated hydrolysis. As a result, the pharmacokinetics [e.g., plasma terminal half-life (T(1/2))] of aglycone might be altered. Here, impact of intestinal glucuronide hydrolysis on the pharmacokinetics of aglycone is evaluated using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models with liver and/or intestine as eliminating organs. It is found that compared with its absence, the presence of intestinal glucuronide hydrolysis leads to increases in the oral systemic bioavailability (F(sys)) of aglycone. The magnitude of fold increase is positively correlated with the level of metabolism, as metabolic clearance mainly contributes to recycled amount of glucuronide. Although F(sys) is independent of the glucuronide efflux in a traditional model and a segregated-flow model of the intestine, dependence of F(sys) on the glucuronide efflux can be observed in a segmental segregated-flow model of the intestine and whole-body PBPK models. Interestingly, when the ratio of apical versus basolateral efflux intrinsic clearances (of glucuronide) is fixed, their effects on the intestinal bioavailability and F(sys) cease to exist. In addition, glucuronide hydrolysis can lead to a significantly delayed elimination of the aglycone as evidenced by a prolonged (e.g., a 2.1-fold increase) T(1/2). Surprisingly, when a pharmacokinetic profile for aglycone is simulated with a flat terminal portion (a reflection of the experimental observations), changes in the aglycone bioavailabilities are limited (i.e., ? 1.3-fold). In conclusion, this study explores the possible role of intestinal glucuronide hydrolysis in the disposition of aglycone via simulations utilizing various PBPK models. The mechanistic observations should be helpful to better understand the complex glucuronidation in vivo. PMID:22109716

  17. ATP-dependent transport of bilirubin glucuronides by the multidrug resistance protein MRP1 and its hepatocyte canalicular isoform MRP2.

    PubMed Central

    Jedlitschky, G; Leier, I; Buchholz, U; Hummel-Eisenbeiss, J; Burchell, B; Keppler, D

    1997-01-01

    Bilirubin is secreted from the liver into bile mainly as monoglucuronosyl and bisglucuronosyl conjugates. We demonstrate for the first time that ATP-dependent transport of both bilirubin glucuronides is mediated by the multidrug resistance protein (MRP1) as well as by the distinct canalicular (apical) isoform MRP2, also termed cMRP or cMOAT (canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter). In membrane vesicles from MRP1-transfected HeLa cells mono[3H]glucuronosylbilirubin and bis[3H]glucuronosylbilirubin (each at 0.5 microM) were transported with rates of 5.3 and 3.1 pmol/min per mg of protein respectively. Rat hepatocyte canalicular membrane vesicles, which contain Mrp2 (the rat equivalent of MRP2), transported mono[3H]glucuronosylbilirubin and bis[3H]glucuronosylbilirubin at rates of 8.9 and 8.5 pmol/min per mg of protein, whereas membrane vesicles from mutant liver lacking Mrp2 showed no transport of the conjugates. In membrane vesicles from human hepatoma Hep G2 cells, which predominantly expressed MRP2, transport rates were 8.3 and 4.4 pmol/min per mg of protein for monoglucuronosylbilirubin and bisglucuronosylbilirubin respectively. ATP-dependent transport of the glutathione S-conjugate -3H-leukotriene C4, an established high-affinity substrate for MRP1 and MRP2, was inhibited by both bilirubin glucuronides with IC50 values between 0.10 and 0.75 microM. The ratios of leukotriene C4 transport and bilirubin glucuronide transport, determined in the same membrane vesicle preparation, indicated substrate specificity differences between MRP1 and MRP2 with a preference of MRP2 for the glucuronides. PMID:9355767

  18. In vitro glucuronidation kinetics of deoxynivalenol by human and animal microsomes and recombinant human UGT enzymes.

    PubMed

    Maul, Ronald; Warth, Benedikt; Schebb, Nils Helge; Krska, Rudolf; Koch, Matthias; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), formed by Fusarium species, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon ingestion, the majority of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide conjugate. First in vitro data indicated that DON phase II metabolism is strongly species dependent. However, kinetic data on the in vitro metabolism as well as investigations on the specific enzymes responsible for DON glucuronidation in human are lacking. In the present study, the DON metabolism was investigated using human microsomal fractions and uridine-diphosphoglucuronyltransferases (UGTs) as well as liver microsomes from five animal species. Only two of the twelve tested human recombinant UGTs led to the formation of DON glucuronides with a different regiospecificity. UGT2B4 predominantly catalyzed the formation of DON-15-O-glucuronide (DON-15GlcA), while for UGT2B7 the DON-3-O-glucuronide (DON-3GlcA) metabolite prevailed. For human UGTs, liver, and intestinal microsomes, the glucuronidation activities were low. The estimated apparent intrinsic clearance (Clapp,int) for all human UGT as well as tissue homogenates was <1 mL/min mg protein. For the animal liver microsomes, moderate Clapp,int between 1.5 and 10 mL/min mg protein were calculated for carp, trout, and porcine liver. An elevated glucuronidation activity was detected for rat and bovine liver microsomes leading to Clapp,int between 20 and 80 mL/min mg protein. The obtained in vitro data points out that none of the animal models is suitable for estimating the human DON metabolism with respect to the metabolite pattern and formation rate. PMID:24927789

  19. High-performance liquid chromatographic enantioselective assay for the measurement of ketoprofen glucuronidation by liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Chakir, S; Maurice, M H; Magdalou, J; Leroy, P; Dubois, N; Lapicque, F; Abdelhamid, Z; Nicolas, A

    1994-03-18

    A stereoselective high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed to study the in vitro glucuronidation of ketoprofen enantiomers by liver microsomes. The HPLC system consisted of a Superspher 100 RP 18 end-capped column eluted with a mixture of acetonitrile and 10 mM tetrabutylammonium bromide in 1 mM potassium phosphate adjusted to pH 4.3 (30:70, v/v). Ultraviolet detection was performed at a wavelength of 254 nm. The capacity factors of S-ketoprofen glucuronide, R-ketoprofen glucuronide and R,S-ketoprofen were 12.8, 14.5 and 18.1, respectively. Sample pretreatment consisted of protein precipitation in microsomal incubation suspensions and further purification on a Sep Pak C18 cartridge before injection onto the HPLC system. Quantitation was performed with standard glucuronides biosynthetized with immobilized microsomes and purified by semi-preparative HPLC. The linearity of the method between 1.25 and 25.0 micrograms ml-1 (coefficient of correlation greater than 0.999), the repeatability (coefficient of variation = 1.2%; n = 5), and recovery (within 85%) were tested. The limit of detection was 10 ng for each glucuronide injected. The in vitro glucuronidation of R- and S-ketoprofen was measured in liver microsomes from man and from various animal species (dog, rat, rabbit). For both enantiomers, dog presented the highest specific activity. In contrast, the lowest activity was found in rabbit. On the other hand, the formation ratio of the S- and R-glucuronides of ketoprofen was close to 1 in man, rat and rabbit, but was 4.5 in dog, thus indicating that the reaction was stereoselective in this species. PMID:8004244

  20. Human hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 are glucuronidated and sulfated in vitro.

    PubMed

    Erratico, Claudio; Zheng, Xiaobo; Ryden, Andreas; Marsh, Goran; Maho, Walid; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-07-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were used worldwide as additive flame retardants and are classified as persistent, bioaccumulable and toxic environmental pollutants. In humans, the hydroxylated metabolites of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) and 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) formed in vitro have also been detected in vivo. To further characterize the metabolism of BDE-47 and BDE-99 and to identify candidate markers for monitoring the human exposure to PBDEs using non-invasive approaches, glucuronidation and sulfation of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were investigated using human liver microsomes and cytoplasm, respectively. The formed Phase II metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a novel approach to develop analytical methods in absence of authentic standards. All available standards for hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were glucuronidated and sulfated, showing that glucuronidation and sulfation are part of the metabolism pathway of BDE-47 and BDE-99 in vitro. The major glucuronidated and sulfated analogs of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-47 were (a) 2,4-DBP-Gluc and 5-Gluc-BDE-47, and (b) 2'-Sulf-BDE-28, 4-Sulf-BDE-42 and 3-Sulf-BDE-47, respectively. The major glucuronidated and sulfated analogs of hydroxylated metabolites of BDE-99 were (a) 2,4,5-TBP-Gluc and 6'-Gluc-BDE-99, and (b) 3'-Sulf-BDE-99 and 5'-Sulf-BDE-99, respectively. Apparent Km values associated with the formation of sulfated metabolites of BDE-47 and BDE-99 were ten times lower than those of the corresponding glucuronidated metabolites, suggesting that sulfated rather than glucuronidated metabolites of OH-PBDEs might be used as markers of human exposure to PBDEs using a non-invasive approach based on urine sample collection. PMID:25956475

  1. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No. 141-78... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which...

  2. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No. 141-78... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which...

  3. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No. 141-78... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which...

  4. Direct radioimmunoassay of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronides during the menstrual cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Stanczyk, F.Z.; Miyakawa, I.; Goebelsmann, U.

    1980-06-15

    Assays measuring immunoreactive estrone glucuronide (E/sub 1/G), estradiol-3-glucuronide (E/sub 2/-3G), estradiol-17..beta..-glucuronide (E/sub 2/-17G), estriol-3-glucuronide (E/sub 3/-3G), estriol-16..cap alpha..-glucuronide (E/sub 3/-16G), and pregnanediol-3..cap alpha..-glucuronide (Pd-3G) directly in diluted urine were developed and validated. These estrogen and pregnanediol glucuronide fractions were measured in aliquots of 24-hour and overnight samples of urine collected daily from seven women for one menstrual cycle. Urinary hormone excretion was correlated with daily serum estradiol (E/sub 2/), progesterone (P), and lutenizing hormonee (LH) levels. A sharp midcycle LH peak preceded by a preovulatory rise in serum E/sub 2/ and followed by luteal phase serum P levels were noted in each of the seven apparently ovulatory cycles. Twenty-four-hour and overnight urinary excretion patterns of estrogen glucuronides were similar to those of serum E/sub 2/. Of the five estrogen glucuronide fractions tested, excretion of E/sub 2/-17G exhibited the earliest and steepest ascending slope of the preovulatory estrogen surge and correlated best with serum E/sub 2/ levels. Urinary excretion of E/sub 1/-G, E/sub 2/-3G, and E/sub 3/-16G also showed an early and steep preovulatory rise and preceded that of E/sub 3/-3G, whereas urinary excretion of E/sub 3/-3G exhibited the poorest correlation with serum E/sub 2/ concentrations. The urinary excretion of Pd-3G rose parallel to serum P levels and was markedly elevated 2 to 3 days after the midcycle LH peak in both 24-hour and overnight collections of urine. These results indicate that among the urinary estrogen conjugate fractions tested, E/sub 2/-17G is the one that most suitably predicts ovulation.

  5. Separation and Purification of Two Flavone Glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth with Macroporous Resins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Scutellarein-7-O-?-D-glucuronide (SG) and apigenin-7-O-?-D-glucuronide (AG) are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R2 > 0.95). Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34% in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials. PMID:19918373

  6. Separation and purification of two flavone glucuronides from Erigeron multiradiatus (Lindl.) Benth with macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Feng; Liu, Yuan; Luo, Pei; Zhang, Hao

    2009-01-01

    Scutellarein-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (SG) and apigenin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide (AG) are two major bioactive constituents with known pharmacological effects in Erigeron multiradiatus. In this study, a simple method for preparative separation of the two flavone glucuronides was established with macroporous resins. The performance and adsorption characteristics of eight macroporous resins including AB-8, HPD100, HPD450, HPD600, D100, D101, D141, and D160 have been evaluated. The results confirmed that D141 resin offered the best adsorption and desorption capacities and the highest desorption ratio for the two glucuronides among the tested resins. Sorption isotherms were constructed for D141 resin under optimal ethanol conditions and fitted well to the Freundlich and Langmuir models (R(2) > 0.95). Dynamic adsorption and desorption tests was performed on column packed with D141 resin. After one-run treatment with D141 resin, the two-constituent content in the final product was increased from 2.14% and 1.34% in the crude extract of Erigeron multiradiatus to 24.63% and 18.42% in the final products with the recoveries of 82.5% and 85.4%, respectively. The preparative separation of SG and AG can be easily and effectively achieved via adsorption and desorption on D141 resin, and the method developed can be referenced for large-scale separation and purification of flavone glucuronides from herbal raw materials. PMID:19918373

  7. Genetic and environmental factors associated with variation of human xenobiotic glucuronidation and sulfation.

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, B; Coughtrie, M W

    1997-01-01

    Glucuronidation and sulfation are phase 2 metabolic reactions catalyzed by large families of different isoenzymes in man. The textbook view that glucuronidation and sulfation lead to the production of harmless conjugates for simple excretion is not valid. Biologically active and toxic sulfates and glucuronides are produced and leed to adverse drug reactions, including immune hypersensitivity. Considerable variation in xenobiotic conjugation is observed as a result of altered expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) and sulfotransferases (STs). Recent cloning and expression of human cDNA encoding UGTs and STs has facilitated characterization of isoform substrate specificity, which has been further validated using specific antibodies and human tissue fractions. The availability of cloned/expressed human enzymes and specific antibodies has enabled the investigation of xenobiotic induction and metabolic disruption leeding to adverse responses. Genetic polymorphisms of glucuronidation and sulfation are known to exist although the characterization and assessment of the importance of these variations are hampered by appropriate ethical studies in men with suitable safe model compounds. Genetic analysis has allowed molecular identification of defects in well-known hyperbilirubinemias. However, full characterization of the specific functional roles of human UGTs and STs requires rigorous kinetic and molecular analyses of the role of each enzyme in vivo through the use of specific antibodies and inhibitors. This will leed to the better prediction of variation of xenobiotic glucuronidation and sulfation in man. PMID:9255555

  8. UHPLC-MS/MS quantification of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone, and glucuronide conjugates in umbilical cord plasma.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Amy Redmond; Carmical, Jennifer; Shah, Darshan; Pryor, Jason; Brown, Stacy

    2015-10-01

    Opioid use during pregnancy can result in the newborn being physically dependent on the substance, thus experiencing drug withdrawal, termed neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Buprenorphine and methadone are two drugs used to treat opioid withdrawal and are approved for use in pregnancy. Quantification of these compounds in umbilical cord plasma would help assess in utero exposure of neonates in cases of buprenorphine or methadone use during pregnancy. An LC-MS/MS method using solid-phase extraction sample preparation was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and glucuronide metabolites in umbilical cord plasma. The average accuracy (percentage error) and precision (relative standard deviation) were <15% for each validated concentration. Our data establishes a 2 week maximum freezer storage window in order to achieve the most accurate cord plasma concentrations of these analytes. Additionally, we found that the umbilical cord tissue analysis was less sensitive compared with analysis with umbilical cord blood plasma, indicating that this may be a more appropriate matrix for determination of buprenorphine and metabolite concentrations. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of cord blood from women with known buprenorphine or methadone use during pregnancy. PMID:25808363

  9. 21 CFR 184.1295 - Ethyl formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl formate. 184.1295 Section 184.1295 Food and....1295 Ethyl formate. (a) Ethyl formate (C3H6O2, CAS Reg. No. 109-94-4) is also referred to as ethyl methanoate. It is an ester of formic acid and is prepared by esterification of formic acid with ethyl...

  10. Identification of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]-furanone beta-D-glucuronide as the major metabolite of a strawberry flavour constituent in humans.

    PubMed

    Roscher, R; Koch, H; Herderich, M; Schreier, P; Schwab, W

    1997-08-01

    2,5-Dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3[2H]furanone (Furaneol, DMHF) [3658-77-3], an important flavour constituent of strawberry fruit, was administered to four male and two female volunteers using fresh strawberries as a natural DMHF source. The amount excreted was determined by measuring urinary levels of DMHF and DMHF glucuronide. DMHF glucuronide was synthesized and the structure elucidated by mens of 1H, 13C and two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, as well as mass spectral data. Identification and quantification of DMHF glucuronide in human urine were achieved after solid phase extraction on XAD-2 using reverse-phase reverse-phase HPLC with either on-line UV/VIS or electrospray tandem mass spectrometry detection. Male and female volunteers excreted 59-69% and 81-94%, respectively, of the DMHF dose (total of free and glycosidically bound DMHF in strawberries) as DMHF glucuronide in urine within 24 hr. The amount of DMHF excretion was independent of the dose size and the ratio of free to glycosidically bound forms of DMHF in strawberry fruit. DMHF, DMHF glucoside and its 6'-O-malonyl derivative, naturally occurring in strawberries, were not detected in human urine. PMID:9350222

  11. Identification of two glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine via thermospray/mass spectrometry and thermospray/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, W A; Holder, C L; Betowski, L D; Mitchum, R K

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of a high-pressure liquid chromatography fraction containing two urinary glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine by thermospray mass spectrometry (TSP/MS) provided [MH]+ ions for each metabolite. TSP/MS/MS of the [MH]+ ions provided a fragment ion characteristic of these metabolites. The results demonstrate the utility of TSP/MS analysis for biologically derived glucuronide metabolites. PMID:3626532

  12. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cr(III) and Pb(II) Using Their Complexes with 5,11,17,23-Tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl)(azo)phenyl]calix[4]arene

    PubMed Central

    Van Tan, Le; Quang Hieu, Tran; Van Cuong, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    New complexes of 5,11,17,23-tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl)(azo)phenyl]calix[4]arene (TEAC) with Pb(II) and Cr(III) were prepared in basic solution with a mixture of MeOH and H2O as solvent. The ratio of TEAC and metal ion in complexes was found to be 1?:?1 under investigated condition. The complex formation constants (based on Benesi-Hildebrand method) for TEAC-Pb(II) and TEAC-Cr(III) were 4.03 104 and 1.2 104, respectively. Additionally, the molar extinction coefficients were 5 104 and 1.42 104 for TEAC-Pb(II) and TEAC-Cr(III), respectively. The H-Point Standard Addition Method (HPSAM) has been applied for simultaneous determination of complexes formation of Cr(III)/Pb(II) and TEAC with concentration from 2?:?1 to 1?:?20 (w/w). The proposed method was successfully utilized to invest lead and chromium contents in plating wastewater samples. The results for several analyzed samples were found to be in satisfied agreement with those acquired by using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. PMID:25984379

  13. Development, validation and comparison of two microextraction techniques for the rapid and sensitive determination of pregabalin in urine and pharmaceutical formulations after ethyl chloroformate derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Chauhan, Abhishek; Jain, Rajeev; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Fatima, Ghizal; Malhotra, Ekta; Murthy, R C

    2012-11-01

    The present article reports first time the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) to extract pregabalin (PRG) from urine and pharmaceutical formulations followed by GC-MS analysis after ethyl chloroformate (ECF) derivatization. PRG is an antiepileptic and analgesic drug, which is a structural analogue of ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA). It is approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and neuropathic pain. Initially PRG was derivatized with ECF in the presence of pyridine at room temperature for 30s. Experimental parameters were investigated for derivatization, SPME and DLLME conditions. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.019 ?g/ml and 0.063 ?g/ml for SPME and 0.022 ?g/ml and 0.075 ?g/ml for DLLME respectively. The percentage recovery, in case of SPME was in the range of 83-98% while for DLLME it is in the range of 84-98%. The intra and inter-day precisions were found to be less than 6%. The developed methods after ECF derivatization were found to be simple, fast, efficient and inexpensive. DLLME has several advantages like lesser extraction time and cost effectiveness as compared to SPME. The developed methods may find wide application for the routine determination of PRG in biological as well as in quality control samples of pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22677651

  14. Spectrophotometric Determination of Cr(III) and Pb(II) Using Their Complexes with 5,11,17,23-Tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl)(azo)phenyl]calix[4]arene.

    PubMed

    Van Tan, Le; Quang Hieu, Tran; Van Cuong, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    New complexes of 5,11,17,23-tetra[(2-ethyl acetoethoxyphenyl)(azo)phenyl]calix[4]arene (TEAC) with Pb(II) and Cr(III) were prepared in basic solution with a mixture of MeOH and H2O as solvent. The ratio of TEAC and metal ion in complexes was found to be 1?:?1 under investigated condition. The complex formation constants (based on Benesi-Hildebrand method) for TEAC-Pb(II) and TEAC-Cr(III) were 4.03 10(4) and 1.2 10(4), respectively. Additionally, the molar extinction coefficients were 5 10(4) and 1.42 10(4) for TEAC-Pb(II) and TEAC-Cr(III), respectively. The H-Point Standard Addition Method (HPSAM) has been applied for simultaneous determination of complexes formation of Cr(III)/Pb(II) and TEAC with concentration from 2?:?1 to 1?:?20 (w/w). The proposed method was successfully utilized to invest lead and chromium contents in plating wastewater samples. The results for several analyzed samples were found to be in satisfied agreement with those acquired by using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. PMID:25984379

  15. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS... with good feeding practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy....

  16. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS... with good feeding practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy....

  17. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS... with good feeding practices in ruminant feed supplements as a source of added energy....

  18. Ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight and triple-quadrupole-mass spectrometry determination of ethyl sulfate in wastewater for alcohol consumption tracing.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-lvarez, Tania; Rodil, Rosario; Cela, Rafael; Quintana, Jos Benito

    2014-02-01

    Ethyl sulfate (EtS) is excreted in urine as a minor metabolite (0.010-0.016% on molar basis) after intake of alcoholic beverages, being a convenient biomarker for ethanol tracing after its determination in sewage. In this work, a new method for the direct determination of EtS in wastewater by liquid chromatography-(tandem) mass spectrometry (LC-MS(/MS)) has been developed. Different LC columns, mobile phases, and detection systems have been tested. Convenient retention by ion-pair reversed-phase LC was achieved by addition of 50mM tetrabutylamonium bromide to the sample. Also, a triple-quadrupole (QqQ) instrument and a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) system were compared. The repeatability of both systems and linearity was comparable, with RSD?10% in sewage samples. The QqQ instrument provided a better limit of detection (LOD=0.1?gL(-1)) than the QTOF system LOD (0.2?gL(-1)). However, the LOD of this last instrument was still good enough for wastewater concentrations, while avoiding problems with interferences on the QqQ not permitting positive identification with this last system. The stability of EtS was tested and it has proven to be stable in wastewater for at least one week at room temperature and more than one month at -20C. The application of the method to samples collected during a week in a Galician (NW Spain) city showed EtS concentrations between 4 and 12?gL(-1). This translated into a per capita consumption of pure ethanol in the range from 9 to 24mLday(-1)inh(-1), observing an increase during the weekend compared to weekdays. PMID:24438832

  19. Separation of isomers of acyl glucuronides using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography in dynamically coated capillaries.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steen H; Christiansen, Ida

    2004-10-01

    The acyl glucuronide metabolites of endogenous as well as of xenobiotic compounds may undergo isomerization in vitro as well as in the human body. The parent acyl glucuronide and the isomerization products may react with endogenous protein to form products which in worst cases may act as antigens and thus create an allergic response. In the present paper new methods based on micellar electrokinetic or microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for the separation of all isomerization products as well as the hydrolysis product of acyl glucuronides are described. In order to perform the separation at lower pH values in a reasonable time dynamically coated capillaries were used. This enables the electroosmotic flow to be high and constant even at low pH. The methods were developed using S-naproxen-beta-1-O-acyl glucuronide as the model substance. The assignment of the single peaks in the electropherogram was performed tentatively based on the sequential appearance of the isomerization products with time. PMID:15472955

  20. URINARY PHARMACOKINETICS OF THE GLUCURONIDE AND SULFATE CONJUGATES OF GENISTEIN AND DAIDZEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of soybean-rich diets is thought to provide to provide significant health benefits such as prevention of cancer, primarily because of the high contents of factors such as the isoflavones genistein and diadzein. Isoflavones circulate and are excreted into the urine mainly as glucuronide ...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A CLASS-SELECTIVE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY FOR URINARY PHENOLIC GLUCURONIDES. (R825433)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Class-selective immunoassays for the measurement of glucuronides in human urine can aid evaluation of human exposure to complex mixtures of xenobiotics. Therefore, an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for the group-selective detection of phenolic Comparison of inhibition potentials of drugs against zidovudine glucuronidation in rat hepatocytes and liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Mano, Yuji; Usui, Takashi; Kamimura, Hidetaka

    2007-04-01

    Hepatocytes and liver microsomes are considered to be useful for investigating drug metabolism catalyzed mainly via glucuronidation. However, there have been few reports comparing the glucuronidation inhibition potentials of drug in hepatocytes to those in liver microsomes. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT, zidovudine) glucuronidation (AZTG) is the major metabolic pathway for AZT. In this study, the inhibition potentials of drugs against UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)-catalyzed AZTG in the hepatocytes and liver microsomes of rats are compared. The AZTG inhibition potentials of diclofenac, diflunisal, fluconazole, indomethacin, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, niflumic acid, and valproic acid in liver microsomes and hepatocytes were investigated using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Diflunisal (inhibition type: noncompetitive) inhibited AZTG most potently in rat liver microsomes (RLMs) with an IC(50) value of 34 microM. The IC(50) values of diclofenac, fluconazole, indomethacin, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, naproxen, niflumic acid, and valproic acid against AZTG in RLMs ranged from 34 to 1791 microM. Diclofenac, diflunisal, indomethacin, ketoprofen, naproxen, and valproic acid inhibited AZTG in hepatocytes with IC(50) values of 58, 37, 88, 361, 486, and 281 microM, respectively. These values were similar to those obtained in RLMs. In conclusion, the AZT glucuronidation inhibition potentials of drugs in the hepatocytes and liver microsomes of rats were found to be similar, and liver microsomes can be useful for evaluating UGT isozyme inhibition potentials. PMID:17267620

  2. Separation of glucuronide, sulfate and glutathione conjugates of benzo(a)pyrene by HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, B.A.; Selkirk, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    This study reports the chromatographic properties of sulfate, glucuronide and GSH conjugates on a Dupont C-8 column by HPLC. The analytical conditions were developed with standard BaP conjugates and were utilized to chromatograph aqueous-soluble metabolites from HEF metabolism after removal of organic-soluble metabolites. 30 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Age-related increases in F344 rat intestine microsomal quercetin glucuronidation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to establish the extent age modifies intestinal quercetin glucuronidation capacity. Pooled microsomal fractions of three equidistant small intestine (SI) segments from 4, 12, 18, and 28 mo male F344 rats (n=8/group) were employed to model the enzyme kinetics of UDP-gl...

  4. S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    S - Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate ( EPTC ) ; CASRN 759 - 94 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessme

  5. Detection of interstellar ethyl cyanide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Litvak, M. M.; Thaddeus, P.; Guelin, M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four millimeter-wave emission lines of ethyl cyanide (CH3CH2CN) have been detected in the Orion Nebula (OMC-1) and seven in Sgr B2. To derive precise radial velocities from the astronomical data, a laboratory measurement of the rotational spectrum of ethyl cyanide has been made at frequencies above 41 GHz. In OMC-1, the rotational temperature of ethyl cyanide is 90 K (in good agreement with other molecules), the local-standard-of-rest radial velocity is 4.5 + or - 1.0 km/s (versus 8.5 km/s for most molecules), and the column density is 1.8 by 10 to the 14th power per sq cm (a surprisingly high figure for a complicated molecule). The high abundance of ethyl cyanide in the Orion Nebula suggests that ethane and perhaps larger saturated hydrocarbons may be common constituents of molecular clouds and have escaped detection only because they are nonpolar or only weakly polar.

  6. Biotransformation of Bisphenol AF to Its Major Glucuronide Metabolite Reduces Estrogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Yixing; Shao, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF), an endocrine disrupting chemical, can induce estrogenic activity through binding to estrogen receptor (ER). However, the metabolism of BPAF in vivo and the estrogenic activity of its metabolites remain unknown. In the present study, we identified four metabolites including BPAF diglucuronide, BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G), BPAF glucuronide dehydrated and BPAF sulfate in the urine of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. BPAF-G was further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After treatment with a single dose of BPAF, BPAF was metabolized rapidly to BPAF-G, as detected in the plasma of SD rats. Biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G was confirmed with human liver microsomes (HLM), and Vmax of glucuronidation for HLM was 11.6 nmol/min/mg. We also found that BPAF glucuronidation could be mediated through several human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) including UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, among which UGT2B7 showed the highest efficiency of glucuronidation. To explain the biological function of BPAF biotransformation, the estrogenic activities of BPAF and BPAF-G were evaluated in ER-positive breast cancer T47D and MCF7 cells. BPAF significantly stimulates ER-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation at the dose of 100 nM and 1 ?M in breast cancer cells. However, BPAF-G did not show any induction of estrogenic activity at the same dosages, implying that formation of BPAF-G is a potential host defense mechanism against BPAF. Based on our study, biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G can eliminate BPAF-induced estrogenic activity, which is therefore considered as reducing the potential threat to human beings. PMID:24349450

  7. Tissue and species differences in the glucuronidation of glabridin with UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Fang, Zhongze; Yang, Lu; Xiao, Ling; Xia, Yangliu; Gonzalez, Frank J; Zhu, Liangliang; Cao, Yunfeng; Ge, Guangbo; Yang, Ling; Sun, Hongzhi

    2015-04-25

    Glabridin (GA) has gained wide application in the cosmetics and food industry. This study was performed to investigate its metabolic inactivation and elimination by glucuronidation by use of liver and intestine microsomes from humans (HLM and HIM) and rats (RLM and RIM), and liver microsomes from cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs (CyLM and DLM). Both hydroxyl groups at the C2 and C4 positions of the B ring are conjugated to generate two mono-glucuronides (M1 and M2). HIM, RIM and RLM showed the most robust activity in catalyzing M2 formation with intrinsic clearance values (Clint) above 2000 ?L/min/mg, with little measurable M1 formation activity. DLM displayed considerable activity both in M1 and M2 formation, with Clint values of 71 and 214 ?L/min/mg, respectively, while HLM and CyLM exhibited low activities in catalyzing M1 and M2 formation, with Clint values all below 20 ?L/min/mg. It is revealed that UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A9, 2B7, 2B15 and extrahepatic UGT1A8 and 1A10 are involved in GA glucuronidation. Nearly all UGTs preferred M2 formation except for UGT1A1. Notably, UGT1A8 displayed the highest activity with a Clint value more than 5-fold higher than the other isoforms. Chemical inhibition studies, using selective inhibitors of UGT1A1, 1A9, 2B7 and 1A8, further revealed that UGT1A8 contributed significantly to intestinal GA glucuronidation in humans. In summary, this in vitro study demonstrated large species differences in GA glucuronidation by liver and intestinal microsomes, and that intestinal UGTs are important for the pathway in humans. PMID:25765239

  8. Biotransformation of bisphenol AF to its major glucuronide metabolite reduces estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Yang, Yunjia; Yang, Yi; Yin, Jie; Zhang, Jing; Feng, Yixing; Shao, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol AF (BPAF), an endocrine disrupting chemical, can induce estrogenic activity through binding to estrogen receptor (ER). However, the metabolism of BPAF in vivo and the estrogenic activity of its metabolites remain unknown. In the present study, we identified four metabolites including BPAF diglucuronide, BPAF glucuronide (BPAF-G), BPAF glucuronide dehydrated and BPAF sulfate in the urine of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. BPAF-G was further characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). After treatment with a single dose of BPAF, BPAF was metabolized rapidly to BPAF-G, as detected in the plasma of SD rats. Biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G was confirmed with human liver microsomes (HLM), and Vmax of glucuronidation for HLM was 11.6 nmol/min/mg. We also found that BPAF glucuronidation could be mediated through several human recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) including UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A8, UGT1A9, UGT2B4, UGT2B7, UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, among which UGT2B7 showed the highest efficiency of glucuronidation. To explain the biological function of BPAF biotransformation, the estrogenic activities of BPAF and BPAF-G were evaluated in ER-positive breast cancer T47D and MCF7 cells. BPAF significantly stimulates ER-regulated gene expression and cell proliferation at the dose of 100 nM and 1 ?M in breast cancer cells. However, BPAF-G did not show any induction of estrogenic activity at the same dosages, implying that formation of BPAF-G is a potential host defense mechanism against BPAF. Based on our study, biotransformation of BPAF to BPAF-G can eliminate BPAF-induced estrogenic activity, which is therefore considered as reducing the potential threat to human beings. PMID:24349450

  9. Luminal accumulation of newly synthesized morphine-3-glucuronide in rat liver microsomal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Révész, Katalin; Tóth, Blanka; Staines, Adam G; Coughtrie, Michael W H; Mandl, József; Csala, Miklós

    2013-01-01

    Morphine is converted to morphine 3-β-D-glucuronide (M3G) by the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase Ugt2b1 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of rat liver. Because of its luminal localization, UGT activity requires UDP-glucuronate import and glucuronide export across the ER membrane. The former transport is generally considered to be rate limiting and to explain the latency of UGT activities in intact microsomal vesicles. However, some observations indicate that the release of bulky glucuronides, such as M3G, might also be rate limiting for glucuronidation. This assumption was tested by characterizing the transport of M3G and its distribution between the intra- and extravesicular spaces during synthesis in rat liver microsomes. The amount of vesicle-associated M3G was measured using rapid filtration and LC-MS measurement. Our results reveal a remarkable accumulation of newly synthesized M3G in the microsomal lumen above the equilibrium. The transport showed a linear concentration-dependence in a wide range (5-200 μM). Therefore, the build-up of high (about 20 μM) luminal M3G concentration could adjust the rate of release to that of synthesis (44.85 ± 4.08 pmol/min/mg protein) during the conjugation of 100 μM morphine. These data can explain earlier findings indicative of separate intracellular pools of M3G in rat liver. Accumulation of bulky glucuronides in the ER lumen might also play an important role in their targeting and in the control of biliary excretion. PMID:23281118

  10. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Leads to Deconjugation of Quercetin Glucuronides in Inflammatory Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Satomi; Shiba, Yuko; Minekawa, Shoko; Nishikawa, Tomomi; Mukai, Rie; Terao, Junji; Kawai, Yoshichika

    2013-01-01

    Dietary flavonoids, such as quercetin, have long been recognized to protect blood vessels from atherogenic inflammation by yet unknown mechanisms. We have previously discovered the specific localization of quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a phase II metabolite of quercetin, in macrophage cells in the human atherosclerotic lesions, but the biological significance is poorly understood. We have now demonstrated the molecular basis of the interaction between quercetin glucuronides and macrophages, leading to deconjugation of the glucuronides into the active aglycone. In vitro experiments showed that Q3GA was bound to the cell surface proteins of macrophages through anion binding and was readily deconjugated into the aglycone. It is of interest that the macrophage-mediated deconjugation of Q3GA was significantly enhanced upon inflammatory activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Zymography and immunoblotting analysis revealed that ?-glucuronidase is the major enzyme responsible for the deglucuronidation, whereas the secretion rate was not affected after LPS treatment. We found that extracellular acidification, which is required for the activity of ?-glucuronidase, was significantly induced upon LPS treatment and was due to the increased lactate secretion associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, the ?-glucuronidase secretion, which is triggered by intracellular calcium ions, was also induced by mitochondria dysfunction characterized using antimycin-A (a mitochondrial inhibitor) and siRNA-knockdown of Atg7 (an essential gene for autophagy). The deconjugated aglycone, quercetin, acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in the stimulated macrophages by inhibiting the c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation, whereas Q3GA acts only in the presence of extracellular ?-glucuronidase activity. Finally, we demonstrated the deconjugation of quercetin glucuronides including the sulfoglucuronides in vivo in the spleen of mice challenged with LPS. These results showed that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role in the deconjugation of quercetin glucuronides in macrophages. Collectively, this study contributes to clarifying the mechanism responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of dietary flavonoids within the inflammation sites. PMID:24260490

  11. A validated hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap LC-MS method for the analysis of morphine and morphine glucuronides applied to opiate deaths.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kerry; Elliott, Simon

    2009-05-30

    A hybrid quadrupole linear ion-trap mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionisation ion source coupled to a HPLC system has been used to develop a method which can accurately measure morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) in plasma, whole blood and post-mortem blood following solid-phase extraction. The method can also qualitatively detect various other opioids and related compounds including: codeine, dihydrocodeine (and metabolites), noscapine, papaverine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). The method has been favourably compared to an existing laboratory method using a now discontinued radio-immunoassay technique. The advantage of measuring the glucuronides directly rather than following deconjugation by beta-glucuronidase has also been shown. Detection and quantification of compounds was achieved using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) incorporating the use of deuterated morphine and M3G as internal standards. Precision and accuracy was determined to be less than 10% at both high and low levels for all analytes and the calibration curve was deemed linear over an acceptable range. Recovery in blood was greater than 90% and ion suppression/enhancement was shown to be less than 15%. This method was applied to over 130 post-mortem cases involving the use of heroin, prescribed morphine and codeine. The range of concentrations of morphine, M3G and M6G was large (particularly in heroin and prescribed morphine cases), reflecting the many different factors involved with therapeutic use or fatal opiate poisonings, including tolerance associated with regular use, variable dose regimens and co-administration of other drugs. Detection of other constituents of the opium poppy such as noscapine and papaverine and metabolites of diacetylmorphine in the blood (6-AM) was useful in determining the source of the morphine (i.e. illicit heroin) and the rapidity of death after administration. PMID:19297106

  12. 40 CFR 721.9580 - Ethyl methanesulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethyl methanesulfonate. 721.9580... Substances 721.9580 Ethyl methanesulfonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance ethyl methanesulfonate (CAS No. 62-50-0) is subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9580 - Ethyl methanesulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethyl methanesulfonate. 721.9580... Substances 721.9580 Ethyl methanesulfonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance ethyl methanesulfonate (CAS No. 62-50-0) is subject to reporting...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9580 - Ethyl methanesulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethyl methanesulfonate. 721.9580... Substances 721.9580 Ethyl methanesulfonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance ethyl methanesulfonate (CAS No. 62-50-0) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9580 - Ethyl methanesulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethyl methanesulfonate. 721.9580... Substances 721.9580 Ethyl methanesulfonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance ethyl methanesulfonate (CAS No. 62-50-0) is subject to reporting...

  16. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  17. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  18. 49 CFR 173.322 - Ethyl chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ethyl chloride. 173.322 Section 173.322 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Gases; Preparation and Packaging 173.322 Ethyl chloride. Ethyl chloride must...

  19. 21 CFR 573.420 - Ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl cellulose. 573.420 Section 573.420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Listing 573.420 Ethyl cellulose. The food additive ethyl cellulose may be safely used in animal feed...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9580 - Ethyl methanesulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethyl methanesulfonate. 721.9580... Substances 721.9580 Ethyl methanesulfonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance ethyl methanesulfonate (CAS No. 62-50-0) is subject to reporting...

  2. Determination of t,t-muconic acid in urine samples using a molecular imprinted polymer combined with simultaneous ethyl chloroformate derivatization and pre-concentration by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Chauhan, Abhishek; Singh, Krishna P; Gupta, Shailendra K; Jain, Rajeev; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Murthy, R C

    2013-01-01

    The present communication describes the preparation and evaluation of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent and simultaneous ethyl chloroformate (ECF) derivatization and pre-concentration by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the analysis of t,t-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The imprinting polymer was prepared using methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker, 2,2-azobisisobutyronitrile as the initiator and t,t-MA as a template molecule. The imprinted polymer was evaluated for its use as a SPE sorbent by comparing both imprinted and non-imprinted polymers in terms of the recovery of t,t-MA from urine samples. Molecular modelling studies were performed in order to estimate the binding energy and efficiency of the MIP complex formed between the monomer and the t,t-MA. Various factors that can affect the extraction efficiency of MIP, such as the loading, washing and eluting conditions, were optimized; other factors that can affect the derivatization and DLLME pre-concentration were also optimized. MIP in combination with ECF derivatization and DLLME pre-concentration for t,t-MA exhibits good linearity, ranging from 0.125 to 2 μg mL(-1) (R(2) = 0.9971), with limit of detection of 0.037 μg mL(-1) and limit of quantification of 0.109 μg mL(-1). Intra- and inter-day precision was found to be <6%. The proposed method has been proven to be effective and sensitive for the selective pre-concentration and determination of t,t-MA in urine samples of cigarette smokers. PMID:23079953

  3. Identification of glucuronides as in vivo liver conjugates of seven cannabinoids and some of their hydroxy and acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Harvey, D J; Martin, B R; Paton, W D

    1977-02-01

    Glucuronide conjugates of cannabidiol (CBD), 7-hydroxy-CBD, propyl-CBD, cannabinol (CBN), 7-hydroxy-CBN, CBN-7-oic acid, propyl CBN and cannabichromene have been identified as major metabolites of CBD, CBN and their propyl homologues and of cannabichromene in mouse liver. Trace amounts of the glucuronide conjugates of delta1- and delta1(6)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were also detected. Identification was made by combined gas-liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric studies of the trimethylsilyl (TMS), d9-TMS and methyl ester-TMS derivatives of the glucuronides and the TMS derivatives of the product of the reduction of the metabolites with lithium aluminium deuteride. PMID:847285

  4. Ethyl levulinate: A potential bio-based diluent for biodiesel which improves cold flow properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physical properties of biodiesel from soybean, canola, cottonseed and poultry fat methyl esters were improved with addition of ethyl levulinate with increasing concentration. The effect of adding ethyl levulinate was determined by studying its influence on the acid value, cloud point, pour point...

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Six Active Compounds in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, by RP-HPLC-UV Method

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ning; He, ChenHui; Awuti, Gulistan; Zeng, Cheng; Xing, JianGuo; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a sensitive, precise, and accurate HPLC-UV method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine the six analytes (luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, tilianin, and rosmarinic acid) in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules, in which five analytes (i.e., luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, apigenin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, diosmetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, acacetin-7-O-β-D-glucuronide, and rosmarinic acid) were determined for the first time in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules, the content of tilianin in Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules was reported in other literatures, and the content of tilianin in our work was higher than that of the literature reports. The quality of 11 batch samples from four different manufacturers was evaluated using the proposed determination method. The contents of the six analytes were largely different among samples from various manufacturers. Therefore, this determination method can provide a scientific basis for quality evaluation and control of Yixin Badiranjibuya Granules. PMID:26587308

  6. Surface tension of aqueous lithium bromide + 2-ethyl-1-hexanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Berman, N.S. ); Wood, B.D. )

    1994-01-01

    The surface tension of an aqueous lithium bromide solution containing an active surfactant (2-ethyl-1-hexanol) was measured over the lithium bromide concentration range 40 [<=] C[sub LiBr] [<=] 60 wt % and surfactant concentration range 0 [<=] C[sub sur] [<=] 200 ppm. The Du Nouy ring method was employed to determine the surface tension.

  7. Development and validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide in plasma, urine, feces, liver and kidney: Application to a pharmacokinetic study of irinotecan in rats.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sumit; Zeng, Min; Yin, Taijun; Gao, Song; Hu, Ming

    2016-03-15

    The objective of this research is to develop and validate a sensitive and reproducible UPLC-MS/MS method to quantify irinotecan, its active metabolite SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide (phase II metabolite of SN-38) simultaneously in different bio-matrices (plasma, urine, feces), tissues (liver and kidney) and to use the method to investigate its pharmacokinetic behavior in rats. Irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide has been resolved and separated by C18 column using acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water used as the mobile phases. Triple quadruple mass spectrometer using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with positive scan mode were employed to perform mass analysis. The results showed that the linear response range of irinotecan and SN-38 in plasma, feces, liver and kidney is 4.88-10000nM, 39-5000nM, 48.8-6250nM and 48.8-6250nM, respectively (R(2)>0.99). In case of SN-38 glucuronide, the standard curves were linear in the concentration range of 6.25-2000nM, 4.88-1250nM, 9.8-1250nM and 9.8-1250nM in plasma, feces, liver and kidney homogenates, respectively. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide was determined to be less than 25nM in all bio-matrices as well as tissue homogenates. Recoveries of irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide at three different concentrations (low, medium and high) were not less than 85% at three different concentrations in plasma and feces. The percentage matrix factors in different bio-matrices and tissues were within 20%. The UPLC-MS/MS method was validated with intra-day and inter-day precision of less than 15% in plasma, feces, liver and kidney. Owing to the high sensitivity of this method, only 20μl of plasma, urine and homogenates of liver, kidney and feces is needed. The validated method has been successfully employed for pharmacokinetic evaluation of irinotecan in male wistar rats to quantify irinotecan, SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide in plasma, feces, and urine samples. PMID:26894853

  8. Studies on the glucuronidation of dopamine D-1 receptor antagonists, SCH 39166 and SCH 23390, by human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Tephly, T R; Coffman, B; Styczynski, P; Rios, G; Charkowski, D M; Vanrollins, M; McQuade, R D; Tedford, C E

    1994-01-01

    Dopamine D-1 receptor antagonists are currently under investigation for use as antipsychotic agents. Two potent and selective D-1 receptor antagonists, SCH 39166 and SCH 23390, have been studied extensively in various experimental animal models. SCH 39166 has a more prolonged duration of action in primates in vivo and a lower rate of in vitro glucuronidation by microsomes from squirrel monkey liver. Because the rate of glucuronidation seems to govern the duration of action and may limit the use of these agents in humans, the glucuronidation of SCH 39166 and SCH 23390 by microsomes isolated from human liver was studied. The rates of glucuronide formation (Vmax) for SCH 39166 were much lower than those of SCH 23390, yet the KM values were similar. Therefore, the average efficiency (Vmax/KM) of SCH 39166 glucuronidation was only 14% that of SCH 23390. These results agree with previous studies in hepatic microsomes from squirrel monkeys. Marked inhibition of SCH 39166 glucuronidation by SCH 23390 and its pharmacologically inactive stereoisomer, SCH 23388, was observed. The inactive stereoisomer of SCH 39166, SCH 39165, was a weak inhibitor. In contrast, substrates for morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and p-nitrophenol, an alternative substrate for numerous human hepatic UGTs, did not inhibit SCH 39166 glucuronidation. Further separation of human hepatic UGTs activities using chromatofocusing chromatography indicated that SCH 39166 UGT activity was distinct from human hepatic UGT2B15 and human hepatic pI 6.2 UGT activity. Thus, a unique human hepatic UGT may be involved in SCH 39166 glucuronidation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7835222

  9. Characterization of glucuronidated phase II metabolites of the immunosuppressant cyclosporine in urine of transplant patients using time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K; Fobker, M; Christians, U; Erren, M; Sewing, K F; Assmann, G; Benninghoven, A

    1996-10-01

    The immunosuppressant, cyclosporine, is metabolized in the liver and small intestine to > 30 metabolites. Metabolism and immunosuppressive and toxic potentials of the metabolites are still unclarified. Therefore, search and determination of new metabolites remain an important part of cyclosporine research. In this study, cyclosporine metabolites were determined in 42 urine samples of transplant patients using time-of-flight secondary-ion MS. Besides the known metabolites of phase I and phase II, other groups of new phase II metabolites were detected, and most of them were identified as glucuronidated phase I metabolites. All metabolites were found in the urine of heart, kidney, and bone marrow graft patients, with frequencies in the range of 74% and 12%. The most intensive group of these metabolites was also detected in a HPLC fraction, together with the known glucuronidated AM1c. The concentration of this new metabolic group could be estimated to < or = 5/ml. In conclusion, this work demonstrated that time-of-flight secondary-ion MS is a powerful tool in pharmacological investigations. Furthermore this study showed that phase II metabolism is an important metabolic pathway of cyclosporine in transplant patients. PMID:8894518

  10. Hormonal monitoring of early pregnancy by a direct radioimmunoassay of steroid glucuronides in first morning urine

    SciTech Connect

    Mendizabal, A.F.; Quiroga, S.; Farinati, Z.; Lahoz, M.; Nagle, C.

    1984-11-01

    The usefulness of the direct 4-hour radioimmunoassay of estriol-16-glucuronide (E/sub 3/G) and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (P/sub 2/G) in first morning urine (FMU) for establishing a prognosis of the early pregnancy outcome was evaluated in 106 patients that became pregnant. Microaliquots of FMU were serially assayed from day 3 of the conception cycle until day 80 of pregnancy. The E/sub 3/G and P/sub 2/G profiles of 19 pregnancies which terminated in spontaneous abortion with either a diagnosis of the blighted ovum syndrome (n = 11) or presumption of a corpus luteum/trophoblast failure (n = 8) have been compared with those of clinically normal pregnancies (n = 87). Normal pregnancies displayed typical patterns of E/sub 3/G and P/sub 2/G development, while variations were observed in abortive events that reflected changes of the fetoplacental unit.

  11. Soy isoflavone metabolism in cats compared with other species: urinary metabolite concentrations and glucuronidation by liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Redmon, Joanna M; Shrestha, Binu; Cerundolo, Rosario; Court, Michael H

    2016-05-01

    1. Soybean is a common source of protein in many pet foods. Slow glucuronidation of soy-derived isoflavones in cats has been hypothesized to result in accumulation with adverse health consequences. Here, we evaluated species' differences in soy isoflavone glucuronidation using urine samples from cats and dogs fed a soy-based diet and liver microsomes from cats compared with microsomes from 12 other species. 2. Significant concentrations of conjugated (but not unconjugated) genistein, daidzein and glycitein, and the gut microbiome metabolites, dihydrogenistein and dihydrodaidzein, were found in cat and dog urine samples. Substantial amounts of conjugated equol were also found in cat urine but not in dog urine. 3. β-Glucuronidase treatment showed that all these compounds were significantly glucuronidated in dog urine while only daidzein (11%) and glycitein (37%) showed any glucuronidation in cat urine suggesting that alternate metabolic pathways including sulfation predominate in cats. 4. Glucuronidation rates of genistein, daidzein and equol by cat livers were consistently ranked within the lowest 3 out of 13 species' livers evaluated. Ferret and mongoose livers were also ranked in the lowest four species. 5. Our results demonstrate that glucuronidation is a minor pathway for soy isoflavone metabolism in cats compared with most other species. PMID:26366946

  12. Direct quantification of cannabinoids and cannabinoid glucuronides in whole blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schwope, David M; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-09-01

    The first method for quantifying cannabinoids and cannabinoid glucuronides in whole blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. Solid-phase extraction followed protein precipitation with acetonitrile. High-performance liquid chromatography separation was achieved in 16 min via gradient elution. Electrospray ionization was utilized for cannabinoid detection; both positive (?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] and cannabinol [CBN]) and negative (11-hydroxy-THC [11-OH-THC], 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC [THCCOOH], cannabidiol [CBD], THC-glucuronide, and THCCOOH-glucuronide) polarity were employed with multiple reaction monitoring. Calibration by linear regression analysis utilized deuterium-labeled internal standards and a 1/x(2) weighting factor, yielding R(2) values >0.997 for all analytes. Linearity ranged from 0.5 to 50 ?g/L (THC-glucuronide), 1.0-100 ?g/L (THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH, CBD, and CBN), and 5.0-250 ?g/L (THCCOOH-glucuronide). Imprecision was <10.5% CV, recovery was >50.5%, and bias within 13.1% of target for all analytes at three concentrations across the linear range. No carryover and endogenous or exogenous interferences were observed. This new analytical method should be useful for quantifying cannabinoids in whole blood and further investigating cannabinoid glucuronides as markers of recent cannabis intake. PMID:21727996

  13. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Ambar K; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated compared to the anti-oxidant activity of curcumin. PMID:26783957

  14. Synthesis and Evaluation of the Anti-Oxidant Capacity of Curcumin Glucuronides, the Major Curcumin Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Ambar K.; Raja, Suganya; Mahapatra, Sanjata; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Majeed, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin metabolites namely curcumin monoglucuronide and curcumin diglucuronide were synthesized using an alternative synthetic approach. The anti-oxidant potential of these curcumin glucuronides was compared with that of curcumin using DPPH scavenging method and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The results show that curcumin monoglucuronide exhibits 10 fold less anti-oxidant activity (DPPH method) and the anti-oxidant capacity of curcumin diglucuronide is highly attenuated compared to the anti-oxidant activity of curcumin. PMID:26783957

  15. Hesperidin metabolite hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide, but not hesperetin-3'-O-glucuronide, exerts hypotensive, vasodilatory, and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaki; Jokura, Hiroko; Hashizume, Koujiro; Ominami, Hideo; Shibuya, Yusuke; Suzuki, Atsushi; Hase, Tadashi; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2013-09-01

    Orally ingested hesperidin (HES) is hydrolyzed into hesperetin in the gastrointestinal tract and conjugated during absorption. Hesperetin conjugates are the main circulating metabolites in human and rat plasma. We previously reported that glucosyl hesperidin (GHES), a water-soluble HES derivative, prevents hypertension via improvement of endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Although these hesperetin conjugates seem to be responsible for hypotensive and endothelium-dependent vasodilatory activities of dietary GHES, little is known about the mechanisms of action of these conjugated metabolites. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hesperetin-7-O-β-d-glucuronide (HPT7G) and hesperetin-3'-O-β-d-glucuronide (HPT3'G), which are the predominant HES metabolites in rat plasma, on blood pressure and endothelial function. Intravenous administration of HPT7G (5 mg kg(-1)) decreased blood pressure in anesthetized SHRs. HPT7G enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to acetylcholine, but had no effect on endothelium-independent vasodilation in response to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in aortas isolated from SHRs. HPT7G decreased hydrogen peroxide-induced intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA expression in rat aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, HPT3'G had little effect on these parameters. In conclusion, HPT7G exerted hypotensive, vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory activities, similar to hesperetin and these effects are associated, in part, with the activity of GHES and HES to improve hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:23831969

  16. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  18. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1293 - Ethyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl alcohol. 184.1293 Section 184.1293 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1293 Ethyl alcohol. (a) Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is the chemical C2H5OH....

  20. In Vitro Effects of Bisphenol A β-D-Glucuronide (BPA-G) on Adipogenesis in Human and Murine Preadipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Jonathan G.; Boudreau, Adèle; Ahmed, Shaimaa

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to common environmental substances, such as bisphenol A (BPA), has been associated with a number of negative health outcomes. In vivo, BPA is rapidly converted to its predominant metabolite, BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G), which has long been believed to be biologically inactive because it lacks estrogenic activity. However, the effects of BPA-G on cellular metabolism have not been characterized. In the present study we examined the effect of BPA-G on adipogenesis. Methods The effect of BPA-G on the differentiation of human and 3T3L1 murine preadipocytes was evaluated in vitro by quantifying lipid accumulation and the expression of adipogenic markers. Results Treatment of 3T3L1 preadipocytes with 10 μM BPA-G induced a significant increase in lipid accumulation, mRNA expression of the adipogenic markers sterol regulatory element binding factor 1 (SREBF1) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and protein levels of LPL, aP2, and adipsin. Treatment of primary human preadipocytes with BPA-G also induced adipogenesis as determined by aP2 levels. Co-treatment of cells with the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist fulvestrant (ICI) significantly inhibited the BPA-G–induced increase in LPL and aP2 levels, whereas treatment with ICI alone had no effect. Moreover, BPA-G did not display any significant estrogenic activity. Conclusions To our knowledge, this study is the first to report that BPA-G induces adipocyte differentiation and is not simply an inactive metabolite. The fact that BPA-G induced adipogenesis and was inhibited by an ER antagonist yet showed no estrogenic activity suggests that it has no classical ER transcriptional activation function and acts through a pathway that remains to be determined. Citation Boucher JG, Boudreau A, Ahmed S, Atlas E. 2015. In vitro effects of bisphenol A β-D-glucuronide (BPA-G) on adipogenesis in human and murine preadipocytes. Environ Health Perspect 123:1287–1293; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409143 PMID:26018136

  1. Hydrogenation of ethyl 5-cyano-2-oximinovalerate

    SciTech Connect

    Klabunovskii, E.I.; Levitina, E.S.; Kaigorodova, L.N.; Godunova, L.F.; Gogoladze, D.D.; Karpeiskaya, E.I.; Novikova, S.A.

    1987-03-10

    Hydrogenation of ethyl 5-cyano-2-oximinovalerate in acetic anhydride at atmospheric pressure in the presence of strong base leads to a quantitative yield of the ethyl ester of ..cap alpha..,eta-diacetyllysine. Selective reduction of the cyano and oximino groups in ethyl 5-cyano-2-oximinovalerate has been shown in the presence of powdered Ni, Cu-Ni, and LaNi/sub 5/H/sub 6.6/ catalysts. Hydrogenation of ethyl 5-cyano-2-oximinovalerate on Raney Ni at atmospheric pressure in dioxan with addition of acetic anhydride leads to a 50% yield of diacetyllysine.

  2. The Contribution of Common UGT2B10 and CYP2A6 Alleles to Variation in Nicotine Glucuronidation among European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, A. Joseph; von Weymarn, Linda B.; Martinez, Maribel; Bierut, Laura J.; Goate, Alison; Murphy, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosytransferase-2B10 (UGT2B10) is the primary catalyst of nicotine glucuronidation. To develop a predictive genetic model of nicotine metabolism, the conversion of deuterated (D2)-nicotine to D2-nicotine-glucuronide, D2-cotinine, D2-cotinine-glucuronide, and D2-trans-3'-hydroxycotinine were quantified in 188 European Americans, and the contribution of UGT2B10 genotype to variability in first-pass nicotine glucuronidation assessed, following a procedure previously applied to nicotine C-oxidation. The proportion of total nicotine converted to nicotine-glucuronide (D2-nicotine-glucuronide/ (D2-nicotine +D2-nicotine-glucuronide +D2-cotinine +D2-cotinine-glucuronide +D2-trans-3'-hydroxycotinine)) was the primary phenotype. The variant, rs61750900T (D67Y) (minor allele frequency (MAF) = 10%), is confirmed to abolish nicotine glucuronidation activity. Another variant, rs112561475G (N397D) (MAF = 2%), is significantly associated with enhanced glucuronidation. rs112561475G is the ancestral allele of a well-conserved amino acid, indicating that the majority of human UGT2B10 alleles are derived hypomorphic alleles. CYP2A6 and UGT2B10 genotype explain 53% of the variance in oral nicotine glucuronidation in this sample. CYP2A6 and UGT2B10 genetic variants are also significantly associated with un-deuterated (D0) nicotine glucuronidation in subjects smoking ad libitum. We find no evidence for further common variation markedly influencing hepatic UGT2B10 expression in European Americans. PMID:24192532

  3. Solid Dose Form of Metformin with Ethyl Eicosapentaenoic Acid Does Not Improve Metformin Plasma Availability

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Jeffrey H.; Johnson, William D.; Greenway, Frank L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to investigate effects of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid on pharmacokinetics of metformin. Pharmacokinetic profiles of metformin and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid when delivered separately or together in solid dose form were investigated and compared to determine whether the solid dose resulted in an altered metforminpharmacokinetics when given with or without food. Methods A single-center, open-label, repeated dose study investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of metformin when administered in solid dose form with ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid compared to co-administration with icosapent ethyl, an ester of eicosapentaenoic acid and ethyl alcohol used to treat severe hypertriglyceridemia with metformin hydrochloride. Non-compartmental PK methods were used to compare area under the plasma concentration curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) between patients randomized to either the ester or separate medications group under both fasting and fed conditions. Results Using these two PK parameters, results showed that metformin availability was higher under fasting conditions when delivered separately from icosapent ethyl. There were no group differences in the fed condition. Conclusions The solid dose form of metformin and ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid did not improve the pharmacokinetics of metformin in terms of plasma availability, suggesting that little is to be gained over the separate administration of ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid and metformin hydrochloride. PMID:26893954

  4. Morpholine-4-carboxamidinium ethyl carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Tiritiris, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C5H12N3O+C3H5O3 ?, contains two carboxamidinium and two ethyl carbonate ions. In the crystal, the CN bond lengths in the central CN3 units of the cations range between 1.324?(2) and 1.352?(2)?, indicating partial double-bond character. The central C atoms are bonded to the three N atoms in a nearly ideal trigonalplanar geometry and the positive charges are delocalized in the CN3 planes. The morpholine rings are in chair conformations. The CO bond lengths in both ethyl carbonate ions are characteristic for delocalized double bonds [1.243?(2)1.251?(2)?] and typical single bonds [1.368?(2) and 1.375?(2)?]. In the crystal, NH?O hydrogen bonds between cations and anions generate a two-dimensional network in the ac plane. PMID:23476249

  5. Crystal structures of frozen room temperature ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF 4), hexafluoroniobate (EMImNbF 6) and hexafluorotantalate (EMImTaF 6), determined by low-temperature X-ray diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiko; Hagiwara, Rika; Mazej, Zoran; Benki?, Primo; emva, Boris

    2006-10-01

    The crystal structures of three salts, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMImBF 4), hexafluoroniobate (EMImNbF 6) and hexafluorotantalate (EMImTaF 6), all of which form room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), have been determined by low-temperature X-ray diffraction studies of their single crystals. EMImBF 4 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2/c with a=8.653(5) , b=9.285(18) , c=13.217(7) , ?=121.358(15) , V=906.8(19) , Z=4 at 100 K. EMImBF 4 exhibits a unique structure wherein EMIm cations form one-dimensional pillars facing the imidazolium ring to the next ring linked by H(methylene)⋯ ? electron interaction. The BF 4 anion also forms one-dimensional pillars along the same direction with the nearest F⋯F contact distance of 3.368(3) . EMImNbF 6 and EMImTaF 6 are isostructural to each other and crystallize in the orthorhombic space group P222: EMImNbF 6, a=9.204(4) , b=9.770(15) , c=12.499(13) , V=1124(2) , Z=4 at 200 K; EMImTaF 6, a=9.216(5) , b=9.763(2) , c=12.502(17) , V=1124.9(17) , Z=4 at 200 K. In EMImNbF 6 and EMImTaF 6, EMIm cations also form a one-dimensional pillar structure and the hexafluorocomplex anions are located in a zig-zag arrangement along the same direction with the nearest F⋯F distance of 3.441(12) . This structure (Type-B(MF 6)) is different from the Type-A(MF 6) structure previously reported for EMImPF 6, EMImAsF 6 and EMImSbF 6. Hydrogen bonds in the Type-A(MF 6) (EMImPF 6 (333 K), EMImAsF 6 (326 K) and EMImSbF 6 (283 K)) crystal lattice are weaker than those in the Type-B(MF 6) (EMImNbF 6 (272 K) and EMImTaF 6 (275 K)) crystal lattice. This suggests that the strength of the hydrogen bond is not always a decisive and determining factor for the melting points of RTILs. The measurement of cell parameters for EMImBF 4 between 100 K and its melting point revealed that EMImBF 4 essentially preserves the same structure in this temperature range and increases its volume by only 4% due to the melting.

  6. Disposition of Flavonoids via Enteric Recycling: Enzyme Stability Affects Characterization of Prunetin Glucuronidation across Species, Organs, and UGT Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Tiby B.; Wang, Stephen W.J.; Liu, Xing; Kulkarni, Kaustubh H.; Wang, Jingrong; Xu, Haiyan; Hu, Ming

    2008-01-01

    We characterized the in vitro glucuronidation of prunetin, a prodrug of genistein that is a highly active cancer prevention agent. Metabolism studies were conducted using expressed human UGT isoforms and microsomes/S9 fractions prepared from intestine and liver of rodents and humans. The results indicated that human intestinal microsomes were more efficient than liver microsomes in glucuronidating prunetin, but rates of metabolism were dependent on time of incubation at 37C. Human liver and intestinal microsomes mainly produced metabolite 1 (prunetin-5-O-glucuronide) and metabolite 2 (prunetin-4-O-glucuronide), respectively. Using 12 human UGT isoforms, we showed that UGT1A7, UGT1A8 and 1A9 were mainly responsible for the formation of metabolite 1 whereas UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 were mainly responsible for the formation of metabolite 2. This isoform specific metabolism was consistent with earlier results obtained using human liver and intestinal microsomes, as the former (liver) is UGT1A9-rich whereas the latter is UGT1A10-rich. Surprisingly, we found that thermo stability of the microsomes were isoform- and organ-dependent. For example, human liver microsomal UGT activities were much more heat (37C) stable than intestinal microsomal UGT activities, consistent with the finding that human UGT1A9 is much more thermo stable than human UGT1A10 and UGT1A8. The organ-specific thermo stability profiles were also evident in rat microsomes and mouse S9 fractions, even though human intestinal glucuronidation of prunetin differ significantly from its rodent intestinal glucuronidation. In conclusion, prunetin glucuronidation is species-, organ- and UGT-isoform dependent, all of which may be impacted by thermo stability of specific UGT isoforms involved in the metabolism. PMID:18052087

  7. Enantioselective Metabolism of Quizalofop-Ethyl in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yiran; Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Shen, Zhigang; Liu, Hui; Jia, Zhixin; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic and distribution of the enantiomers of quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid were studied in Sprague-Dawley male rats. The two pairs of enantiomers were determined using a validated chiral high-performance liquid chromatography method. Animals were administered quizalofop-ethyl at 10 mg kg−1 orally and intravenously. It was found high concentration of quizalofop-acid in the blood and tissues by both intragastric and intravenous administration, and quizalofop-ethyl could not be detected through the whole study which indicated a quick metabolism of quizalofop-ethyl to quizalofop-acid in vivo. In almost all the samples, the concentrations of (+)-quizalofop-acid exceeded those of (−)-quizalofop-acid. Quizalofop-acid could still be detected in the samples even at 120 h except in brain due to the function of blood-brain barrier. Based on a rough calculation, about 8.77% and 2.16% of quizalofop-acid were excreted through urine and feces after intragastric administration. The oral bioavailability of (+)-quizalofop-acid and (−)-quizalofop-acid were 72.8% and 83.6%. PMID:24964043

  8. Reactivity of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Iniesta Garca, Mara Paz; Moreno Sanroma, Alberto; Martn Porrero, Mara Pilar; Tapia Valle, Araceli; Cabaas Galn, Beatriz; Salgado Muoz, Mara Sagrario

    2010-04-01

    Rate coefficients at room temperature for the reaction of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol with OH and NO(3) radicals and with Cl atoms have been determined in a 150 L PTFE chamber using GC-FID/SPME and FTIR as detection systems. The rate coefficients k (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) obtained were: (1.13 +/- 0.31) 10(-11) for the OH reaction, (2.93 +/- 0.92) 10(-15) for the NO(3) reaction and (1.88 +/- 0.25) 10(-10) for the Cl reaction. Despite the high concentrations of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, especially in indoor air, this is the first kinetic study carried out to date for these reactions. The results are consistent with the expected reactivity given the chemical structure of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol. Calculated atmospheric lifetimes reveal that the dominant loss process for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is clearly the daytime reaction with the hydroxyl radical. PMID:20237722

  9. Clarification of anomalous chiroptical behaviour and determination of the absolute configuration of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-ethyl-7,8-dimethoxy-5 H-2,3-benzodiazepine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogassy, Elemr; cs, Mria; Tth, Gbor; Simon, Klmn; Lng, Tibor; Ladnyi, L.; Prknyi, L.

    1986-09-01

    An optically active hydrogen bromide salt of 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-5-ethyl-7,8-dimethoxy-5 H-2,3-benzodiazepine has been prepared and the R5 configuration studied by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The crystals are triclinic with space group P1, with two molecules in a unit cell of dimensions a = 10.798(1), b = 12.669(1) and c = 8.681(1) , and ? = 97.15(1), ? = 99.36(1) and ? = 68.74(1). The anomalous chiroptical behaviour is explained on the basis of the chiral interactions between the optically active conformers.

  10. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 21.107 Section 21.107 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester:...

  11. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  12. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  13. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  14. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  15. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  16. UGT1A and UGT2B genetic variation alters nicotine and nitrosamine glucuronidation in European and African American smokers

    PubMed Central

    Wassenaar, Catherine A.; Conti, David V.; Das, Soma; Chen, Peixian; Cook, Edwin H.; Ratain, Mark J.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Tyndale, Rachel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying sources of variation in the nicotine and nitrosamine metabolic inactivation pathways is important to understanding the relationship between smoking and cancer risk. Numerous UGT1A and UGT2B enzymes are implicated in nicotine and nitrosamine metabolism in vitro; however, little is known about their roles in vivo. Methods Within UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, UGT2B10, and UGT2B17, 47 variants were genotyped, including UGT2B10*2 and UGT2B17*2. The association between variation in these UGTs and glucuronidation activity within European and African American current smokers (n=128), quantified as urinary ratios of the glucuronide over unconjugated compound for nicotine, cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, and NNAL, was investigated in regression models assuming a dominant effect of variant alleles. Results Correcting for multiple testing, three UGT2B10 variants were associated with cotinine glucuronidation, rs2331559 and rs11726322 in European Americans and rs835309 in African Americans (P?.0002). Additional variants predominantly in UGT2B10 were nominally associated with nicotine (P=.008-.04) and cotinine (P=<.001-.02) glucuronidation in both ethnicities in addition to UGT2B10*2 in European Americans (P=.01, P<.001). UGT2B17*2 (P=.03) in European Americans and UGT2B7 variants (P=.02-.04) in African Americans were nominally associated with 3HC glucuronidation. UGT1A (P=.007-.01), UGT2B10 (P=.02) and UGT2B7 (P=.02-03) variants in African Americans were nominally associated with NNAL glucuronidation. Conclusions Findings from this initial in vivo study support a role for multiple UGTs in the glucuronidation of tobacco-related compounds in vivo, in particular UGT2B10 and cotinine glucuronidation. Impact Findings also provide insight into ethnic differences in glucuronidation activity, which could be contributing to ethnic disparities in the risk for smoking-related cancers. PMID:25277794

  17. [Analysis of the reaction solution for dehydroacetic acid by ethyl acetoacetate using high formance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuyun; Duan, Zhengkang; Li, Haitao; Yan, Zhixiang; Peng, Ye; Zeng, Hangri

    2013-05-01

    A way of ethyl acetoacetate by the Claisen condensation reaction is one of the main methods of the industrial production of dehydroacetic acid. There are the problems of the differences in absorbance value and the maximum absorption wavelength, and the chromatographic peak is prone to the phenomena such as bifurcation and tailing when using liquid chromatography to the analysis of ethyl acetoacetate. To avoid the interference of the enol of ethyl acetoacetate, and making the peak shape of ethyl acetoacetate better and quantitatively more accurate, we converted the enol to ketone through optimizing the chromatographic conditions. As a result, qualitative and quantitative analyses of ethyl acetoacetate were replaced by those of the ethyl acetoacetate ketone. A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of dehydroacetic acid and ethyl acetoacetate by HPLC in the reaction mixture for producing dehydroacetic acid. An Agilent HC-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) was used for the separation. The ultraviolet wavelength was 290 nm and the column temperature was 35 degrees C, and methanol-0.3% ammonium acetate buffer (5: 95, v/v) with pH 6.0 adjusted by acetic acid as mobile phase, and the flow rate was 0.6 mL/min. The correlation coefficients of dehydroacetic acid and ethyl acetoacetate were 0.99995 and 0.99992, and the spiked recoveries were 98.5% and 101.3%, respectively; and the relative standard deviations were less than 1.0%. This meth- od has the advantages of good accuracy and high sensitivity, and it can analyse both qualitatively and quantitatively dehydroacetic acid and ethyl acetoacetate rapidly and simply. And it can provide the reference for producing dehydroacetic acid by the way of ethyl acetoacetate. PMID:24010347

  18. Involvement of the inhibition of intestinal glucuronidation in enhancing the oral bioavailability of resveratrol by labrasol containing nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Man; Yang, Fei-Fei; Liu, Chun-Yu; Pan, Rui-Le; Chang, Qi; Liu, Xin-Min; Liao, Yong-Hong

    2015-04-01

    Nanoemulsions have been developed for the oral delivery of poorly bioavailable phenolic compounds that are sensitive to intestinal glucuronidation. However, little is known about the contribution of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) inhibitory excipients in nanoemulsions toward the inhibition of intestinal glucuronidation and the consequent enhanced bioavailability. In this study, Labrasol but not poloxamer 188 (F68) was found to inhibit the glucuronidation of resveratrol (RES), a model phenolic compound, in an inhibition assay with rat microsomes. Subsequently, two nanoemulsions, Lab-N and F68-N, were prepared with similar particle size distribution, zeta potentials, and entrapment efficiency by coemulsifying with Labrasol or F68, respectively. Although Lab-N exhibited inferior or comparable profiles of in vitro release, cellular uptake in Caco-2 cells, and lymphatic transport in rats to F68-N, the in vitro absorption study with everted sacs suggested that Labrasol containing formulations significantly and dose-dependently increased the transport of RES relative to free RES or F68-N by decreasing the amount of permeated metabolite, RES-3-glucuronide (RES-G). The in vivo pharmacokinetic experiments indicated that Lab-N exhibited increments in the maximum plasma concentration and the bioavailability of RES by 1098% and 560%, respectively, and significant decreases in those of RES-G, compared to F68-N. The overall results demonstrated that the improved oral bioavailability of RES by Lab-N was mainly attributable to the inhibition of intestinal glucuronidation by the presence of UGT inhibitory excipient. PMID:25723098

  19. Stereoselective Inhibition of Methotrexate Excretion by Glucuronides of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs via Multidrug Resistance Proteins 2 and 4.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Taiki; Egashira, Sachiko; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Combined administration of methotrexate (MTX) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can result in a decreased systemic clearance of MTX. To date, inhibition of renal uptake via organic anion transporters and efflux via multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRPs) by NSAIDs has been recognized as possible sites of drug interaction between MTX and NSAIDs. Although most NSAIDs are glucuronidated in kidney tissue and excreted mainly as glucuronide conjugates, it is not fully known whether the glucuronides of NSAIDs (NSAIDs-Glu) inhibit MTX excretion via MRP2 and MRP4. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of the glucuronides of several NSAIDs (diclofenac, R- and S-ibuprofen, R- and S-flurbiprofen, and R- and S-naproxen), as well as the parent NSAIDs on MTX uptake using human MRP2- and MRP4-expressing inside-out vesicles. Results confirm that all NSAIDs and NSAIDs-Glu examined exhibited stereoselective and concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on MTX uptake via MRP2 and MRP4. Notably, NSAIDs-Glu potently inhibited MTX uptake via MRP2 and MRP4 compared with the corresponding parent NSAIDs except for naproxen in MRP2 and S-flurbiprofen in MRP4. The present results support that the glucuronides of NSAIDs, as well as the parent NSAIDs, are involved in the inhibition of urinary excretion of MTX via MRP2 and MRP4. PMID:26659924

  20. The detection and quantification of lorazepam and its 3-O-glucuronide in fingerprint deposits by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Goucher, Edward; Kicman, Andrew; Smith, Norman; Jickells, Sue

    2009-07-01

    The use of fingerprints as an alternative biological matrix to test for the presence of drugs and/or their metabolites is a novel area of research in analytical toxicology. This investigation describes quantitative analysis for the benzodiazepine lorazepam and its 3-O-glucuronide conjugate in fingerprints following the oral administration of a single 2 mg dose of lorazepam to five volunteers. Creatinine was also measured to investigate whether the amount of drug relative to that of creatinine would help to account for the variable amount of secretory material deposited. Fingerprints were deposited on glass cover slips and extracted by dissolving them in a solution of dichloromethane/methanol, containing tetradeuterated lorazepam as an internal standard. The samples were evaporated, reconstituted with mobile phase and analysed by LC-MS/MS. Chromatography was achieved using an RP (C18) column for the analysis of lorazapem and its glucuronide, and a hydrophilic interaction column (HILIC) for the analysis of creatinine. Lorazepam and its glucuronide were only detected where ten prints had been combined, up to 12 h following drug administration. In every case, the amount of lorazepam glucuronide exceeded that of lorazepam, the peak amounts being 210 and 11 pg, respectively. Adjusting for creatinine smoothed the elimination profile. To our knowledge, this represents the first time a drug glucuronide has been detected in deposited fingerprints. PMID:19569106

  1. Pivaloylcodeine, a new codeine derivative, for the inhibition of morphine glucuronidation. An in vitro study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Antonilli, Letizia; Togna, Anna Rita; Sabatini, Giovanna; Venditti, Alessandro; Guarcini, Laura; Togna, Giuseppina I; Nicoletti, Rosario; Sanasi, Filomena; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Nencini, Paolo

    2013-12-15

    We have previously found that phenanthrenic opioids, including codeine, modulate morphine glucuronidation in the rat. Here codeine and five of its derivatives were compared in their effects on the synthesis of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) from morphine by rat liver microsomal preparations, and by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes previously incubated for 72 h with either codeine or its derivatives. Acetylcodeine and pivaloylcodeine shared the capability of the parent compound of inhibiting the synthesis of M3G by liver microsomes through a noncompetitive mechanism of action. Their IC50 were 3.25, 2.27, and 4.32 μM, respectively. Dihydrocodeine, acetyldihydrocodeine, and lauroylcodeine were ineffective. In all the experimental circumstances M6G was undetectable in the incubation medium. In primary hepatocyte cultures codeine only inhibited M3G formation, but with a lower efficacy than that observed with microsomes (IC50 20.91 vs 4.32 μM). Preliminary results show that at micromolar concentrations codeine derivatives exhibit a low rate of affinity for μ opiate receptors. In conclusion, acetyl and pivaloyl derivatives of codeine noncompetitively inhibit liver glucuronidation of morphine interacting with microsomes. This study further strengths the notion that phenanthrenic opioids can modulate morphine glucuronidation independently from their effects on μ opiate receptors. PMID:24183585

  2. Analysis of 11-nor-?9 -tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and its glucuronide in urine by capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Iwamuro, Yoshiaki; Iio-Ishimaru, Reiko; Chinaka, Satoshi; Takayama, Nariaki; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2012-11-01

    ?(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol is the primary psychoactive component in cannabis, one of the most commonly used illicit drugs in the world. This paper describes a simple and rapid method for direct analysis of major metabolites of ?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol; 11-nor-?(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and its glucuronide in urine by capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry. The only pretreatment needed for a urine sample was dilution with methanol containing an internal standard and centrifugation. Electrophoresis was carried out in an untreated fused-silica capillary (50 m i.d. 85 cm) filled with 40 m m ammonium formate (pH 6.4). An analysis could be completed within 10 min. For both compounds, the assay was linear over the range 0.1-10 g/mL in urine with correlation coefficients (r(2) )?>0.99 and the limit of detection was 0.5 pg (10 nL injection). The detection yields and reproducibilities were determined at three different concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 2 g/mL in urine). The mean detection yields were 60-99%. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations of migration times were 0.063-0.19 and 0.18-0.36%, and those of peak areas were 4.2-18 and 5.9-25%, respectively. The proposed method successfully analyzed the urine samples of cannabis users. PMID:22419476

  3. Mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate as biomarkers for human exposure assessment to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kayoko; Silva, Manori J; Reidy, John A; Hurtz, Donald; Malek, Nicole A; Needham, Larry L; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Barr, Dana B; Calafat, Antonia M

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is prevalent based on the measurement of its hydrolytic metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) in the urine of 78% of the general U.S. population studied in the 1999-2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). However, despite the high level of production and use of DEHP, the urinary MEHP levels in the NHANES samples were lower than the monoester metabolites of phthalates less commonly used than DEHP, suggesting metabolic differences between phthalates. We measured MEHP and two oxidative DEHP metabolites, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) to verify whether these other metabolites account for a greater proportion of DEHP metabolic products in 127 paired human urine and serum samples. We found that the urinary levels of MEHHP and MEOHP were 10-fold higher than levels of MEHP; concentrations of urinary MEOHP and MEHHP were strongly correlated (r = 0.928). We also found that the serum levels of MEOHP and MEHHP were comparatively lower than those in urine. Furthermore, the glucuronide-bound conjugates of the oxidative metabolites were the predominant form in both urine and serum. MEOHP and MEHHP cannot be formed by serum enzymes from the hydrolysis of any contamination from DEHP potentially introduced during blood collection and storage. Therefore, concentrations of MEHHP and MEOHP in serum may be a more selective measure of DEHP exposure than is MEHP. However, additional data on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of these oxidative metabolites are needed to completely understand the extent of DEHP exposure from the serum concentrations of oxidative DEHP metabolites. PMID:14998748

  4. Milk Thistle Constituents Inhibit Raloxifene Intestinal Glucuronidation: A Potential Clinically Relevant Natural Product-Drug Interaction.

    PubMed

    Gufford, Brandon T; Chen, Gang; Vergara, Ana G; Lazarus, Philip; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Paine, Mary F

    2015-09-01

    Women at high risk of developing breast cancer are prescribed selective estrogen response modulators, including raloxifene, as chemoprevention. Patients often seek complementary and alternative treatment modalities, including herbal products, to supplement prescribed medications. Milk thistle preparations, including silibinin and silymarin, are top-selling herbal products that may be consumed by women taking raloxifene, which undergoes extensive first-pass glucuronidation in the intestine. Key constituents in milk thistle, flavonolignans, were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of intestinal UDP-glucuronosyl transferases (UGTs), with IC50s ? 10 ?M. Taken together, milk thistle preparations may perpetrate unwanted interactions with raloxifene. The objective of this work was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of individual milk thistle constituents on the intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene using human intestinal microsomes and human embryonic kidney cell lysates overexpressing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10, isoforms highly expressed in the intestine that are critical to raloxifene clearance. The flavonolignans silybin A and silybin B were potent inhibitors of both raloxifene 4'- and 6-glucuronidation in all enzyme systems. The Kis (human intestinal microsomes, 27-66 M; UGT1A1, 3.2-8.3 M; UGT1A8, 19-73 M; and UGT1A10, 65-120 M) encompassed reported intestinal tissue concentrations (20-310 M), prompting prediction of clinical interaction risk using a mechanistic static model. Silibinin and silymarin were predicted to increase raloxifene systemic exposure by 4- to 5-fold, indicating high interaction risk that merits further evaluation. This systematic investigation of the potential interaction between a widely used herbal product and chemopreventive agent underscores the importance of understanding natural product-drug interactions in the context of cancer prevention. PMID:26070840

  5. Morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children

    PubMed Central

    Hain, Richard D W; Hardcastle, A; Pinkerton, C R; Aherne, G W

    1999-01-01

    Aims To measure morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children following a single intravenous dose of morphine. Methods Twenty-nine paired samples of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma were collected from children with leukaemia undergoing therapeutic lumbar puncture. An intravenous dose of morphine was administered at selected intervals before the procedure. Concentrations of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were measured in each sample. Morphine was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay (r.i.a.) and M6G was measured using a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The ELISA for measuring M6G was highly sensitive. The intra-and interassay variations were less than 15%. Using a two-compartment model for plasma morphine, the area under the curve to infinity (AUC, 7143 ng ml?1 min), volume of distribution (3.6 l kg?1) and elimination half-life (88 min) were comparable with those reported in adults. Clearance (35 ml min?1) was higher than that in adults. Morphine-6-glucuronide was readily synthesized by the children in this study. The elimination half-life (321 min) and AUC (35507 ng ml?1 min) of plasma M6G were much greater than those of morphine. Conclusions Extensive metabolism of morphine to M6G in children with cancer has been demonstrated. These data provide further evidence to support the importance of M6G accumulation after multiple doses. There was no evidence that morphine passed more easily into the CSF of children than adults. PMID:10383558

  6. Intestinal glucuronidation protects against chemotherapy-induced toxicity by irinotecan (CPT-11).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujuan; Yueh, Mei-Fei; Bigo, Cyril; Barbier, Olivier; Wang, Kepeng; Karin, Michael; Nguyen, Nghia; Tukey, Robert H

    2013-11-19

    Camptothecin (CPT)-11 (irinotecan) has been used widely for cancer treatment, particularly metastatic colorectal cancer. However, up to 40% of treated patients suffer from severe late diarrhea, which prevents CPT-11 dose intensification and efficacy. CPT-11 is a prodrug that is hydrolyzed by hepatic and intestinal carboxylesterase to form SN-38, which in turn is detoxified primarily through UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1)-catalyzed glucuronidation. To better understand the mechanism associated with toxicity, we generated tissue-specific Ugt1 locus conditional knockout mouse models and examined the role of glucuronidation in protecting against irinotecan-induced toxicity. We targeted the deletion of the Ugt1 locus and the Ugt1a1 gene specifically in the liver (Ugt1(?Hep)) and the intestine (Ugt1(?GI)). Control (Ugt1(F/F)), Ugt1(?Hep), and Ugt1(?GI) adult male mice were treated with different concentrations of CPT-11 daily for four consecutive days. Toxicities were evaluated with regard to tissue glucuronidation potential. CPT-11-treated Ugt1(?Hep) mice showed a similar lethality rate to the CPT-11-treated Ugt1(F/F) mice. However, Ugt1(?GI) mice were highly susceptible to CPT-11-induced diarrhea, developing severe and lethal mucositis at much lower CPT-11 doses, a result of the proliferative cell loss and inflammation in the intestinal tract. Comparative expression levels of UGT1A1 in intestinal tumors and normal surrounding tissue are dramatically different, providing for the opportunity to improve therapy by differential gene regulation. Intestinal expression of the UGT1A proteins is critical toward the detoxification of SN-38, whereas induction of the UGT1A1 gene may serve to limit toxicity and improve the efficacy associated with CPT-11 treatment. PMID:24191041

  7. Enzyme-assisted synthesis of the glucuronide conjugate of psilocin, an hallucinogenic component of magic mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Shoda, Takuji; Fukuhara, Kiyoshi; Goda, Yukihiro; Okuda, Haruhiro

    2011-09-01

    An enzyme-assisted synthesis of psilocin glucuronide (PCG), a metabolite excreted in the urine of magic mushroom (MM) users, is described. In the presence of Aroclor 1254 pretreated rat liver microsomes, psilocin and the cofactor UDPGA were incubated for 20 h. Purification by HPLC gave PCG in 19% yield (3.6 mg). The compound structure was characterized by MS and NMR. The milligram amounts of PCG produced by this method will allow the direct identification and quantification of PCG in the urine of MM users. PMID:21960543

  8. Extraction of aromatics with ethyl acetoacetate

    SciTech Connect

    Hosler, P.

    1986-06-10

    A liquid phase extraction process is described for the dearomatization of a mixed hydrocarbon feed containing aromatic and nonaromatic hydrocarbons consisting of: (a) contacting the mixed feed in an extraction zone with the solvent ethyl acetoacetate at an elevated temperature to provide an aromatic-rich ethyl acetoacetate solvent phase containing the aromatic hydrocarbons, and a raffinate containing primarily non-aromatic hydrocarbons; (b) recovering and cooling the aromatic-rich solvent phase to form an upper phase comprising an aromatic-rich extract containing solvent and aromatic hydrocarbons, and a lower solvent-rich phase containing primarily the ethyl acetoacetate, and residual hydrocarbons; and (c) recovering the aromatic hydrocarbons and the raffinate.

  9. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Houston, TX); Arganbright, Robert P. (Houston, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX)

    1995-01-01

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50.degree. C. to 300.degree. C., using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered.

  10. Process for the preparation of ethyl benzene

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Arganbright, R.P.; Hearn, D.

    1995-12-19

    Ethyl benzene is produced in a catalyst bed under 0.25 to 50 atmospheres of pressure and at temperatures in the range of 50 C to 300 C, using as the catalyst a mole sieve characterized as acidic by feeding ethylene to the catalyst bed while benzene is conveniently added through the reflux to result in a molar excess present in the reactor to that required to react with ethylene, thereby reacting substantially all of the ethylene and recovering benzene as the principal overhead and ethyl benzene and diethyl benzene in the bottoms. The bottoms are fractionated, the ethyl benzene recovered and the bottoms are contacted with benzene in the liquid phase in a fixed bed straight pass reactor under conditions to transalkylate the benzene thereby converting most of the diethyl benzene to ethyl benzene which is again separated and recovered. 2 figs.

  11. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... of methyl groups and y is the number of ethyl groups. The average value of x is 0.3 and the...

  12. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... of methyl groups and y is the number of ethyl groups. The average value of x is 0.3 and the...

  13. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... of methyl groups and y is the number of ethyl groups. The average value of x is 0.3 and the...

  14. Elevated concentrations of morphine 6-beta-D-glucuronide in brain extracellular fluid despite low bloodbrain barrier permeability

    PubMed Central

    Stain-Texier, Frdrique; Boschi, Gabrielle; Sandouk, Pierre; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel

    1999-01-01

    This study was done to find out how morphine 6-beta-D-glucuronide (M6G) induces more potent central analgesia than morphine, despite its poor bloodbrain barrier (BBB) permeability. The brain uptake and disposition of these compounds were investigated in plasma and in various brain compartments: extracellular fluid (ECF), intracellular space (ICS) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Morphine or M6G was given to rats at 10?mg?kg?1 s.c. Transcortical microdialysis was used to assess their distributions in the brain ECF. Conventional tissue homogenization was used to determine the distribution in the cortex and whole brain. These two procedures were combined to estimate drug distribution in the brain ICS. The blood and CSF pharmacokinetics were also determined. Plasma concentration data for M6G were much higher than those of morphine, with Cmax and AUC 45 times more higher, Tmax shorter, and VZf?1 (volume of distribution) and CL f?1 (clearance) 46 times lower. The concentrations of the compounds in various brain compartments also differed: AUC values for M6G were lower than those of morphine in tissue and CSF and higher in brain ECF. AUC values in brain show that morphine levels were four times higher in ICS than in ECF, whereas M6G levels were 125 higher in ECF than in ICS. Morphine entered brain cells, whereas M6G was almost exclusively extracellular. This high extracellular concentration, coupled with extremely slow diffusion into the CSF, indicates that M6G was predominantly trapped in the extracellular fluid and therefore durably available to bind at opioid receptors. PMID:10556926

  15. Identification and characterization of sulfonyltransferases catalyzing ethyl sulfate formation and their inhibition by polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Stachel, Nicole; Skopp, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl sulfate (EtS) is a minor metabolite of ethanol, usually being present along with ethyl glucuronide in both blood and urine. At present, there have been few studies on sulfotransferases (SULTs) catalyzing EtS formation. Moreover, inhibition by nutritional components on EtS formation, e.g., polyphenols that are extensively sulfonated, has not been addressed at all. Firstly, the incubation procedure was optimized with regard to buffer, substrate concentration, and incubation time. Recombinant SULT enzymes including SULT1A1, 1A3, 1B1, 1E1, and 2A1 were screened for their activity towards ethanol; subsequently, respective kinetics was investigated. The inhibitory potential of resveratrol, quercetin, and kaempferol being abundant in beer and wine was studied thereafter. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using deuterated EtS as the internal standard. All enzymes are involved in the sulfonation of ethanol; respective kinetics followed the Michaelis-Menten model. Among the five SULTs under investigation, SULT1A1 displayed the highest activity towards ethanol followed by SULT2A1. Polyphenols significantly reduced the formation of EtS. Results revealed multiple SULT isoforms being capable of catalyzing the transfer of a sulfo group to ethanol; nevertheless, the relevance of SULTs' polymorphism on the sulfonation of ethanol needs further appraisal. Nutritional components such as polyphenols effectively inhibit formation of EtS; this observation may partly serve as an explanation of the highly inter-individual variability of EtS findings in both blood and urine. PMID:25680553

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF TWO GLUCURONIDE METABOLITES OF DOXYLAMINE VIA THERMOSPRAY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AND THERMOSPRAY/MASS SPECTROMETRY/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of a high-pressure liquid chromatography fraction containing two urinary glucuronide metabolites of doxylamine by thermospray mass spectrometry (TSP/MS) provided (MH)+ ions for each metabolite. TSP/MS/MS of the (MH)+ ions provided a fragment ion characteristic of these m...

  17. Human and Rat ABC Transporter Efflux of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol A Glucuronide: Interspecies Comparison and Implications for Pharmacokinetic Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant interspecies differences exist between human and rodent with respect to absorption, distribution, and excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and its primary metabolite, BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G). ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter enzymes play important roles in these physi...

  18. Multiple UDP- Glucuronosyltransferases in Human Liver Microsomes Glucuronidate Both R- and S-7-Hydroxywarfarin into Two Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, C. Preston; Pouncey, Dakota L; Hartman, Jessica H.; Nshimiyimana, Robert; Desrochers, Linda P.; Goodwin, Thomas E.; Boysen, Gunnar; Miller, Grover P.

    2014-01-01

    The widely used anticoagulant Coumadin (R/S-warfarin) undergoes oxidation by cytochromes P450 into hydroxywarfarins that subsequently become conjugated for excretion in urine. Hydroxywarfarins may modulate warfarin metabolism transcriptionally or through direct inhibition of cytochromes P450 and thus, UGT action toward hydroxywarfarin elimination may impact levels of the parent drugs and patient responses. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about conjugation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in warfarin metabolism. Herein, we identified probable conjugation sites, kinetic mechanisms and hepatic UGT isoforms involved in microsomal glucuronidation of R- and S-7-hydroxywarfarin. Both compounds underwent glucuronidation at C4 and C7 hydroxyl groups based on elution properties and spectral characteristics. Their formation demonstrated regio- and enantioselectivity by UGTs and resulted in either Michaelis-Menten or substrate inhibition kinetics. Glucuronidation at the C7 hydroxyl group occurred more readily than at the C4 group, and the reaction was overall more efficient for R-7-hydroxywarfarin due to higher affinity and rates of turnover. The use of these mechanisms and parameters to model in vivo clearance demonstrated that contributions of substrate inhibition would lead to underestimation of metabolic clearance than that predicted by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Lastly, these processes were driven by multiple UGTs indicating redundancy in glucuronidation pathways and ultimately metabolic clearance of R- and S-7-hydroxywarfarin. PMID:25447818

  19. Raloxifene glucuronidation in liver and intestinal microsomes of humans and monkeys: contribution of UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Naoki; Takasuka, Akane; Kokawa, Yuki; Isobe, Takashi; Taguchi, Maho; Shigeyama, Masato; Murata, Mikio; Suno, Manabu; Hanioka, Nobumitsu

    2016-04-01

    1.?Raloxifene is an antiestrogen that has been marketed for the treatment of osteoporosis, and is metabolized into 6- and 4'-glucuronides by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. In this study, the in vitro glucuronidation of raloxifene in humans and monkeys was examined using liver and intestinal microsomes and recombinant UGT enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9). 2.?Although the Km and CLint values for the 6-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes were similar between humans and monkeys, and species differences in Vmax values (liver microsomes, humans?>?monkeys; intestinal microsomes, humans?glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes between humans and monkeys. 3.?The activities of 6-glucuronidation in recombinant UGT enzymes were UGT1A1?>?UGT1A8?>UGT1A9 for humans, and UGT1A8?>?UGT1A1?>?UGT1A9 for monkeys. The activities of 4'-glucuronidation were UGT1A8?>?UGT1A1?>?UGT1A9 in humans and monkeys. 4.?These results demonstrated that the profiles for the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene by microsomes were moderately different between humans and monkeys. PMID:26247833

  20. Glucuronidation does not suppress the estrogenic activity of quercetin in yeast and human breast cancer cell model systems.

    PubMed

    Ruotolo, Roberta; Calani, Luca; Brighenti, Furio; Crozier, Alan; Ottonello, Simone; Del Rio, Daniele

    2014-10-01

    Several plant-derived molecules, referred to as phytoestrogens, are thought to mimic the actions of endogenous estrogens. Among these, quercetin, one of the most widespread flavonoids in the plant kingdom, has been reported as estrogenic in some occasions. However, quercetin occurs in substantial amounts as glycosides such as quercetin-3-O-glucoside (isoquercitrin) and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) in dietary sources. It is now well established that quercetin undergoes substantial phase II metabolism after ingestion by humans, with plasma metabolites after a normal dietary intake rarely exceeding nmol/L concentrations. Therefore, attributing phytoestrogenic activity to flavonoids without taking into account the fact that it is their phase II metabolites that enter the circulatory system, will almost certainly lead to misleading conclusions. With the aim of clarifying the above issue, the goal of the present study was to determine if plant-associated quercetin glycosides and human phase II quercetin metabolites, actually found in human biological fluids after intake of quercetin containing foods, are capable of interacting with the estrogen receptors (ER). To this end, we used a yeast-based two-hybrid system and an estrogen response element-luciferase reporter assay in an ER-positive human cell line (MCF-7) to probe the ER interaction capacities of quercetin and its derivatives. Our results show that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, one of the main human phase II metabolites produced after intake of dietary quercetin, displays ER?- and ER?-dependent estrogenic activity, the functional consequences of which might be related to the protective activity of diets rich in quercetin glycosides. PMID:24657077

  1. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide induces ABCA1 expression by LXRα activation in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Wakabayashi, Hideyuki; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Yajima, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Aruto

    2013-11-29

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) removes excess cholesterol from macrophages to prevent atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is a crucial cholesterol transporter involved in RCT to produce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), and is transcriptionally regulated by liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), a nuclear receptor. Quercetin is a widely distributed flavonoid in edible plants which prevented atherosclerosis in an animal model. We found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major quercetin metabolite after absorption from the digestive tract, enhanced ABCA1 expression, in vitro, via LXRα in macrophages. In addition, leaf extracts of a traditional Asian edible plant, Nelumbo nucifera (NNE), which contained abundant amounts of quercetin glycosides, significantly elevated plasma HDLC in mice. We are the first to present experimental evidence that Q3GA induced ABCA1 in macrophages, and to provide an alternative explanation to previous studies on arteriosclerosis prevention by quercetin. PMID:24216107

  2. Skin of the male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus: a source of steroid glucuronides

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, S.A.; Schoonen, W.G.; Lambert, J.G.; Van den Hurk, R.; Van Oordt, P.G.

    1987-06-01

    Steroid metabolism in the skin of mature male African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, reared in the laboratory, was studied in vitro by tissue incubations with (/sup 3/H)pregnenolone, (/sup 3/H)dehydroepiandrosterone, (/sup 3/H)17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, (/sup 3/H)androstenedione, (/sup 14/C)11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione, and (/sup 3/H)testosterone as precursors. While pregnenolone was not converted to any other steroid, dehydroepiandrosterone was transformed mainly to 5-androstene-3 beta, 17 beta-diol. The products of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone incubations were 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha-diol-20-one, 5 beta-pregnane-3 alpha,17 alpha, 20 beta-triol, and 5 beta-pregnan-17 alpha-o1-3,20-dione. The major steroids of androstenedione incubations were etiocholanolone, testosterone, and androsterone. Testosterone was converted mainly to etiocholanolone and androstenedione, and only small quantities of 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, and 11-ketoandrostenedione were the metabolites found in 11 beta-hydroxyandrostenedione incubation. These results demonstrated the presence of the enzymes 5 alpha- and 5 beta-reductases and 3 alpha-, 11 beta-, 17 beta-, and 20 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the skin. From enzymehistochemical results it appeared that the steroid conversions take place in the epithelial cells. Moreover, the presence of UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of glucuronic acid, in these cells indicates the possibility of steroid glucuronide formation. Indeed significant amounts of water-soluble steroid conjugates, particularly 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone- and testosterone-glucuronide, were found in the incubations with androstenedione and testosterone, indicating the presence of the UDP-glucuronosyl transferase in the catfish skin.

  3. Simultaneous modelling of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of paracetamol sulphation and glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Reith, David; Medlicott, Natalie J; Kumara De Silva, Rohana; Yang, Lin; Hickling, Jeremy; Zacharias, Mathew

    2009-01-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to perform an in vivo estimation of the Michaelis-Menten constants of the major metabolic pathways of paracetamol (APAP). 2. A two-occasion, single-dose cross-over trial was performed using 60 and 90 mg/kg doses of APAP in healthy patients undergoing third molar dental extraction. Plasma samples were collected over 24 h and urine was collected for 8 h after dosing. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study and complete data for plasma and urine were available for both doses for 13 volunteers who were included in the analysis; seven of the volunteers were men, the median age (range) was 22 years (19-31) and the median weight (range) was 68 kg (50-86). 3. The mean (95% CI) k(m) for APAP glucuronidation was 6.89 mmol/L (3.57-10.22) and the V(max) was 0.97 mmol/h per kg (0.65-1.28). The k(m) for APAP sulphation was 0.097 mmol/L (0.041-0.152) and the V(max) was 0.011 mmol/h per kg (0.009-0.013). For the combined excretion of APAP-cysteine and APAP-mercapturate, the k(m) was 0.303 mmol/L (0.131-0.475) and the V(max) was 0.004 mmol/h per kg (0.002-0.005). 4. The estimates for in vivo Michaelis-Menten constants for APAP glucuronidation and sulphation were in the order of those reported previously using in vitro methods. PMID:18759860

  4. A novel method for quantitative analysis of acetylacetone and ethyl acetoacetate by fluorine-19 nuclear magnetic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lulin; Li, Cheng; Weng, Xinchu

    2016-03-01

    A new method utilization of NMR spectra was developed for structural and quantitative analysis of enol forms of acetylacetone and ethyl acetoacetate. Acetylacetone and ethyl acetoacetate were determined by (19) F NMR upon derivatisation with ?-fluorobenzoyl chloride. The base-catalyzed derivatives of acetylacetone and ethyl acetoacetate reaction with ?-fluorobenzoyl chloride were analyzed by (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopies. E and Z configurations of acetylacetone and ethyl acetoacetate were separated and purified by thin layer chromatography. In addition, the ability of (19) F NMR for quantitative analysis of acetylacetone by integration of the appropriate signals of the derivatives were tested and compared. The results further testified the enol forms of acetylacetone and ethyl acetoacetate and the feasibility of (19) F NMR method. This method can be potentially used to characterize E and Z isomers and quantitatively analyze E/Z ratio of ?-diketone and ?-ketoester homologues. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26521683

  5. Ethyl chloride improves antiseptic effect of betadine skin preparation for office procedures.

    PubMed

    Azar, Frederick M; Lake, Jason E; Grace, Sean P; Perkinson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    To determine if ethyl chloride is an effective disinfectant alone or combined with povidone iodine in a clinical setting, 35 volunteers had different portions of their knees swabbed with sterile cotton-tip applicators after an area of skin was prepared with either ethyl chloride alone, povidone iodine alone, or povidone iodine followed by ethyl chloride. An area with no preparation at all served as the control. Specimens were then cultured on agar plates and bacterial growth assessed. When the data was categorized as colony forming units (CFUs) or no CFUs, both ethyl chloride and povidone iodine used alone had significantly fewer specimens with CFUs (p=0.001) than controls, but were not significantly different from each other (p=0.18). Additionally, the combination of povidone iodine followed by ethyl chloride spray had significantly fewer samples with CFUs than either product used alone (p=0.001). In addition to its local anesthetic properties, ethyl chloride may be an effective disinfectant alone and may improve skin disinfection when used with povidone iodine compared to povidone iodine alone. PMID:22995356

  6. Exposure assessment and risk characterisation of ethyl carbamate from Korean traditional fermented rice wine, Takju and Yakju.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Goo; Park, Sung-Kug; Yoon, Hae-Jung; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Meehye

    2016-02-01

    Ethyl carbamate is one of the most hazardous chemicals naturally occurring in food, and is present in alcoholic beverages. Korean traditional rice wine, Takju and Yakju, is frequently consumed in Korea, but there have been no studies characterising the risks of ethyl carbamate in these products. In order to assess and characterise the exposure risk of ethyl carbamate in Korean traditional rice wines, ethyl carbamate was investigated by means of GC-MS. The analytical methods were optimised and validated through determining linearity, detection limit, quantification limit, recovery and precision. A total of 283 traditional Korean rice wines, including 175 Takju and 108 Yakju samples, were analysed. Exposure assessment was performed by factoring in ethyl carbamate content, daily consumption and body weight. Daily exposures of ethyl carbamate were estimated for adults in four age groups, and risks of ethyl carbamate were characterised by the margin of exposure, which is more than 10 000. Based on this study, the risks of ethyl carbamate in Korean traditional rice wine were shown to be of low concern. PMID:26794849

  7. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10244 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, 2-[bis(2- chloroethoxy)phosphinyl]ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10244 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2... substance identified as phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, 2- ethyl 2-chloroethyl ester (PMN P-09-195; CAS...

  9. Estimation of measurement uncertainty for the quantification of 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and its glucuronide in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Kwon, Woonyong; Kim, Hee Seung; Suh, Sungill; In, Moon Kyo

    2014-04-01

    Recently, the estimation of the measurement uncertainty has become a significant issue in the quality control of forensic drug testing. In the present study, the uncertainty of the measurement was calculated for the quantification of 11-nor-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) and its glucuronide conjugate (THC-COOH-glu) in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The procedure was based on liquid-liquid extraction of a volume of urine (800 µL) with ethyl acetate. The sources of uncertainty were identified and classified into four major categories as follows: standard preparation, calibration curve, method precision and bias. The overall contribution of combined standard uncertainty on THC-COOH increased in the order of standard preparation (0.9%), method precision (10.4%), calibration curve (30.3%) and bias (58.4%) and, while calibration curve (53.0%) and bias (40.4%) gave the bigger contributions to the combined standard uncertainty for THC-COOH-glu than method precision and standard preparation, which accounted for 6.3 and 0.3%, respectively. The reliability of a measurement was expressed by stating the expanded uncertainty of the measurement result at 95% confidence level. The concentrations of THC-COOH and THC-COOH-glu in the urine sample with their expanded uncertainties were 10.20 ± 1.14 ng/mL and 25.42 ± 5.01 ng/mL, respectively. PMID:24519562

  10. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... with current good manufacturing practice as a solvent in the decaffeination of coffee and tea....

  11. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by... 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by weight....

  12. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by... 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by weight....

  13. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by... 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by weight....

  14. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by... 80 °C. (b) 100 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.010 percent by weight....

  15. Elastic electron scattering by ethyl vinyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Khakoo, M. A.; Hong, L.; Kim, B.; Winstead, C.; McKoy, V.

    2010-02-15

    We report measured and calculated results for elastic scattering of low-energy electrons by ethyl vinyl ether (ethoxyethene), a prototype system for studying indirect dissociative attachment processes that may play a role in DNA damage. The integral cross section displays the expected {pi}{sup *} shape resonance. The agreement between the calculated and measured cross sections is generally good.

  16. Ethyl p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate (EPN)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl p - nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate ( EPN ) ; CASRN 2104 - 64 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Ha

  17. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  18. 77 FR 23625 - Quizalofop Ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Tolerances In the Federal Register of February 25, 2011 (76 FR 10584) (FRL- 8863-3), EPA issued a notice... relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered available information...: ``Quizalofop-P-ethyl: Human Health Risk Assessment for New Uses on Sorghum, Rapeseed Crop Group 20 A, and...

  19. Synthesis and characterization of quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronide metabolites of drugs with an aliphatic tertiary amine group.

    PubMed

    Luo, H; Hawes, E M; McKay, G; Midha, K K

    1992-11-01

    A synthetic approach was developed to make the quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronide metabolites of compounds with an aliphatic tertiary amine group. The key step involved quaternization of the compound with methyl (2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl bromide)uronate and sodium bicarbonate in a two-phase system of water and an organic solvent. The synthetic approach successfully yielded quaternary ammonium-linked glucuronides of 20 drugs and two of their phase I metabolites. The drugs were from various pharmacological classes: H1 antihistamines, antipsychotic agents, and tricyclic antidepressants. Physical data such as HPLC retention times, and diagnostic fast-atom bombardment mass spectra and 1H NMR spectra were obtained. These should aid in the characterization of compounds in samples isolated from biological media. PMID:1447708

  20. Hepatocellular Shuttling and Recirculation of Sorafenib-Glucuronide Is Dependent on Abcc2, Abcc3, and Oatp1a/1b.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Aksana; Durmus, Selvi; Li, Lie; Wagenaar, Els; Hu, Shuiying; Gibson, Alice A; Panetta, John C; Mani, Sridhar; Sparreboom, Alex; Baker, Sharyn D; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2015-07-01

    Recently, an efficient liver detoxification process dubbed "hepatocyte hopping" was proposed on the basis of findings with the endogenous compound, bilirubin glucuronide. According to this model, hepatocytic bilirubin glucuronide can follow a liver-to-blood shuttling loop via Abcc3 transporter-mediated efflux and subsequent Oatp1a/1b-mediated liver uptake. We hypothesized that glucuronide conjugates of xenobiotics, such as the anticancer drug sorafenib, can also undergo hepatocyte hopping. Using transporter-deficient mouse models, we show here that sorafenib-glucuronide can be extruded from hepatocytes into the bile by Abcc2 or back into the systemic circulation by Abcc3, and that it can be taken up efficiently again into neighboring hepatocytes by Oatp1a/1b. We further demonstrate that sorafenib-glucuronide excreted into the gut lumen can be cleaved by microbial enzymes to sorafenib, which is then reabsorbed, supporting its persistence in the systemic circulation. Our results suggest broad relevance of a hepatocyte shuttling process known as "hepatocyte hopping"-a novel concept in clinical pharmacology-for detoxification of targeted cancer drugs that undergo hepatic glucuronidation, such as sorafenib. PMID:25952649

  1. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose may be safely used in food in accordance... ethyl groups. The average value of x is 0.3 and the average value of y is 0.7. (b) The additive...

  2. Identification of brain-targeted bioactive dietary quercetin-3-O-glucuronide as a novel intervention for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Ho, Lap; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Janle, Elsa M; Wang, Jun; Gong, Bing; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Lobo, Jessica; Cooper, Bruce; Wu, Qing Li; Talcott, Stephen T; Percival, Susan S; Simon, James E; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2013-02-01

    Epidemiological and preclinical studies indicate that polyphenol intake from moderate consumption of red wines may lower the relative risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. There is limited information regarding the specific biological activities and cellular and molecular mechanisms by which wine polyphenolic components might modulate AD. We assessed accumulations of polyphenols in the rat brain following oral dosage with a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine and tested brain-targeted polyphenols for potential beneficial AD disease-modifying activities. We identified accumulations of select polyphenolic metabolites in the brain. We demonstrated that, in comparison to vehicle-control treatment, one of the brain-targeted polyphenol metabolites, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, significantly reduced the generation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides by primary neuron cultures generated from the Tg2576 AD mouse model. Another brain-targeted metabolite, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, had no detectable effect on Aβ generation. Moreover, in an in vitro analysis using the photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) technique, we found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide is also capable of interfering with the initial protein-protein interaction of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) that is necessary for the formation of neurotoxic oligomeric Aβ species. Lastly, we found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide treatment, compared to vehicle-control treatment, significantly improved AD-type deficits in hippocampal formation basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation, possibly through mechanisms involving the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Brain-targeted quercetin-3-O-glucuronide may simultaneously modulate multiple independent AD disease-modifying mechanisms and, as such, may contribute to the benefits of dietary supplementation with red wines as an effective intervention for AD. PMID:23097297

  3. 40 CFR 180.429 - Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for... 180.429 Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide chlorimuron ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  4. 40 CFR 180.429 - Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for... 180.429 Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide chlorimuron ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  5. 40 CFR 180.429 - Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for... 180.429 Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide chlorimuron ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  6. 40 CFR 180.429 - Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for... 180.429 Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide chlorimuron ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  7. 40 CFR 180.429 - Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for... 180.429 Chlorimuron ethyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide chlorimuron ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on...

  8. 40 CFR 180.441 - Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... combined residues of the herbicide quizalofop (2- propanoic acid) and quizalofop ethyl (ethyl-2- propanoate...) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the herbicide quizalofop (2- propanoic acid... herbicide quizalofop-p ethyl ester , and its acid metabolite quizalofop-p , and the S enantiomers of...

  9. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ethyl ether. 151.50-42 Section 151.50-42 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-42 Ethyl ether. (a)(1) Gravity tanks... liquid. (g) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the contamination of ethyl ether by strong...

  10. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ethyl ether. 151.50-42 Section 151.50-42 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-42 Ethyl ether. (a)(1) Gravity tanks... liquid. (g) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the contamination of ethyl ether by strong...

  11. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ethyl ether. 151.50-42 Section 151.50-42 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-42 Ethyl ether. (a)(1) Gravity tanks... liquid. (g) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the contamination of ethyl ether by strong...

  12. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ethyl ether. 151.50-42 Section 151.50-42 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-42 Ethyl ether. (a)(1) Gravity tanks... liquid. (g) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the contamination of ethyl ether by strong...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  14. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. 177.1320... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1320 Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers. Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers may be safely used to produce packaging materials,...

  15. Molecular mechanism of hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide, the main circulating metabolite of hesperidin, involved in osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Trzeciakiewicz, Anna; Habauzit, Veronique; Mercier, Sylvie; Barron, Denis; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Manach, Claudine; Offord, Elizabeth; Horcajada, Marie-Noelle

    2010-01-13

    Citrus fruit hesperidin is hydrolyzed by gut microflora into aglycone form (hesperetin) and then conjugated mainly into glucuronides. We previously demonstrated that hesperetin enhanced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we examined the effect of hesperetin-7-O-glucuronide (Hp7G) on primary rat osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. The impact of Hp7G on specific bone signaling pathways was explored. Osteoblasts were exposed to physiological concentrations of 1 (Hp7G1) and 10 (Hp7G10) microM of conjugate. The glucuronide did not affect proliferation but enhanced differentiation by significantly increasing alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity from day 14 of exposure. Hp7G significantly induced mRNA expression of ALP, Runx2, and Osterix after 48 h of exposure. Moreover, phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was enhanced by Hp7G, while ERK1/2 remained unchanged after 48 h. Hp7G decreased RANKL gene expression. These results suggest that Hp7G may regulate osteoblast differentiation through Runx2 and Osterix stimulation, and might be implicated in the regulation of osteoblast/osteoclast communication. PMID:19921838

  16. Bioanalytical LC-MS Method for the Quantification of Plasma Androgens and Androgen Glucuronides in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kalogera, Eleni; Pistos, Constantinos; Provatopoulou, Xeni; Christophi, Costas A; Zografos, George C; Stefanidou, Maria; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Gounaris, Antonia

    2016-04-01

    The physiological and pathological development of the breast is strongly affected by the hormonal milieu consisting of steroid hormones. Mass spectrometry (MS) technologies of high sensitivity and specificity enable the quantification of androgens and consequently the characterization of the hormonal status. The aim of this study is the assessment of plasma androgens and androgen glucuronides, in the par excellence hormone-sensitive tissue of the breast, through the application of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A simple and efficient fit-for-purpose method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione (A4), androsterone glucuronide (ADTG) and androstane-3α, 17β-diol-17-glucuronide (3α-diol-17G) in human plasma was developed and validated. The presented method permits omission of derivatization, requires a single solid-phase extraction procedure and the chromatographic separation can be achieved on a single C18 analytical column, for all four analytes. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of 191 human plasma samples from postmenopausal women with benign breast disease (BBD), lobular neoplasia (LN), ductal carcinoma in situ and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). DHEAS plasma levels exhibited significant differences between LN, IDC and BBD patients (P < 0.05). Additionally, ADTG levels were significantly higher in patients with LN compared with those with BBD (P < 0.05). PMID:26762957

  17. Species difference in the inhibitory potentials of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the hepatic sulfation and glucuronidation of bioactive flavonoids: differential observations among common inhibition parameters.

    PubMed

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Zuo, Zhong

    2014-05-01

    1. This study elucidated the species differences between rats and humans in the inhibitory potential of drugs against sulfation and glucuronidation, and whether such differences depend on the inhibition parameter adopted. 2. With 14 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as model inhibitors and three flavanoids baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A as model substrates, three common inhibition parameters percentage of control, IC50 and Ki were determined in rat liver cytosols (RLCs), human liver cytosols (HLCs), rat liver microsomes (RLMs) and human liver microsomes (HLMs). The closeness of the inhibition parameters from rat liver preparations to that from human liver preparations was analyzed by geometric mean fold error (GMFE) and statistical comparisons. 3. The percentage of control in RLC/RLM was not significantly different from that in HLC/HLM, with a GMFE of 0.85 (RLC-HLC) and 1.03 (RLM-HLM); whereas the IC50 and Ki in RLC/RLM were significantly different from that in HLC/HLM. The trend of difference was consistent between IC50 and Ki, where these parameters in RLC and RLM underestimated (GMFE <0.5) and overestimated (GMFE >2) that in HLC and HLM, respectively. 4. In conclusion, the inhibitory potentials of NSAIDs against sulfation and glucuronidation in rats and humans were different and depended on the adopted inhibition parameters. PMID:24168065

  18. Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide induces ABCA1 expression by LXRα activation in murine macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Ohara, Kazuaki; Wakabayashi, Hideyuki; Taniguchi, Yoshimasa; Shindo, Kazutoshi; Yajima, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Aruto

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •The major circulating quercetin metabolite (Q3GA) activated LXRα. •Q3GA induced ABCA1 via LXRα activation in macrophages. •Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts contained quercetin glycosides. •N. nucifera leaf extract feeding elevated HDLC in mice. -- Abstract: Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) removes excess cholesterol from macrophages to prevent atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1 (ABCA1) is a crucial cholesterol transporter involved in RCT to produce high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDLC), and is transcriptionally regulated by liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), a nuclear receptor. Quercetin is a widely distributed flavonoid in edible plants which prevented atherosclerosis in an animal model. We found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a major quercetin metabolite after absorption from the digestive tract, enhanced ABCA1 expression, in vitro, via LXRα in macrophages. In addition, leaf extracts of a traditional Asian edible plant, Nelumbo nucifera (NNE), which contained abundant amounts of quercetin glycosides, significantly elevated plasma HDLC in mice. We are the first to present experimental evidence that Q3GA induced ABCA1 in macrophages, and to provide an alternative explanation to previous studies on arteriosclerosis prevention by quercetin.

  19. Transmembrane transport of steviol glucuronide and its potential interaction with selected drugs and natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meiyu; Qi, Huixin; Li, Jiajun; Xu, Yunting; Zhang, Hongjian

    2015-12-01

    Steviol glucuronide (SVG) is the major metabolite derived from steviol, the aglycone of stevioside and rebaudioside A. After the ingestion of stevioside and rebaudioside A, SVG is formed and excreted into the urine in humans. In the present study, transporter mediated efflux and uptake of SVG was investigated in order to understand molecular mechanisms underlying its renal clearance. Results showed that SVG was not a substrate of efflux transporters BCRP, MRP2, MATE1 or P-gp. In contrast, OAT3 played a predominant role in the uptake of SVG in comparison to OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or OATP2B1. Quercetin, telmisartan, diclofenac, and mulberrin displayed a relatively strong inhibition against OAT3 mediated uptake of SVG with IC50 values of 1.8, 2.9, 8.0, and 10.0?M, respectively. Because OAT3 is a major uptake transporter in the kidney, inhibition of OAT3 activity may alter SVG's renal clearance by drugs and natural compounds that are used concomitantly with stevia leaf extracts. PMID:26525112

  20. The sonic hedgehog factor GLI1 imparts drug resistance through inducible glucuronidation.

    PubMed

    Zahreddine, Hiba Ahmad; Culjkovic-Kraljacic, Biljana; Assouline, Sarit; Gendron, Patrick; Romeo, Andrea A; Morris, Stephen J; Cormack, Gregory; Jaquith, James B; Cerchietti, Leandro; Cocolakis, Eftihia; Amri, Abdellatif; Bergeron, Julie; Leber, Brian; Becker, Michael W; Pei, Shanshan; Jordan, Craig T; Miller, Wilson H; Borden, Katherine L B

    2014-07-01

    Drug resistance is a major hurdle in oncology. Responses of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients to cytarabine (Ara-C)-based therapies are often short lived with a median overall survival of months. Therapies are under development to improve outcomes and include targeting the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF4E) with its inhibitor ribavirin. In a Phase II clinical trial in poor prognosis AML, ribavirin monotherapy yielded promising responses including remissions; however, all patients relapsed. Here we identify a novel form of drug resistance to ribavirin and Ara-C. We observe that the sonic hedgehog transcription factor glioma-associated protein 1 (GLI1) and the UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A) family of enzymes are elevated in resistant cells. UGT1As add glucuronic acid to many drugs, modifying their activity in diverse tissues. GLI1 alone is sufficient to drive UGT1A-dependent glucuronidation of ribavirin and Ara-C, and thus drug resistance. Resistance is overcome by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of GLI1, revealing a potential strategy to overcome drug resistance in some patients. PMID:24870236

  1. Identification of brain-targeted bioactive dietary quercetin-3-O-glucuronide as a novel intervention for Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Lap; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Janle, Elsa M.; Wang, Jun; Gong, Bing; Chen, Tzu-Ying; Lobo, Jessica; Cooper, Bruce; Wu, Qing Li; Talcott, Stephen T.; Percival, Susan S.; Simon, James E.; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and preclinical studies indicate that polyphenol intake from moderate consumption of red wines may lower the relative risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. There is limited information regarding the specific biological activities and cellular and molecular mechanisms by which wine polyphenolic components might modulate AD. We assessed accumulations of polyphenols in the rat brain following oral dosage with a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine and tested brain-targeted polyphenols for potential beneficial AD disease-modifying activities. We identified accumulations of select polyphenolic metabolites in the brain. We demonstrated that, in comparison to vehicle-control treatment, one of the brain-targeted polyphenol metabolites, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, significantly reduced the generation of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides by primary neuron cultures generated from the Tg2576 AD mouse model. Another brain-targeted metabolite, malvidin-3-O-glucoside, had no detectable effect on Aβ generation. Moreover, in an in vitro analysis using the photo-induced cross-linking of unmodified proteins (PICUP) technique, we found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide is also capable of interfering with the initial protein-protein interaction of Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 that is necessary for the formation of neurotoxic oligomeric Aβ species. Lastly, we found that quercetin-3-O-glucuronide treatment, compared to vehicle-control treatment, significantly improved AD-type deficits in hippocampal formation basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation, possibly through mechanisms involving the activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Brain-targeted quercetin-3-O-glucuronide may simultaneously modulate multiple independent AD disease-modifying mechanisms and, as such, may contribute to the benefits of dietary supplementation with red wines as an effective intervention for AD.—Ho, L., Ferruzzi, M. G., Janle, E. M., Wang, J., Gong, B., Chen, T.-Y., Lobo, J., Cooper, B., Wu, Q. L., Talcott, S. T., Percival, S. S., Simon, J. E., Pasinetti, G. M. Identification of brain-targeted bioactive dietary quercetin-3-O-glucuronide as a novel intervention for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23097297

  2. Evidence of in vitro glucuronidation and enzymatic transformation of paralytic shellfish toxins by healthy human liver microsomes fraction.

    PubMed

    Garca, Carlos; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alberto; Daz, Juan Carlos; Torres, Rafael; Lagos, Nstor

    2009-02-01

    Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST) are endemic components found in filter bivalves in Southern Chile. Post-mortems analysis of fluid and tissue samples has shown biotransformation of PST in humans. The Gonyautoxin 3 (GTX3) and Gonyautoxin 2 (GTX2) are the major PST components in the toxin profile found in Chilean shellfish extracts, being as much as 65% of the total content of PST in filter bivalves. Therefore, they are the major accountable components of the human intoxication by shellfish consumption. The aim of this study is to show in vitro glucuronidation and biotransformation of GTX3 and GTX2 when they are incubated with microsomal fraction isolated from healthy human livers. Microsomes fractions isolated from human livers were incubated with GTX3 and GTX2 purified from contaminated mussels. After different incubation times, incubated samples were extracted and analyzed by HPLC with fluorescent on line detection and HPLC-MS analysis. The results revealed that GTX3 and GTX2, only when they were incubated with microsomal fraction and appropriated cofactors, showed to be enzymatic transformed in vitro. The glucuronidation of GTX3 and GTX2 followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics, resulting in apparent kinetic parameters of Km=39.4+/-0.24 microM and Vmax=6.0x10(-3) pmol/min/mg protein. In addition, the microsomes fraction also oxidized GTX3 and GTX2 into Gonyautoxin 4 (GTX 4) and Gonyautoxin 1 (GTX 1) resulting in 0.339x10(-3) pmol/min/mg protein. In conclusion, this study reports oxidation and glucuronidation of GTX3 and GTX2 when they are incubated with human liver microsomal fraction. The metabolism occurs via a glucuronidation reaction, the basis first step of biotransformation in human liver. Also it is showed that GTX4 and GTX1 came by biotransformation from GTX3 and GTX2 in humans. This data confirm human biotransformation found in human post-mortem fluid and tissue samples described previously. This data is the first evidence of in vitro glucuronidation of PST, given a metabolic pathway of detoxification and excretion of PST in human. PMID:19041885

  3. Degradation behaviour of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in water as affected by pH.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shashi B; Singh, Neera

    2013-01-01

    Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, a new herbicide belonging to the sulfonylurea group, is used for weed control in rice crops growing in areas varying from acidic to alkaline soils. This study was undertaken to determine the degradation behaviour of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in distilled water and buffer solutions at pH 4, 7 and 9. Degradation was pH-dependent and herbicide was least persistent in acidic pH followed by alkaline and neutral pH. The half-life of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl varied from 2.6 days (pH 4) to 19.4 days (pH 7) and half-life in distilled water was comparable to half-life at pH 7 buffer. HPLC analysis of different pH samples showed the formation of three metabolites viz., 5-(aminosulfonyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid; ethyl 5-(aminosulfonyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate and 2-amino-4,6-dimethoxy pyrimidine. The formation of pyrazosulfuron acid [5-([([(4,6-dimethoxy-2 pyrimidinyl)-amino]-carbonyl) amino]-sulfonyl)-1-methyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylic acid] was not observed at any pH. The study indicated that the herbicide was least stable under acidic conditions and the predominant degradation route of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in water is hydrolysis of sulfonamide linkage. PMID:23374044

  4. Ethyl pyruvate decreases HMGB1 release and ameliorates murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Davé, Shaival H; Tilstra, Jeremy S; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Li, Fengling; DeMarco, Richard A; Beer-Stolz, Donna; Sepulveda, Antonia R; Fink, Mitchell P; Lotze, Michael T; Plevy, Scott E

    2009-09-01

    Signals from stressed cells and the enteric microbiota activate macrophages and dendritic cells and mediate intestinal inflammation. HMGB1 serves as an immunogenic stimuli causing release of inflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits secretion of HMGB1 and improves survival in models of endotoxemia and hemorrhagic shock. We reasoned that ethyl pyruvate may be protective in colitis, which involves similar inflammatory pathways. In IL-10(-/-) mice with established chronic colitis, ethyl pyruvate administration ameliorated colitis and reduced intestinal cytokine production. IL-10(-/-) mice demonstrated increased intestinal HMGB1 expression and decreased expression of RAGE compared with wild-type mice. Fecal HMGB1 levels were decreased in ethyl pyruvate-treated mice. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate induced HO-1 expression in intestinal tissue. In TNBS-induced colitis, intrarectal administration of ethyl pyruvate resulted in amelioration of colitis and reduced intestinal cytokine production. In LPS-activated murine macrophages, ethyl pyruvate decreased expression of IL-12 p40 and NO production but did not affect IL-10 levels. Ethyl pyruvate did not inhibit nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB family members but attenuated NF-kappaB DNA binding. Additionally, ethyl pyruvate induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression and HO-1 promoter activation. Moreover, ethyl pyruvate prevented nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1. In conclusion, the HMGB1/RAGE pathway has pathophysiologic and diagnostic significance in experimental colitis. Ethyl pyruvate and other strategies to inhibit HMGB1 release and function represent promising interventions in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:19454652

  5. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates... ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  6. Effect of MRP2 and MRP3 Polymorphisms on Anastrozole Glucuronidation and MRP2 and MRP3 Gene Expression in Normal Liver Samples

    PubMed Central

    Edavana, Vineetha Koroth; Penney, Rosalind B; Yao- Borengasser, Aiwei; Starlard-Davenport, Athena; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Kadlubar, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Anastrozole is an aromatase inhibitor (AI) used as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. Anastrozole is subject to direct glucuronidation catalyzed by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase1A4 (UGT1A4). Interindividual variability in anastrozole glucuronidation may be affected by UGT1A4 SNPs. Interplay between drug metabolizing genes such as UGT1A4 and transporter genes may also be affected by genetic variability. Thus, we hypothesize that genetic variability in MRPs could influence anastrozole glucuronidation. The correlation between UGT1A4 and MRP2 or MRP3 transporter gene expressions and the correlation between MRP2 or MRP3 mRNA and anastrozole glucuronidation were analyzed in normal human liver samples. MRP2 and MRP3 mRNA levels were significantly correlated with UGT1A4 mRNA, with anastrozole glucuronidation and with each other (p<0.05). The data also demonstrated that MRP2 SNPs are positively correlated with MRP2 mRNA expression, while there was no association between MRP3 SNPs from this study and MRP3 expression. Significant correlations (p<0.05) between certain MRP2 SNPs (3972C>T, 2366C>T and −24C>T) and anastrozole glucuronidation were observed. There were no observed correlations between MRP3 SNPs and anastrozole glucuronidation. MRP2 polymorphisms have been identified as playing a role in the disposition of other drugs, and the data presented here indicate for the first time that MRP2 SNPs could influence anastrozole metabolism and contribute to interindividual variation in treatment responses.

  7. Glucuronidation of bavachinin by human tissues and expressed UGT enzymes: Identification of UGT1A1 and UGT1A8 as the major contributing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xia; Hou, Jie; Xia, Yang-Liu; Ning, Jing; He, Gui-Yuan; Wang, Ping; Ge, Guang-Bo; Xiu, Zhi-Long; Yang, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Bavachinin (BCI), a major bioactive compound in Chinese herbal Psoralea corylifolia, possesses a wide range of biological activities. In this study, the glucuronidation pathway of BCI was characterized for the first time, by using pooled human liver microsomes (HLM), pooled human intestine microsomes (HIM) and recombinant human UDP-glucosyltransferases (UGTs). One mono-glucuronide was detected in HLM in the presence of uridine-diphosphate glucuronic acid (UDPGA), and it was biosynthesized and well-characterized as BCI-4'-O-glucuronide (BCIG). Reaction phenotyping assay showed that UGT1A1, UGT1A3 and UGT1A8 were involved in BCI-4'-O-glucuronidation, while UGT1A1 and UGT1A8 displayed the higher catalytic ability among all tested UGT isoforms. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that BCI-4'-O-glucuronidation in both HLM and UGT1A1 followed sigmoidal kinetic behaviors and displayed much close Km values (12.4?M in HLM & 9.7?M in UGT1A1). Both chemical inhibition assays and correlation analysis demonstrated that UGT1A1 displayed a predominant role in BCI-4'-O-glucuronidation in HLM. Both HIM and UGT1A8 exhibited substrate inhibition at high concentrations, and Km values of HIM and UGT1A8 were 3.6 and 2.3?M, respectively. Similar catalytic efficiencies were observed for HIM (199.3?L/min/mg) and UGT1A8 (216.2?L/min/mg). These findings suggested that UGT1A1 and UGT1A8 were the primary isoforms involved in BCI-4'-O-glucuronidation in HLM, and HIM, respectively. PMID:26320626

  8. Production of ethyl alcohol from bananas

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.; Towns, T.

    1983-12-01

    The production of ethyl alcohol from waste bananas presents many special problems. During cooking, matting of the latex fibers from the banana peel recongeal when cooled and left untreated. This problem has been addressed by Alfaro by the use of CaC1/sub 2/. Separation of solids prior to distillation of the mashes in an economical fashion and use of the by product are also of concern to banana processors.

  9. Structure-activity relationships for degradation reaction of 1-beta-o-acyl glucuronides: kinetic description and prediction of intrinsic electrophilic reactivity under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Baba, Akiko; Yoshioka, Tadao

    2009-01-01

    1-beta-O-Acyl glucuronides (betaGAs) are potentially reactive metabolites capable of binding to proteins, and they have been implicated in adverse drug reactions of the carboxylic acid drugs. To explore their electrophilic reactivity, we studied structure-activity relationships (SARs) to characterize the factors affecting the degradation rate constants (k values) of betaGAs and ultimately to predict k values of structurally diverse betaGAs. Twenty-seven betaGAs and four related compounds were synthesized, and their k values were determined under physiological conditions (pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C). 1-beta-O-Benzoyl glucuronide (BAGA) and glucopyranoside (BAG) showed almost the same k values, whereas their 1-alpha-O-benzoyl isomers degraded approximately 40-fold faster than BAGA and BAG. BAGA methyl ester showed almost the same rate constant as BAGA in the cleavage of their 1-beta-O-benzoyl linkages. A pH-log k profile obtained indicated kinetics catalyzed by both specific and general bases. The log k of betaGAs derived from m- and p-substituted benzoic acids correlated with Hammett's sigma constants. A similar correlation was observed with delta(COOH), (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the parent benzoic acids including ones with less sterically bulky o-substituents. Alternative descriptors of delta(CO) and delta((CO)OH), (13)C chemical shifts for ester carbonyl carbons of betaGAs and for carbonyl carbons of the parent benzoic acids, respectively, correlated well with the log k of all 16 betaGAs derived from benzoic acids including ones with bulkier o-substituents. Of the betaGA isomers derived from (2R)- and (2S)-alpha-methyl-4-biphenylylacetic acid, the (2R)-isomer degraded approximately 2-fold faster than the (2S)-isomer. The alpha-methyl group in the (2S)-isomer would encumber the intramolecular acyl migration. The log k of betaGAs derived from n-aralkyl carboxylic acids and of the (2R)-isomer correlated with their delta(COOH). However, the log k of betaGAs derived from alpha,alpha-dimethyl- and alpha,alpha-diethyl-4-biphenylylacetic acids deviated downward from the regression line, probably due to a steric effect. The diversity and complexity of k values were discussed with respect to the electrophilicity of the ester carbonyl carbons of betaGAs and the steric hindrance around them. PMID:19105593

  10. Deuterium Exchange in Ethyl Acetoacetate: An Undergraduate GC-MS [Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy] Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinson, C. D.; Williams, J. M.; Tinnerman, W. N.; Malloy, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of ethanol O-d in nullifying the deuterolysis may be demonstrated by determining that transesterification of methyl acetoacetate of the ethyl ester occurs as well as deuterium exchange of the five acetoacetate hydrogens. The significant acidity of the methylene protons in the acetoacetate group, the efficacy of base catalysis, the role of…

  11. Persistence of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and halosulfuron-methyl in aqueous solutions: Comparing hydrolytic dissipation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and halosulfuron-methyl are two new highly active sulfonylurea herbicides that have been widely used for weed control in many crops. Chemical hydrolysis is a primary process to determine the environmental fates of this group of pesticides. The hydrolytic dissipation of two herbi...

  12. Deuterium Exchange in Ethyl Acetoacetate: An Undergraduate GC-MS [Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy] Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinson, C. D.; Williams, J. M.; Tinnerman, W. N.; Malloy, T. B.

    2005-01-01

    The role of ethanol O-d in nullifying the deuterolysis may be demonstrated by determining that transesterification of methyl acetoacetate of the ethyl ester occurs as well as deuterium exchange of the five acetoacetate hydrogens. The significant acidity of the methylene protons in the acetoacetate group, the efficacy of base catalysis, the role of

  13. Transesterification process to manufacture ethyl ester of rape oil

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Hoffman, D.S.; Bam, N.; Peterson, C.L.; Drown, D.C.

    1993-12-31

    A process for the production of the ethyl ester of winter rape [EEWR] for use as a biodiesel fuel has been studied. The essential part of the process is the transesterification of rape oil with ethanol, in the presence of a catalyst, to yield the ethyl ester of rape oil as a product and glycerin as a by-product. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for the preparation of EEWR. The process variables were: (1) temperature, (2) catalyst, (3) rate of agitation, (4) water content of the alcohol used, and (5) the amount of excess alcohol used. The optimum conditions were: (1) room temperature, (2) 0.5% sodium methoxide or 1% potassium hydroxide catalyst by weight of rapeseed oil, (3) extremely vigorous agitation with some splashing during the initial phase of the reaction and agitation was not necessary after the reaction mixture became homogeneous, (4) absolute ethanol was necessary for high conversion, and (5) 50% excess ethanol with NaOCH{sub 3} or 100% excess with KOH gave a maximum conversion. Viscosity, cloud point and pour point of the EEWR were measured. A preliminary break-even cost for the commercial production of EEWR was found to be $0.55/liter [$2.08/US gallon].

  14. Determination of polydimethylsiloxane-water partition coefficients for ten 1-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene-related compounds and twelve polychlorinated biphenyls using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Eganhouse, Robert P

    2016-03-18

    Polymer-water partition coefficients (Kpw) of ten DDT-related compounds were determined in pure water at 25°C using commercial polydimethylsiloxane-coated optical fiber. Analyte concentrations were measured by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/full scan mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MSFS; fibers) and liquid injection-gas chromatography/selected ion monitoring mass spectrometry (LI-GC/MSSIM; water). Equilibrium was approached from two directions (fiber uptake and depletion) as a means of assessing data concordance. Measured compound-specific log Kpw values ranged from 4.8 to 6.1 with an average difference in log Kpw between the two approaches of 0.05 log units (∼12% of Kpw). Comparison of the experimentally-determined log Kpw values with previously published data confirmed the consistency of the results and the reliability of the method. A second experiment was conducted with the same ten DDT-related compounds and twelve selected PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners under conditions characteristic of a coastal marine field site (viz., seawater, 11°C) that is currently under investigation for DDT and PCB contamination. Equilibration at lower temperature and higher ionic strength resulted in an increase in log Kpw for the DDT-related compounds of 0.28-0.49 log units (61-101% of Kpw), depending on the analyte. The increase in Kpw would have the effect of reducing by approximately half the calculated freely dissolved pore-water concentrations (Cfree). This demonstrates the importance of determining partition coefficients under conditions as they exist in the field. PMID:26898149

  15. Identification and determination of carboxylic acids in food samples using 2-(2-(anthracen-10-yl)-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-1-yl)ethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (APIETS) as labeling reagent by HPLC with FLD and APCI/MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiwei; You, Jinmao; Song, Cuihua; Xia, Lian

    2011-08-15

    A new labeling reagent for carboxylic acids, 2-(2-(anthracen-10-yl)-1H-phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazol-1-yl)ethyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate (APIETS) has been designed and synthesized. It was used to label eight fatty acids (lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid) and four hydroxy pentacyclic triterpene acids (oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, betulinic acid and maslinic acid), successfully. APIETS could easily and quickly label carboxylic acids in the presence of K(2)CO(3) catalyst at 85C for 35 min in N,N-dimethylformamide solvent. The carboxylic acids derivatives were separated on a C(8) reversed-phase column with gradient elution and fluorescence detection at ?(ex)/?(em)=315/435 nm. Identification of these derivatives was carried out by online mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in positive ion mode. The detection limits obtained were 13.37-30.26fmol (signal-to-noise ratio of 3). The proposed method has been applied to the quantification of carboxylic acids in sultana raisin (Thompson seedless), hawthorn flake (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge.), Lycium barbarum seed oil and Microula sikkimensis seed oil with recoveries over 95.3%. It has been demonstrated that APIETS is a prominent labeling reagent for determining carboxylic acids with high performance liquid chromatography. PMID:21726743

  16. Morphine-6-glucuronide: analgesic effects and receptor binding profile in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, F.V.; Palmour, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The antinociceptive effects of morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were examined in two animal models of pain, the tail immersion test (reflex withdrawal to noxious heat) and the formalin test (behavioral response to minor tissue injury). In the tail immersion test, M6G produced and increase in withdrawal latency that rose rapidly between 0.01 and 0.025 ug ICV or 1 and 2 mg/kg SC. A further increase occurred at doses greater than 0.2 ug ICV or 4 mg/kg SC and was associated with marked catelepsy and cyanosis. Naloxone, 0.1 mg/kg SC, shifted the lower component of the dose-effect relation by a factor of 24. In the formalin test, 0.01 ug M6G ICV produced hyperalgesia, while between 0.05 and 0.2 ug ICV, antinociception increased rapidly without toxicity. The dose effect relations for hyperalgesia and antinociception were shifted to the right by factors of 20- and 3-fold, respectively. By comparison, ICV morphine was 60 (formalin test) to 145-200 (tail immersion test) times less potent than M6G. At sub-nanomolar concentrations, M6G enhanced the binding of (/sup 3/H)-etorphine, (/sup 3/H)-dihydromorphine and (/sup 3/H)-naloxone to rat brain membrane receptors by 20-40%. At higher concentrations, M6G displaced each ligand from binding sites, with K/sub i/ values of about 30 nM, as compared to morphine K/sub i/ values of about 3 nM.

  17. Further evidence that morphine-6 beta-glucuronide is a more potent opioid agonist than morphine.

    PubMed

    Frances, B; Gout, R; Monsarrat, B; Cros, J; Zajac, J M

    1992-07-01

    The antinociceptive properties of morphine-6 beta-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine (oral, i.c.v. and s.c.) were examined in two tests involving different nociceptive stimuli [i.e., cutaneous-thermal (tail-flick) and chemical-visceral (acetic acid-writhing)] in both naive and chronically treated mice. Twenty min after i.c.v. injection, M6G was 47 and 360 times more potent than morphine in the writhing and tail-flick tests, respectively. This difference was not due to differences in affinity because M6G displayed lower apparent affinities (Ki) for mu and kappa binding sites in vitro. After systemic injection, the two opiates were equieffective, although M6G produced a 10-fold longer antinociceptive effect. These differences with route of administration partially result from the hydrophilic nature of M6G because its inflow into the brain compartment was at least 10-fold lower than that of morphine, whereas the rate of elimination of the parent molecule was 3 times greater. After chronic treatment, mice readily develop tolerance and marked physical dependence to the antinociceptive effects of M6G. In vivo binding studies showed that M6G exerts its antinociceptive effect at low (less than 1%) fractional occupancy of [3H]diprenorphine-specific binding sites. In contrast, morphine needs to occupy 9.5 (writhing) to 47 (tail-flick) times more opioid binding sites to produce the same antinociceptive activity. M6G thus appears to have greater pharmacological potency than morphine, which in comparison possesses a low intrinsic efficacy. PMID:1320685

  18. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K69 key comparison: Testosterone glucuronide in human urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fong-Ha; Mackay, Lindsey; Murby, John

    2010-01-01

    The CCQM-K69 key comparison of testosterone glucuronide in human urine was organized under the auspices of the CCQM Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG). The National Measurement Institute Australia (NMIA) acted as the coordinating laboratory for the comparison. The samples distributed for the key comparison were prepared at NMIA with funding from the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). WADA granted the approval for this material to be used for the intercomparison provided the distribution and handling of the material were strictly controlled. Three national metrology institutes (NMIs)/designated institutes (DIs) developed reference methods and submitted data for the key comparison along with two other laboratories who participated in the parallel pilot study. A good selection of analytical methods and sample workup procedures was displayed in the results submitted considering the complexities of the matrix involved. The comparability of measurement results was successfully demonstrated by the participating NMIs. Only the key comparison data were used to estimate the key comparison reference value (KCRV), using the arithmetic mean approach. The reported expanded uncertainties for results ranged from 3.7% to 6.7% at the 95% level of confidence and all results agreed within the expanded uncertainty of the KCRV. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  19. Elucidation of the Mechanisms through Which the Reactive Metabolite Diclofenac Acyl Glucuronide Can Mediate Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Scialis, Renato J; Manautou, José E

    2016-04-01

    We have previously reported that mice lacking the efflux transporter Mrp3 had significant intestinal injury after toxic diclofenac (DCF) challenge, and proposed that diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DCF-AG), as a substrate of Mrp3, played a part in mediating injury. Since both humans and mice express the uptake transporter OATP2B1 in the intestines, OATP2B1 was characterized for DCF-AG uptake. In vitro assays using human embryonic kidney (HEK)-OATP2B1 cells demonstrated that DCF-AG was a substrate with a maximal velocity (Vmax) and Km of 17.6 ± 1.5 pmol/min per milligram and 14.3 ± 0.1 μM, respectively. Another key finding from our in vitro assays was that DCF-AG was more cytotoxic compared with DCF, and toxicity occurred within 1-3 hours of exposure. We also report that 1 mM DCF-AG caused a 6-fold increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 3 hours. Investigation of oxidative stress through inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) revealed that DCF-AG had 100% inhibition of SOD at the highest tested dose of 1 mM. The SOD and ROS results strongly suggest DCF-AG induced oxidative stress in vitro. Lastly, DCF-AG was screened for pharmacologic activity against COX-1 and COX-2 and was found to have IC50 values of 0.620 ± 0.105 and 2.91 ± 0.36 μM, respectively, which represents a novel finding. Since cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition can lead to intestinal ulceration, it is plausible that DCF-AG can also contribute to enteropathy via COX inhibition. Taken in context, the work presented herein demonstrated the multifactorial pathways by which DCF-AG can act as a direct contributor to toxicity following DCF administration. PMID:26869668

  20. 1-Hydroxypyrene glucuronide as the major aqueous pyrene metabolite in tissue and gut fluid from the marine deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Giessing, Anders M B; Mayer, Lawrence M; Forbes, Thomas L

    2003-05-01

    Both 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide are identified as the primary phase I and phase II metabolites of the four-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene in the marine deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Identification of pyrene and primary metabolites was performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection and fluorescence detection (HPLC/DAD/F) and an ion-trap mass spectrometer for positive identification of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide. Besides 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide, the HPLC/F trace of tissue samples from pyrene-exposed worms showed three additional low-intensity peaks that may be related to pyrene metabolism based on similar excitation/emission wavelengths. The peaks were all too low in intensity to be positively identified. Of the total PAH in tissue, 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide, 1-hydroxypyrene, and pyrene constituted 73%, 2%, and 25% respectively. Gut elimination of metabolic products is supported by the identification of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in both gut fluid and defecation water. Being the only phase I metabolite of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene becomes a useful marker for PAH exposure, and it may serve as a valuable model compound for assessing species-specific PAH metabolic capabilities. PMID:12729221

  1. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide as a biomarker of exposure to various vehicle exhausts among highway toll-station workers in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Huang; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Chen, Hsiao-Lung; Buckley, Timothy J; Strickland, Paul T; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2004-02-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the authors evaluated urinary 1-hydroxypyrene-glucuronide (1-OHP-gluc) as a potential biomarker of exposure to various traffic exhausts. Subjects were 47 female highway toll-station workers and 27 female office workers in training for toll-station employment in Taipei, Taiwan. The mean concentration of urinary 1 -OHP-gluc was 0.117 micromol/mol creatinine in the exposed group and 0.073 micromol/mol creatinine in the reference group (difference in mean concentrations: 0.044 micromol/mol creatinine [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.015, 0.072). In the lanes where tolls were collected from passenger cars, there was a significant relationship between cumulative traffic and 1-OHP-gluc concentration (i.e., average increase of 0.015 micromol/mol creatinine [95% CI: 0.003, 0.027] per 1,000 vehicles). The average increase for truck/bus lanes was similar to that identified for the car lanes (i.e., average increase of 0.011 micromol/mol creatinine [95% Cl: -0.024, 0.045] per 1,000 vehicles). The authors determined that exposure to various traffic exhausts increased the urinary concentration of 1-OHP-gluc in a dose-response pattern, which suggests that this chemical may be a useful biomarker for exposure to vehicle exhausts. PMID:16075899

  2. Ultrasound-assisted hydrolysis of conjugated parabens in human urine and their determination by UPLC-MS/MS and UPLC-HRMS.

    PubMed

    Schlittenbauer, Linda; Seiwert, Bettina; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Parabens are preservatives widely used in personal care products, pharmaceutical formulations as well as in food, and they are considered endocrine disruptors. For application in biomonitoring studies we developed a method for the determination of eight parabens from human urine. Sample preparation was enhanced and simplified by the combination of ultrasound-assisted enzymatic hydrolysis of conjugates (glucuronide and sulfate) followed by an extraction-free cleanup step. Quantification, using deuterated parabens as internal standards, was performed by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to either triple-quadrupole (UPLC-QqQ) or time-of-flight (UPLC-QqTOF) mass spectrometry. Full chromatographic separation of three butyl paraben isomers was achieved. Limits of quantification for both mass analyzers ranged from 0.1 to 0.5 μg/L for methyl, ethyl, n-/isopropyl, n-/isobutyl, and benzyl paraben in 200 μL of urine sample. The method was tested for applicability and showed high precision (intra- and interday 0.9-14.5 %) as well as high accuracy (relative recovery 95-132 %). A total of 39 urine samples were analyzed by both mass analyzers. The results agreed well, with a trend to higher deviation at low concentrations (less than 10 μg/L). Methyl, ethyl, and n-propyl paraben were detected most frequently (in more than 87 % of the samples) with median concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 16.6 μg/L. Female urine showed higher median concentrations for all parabens, which may indicate higher exposure due to lifestyle. This method permits accurate and high-throughput analysis of parabens for epidemiological studies. Further, the UPLC-QqTOF approach provides additional information on human exposure to other compounds by post-acquisition analysis. Graphical abstract Analytical procedure for paraben analysis from human urine samples including ultrasound-enhanced enzymatic digestion of glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, extraction-free clean-up and quantification by UHPLC-MS/MS. PMID:26753983

  3. 17alpha- and 17beta-boldenone 17-glucuronides: synthesis and complete characterization by 1H and 13C NMR.

    PubMed

    Casati, Silvana; Ottria, Roberta; Ciuffreda, Pierangela

    2009-02-01

    Boldenone is an androgenic anabolic steroid intensively used for growth promoting purposes in animals destined for meat production and as a performance enhancer in athletics. Therefore its use is officially banned either in animals intended for consumption or in humans. Because most anabolic steroids are completely metabolized and usually no parent steroid is excreted, metabolite identification is crucial to detect the illegal use of anabolic steroids either in humans or in livestock. 17alpha- and 17beta-boldenone 17-glucuronides were synthesized, purified and characterized in order to provide suitable standards for the identification and quantification of these metabolites. PMID:19071152

  4. Contribution of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 to the Disposition of Sorafenib and Sorafenib-Glucuronide

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Eric I.; Hu, Shuiying; Roberts, Justin L.; Gibson, Alice A.; Orwick, Shelley J.; Li, Lie; Sparreboom, Alex; Baker, Sharyn D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Many tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) undergo extensive hepatic metabolism, but mechanisms of their hepatocellular uptake remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that liver uptake of TKIs is mediated by the solute carriers OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. Experimental Design Transport of crizotinib, dasatinib, gefitinib, imatinib, nilotinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, sunitinib, vandetanib, and vemurafenib was studied in vitro using artificial membranes (PAMPA) and HEK293 cell lines stably transfected with OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or the ortholog mouse transporter, Oatp1b2. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed with Oatp1b2-knockout mice and humanized OATP1B1- or OATP1B3-transgenic mice. Results All 10 TKIs were identified as substrates of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, or both. Transport of sorafenib was investigated further, since its diffusion was particularly low in the PAMPA assay (<4%) compared to other TKIs that were transported by both OATP1B1 and OATP1B3. While Oatp1b2 deficiency in vivo had minimal influence on parent and active metabolite N-oxide drug exposure, plasma levels of the glucuronic-acid metabolite of sorafenib (sorafenib-glucuronide) were increased >8-fold in Oatp1b2-knockout mice. This finding was unrelated to possible changes in intrinsic metabolic capacity for sorafenib-glucuronide formation in hepatic or intestinal microsomes ex vivo. Ensuing experiments revealed that sorafenib-glucuronide was itself a transported substrate of Oatp1b2 (17.5-fold vs control), OATP1B1 (10.6-fold), and OATP1B3 (6.4-fold), and introduction of the human transporters in Oatp1b2-knockout mice provided partial restoration of function. Conclusions These findings signify a unique role for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 in the elimination of sorafenib-glucuronide, and suggest a role for these transporters in the in vivo handling of glucuronic acid conjugates of drugs. PMID:23340295

  5. Tetra-ethyl-ammonium bicarbonate trihydrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Heping; Hou, Yimin; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-08-01

    In the title compound, C(8)H(20)N(+)CHO(3) (-)3H(2)O, the bicarbon-ate anion, which has a small mean deviation from the plane of 0.0014?, fully utilises its three O and one H atom to form various O-H?O hydrogen bonds with the three water mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit, generating a hydrogen-bonded layer, which extends along (10[Formula: see text]). The tetra-ethyl-ammonium cations, as the guest species, are accommodated between every two neighboring layers, constructing a sandwich-like structure with an inter-layer distance of 7.28?. PMID:22091026

  6. 21 CFR 172.872 - Methyl ethyl cellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl ethyl cellulose. 172.872 Section 172.872... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives 172.872 Methyl ethyl cellulose. The food additive methyl ethyl cellulose... a cellulose ether having the general formula [C6H(10 -x-y)O5(CH3)x(C2H5)y]n, where x is the...

  7. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  8. Liver snips. A simple, rapid and reproducible method for studying metabolism in small fragments of tissue, as applied to glucuronidation in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, M R; Dutton, G J

    1982-01-01

    A simple, rapid method is described of preparing intact cells as small (about 2mm) pieces of organized tissue capable of performing synthetic metabolic functions. It has been applied to the study of glucuronidation in rat liver. In this process, snips appear less damaged, more versatile and more active than tissue slices and yield results of reproducibility comparable with those with homogenates. From a comparison with the literature, snips glucuronidate the substrates employed at a rate much the same as in perfused preparations and some 30% less than the rate in isolated-hepatocyte suspensions; the advantages they offer in certain situations over these two techniques are discussed. PMID:7046733

  9. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the biosynthesis of flavonoid-O-glucuronides and flavonoid-O-galactoside.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Hye Rin; Park, Kwang-Su; Kim, Bong-Gyu; Ahn, Joong-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Most flavonoids are glycosylated and the nature of the attached sugar can strongly affect their physiological properties. Although many flavonoid glycosides have been synthesized in Escherichia coli, most of them are glucosylated. In order to synthesize flavonoids attached to alternate sugars such as glucuronic acid and galactoside, E. coli was genetically modified to express a uridine diphosphate (UDP)-dependent glycosyltransferase (UGT) specific for UDP-glucuronic acid (AmUGT10 from Antirrhinum majus or VvUGT from Vitis vinifera) and UDP-galactoside (PhUGT from Petunia hybrid) along with the appropriate nucleotide biosynthetic genes to enable simultaneous production of their substrates, UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-galactose. To engineer UDP-glucuronic acid biosynthesis, the araA gene encoding UDP-4-deoxy-4-formamido-L-arabinose formyltransferase/UDP-glucuronic acid C-4? decarboxylase, which also used UDP-glucuronic acid as a substrate, was deleted in E. coli, and UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (ugd) gene was overexpressed to increase biosynthesis of UDP-glucuronic acid. Using these strategies, luteolin-7-O-glucuronide and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide were biosynthesized to levels of 300 and 687mg/L, respectively. For the synthesis of quercetin 3-O-galactoside, UGE (encoding UDP-glucose epimerase from Oryza sativa) was overexpressed along with a glycosyltransferase specific for quercetin and UDP-galactose. Using this approach, quercetin 3-O-galactoside was successfully synthesized to a level of 280mg/L. PMID:25515812

  10. Screening of 4-androstenedione misuse in cattle by LC-MS/MS profiling of glucuronide and sulfate steroids in urine.

    PubMed

    Anizan, Sebastien; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Di Nardo, Domenica; Monteau, Fabrice; Cesbron, Nora; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2011-10-30

    The use of anabolic agents in food producing animals is prohibited within the European Union since 1988. The illegal use of natural steroid hormones control is however still a current challenge, especially regarding the limitations of existing screening methods. In this context, the present study aimed to develop a new screening approach based on the emerging 'untargeted profiling' concept, but with a special emphasis on steroids phase II conjugated metabolites, in the scope of revealing potential biomarkers signing a fraudulent administration of 4-androstenedione. After extraction and separation of the urinary glucuronide and sulfate steroid fractions, each one was analyzed separately by UPLC-MS/MS using the precursor ion scan acquisition mode. This approach was carried out in order to monitor product ion characteristic of sulfate (m/z 97) and glucuronide (m/z 113) functional groups, and then to fish for any potential conjugated steroid leading to these ionic species after fragmentation. After statistical analysis, 86 metabolites (33 from steroid compounds and 53 from other unknown substances) were highlighted as potential biomarkers of 4-androstenedione abuse. After application of several robustness criteria, 26 metabolites (whom 5 were unambiguously structurally identified), were finally selected to build a statistical model which could be used as new diagnostic tool for screening purposes. PMID:22063529

  11. Ethyl pyruvate decreases HMGB1 release and ameliorates murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Davé, Shaival H.; Tilstra, Jeremy S.; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Li, Fengling; DeMarco, Richard A.; Beer-Stolz, Donna; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Fink, Mitchell P.; Lotze, Michael T.; Plevy, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    Signals from stressed cells and the enteric microbiota activate macrophages and dendritic cells and mediate intestinal inflammation. HMGB1 serves as an immunogenic stimuli causing release of inflammatory cytokines by myeloid cells. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits secretion of HMGB1 and improves survival in models of endotoxemia and hemorrhagic shock. We reasoned that ethyl pyruvate may be protective in colitis, which involves similar inflammatory pathways. In IL-10−/− mice with established chronic colitis, ethyl pyruvate administration ameliorated colitis and reduced intestinal cytokine production. IL-10−/− mice demonstrated increased intestinal HMGB1 expression and decreased expression of RAGE compared with wild-type mice. Fecal HMGB1 levels were decreased in ethyl pyruvate-treated mice. Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate induced HO-1 expression in intestinal tissue. In TNBS-induced colitis, intrarectal administration of ethyl pyruvate resulted in amelioration of colitis and reduced intestinal cytokine production. In LPS-activated murine macrophages, ethyl pyruvate decreased expression of IL-12 p40 and NO production but did not affect IL-10 levels. Ethyl pyruvate did not inhibit nuclear translocation of NF-κB family members but attenuated NF-κB DNA binding. Additionally, ethyl pyruvate induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression and HO-1 promoter activation. Moreover, ethyl pyruvate prevented nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1. In conclusion, the HMGB1/RAGE pathway has pathophysiologic and diagnostic significance in experimental colitis. Ethyl pyruvate and other strategies to inhibit HMGB1 release and function represent promising interventions in chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:19454652

  12. Differential genotoxicity of ethyl methanesulphonate, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea and maleic hydrazide in tobacco seedlings based on data of the Comet assay and two recombination assays.

    PubMed

    Gichner, Toms

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if mutagen-induced DNA damage is correlated with the frequency of induced recombination events. The alkylating agents ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), and the plant growth regulator and herbicide maleic hydrazide (MH) were compared in tobacco seedlings for their ability to induce DNA damage measured by the Comet assay, and recombination activity measured by the GUS gene reactivation assay, and by the somatic twin sectors assay. While EMS and ENU induced a dose-dependent increase in DNA damage in leaf nuclei, MH had no significant effect. By contrast, MH induced a 6-fold higher frequency of homologous recombination as expressed by the GUS assay and a 2.8-fold higher frequency of somatic twin sectors than after EMS treatments. PMID:12834766

  13. Distribution and Organoleptic Impact of Ethyl 3-Hydroxybutanoate Enantiomers in Wine.

    PubMed

    Lytra, Georgia; Cameleyre, Margaux; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Enantiomers of ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate were assayed in 87 commercial wines from various vintages and origins, using chiral gas chromatography (?-cyclodextrin). Generally, ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate levels were higher in red than in white wines of the same age. The average S/R enantiomeric ratio of this compound in red wine was approximately 75:25 (13), with an average total concentration of ?450 (150) ?g/L. In red wines, R-form levels increased gradually during aging, but no variations were observed in S-form concentrations. To our knowledge, no previous research had determined the enantiomeric distribution of this compound in wine. The olfactory threshold of the S-form in dilute alcohol solution was 21 mg/L, one-third that of the R-form: 63 mg/L. The S- and R-forms had different aromatic nuances. The olfactory threshold of their mixture (85:15, m/m) was 14 mg/L, indicating a simple additive effect in this binary mixture. Furthermore, the concentrations found in red wines were considerably below the olfactory threshold under the same experimental conditions. Sensory analysis revealed that ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate (S/R, 85:15, m/m) had an enhancing effect on the perception of fruity aromas in the matrices studied. Sensory profiles highlighted the contribution of ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate to red-berry and fresh-fruit descriptors, despite its subthreshold concentrations. PMID:26587875

  14. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  15. 40 CFR 180.483 - O-[2-(1,1-Dimethylethyl)-5-pyrimidinyl] O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false O- O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl... FOOD Specific Tolerances 180.483 O- O-ethyl-O-(1-methyl-ethyl) phosphorothioate; tolerances for residues. Time-limited tolerances are established for residues of the insecticide O-...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.3152 - Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl sulfates (salts). 721.3152 Section 721... Ethanaminium, N-ethyl-2-hydroxy-N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-, diester with C12-18 fatty acids, ethyl...

  18. 40 CFR 180.441 - Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances for residues. 180.441 Section 180.441 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.441 Quizalofop ethyl; tolerances...

  19. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF METHYL ETHYL KETONE (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, "Toxicological Review of Methyl Ethyl Ketone: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)". The updated Summary for Methyl Ethyl Ketone and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  20. Metabolism of ethyl tiglate in apple fruits leads to the formation of small amounts of (R)-ethyl 2-methylbutanoate.

    PubMed

    Hauck, T; Weckerle, B; Schwab, W

    2000-01-01

    (S)-Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate is an important aroma compound in apples and serves as an indicator for genuineness of apple products due to its high optical purity of greater than 98% enantiomeric excess [T. Koenig and P. Schreier, Zeitsch. Lebensm.-Unters. Forsch. A, 1999, 208, 130-133; K. Schumacher et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998, 46, 4496-4500]. The origin of minor amounts of (R)-ethyl 2-methylbutanoate is unknown as naturally occurring (+)-isoleucine, the proposed precursor of (S)-ethyl 2-methylbutanoate is enantiomerically pure. Since ethyl (E)-2-methyl-2-butenoate (ethyl tiglate) was recently discovered as a natural apple constituent and hydrogenation activity in apples was demonstrated we proposed ethyl tiglate as a precursor of (R)-ethyl 2-methylbutanoate. D4-3,4,4,4-ethyl tiglate was synthesized and was injected into ripe apple fruits (cv. Golden Delicious, Red Delicious and Granny Smith). After 3, 6, and 12 days apple volatiles were isolated by solid phase extraction on XAD-2 and the metabolites formed from D4-3,4,4,4-ethyl tiglate were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylbutanol, and 2-methylbutanoic acid were identified as major transformation products. Chiral evaluation of the metabolites by multidimensional GC-MS revealed enantiomeric excesses ranging from 43% (S) to 30% (R) depending on the apple cultivar, sampling date and metabolite. The data show for the first time that the natural apple constituent ethyl tiglate can serve as a source for (R)-2-methylbutanol derivatives. PMID:11143814

  1. A morphogenetic regulatory role for ethyl alcohol in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Nitin M; Raut, Jayant S; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2011-11-01

    Regulation of morphogenesis through the production of chemical signalling molecules such as isoamyl alcohol, 2-phenylethyl alcohol, 1-dodecanol, E-nerolidol and farnesol is reported in Candida albicans. The present study focuses on the effect of ethyl alcohol on C. albicans dimorphism and biofilm development. Ethyl alcohol inhibited germ tube formation induced by the four standard inducers in a concentration-dependent manner. The germ tube inhibitory concentration (4%) did not have any effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans cells. Ethyl alcohol also inhibited the elongation of germ tubes. Four percentage of ethyl alcohol significantly inhibited biofilm development on polystyrene and silicone surfaces. We suggest a potential morphogenetic regulatory role for ethyl alcohol, which may influence dissemination, virulence and establishment of infection. PMID:21605190

  2. 4-Chloro-3-ethylphenol

    PubMed Central

    Majer, Sean H.; Tanski, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    The title compound, C8H9ClO, packs with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, without significant differences in corresponding bond lengths and angles, with the ethyl group in each oriented nearly perpendicular to the aromatic ring having ring-to-side chain torsion angles of 81.14?(18) and ?81.06?(19). In the crystal, molecules form an OH?O hydrogen-bonded chain extending along the b-axis direction, through the phenol groups in which the H atoms are disordered. These chains pack together in the solid state, giving a sheet lying parallel to (001), via an offset face-to-face ?-stacking interaction characterized by a centroidcentroid distance of 3.580?(1)?, together with a short intermolecular Cl?Cl contact [3.412?(1)?]. PMID:25161582

  3. The gelation of oil using ethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Davidovich-Pinhas, M; Barbut, S; Marangoni, A G

    2015-03-01

    The characterization of the thermo-gelation mechanism and properties of ethyl cellulose/canola oil oleogels was performed using rheology and thermal analysis. Thermal analysis detected no evidence for thermal transitions contributed to secondary conformational changes, suggesting a gelation mechanism that does not involve secondary ordered structure formation. Rheological analysis demonstrated a relationship between the polymer molecular weight and the final gel strength, the cross-over behavior as well as the gel point temperature. Increasing polymer molecular weight led to an increase in final gel strength, the modulus at cross-over, and the gel point temperature. Cooling/heating rates affect gel modulus only for the low molecular weight samples. A decrease in gel strength with increasing cooling rate was detected. The cross-over temperature was not affected by the cooling/heating rates. Cooling rate also affected the gelation setting time where slow cooling rates produced a stable gel faster. PMID:25498711

  4. Parameters affecting ethyl ester production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Saerens, S M G; Delvaux, F; Verstrepen, K J; Van Dijck, P; Thevelein, J M; Delvaux, F R

    2008-01-01

    Volatile esters are responsible for the fruity character of fermented beverages and thus constitute a vital group of aromatic compounds in beer and wine. Many fermentation parameters are known to affect volatile ester production. In order to obtain insight into the production of ethyl esters during fermentation, we investigated the influence of several fermentation variables. A higher level of unsaturated fatty acids in the fermentation medium resulted in a general decrease in ethyl ester production. On the other hand, a higher fermentation temperature resulted in greater ethyl octanoate and decanoate production, while a higher carbon or nitrogen content of the fermentation medium resulted in only moderate changes in ethyl ester production. Analysis of the expression of the ethyl ester biosynthesis genes EEB1 and EHT1 after addition of medium-chain fatty acid precursors suggested that the expression level is not the limiting factor for ethyl ester production, as opposed to acetate ester production. Together with the previous demonstration that provision of medium-chain fatty acids, which are the substrates for ethyl ester formation, to the fermentation medium causes a strong increase in the formation of the corresponding ethyl esters, this result further supports the hypothesis that precursor availability has an important role in ethyl ester production. We concluded that, at least in our fermentation conditions and with our yeast strain, the fatty acid precursor level rather than the activity of the biosynthetic enzymes is the major limiting factor for ethyl ester production. The expression level and activity of the fatty acid biosynthetic enzymes therefore appear to be prime targets for flavor modification by alteration of process parameters or through strain selection. PMID:17993562

  5. Fragmentation dynamics of the ethyl bromide and ethyl iodide cations: a velocity-map imaging study.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Sara H; Karsili, Tolga N V; Lipciuc, M Laura; Wilman, Edward; Ashfold, Michael N R; Vallance, Claire

    2014-02-01

    The photodissociation dynamics of ethyl bromide and ethyl iodide cations (C2H5Br(+) and C2H5I(+)) have been studied. Ethyl halide cations were formed through vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization of the respective neutral parent molecules at 118.2 nm, and were photolysed at a number of ultraviolet (UV) photolysis wavelengths, including 355 nm and wavelengths in the range from 236 to 266 nm. Time-of-flight mass spectra and velocity-map images have been acquired for all fragment ions and for ground (Br) and spin-orbit excited (Br*) bromine atom products, allowing multiple fragmentation pathways to be investigated. The experimental studies are complemented by spin-orbit resolved ab initio calculations of cuts through the potential energy surfaces (along the RC-Br/I stretch coordinate) for the ground and first few excited states of the respective cations. Analysis of the velocity-map images indicates that photoexcited C2H5Br(+) cations undergo prompt C-Br bond fission to form predominantly C2H5(+) + Br* products with a near-limiting 'parallel' recoil velocity distribution. The observed C2H3(+) + H2 + Br product channel is thought to arise via unimolecular decay of highly internally excited C2H5(+) products formed following radiationless transfer from the initial excited state populated by photon absorption. Broadly similar behaviour is observed in the case of C2H5I(+), along with an additional energetically accessible C-I bond fission channel to form C2H5 + I(+) products. HX (X = Br, I) elimination from the highly internally excited C2H5X(+) cation is deemed the most probable route to forming the C2H4(+) fragment ions observed from both cations. Finally, both ethyl halide cations also show evidence of a minor C-C bond fission process to form CH2X(+) + CH3 products. PMID:24317740

  6. 40 CFR 721.10595 - Octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1). 721.10595 Section 721.10595 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10595 Octadecen-1-aminium,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10595 - Octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Octadecen-1-aminium, N-ethyl-N,N-dimethy-, ethyl sulfate (1:1). 721.10595 Section 721.10595 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10595 Octadecen-1-aminium,...

  8. Tentative Structural Assignment of a Glucuronide Metabolite of Methyltestosterone in Tilapia Bile by Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nishshanka, Upul; Chu, Pak-Sin; Evans, Eric; Reimschuessel, Renate; Hasbrouck, Nicholas; Amarasinghe, Kande; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi

    2015-06-24

    Methyltestosterone (MT), a strong androgenic steroid, is not approved for use in fish aquaculture in the United States. It is used in the U.S. under an investigational new animal drug exemption (INAD) only during the early life stages of fish. There is a possibility that farmers feed fish with MT to enhance production for economic gains. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods for the detection of MT and its metabolite residues in fish tissue for monitoring purposes. Previously, our laboratory developed a liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF) method for characterization of 17-O-glucuronide metabolite (MT-glu) in bile of tilapia dosed with MT. The system used was an Agilent 6530 Q-TOF equipped with electrospray jet stream technology, operating in positive ion mode. Retrospective analysis of the data generated in that experiment by a feature-finding algorithm, combined with a search against an in-house library of possible MT-metabolites, resulted in the discovery of a major glucuronide metabolite of MT in the bile extracts. Preliminary data indicate it to be a glucuronide of a hydroxylated MT (OHMT-glu) which persists in tilapia bile for at least 2 weeks after dosing. We present the tentative structural assignment of the OHMT-glu in tilapia bile and time course of development. This glucuronide can serve as a marker to monitor illegal use of MT in tilapia culture. PMID:25980472

  9. Androgen glucuronides analysis by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry: could it raise new perspectives in the diagnostic field of hormone-dependent malignancies?

    PubMed

    Kalogera, Eleni; Pistos, Constantinos; Provatopoulou, Xeni; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Gounaris, Antonia

    2013-12-01

    Breast and prostate constitute organs of intense steroidogenic activity. Clinical and epidemiologic data provide strong evidence on the influence of androgens and estrogens on the risk of typical hormone-dependent malignancies, like breast and prostate cancer. Recent studies have focused on the role of androgen metabolites in regulating androgen concentrations in hormone-sensitive tissues. Steroid glucuronidation has been suggested to have a prominent role in controlling the levels and the biological activity of unconjugated androgens. It is well-established that serum levels of androgen glucuronides reflect androgen metabolism in androgen-sensitive tissues. Quantitative analysis of androgen metabolites in blood specimens is the only minimally invasive approach permitting an accurate estimate of the total pool of androgens. During the past years, androgen glucuronides analysis most often involved radioimmunoassays (RIA) or direct immunoassays, both methods bearing serious limitations. However, recent impressive technical advances in mass spectrometry, and particularly in high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), have overcome these drawbacks enabling the simultaneous, quantitative analysis of multiple steroids even at low concentrations. Blood androgen profiling by LC-MS/MS, a robust and reliable technique of high selectivity, sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy emerges as a promising new approach in the study of human pathology. The present review offers a contemporary insight in androgen glucuronides profiling through the application of LC-MS/MS, highlighting new perspectives in the study of steroids and their implication in hormone-dependent malignancies. PMID:24140653

  10. Metabolism and disposition of resveratrol in the isolated perfused rat liver: role of Mrp2 in the biliary excretion of glucuronides.

    PubMed

    Maier-Salamon, Alexandra; Hagenauer, Birigt; Reznicek, Gottfried; Szekeres, Thomas; Thalhammer, Theresia; Jäger, Walter

    2008-04-01

    In this study, the hepatic metabolism and transport system for resveratrol was examined in isolated perfused livers from Wistar and Mrp2-deficient TR(-) rats. Based on extensive metabolism to six glucuronides and sulfates (M1-M6), the hepatic extraction ratio and clearance of resveratrol was very high in Wistar and TR(-) rats (E: 0.998 vs. 0.999; Cl: 34.9 mL/min vs. 36.0 mL/min). However, biliary excretion and efflux of conjugates differs greatly in TR(-) rats. While cumulative biliary excretion of the glucuronides M1, M2, M3, and M5 dropped dramatically to 0-6%, their efflux into perfusate increased by 3.6-, 1.8-, 2.5-, and 1.5-fold. In contrast, biliary secretion of the sulfates M4 and M6 was partially maintained in the Mrp2-deficient rats (61% and 39%) with a concomitant decline of their efflux into perfusate by 33.2% and 78.1%. This indicates that Mrp2 exclusively mediates the biliary excretion of resveratrol glucuronides but only partly that of sulfates. Cumulative secretion of unconjugated resveratrol into bile of TR(-) rats was only reduced by 40%, and into perfusate by 19%, suggesting only a minor role of Mrp2 in resveratrol elimination. In summary, resveratrol was dose-dependently metabolized to several conjugates whereby the canalicular transporter Mrp2 selectively mediated the biliary excretion of glucuronides. PMID:17724663

  11. Mechanistic insight into alkylation of the ethyl acetoacetate anion with different ethyl halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovi?, S.; ?ur?evi?, J.; Vukosavljevi?, M.; Petrovi?, Z.

    2013-12-01

    The alkylation reactions of the ambident ethyl acetoacetate anion with C2H5X (X = F, Cl, Br, and I) in the O2, C3, and O4 positions of the anion were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G( d,p) level of theory. It was found that the ethylation reaction does not occur in the position O4, as well as with ethyl fluoride in any position of the anion, due to very high activation energies and thermodynamic instability of the hypothetic products. The activation energies for the reactions in the position O2 are lower in comparison to the position C3, but the products of the reactions in the C3 position are more stable than those in the position O4, implying that the C/O products ratio is controlled by both thermodynamic and kinetic factors, leading to the O2-product with the chloride, and C3-product with the iodide as leaving group.

  12. Expanding analytical possibilities concerning the detection of stanozolol misuse by means of high resolution/high accuracy mass spectrometric detection of stanozolol glucuronides in human sports drug testing.

    PubMed

    Schänzer, Wilhelm; Guddat, Sven; Thomas, Andreas; Opfermann, Georg; Geyer, Hans; Thevis, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) represent one of the most frequently detected classes of prohibited substances in doping controls. Due to their long-lasting beneficial effects on athletic performance, utmost retrospectivity via urine analysis is desirable and accomplished by targeting long-term metabolites of the respective drugs. In case of stanozolol, a substantial variety of metabolites has enabled the identification of numerous adverse analytical findings in the past, and recent studies concerning complementary phase-I and phase-II metabolites has further expanded the windows of opportunity for detecting the abuse of stanozolol. In this study, the utility of liquid chromatography-high resolution/high accuracy (tandem) mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the detection of 3'-OH-stanozolol glucuronide in sports drug testing is presented and the identification of two additional and so far unreported metabolites is shown. The structures of the complementary glucuronic acid conjugates were attributed to stanozolol-N-glucuronide and 17-epistanozolol-N-glucuronide. By means of chemical synthesis, stanozolol-N-glucuronide was prepared and used to corroborate the suggested structures. The 3'-OH-stanozolol glucuronide and the newly identified target compounds were implemented into routine sports drug test assays consisting of direct injection LC-MS/MS or solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by LC-MS/MS. A considerably expanded detection window for stanozolol abuse was demonstrated compared to the use of conventional phase-I metabolites and methodologies based on, for example, low resolution LC-MS/MS or gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The commercial availability of 3'-OH-stanozolol glucuronide has been of great value for confirmatory purposes, and 17-epistanozolol-N-glucuronide was found to be a favourable long-term metabolite for doping controls as it was observed up to 28 days post-administration of the drug. Applying the established methodology over a period of six months to 659 routine sports drug testing samples, a total of 85 adverse analytical findings was uncovered, 72 of which would have remained undetected using earlier employed GC-MS/MS approaches. PMID:23873860

  13. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not influence the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone glucuronide ratio.

    PubMed

    Lundmark, Jonas; Grevik, Nina; Thrngren, John-Olof; Garle, Mats; Ekstrm, Lena; Rane, Anders; Schulze, Jenny J

    2013-01-01

    The UDP Glucuronosyl Transferase (UGT) enzymes are important in the pharmacokinetics, and conjugation, of a variety of drugs including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as well as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Testosterone glucuronidation capacity is strongly associated with a deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene. As the use of high doses of NSAIDs has been observed in athletes there is a risk for a drug-drug interaction that may influence the doping tests for AAS. In vitro studies show inhibitory potential on UGT2B7, 2B15, and 2B17 enzymes by NSAIDs. The aim of this study was to investigate if concomitant use of NSAIDs and a single dose of testosterone enanthate would affect the excretion rate of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronide (TG and EG) as well as the T/E ratio, thereby affecting the outcome of the testosterone doping test. The study was designed as an open, randomized, cross-over study with subjects being their own control. The 23 male healthy volunteers, with either two, one or no allele (ins/ins, ins/del, or del/del) of the UGT2B17 gene, received the maximum recommended dose of NSAID (Ibuprofen or Diclofenac) for 6?days. On day three, 500?mg of testosterone enanthate was administered. Spot urine samples were collected for 17?days. After a wash-out period of 4?months the volunteers received 500?mg testosterone enanthate only, with subsequent spot urine collection for 14?days. The glucuronides of testosterone and epitestosterone were quantified. NSAIDs did not affect the excretion of TG or EG before the administration of testosterone. The concomitant use of NSAIDs and testosterone slightly increased the TG excretion while the EG excretion was less suppressed compared to testosterone use only. The effects of the NSAIDs on the TG and EG excretion did not differ between the UGT2B17 genotype groups. In conclusion, the outcome of testosterone doping tests does not seem to be affected by the use of NSAIDs. PMID:23720652

  14. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Do Not Influence the Urinary Testosterone/Epitestosterone Glucuronide Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Lundmark, Jonas; Grevik, Nina; Thrngren, John-Olof; Garle, Mats; Ekstrm, Lena; Rane, Anders; Schulze, Jenny J.

    2013-01-01

    The UDP Glucuronosyl Transferase (UGT) enzymes are important in the pharmacokinetics, and conjugation, of a variety of drugs including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as well as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Testosterone glucuronidation capacity is strongly associated with a deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene. As the use of high doses of NSAIDs has been observed in athletes there is a risk for a drugdrug interaction that may influence the doping tests for AAS. In vitro studies show inhibitory potential on UGT2B7, 2B15, and 2B17 enzymes by NSAIDs. The aim of this study was to investigate if concomitant use of NSAIDs and a single dose of testosterone enanthate would affect the excretion rate of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronide (TG and EG) as well as the T/E ratio, thereby affecting the outcome of the testosterone doping test. The study was designed as an open, randomized, cross-over study with subjects being their own control. The 23 male healthy volunteers, with either two, one or no allele (ins/ins, ins/del, or del/del) of the UGT2B17 gene, received the maximum recommended dose of NSAID (Ibuprofen or Diclofenac) for 6?days. On day three, 500?mg of testosterone enanthate was administered. Spot urine samples were collected for 17?days. After a wash-out period of 4?months the volunteers received 500?mg testosterone enanthate only, with subsequent spot urine collection for 14?days. The glucuronides of testosterone and epitestosterone were quantified. NSAIDs did not affect the excretion of TG or EG before the administration of testosterone. The concomitant use of NSAIDs and testosterone slightly increased the TG excretion while the EG excretion was less suppressed compared to testosterone use only. The effects of the NSAIDs on the TG and EG excretion did not differ between the UGT2B17 genotype groups. In conclusion, the outcome of testosterone doping tests does not seem to be affected by the use of NSAIDs. PMID:23720652

  15. A high-throughput U-HPLC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of mycophenolic acid and its major metabolites mycophenolic acid glucuronide and mycophenolic acid acyl-glucuronide in human plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Klepacki, Jacek; Klawitter, Jelena; Bendrick-Peart, Jamie; Schniedewind, Bjorn; Heischmann, Svenja; Shokati, Touraj; Christians, Uwe; Klawitter, Jost

    2012-02-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is used as an immunosuppressant after organ transplantation and for the treatment of immune diseases. There is increasing evidence that therapeutic drug monitoring and plasma concentration-guided dose adjustments are beneficial for patients to maintain immunosuppressive efficacy and to avoid toxicity. The major MPA metabolite that can be found in high concentrations in plasma is MPA glucuronide (MPAG). A metabolite usually present at lower concentrations, MPA acyl-glucuronide (AcMPAG), has been implicated in some of the adverse effects of MPA. We developed and validated an automated high-throughput ultra-high performance chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-MS/MS) assay using liquid-handling robotic extraction for the quantification of MPA, MPAG, and AcMPAG in human EDTA plasma and urine. The ranges of reliable response were 0.097 (lower limit of quantitation) to 200 μg/mL for MPA and MPAG and 0.156-10 μg/mL for AcMPAG in human urine and plasma. The inter-day accuracies were 94.3-104.4%, 93.8-105.0% and 94.4-104.7% for MPA, MPAG and AcMPAG, respectively. Inter-day precisions were 0.7-7.8%, 0.9-6.9% and 1.6-8.6% for MPA, MPAG and AcMPAG. No matrix interferences, ion suppression/enhancement and carry-over were detected. The total assay run time was 2.3 min. The assay met all predefined acceptance criteria and the quantification of MPA was successfully cross-validated with an LC-MS/MS assay routinely used for clinical therapeutic drug monitoring. The assay has proven to be robust and reliable during the measurement of samples from several pharmacokinetics trials. PMID:21839692

  16. Quantitative determination of 2-amino-2-(2-(4'-(2-propyloxazol-4-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)ethyl)propane-1,3-diol and its active phosphorylated metabolite in rat blood by LC-MS/MS and application to PK/PD analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Manman; Mi, Jiaqi; Li, Dan; Liu, Xin; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Baolian; Sheng, Li; Wang, Xiaojian; Jin, Jing; Hu, Jinping; Li, Yan

    2015-09-01

    A sensitive and specific LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 2-amino-2-(2-(4'-(2-propyloxazol-4-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)ethyl)propane-1,3-diol (SYL930) and its active phosphate metabolite (SYL930-P) in rat blood using SYL927, an analogue of SYL930 as the internal standard. Blood samples were prepared by a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was performed on a ZorbaxSB-C18 column (3.5?m, 2.1??100mm) with a gradient mobile phase of methanol/water containing 0.1% formic acid (v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The detection was carried out on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) in multiple reactions monitoring mode (MRM). The monitored transitions were 381.2???364.2 for SYL930, 461.2???334.2 for SYL930-P, and 367.1???350.4 for the internal standard, respectively. Good linearity was obtained for the analytes over the range of 0.2-100ng/mL for SYL930 and 0.5-100ng/mL for SYL930-P. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQs) for SYL930 and SYL930-P were 0.2 and 0.5ng/mL, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD, %) of analytes were within 9.87%, and the accuracy (RE, %) ranged from -7.04 to 13.15%. The mean recoveries for two compounds in rat blood were 87.9-109%. The analytes were proved to be stable during all sample storage, preparation, and analytic procedures. The validated method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic and PK/PD studies of SYL930 and SYL930-P in rats after oral administration of SYL930. Graphical Abstract Quantitative determination of SYL930 and its active phosphorylated metabolite in rat blood by LCMS/MS and application to PK/PD analysis. PMID:26297455

  17. On-line deconjugation of chloramphenicol-beta-D-glucuronide on an immobilized beta-glucuronidase column. Application to the direct analysis of urine samples.

    PubMed

    Pasternyk, M; Ducharme, M P; Descorps, V; Felix, G; Wainer, I W

    1998-12-18

    An immobilized HPLC column has been developed for the on-line deconjugation of beta-glucuronides. The enzymatic activity of this column has been previously demonstrated [1]. This study reports on the application of the immobilized beta-glucuronidase column to the analysis of glucuronide metabolites in the urine. The system utilized in this work was composed of an internal-surface reversed-phase (ISRP) column (50 x 4.6 mm) containing a hydrophobic inner phase and a hydrophilic outer phase, a beta-glucuronidase immobilized enzyme reactor (BG-IMER) column (50 x 4.6 mm) and a C8 reversed-phase column (150 x 4.6 mm). The columns were connected with three six-port switching valves. A coupled-column procedure was developed for urine samples containing chloramphenicol-beta-D-glucuronides (0.07-1.1 mM/injection). Urine samples were injected into the ISRP column where the glucuronides were separated from the biological matrix, with matrix contaminants eluting off-line to waste. Eluent from the ISRP column containing the glucuronides was then transferred on-line to the beta-glucuronidase column for deconjugation and passed directly on-line to the C8 column. In this portion of the chromatographic procedure, the mobile phase consisted of 0.01 M ammonium acetate at pH 6.7. The analyte concentrated on the top of the reversed-phase column was then eluted using a gradient mobile phase system of acetonitrile and 0.01 M ammonium acetate (pH 5.0) and detected at UV wavelength of 280 nm. PMID:9916301

  18. Cremophor EL-based nanoemulsion enhances transcellular permeation of emodin through glucuronidation reduction in UGT1A1-overexpressing MDCKII cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianpeng; Dong, Dong; Lu, Danyi; Wang, Shuai; Wu, Baojian

    2016-03-30

    Oral emodin, a natural anthraquinone and active component of many herbal medicines, is poorly bioavailable because of extensive first-pass glucuronidation. Here we aimed to prepare emodin nanoemulsion (EMO-NE) containing cremophor EL, and to assess its potential for enhancing transcellular absorption of emodin using UGT1A1-overexpressing MDCKII cells (or MDCK1A1 cells). EMO-NE was prepared using a modified emulsification technique and subsequently characterized by particle size, morphology, stability, and drug release. MDCKII cells were stably transfected with UGT1A1 using the lentiviral transfection approach. Emodin transport and metabolism were evaluated in Transwell-cultured MDCK1A1 cells after apical dosing of EMO-NE or control solution. The obtained EMO-NE (116±6.5nm) was spherical and stable for at least 2 months. Emodin release in vitro was a passive diffusion-driven process. EMO-NE administration increased the apparent permeability of emodin by a 2.3-fold (p<0.001) compared to the pure emodin solution (1.2×10(-5)cm/s vs 5.3×10(-6)cm/s). Further, both apical and basolateral excretion of emodin glucuronide (EMO-G) were significantly decreased (≥56.5%, p<0.001) in EMO-NE group. This was accompanied by a marked reduction (57.4%, p<0.001) in total emodin glucuronidation. It was found that the reduced glucuronidation was due to inhibition of cellular metabolism by cremophor EL. Cremophor EL inhibited UGT1A1-mediated glucuronidation of emodin using the mixed-type inhibition mechanism. In conclusion, cremophor EL-based nanoemulsion greatly enhanced transcellular permeation of emodin through inhibition of UGT metabolism. This cremophor EL-based nanoformulation may be a promising strategy to improve the oral bioavailability of emodin. PMID:26850314

  19. Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Thirumalaiswamy; Senthilkumar, G. P; Karthikeyan, M.; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a significant (P < 0.001) fall in fasting blood glucose level, TBARS, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and SALP, while elevating the GSH levels, and SOD and CAT activities in diabetic rats. Histopathologic studies also revealed the protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24716175

  20. Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid saponins isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Dai, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Xie, Jian-Wei; Gu, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Two new cucurbitacins I (1 and 2), together with eight known compounds (3-10), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis. Compounds 3, 5-9 were isolated from C. colocynthis for the first time. The structures of new compounds were determined primarily from IR, HR-MS, 1D-, and 2D-NMR analysis. PMID:25761128

  1. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester. PMID:24788328

  2. Biodegradation of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by Acinetobacter sp. CW17.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhui; Du, Liangwei; Chen, Yingxi; Liu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Xiaomao; Tan, Huihua; Bai, Lianyang; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2012-03-01

    The pyrazosulfuron-ethyl-degrading bacterium, designated as CW17, was isolated from contaminated soil near the warehouse of the factory producing pyrazosulfuron-ethyl in Changsha city, China. The strain CW17 was identified as Acinetobacter sp. based on analyses of 94 carbon source utilization or chemical sensitivity in Biolog microplates, conventional phenotypic characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. When pyrazosulfuron-ethyl was provided as the sole carbon source, the effects of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl concentration, pH, and temperature on biodegradation were examined. The degradation rates of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at initial concentrations of 5.0, 20.0, and 50.0mg/L were 48.0%, 77.0%, and 32.6%, respectively, after inoculation for 7days. The growth of the strain was inhibited at low pH buffers. The chemical degradation occurs much faster at low pH than at neutral and basic pH conditions. The degradation rate of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl at 30C was faster than those at 20 and 37C by CW17 strains. Two metabolites of degradation were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). Based on the identified products, strain CW17 seemed to be able to degrade pyrazosulfuron-ethyl by cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge. PMID:22388979

  3. Ethyl Esterification for MALDI-MS Analysis of Protein Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Reiding, Karli R; Lonardi, Emanuela; Hipgrave Ederveen, Agnes L; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl esterification is a technique for the chemical modification of sialylated glycans, leading to enhanced stability when performing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-mass spectrometry (MS), as well as allowing the efficient detection of both sialylated and non-sialylated glycans in positive ion mode. In addition, the method shows specific reaction products for ?2,3- and ?2,6-linked sialic acids, leading to an MS distinguishable mass difference. Here, we describe the ethyl esterification protocol for 96 glycan samples, including enzymatic N-glycan release, the aforementioned ethyl esterification, glycan enrichment, MALDI target preparation, and the MS(/MS) measurement. PMID:26700047

  4. The ethyl radical: Photoionization and theoretical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ruscic, B.; Berkowitz, J.; Curtiss, L. A.; Pople, J. A.

    1989-07-01

    The ethyl radical has been produced by the F+C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ reaction, and studiedby photoionization mass spectrometry. The adiabatic ionization potential (IP) isfound to be 8.117+-0.008 eV. The radical and cation have been studied by the G1level of molecular orbital theory. The calculated adiabatic ionization potentialis 8.06 eV. On the basis of both experiment and theory, it is concluded that thecation in its ground state has a bridged structure. The adiabatic value resolvesa previous inconsistency involving ..delta../ital H//sup /circ///sub /ital f//(C/sub 2/H/sub 5/),..delta../ital H//sup /circ///sub /ital f//(C/sub 2/H/sup +//sub 5/) and IP (C/sub 2/H/sub 5/). Broadautoionizing structures are observed at higher energy. These features can berationalized as Rydberg states converging to the first excited state /sup 3//ital A//double prime/calculated to be at 12.05 eV.

  5. 77 FR 12740 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...This regulation establishes tolerances for residues of trinexapac-ethyl in or on multiple commodities which are identified and discussed later in this document. Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. requested these tolerances under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-42 Ethyl ether. (a)(1) Gravity tanks... inch gauge for gravity tanks. For pressure vessels, the relief valve setting shall not exceed...

  7. Mouse Pig-a and micronucleus assays respond to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, benzo[a]pyrene, and ethyl carbamate, but not pyrene or methyl carbamate.

    PubMed

    Labash, Carson; Avlasevich, Svetlana L; Carlson, Kristine; Berg, Ariel; Torous, Dorothea K; Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; MacGregor, James T; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2016-01-01

    This laboratory previously described a method for scoring the incidence of peripheral blood Pig-a mutant phenotype rat erythrocytes using immunomagnetic separation in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis (In Vivo MutaFlow). The current work extends the method to mouse blood, using the frequency of CD24-negative reticulocytes (RET(CD24-) ) and erythrocytes (RBC(CD24-) ) as phenotypic reporters of Pig-a gene mutation. Following assay optimization, reconstruction experiments demonstrated the ability of the methodology to return expected values. Subsequently, the responsiveness of the assay to the genotoxic carcinogens N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, benzo[a]pyrene, and ethyl carbamate was studied in male CD-1 mice exposed for 3 days to several dose levels via oral gavage. Blood samples were collected on Day 4 for micronucleated reticulocyte analyses, and on Days 15 and 30 for determination of RET(CD24-) and RBC(CD24-) frequencies. The same design was used to study pyrene, with benzo[a]pyrene as a concurrent positive control, and methyl carbamate, with ethyl carbamate as a concurrent positive control. The three genotoxicants produced marked dose-related increases in the frequencies of Pig-a mutant phenotype cells and micronucleated reticulocytes. Ethyl carbamate exposure resulted in moderately higher micronucleated reticulocyte frequencies relative to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea or benzo[a]pyrene (mean??SEM?=?3.0??0.36, 2.3??0.17, and 2.3??0.49%, respectively, vs. an aggregate vehicle control frequency of 0.18??0.01%). However, it was considerably less effective at inducing Pig-a mutant cells (e.g., Day 15 mean no. RET(CD24-) per 1 million reticulocytes?=?7.6??3, 150??9, and 152??43 10(-6) , respectively, vs. an aggregate vehicle control frequency of 0.6??0.13 10(-6) ). Pyrene and methyl carbamate, tested to maximum tolerated dose or limit dose levels, had no effect on mutant cell or micronucleated reticulocyte frequencies. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of the cross-species Pig-a and micronucleated reticulocyte assays, and add further support to the value of studying both endpoints in order to cover two distinct genotoxic modes of action. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:28-40, 2016. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26186091

  8. 77 FR 15015 - Revocation of Tolerance Exemptions for Diethyl Phthalate and Methyl Ethyl Ketone; No Data Being...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...This document proposes, under section 408(e)(1) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), to revoke the existing exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance (tolerance exemptions) for residues of diethyl phthalate and methyl ethyl ketone when used as inert ingredients in pesticide products because there are insufficient data to make the determination of safety required by FFDCA.......

  9. Athletic shoe dermatitis. Contact allergy to ethyl butyl thiourea.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J L; Hanifin, J M

    1979-01-19

    Ten patients with severe foot dermatitis were found to be highly allergic to innersole material prepared by Spenco Medical Corporation and used in Nike athletic shoes. Contact allergy testing showed sensitivity to ethyl butyl thiourea, a chemical accelerator in some neoprene (polychioroprene) rubber products. The dermatitis was recalcitrant and in many cases persisted long after discontinuance of wearing Nike shoes, raising the concern that traces of ethyl butyl thiorea or cross-reacting chemicals may be present in other footwear. PMID:758532

  10. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], and its metabolite, S-3153 acid-4-OH; -phenoxy]-acetic acid, free and conjugated, in or on...

  11. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], and its metabolite, S-3153 acid-4-OH; -phenoxy]-acetic acid, free and conjugated, in or on...

  12. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], and its metabolite, S-3153 acid-4-OH; -phenoxy]-acetic acid, free and conjugated, in or on...

  13. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], and its metabolite, S-3153 acid-4-OH; -phenoxy]-acetic acid, free and conjugated, in or on...

  14. 40 CFR 180.595 - Flufenpyr-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide, flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], in or on the following...) Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide flufenpyr-ethyl; acetic acid, -phenoxy]-ethyl ester], and its metabolite, S-3153 acid-4-OH; -phenoxy]-acetic acid, free and conjugated, in or on...

  15. Electron diffraction investigation of the molecular structures of ethyl isocyanate and ethyl isothiocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cradock, Stephen; Durig, J. R.; Sullivan, J. F.

    1985-10-01

    Electron diffraction (ED) measurements and published microwave spectra are used to define the molecular structures of ethyl isocyanate and ethyl isothiocyanate in the gas phase. A cis-conformation is compatible with the data in both cases, while ED data for EtNCO are also consistent with a deviation of 45 from the cis conformation. An interpretation (in general terms) of the very complex microwave spectra in terms of an anharmonic two-dimensional motion combining the bend at nitrogen and the C?N torsion is proposed. An average cis structure ( r* av basis) consistent with ED and microwave data with removal of the effects of the torsional motion is proposed in each case, with skeletal parameters (NCO, NCS) rC?N 144.8 pm, 143.8; rC?C 152.4, 152.0 pm; rN?C 121.8 pm, 118.7; rC?O 117.4 pm, rC?S 158.0 pm; ?CCN 114.7, 111.0; ?CNC 132.2, 147,4; ?NCO 192.2, ?NCS 184.5.

  16. In vitro protection of biological macromolecules against oxidative stress and in vivo toxicity evaluation of Acacia nilotica (L.) and ethyl gallate in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, enormous research has been focused on natural bioactive compounds possessing potential antioxidant and anticancer properties using cell lines and animal models. Acacia nilotica (L.) is widely distributed in Asia, Africa, Australia and Kenya. The plant is traditionally used to treat mouth, ear and bone cancer. However, reports on Acacia nilotica (L.) Wild. Ex. Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan regarding its toxicity profile is limited. Hence in this study, we investigated the antioxidant capacity and acute toxicity of ethyl gallate, a phenolic antioxidant present in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract. Methods The antioxidant activity of ethyl gallate against Fentons system (Fe3+/H2O2/ascorbic acid) generated oxidative damage to pBR322 DNA and BSA was investigated. We also studied the interaction of ethyl gallate to CT-DNA by wave scan and FTIR analysis. The amount of ethyl gallate present in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was calculated using HPLC and represented in gram equivalence of ethyl gallate. The acute toxicity profile of ethyl gallate in the A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was analyzed in albino Wistar rats. Measurement of liver and kidney function markers, total proteins and glucose were determined in the serum. Statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) tool version 16.0. Results Ethyl gallate was found to be effective at 100?g/mL concentration by inhibiting the free radical mediated damage to BSA and pBR322 DNA. We also found that the interaction of ethyl gallate and A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract to CT-DNA occurs through intercalation. One gram of A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract was found to be equivalent to 20mg of ethyl gallate through HPLC analysis. Based on the acute toxicity results, A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract and ethyl gallate as well was found to be non-toxic and safe. Conclusions Results revealed no mortality or abnormal biochemical changes in vivo and the protective effect of A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract and ethyl gallate on DNA and protein against oxidative stress in vitro. Hence, A. nilotica (L.) leaf extract or ethyl gallate could be used as potential antioxidants with safe therapeutic application in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25043389

  17. Gauche Ethyl Alcohol: Laboratory Assignments and Interstellar Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Sastry, K. V. L. N.; Herbst, Eric; DeLucia, Frank C.

    1997-01-01

    Ethyl alcohol (ethanol) is known to possess a pair of closely spaced excited torsional substates (gauche+, gauche-) at an energy of approximately 57 K above the ground (trans) torsional substate. We report an extended analysis of some gauche - gauche+ Q-branch ((Delta)J = 0) transitions with a three-substate fixed frame axis method (FFAM) Hamiltonian. Our approach accounts for complex trans-gauche interactions for the first time. In addition, we are able to obtain intensities for perturbed rotational transitions, and to determine the trans to gauche+ separation to be 1185399.1 MHz. A complete ground state rotational-torsional partition function accounting for the previously neglected gauche substates is presented. Based on our analysis, a total of 14 U lines obtained towards Orion KL can now be assigned to gauche substates of ethanol. Analysis of these lines yields a rotational temperature of 223 K and a total (trans + gauche) column density of 7.0 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm. The column density is in reasonable agreement with the recent value of 2-3 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm based on observations of trans-ethanol by Ohishi et al., although there is some disparity in the rotational temperatures. Eight additional U lines in the literature are assigned to transitions of gauche ethanol.

  18. Theoretical Study of the Vibrational Spectroscopy of the Ethyl Radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor, Daniel P.; Sibert, Edwin. L. Sibert, Iii

    2013-06-01

    The rich spectroscopy of the ethyl radical has attracted the attention of several experimental and theoretical investigations. The purpose of these studies was to elucidate the signatures of hyperconjugation, torsion, inversion, and Fermi coupling in the molecular spectra. Due to the number of degrees of freedom in the system, previous theoretical studies have implemented reduced-dimensional models. Our ultimate goal is a full-dimensional theoretical treatment of the vibrations using both Van Vleck and variational approaches. The methods will be combined with the potential that we have calculated using the CCSD(T) method on the cc-pVTZ basis set. In this talk we will discuss our initial work, which builds up from these reduced-dimensional models. Our calculations use coordinates that exploit the system's G_{12} PI symmetry in a simple fashion. By systematically adding more degrees of freedom to our model, we can determine the effects of specific couplings on the spectroscopy. T. Hber, A. C. Blair, D. J. Nesbitt and M. D. Schuder J. Chem. Phys. {124}, 054316, (2006). G .E. Douberly, unpublished. R. S. Bhatta, A. Gao and D. S. Perry J. Mol. Struct.: THEOCHEM {941}, 22, (2010).

  19. Development of a fast screening and confirmatory method by liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for glucuronide-conjugated methyltestosterone metabolite in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, Kande; Chu, Pak-Sin; Evans, Eric; Reimschuessel, Renate; Hasbrouck, Nicholas; Jayasuriya, Hiranthi

    2012-05-23

    This paper describes the development of a fast method to screen and confirm methyltestosterone 17-O-glucuronide (MT-glu) in tilapia bile. The method consists of solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The system used was an Agilent 6530 Q-TOF with an Agilent Jet stream electrospray ionization interface. The glucuronide detected in the bile was characterized as MT-glu by comparison with a chemically synthesized standard. MT-glu was detected in bile for up to 7 days after dosing. Semiquantification was done with matrix-matched calibration curves, because MT-glu showed signal suppression due to matrix effects. This method provides a suitable tool to monitor the illegal use of methyltestosterone in tilapia culture. PMID:22548460

  20. Chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile analysis of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata by ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chunlan; Wang, Li; Liu, Xinxin; Cheng, Mengchun; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-02-01

    The chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of traditional Chinese medicine is very complicated and has been a great challenge. In the present study, chemical fingerprint of ethyl acetate fraction of Gastrodia elata (EtAcGE) and metabolic profile of rat plasma sample after intragastric administration of EtAcGE (2.5g/kg) were investigated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS). A total of 38 chemical constituents of EtAcGE were identified by comparing their retention time, accurate molecular mass and characteristic fragment ions with those of references, or tentatively characterized by comparing molecular formula, fragment ions with that of known compound or information available in literature. And 40 compounds were detected in dosed rat plasma sample, including 16 prototypes and 24 metabolites underwent metabolic process of glucuronidation, glucosylation, sulfation, methylation, hydroxylation, dehydrogenation or mixed modes. The metabolic "soft spots" was hydroxyl or carboxy group. This is the first research for chemical fingerprint and metabolic profile of EtAcGE, which lay a foundation for the further investigation of EtAcGE. PMID:26621783

  1. Separation and identification of oligomeric ethyl silicates by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiuli; Wan, Qian-Hong

    2015-05-01

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was used to study the molecular structures of components and molar mass distributions in ethyl silicate-40, a versatile liquid precursor for silicon-based materials. Identity testing by standard spectroscopic techniques showed that a commercial sample of ethyl silicate-40 was composed of linear/branched ethoxysiloxane oligomers with the silicon atoms ranging from 2 to 12 together with minor monocyclic species. Analysis of the sample by liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection resulted in an elution profile consisting of a series of peak clusters. Peak identification showed that the linear/branched homologous series of oligomers were eluted in the order of increasing number of silicon atoms in the molecules and the time duration (width) of the resulting peak clusters increased in the same fashion corresponding to increasing number of geometric isomers. In addition, small amounts of monocyclic oligomers present in the sample were found to be less retained than each linear/branched counterpart. Finally, the molar mass distribution parameters for ethyl silicate-40 determined by the developed method were in good agreement with the literature values. Overall, this work demonstrates that reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is an indispensable tool for the comprehensive characterization of complex mixtures of this type. PMID:25678216

  2. Chemodynamics of Methyl Parathion and Ethyl Parathion: Adsorption Models for Sustainable Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Rafique, Uzaira; Balkhair, Khaled S.; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude) than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue. PMID:24689059

  3. Theoretical study for OH radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation of ethyl acrylate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yanhui; Zhang, Qingzhu; Hu, Jingtian; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    OH radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation of ethyl acrylate (ethyl 2-propenoate, EA) has been investigated by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Optimizations of the reactants, intermediates, transition states and products were carried out at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level. Single-point energy calculations were performed at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p) level of theory. The detailed oxidation mechanism was presented and discussed. The results show that the OH addition is more energetically favorable than the H abstraction. Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory was used to predict the rate constants over the possible atmospheric temperature range of 180-370 K. The Arrhenius expression adequately describes the total rate constant: k(EA+OH)=(1.7110(-12))exp(805.42/T)cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). At 298 K, the atmospheric lifetime of ethyl acrylate determined by OH radicals is about 16.2h. In order to find out the effect of alkyl substitution on the reaction activity, rate constants for the reactions of methyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate with OH radicals were also discussed. Calculation results show that the reaction activity may increase with the increased electron-donating substitution for electrophilic addition reaction. PMID:25137248

  4. Subchronic Toxicity Study in Rats of Two New Ethyl-Carbamates with Ixodicidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Prado-Ochoa, Mara Guadalupe; Abrego-Reyes, Vctor Hugo; Velzquez-Snchez, Ana Mara; Muoz-Guzmn, Marco Antonio; Ramrez-Noguera, Patricia; Angeles, Enrique; Alba-Hurtado, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Female and male Wistar rats were used to determine the subchronic oral toxicities of two new ethyl-carbamates with ixodicidal activities (ethyl-4-bromphenyl-carbamate and ethyl-4-chlorphenyl-carbamate). The evaluated carbamates were administered in the drinking water (12.5, 25 and 50?mg/kg/day) for 90 days. Exposure to the evaluated carbamates did not cause mortality or clinical signs and did not affect food consumption or weight gain. However, exposure to these carbamates produced alterations in water consumption, hematocrit, percentages of reticulocytes, plasma proteins, some biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, cholinesterase, and creatinine activities), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and the relative weight of the spleen. Histologically, slight pathological alterations were found in the liver that were consistent with the observed biochemical alterations. The nonobserved adverse effect levels (NOAELs) of the evaluated carbamates were 12.5?mg/kg/day for both the female and male rats. The low severity and reversibility of the majority of the observed alterations suggest that the evaluated carbamates have low subchronic toxicity. PMID:24818142

  5. In vitro evaluation of transdermal patches of flurbiprofen with ethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Idrees, Arfat; Rahman, Nisar Ur; Javaid, Zeeshan; Kashif, Muhammad; Aslam, Irfan; Abbas, Khizar; Hussain, Talib

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine effects of penetration enhancers and plasticizers on drug release from rationally designed formulations of flurbiprofen based transdermal drug delivery system. Matrix type transdermal patches were formulated with ethyl cellulose (EC) as a polymer by using plate casting method. The plasticizers such as propylene glycol (PG) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and enhancers such as Span 20, Tween 20, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), isopropyl myristate (IPM) and ethanol (EtOH) were formulated in different concentrations in the patches. Such different combinations of polymer with various enhancers and plasticizers in patches were evaluated for their effect on the physicochemical properties and drug release behavior of flurbiprofen. The drug release study was carried out by the paddle-over-disk method and permeation of drug was performed by Franz diffusion cell using rabbit skin. Patches having ethanol with ethyl cellulose showed more uniformity in the physical properties while the smoothness and clarity of patches containing sodium lauryl sulfate were not satisfactory. The drug release from patches followed Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Pappas model while maximum drug release was obtained by isopropyl myristate (903 microg). It was concluded that the patches having ethyl cellulose with isopropyl myristate and propylene glycol are more useful for transdermal patches of flurbiprofen. PMID:25272649

  6. Chemodynamics of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion: adsorption models for sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Noshabah; Rafique, Uzaira; Balkhair, Khaled S; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of organophosphate insecticides for nontarget organism has been the subject of extensive research for sustainable agriculture. Pakistan has banned the use of methyl/ethyl parathions, but they are still illegally used. The present study is an attempt to estimate the residual concentration and to suggest remedial solution of adsorption by different types of soils collected and characterized for physicochemical parameters. Sorption of pesticides in soil or other porous media is an important process regulating pesticide transport and degradation. The percentage removal of methyl parathion and ethyl parathion was determined through UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 276 nm and 277 nm, respectively. The results indicate that agricultural soil as compared to barren soil is more efficient adsorbent for both insecticides, at optimum batch condition of pH 7. The equilibrium between adsorbate and adsorbent was attained in 12 hours. Methyl parathion is removed more efficiently (by seven orders of magnitude) than ethyl parathion. It may be attributed to more available binding sites and less steric hindrance of methyl parathion. Adsorption kinetics indicates that a good correlation exists between distribution coefficient (Kd) and soil organic carbon. A general increase in Kd is noted with increase in induced concentration due to the formation of bound or aged residue. PMID:24689059

  7. Quantification of phenolic acids and their methylates, glucuronides, sulfates and lactones metabolites in human plasma by LC-MS/MS after oral ingestion of soluble coffee.

    PubMed

    Marmet, Cynthia; Actis-Goretta, Lucas; Renouf, Mathieu; Giuffrida, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Chlorogenic acids and derivatives like phenolic acids are potentially bioactive phenolics, which are commonly found in many foods. Once absorbed, chlorogenic and phenolic acids are highly metabolized by the intestine and the liver, producing glucuronidated and/or sulphated compounds. These metabolites were analyzed in human plasma using a validated liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method. After protein precipitation, phenolic acids and their metabolites were extracted by using ethanol and chromatographic separation was achieved by reversed-phase using an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column combined with a gradient elution system using 1% acetic acid aqueous solution and 1% acetic acid with 100% acetonitrile. The method was able to quantify 56 different compounds including 24 phenolic acids, 4 lactones, 15 sulfates and 13 glucuronides metabolites between 5 and 1000nM in plasma for most of them, except for m-dihydrocoumaric acid, 5-ferulloylquinic-glucuronide, 4-methoxycinnamic acid, 3-phenylpropionic acid, 3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid (25 to 1000nM) and p-dihydrocoumaric acid (50-1000nM). Values of repeatability and intermediate reproducibility were below 15% of deviation in general, and maximum 20% for the lowest concentrations. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify phenolic acids and their metabolites in plasma obtained after oral ingestion of soluble coffee. In conclusion, the developed and validated method is proved to be very sensitive, accurate and precise for the quantification of these possible dietary phenols. PMID:24216280

  8. Production of monoclonal antibody to herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yongliang; Nan, Tiegui; Tan, Guiyu; Li, Qing X; Wang, Baomin; Liu, Shangzhong

    2011-10-01

    Fenoxaprop-ethyl is a selective aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide used widely to control annual and perennial grasses. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) against fenoxaprop-ethyl (FE), designated as 3E6B9C, was produced and had very low cross-reactivity with some of its structural analogs, such as clodinafop-propargyl, diclofop-methyl, lactofen, and quizalofop-p-ethyl. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed. The concentration of R-(+)-fenoxaprop-ethyl (R-FE) producing 50% of inhibition (IC(50)) and the working range of icELISA were 3.1?ng/mL and 0.6-29?ng/mL, respectively. This assay is also sensitive to R-fenoxaprop, S-(-)-fenoxaprop-ethyl, and metamifop with IC(50) of 3.4, 2.7, and 3.5?ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries of R-FE in soil samples with the icELISA were 86-102%. PMID:22008074

  9. Phosphate-solubilizing and plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1 improves greengram performance in quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop amended soil.

    PubMed

    Ahemad, Munees; Khan, Mohammad Saghir

    2010-02-01

    The quizalafop-p-ethyl- and clodinafop-tolerant phosphate-solubilizing and plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1 isolated from the rhizospheric soils of mustard was used to determine its phosphate-solubilizing activity and other plant-growth-promoting traits both in the presence and absence of technical grade quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop under in vitro conditions. Quizalafop-p-ethyl (at 40, 80, and 120 ppb) and clodinafop (at 400, 800, and 1200 ppb) reduced the P-solubilizing activity, synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid, and siderophores progressively with increasing concentrations of each herbicide. Hydrogen cyanide and ammonia synthesisized by this strain, however, did not change. Furthermore, the effects of three concentrations each of quizalafop-p-ethyl [40 (recommended dose), 80, and 120 ppb] and clodinafop [400 (recommended dose), 800, and 1200 ppb] were evaluated on plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PS1 inoculated greengram plants, grown in sandy clay loam soil. Generally, all of the concentrations of both quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop showed phytotoxicity and severely affected the growth, symbiosis, grain yield, and nutrient uptake by greengram plants. The toxicity of quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop enhanced gradually with the increase in the dose rate of herbicides. Quizalafop-p-ethyl was more toxic than clodinafop. In contrast, herbicide-tolerant P. aeruginosa strain PS1 when used with herbicides increased the measured parameters at all concentrations. Both quizalafop-p-ethyl at 120 ppb and clodinafop at 400 ppb increased total chlorophyll content, leghemoglobin, root N, shoot N, root P, shoot P, seed yield, and seed protein, relative to the uninoculated control. The study suggests that the phytotoxicity of herbicides to legumes could be reduced by applying the growth-promoting herbicide-tolerant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PS1. PMID:19756846

  10. In Vivo-Formed versus Preformed Metabolite Kinetics of trans-Resveratrol-3-sulfate and trans-Resveratrol-3-glucuronide

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Satish; Iwuchukwu, Otito F.; Canney, Daniel J.; Zimmerman, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolites in safety testing have gained a lot of attention recently. Regulatory agencies have suggested that the kinetics of preformed and in vivo-formed metabolites are comparable. This subject has been a topic of debate. We have compared the kinetics of in vivo-formed with preformed metabolites. trans-3,5,4′-Trihydroxystilbene [trans-resveratrol (RES)] and its two major metabolites, resveratrol-3-sulfate (R3S) and resveratrol-3-glucuronide (R3G) were used as model substrates. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of R3S and R3G were characterized under two situations. First, the pharmacokinetics of R3S and R3G were characterized (in vivo-formed metabolite) after administration of RES. Then, synthetic R3S and R3G were administered (preformed metabolite) and their pharmacokinetics were characterized. PK models were developed to describe the data. A three-compartment model for RES, a two-compartment model for R3S (preformed), and an enterohepatic cycling model for R3G (preformed) was found to describe the data well. These three models were further combined to build a comprehensive PK model, which was used to perform simulations to predict in vivo-formed metabolite kinetics. Comparisons were made between in vivo-formed and preformed metabolite kinetics. Marked differences were observed in the kinetics of preformed and in vivo-formed metabolites. PMID:22807110

  11. In vivo-formed versus preformed metabolite kinetics of trans-resveratrol-3-sulfate and trans-resveratrol-3-glucuronide.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Satish; Iwuchukwu, Otito F; Canney, Daniel J; Zimmerman, Cheryl L; Nagar, Swati

    2012-10-01

    Metabolites in safety testing have gained a lot of attention recently. Regulatory agencies have suggested that the kinetics of preformed and in vivo-formed metabolites are comparable. This subject has been a topic of debate. We have compared the kinetics of in vivo-formed with preformed metabolites. trans-3,5,4'-Trihydroxystilbene [trans-resveratrol (RES)] and its two major metabolites, resveratrol-3-sulfate (R3S) and resveratrol-3-glucuronide (R3G) were used as model substrates. The pharmacokinetics (PK) of R3S and R3G were characterized under two situations. First, the pharmacokinetics of R3S and R3G were characterized (in vivo-formed metabolite) after administration of RES. Then, synthetic R3S and R3G were administered (preformed metabolite) and their pharmacokinetics were characterized. PK models were developed to describe the data. A three-compartment model for RES, a two-compartment model for R3S (preformed), and an enterohepatic cycling model for R3G (preformed) was found to describe the data well. These three models were further combined to build a comprehensive PK model, which was used to perform simulations to predict in vivo-formed metabolite kinetics. Comparisons were made between in vivo-formed and preformed metabolite kinetics. Marked differences were observed in the kinetics of preformed and in vivo-formed metabolites. PMID:22807110

  12. Homo- and hetero-dimerization of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) wild type and its allelic variants affect zidovudine glucuronidation activity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Lingmin; Qian, Sainan; Xiao, Yongsheng; Sun, Hongying; Zeng, Su

    2015-05-01

    Most human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT; EC 2.4.1.17) genes contain non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) which cause amino acid substitutions. Allelic variants caused by nsSNPs may exhibit absent or reduced enzyme activity. UGT2B7 is one of the most important UGTs that glucuronidates abundant endobiotics and xenobiotics, such as estriol, morphine, and anticancer drugs. Three nsSNPs, UGT2B7*71S (211G>T), UGT2B7*2 (802C>T) and UGT2B7*5 (1192G>A) are observed in the UGT2B7 gene, and they code for allozymes UGT2B7*71S (A71S), UGT2B7*2 (H268Y), and UGT2B7*5 (D398N). UGT2B7 has been observed to form oligomers that affect its enzymatic activity and in this study, we investigated protein-protein interactions among UGT2B7 allozymes wild type (WT), A71S, H268Y and D398N, by performing a systematic quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis in combination with co-immunoprecipitation assay. Quantitative FRET analysis revealed that UGT2B7 allozymes formed homo- and hetero-dimers and showed distinct features in donor-acceptor distances. Both codon 71 and codon 268 in the N-terminal domain were involved in the dimeric interaction. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments also proved that UGT2B7 allozymes formed stable dimers. The glucuronidation activities of homo- and hetero-dimers were further tested with zidovudine as the substrate. An increase in activity was observed when WT hetero-dimerized with A71S compared with homo-dimers, while both H268Y and D398N impaired the activity of WT and A71S by forming hetero-dimers. In addition, zidovudine glucuronidation activity is associated with FRET distance. These findings provide insights into the consequences of amino acid substitution in UGT2B7 on zidovudine glucuronidation and the association between protein-protein interaction and glucuronidation activity. PMID:25770680

  13. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

  14. Reactions of NO 3 with the man-made emissions 2-methylpent-2-ene, ( Z)-3-methylpent-2-ene, ethyl vinyl ether, and the stress-induced plant emission ethyl vinyl ketone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfrang, Christian; Tooze, Christopher; Nalty, Andrew; Canosa-Mas, Carlos E.; Wayne, Richard P.

    Rate coefficients for reactions of nitrate radicals (NO 3) with the anthropogenic emissions 2-methylpent-2-ene, ( Z)-3-methylpent-2-ene, ethyl vinyl ether, and the stress-induced plant emission ethyl vinyl ketone (pent-1-en-3-one) were determined to be (9.3±1.1)×10 -12, (9.3±3.2)×10 -12, (1.7±1.3)×10 -12 and (9.4±2.7)×10 -17 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1. We performed kinetic experiments at room temperature and atmospheric pressure using a relative-rate technique with GC-FID analysis. Experiments with ethyl vinyl ether required a modification of our established procedure that might introduce additional uncertainties, and the errors suggested reflect these difficulties. Rate coefficients are discussed in terms of electronic and steric influences. Atmospheric lifetimes with respect to important oxidants in the troposphere were calculated. NO 3-initiated oxidation is found to be the strongly dominating degradation route for 2-methylpent-2-ene, ( Z)-3-methylpent-2-ene and ethyl vinyl ether. Atmospheric concentrations of the alkenes and their relative contribution to the total NMHC emissions from trucks can be expected to increase if plans for the introduction of particle filters for diesel engines are implemented on a global scale. Thus more kinetic data are required to better evaluate the impact of these emissions.

  15. 2-Ethyl-3,5,6-triphenyl-pyrazine.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, N; Thiruvalluvar, A; Chitra, S; Devanathan, D; Butcher, R J

    2012-10-01

    In the title mol-ecule, C(24)H(20)N(2), the pyrazine ring is significantly distorted from planarity, presumably due to steric crowding, and its conformation is well described as a flattened twist-boat. The benzene ring adjacent to the ethyl group forms dihedral angles of 53.79?(13) and 85.47?(12) with the other benzene rings; the dihedral angle between adjacent benzene rings is 57.90?(12). The ethyl group is disordered over two positions; the site-occupancy factor of the major component is 0.546?(4). No hydrogen bonds are found in the crystal structure. PMID:23125775

  16. Communication: Substrate induced dehydrogenation: Transformation of octa-ethyl-porphyrin into tetra-benzo-porphyrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vrden, D.; Lange, M.; Schmuck, M.; Schaffert, J.; Cottin, M. C.; Bobisch, C. A.; Mller, R.

    2013-06-01

    Individual molecules of octa-ethyl-porhphyrin-iron(III)-chloride adsorbed on a Cu(111) surface are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy. Upon moderate heating the molecules are found to transform into Fe-tetra-benzo-porphyrin at a surprisingly low temperature of 380 K. If the annealing is interrupted, the different steps of the transformation can be imaged. By evaluating the ratio of transformed molecules as function of annealing temperature, an approximate activation energy of 1.2 eV 0.1 eV could be determined.

  17. Reversed phase extraction chromatographic separation of lead with bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yi Yu Vin; Khopkar, S.M. )

    1990-01-01

    A new method for extraction chromatographic separation of lead was developed with bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid as the stationary phase and hydrochloric acid as mobile phase on silica gel as the stationary support. Lead was extracted from 0.01 M hydrochloric acid and then stripped with various mineral acids and determined spectrophotometrically at 640 nm as its complex with Arsenazo III. Lead was separated from alkali, alkaline earths, chromium, copper, magnesium and arsenic by selective extraction. It was separated from iron, bismuth, antimony and tin by selective stripping. The method was extended for the analysis of lead in samples of alloys and industrial effluents.

  18. Patterning and hardening of gold black infrared absorber by shadow mask deposition with ethyl cyanoacrylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjwani, Deep; Nader-Esfahani, Nima; Maukonen, Doug; Rezadad, Imen; Boroumand, Javaneh; Smith, Evan; Nath, Janardan; Peale, R. E.

    2013-06-01

    Patterning of gold-black infrared absorbing films by stencil lithography and hardening by polymer infusion is reported. Gold black nano-structured films are deposited through a thin metal shadow mask in a thermal evaporator in ~400 mTorr pressure of inert gas, followed by ethyl cyanoacrylate fuming through the same mask to produce rugged IR absorptive patterns of ~100 micron scale dimensions. Infrared absorptivity is determined by transmission and reflectivity measurements using a Fourier spectrometer and infrared microscope. Results indicate that the optimized hardening process reduces the usual degradation of the absorptivity with age. This work has potential application to infrared array bolometers.

  19. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as

  20. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF ETHYL CARBAMATE (URETHANE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethyl carbamate is a probable human carcinogen, classified as weight-of-evidence Group B2 under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). Evidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient," and the evidence from human studies is "...

  1. 76 FR 31479 - Pyraflufen-ethyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Federal Register of June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35801) (FRL-8831- 3), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408...- ethyl. C. Revisions to Petitioned-for Tolerances In the Federal Register of December 8, 2010 (75 FR..., entitled Regulatory Planning and Review (58 FR 51735, ] October 4, 1993). Because this final rule has...

  2. 77 FR 41346 - Trinexapac-ethyl; Proposed Pesticide Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... tolerance table for trinexapac-ethyl that was published in the Federal Register on March 2, 2012 (77 FR... Planning and Review'' (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993). Because this proposed rule has been exempted from..., Distribution, or Use'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001). This proposed rule does not contain any...

  3. Dissociation of the Ethyl Radical: An Exercise in Computational Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassabeh, Nahal; Tran, Mark; Fleming, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    A set of exercises for use in a typical physical chemistry laboratory course are described, modeling the unimolecular dissociation of the ethyl radical to form ethylene and atomic hydrogen. Students analyze the computational results both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative structural changes are compared to approximate predicted values…

  4. 21 CFR 177.1320 - Ethylene-ethyl acrylate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blended with polyethylene or with one or more olefin copolymers complying with § 177.1520 or with a mixture of polyethylene and one or more olefin copolymers, in such proportions that the ethyl acrylate... prescribed in paragraph (c)(2) of this section, when tested by the methods prescribed for polyethylene...

  5. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  6. Synthesis of Ethyl Nalidixate: A Medicinal Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Ray; Leeb, Elaine; Smith, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments that complement a medicinal chemistry lecture course in drug design and development have been developed. The synthesis of ethyl nalidixate covers three separate experimental procedures, all of which can be completed in three, standard three-hour lab classes and incorporate aspects of green chemistry such as…

  7. Synthesis and degradation behavior of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) was synthesized using N, N'-dimethyl-p-toulidine (DMPT) as an initiator through anionic/zwitterionic pathway. The degradability and the degradation mechanism of the prepared polymers were carefully examined from various points of views. It was found that the polymers were...

  8. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The

  9. Asymmetric hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate: Diffusion effects on enantioselectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Yongkui; Wang, Jian; LeBlond, C.

    1996-07-01

    Enantioselectivity in the hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate over cinchona-alkaloid-modified Pt has been studied. Kinetic studies indicated different mechanisms in different reaction regimes. Solution hydrogen concentration strongly corrrelated with reaction rates and enantioselectivity. 28 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. 40 CFR 799.2700 - Methyl ethyl ketoxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Specific Chemical Test Rules § 799.2700 Methyl ethyl ketoxime. (a) Identification of test substance. (1... report to EPA. (5) Mutagenic effects—gene mutations—(i) Required testing. The sex-linked recessive...

  11. 40 CFR 799.2700 - Methyl ethyl ketoxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Specific Chemical Test Rules § 799.2700 Methyl ethyl ketoxime. (a) Identification of test substance. (1... report to EPA. (5) Mutagenic effects—gene mutations—(i) Required testing. The sex-linked recessive...

  12. 40 CFR 799.2700 - Methyl ethyl ketoxime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Specific Chemical Test Rules § 799.2700 Methyl ethyl ketoxime. (a) Identification of test substance. (1... report to EPA. (5) Mutagenic effects—gene mutations—(i) Required testing. The sex-linked recessive...

  13. Dissociation of the Ethyl Radical: An Exercise in Computational Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nassabeh, Nahal; Tran, Mark; Fleming, Patrick E.

    2014-01-01

    A set of exercises for use in a typical physical chemistry laboratory course are described, modeling the unimolecular dissociation of the ethyl radical to form ethylene and atomic hydrogen. Students analyze the computational results both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative structural changes are compared to approximate predicted values

  14. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including...

  15. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including...

  16. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including...

  17. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... combined residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl phenoxy]propanoate] and its metabolites (6-chloro-2... tolerances are established for combined residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, phenoxy]propanoic...

  18. Postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in rabbits over 24 h.

    PubMed

    Maskell, Peter D; Albeishy, Mohammed; De Paoli, Giorgia; Wilson, Nathan E; Seetohul, L Nitin

    2016-03-01

    The interpretation of postmortem drug levels is complicated by changes in drug blood levels in the postmortem period, a phenomena known as postmortem drug redistribution. We investigated the postmortem redistribution of the heroin metabolites morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide in a rabbit model. Heroin (1 mg/kg) was injected into anesthetised rabbit; after 1 h, an auricular vein blood sample was taken and the rabbit was euthanised. Following death rabbits were placed in a supine position at room temperature and divided into three groups namely (1) immediate autopsy, (2) autopsy after 30 minutes and (3) autopsy 24 h after death. Various samples which included femoral blood, cardiac blood, lung, liver, kidney, vitreous humour, subcutaneous and abdominal fat, liver, bone marrow and skeletal muscle were taken. The samples were analysed with a validated LC-MS/MS method. It was observed that within minutes there was a significant increase in free morphine postmortem femoral blood concentration compared to the antemortem sample (0.01 ± 0.01 to 0.05 ± 0.02 mg/L).Various other changes in free morphine and metabolite concentrations were observed during the course of the experiment in various tissues. Principal component analysis was used to investigate possible correlations between free morphine in the various samples. Some correlations were observed but gave poor predictions (>20 % error) when back calculating. The results suggest that rabbits are a good model for further studies of postmortem redistribution but that further study and understanding of the phenomena is required before accurate predictions of the blood concentration at the time of death are possible. PMID:25863436

  19. Human and rat ABC transporter efflux of bisphenol a and bisphenol a glucuronide: interspecies comparison and implications for pharmacokinetic assessment.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Christopher S; Marchitti, Satori A; Dimova, Mira; Kenneke, John F; Lumen, Annie; Fisher, Jeff

    2012-08-01

    Significant interspecies differences exist between human and rodent with respect to absorption, distribution, and excretion of bisphenol A (BPA) and its primary metabolite, BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G). ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter enzymes play important roles in these physiological processes, and their enzyme localization (apical vs. basolateral) in the plasma membrane allows for different cellular efflux pathways. In this study, we utilized an ATPase assay to evaluate BPA and BPA-G as potential substrates for the human and rat ABC transporters: P-glycoprotein (MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), and breast cancer-resistant protein (BCRP). Based on high ATPase activity, BPA is likely a substrate for rat mdr1b but not for human MDR1 or rat mdr1a. Results indicate that BPA is a potential substrate for rat mrp2 and human MRP2, BCRP, and MRP3. The metabolite BPA-G demonstrated the highest apparent substrate binding affinity for rat mrp2 and human MRP3 but appeared to be a nonsubstrate or potential inhibitor for human MRP2, MDR1, and BCRP and for rat mdr1a, mdr1b, and bcrp. Analysis of ABC transporter amino acid sequences revealed key differences in putative binding site composition that may explain substrate specificity. Collectively, these results suggest that in both rat and human, apical transporters efflux BPA into the bile and/or intestinal lumen. BPA-G would follow a similar pathway in rat; however, in human, due to the basolateral location of MRP3, BPA-G would likely enter systemic and portal blood supplies. These differences between human and rodent ABC transporters may have significant implications for interspecies extrapolation used in risk assessment. PMID:22552776

  20. Evaluation and mechanistic analysis of the cytotoxicity of the acyl glucuronide of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Taishi; Kimura, Kento; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The chemical reactivity of acyl glucuronide (AG) has been thought to be associated with the toxic properties of drugs containing carboxylic acid moieties, but there has been no direct evidence showing that AG formation is related to the observed toxicity. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of AGs, especially that associated with the inflammatory response, was investigated. The changes in the mRNA and protein expression levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 induced by the treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with diclofenac (Dic), probenecid (Pro), tolmetin (Tol), ibuprofen (Ibu), naproxen (Nap), and their AGs were investigated by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the viabilities of CD3+, CD14+, and CD19+ cells were measured by flow cytometry. Treatment with Dic-AG, Pro-AG, and Tol-AG significantly increased the expression levels of IL-8 and MCP-1. In addition, Dic-AG, Pro-AG, and Tol-AG significantly decreased the viability of CD14+ cells. Of these three AGs, Dic-AG showed the most potent changes, followed by Tol-AG and Pro-AG. Treatment with Ibu-AG and Nap-AG affected neither the expression levels of IL-8 and MCP-1 nor the viability of CD14+ cells. None of the drugs affected the CD3+ and CD19+ cell populations. Dic-AG increased the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2. The pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) significantly suppressed the Dic-AG-induced expression of inflammatory factors and cytotoxicity of CD14+ cells. In conclusion, AGs induce inflammatory responses and cytotoxicity against CD14+ cells via the p38 MAPK pathway. These factors may be useful biomarkers for evaluating the toxicity of AGs. PMID:24104198

  1. Intrathecal morphine-3-glucuronide-induced nociceptive behavior via Delta-2 opioid receptors in the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Takaaki; Katsuyama, Soh; Nagase, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Sakurada, Chikai; Tsuzuki, Minoru; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa

    2016-01-01

    Intrathecal (i.t.) injection of morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), a major metabolite of morphine without analgesic actions, produces severe hindlimb scratching followed by biting and licking in mice. The M3G-induced behavioral response was inhibited dose-dependently by pretreatment with an antisera against dynorphin. However, the selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist, nor-BNI did not prevent the M3G-induced behavioral response. Dynorphin is rapidly degraded by a dynorphin-converting enzyme (cystein protease), to leucine-enkephalin (Leu-ENK). The M3G-induced behavioral response was inhibited dose-dependently by pretreatment with the antisera against Leu-ENK. We also showed that M3G co-administered with Leu-ENK-converting enzyme inhibitors, phosphoramidon and bestatin produced much stronger behavioral responses than M3G alone. Furthermore, the M3G-induced behavioral responses were inhibited dose-dependently by i.t. co-administration of the non-selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist, naltrindole or the selective ?2-opioid receptor antagonist, naltriben, whereas the selective ?1-opioid receptor antagonist, BNTX had no effect. An i.t. injection of M3G also produced a definite activation of ERK in the lumbar dorsal spinal cord. Western blotting analysis revealed that antisera against dynorphin, antisera against Leu-ENK, naltrindole or naltriben resulted in a significant blockade of ERK activation induced by M3G in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that M3G-induced nociceptive responses and ERK activation may be triggered via ?2-opioid receptors activated by Leu-ENK, which is formed from dynorphin in the spinal cord. PMID:26476133

  2. Determination of polyphenolic compounds in commercial herbal drugs and spices from Lamiaceae: thyme, wild thyme and sweet marjoram by chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Fecka, Izabela; Turek, Sebastian

    2008-06-01

    HPLC and HPTLC methods were used for a qualitative and quantitative determination of luteolin-7-O-?-glucuronide, lithospermic acid, rosmarinic acid and mthyl rosmarinate, together with other known compounds, in commercial herbal drugs and spices from lamiaceous species: Thymi herba, Serpylli herba and Majoranae herba. The contents of analyzed compounds in the studied hydrophilic extracts, prepared form herbal sources, were established using a C18 column with acetonitrile-water-formic acid as a mobile phase. The HPLC method was validated for linearity, precision and accuracy. Luteolin-7-O-?-glucuronide and lithospermic acid were identified as new wild thyme constituents, luteolin-7-O-?-glucuronide and methyl rosmarinate as new compounds in sweet marjoram. Methyl rosmarinate was isolated for the first time from thyme. The investigated herbal drugs and spices provide polyphenols in high amounts, even up to 84.3mg per 1g of a dried herb. PMID:26065769

  3. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.445 - Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. 721... Substances 721.445 Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted ethyl...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10095 - Oxetane, 3,3?-[oxybis(methylene)] bis[3-ethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxetane, 3,3- bis[3-ethyl-. 721... Substances 721.10095 Oxetane, 3,3?- bis[3-ethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxetane, 3,3?- bis[3-ethyl- (PMN P-03-471;...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10095 - Oxetane, 3,3?-[oxybis(methylene)] bis[3-ethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxetane, 3,3- bis[3-ethyl-. 721... Substances 721.10095 Oxetane, 3,3?- bis[3-ethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxetane, 3,3?- bis[3-ethyl- (PMN P-03-471;...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 180.662 - Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for... 180.662 Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the plant growth inhibitor, trinexapac-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.445 - Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. 721... Substances 721.445 Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted ethyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10095 - Oxetane, 3,3?-[oxybis(methylene)] bis[3-ethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxetane, 3,3- bis[3-ethyl-. 721... Substances 721.10095 Oxetane, 3,3?- bis[3-ethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxetane, 3,3?- bis[3-ethyl- (PMN P-03-471;...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 180.662 - Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for... 180.662 Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the plant growth inhibitor, trinexapac-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in...

  4. 40 CFR 721.445 - Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. 721... Substances 721.445 Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted ethyl...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.445 - Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. 721... Substances 721.445 Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted ethyl...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10095 - Oxetane, 3,3?-[oxybis(methylene)] bis[3-ethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxetane, 3,3- bis[3-ethyl-. 721... Substances 721.10095 Oxetane, 3,3?- bis[3-ethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxetane, 3,3?- bis[3-ethyl- (PMN P-03-471;...

  8. 40 CFR 180.662 - Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for... 180.662 Trinexapac-ethyl; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the plant growth inhibitor, trinexapac-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in...

  9. 40 CFR 721.445 - Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. 721... Substances 721.445 Substituted ethyl alken-a-mide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted ethyl...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10095 - Oxetane, 3,3?-[oxybis(methylene)] bis[3-ethyl-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxetane, 3,3- bis[3-ethyl-. 721... Substances 721.10095 Oxetane, 3,3?- bis[3-ethyl-. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as oxetane, 3,3?- bis[3-ethyl- (PMN P-03-471;...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters...

  17. 40 CFR 721.4090 - Ethanaminium, N-[bis(diethylamino)-methylene]-N-ethyl-, bromide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide... Substances 721.4090 Ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as ethanaminium, N- -N-ethyl-, bromide (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10109 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters with benzoic acid and trimethylolpropane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10109 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, mixed triesters...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  20. 40 CFR 180.430 - Fenoxaprop-ethyl; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or on the...-limited tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its... established for residues of the herbicide fenoxaprop-ethyl, including its metabolites and degradates, in or...